Technical Information Manual

Technical Information Manual
Technical Information Manual
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POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Technical Support
At Polyflor, we realise that the performance of our products is dependent upon
many factors and that the floorcovering itself is only one of those factors. Correct
Index
1. Introduction
2. Preparation of subfloors
subfloor preparation and dryness, the workmanship of the installer, how the product
important. Our objective is to support the customer, whether it is the architect, the
3. Installation of Homogeneous
and Safety vinyl sheet
specifier, the contractor or the end user, by providing all the relevant information
4. Installation of Homogeneous vinyl tiles
is maintained and the selection of the correct floorcovering are all equally
necessary to ensure that the maximum benefit is gained from our products in use.
5. Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl sheet
This manual forms part of that support, together with technically trained Sales
Representatives, a knowledgeable Customer Technical Services team and an
6. Installation of Rubber sheet
installation training school.
7. Installation of Rubber tiles
If you have any queries regarding product selection, specification, installation,
8. Electro Static Dissipative (ESD) floorcoverings
performance or maintenance of any Polyflor products, then do not hesitate to
contact us. Our aim is to resolve problems prior to the installation of our products
rather than have problems to resolve after they are installed.
9. Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings
10. Installation of Accessories
11. Inlaid designs and borders
12. Welding vinyl flooring
Polyflor Customer Technical Services
13. Adhesives
Tel: +44 (0)161 767 1912
14. Tools and Equipment
Web: www. polyflor.com
15. Recommended finishes
Email: [email protected]
16. Resistance to chemicals
17. Use area classifications
18. Operating service temperatures
At the date of issue, the data presented is correct.
However, Polyflor reserve the right to make changes which do not adversely affect performance or quality.
19. Maintenance
1
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Introduction
performance must be sustainable for the
To achieve this, the tender documentation
anticipated life of the product, allowing for
should include the maximum amount of
foreseeable actions such as general wear and
information possible, such as:
tear and regular maintenance. This is
extremely important for the Essential
Requirements as defined by the European
Union for all construction products.
Consideration at the initial specification stage
must be given to the occupational usage of the
building and the building type. Particular
attention must be paid to the type and density
of traffic (both pedestrian and wheeled), any
1. Full details of the subfloor construction,
especially on solid subfloors and any treatments
or additives. Include the expected dates for
completion of each stage.
2. Full details of standard features such as
welding, site formed coving or pre-formed coving.
In addition, it should include other features such
as pattern or border detail and requirements
such as door trims, diminishing strips etc.
special acoustical, electrical resistance or slip
British Standard Code of Practice BS 8203
can lead to a poor installation and a dissatisfied
provides detailed recommendations for the
end user.
installation of sheet and tile flooring on both
new and existing floor constructions and is
endorsed by Polyflor for the installation of
Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring.
A successful installation not only depends on
the skills of the floor layer but also on the
planning of the project prior to installation.
Consultation between all parties concerned will
This technical information manual is intended
eliminate problems and will ensure a successful
as a guide to all parties involved in the
installation, which meets the design
specification, installation and maintenance of
Polyflor vinyl floorcovering. It will not replace
the skills of a trained floor layer and Polyflor
always recommends the use of reputable
flooring contractors, whose experience will
prove invaluable at all stages of a project.
Selecting a flooring contractor solely on price
index
requirements within the allotted time scale.
resistance requirements, as well as reaction to
3. Reference to any tests which must be carried
chemicals and staining agents, and physical
out e.g. for moisture, electrical resistance, screed
properties such as resistance to point and
strength and flatness/level.
rolling loads.
4. Drawings showing the direction of decoration
Should you wish to clarify any points regarding
or where sheet must be laid in a particular
Polyflor contract flooring or accessories, then
direction.
please contact Polyflor or our appointed
5. A statement of the standard of workmanship
agents. Our Technical Sales Team and
required, clearly indicating items which will
Customer Technical Services Department can
be unacceptable at the handover inspection.
provide advice on the suitability, performance
6. Full details of finishing requirements.
and application of any of the Polyflor products.
These may include; removal and safe disposal of
1.1.1 Project pre-planning
waste, retention of flooring over a certain size, a
One important consideration at the outset is
construction clean, initial polish where applicable
the maintenance aspects of the floorcovering
and protection of the finished floor prior to
to be installed. Floorcoverings with enhanced
customer handover.
slip characteristics have a higher surface
coefficient of friction and requires different
maintenance than a traditional smooth
floorcovering. Colour also plays a very
important part and one should remember that
light colours will show soiling more easily and
could require a more intensive maintenance
1.1 PRODUCT SELECTION
programme than darker colours.
Selection of the correct floorcovering is of
paramount importance. Not only must the
floorcovering meet the designer’s initial
performance specification but the product
Having decided upon your floorcovering, it is
essential that the product, together with its
accessories, are installed correctly within
pre-defined time and budget constraints.
By including this level of detail in the tender
document, the flooring contractor is able to
give an accurate costing and advise on the
length of time required to complete the work at
that cost. Once the tender is accepted, ideally
discussions should be held to highlight any
potential problems well in advance and to
ascertain the services required on site when
the floorcovering is installed.
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must have an effective damp proof membrane
Preparation of subfloors
incorporated within them. It should only be
and an increasing time for each millimetre
considered if the perimeter edges are
above this thickness.
continuous with the DPC in the walls.
A continuous polyethylene sheet 0.12mm
(500 gauge) will provide an effective DPM for
twelve months to dry sufficiently to take a
floorcovering. If it is obvious at the planning
should be applied over surface blinded
stage that there will be insufficient drying time,
hardcore to provide an even, smooth finish and
then the situation should be discussed with
to prevent puncturing of the membrane.
Polyflor, who can offer proven alternatives to
All joints should be welted and then weighed
suppress the construction moisture.
down until the floor is cast.
countries or through our web site at
the subfloor and the attention paid to the
www.polyflor.com. Alternatively, discuss your
be laid on subfloors which do not suffer from
rising damp or hydrostatic pressure, and where
(1000 gauge) should be used. All joints should
the moisture level does not exceed 75% RH in
be welted and then weighed down until the
accordance with BS 8203.
over at least a 72 hour period should be
types of DPM are described in BS CP 102
considered to represent the moisture content
together with their applications. Some DPMs
of the subfloor. Subfloors with a relative
contain volatile components, which can, if not
humidity in excess of 75% will invariably cause
eliminated, adversely affect the adhesion of
failure of the bond between the substrate and
the floorcovering.
floorcovering. To remedy such situations, the
2.2 CONSTRUCTION MOISTURE
requirements with your preferred supplier of
Prior to laying any Polyflor vinyl and rubber
practice and by the manufacturers of the
smoothing compounds and adhesives.
flooring, it is essential that all free water, which
below is given as guidance, based on many
years of experience in this field.
It is important to avoid problems at the outset
2.1 NEW CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES
The most common cause of failure in these
types of substrate is moisture, either as
construction moisture or the lack of an
and as such if you are unsure of any of the
effective moisture barrier on direct to earth
information listed below, we recommend that
subfloors.
you contact the Polyflor Customer Technical
Services Department either directly in the UK,
index
2.1.1 Damp proof membranes (DPMs)
All concrete bases, which are direct to earth,
The Hygrometer is the only method of test
acceptable to Polyflor, and only readings taken
ground is described in BS 8102 and the various
recommendations made in various codes of
component parts. The information contained
Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should only
operations, polyethylene sheet twice as thick
Protection of structures against water from the
very much dependent upon the preparation of
2.3 MOISTURE TESTING
damage by subsequent screed laying
screed is applied.
through your local distributor for other
A base 150mm thick in monolithic construction,
drying from one face only, can take up to
both monolithic and bonded screeds. The DPM
With unbonded screeds, where there is risk of
The quality of a finished installation can be
allow one month per 25mm for the first 50mm
can affect adhesion, be allowed to evaporate
from the base. The rate of drying is influenced
by many factors including design of the base,
whole floorcovering will have to be removed,
the subfloor treated to resolve the moisture
problem and a new floorcovering laid. In an
occupied building, this can cause severe
disruption to the work routine.
To prevent these situations arising, Polyflor
ambient temperature and humidity, concrete
does not condone the practice of laying vinyl
quality, amount of construction water used,
and rubber floorcoverings on subfloors with
surface finish attained, use of special concrete
moisture content readings above 75% RH and
additives and especially the thickness of the
accepts no responsibility for non-performance
base. Because of this variability, it is difficult to
of Polyflor products in such instances.
give exact drying out times but, as a guide,
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In countries outside of the UK, alternative
floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment
moisture measurement methods are also used.
supplier will provide details on which product
where the material is laid directly to ground,
and firmly fixed with all loose and powdery
The guidelines for the maximum acceptable
within their range must be used to suit the end
Polyflor recommend that the screed be uplifted
grout removed from the joints. Generally the
vapour emission rate of concrete using
use application and subfloor construction,
and relaid incorporating an effective DPM.
anhydrous calcium chloride is 3lbs per 1000
together with details of which primer should
square feet per 24 hour period for all the
be used.
Polyflor and Polysafe floorcoverings.
incorporate an effective DPM. In all instances
For floors that are on the first floor or above,
cracks and small hollows should be patch filled
Surface hardeners or curing agents should not
and a cementicious smoothing compound of at
2.4 EXISTING CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES
be used with power floated concrete, as these
least 3mm thickness must then be applied, prior
Existing concrete and sand/cement screed
can also impair the adhesion of the
to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering.
bases as described in BS 8204, if laid directly
floorcovering.
The smoothing underlayment supplier will
to ground, must contain an effective DPM. If
one is not present or is suspect, a suitable
surface DPM should be applied.
2.6 MASTIC ASPHALT UNDERLAY
Mastic asphalt underlays as described in
BS 8204: Part 5 should conform to BS 6925.
provide details on which product within their
range must be used to suit the end use
application and subfloor construction, together
with details of which primer should be used.
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing
Comprising asphaltic cement and suitable
compound of at least 3mm thickness must be
aggregates, the asphalt is applied in its hot
2.8 TERRAZZO
applied prior to the installation of the vinyl
state onto a glass fibre quilt. Normally a
Terrazzo has a dense hard surface, which is
floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment
thickness of 15mm to 20mm is applied and the
normally impervious. The floor must be sound
supplier will provide details on which product
asphalt brought to a finish with a wooden float.
and firmly fixed and any loose or powdery
within their range must be used to suit the end
The resulting underlay is impervious to
material removed from the joints. The surface
use application and subfloor construction,
moisture and, if continuous with the DPC in the
should be thoroughly washed/degreased to
walls, makes an excellent subfloor for Polyflor
remove any surface contaminants and any
be used.
vinyl and rubber flooring, providing a 3mm
cracks cleaned out and filled with a suitable
thick surface underlayment is first applied.
resin bonded cement/sand mixture. The surface
The asphalt must not just be skim coated it is
may also need some mechanical abrasion to
Power floated concrete bases as described in
BS 8204, if laid directly to ground, must
contain an effective DPM. If one is not present
or is suspect, a suitable surface DPM should be
applied. Smooth dense concrete subfloors –
important to ensure that the smoothing
enable the smoothing underlayment to key to
underlayment is of a type recommended for
the surface.
use on asphalt floors and that a suitable primer
key coat is applied if so directed.
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing
be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl
– can prove difficult to bond to, due to the
mastic asphalt subfloor.
floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment
instances, the floor should initially be ground
or shot blasted to remove the top surface and
then made good.
Composition floors which are composed of
magnesium oxychloride cement or polyvinyl
acetate/cement are highly absorbent. As such,
supplier will provide details on which product
within their range must be used to suit the end
use application and subfloor construction,
and then a cementicious smoothing compound
of at least 3mm thickness must then be applied
prior to the installation of the vinyl
floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment
supplier will provide details on which product
within their range must be used to suit the end
together with details of which primer should
be used.
2.10 SYNTHETIC ANHYDRITE SCREEDS
This type of screed can be affected by laitance
and moisture in the smoothing compound,
resulting in the loss of bond. As such, it may
need mechanical removal and the application of
a special primer. We would always recommend
that you discuss this application with your
adhesive and underlayment manufacturers.
If a failure occurs, it is normally below the vinyl
accept responsibility for failure.
2.11 EXPANSION JOINTS
Expansion joints are incorporated into buildings to permit movement without cracking. It is
important that these joints extend through the
floorcovering.
together with details of which primer should
Never lay Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring
be used.
over expansion joints.
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing
if overlaid with an impervious material, they
compound of at least 3mm thickness must be
can break down due to the effects of rising
2.9 QUARRY TILES/CERAMIC TILES
applied prior to the installation of the vinyl
moisture, as the majority of these floors do not
Heavily glazed surfaces are quite common with
index
degreased to remove any surface contaminants
compound of at least 3mm thickness must then
Never apply Polyflor floorcoverings direct to a
2.7 MAGNESITE / GRANWOOD FLOORS
application of a smoothing underlayment.
