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USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-40 05 13.96 (May 2010)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-43 02 00 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIVISION 40 - PROCESS INTERCONNECTIONS
SECTION 40 05 13.96
WELDING PROCESS PIPING
05/10
PART 1
GENERAL
1.1
REFERENCES
1.2
DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
1.3
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
1.4
SUBMITTALS
1.5
QUALIFICATIONS
1.5.1
Welding Procedures Qualification
1.5.2
Welder and Welding Operator Performance
1.5.2.1
Certification
1.5.2.2
Identification
1.5.2.3
Renewal of Qualification
1.5.3
Inspection and NDE Personnel
1.5.3.1
Inspector Certification
1.5.3.2
NDE Personnel
1.6
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
1.7
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
1.7.1
Material Control
1.7.1.1
Damaged Containers
1.7.1.2
Partial Issues
1.7.2
Damaged Materials
PART 2
PRODUCTS
2.1
MATERIALS
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.1
WELDING OPERATIONS
3.1.1
Base Metal Preparation
3.1.2
Weld Joint Fit-Up
3.1.3
Preheat and Interpass Temperatures
3.1.4
Production Welding Instructions
3.1.5
Postweld Heat Treatment
3.2
EXAMINATIONS, INSPECTIONS, AND TESTS
3.2.1
Random NDE Testing
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 1
3.2.2
Visual Inspection
3.2.2.1
Before Welding
3.2.2.2
During Welding
3.2.2.3
After Welding
3.2.3
NDE Testing
3.2.4
Inspection and Tests by the Government
3.3
ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS
3.3.1
Visual
3.3.2
Magnetic Particle Examination
3.3.3
Liquid Penetrant Examination
3.3.4
Radiography
3.3.5
Ultrasonic Examination
3.4
CORRECTIONS AND REPAIRS
-- End of Section Table of Contents --
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 2
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-40 05 13.96 (May 2010)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-43 02 00 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION 40 05 13.96
WELDING PROCESS PIPING
05/10
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification covers the
requirements for welding of piping and piping system
components used for fluids and gases under pressure,
including hydraulic systems.
Adhere to UFC 1-300-02 Unified Facilities Guide
Specifications (UFGS) Format Standard when editing
this guide specification or preparing new project
specification sections. Edit this guide
specification for project specific requirements by
adding, deleting, or revising text. For bracketed
items, choose applicable items(s) or insert
appropriate information.
Remove information and requirements not required in
respective project, whether or not brackets are
present.
Comments, suggestions and recommended changes for
this guide specification are welcome and should be
submitted as a Criteria Change Request (CCR).
**************************************************************************
PART 1
1.1
GENERAL
REFERENCES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This paragraph is used to list the
publications cited in the text of the guide
specification. The publications are referred to in
the text by basic designation only and listed in
this paragraph by organization, designation, date,
and title.
Use the Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature
when you add a RID outside of the Section's
Reference Article to automatically place the
reference in the Reference Article. Also use the
Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature to update
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 3
the issue dates.
References not used in the text will automatically
be deleted from this section of the project
specification when you choose to reconcile
references in the publish print process.
**************************************************************************
The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the
extent referenced. The publications are referred to within the text by the
basic designation only.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (ASNT)
ASNT SNT-TC-1A
(2014) Recommended Practice for Personnel
Qualification and Certification in
Nondestructive Testing
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk A
(2010) Supplement to Recommended Practice
No. SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Radiographic
Testing Method
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk B
(2007) Supplement to Recommended Practice
SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle
Method
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk C
(2011; Text Correction 2011) Supplement to
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (Q&A
Book): Ultrasonic Testing Method
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk D
(2011; Text Correction 2011) Supplement to
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (Q&A
Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY (AWS)
AWS A2.4
(2012) Standard Symbols for Welding,
Brazing and Nondestructive Examination
AWS A3.0M/A3.0
(2010) Standard Welding Terms and
Definitions
AWS B2.1/B2.1M
(2014) Specification for Welding Procedure
and Performance Qualification
AWS QC1
(2007) Standard for AWS Certification of
Welding Inspectors
AWS Z49.1
(2012) Safety in Welding and Cutting and
Allied Processes
ASME INTERNATIONAL (ASME)
ASME B31.1
(2014; INT 1-47) Power Piping
ASME B31.3
(2014) Process Piping
ASME B31.4
(2012) Pipeline Transportation Systems for
Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquid
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 4
ASME B31.5
(2013) Refrigeration Piping and Heat
Transfer Components
ASME B31.8
(2014; Supplement 2014) Gas Transmission
and Distribution Piping Systems
ASME BPVC SEC I
(2010) BPVC Section I-Rules for
Construction of Power Boilers
ASME BPVC SEC II-C
(2010) BPVC Section II-Materials Part
C-Specifications for Welding Rods
Electrodes and Filler Metals
ASME BPVC SEC IX
(2010) BPVC Section IX-Welding and Brazing
Qualifications
ASME BPVC SEC V
(2010) BPVC Section V-Nondestructive
Examination
1.2
DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
Definitions shall be in accordance with AWS A3.0M/A3.0.