The surface should be thoroughly washed /
floorcovering and as such Polyflor will not
such as those created by a power floated finish
impervious nature of the surface. In such
tiles will require mechanical abrasion of the
surface in order to provide a key for the
use application and subfloor construction,
together with details of which primer should
2.5 POWER FLOATED CONCRETE
these types of flooring and tiles must be sound
Proprietary expansion joint covers are available
which blend with the floorcovering and disguise
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with the adhesive, as recommended by the
the joint. Some are made of vinyl that
All chipboard should comply with EN312, be
the boards should be overlaid with flooring
incorporates a flexible portion and are welded
grade P5 or P7 and should be free of sealants
grade plywood with a minimum thickness of
adhesive manufacturer. The primer will
to the abutting vinyl to form an impervious
or coatings which are liable to adversely affect
4mm, with the plywood laid half bonded over
minimise adhesive usage and maintain the
layer. Other types are a combination of
adhesion of the floorcovering, if applied
the chipboard joints, stapled or nailed as
open time of the adhesive and prevent
aluminium and PVC, which again contains a
directly to it.
described in Section 2.12.6.
preferential absorption.
flexible section.
Boards must be conditioned on-site by loose
2.12.3 Plywood
2.12.6 Existing wooden floors
Filling the expansion joint with sealant which is
laying them individually or loose stacking them
Plywood should be grade “good one side”
Existing wooden floors may have received a
not specifically designed for expansion joint
in the temperature and humidity conditions
specification CSA 0121 sanded. The boards
preservative treatment that will cause poor
filling or floor smoothing underlayment will
which will prevail in service, for at least 3 days
should be 1200mm x 2400mm and of minimum
bonding, due to a chemical interaction between
lead to floor failure and is not recommended by
prior to fixing. Boards with a moisture content
thickness 15.5mm. The boards should be laid
the preservative and the adhesive. In such
Polyflor.
of less than 7% and greater than 18%, using an
with the longer side at right angles to the joists
cases, they should not be laid onto directly.
electrical resistance moisture meter, should not
and the shorter side must have solid bearing
All loose boards should be firmly nailed to the
be laid.
on the joists. Fixing should be carried out at
joists and any worn or broken boards replaced.
2.12.2 Chipboard floating floors
300mm centres with annular (ring-shanked)
The floor should be sanded to remove high
nails or lost head nails of length at least 2 1/2
spots and any hollows or cracks filled with a
times the thickness of the board or divergent
suitable flexible underlayment.
2.12 TIMBER SUBSTRATES
New timber suspended floors should be
constructed of either plywood or chipboard
specifically manufactured for flooring. Spacing
of the supportive joists should be in accordance
with the manufacturer’s recommendations in
relation to the board’s thickness.
2.12.1 Chipboard
Wood chipboard incorporating a laminated
foam backing, or loose laid insulation quilting
or similar, and used as an underlayment for
floorcoverings, should comply with the
requirements of BS 7916. The chipboard must
staples. For joist centres up to 450mm, 15.5mm
thick plywood can be used. For joist centres of
610mm, 18mm thick plywood should be used as
described in Section 2.12.6.
Chipboard should have a minimum thickness of
not have been coated with any type of sealer,
18mm and a density not less than 700kg/m3.
which makes the surface impervious, such as
2.12.4 Wood blocks
The existing wooden floors should then be
overlaid with exterior grade WBP plywood of
4mm or 6mm thickness and preferred size
1200mm x 1200mm. The boards should be laid
with staggered joints. The plywood should be
Preferred sizes are 600mm x 2400mm and
wax or polyurethane, as they will impair the
Although many woodblock floors appear
fixed to the existing boards using 18mm long
1200mm x 2400mm.
bonding of the adhesive to the floorcovering.
sound, even when overlaid with plywood, the
divergent staples or 14 gauge screw nails of
The chipboard should be tongued and grooved
Boards must be conditioned on site, by either
application of an impervious floorcovering on a
25mm length. Both types of fixing should be at
or slotted loose tongue fitting. All joints should
loose laying them individually or loose stacking
direct to earth subfloor can cause expansion
100mm centres along the edge of each sheet,
be glued for accurate location and finished
them in the temperature and humidity
and lifting of the base. Polyflor recommends
with a fixing line 12mm from the edge and
level. The board edges must be supported
conditions which will prevail in service, for at
that, in all cases, the woodblock floor be
thereafter at 150mm centres throughout the
across the joists and where necessary by the
least 3 days prior to fixing. Boards with a
removed and the subfloor brought up to the
entire area of the sheet. Perimeter fixings must
moisture content less than 7% and greater
required standard to accept Polyflor vinyl and
not be more than 18mm from the board edges.
350mm centres using annular (ring shanked)
than 18%, when measured with an electrical
rubber flooring.
Hardboard manufactured to BS 1142 can be
nails, lost head nails, divergent staples or
resistance moisture meter, should not be used.
2.12.5 General
used as an alternative to plywood. Preferred
Floating floors are designed to allow movement
All nail and screw heads must be below the
sizes are 1200mm x 1200mm x 3.2mm thick.
in both the vertical and horizontal planes.
surface of the board and any indentation filled
It should be noted that hardboard can suffer
Problems can occur at the joints of the
with a suitable flexible underlayment, as should
from extreme dimensional change when in
chipboard where movement in either plane is
the joints between any boards that have been
contact with water. To minimise this change,
excessive. It is Polyflor’s recommendation that
used to overlay the existing floor. The surface
the hardboard should be wetted on the mesh
should be primed using a primer compatible
side and left overnight to dry, prior to fixing.
use of noggins. The boards should be fixed at
countersunk screws, of length at least 2 1/2
times the thickness of the board.
For joist centres up to 450mm, 18mm thick
chipboard can be used. For joist centres of
610mm, 22mm thick chipboard should be used.
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2.13.4 Existing floorcoverings
2.13.5 Access Panels
Failure to wet the hardboard can result in
floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment
buckling due to moisture absorption from the
supplier will provide details on which product
Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should never
When access is no longer required beneath a
water-based adhesive.
within their range must be used to suit the end
be laid over existing floorcoverings and in such
floor and it is proposed for access panels to be
Plywood and hardboard should be treated as
use application and subfloor construction,
instances where this is carried out, Polyflor
overlaid, provided the panels are sound and
described in Section 2.12.3 prior to application
together with details of which primer should
accepts no responsibility for non-performance
level, Polyflor would recommend that a
of the floorcovering.
be used.
of its products.
minimum 6mm WBP Plywood is installed over
2.13.2 Painted or epoxy coated floors
All existing floorcoverings must be uplifted and
With suspended timber at ground level, it is of
Epoxy and polyurethane surface coatings
as much as possible of the old adhesive
vital importance to obtain good ventilation
below the floor through the existence of
should be removed, in order to ensure that no
airbricks. Without good ventilation, the
breakdown of the sub-floor occurs after
application of an impervious floorcovering
installation of the resilient floorcovering.
could lead to dry rot in the structure beneath.
Painted floors will impair the adhesion of the
Most smoothing compounds are unsuitable for
resilient floorcovering and should be removed
applying to timber bases due to the movement
prior to the application of the floorcovering.
of the base. Seek advice from the smoothing
Mechanical methods such as grinding or
underlayment manufacturer for the correct
blasting are the most suitable methods for
grade of product for your specific application.
removing these coatings. However, where the
removed from the subfloor. Special care must
be taken on very old floors, as some products –
2.13.6 Subfloors
In common with the installation of any type of
instances, contact Polyflor for further
flooring, the subfloor should not only be in
information.
sound condition, but also free of any
reclaimed and recycled, providing that there is
no heavy contamination. Polyflor is one of two
Cementicious smoothing compounds should
need to be scabbled. If the epoxy coating is
only be used to patch fill hollows on timber
well bonded to the subfloor, it is possible to
substrates. Once level, they should be overlaid
funded vinyl take-back scheme. To enquire
back of heterogeneous flooring.
about this scheme and recycling end of life
vinyl flooring (uplifted and off-cuts), email
Recofloor at [email protected]
A suitable 3mm thick floor smoothing
underlayment should then be applied to the
then be made good with a 3mm minimum
whole floor. Failure to remove sufficient
2.13 OTHER SUBSTRATES
coating of a suitable cementicious smoothing
2.13.1 Metal bases
underlayment applied in accordance with the
Metal bases are generally, but not exclusively,
manufacturer’s recommendations, which may
steel and can be contaminated with rust or
include the application of a primer key coat.
adhesive can lead to premature failure of the
underlayment.
be thoroughly degreased and then abraded or
After uplifting existing floorcoverings laid on
plywood and hardboard, used as fabricated
oxidisation, oil and grease. The surface should
2.13.3 Loose lay isolating membranes
Polyflor recommend that subfloors be prepared
wire brushed to remove the rust or oxidisation.
underlays, it is almost always necessary to
replace the plywood or hardboard.
in accordance with the relevant code of practice
After uplifting existing floorcoverings laid on
BS 8203. Any installations incorporating loose
suspended chipboard or plywood subfloors,
In most instances, but not where there is
lay isolating membrane systems within the
4mm thick plywood should be applied to the
excessive vertical or lateral flexing or
marketplace, which are used to overlay
subfloor as described in Section 2.12.6.
movement, a cementicious smoothing
contaminated subfloors, existing floor
compound of at least 3mm thickness must then
coverings, etc. are solely underwritten by the
be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl
individual membrane manufacturer.
Any high spots may need to be ground off.
index
a permanent marker pen.
Similarly, no markings should be applied to the
blasting. In both instances, the surface should
previously.
contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative
treatments or other forms of marking, such as
founder members of Recofloor, the industry
apply the floorcovering after grinding or
with flooring grade plywood, as described
A suitable smoothing compound should then
be used to fill any joints and hollows.
but not Polyflor – contained asbestos. In these
The removed floorcoverings should be
paint proves difficult to remove, the floor may
the access panel and adequately fixed.
3
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temperatures up to 27ºC should be used. Where
Installation of Homogeneous and
Safety vinyl sheet
direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with
underfloor heating, creates high surface
temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy
or polyurethane adhesive should be used.
laying towards the window.
3.2 SLABBING THE VINYL SHEET
Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl
sheet flooring be rolled out face upward, taking
care not to damage the surface, and cut
The work area should now be prepared to
approximately to size. Allowance of at least
receive the vinyl sheet flooring. Ensure that all
75mm should be made at the ends for
other trades have completed their work and
trimming in, the slabs should then be left
removed all their equipment and materials.
overnight for 24 hours, to condition at a
Remove all debris and sweep or vacuum the
minimum temperature of 18ºC.
whole floor area. Check the condition of the
subfloor and make good as necessary. Stone or
power grind any cementicious subfloor to
remove any “nibs” or ridges. Remove any
surface contaminants, which may affect
adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior to
laying. If required by the contract, or if in
3.3 FITTING THE FIRST LENGTH
3.3.1 Non-foam backed products
Place the first sheet in position next to the wall
with the outer edge approximately 15mm from
the nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so
that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of
the room (Figure 1).
doubt, check the moisture content of the
subfloor and record the results and method
used. Good lighting is essential.
It is important to note that commencement of
work is deemed by many as acceptance of the
site conditions as being suitable for laying
On receipt of rolls, check that colours
be as described in BS 8203. A working
correspond to those ordered, that quantities
temperature of between 18ºC and 26ºC is
are correct and that there is no damage. In
required for at least 24 hours prior to, and
particular, check that rolls are from one batch,
during, the laying period and for 24 hours
if that was requested on the order. On arrival at
afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas
site, the rolls should be safely secured in an
should be of similar temperature, to prevent
upright position and stored, together with the
thermally induced dimensional changes.
adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18ºC
floorcoverings.
Figure 1 Lining up the first sheet
3.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL SHEET
Depending upon the depth of the recesses,
The architect may have provided a drawing
either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should
showing the direction in which the material
be used to trace the profile of the wall.
should be laid. In this case, lay the vinyl sheet
The scribers should be set to allow for the
as directed. If the architect has left this to the
deepest recess or rake of the wall. Holding the
discretion of the flooring contractor, it is
scribers vertically and square to the vinyl edge,
advisable to show at the tender stage in which
trace the wall profile onto the face of the sheet
In installations where underfloor heating is
direction the material will be laid and state that
(Figure 2). With this method, all irregularities of
used, this should be switched off from 48 hours
your estimate is based on this. Always pay
the wall will be accurately reproduced onto the
Inflammable adhesives require special storage
prior to installation until 48 hours afterwards.
particular attention to where seams will fall,
surface of the vinyl sheet. If, because of the
conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer
It should then be slowly brought back up to the
avoiding such occurrences as seams in the
colour or decoration, the scribed line is difficult
or see current literature for details.
working temperature, a maximum of 27ºC.
centre of doorways. If large windows are
to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk dust into
Adhesives capable of withstanding
installed, minimise the effect of the joints by
the line to highlight it.
for at least 24 hours before laying.