in accordance with AWS A2.4.
1.3
Symbols shall be
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If quality control is to be the
responsibility of the Government, delete this
paragraph.
The paragraphs will be edited and bracketed portions
inserted if necessary to ensure proper
implementation of the CONTRACTOR QUALITY CONTROL
PROGRAM. The specification writer or design
engineer must indicate how much quality control of
welding is needed for each project and who is to be
responsible; i.e., primarily the Contractor or the
Government.
In many cases a project may not require 100 percent
testing of welds by NDE methods. The designer must
determine the required methods and the extent of
inspection and testing, and must indicate the extent
in this or other sections of the project
specifications or on the project drawings by notes,
NDE symbols, or other means. The referenced
applicable publications will be used for guidance in
determining inspection and testing requirements.
The specifications or drawings must clearly indicate
which joints require 100 percent NDE inspection,
which joints require random NDE inspection, and
which NDE methods are to be employed for each
joint. For random inspection, the drawings must
indicate the location, number of joints, and minimum
increment length of weld that will be NDE inspection
without predisclosing the exact spots to be
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 5
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-02 Shop Drawings
Pressure Piping; G[, [_____]]
SD-03 Product Data
Welding Operations
SD-07 Certificates
Qualifications
1.5
QUALIFICATIONS
Welding procedures, welders, and welding operators previously qualified by
test may be accepted for the work without requalification, provided that
all of the following conditions are fulfilled:
a.
Copies of the welding procedures, the procedure qualification test
records, and the welder and welding operator performance qualification
test records are submitted and approved in accordance with paragraph
SUBMITTALS.
b.
Testing was performed by an approved testing laboratory or technical
consultant or by the Contractor's approved quality assurance
organization.
c.
The welding procedures, welders, and welding operators were qualified
in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX, or AWS B2.1/B2.1M, AR-2 level; and
base materials, filler materials, electrodes, equipment, and processes
conformed to the applicable requirements of this specification.
d.
The requirements of paragraph "Renewal of Qualification" below are met
and records showing name of employer and period of employment using the
process for which qualified are submitted as evidence of conformance.
1.5.1
Welding Procedures Qualification
Record in detail and qualify the Welding Procedure Specifications for every
proposed welding procedure. Qualification for each welding procedure shall
conform to the requirements of [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [
ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8,] and to this specification. The welding
procedures shall specify end preparation for butt welds including cleaning,
alignment, and root openings. Preheat, interpass temperature control, and
postheat treatment of welds shall be as required by approved welding
procedures, unless otherwise indicated or specified. The type of backing
rings or consumable inserts, if used, shall be described and if they are to
be removed, the removal process shall be described. Copies of the welding
procedure specifications and procedure qualification test results for each
type of welding required shall be submitted in accordance with paragraph
SUBMITTALS. Approval of any procedure does not relieve the Contractor of
the sole responsibility for producing acceptable welds. Welding procedures
shall be identified individually and shall be referenced on the detail
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 7
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-02 Shop Drawings
Pressure Piping; G[, [_____]]
SD-03 Product Data
Welding Operations
SD-07 Certificates
Qualifications
1.5
QUALIFICATIONS
Welding procedures, welders, and welding operators previously qualified by
test may be accepted for the work without requalification, provided that
all of the following conditions are fulfilled:
a.
Copies of the welding procedures, the procedure qualification test
records, and the welder and welding operator performance qualification
test records are submitted and approved in accordance with paragraph
SUBMITTALS.
b.
Testing was performed by an approved testing laboratory or technical
consultant or by the Contractor's approved quality assurance
organization.
c.
The welding procedures, welders, and welding operators were qualified
in accordance with ASME BPVC SEC IX, or AWS B2.1/B2.1M, AR-2 level; and
base materials, filler materials, electrodes, equipment, and processes
conformed to the applicable requirements of this specification.
d.
The requirements of paragraph "Renewal of Qualification" below are met
and records showing name of employer and period of employment using the
process for which qualified are submitted as evidence of conformance.
1.5.1
Welding Procedures Qualification
Record in detail and qualify the Welding Procedure Specifications for every
proposed welding procedure. Qualification for each welding procedure shall
conform to the requirements of [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [
ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8,] and to this specification. The welding
procedures shall specify end preparation for butt welds including cleaning,
alignment, and root openings. Preheat, interpass temperature control, and
postheat treatment of welds shall be as required by approved welding
procedures, unless otherwise indicated or specified. The type of backing
rings or consumable inserts, if used, shall be described and if they are to
be removed, the removal process shall be described. Copies of the welding
procedure specifications and procedure qualification test results for each
type of welding required shall be submitted in accordance with paragraph
SUBMITTALS. Approval of any procedure does not relieve the Contractor of
the sole responsibility for producing acceptable welds. Welding procedures
shall be identified individually and shall be referenced on the detail
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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drawings or keyed to the contract drawings.
1.5.2
Welder and Welding Operator Performance
Each welder and welding operator assigned to work shall be qualified in
accordance with [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [
ASME B31.8].
1.5.2.1
Certification
Before assigning welders or welding operators to the work, provide the
Contracting Officer with their names together with certification that each
individual is performance-qualified as specified. The certification shall
state the type of welding and positions for which each is qualified, the
code and procedure under which each is qualified, date qualified, and the
firm and individual certifying the qualification tests.
1.5.2.2
Identification
Identify each particular weld with the personal number, letter, or symbol
assigned to each welder or welding operator. To identify welds, written
records indicating the location of welds made by each welder or welding
operator shall be submitted, and each welder or welding operator shall
apply the personal mark adjacent to the welds using a rubber stamp or
felt-tipped marker with permanent, weatherproof ink or other methods
approved by the Contracting Officer that do not deform the metal. For seam
welds, identification marks shall be placed adjacent to the welds at 1 m 3
foot intervals. Identification by die stamps or electric etchers will not
be allowed.
1.5.2.3
Renewal of Qualification
Requalification of a welder or welding operator is required under any of
the following conditions:
a.
When a welder
process for a
months if the
other welding
or welding operator has not used the specific welding
period of 3 months; the period may be extended to 6
welder or welding operator has been employed on some
process.
b.
When a welder or welding operator has not welded with any process
during a period of 3 months, all the personal qualifications shall be
considered expired, including any extended by virtue of a., above.
c.
There is specific reason to question the person's ability to make welds
that will meet the requirements of the specifications.
d.
The welder or welding operator was qualified by an employer, other than
those firms performing work under this contract, and a qualification
test has not been taken within the preceding 12 months.
e.
Renewal of qualification for a specific welding process under
conditions a., b., and d., above, needs to be made on only a single
test joint or pipe of any thickness, position, or material to
reestablish the welder's or welding operator's qualification for any
thickness, position, or material covered under previous qualification.
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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1.5.3
Inspection and NDE Personnel
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If quality control is to be the
responsibility of the Government, delete these
paragraphs.
Coordinate with paragraph Performance.
**************************************************************************
All inspection and NDE personnel shall be qualified in accordance with the
following requirements.
1.5.3.1
Inspector Certification
Welding inspectors shall be qualified in accordance with AWS QC1.
1.5.3.2
NDE Personnel
NDE personnel shall be certified, and a written procedure for the control
and administration of NDE personnel training, examination, and
certification shall be established. The procedures shall be based on
appropriate specific and general guidelines of training and experience
recommended by ASNT SNT-TC-1A, [ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk A] [
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk B] [ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk C] [and] [
ASNT SNT-TC-1A Q&A Bk D].
1.6
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The drawings should be checked to ensure that
any supplementary information required has been
shown and that there is no conflict between the
drawings and the specifications.
Project drawings must indicate, or text of project
specifications must specify, the welding procedures,
and size, length, type, and location of the welds,
as necessary.
**************************************************************************
This section covers the welding of pressure piping systems. Submit detail
drawings showing location, length, and type of welds; and indicating
postweld heat treatment and NDE as required. Deviations from applicable
codes, approved procedures, and approved detail drawings will not be
permitted without prior written approval. Materials or components with
welds made offsite will not be accepted if the welding does not conform to
the requirements of this specification, unless otherwise specified.