To achieve best results, site conditions should
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profile and cut to fit as described in preceding
paragraphs.
wall, fit as described for the first length
D. Check that seams are without gaps and
(Section 3.3.1).
remove any excess adhesive.
3.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly
Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl
in the short direction, then in the long. In corners
sheet floorcoverings are welded. Seam cutting,
and other awkward areas, use a hand roller.
grooving and heat welding are described in
F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets
detail in Section 12.
are adhered.
Note: The seams should be cut before the
G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again, between
adhesive is spread.
one and four hours later.
3.6 ADHERING THE VINYL SHEET
3.6.2 Adhering foam-backed vinyl sheet
Prior to adhering the vinyl sheet, it is
Trim the material to size ensuring that
important to read and understand the adhesive
approximately 150mm excess remains along
manufacturer’s instructions, recommendations
the length of the material at both edges of the
Figure 2 Scribing the wall profile
Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a
hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess
vinyl to the scribed line. Slide the sheet back
against the wall and check the fit, making any
minor adjustments as necessary.
Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once
completed, the whole sheet – when slid back
into position – should fit the wall profiles exactly.
When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is
correct, use a pencil to trace the opposite edge
Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same
onto the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 3).
principles apply but a reverse scriber must be
used to trace the toe onto the sheet. It is
In the centre of the room, draw a line on both
the vinyl and subfloor square to the main axis
lines C and D (Figure 4). Trace the end wall
index
the vinyl into position. The vinyl can then be
Never spread more adhesive than can be laid
rolled.
within the open time. Polyflor does not
Once this has been carried out the edges of the
recommend any method of adhesive
length of material can then be trimmed and
application, such as rolling or spraying, which
bonded.
cannot guarantee the spread rate.
Further advice can be obtained from Polyflor
Wherever practical, start with central strips
first, as these are usually easier, having fewer
recesses or awkward fittings.
Customer Technical Services Department.
3.6.3 Premature trafficking of newly laid floors
Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond
and weaken it, resulting in the associated
length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along
A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length,
problems of tracking, indentation, debonding
the adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace
making sure the remaining half retains its position.
etc. After the vinyl sheet has been installed,
the edge along the whole length onto the
B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of
only light foot traffic should be allowed for at
subfloor. In the middle, draw a line C-D at right
the correct size, as recommended by the
least 24 hours. Furniture etc. should only be
angles to the main axis, as previously
adhesive manufacturer. Maintain the correct size
returned after this time. Where liable to be
described.
of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as
subject to heavy trafficking, the vinyl should be
Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide back
work progresses.
Keeping the inner edge of the vinyl on line A-B,
Set the scribers to the distance now between
especially the open time.
12mm overlap for final trimming in.
Place the second length parallel to the first
end of the room.
away from both edges of the room, and place
3.6.1 Wet set adhesives
3.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS
slide the sheet back to clear the wall at one
room. Spread the adhesive until 1 linear metre
hazards and limitations of the adhesive,
normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing
of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 3).
Figure 3 Marking the position
and safety advice. You need to know the
Figure 4 Setting the scriber
protected with hardboard or plywood for at
least 48 hours.
the sheet from the end wall and fit as described
C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the
in Section 3.3.1. Repeat for the opposite end.
floorcovering, roll the vinyl sheet back into place,
3.6.4 Pressure-sensitive adhesives
Repeat the sequence for all remaining lengths.
rubbing from the centre to the edge, taking care
These adhesives are designed to go completely
On the final length, which abuts the opposite
not to twist the roll or trap air bubbles.
dry prior to laying into and are particularly well
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suited to dense subfloors where there is
Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile
B. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak
difficulty with moisture uptake. They have the
discussing installation with the main
spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of
advantage of very long open times but,
contractor who may agree to fitting WCs, sinks
the cove former on a taper for 150mm so that
because they are laid into dry, have the
etc. after the vinyl has been laid.
there is minimal cove former near the doorway
disadvantage that the adhesive ridges are not
A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap
flattened when the vinyl is rolled. To eliminate
of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions and walls.
this disadvantage, Polyflor recommends an
(Figure 6). Heating the cove former will enable
the shape to be formed but do not use a naked
flame.
B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set
alternative method of application:
at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”.
A. Fold back all the sheets to just over half their
C. Place the vinyl sheet in a larger area with the
length.
face uppermost. Place the template on top
B. Spread the adhesive with the correct notch
trowel. Maintain the correct size of notch at all
times. Then roll out the adhesive ridges with a
long handled, short pile adhesive roller.
ensuring the direction of decoration is correct.
Figure 5 Polyethylene strip
Secure the template firmly in position and, with a
or trap air bubbles. (A length of wide polyethylene
pair of scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of
strip can be rolled out on top of the adhesive to
all obstacles using the template as a guide.
Note: To maintain the correct spread rate, the
enable it to be walked on. This can be helpful
D. Using a sharp vinyl trimming knife, cut the
adhesive roller should be pre-wetted with
when fitting the first length up to the line. Roll it
vinyl sheet to the scribed lines and fit into
adhesive. This will prevent it taking adhesive
up from the far end on completion.)
position.
G. Fit all the other sheets, working outwards from
Note: Do not use the felt paper template as an
C. Wrap the roller in a polyethylene bag and
the central sheet, as described previously. Take
underlay.
hang up when not in use. This will prevent it from
extra care to ensure that seams are without gaps
drying out. It also prevents flats being formed and
and remove any excess adhesive as work proceeds.
from the floor.
avoids regular washing out and pre-wetting.
3.8 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTINGS
Polyflor fully flexible vinyl flooring, in
H. Fold back the second halves of the vinyl sheets
conjunction with Polyflor Ejecta cove former
D. When the adhesive is completely dry and
and remove the polyethylene strip which was
(see also Section 9) can be used to create site
ready to lay into, it will change from opaque to
stuck to the edge of the adhesive. Repeat
formed coved skirting. In shower areas, for
clear or translucent. The adhesive will be tacky to
sequence of adhering vinyl sheet as described
example, the vinyl sheet can be extended up the
the touch. It is worth remembering that air flow
previously.
wall and, when welded, will form a watertight
I. Roll thoroughly in both directions using a 68kg
base. Alternatively, in hospital corridors or
is the most critical factor in the drying time and
not temperature. Electric fans can be used to
accelerate the drying time.
E. Place a length of 100mm wide polyethylene
strip onto the edge of the adhesive adjacent to
the fold in the vinyl sheet (Figure 5).
This will prevent the sheet sticking to the last
100mm of adhesive.
articulated floor roller. In corners and other
office complexes, a contrasting colour can be
awkward areas, use a hand roller. Repeat again
used for decoration or identification.
after 1 – 4 hours.
A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a
3.7 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD
contact adhesive. Use a mitre-block to accurately
Areas which call for a considerable amount of
cut internal and external corners and only adjust
fitting around obstacles, or which are too
for length on straight cuts.
confined to lay down a sheet for fitting by
Note: The installation of Polyflor Ejecta vinyl
F. Roll the central sheet back into place along the
normal methods, can be dealt with by
flooring accessories using contact adhesives is
longitudinal line, taking care not to twist the roll
templating the floor in felt paper.
covered in detail in Section 10.
index
Figure 6 Taper towards a doorway
Figure 7 CS-N capping strip
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3.8.1 Fitting with clip-in capping strip
(Type CS-N)
A. Draw a line on the walls around the room to
the height the coving will reach.
B. Place the vinyl to the walls and then draw a
line to the same height as previous. Using a
straight edge and sharp knife, trim off the excess.
C. Pull back the sheet from the walls. Fit the
capping strip to the wall with contact adhesive
so that the top of the sheet will sit inside the cap.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove
3.8.2 Fitting with sit-on capping strip
(Type CS)
Note: Welded external corners are prone to
recommended by Polyflor. See also Section 15.
A. Using a height gauge fitted with a pencil,
traffic. To prevent this from occurring, and as
A thin bead of mastic sealant should be run
draw a line on the walls around the room to the
an alternative to the traditional mitre, the joint
along the underside edge of the CT strip and
height the coving will reach.
may be cut at an angle and taken around the
the Polyflor (Figure 10).
B. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove
corner and welded (Figure 9).
former and up to the pencil line on the wall.
3.9 FITTING TO CERAMIC WALL TILES
Coat the back of the vinyl with contact adhesive
For the junction between site formed coved
and leave both to dry.
skirting and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor Ejecta
C. When dry, push the vinyl into place and roll
CT strip should be used. The flexible section is
with a hand roller to ensure even contact.
designed to accept ceramic tiles on one side
D. Reduce the height gauge to allow for the
and various gauges of vinyl on the other.
former and up to the capping strip. Coat the
thickness of the floorcovering and adhesive.
The Polyflor CT strip should be adhered using a
back of the vinyl with contact adhesive and leave
Draw a line on the vinyl to the same height as
contact adhesive as recommended by Polyflor.
both to dry.
previous. Using a straight edge and sharp knife,
The edge between the CT strip and the ceramic
E. When dry, push the vinyl into place and tuck
trim off the excess.
tiles should be grouted. The Polyflor should be
the top edge into the capping strip (Figure 7).
E. Using a piece of capping strip, mark where the
fitted into the bottom edge of the CT strip and
Roll with a hand roller to ensure even contact.
strip overlaps the wall and vinyl sheet.
Apply contact adhesive between the lines and to
the back of the capping strip. When dry, push
into place (Figure 8).
Figure 8 CS capping strip
index
adhered to the wall using a contact adhesive as
breaking open due to damage from wheeled
Figure 9 External corners
Figure 10 Fitting to ceramic tiles
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Installation of Homogeneous vinyl tiles
quickly and is especially important with high
It is important to note that commencement of
vinyl content products such as Polyflor
work is deemed by many as acceptance of the
Prestige PUR and Polyflor Mystique PUR.
site conditions as suitable for laying
To achieve best results, site conditions should
floorcoverings.
be as described in BS 8203. A working
4.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL TILES
temperature of between 18ºC and 26ºC is
Although many floor layers regard vinyl tiles as
required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the
being easier to lay than vinyl sheet, the layout
laying period and for 24 hours afterwards.
of the tiles can be critical to the success of the
Conditioning areas and laying areas should be
installation. The regular form of tiles, especially
of similar temperature, to prevent thermally
when laid in contrasting colours, can accentuate
induced dimensional changes. In installations
deviations in the building line, emphasising the
where underfloor heating is used, this should
need for detailed planning of the layout.
be switched off from 48 hours prior to
Many floor layers start in the main doorway,
installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should
believing that the initial impression when
then be brought slowly back up to the working
entering a room is most important. However,
temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives
working from the centre of the room and loose
capable of withstanding temperatures up to
laying tiles to check the layout will make the
27ºC should be used. Where direct sunlight,
final appearance correct from any viewpoint.
sometimes in conjunction with underfloor
This is especially important where a geometric
heating, creates high surface temperatures on
design is incorporated into the floor.
the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane
4.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT
adhesive should be used.
A. Measure the room to be laid in both
The work area should now be prepared to
directions, including any alcoves etc.
receive the vinyl tiles. Ensure all other trades
This section is intended for the contract
Inflammable adhesives require special storage
B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B, ensuring that it is
have completed their work and removed all
ranges of Polyflor tiles and not the Luxury
conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer
square to the wall with the doorway.
their equipment and materials. Remove all
Vinyl Tile ranges, which are detailed in their
or see current literature for details.
debris and sweep or vacuum the whole floor
C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B and
own specific technical manual.
Under normal conditions (outside temperature
area. Check the condition of the subfloor and
check that no small strips will have to be laid at
On receipt of tiles, check that colours
above 12ºC) the tiles should be off-loaded from
make good as necessary. Stone or power grind
the perimeter of the room. If small strips do result,
correspond to those ordered, that quantities
the pallet and stacked no more than five boxes
any cementicious subfloor to remove any
move the centreline in either direction, keeping it
are correct and there is no obvious damage.
high during the conditioning period. The stacks
“nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface
parallel to the line A-B, so that the perimeter tiles
will only require a small piece cutting off.
In particular, check that tiles are from one
should be arranged to allow the air to circulate
contaminants that may affect adhesion. Sweep
batch, if that was requested on the order.
around stack on all sides. In cold weather
or vacuum again, prior to laying. If required,
D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it is
On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored,
(outside temperature below 12ºC) the boxes
check moisture content of the subfloor and
square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a
together with the adhesive, at a minimum
should be opened and the tiles spread out in
record the results and method used. Good
large square, trammels or geometrically.
temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours prior
the area where they are to be installed.
lighting is essential.