Develop procedures for welding all metals included in the work. Welding
shall not be started until welding procedures, welders, and welding
operators have been qualified. Qualification testing shall be performed by
an approved testing laboratory, or by the Contractor if approved by the
Contracting Officer. Notify the Contracting Officer at least 24 hours in
advance of the time and place of the tests. When practicable, perform the
qualification tests at or near the worksite. Maintain current records of
the test results obtained in the welding procedure, welding operator,
welder performance qualifications, and nondestructive examination (NDE)
procedures readily available at the site for examination by the Contracting
Officer. The procedures for making transition welds between different
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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materials or between plates or pipes of different wall thicknesses shall be
qualified. [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [
ASME B31.8] requirements for branch connections may be used in lieu of
detailed designs. Unless otherwise specified, the choice of welding
process shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. Safety precautions
shall conform to AWS Z49.1.
1.7
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
All filler metals, electrodes, fluxes, and other welding materials shall be
delivered to the site in manufacturers' original packages and stored in a
dry space until used. Packages shall be properly labeled and designed to
give maximum protection from moisture and to insure safe handling.
1.7.1
Material Control
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If additional requirements are necessary
regarding limits on out-of-oven exposure time, refer
to AWS D1.1/D1.1M.
**************************************************************************
Materials shall be stored in a controlled access and clean, dry area that
is weathertight and is maintained at a temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. The materials shall not be in contact with the floor and
shall be stored on wooden pallets or cribbing.
1.7.1.1
Damaged Containers
Low-hydrogen steel electrodes shall be stored in their sealed shipping
container. If the seal is damaged during shipment or storage, and the
damage is not immediately detected, the covered electrodes in that
container shall be rebaked in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions prior to issuance or shall be discarded. If a container is
damaged in storage and the damage is witnessed, the electrodes from that
container shall be immediately placed in a storage oven. The storage oven
temperature shall be as recommended by the manufacturer or the welding
material specification.
1.7.1.2
Partial Issues
When a container of covered electrodes is opened and only a portion of the
content is issued, the remaining portion shall, within 1/2 hour, be placed
in a storage oven.
1.7.2
Damaged Materials
Materials which are damaged shall be discarded. Covered electrodes which
are oil or water-soaked, dirty, or on which the flux has separated from the
wire shall be discarded.
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
MATERIALS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Normally, selection of the electrodes is done
by the Contractor. In special cases, if the
selection of the proper electrode is critical to the
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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design, the designer may specify the electrodes to
be used. In special cases it also may be necessary
to specify the welding process.
**************************************************************************
Provide welding materials which comply with ASME BPVC SEC II-C. Welding
equipment, electrodes, welding wire, and fluxes shall be capable of
producing satisfactory welds when used by a qualified welder or welding
operator using qualified welding procedures.
PART 3
3.1
EXECUTION
WELDING OPERATIONS
Perform welding in accordance with qualified procedures using qualified
welders and welding operators. Submit detailed procedures which define
methods of compliance to contract drawings and specifications. Inspection
and material procurement records. System and material testing and
certification records. Written records and drawings indicating location of
welds made by each welder or welding operator.
Welding shall not be done when the quality of the completed weld could be
impaired by the prevailing working or weather conditions. The Contracting
Officer will determine when weather or working conditions are unsuitable
for welding. Welding of hangers, supports, and plates to structural
members shall conform to Section 05 05 23.16 STRUCTURAL WELDING.
3.1.1
Base Metal Preparation
Oxy-fuel cutting shall not be used on austenitic stainless steel or
nonferrous materials.
3.1.2
Weld Joint Fit-Up
Parts that are to be joined by welding shall be fitted, aligned, and
retained in position during the welding operation by the use of bars,
jacks, clamps, or other mechanical fixtures. Welded temporary attachments
shall not be used except when it is impractical to use mechanical
fixtures. When temporary attachments are used, they shall be the same
material as the base metal, and shall be completely removed by grinding or
thermal cutting after the welding operation is completed. If thermal
cutting is used, the attachment shall be cut to not less than 6 mm 1/4 inch
from the member and the balance removed by grinding. After the temporary
attachment has been removed, the area shall be visually examined.
3.1.3
Preheat and Interpass Temperatures
Preheat temperatures shall meet the requirements specified by [ASME B31.1,]
[ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8]. However, in no
case shall the preheat be below 10 degrees C 50 degrees F for ferritic
steel or austenitic stainless steel, or 0 degrees C 32 degrees F for
nonferrous alloys. The maximum interpass temperatures shall not exceed 149
degrees C 300 degrees F for austenitic stainless steels, nickel alloys, and
copper alloys; and 260 degrees C 500 degrees F for carbon steels. Preheat
techniques shall be such as to ensure that the full thickness of the weld
joint preparation and/or adjacent base material, at least 75 mm 3 inches in
all directions, is at the specified temperature. Preheating by induction
or resistance methods is preferred. When flame heating is used, only a
neutral flame shall be employed. Oxy-fuel heating shall not be used on
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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austenitic stainless steel or nickel-alloy materials; however, air-fuel
heating is acceptable if controlled to insure that the surface temperature
does not exceed 66 degrees C 150 degrees F. Interpass temperatures shall
be checked on the surface of the component within 25 mm 1 inch of the weld
groove and at the starting location of the next weld pass, and for a
distance of about 150 mm 6 inches ahead of the weld, but not on the area to
be welded.
3.1.4
Production Welding Instructions
a.
Welding shall not be done when the ambient temperature is lower than
minus 18 degrees C 0 degree F.
b.
Welding is not permitted on surfaces that are wet or covered with ice,
when snow or rain is falling on the surfaces to be welded, or during
periods of high winds, unless the welders and the work are properly
protected.
c.
Gases for purging and shielding shall be welding grade and shall have a
dew point of minus 40 degrees C minus 40 degrees F or lower.
d.
Back purges are required for austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous
alloys welded from one side and shall be set up such that the flow of
gas from the inlet to the outlet orifice passes across the area to be
welded. The oxygen content of the gas exiting from the purge vent
shall be less than 2 percent prior to welding.
e.
The purge on groove welds shall be maintained for at least three layers
or 5 mm 3/16 inch.
f.
Removable purge dam materials shall be made of expandable or flexible
plugs, such as plexiglass, plywood (which shall be dry when used),
etc. Wood dams shall be kiln-dried quality. Nonremovable purge dams
and purge dam adhesives shall be made of water soluble materials.
Purge dams shall not be made of polyvinyl alcohol.
g.
Any welding process which requires the use of external gas shielding
shall not be done in a draft or wind unless the weld area is protected
by a shelter. This shelter shall be of material and shape appropriate
to reduce wind velocity in the vicinity of the weld to a maximum of 8
km/hour 5 mph (440 fpm).
h.
Welding of low-alloy and hardenable high-alloy steels may be
interrupted provided a minimum of at least 10 mm 3/8 inch thickness of
weld deposit or 25 percent of the weld groove is filled, whichever is
greater, and the preheat temperature is maintained during the time that
welding is interrupted. If the temperature falls below the minimum
preheat temperature before all welding has been completed on a joint,
or, where required, before post weld heat treatment, a liquid penetrant
or magnetic particle examination shall be performed to insure sound
deposited metal before reheating. Welding of other materials may be
interrupted without restriction provided a visual inspection is
performed before welding is resumed.
i.
Tack welds to be incorporated in the final welds shall have their ends
tapered by grinding or welding technique. Tack welds that are cracked
or defective shall be removed and the groove shall be retacked prior to
welding. Temporary tack welds shall be removed, the surface ground
smooth, and visually inspected. For low-alloy and hardenable
SECTION 40 05 13.96
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high-alloy steels, the area shall be magnetic particle examination
inspected.
j.
When joining ferritic steel pressure piping components to austenitic
stainless steel pressure piping components and postweld heat treatment
is required, the following requirements apply:
(1)
The weld-end preps of ferritic steel components, which are to be
welded to austenitic stainless steel, shall be buttered with one
of the following weld filler metals and shall conform to the
specified requirements: ASME BPVC SEC II-C, SFA 5.14,
Classification ERNiCr-3; or ASME BPVC SEC II-C, SFA 5.11,
Classification ENiCrFe-2.
(2)
The ferritic steel weld-end prep shall be buttered, receive a
postweld heat treatment as required by [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,]
[ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8] and then be machined with
the applicable weld-end preparation. After machining, the
buttered layer shall be a minimum of 6 mm 1/4 inch thick.