E. Loose lay tiles away from the centrelines C-D
to laying.
This will permit the tiles to acclimatise more
index
and check that no small strips will have to be
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section until the main field of tiles has been laid.
decoration runs the correct way.
4.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILES
B. Set the bar scriber to the size of tile being laid.
Three techniques are commonly used for
C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be
laid. Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B.
amount of fitting also tend to be cleaner, since
In Figure 11, by moving the centreline C-D
the tiles are laid into dry adhesive. There is an
towards the door, tile 6 would only require a
added benefit with this adhesive in the fact
small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8
that once the adhesive has dried, the marking
cutting perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly
on the opposite wall.
out on the floor can be seen through the
dependent upon the runout of the wall.
adhesive film.
4.5.1 Overlapping Method
4.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES
The decoration of tiles on some product ranges
Used when there is little or no run out of the
abutting wall.
is randomly distributed and in marbled styles
Figure 11 Laying out vinyl tiles
can be heavier on some tiles than others.
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile
To prevent “heavy” and “light” areas, the tiles
laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the
should be unboxed and, if required, “shuffled”
decoration runs the correct way.
cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and
square to the edge of the tile.
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into
position and check the fit. Repeat along the
whole wall.
Note: Both the Overlapping and Scriber
Methods can be used to fit around projections
such as door frames. Similarly, a template can
whilst waiting for the adhesive to “go off”.
be made or templating guide containing
Once the adhesive is ready to accept the tiles,
movable pins used for awkward shapes.
place the first tile at the starting point, which is
4.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES
the intersection of the two centrelines. Press
Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid,
4.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE
well down in the centre of the tile and then run
turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their
If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed
a thumb around the edge, ensuring that all air
position. Spread the adhesive right up to the
using a primer compatible with the adhesive, as
is expelled.
edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient
recommended by the adhesive manufacturer.
moisture, lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up
Place the next tile in position, alternating the
The amount of adhesive that can be spread at
excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well
direction of marbling and colour if necessary,
any one time depends upon the prevailing site
and proceed down the centreline, laying two
conditions, such as temperature, humidity and
tiles wide i.e. one tile either side of the
throughflow of air – all of which affect the open
centreline. It is essential to keep the tiles
time of the adhesive.
exactly on the centreline.
Figure 12 Measuring using an overlapping tile
with a 68kg articulated roller. Use a small hand
B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be
process for all four walls. Finally, the whole
roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the
cut with its “top edge” against the wall or set-in
floor should be given a second rolling,
coved skirting (Figure 12).
approximately one to four hours later.
Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the
Note: Non-directional tiles do not need
open time, and their instructions should be
“shuffling”, nor do they require laying in
C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the
followed. Ideally, the floor area should be
alternating directions.
“bottom edge” of the top tile as a guide.
divided into workable sections, leaving the
Repeat the sequence along the centreline, at
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into
long distances can be difficult and often leads
perimeter tile areas unadhered until the main
right angles to the first. Then, working from the
position and check the fit. Repeat along the
to inaccuracies. To eliminate this problem, an
body of the floor has been laid.
completed centrelines, finish the section,
whole wall.
alternative technique is used when laying tiles
in large areas:
4.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS
Maintaining a clearly defined straight line over
As an alternative to wet set adhesive, a
taking care that tile bond is maintained
4.5.2 Scriber Method
pressure sensitive acrylic adhesive can be
throughout. Any excess adhesive should be
Used when the wall run out is quite severe or
A. Establish the central starting point, as
used. Although initially more expensive, half a
removed as work proceeds. When a section has
when the wall profile cannot be picked up using
described previously, minimising small cuts on
large room can be spread at one time and the
been laid, except for the perimeter, it should be
a straight edge.
perimeter tiles.
excellent “tack” of the adhesive makes it ideal
thoroughly rolled in both directions with a
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile
B. Lay the first pyramid of tiles from the
for tiles. Installations that involve a large
68kg articulated floor roller. Repeat for each
laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the
centrelines, using the sequence shown in
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Figure 13 Pyramid layout
Figure 13. Ensure a close bond is maintained at
all times.
C. Repeat this sequence on the opposite side of
the centreline shown as area 2 in Figure 14.
Continue working in larger and larger pyramids,
as shown in Figure 14, until only the perimeter
tiles require fitting.
Note: Construction of a pyramid should always
start at the centre of the baseline, working in
the same sequence as shown in Figure 13.
D. Fit the perimeter tiles as described in
Section 4.5.
4.8 WELDING OF TILES
Polyflor recommend that all 608mm tile
installations be heat welded, as undulations in
the subfloor can cause the tiles to go out of
bond, resulting in slight but unacceptable gaps.
Heat welding is described in Section 12.
The use of a contrasting weld rod can be used
to create simple design effects. To calculate
how much weld rod is required for the
installation, multiply the number of square
metres laid by 3.3, to give you the number of
linear metres of weld rod.
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Figure 14 Floor layout
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the edge of the printed plank can be used in
Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl
sheet
hours, the seam can be grooved out. This can
the lengthwise direction as a guide. Once the
be done either manually by using a hand
seam is cut, discard the waste material and
groover or mechanically using a power
check the final appearance.
Or
grooving machine. The groove should not be
deeper than 2/3rds thickness of the wear layer
for the U groove and 7/8ths thickness for the
Using a straight edge and utility knife, cut off
V groove.
the selvage of the top sheet of the wood effect
designs, using the edge of the printed plank in
A. Remove all dust and debris prior to welding.
the lengthwise direction as the guide. Discard
B. Using an appropriate vinyl weld rod, test the
the waste strip. Then, using the cut edge as a
weld fusion on a scrap piece of the material. Once
guide, set a proprietary seam cutter to cut the
you are happy with the heat settings and resultant
lower sheet. Discard the waste strip and check
weld, proceed to weld all the pre-grooved seams.
the final appearance.
C. On completion, and whilst the weld is still
Once the seams have been dry cut, the vinyl
warm, carry out the first trim. This should be
sheets can be adhered to the substrate. Fold
carried out using a cable guide and spatula knife.
back all the sheets half way and apply an
D. The final trim should be carried out once the
adhesive approved by Polyflor, following the
weld has completely cooled and should be done
adhesive manufacturer’s instructions and
using the spatula knife.
recommendations.
Note: The welding technique described will
Working from the centre of the room, fold the
provide a very strong mechanical weld. Should
sheets back into their original position, using a
rolling motion to reduce the risk of trapping air.
Using a 68kg roller starting in the width
This section is intended for Polyflor
the final appearance of the installation and to
direction, roll the floor to expel any air bubbles
heterogeneous sheet vinyl ranges with
ensure the decorative effect is not lost, it is
and ensure good contact with the adhesive,
transparent wear layer/print construction.
important that care is taken to align the plank
substrate and the back of the sheet vinyl.
In general, the installation procedure is the
decoration of each adjacent sheet. All none
Repeat in the lengthwise direction. Repeat the
same as that detailed in Section 3 and
wood effect designs within the Stone FX and
whole rolling process approximately 4 hours
reference should be made to this section for
Gallery FX Acoustic collections MUST be
later.
in-depth advice. Included below are details of
reverse laid.
how installation differs from homogeneous
Once the adjacent sheets are aligned, the
vinyl sheet, specifically in relation to alignment
seam should be cut using one of the following
recommended for heterogeneous vinyl sheet
of adjacent sheets and welding options.
methods:
floorcoverings with a transparent wear
5.1 ALIGNMENT OF DECORATION
Using a straight edge and keeping the utility
layer/print construction.
knife upright, cut through both layers to ensure
5.2.1 Hot Welding
there is a tight seam. With wood effect designs,
Once the adhesive is cured, normally after 24
This type of floorcovering features a print layer
with a regular, repeat decoration (e.g. wood
plank). With wood effect designs, to maximise
index
5.2 WELDING THE SHEET
There are two methods of welding that are
Figure 15 Cold welding
POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION
you require a much thinner line whilst at the
same time providing a continuous surface, we
suggest that in these instances, and using the
technique described, only the wear layer be
grooved out. This will result in a much
narrower weld whilst still preventing ingress of
dirt or moisture.
5.2.2 Cold Welding
Once the seam has been accurately cut,
remembering that this type of welding should
not be considered as gap filling, the seam can
be welded.
A. Cover the seam with masking tape or similar to
prevent any excess welding liquid coming into
contact with the vinyl surface.
B. Cut through the tape at the seam, using a
utility knife with a sharp blade. Apply the welding
liquid (Figure 15), as per the manufacturer’s
instructions, ensuring both hands are controlling
the tube.
Keep fingers away from the needle applicator.
C. After approximately 10 minutes and once the
welding liquid has cured, the masking tape can
then be removed.
Note: Any proud parts of the cured welding
liquid can be left, as they will be removed with
the effects of maintenance and traffic.
5.3 SUBFLOORS
In common with the installation of any type of
flooring, the subfloor should not only be in
sound condition, but also free of any
contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative
treatments or other forms of marking, such as
a permanent marker pen.
Similarly, no markings should be applied to the
back of heterogeneous flooring.
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back up to the working temperature, a
Installation of Rubber sheet
maximum of 27ºC.
Adhesives capable of withstanding
temperatures up to 27ºC should be used.
Where direct sunlight, sometimes in
conjunction with underfloor heating, creates
high surface temperatures on the floor, an
approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive
should be used.
See Polyflor recommended adhesive listings.
The work area should now be prepared to
receive the rubber sheet flooring. Ensure that
all other trades have completed their work and
removed all their equipment and materials.
Remove all debris and sweep or vacuum the
whole floor area. Check the condition of the
subfloor and make good as necessary.
advisable to show at the tender stage in which
direction the material will be laid and state that
your estimate is based on this. Always pay
particular attention to where seams will fall,
avoiding such occurrences as seams in the
centre of doorways. If large windows are
installed, minimise the effect of the joints by
laying towards the window.
6.2 SLABBING THE RUBBER SHEET
Polyflor recommends that all sheet rubber
flooring be rolled out face upward, taking care
not to damage the surface, and cut
approximately to size. Allowance of at least
75mm should be made at the ends for
trimming in. Ideally, the slabs should then be
left overnight, and preferably for 24 hours, to
condition at a minimum temperature of 18ºC.
Stone or power grind any cementicious
6.3 FITTING THE SHEET
subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges.
Place the first sheet in position next to the wall
Remove any surface contaminants, which may
with the outer edge approximately 15mm from
affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior
the nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so
to laying.
If required by the contract, or if in doubt, check
that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of
the room (Figure 16).
the moisture content of the subfloor and
On receipt of rolls, check that colours
To achieve best results, site conditions should
record the results and method used. Good
correspond to those ordered, that the
be as described in BS 8203. A working
quantities are correct and that there is no
temperature of between 18°C and 26°C is
damage. In particular, check that rolls are from
required for at least 24 hours prior to, and
one batch, if that was requested on the order.
during, the laying period and for 24 hours
work is deemed by many as acceptance of the
lighting is essential.
On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely
secured in an upright position and stored,
together with the adhesive, at a minimum
temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours
before laying.
Inflammable adhesives require special storage
conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer
or see current literature for details.
index
It is important to note that commencement of
afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying
site conditions as being suitable for laying
areas should be of similar temperature, to
floorcoverings.
prevent thermally induced dimensional
6.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER SHEET
changes.
The architect may have provided a drawing
Figure 16 Lining up the first sheet
Depending upon the depth of the recesses,
In installations where underfloor heating is
showing the direction in which the material
used, this should be switched off from
should be laid. In this case, lay the rubber sheet
48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours
as directed. If the architect has left this to the
afterwards. It should then be slowly brought
discretion of the flooring contractor, it is
either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should
be used to trace the profile of the wall. The
scribers should be set to allow for the deepest
recess or rake of the wall. Holding the scribers
vertically and square to the rubber edge, trace
the wall profile onto the face of the sheet
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Keeping the inner edge of the rubber on line
Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide
C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the
of the wall will be accurately reproduced onto
A-B, slide the sheet back to clear the wall at
back the sheet from the end wall and fit as
floorcovering, roll the rubber sheet back into
the surface of the rubber sheet. If, because of
one end of the room.
described in Section 6.3. Repeat for the
place, taking care not to twist the roll or trap air
opposite end. Repeat the sequence for all
bubbles.
(Figure 17). With this method, all irregularities
the colour or decoration, the scribed line is
difficult to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk
dust into the line to highlight it.