(3)
Pressure piping transition joints shall be completed using
ERNiCr-3 or ENiCrFe-2 weld filler metals. No further postweld
heat treatment shall be performed.
k.
When joining ferritic steel pressure piping components to austenitic
stainless steel pressure piping components and postweld heat treatment
is not required, prepare and weld the joint using either ERNiCr-3 or
ENiCrFe-2 filler metals. For service temperatures of 93 degrees C 200
degrees F or less, stainless filler metal 309 ASME BPVC SEC II-C, SFA
5.4 or 5.9 is permissible in lieu of the nickel-based alloys.
l.
Grinding of completed welds is to be performed only to the extent
required for NDE, including any inservice examination, and to provide
weld reinforcement within the requirements of [ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,]
[ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8]. If the surface of the weld
requires grinding, reducing the weld or base material below the minimum
required thickness shall be avoided. Minimum weld external
reinforcement shall be flush between external surfaces.
3.1.5
Postweld Heat Treatment
a.
Postweld heat treatment shall be performed in accordance with [
ASME B31.1,] [ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8].
Temperatures for local postweld heat treatment shall be measured
continuously by thermocouples in contact with the weldment.
b.
Postweld heat treatment of low-alloy steels, when required, shall be
performed immediately upon completion of welding and prior to the
temperature of the weld falling below the preheat temperature.
However, postweld heat treatment may be postponed after the completion
of the weld, if, immediately after the weld is completed, it is
maintained at a minimum temperature of 149 degrees C 300 degrees F or
the preheat temperature, whichever is greater, for 2 hours per 25 mm
inch of weld thickness.
c. For low-alloy steels, the cooling rates shall be such that temper
embrittlement is avoided.
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 13
3.3.5
Ultrasonic Examination
Where discontinuities are interpreted to be cracks, lack of fusion, and
incomplete penetration, they are unacceptable regardless of length.
Linear-type discontinuities are unacceptable if the amplitude exceeds the
reference level and discontinuities have lengths which exceed the following:
a.
6 mm 1/4 inch for "t" up to 19 mm 3/4 inch. Where "t", here and below,
is the thickness of the weld being examined; if the weld joins two
members having different thicknesses at the weld, "t" is the thinner of
these two thicknesses.
b.
8 mm 1/3 inch for "t" from 19 to 57 mm 3/4 to 2-1/4 inch.
c.
19 mm 3/4 inch for "t" over 57 mm 2-1/4 inch.
3.4
CORRECTIONS AND REPAIRS
Defects shall be removed and repaired as specified in [ASME B31.1,] [
ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8] unless otherwise
specified. Disqualifying defects discovered between weld passes shall be
repaired before additional weld material is deposited. Wherever a defect
is removed, and repair by welding is not required, the affected area shall
be blended into the surrounding surface eliminating sharp notches,
crevices, or corners. After defect removal is complete and before
rewelding, the area shall be examined by the same test method which first
revealed the defect to ensure that the defect has been eliminated. After
rewelding, the repaired area shall be reexamined by the same test method
originally used for that area. Any indication of a defect shall be
regarded as a defect unless reevaluation by NDE or by surface conditioning
shows that no disqualifying defects are present. The use of any foreign
material to mask, fill in, seal, or disguise welding defects will not be
permitted.
-- End of Section --
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 19
TABLE I.
MANDATORY MINIMUM NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS
Type Weld
Piping Service Conditions and Nondestructive Test
Welded Branch
Conncetions (Size
indicated is branch
size) (See Note 7)
RT for NPS over 100
mm 4 inches MT or PT
for NPS 100 mm 4
inches and less
RT for over 100 mm 4
inches NPS with
thickness over 20 mm
3/4 inch. Visual for
all sizes with
thickness 20 mm 3/4
inch or less.
Visual for all
sizes and
thicknesses
Fillet, Socket
Attachment and Seal
Welds
PT or MT for all
Visual for all sizes
sizes and thicknesses and thicknesses
Visual for all
sizes and
thicknesses
NOTES TO TABLE I
(1) All welds must be given a visual examination in addition to type of specific
nondestructive examination specified.
(2) NPS - nominal pipe size.
(3) RT - Radiographic examination; MT - magnetic particle examination; PT - liquid
penetrant examination.
(4) RT of branch welds shall be performed before any nonintegral reinforcing material
is applied.
(5) The thickness of butt welds is defined as the thicker of the two abutting ends
after end preparation.
(6) Temperatures and pressures shown are design.