Set the scribers to the distance now between
lines C and D (Figure 19). Trace the end wall
profile and cut to fit as described in preceding
paragraphs.
remaining lengths. On the final length, which
abuts the opposite wall, fit as described for the
D. Check that seams are without gaps and
remove any excess adhesive.
first length Section 6.3.
E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly
6.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
If welding is necessary (see section 6.10), seam
in the short direction, then in the long. In corners
and other awkward areas, use a hand roller.
cutting, grooving and heat welding are
described in detail in Section 12.
F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets
are adhered.
Note: The seams should be cut before the
adhesive is spread.
G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again,
between one and four hours later.
6.6 ADHERING THE SHEET
Figure 17 Scribing the wall profile
Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a
hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess
Prior to adhering the rubber sheet, it is
6.7 PREMATURE TRAFFICKING OF NEWLY
important to read and understand the adhesive
LAID FLOORS
manufacturer’s instructions, recommendations
Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond
and safety advice. You need to know the
and weaken it, resulting in the associated
hazards and limitations of the adhesive,
problems of tracking, indentation, debonding
especially the open time.
etc. After the rubber sheet has been installed,
Figure 19 Setting the scriber
rubber to the scribed line. Slide the sheet back
Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once
against the wall and check the fit, making any
completed, the whole sheet – when slid back
minor adjustments as necessary.
into position – should fit the wall profiles exactly.
Never spread more adhesive than can be laid
only light foot traffic should be allowed for at
within the open time.
least 24 hours. Where liable to be subject to
heavy trafficking, the rubber should be
Polyflor does not recommend any method of
protected with hardboard, plywood or a
adhesive application, such as rolling or
When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is
Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same
correct, use a pencil to trace the opposite edge
principles apply but a reverse scriber must be
onto the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 18).
used to trace the toe onto the sheet. It is
spraying, which cannot guarantee the
spread rate.
protector, it is not left in contact with the
Wherever practical, start with central strips
normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing
12mm overlap for final trimming in.
6.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS
Place the second length parallel to the first
length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along
first, as these are usually easier, having fewer
recesses or awkward fittings.
6.8 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD
Areas which call for a considerable amount of
A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length,
fitting around obstacles, or which are too
making sure the remaining half retains its position.
confined to lay down a sheet for fitting by
B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of
normal methods, can be dealt with by
templating the floor in felt paper.
the edge along the whole length onto the
the correct size, as recommended by the
In the centre of the room, draw a line on both
subfloor. In the middle, draw a line C-D at right
adhesive manufacturer. Maintain the correct size
the rubber and subfloor square to the main
angles to the main axis, as described previously.
of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as
index
rubber surface as it can stain.
the adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace
Figure 18 Marking the position
axis of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 18).
proprietary protector for at least 48 hours.
Ensure that if there is any printing on the
work progresses.
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Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile
6.10 WELDING OF RUBBER SHEET
discussing installation with the main
Welding of rubber sheet is not a prerequisite in
contractor who may agree to fitting WCs, sinks
most installations. However where there is
etc. after the rubber has been laid.
heavy wet cleaning or where due to hygiene
A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap
requirements a continuous smooth surface is
of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions.
demanded, the joints should be heat welded
using the recommended weld rod.
B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set
at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”.
C. Place the rubber sheet in a larger area with
the face uppermost. Place the template on top
ensuring the direction of decoration is correct.
Secure the template firmly in position and, with a
pair of scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of
all obstacles using the template as a guide.
D. Using a sharp trimming knife, cut the rubber
sheet to the scribed lines and fit into position.
Do not use the felt paper template as an
underlay.
6.9 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTING
Polyflor sheet rubber flooring, in conjunction
with a rubber cove, can be used to create site
formed coved skirting. In hospital corridors or
office complexes etc, a contrasting colour can
be used for decoration or identification.
A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a
contact adhesive.
B. Use a mitre-block to accurately cut internal
and external corners. Only adjust for length on
straight cuts.
C. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak
spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of
the cove former on a taper for 150mm so that
there is minimal cove former near the doorway.
Warming the cove former may help enable the
shape to be formed but do not use a naked flame.
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7
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afterwards. It should then be brought slowly
Installation of Rubber tiles
On receipt of tiles, check that colours
correspond to those ordered, that quantities
are correct and there is no obvious damage.
In particular check that tiles are from one
batch, if that was requested on the order.
On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored,
together with the adhesive, at a minimum
temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours
before laying. The tiles should be off-loaded
back up to the working temperature, a
However, working from the centre of the room
maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of
and loose laying tiles to check the layout will
withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC should
make the final appearance correct from any
be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in
viewpoint. This is especially important where a
conjunction with underfloor heating, creates
geometric design is incorporated into the floor.
high surface temperatures on the floor, an
approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive
should be used.
The work area should now be prepared to
receive the rubber tiles. Ensure all other trades
7.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT
A. Measure the room to be laid in both directions,
including any alcoves etc.
B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B ensuring that it is
square to the wall with the doorway.
have completed their work and removed all
or see current literature for details.
To achieve best results, site conditions should
be as described in BS 8203. A working
their equipment and materials. Remove all
C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B
debris and sweep or vacuum the whole floor
and check that no small strips will have to be
area. Check the condition of the subfloor and
laid at the perimeter of the room. If small strips
make good as necessary. Stone or power grind
do result, move the centreline in either direction,
any cementicious subfloor to remove any
keeping it parallel to the line A-B, so that the
“nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface
perimeter tiles will only require a small piece
contaminants that may affect adhesion.
cutting off.
Sweep or vacuum again prior to laying.
D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it
If required, check the moisture content of the
is square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a
subfloor and record the results and method
large square, trammels or geometrically.
used. Good lighting is essential.
E. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline C-D
It is important to note that commencement of
and check that no small strips will have to be
work is deemed by many as acceptance of the
laid. Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B.
site conditions as being suitable for laying
In Figure 20, by moving the centreline C-D
floorcoverings.
temperture of between 18ºC and 26ºC is
7.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER TILES
required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the
Although many floor layers regard tiles as
laying period and for 24 hours afterwards.
being easier to lay than sheet, the layout of the
Conditioning areas and laying areas should be
tiles can be critical to the success of the
of similar temperature, to prevent thermally
installation. The regular form of tiles, especially
induced dimensional changes.
when laid in contrasting colours, can
from the pallet and stacked no more than five
boxes high during the conditioning period.
when entering a room is most important.
towards the door, tile 6 would only require a
small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8
on the opposite wall.
accentuate deviations in the building line,
In installations where underfloor heating is
emphasising the need for detailed planning of
used, this should be switched off from
Inflammable adhesives require special storage
conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer
index
the layout. Many floor layers start in the main
48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours
doorway, believing that the initial impression
Figure 20 Laying out rubber tiles
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7.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE
right angles to the first. Then, working from the
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into
If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed
completed centrelines, finish the section taking
position and check the fit. Repeat along the
using a primer compatible with the adhesive,
care that tile bond is maintained throughout.
whole wall.
as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer.
Any excess adhesive should be removed as
7.5.2 Scriber Method
The amount of adhesive that can be spread at
work proceeds. When a section has been laid,
Used when the wall run out is quite severe or
any one time depends upon the prevailing site
except for the perimeter, it should be thoroughly
when the wall profile cannot be picked up using
conditions, such as temperature, humidity and
rolled in both directions with a 68kg
a straight edge.
throughflow of air – all of which affect the open
articulated floor roller. Repeat for each section
time of the adhesive.
until the main field of tiles has been laid.
Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the
7.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILE
open time, and their instructions should be
Two techniques are commonly used for cutting
followed. Ideally, the floor area should be
perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly dependent
divided into workable sections, leaving the
upon the run out of the wall.
perimeter tile areas unadhered until the main
7.5.1 Overlapping Method
body of the floor has been laid.
Used when there is little or no run out of the
scribed line, loose lay into position and check the
7.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES
abutting wall.
fit. Repeat along the whole wall.
Ensure the backs of the tiles are free from dust
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile
Note: Both the overlapping and scriber
prior to laying. This can be done whilst waiting
laid, ensuring the colour is correct.
methods can be used to fit around projections
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile
laid ensuring the colour is correct.
B. Set the bar scriber to the size of the tile
being laid.
C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be
cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and
square to the edge of the tile. Cut the tile to the
for the adhesive to “go off”. Once the adhesive
such as door frames. Similarly, a template can
is ready to accept the tiles, place the first tile
be made or templating guide containing
at the starting point, which is the intersection
movable pins used for awkward shapes.
of the two centrelines. Press well down in the
7.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES
centre of the tile and then run a thumb around
Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid,
the edge, ensuring all air is expelled.
turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their
Place the next tile in position, alternating the
position. Spread the adhesive right up to the
colour if necessary, and proceed down the
edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient
centreline, laying two tiles wide i.e. one tile
moisture, lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up
either side of the centreline. It is essential to
excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well
keep the tiles exactly on the centreline.
with a 68kg articulated roller. Use a small hand
roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the
When using “high tack” adhesives such as
contact adhesive, take care not to twist or
process for all four walls. Finally, the whole
Figure 21 Measuring using an overlapping tile
floor should be given a second rolling,
distort the tile whilst laying. If the tile is
stretched, its dimensional stability will
B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be cut,
approximately one to four hours later.
eventually return it to its original shape and
with its “top edge” against the wall (Figure 21).
7.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS
the adhesive bond will be broken.
C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the
The procedure for laying Rubber Tiles in large
“bottom edge” of the top tile as a guide.
areas is identical to that for laying vinyl tiles, as
Repeat the sequence along the centreline at
described in Section 4.7.
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Electro Static Dissipative
(ESD) floorcoverings
8.1 SPECIFYING THE CORRECT PRODUCT
upon the end use location, and consideration
The Polyflor ESD family of products is designed
should be given to such properties as point
to minimise or eliminate the risk of Electro
load resistance and protein content.
Static Discharge (ESD) and it is essential that
The underlayment should be allowed to dry
the correct product be selected for the
prior to the application of the floorcovering.
intended application. An electrical performance
specification must be identified at the outset.
This will not only stipulate the maximum and
minimum electrical resistance requirements of
the installed floor, but will also identify the
Polyflor accepts no responsibility for
non-conformance due to the resistance of the
installed floor being below the minimum
specified, if an isolating barrier has not
been used.
method of test, the electrodes to be used, the
method of measurement and the testing
Note: Suspended timber subfloors are not
environment.
conductive and do not require an isolating
barrier.
From this information, the correct Polyflor ESD
product can be identified, taking into account
both the electrical performance and the
method of installation. Whenever specifying a
Polyflor ESD vinyl floorcovering, Polyflor
strongly recommends that you discuss your
requirements with our Customer Technical
Services Department. They will advise on which
products are best suited for the particular
The Polyflor ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings
Static Dissipative (SD)
consists of products which are designed to
These products when tested to the test methods
meet specific resistance requirements.
identified in our literature have a resistance to
The terminology used to describe the various
earth between 1 x 106 and 1 x 109 ohms.
categories was changed in 1999, as the IEC
brought together the various electronics
industries to ensure that the same terminology
is used by all parties.
Antistatic
8.3 CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES
Polyflor recommends the use of Polyflor
conductive adhesive for all Static Control
floorcoverings and Polyflor contact adhesive
for earthing strips. If alternative adhesives are
used, they must be recommended by the
adhesive manufacturer and approved by
Polyflor.
application, and where no specifıcation has
Note: Access panels vary from manufacturer
been identified, will advise on the specifications
to manufacturer, both in design, materials
used in similar installations/industries.
used and electrical performance specification.
8.2 ISOLATION OF SUBFLOOR
We recommend in these instances that you
The electrical conductivity of a solid subfloor
discuss your individual requirements with your
can vary greatly, and as a result the installed
panel supplier or alternatively with our
Electrostatic Conductive (EC)
floor may have resistances lower than the
Customer Technical Services Department.
These products when tested to the test methods
minimum stated in the specification.
8.4 CONDUCTANCE TO EARTH
identified in our literature have a resistance to
Cementicious underlayments provide an
Installing an earthing system is a prerequisite
earth between 5 x 104 and 1 x 106 ohms.
isolating barrier of known resistance beneath
for ESD floors. This gives the end user the
Polyflor Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF)
the vinyl floorcovering.
These products do not accumulate static charges
These products when tested to the test methods
Polyflor recommends that all solid subfloors
identified in our literature have a resistance to
should be covered with a cementicious
above 2.0 KV and are classified as ‘Antistatic’
when tested to EN1815. For specialist application
earth between zero and 5 x 104 ohms.
underlayment which must be at least 3mm
option to test to earth should there be a
requirement at a later stage. Secondly,
it improves the conductance of the installed
floor to a known earth via a controlled path.
where there is a requirement to dissipate the
thick. The choice of underlayment is dependent
charge, see Polyflor ESD product ranges.
index
The choice of material used for the earthing
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system can be brass, copper or stainless steel
conductive adhesive contains carbon, which
and should be nominally 50mm wide and
results in low tack.
0.1mm thick. However, the width is only
Once the adhesive has been spread, the vinyl
important for the “Conductive” floorcovering.
sheet is laid into it and pressed all over to
standard Polyflor sheet vinyl, adhered with a
non-conductive adhesive. This infill piece
should then be welded to the ESD
floorcovering with a standard weld rod.
ensure an even transfer of adhesive. The vinyl
8.6.2 Conductive Floorcovering
recommends the use of at least two
sheet is then folded back and left until the
Polyflor Conductive does not provide
connections to earth, the second as a security
Figure 23 Earth connection
adhesive becomes tacky. When the adhesive is
protection from a short circuit on a 240/250
tacky, the vinyl sheet should be accurately
volt mains. Where this material is installed, all
8.4.3 Conductive ROF
re-laid, ensuring it does not twist or trap air
electrical equipment and switches must be
bubbles. Seams must be without gaps and any
located outside the building. No portable
excess adhesive should be removed as work
electrical tools should be used inside, unless
proceeds. The vinyl sheet is then rolled with a
earth leakage circuit breakers are fitted to the
68kg articulated floor roller in the short
switchgear.
When an earthing system is installed, Polyflor
back-up should the first be disconnected or
damaged. Connection of the earthing system
to the building earth is normally carried out by
a qualified electrician and not the flooring
contractor.
With this type of flooring, an earthing grid of
the correct size strip (50mm wide, 0.1mm thick)
is essential. The strips should be laid to form
600mm2 grids across the floor, the perimeter
8.4.1 Polyflor Static Dissipative (SD)
strips being 150mm from the wall (Figure 24).
Floorcoverings
At an appropriate point the strip should be
The earth strip is laid 150mm from one side of
connected to a known earth. It is important
the room, in the same direction as the vinyl
that the layout of the grid is confirmed with the
sheets are to be laid. This strip is connected to
end user as there are variations in the
a known earth (Figure 22).
requirement for some military specifications.
Figure 22 Earthing strip layout
A second strip is laid at 90º to the first, 150mm
from the edge and running across the full width
direction fırst, then the long, and the rolling
repeated between one and four hours later.
(excluding access panels) must be heat welded.
Polyflor ESD vinyl tiles are installed by the
Ideally, the floor should be left for a minimum
same method as standard vinyl tiles – the
of 24 hours before welding the joints. This will
single stick method. The grid layout for static
prevent adhesive bubbling up into the seams
control tiles is the same as for sheet vinyl, as
when heat is applied. For details of heat
described previously.
welding, see Section 12.
Note: ESD vinyl tiles must always be heat
Note: Conductive welding rod is not a
welded. See Section 12.
requirement with Polyflor ESD floorcoverings.
8.6 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS
8.8 TEST METHODS
Special precautions must be taken with the
Worldwide, there are a great many test
following products:
8.6.1 Electrostatic Conductive (EC)
of the room. Further strips are laid at 20 metre
The basic techniques for installation of Polyflor
intervals as determined by the size of the room.
ESD floorcoverings are the same as described
Floorcoverings
door spring plates etc.) must be insulated from
for standard vinyl sheet and tile in Sections 3
Floorcoverings
and 4 respectively. However, there are a
the EC floorcovering and free from conductive
adhesive. The following method of installation
A length of earth strip is adhered to the
number of important differences:
isolating underlayment and connected to a
8.5.1 ESD Vinyl Sheet
is recommended.
known earth. The strip need only extend along
Polyflor ESD vinyl sheet should be installed by
the floor for 150mm (Figure 23).
the double drop method. This is because the
index
methods for electrical grade floorcoverings
and, with rapid developments in the electrical
and electronic industries, standards are
constantly being reviewed. To ensure that the
Pipes or metal projections (e.g. metal gullies,
8.4.2 Polyflor Electrostatic Conductive (EC)
All Polyflor ESD floorcovering installations
8.5.2 ESD Vinyl Tiles
Figure 24 Earthing strip layout
8.5 INSTALLATION METHODS
8.7 HEAT WELDING
The EC floorcovering should be cut 50mm
floor is tested to the latest specification, it is
suggested that the architect or specifier should
obtain a copy of the test method and
requirements from the local office of the
National Standards Authority. It should then be
attached to the specification prior to the
short of any pipe or metal fixture. This infill
ordering of materials and installation of the
area should be laid with a suitably coloured
floor. If a test method is not specified, the
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and tested in accordance with the instructions
laid down by Polyflor and detailed in this
manual, the electrical resistance should be as
follows:
E A R T H T E S T R E S U LT S
MINIMUM AVERAGE
MAXIMUM AVERAGE
Static Dissipative
1 x 10 6 ohms
1 x 10 9 ohms
Electrostatic Conductive
5 x 104 ohms
1 x 106 ohms
Zero ohms
5 x 104 ohms
Conductive ROF
The Customer Technical Services Department
offers, for a fee, a finished installation testing
service – to ensure that the whole installation
Figure 25 Test electrode
meets the specification requirements.
following procedure is recommended and
8.8.4 Test Method (BS 61340 -4-1)
approved by Polyflor.
One electrode should be placed on the floor.
8.8.1 Test Procedure (BS 61340 -4-1)
The electrical testing of the floor must be
carried out with an insulation tester, operating
at 100 volts D.C.
The second connection should be made to the
earth point, the resistance being measured
between the electrode and a known earth.
The electrode consists of a brass cylinder 65mm
if made within 24 hours of the flooring being
laid or cleaned.
in diameter, weighing approximately 2.5 kg.
A screw connector attaches the test lead to the
top surface of the cylinder. On the underside is
attached a round rubber pad – of 5mm
thickness and 65 mm in diameter – which has
been covered with thin metal foil (Figure 25).
your testing requirements with our Customer
Technical Services team, to ascertain staff
availability etc.
One test should be made for every 2 square
metres of flooring. The test may not be reliable
8.8.2 Test Electrodes (BS 61340 -4-1)
A Certificate of Conformance is issued on
completion. We recommend that you discuss
8.9 STATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
In many instances, a Polyflor ESD floorcovering
is sufficient to give the necessary control,
but in highly static-sensitive areas, additional
8.8.5 Testing to a Grid
precautions may be necessary.
The procedure of always testing the same
points “on a grid” is not recommended.
These include:
The whole floor should meet the specifıcation,
Dissipative clothing and footwear
not just selected points. To ensure continual
Wrist and heel straps
performance of the whole floor, it should be
8.8.3 Test Conditioning
Special work stations
periodically tested at random points.
It is essential to condition the floor prior to
testing. The floor should be cleaned (see
Section 19.10) at least 24 hours before testing,
and then conditioned for 24 hours at 40-60%
RH and 20-25°C.
Note: The relative humidity and temperature
are only critical for Polyflor Static Dissipative
floorcoverings.
index
Dissipative packaging and sealing
8.8.6 Test Results
Polyflor ESD floorcoverings are manufactured
to specific levels of conductance and are tested,
prior to despatch, in laboratory conditions.
On-site testing not only takes into account the
floorcovering but also the adhesive, the
subfloor and the environment. When installed
Ionisers and humidity controllers
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Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings
application of the wall-cladding.
manufacturer, to the prepared wall surface.
Plaster and plasterboard are ideal substrates.
H. When ready, and working to the vertical line
Note: In order to achieve a Class ‘O’ fire rating
as defined in the UK Building Regulations for
vinyl to walls and ceilings, the substrate
on the wall, apply the vinyl to the line, ensuring
there are no ripples or run-outs.
I. Roll the entire area using a flooring grade hand
should be either bare plaster or plasterboard
roller, from the centre outwards, to exclude air.
composition.
A second rolling will be necessary.
9.2 INSTALLATION
9.3 SUGGESTED INSTALLATION METHOD
A. Prime the areas of plastered wall with a
9.3.1 External angles
primer, as recommended by the adhesive
A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed
manufacturer, and allow to dry completely.
around external corners, it will be necessary to fit
B. Mark the first vertical line on the wall using a
and adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta EFA75’ cornercap
plumb line. Use only pencil for marking the wall
profile to all external corners.
and vinyl.
B. Fit and adhere the EFA75 cornercap profile to
C. Cut the Polyclad to size, allowing a small
all external corners. Use a recommended contact
amount for cutting in.
adhesive to secure the EFA75, and press firmly.
D. Apply a recommended contact adhesive
C. When all the cornercap profile is fixed, apply
150mm wide at the top edge of the wall,
contact adhesive to the surface and to 150mm
adjacent to the ceiling and corresponding to all
either side of the corner edge. Allow to become
pressure points, such as external and internal
touch dry before applying Polyclad.
angles and coved radiuses.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding
E. Prior to placing the vinyl into position, and to
area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go
On receipt of rolls, check that colours
To achieve best results, site conditions should
give extra support, it will be necessary to apply a
touch dry before installing.
correspond to those ordered, that quantities
be as described in BS 8203. A working
recommended contact adhesive to the back of
are correct and that there is no damage.
temperature of between 18°C and 26°C is
the vinyl, approximately 150mm deep at the top
In particular, check that rolls are from one
required for at least 24 hours prior to, and
edge, and corresponding to the pressure points,
batch, if that was requested on the order.
during, the laying period and for 24 hours
such as external and internal angles and coved
On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely
afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying
radiuses. Allow to become touch dry before
secured in an upright position and stored,
areas should be of similar temperature, to
applying Polyclad.
together with the adhesive, at a minimum
prevent thermally induced dimensional changes.
temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours
F. Roll up the vinyl with the face innermost,
9.1 PREPARATION
and with the decoration running either vertically
The wall surface must be smooth, sound,
or horizontally, dependent on the size of roll,
Inflammable adhesives require special storage
clean and dry. All paint, oil, grease, excessive
wall and application preference.
conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer
dust and any other contaminants liable to
or see current literature for details.
impair adhesion must be removed, prior to
before laying.
index
WALL
150mm
POLYCLAD
G. Spread a further coat of recommended
adhesive as directed by the adhesive
Figure 26 EFA75 Cornercap profile
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9.3.2 Internal angles
A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed
around internal corners, it will be necessary to fit
EJECTA
COVE
FORMER
WALL
and adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta’ cove former to all
internal corners.
B. Fit and adhere the cove former to internal
corners and at the junction of the ceiling and top
150mm
of the wall. Use a recommended contact
adhesive,and press firmly. First, fit the mitres in
the corners, and at the junction of the ceiling
and top of the wall. For ease of use, short lengths
of approximately 300mm are recommended.
C. When all corners are completed, fit and
adhere the longer straight lengths, using the
same method. When all the cove former is fixed,
apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove
former and 150mm either side of the corner
edge. Allow to become touch dry before applying
the Polyclad.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding
area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go
touch dry before installing.
Note: Do not attempt to take large pieces of
wall-cladding around corners. The walls may
not be vertical or square, and can cause a
runoff or possible rucking of the vinyl at the
next seam. In these instances, work to 150mm
around the corner.
For information regarding adhesives,
contact Polyflor Customer Technical Services
on +44 (0)161 767 1912.
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POLYCLAD
Figure 27 Ejecta cover former
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POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Installation of Accessories
Always read carefully and observe the
As a guide, adhesive coverage should be
adhesive manufacturer’s instructions. Pay
approximately 5 litres per 100 metres on
particular attention to use of solvent-based
100mm high Ejecta section, dependent upon
adhesives, especially regarding ventilation and
the porosity of the surface and the thickness
possible sources of ignition.
of applied coats.
10.2 MARKING OUT
10.4 ADHERING THE ACCESSORIES
Accurate marking out is essential to minimise
adhesive usage and to prevent excess adhesive
spoiling decorations. Marking out may be done
by a variety of methods including scribers,
force if good adhesion is to be assured. Set-in
height gauges and section templates. All fitting
work must be carried out accurately prior to
afterwards is restricted. Adjustments for length
should always be made on straight joints –
never on mitred sections – unless the length of
the wall does not permit this.
When using sit-on coved skirtings around
external corners, a joint can be avoided by
grooving out some of the material from the
back using an Exacto cutter, and then warming
the coving with a hot air gun. It should be
noted that the toe will be curved rather than
right angled when the coved skirting is
The Polyflor Ejecta ranges of flooring
10.1 PREPARATION
installed.
accessories are PVC extrusions designed for
Ensure that all surfaces are firm, dry and free
10.3 ADHESIVE APPLICATION
use with most vinyl floorcoverings, especially
of dust, grease and oil. Fair faced brickwork or
For use in well ventilated areas where there is
the Polyflor and Polysafe ranges. The Ejecta
blockwork should have a latex skim coat
no risk of ignition of the organic vapours.
range includes set-in coved skirtings, sit-on
applied, as this provides a smooth, firm surface
coved skirtings, cove former, capping strip and
of known porosity which will minimise adhesive
This system is based upon a solution of
polychloroprene rubber in organic solvents.