(7) In lieu of radiography of welded branch connections when required above, liquid
penetrant or magnetic particle examination is acceptable and, when used, shall be
performed at the lesser of one half of the weld thickness or each 13 mm 1/2 inch of
weld thickness and all accessible final weld surfaces.
(8) For nondestructive examination of the pressure retaining component, refer to the
standards listed in applicable code or the manufacturing specifications.
(9) Fillet welds not exceeding 6 mm 1/4 inch throat thickness which are used for the
permanent attachment of nonpressure retaining parts are exempt from the PT or MT
requirements of the above table.
3.2.1
Random NDE Testing
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Coordinate with paragraph Performance.
This paragraph will be deleted when the Contractor
is not required to perform random inspection. Edit
to delete any listed NDE method which is
inapplicable. Insert a number from 1 to 99 for
percent of welds to be random inspected; 10 percent
is recommended for most projects.
**************************************************************************
When random [radiographic] [liquid penetrant] [magnetic particle] [or]
[ultrasonic] examination is required, test a minimum of [_____] percent of
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 15
the total length or number of piping welds. The welds inspected shall be
selected randomly, but the selection shall include an examination of welds
made by each welding operator or welder. If the random testing reveals
that any welds fail to meet minimum quality requirements, an additional
[_____] percent of the welds in that same group shall be inspected. If all
of the additional welds inspected meet the quality requirements, the entire
group of welds represented shall be accepted and the defective welds shall
be repaired. If any of the additional welds inspected also fail to meet
the quality requirements, that entire group of welds shall be rejected.
The rejected welds shall be removed and rewelded, or the rejected welds
shall be 100 percent inspected and all defective weld areas removed and
rewelded.
3.2.2
Visual Inspection
Weld joints shall be inspected visually as follows:
3.2.2.1
Before Welding
For compliance with requirements for joint preparation, placement of
backing rings or consumable inserts, alignment and fit-up, and cleanliness.
3.2.2.2
During Welding
For cracks and conformance to the qualified welding procedure.
3.2.2.3
After Welding
For cracks, contour and finish, bead reinforcement, undercutting, overlap,
and size of fillet welds.
3.2.3
NDE Testing
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Delete any NDE method not required. If
magnetic particle inspection is required, specify
whether wet or dry particle method is appropriate.
**************************************************************************
NDE shall be in accordance with written procedures. Procedures for
[radiographic] [liquid penetrant] [magnetic particle] [or] [ultrasonic]
tests and methods shall conform to ASME BPVC SEC V. The approved procedure
shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Contracting Officer. In
addition to the information required in ASME BPVC SEC V, the written
procedures shall include the timing of the NDE in relation to the welding
operations and safety precautions.
3.2.4
Inspection and Tests by the Government
The Government will perform inspection and supplemental nondestructive or
destructive tests as deemed necessary. The cost of supplemental NDE will
be borne by the Government. The correction and repair of defects and the
reexamination of weld repairs shall be performed by the Contractor at no
additional cost to the Government. Inspection and tests will be performed
as required for visual inspection and NDE, except that destructive tests
may be required also. When destructive tests are ordered by the
Contracting Officer and performed by the Contractor, and the specimens or
other supplemental examinations indicate that the materials and workmanship
do not conform to the contract requirements, the cost of the tests,
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 16
corrections, and repairs shall be borne by the Contractor. When the
specimens or other supplemental examinations of destructive tests indicate
that materials or workmanship do conform to the specification requirements,
the cost of the tests and repairs will be borne by the Government. When
destructive tests are made, repairs shall be made by qualified welders or
welding operators using welding procedures which will develop the full
strength of the members cut. Welding shall be subject to inspection and
tests in the mill, shop, and field. When materials or workmanship do not
conform to the specification requirements, the work may be rejected at any
time before final acceptance of the system containing the weldment.
3.3
ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS
**************************************************************************
NOTE: These acceptance standards were taken from
ASME B31.1 and are suitable for most jobs.
Evaluations of indications, as given in ASME B31.1,
are applicable to these standards. Specific project
design requirements may necessitate revision or
expansion to cover different items of work and
varying standards of acceptance. In no case shall
the acceptance criteria be less conservative than
the criteria specified by the standard applicable to
the work. The 5 mm 3/16 inch dimension specified in
sub item c is based on TABLE 127.4.2 of ASME B31.1
for temperatures less than 177 degrees C 350 degrees
F and thicknesses less than 25 mm 1 inch. If actual
conditions exceed these limits, this requirement
shall be expanded or revised as required.