CT strip as well as the weld rods covered in
usage and improve adhesion. Alternatively,
Section 12.
4mm thick plywood can be cut into appropriate
On arrival at site, the accessories should be
width strips and then nailed to the blockwork
A. If the surface is slightly porous, apply a
checked, stored and conditioned, together with
to provide a smooth surface onto which the
suitable primer and leave to dry for 24 hours.
the adhesive, as described for vinyl flooring.
skirting can be fitted.
B. Then, apply adhesive equally to the section
Note: Inflammable adhesives require special
All painted surfaces must be stripped back and
and to the surface to which it will be attached,
storage conditions. Contact the adhesive
wire brushed to remove all traces of paint.
index
placing it accurately first time. The section
should not be removed or subjected to lateral
application of adhesive, as movement
manufacturer or see current literature for details.
When the adhesive is dry to the touch, press
the section firmly against the other surface,
Application is as follows:
using a flat spreader. Leave until the adhesive is
dry to the touch.
coved skirtings are applied before the floor
finish is laid and sit-on coved skirtings are
applied after the floor finish is laid.
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Inlaid designs and borders
Polyflor Expressions inlaid motifs and border
designs are manufactured under strictly
controlled conditions to produce the
close-fitting pieces which make up the design.
To duplicate the close-fitting on site, it is
important to ensure the design is correctly
11.2 WELDING – WET AREAS
the material into the adhesive that the joint(s)
Where motifs/designs are to be laid into wet
abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a
areas, either an approved epoxy resin or
68kg roller.
polyurethane adhesive should be used, or the
H. Turn back the other half of the length and
motifs/designs welded after consideration of
adhere and roll as before.
the effect on the finished appearance.
11.4 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR
11.3 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR
MOTIFS/DESIGNS WITHOUT A RECTANGULAR
MOTIFS WITH A RECTANGULAR OUTER
OUTER FRAME
FRAME
installation, and at least 24 hours afterwards.
11.1 WELDING – DRY AREAS
Welding is not a standard requirement of
possible to produce an acceptable appearance
and loose lay the main area.
by carefully tracing and cutting around the
B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into
outer edge. The following procedure should be
position on top of the loose laid material and
adopted. For intricate outlines, an outside
secure with masking tape to prevent movement.
rectangular frame should be incorporated.
C. Trace the top and right hand side of the
A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit
rectangular edge frame with a knife and remove
and loose lay the main area.
the motif. Also trace a diagonal line from the
B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into
start point to the finish point, forming a triangle.
position on top of the loose laid material and
Cut through and remove triangle waste.
secure with masking tape to prevent movement.
D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly
C. Turn back the clear adhesive film approximately
to the two newly cut edges. The two remaining
25mm away from the outside edge of the motif
sides can now be traced and cut through.
and carefully trace around half of the motif
Note 1: By cutting in the rectangle in two
shape. Remove the motif and cut a straight line
stages, a tighter joint will result.
from starting point to finishing point.
Cut through and remove this waste half piece.
Note 2: Always trace and cut through in one
direction for best results.
out on the most simple of designs such as
E. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched
squares, circles etc.
trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a
68kg roller.
removed from its packaging and laid on a flat
surface and conditioned, together with the rolls
of vinyl or vinyl tiles and water-based adhesive,
at a temperature of at least 18°C (64°F) for a
minimum of 24 hours prior to and during
index
tape to prevent movement.
E. Carefully trace around the other half of the
motif and cut through.
Where border designs are to be incorporated
The Polyflor Expressions design should be
D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly
to the newly cut edge and secure with masking
Polyflor Expressions and should only be carried
conditioned prior to laying.
Where the motif is a simple outline, it is
A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit
into the floor, consideration as to whether
F. Remove clear film from the face of the motif
welding would affect the definition of the
and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor
border lines, thus affecting the finished
adjustments to the motif should be made whilst
appearance, should be given.
the adhesive is wet.
G. Fold back the main length(s) away from the
motif, and adhere as above. Ensure when placing
Note: Always trace and cut through in one
direction for best results.
F. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched
trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a
68kg roller.
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G. Remove clear film from the face of the motif
adjustments to the border made whilst the
and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor
adhesive is wet. The border can then be rolled.
adjustments to the motif should be made whilst
the adhesive is still wet.
H. Fold back the main length(s) away from the
motif and adhere as above. Ensure when placing
the material into the adhesive that the joint(s)
abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a
68kg roller.
I. Turn back the other half of length and adhere
and roll as before.
Polyflor Expressions designs are maintained in
the same manner as the surrounding Polyflor
vinyl floorcovering. (Full details are given in
Section 19 of this manual).
11.5 INSTALLATION OF BORDERS
A. Measure and mark the subfloor, using chalk
lines to correspond with the required border
positions. Measure the main lengths required to
fit inside the border, allowing approximately
25mm overlap.
B. Lay out the material so that it is overlapping
the inner edge of the border chalk line.
C. Snap the chalk line over the top of the material
to correspond with the inner border lines.
D. Using a knife and straight edge, carefully trace
along the chalk lines and cut and remove the
25mm surplus. The material can now be folded
back and adhered, taking care to retain a
straight line around all outside edges. The area
must then be rolled.
E. The border pieces now require positioning up
to the newly-cut straight edges, and adhering.
The clear film on the face of the border design
should then be removed and any minor
index
F. The outer margin can now be fitted and
adhered to the finished border.
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Welding vinyl flooring
required are dependent upon preferred methods
rub some chalk dust into the surface. Trim the
but as a guide the following are suggested:
top sheet to the scribed line.
2 metre rigid straight edge
12.4 GROOVING THE SEAMS
Straight and hook bladed knives
Strike a chalk line along the overlap. Using a
Grooving tools – manual and powered
utility knife and straight edge, double cut the
Welding equipment – manual and automatic
joint through both layers of material, ensuring
Spatula • Trimming guide
that the knife blade is held squarely to the floor.
Exacto trimming tools • Under scriber
Feed roller • Chalk line
Wire brush • Seam cutters
See also Section 14.
12.3 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
Factory edges should never be butted together
but should be overlapped and cut by one of the
following methods:
12.3.1 Using Seam Cutters
Set the first cutter to the thickness of vinyl
sheet. Using the factory edge as a guide, trim
Prior to welding, some of the material must be
removed from the seam, creating a groove that
will accept the vinyl welding rod. Two shapes of
groove can be cut:
1. A “U” shape – which leaves a semi-circular
groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the
vinyl for 2/3 of its thickness, up to a maximum
of 2mm.
2. A “V” shape – which leaves a 60º triangular
groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the
vinyl for 7/8 of its thickness.
off 6mm along the length. Where it is not
possible to use the seam cutter against the
Note: The ‘V’ shaped groove has proven
wall, or in other areas of restricted access, use
particularly suitable for embossed versions of
a straight edge and straight bladed knife held
Polysafe vinyl sheet floorcovering.
squarely to the floor.
The groove on Acoustic and Sports flooring
should only be cut in the vinyl wear layer. It
Polyflor strongly recommends that all Polyflor
12.1 HEAT WELDING
Set the second cutter to the thickness of vinyl
vinyl sheet and 608mm vinyl tile floorings are
Heat welding of vinyl floorcoverings has been
sheet. Using the edge previously cut on the
should never be cut through to the PVC foam
welded, this includes the internal and external
used successfully for many years and employs
top sheet as a guide, cut through the bottom
backing.
joints when the vinyl sheet is site cove formed.
the technique of heating both the vinyl flooring
sheet. Remove the scrap piece of material.
12.4.1 Manual Grooving
Most specifications make welding mandatory,
and the vinyl welding rod to a sufficient
12.3.2 Using an Under Scriber
since it prevents ingress of dirt and bacteria
temperature to melt and fuse them together.
Prior to overlapping the vinyl sheet, trim off
into seams and provides a floor surface which is
impermeable to water. However, welding will
only aid maintenance of high standards of
hygiene if it is executed correctly.
The procedure is the same for both sheet and
the
tile installation with the exception that the
best done by striking a chalk line, then – using
factory edge on the bottom sheet. This is
edge of the tiles do not require cutting in prior
a utility knife and straight edge – cut through
to grooving.
and remove the scrap piece.
12.2 CORRECT TOOLS
Overlap the top sheet and then trace the
Having the correct tools in good condition is a
bottom edge onto the top sheet with correctly
prerequisite of good heat welding. The tools
set under scribers. To highlight the scribed line,
The guidelines provided below should be
followed carefully, since short cuts taken in
welding create potential problems with seam
failures.
index
Place the centre of the grooving tool over the
centre of the seam. Bring up the straight edge
to touch the side of the cutter, and align the
straight edge, maintaining an even distance
from the seam (Figure 28).
Pulling the tool towards you, groove to the
required depth. Move the straight edge as
required and repeat until the whole seam is
grooved. Sweep well to remove any dust and
trimmings from the groove.
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Prior to commencing welding:
A. Ensure the speedweld attachment is free of
debris by cleaning with a wire brush.
B. Pre-heat the welding gun (setting 3 - 6 on a
variable setting gun), ensuring that the nozzle is
pointing upwards during this pre-heat period.
C. Try out the welding rod on a scrap of material
E. Typically, you would start welding from the
forward and trim off the top layer of welding rod
edge of the room towards the centre. At this
(Figure 31). This can be done whilst the weld is
stage, pull the gun away from the groove and
still warm. Trimming the weld speeds up the
cut off the welding rod. Using a spatula knife,
cooling time.
trim off the excess welding rod and cut a
tapering “V”, approximately 25mm long, into
the existing weld (Figure 30). Commence welding
as before, from the opposite end of the room.
to ensure the temperature is correct and that
Run out the weld into the pre-cut “V” and cut off
fusion is taking place. Adjust accordingly.
the excess welding rod.
Figure 28 Grooving the seam
Figure 30 Weld joins
12.4.2 Powered Grooving
Where Ejecta set-in skirtings are used, the
Set the blade to the correct depth of cut. Align
vertical joints and mitres are not hot welded.
the guides with the cut seam. Press the cutter
See Section 10.
in to the full depth of cut and then push
It is important to ensure a constant rate of
forward following the cut seam. Use hand tools
welding. Moving slowly will “burn” the vinyl
to complete grooves next to walls, skirtings etc.
and moving quickly will not fuse the welding
Sweep well to remove any dust and trimmings
from the groove.
Never use a powered grooving machine with a
standard blade on Polyflor safety vinyl sheet
Figure 29 Applying the weld
vary and detract from the appearance.
correct, you can proceed to weld the joint:
aluminium oxide particles will destroy the blade.
aperture. Starting as close as possible to the end
If wet set adhesive has been used, it is
to ensure that the adhesive has set sufficiently
to prevent it bubbling up when heat is applied.
If bubbling up occurs, it will adversely affect
seam strength.
index
12.6 TRIMMING THE WELD
Prior to commencing, it is advisable to stone or
D. Place the welding rod into the speedweld
important, before commencing heat welding,
rod. The finished width of the weld may also
When you are satisfied that the temperature is
floorcovering. The silicon carbide and
12.5 WELDING THE SEAMS
Figure 31 Trimming off the weld top layer
of the room, press the welding rod down into the
groove with the speedweld attachment, the toe
of which should be parallel to the vinyl surface.
Pull the gun towards you whilst maintaining the
hone the trimming spatula knife on one side
only. This keen edge will make trimming easier
and minimise the risk of “digging in”. Trimming
of the weld must be carried out in two stages.
Failure to follow this procedure will result in
dished welds which are prone to dirt pickup.
downward pressure (Figure 29). Ensure the gun
is kept square to the floor. With your spare hand,
A. Place the trimming guide over the welding
alternately check the weld security and that the
rod. Insert the spatula knife into the two lugs
welding rod is feeding freely.
with the honed edge uppermost. Push the knife
Figure 32 Final trim after the weld has cooled
POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION
B. When the remaining weld has cooled to room
temperature, the excess weld should be trimmed.
The spatula knife, again honed edge uppermost,
is used without the trimming guide. Keep as
shallow an angle as possible between blade and
floor to avoid the risk of “digging in” (Figure 32).
Note: Polyflor foam backed vinyl sheet flooring
is liable to compression and sometimes, even
after the final trim, the weld is proud of the
floor. In this case, use an Exacto cutter with a
large circular blade to scrape away any high
spots.
12.7 GLAZING THE WELD
Should a glazed finish be required this can be
achieved with the speedweld attachment
removed but still on the same heat setting,
play the gun nozzle over the trimmed weld.