**************************************************************************
3.3.1
Visual
The following indications are unacceptable:
a.
Cracks.
b.
Undercut on surface which is greater than 1 mm 1/32 inch deep.
c.
Weld reinforcement greater than 5 mm 3/16 inch.
d.
Lack of fusion on surface.
e.
Incomplete penetration (applies only when inside surface is readily
accessible).
f.
Convexity of fillet weld surface greater than 10 percent of longest leg
plus 0.76 mm 0.03 inch.
g.
Concavity in groove welds.
h.
Concavity in fillet welds greater than 2 mm 1/16 inch.
i.
Fillet weld size less than indicated or greater than 1.25 times the
minimum indicated fillet leg length.
3.3.2
Magnetic Particle Examination
The following relevant indications are unacceptable:
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 17
a.
Any cracks and linear indications.
b.
Rounded indications with dimensions greater than 5 mm 3/16 inch.
c.
Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 2 mm 1/16 inch
or less edge-to-edge.
d.
Ten or more rounded indications in any 3870 square mm 6 square inches
of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 150 mm 6
inches with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to
the indications being evaluated.
3.3.3
Liquid Penetrant Examination
Indications with major dimensions greater than 2 mm 1/16 of an inch shall
be considered relevant. The following relevant indications are
unacceptable:
a.
Any cracks or linear indications.
b.
Rounded indications with dimensions greater than 5 mm 3/16 inch.
c.
Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 2 mm 1/16 inch
or less edge-to-edge.
d.
Ten or more rounded indications in any 3870 square mm 6 square inches
of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 150 mm 6
inches with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to
the indications being evaluated.
3.3.4
Radiography
Welds that are shown by radiography to have any of the following
discontinuities are unacceptable:
a.
Porosity in excess of that shown as acceptable in ASME BPVC SEC I,
Appendix A-250.
b.
Any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration.
c.
Any other elongated indication which has a length greater than:
(1)
6 mm 1/4 inch for "t" up to 19 mm 3/4 inch inclusive. Where "t",
here and below, pertains to the thickness of the weld being
examined; if a weld joins two members having different thickness
at the weld, "t" is the thinner of these two thicknesses.
(2)
1/3 "t" for "t" from 19 mm 3/4 inch to 57 mm 2-1/4 inch,
inclusive.
(3)
d.
19 mm 3/4 inch for "t" over 57 mm 2-1/4 inch.
Any group of indications in line that have an aggregate length greater
than "t" in a length of "12t", except where the distance between the
successive indications exceeds 6L where L is the longest indication in
the group.
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 18
3.3.5
Ultrasonic Examination
Where discontinuities are interpreted to be cracks, lack of fusion, and
incomplete penetration, they are unacceptable regardless of length.
Linear-type discontinuities are unacceptable if the amplitude exceeds the
reference level and discontinuities have lengths which exceed the following:
a.
6 mm 1/4 inch for "t" up to 19 mm 3/4 inch. Where "t", here and below,
is the thickness of the weld being examined; if the weld joins two
members having different thicknesses at the weld, "t" is the thinner of
these two thicknesses.
b.
8 mm 1/3 inch for "t" from 19 to 57 mm 3/4 to 2-1/4 inch.
c.
19 mm 3/4 inch for "t" over 57 mm 2-1/4 inch.
3.4
CORRECTIONS AND REPAIRS
Defects shall be removed and repaired as specified in [ASME B31.1,] [
ASME B31.3,] [ASME B31.4,] [ASME B31.5,] [ASME B31.8] unless otherwise
specified. Disqualifying defects discovered between weld passes shall be
repaired before additional weld material is deposited. Wherever a defect
is removed, and repair by welding is not required, the affected area shall
be blended into the surrounding surface eliminating sharp notches,
crevices, or corners. After defect removal is complete and before
rewelding, the area shall be examined by the same test method which first
revealed the defect to ensure that the defect has been eliminated. After
rewelding, the repaired area shall be reexamined by the same test method
originally used for that area. Any indication of a defect shall be
regarded as a defect unless reevaluation by NDE or by surface conditioning
shows that no disqualifying defects are present. The use of any foreign
material to mask, fill in, seal, or disguise welding defects will not be
permitted.
-- End of Section --
SECTION 40 05 13.96
Page 19
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