Repeat over the whole length of the weld,
keeping the gun moving constantly to prevent
burning.
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POLYFLOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION
72 hour period, as described in BS 8203.
Adhesives
the adhesive manufacturer should be assessed
must, in all cases, be followed. Only adhesives
and precautions taken as directed in the
recommended by the Polyflor Technical
Control Of Substances Hazardous To Health
would not prove satisfactory. Correct handling
The Health And Safety At Work Act 1974 should
be observed and, if applicable, The Highly
index
This will remove any adhesive ridges prior to
together with the majority of the adhesive, and
the adhesive setting, whilst maintaining the
the resulting surface should be free from dust,
correct adhesive spread rate on the substrate.
Polyflor does not recommend any method of
adhesive application, such as spraying, which
smoothing underlayment, at least 3mm thick,
instructions of the adhesive manufacturer
of adhesives is recommended at all times.
adhesive roller immediately after spreading.
floorcoverings should be completely removed,
cannot guarantee the spread rate.
Gases Regulations. Any hazards indicated by
warranties regarding the approved adhesives,
provide sufficient porosity. Existing
In most instances, it is beneficial to apply a
guidance. The recommendations and
or assume that other manufacturers’ adhesives
Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives should be
rolled with a previously wetted, short pile
contamination that may hinder adhesion.
Flammable Liquid And Liquefied Petroleum
Department and are approved as suitable,
Smooth, dense surfaces such as power floated
concrete should be mechanically treated to
grease, paint, plaster or any other
The following information is provided for
should be used. Polyflor does not make any
to suit the adhesive and the application.
to smooth out any local irregularities, nullify
13.4 OPEN TIME OF ADHESIVES
the effects of any adhesive residue and provide
Open times, as recommended by the relevant
a surface of known porosity.
manufacturer must be observed at all times.
To achieve a sound bond between the
Do not spread more adhesive than can be laid
floorcovering material and the substrate,
into during the open time of the adhesive.
it is essential that these recommendations are
Unlike wet set adhesives, pressure-sensitive
followed.
adhesives must have all the moisture
13.2 PRIMING THE SUBFLOOR
evaporated from them prior to the application
On porous sand/cement, concrete and all
of the floorcovering. The colour changes from
timber subfloors, it is essential that a primer be
opaque to translucent, which provides a
used. The use of a primer ensures an even
positive indication of when the adhesive is
porosity, minimises the amount of adhesive
ready to be laid into. Good ventilation and air
used and provides a longer open time of the
flow will help speed up the drying time on
adhesive. The primer used should be
these adhesives. It may be necessary to use an
compatible with the subfloor and the adhesive,
electric fan(s) to speed up the drying time.
and be as recommended by the adhesive
13.5 REMOVING EXCESS ADHESIVE
manufacturer.
As good working practice, excess adhesive
legislation.
13.3 APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE
should be removed as work progresses.
It is strongly recommended that all adhesives
Wet, water-based adhesives are easily removed
13.1 INITIAL PREPARATION
are conditioned at a minimum temperature of
with a clean, damp cloth. Dried water-based
Prior to the application of the floorcovering,
it should be ensured that the substrate is
sound, dry and free from dust. The relative
humidity of solid, cementicious subfloors
should be at a maximum of 75% relative
humidity when measured over at least a
18°C for at least 24 hours prior to, and then
adhesives and solvent-based adhesives should
during, the laying period. The adhesive must be
be removed with a minimum amount of solvent
applied using a notched trowel of the correct
cleanser, as recommended by the adhesive
size notch, which must be maintained during
manufacturer. Excessive use of these cleansers
the adhesive application stage. The adhesive
can cause discolouration and softening of the
manufacturer provides details of the notch size
vinyl surface.
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13.6 ROLLING THE FLOOR
conditions and the in-use conditions all affect
Once the floorcovering has been laid, the
the selection.
material should be rolled immediately with a
68kg articulated floor roller, working initially in
the widthways direction, if it is sheet material.
This rolling ensures good contact between the
substrate, adhesive and floorcovering, expels
any trapped air, and flattens the adhesive
ridges to prevent shadow through once the
floor becomes trafficked.
The floorcovering should be rolled again, one
to four hours later, to ensure the contact
between the materials is maintained.
13.7 PROTECTION FROM RADIATED HEAT
SOURCES
The Polysafe range of floorcoverings is often
used in situations where excessive heat causes
problems with the floorcovering and the
adhesive. It is impractical to give specific
details, as equipment such as ovens and kilns
vary in design and height above the flooring
material.
Where the conditions may cause a problem, we
would recommend the use of metal oven trays
that deflect the heat away from the floor, and
an adhesive suitable for these conditions, such
as an epoxy or polyurethane. If you are unsure,
we recommend that you discuss the
application with our Customer Technical
Services team.
13.8 APPROVED ADHESIVES
There are many different types of adhesive
available in the marketplace, and the suitability
for use with the range of Polyflor products
depends upon a number of factors.
The formulation of the adhesive, the
formulation of the floorcovering, the site
index
The Technical Department of Polyflor checks
the compatibility between the adhesive and the
floorcoverings. The current list of approved
adhesives for the full range of Polyflor
products is available, on request, from the
Customer Technical Services Department of
Polyflor, their distributors or approved agents.
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14.3 HEAT WELDING
Tools and Equipment
Grooving tools
Hot welding gun
Spatula trimming knife
Speedweld nozzle
Trimming guide
Oilstone
14.4 PREPARATION
Long handled broom
Hand brush
Dust pan
Hygrometer
Screeding trowel
Grind stone
Electric drill (slow speed) and rotary paddle
14.5 MISCELLANEOUS
Claw hammer
Screwdriver
Hacksaw
Handsaw
Electric drill
Various twist drills
Powered groover
Mastic gun
14.6 SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Knee pads
Safety goggles
Face mask
Circuit breaker
14.7 OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT
The following equipment is not essential but
As in all trades, a skilled floor layer should have
at his disposal a basic set of tools that should
14.1 MARKING OUT & FITTING
larger installations.
Rule
Chalk line and chalk
Powered stripper
be clean and in good condition.
Bar or long scriber
Transformer
Recess scriber
Tape Measure
Automatic welding machine
The specific choice of tools is dependent upon
the individual floor layer’s preferences, the size
will greatly assist the floor layer, especially on
Dividers or short scribers Straight edge
of installation and the amount of preparation
Pencil and compass
required.
Various trimming knives
The following tools should be considered as
14.2 INSTALLATION
Powered groover
Floor grinder
Vacuum cleaner
Extension lead
Pencils
14.8 SPECIALIST TOOLS
In addition to the basic tools, there is a range
part of the basic kit for the operations
Adhesive trowels
Triangular file
68kg articulated roller
Hand roller
of specialist tools which are designed for
indicated.
specific tasks such as coving, feature work,
walls and repairs. Some of the more common
tools are listed, together with a brief description of their usage.
index
Hot air welding gun
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Heat gun
Feed Roller
Spatula trimming knife and cable cutting slide
Adhesive trowel
Hydro weld trimmer
Spiked roller
Hand Groover
Recess scriber
Knife
Box Scriber
Exacto tool
Straight edge
index
Hand roller
Cold weld tape cutter
15
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Recommended finishes
beams, columns and walls (to make leak
watertight security which is essential where
detection easier). Obviously, they should be
hygiene and safety are of primary importance.
close to the main spillage sources, when direct
outlets from spillage sources are not possible.
The floor gradient into the drain depends on
These clamping rings ensure that the Polysafe
floorcovering is held securely in position and
they prevent the ingress of water that could
the process, traffic volume and the surface
adversely affect the adhesion at this critical
texture of the floorcovering. The drains used
point.
should be built to permit examination, cleaning
and repair without these operations causing
damage to the floor.
15.1.2 Drainage channels and gulleys
Again, only drainage channels and gulleys
which incorporate vinyl clamping and locking
systems into their design should be considered.
15.2 CONSTRUCTION JOINT COVERS
Correct treatment at expansion joints is also
essential if the floor is going to last and perform
in a safe and hygienic manner. We recommend
that expansion joints are covered using either
a PVC expansion joint cover, or a cover with a
PVC insert, so that the flooring can be
thermally welded to the cover (Figure 35).
Figure 33 Stainless steel drain prior to fitting vinyl
clamping ring
There are no short cuts to optimum
They make up only a small proportion of the
performance with the installation of any
total floor, yet they often make up most of an
flooring. That is why an overview should be
architect’s snag list.
taken of each project so that the finishing
details are considered right from the start of
the project. It also means that all parties are
aware of their individual areas of responsibility.
There is no question that the final details
A Polyflor installation must focus on these
important details and also take into account all
Figure 35 Expansion joint cover
aspects of the location. We believe that the
On no account must the Polyflor or Polysafe
floor must not only look good, but also perform
be taken straight over the expansion joint.
well, so that it is impermeable, hygienic and
Figure 34 Drain with clamping ring in place
contribute so much to an impressive finish for
the floor. These include relatively minor details
such as awkward corners, internal or external
mitres, the junction where different
floorcoverings meet and finishing details
around drains and other accessories.
index
safe.
15.1 DRAINAGE
The location of drains is important. As far as
possible, they should be away from sources of
vibration (to reduce movement) and from
15.1.1 Shower Drains
This will lead to failure.
15.3 EDGE TRIMS
Only drains which have been specifically
In many of the areas where Polyflor is installed,
designed for use with sheet vinyl floorings
other types of floorcovering will also be used.
should be considered. Most of these drains
The junction between the Polyflor flooring and
have clamping rings, which ensure the
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these other types of floorcovering is a
clamped into place. Both these solutions result
coved skirting is used which can be welded to
15.7 SIT-ON SKIRTINGS
potential weak point, if not treated properly.
in a watertight, hygienic and safe joint.
the Polyflor vinyl flooring.
Sit-on skirting (Figure 39) generally tend only
15.6 SKIRTINGS AND OTHER FINISHES
15.6.1 Site coving
Correct installation minimises problems such
as water leakage and trip hazard.
15.3.1 Polyflor or Polysafe with ceramic or
quarry floor tiles
In installations where the edge of the vinyl
comes into contact with ceramic or quarry
Polyflor supplies a wide range of PVC profiles
For the junction between site-coved Polyflor
which are ideal for use with the Polyflor range
vinyl flooring and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor
of products. In most installations, we would
Ejecta CT strip (Figure 36 and 37) provides the
recommend that the Polyflor vinyl flooring is
ideal solution.
either site-coved up the wall, or a “set in”
The flexible section is designed to accept
ceramic wall tiles on one side and the various
achieved at the junction. Aluminium edge trims
gauges of Polyflor on the other.
floor; it is not welded. If requested suitable
the skirting.
15.6.2 Set-in coved skirtings
They facilitate installation and the PVC insert
Where it is impractical or where it is not cost
allows for a welded joint between the edge trim
effective to use the site-coved method of
and the Polyflor floorcovering.
installation, the Polyflor Ejecta set-in skirting
15.4 POLYFLOR WITH CARPET
(Figure 38) is a viable alternative. Very similar
It is important that the junction between
to the sit-on type skirting in appearance,
Polyflor and carpet is clearly visible and that
the set in skirting has a 50mm toe which is
any trip hazard is minimised by using edging
adhered to the subfloor and allows the main
strips. A variety of edging strips are available
field of sheet vinyl to be welded to it.
for this junction. The relevant manufacturers
room. The sit-on skirting is adhered to the walls
and the toe of the skirting sits on top of the
mastic sealant can be used beneath the toe of
tiles, it is important that a watertight joint is
with PVC inserts are ideal for this purpose.
to be used in conjunction with tiled floors to
provide a finish around the perimeter of the
Figure 36 Polyflor Ejecta CT Strip
can supply further advice on installation and
use of these types of trims.
15.4.1 Bevelled and diminishing strips
Bevelled or diminishing strips should be used
at all exposed edges of Polyflor vinyl floorings
Figure 39 Sit-on coved skirting
to minimise trip hazards.
15.8 MASTIC SEALANT FINISH
The bevelled strip should be butted tightly to
When specified suitable silicon mastics can be
the exposed edge of the Polyflor vinyl flooring.
used as a finish around the perimeter of a
The bevelled strip should be fixed using a
room. This is provided a water tight finish is
contact adhesive and the joint may be
not required and all parties are in agreement
thermally welded.
as to this type of finish.
15.5 ACCESS AND MANHOLE COVERS
It is important that access covers are used
which facilitate either the welding of the
Figure 38 Set-in coved skirting
Polyflor vinyl flooring to the cover and frame
or where the Polyflor vinyl flooring can be
index
Figure 37 Polyflor Ejecta CT Strip
16
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Resistance to chemicals
request. These charts show the resistance to a
where spillage is infrequent. Occasional,
range of specific chemicals by shade for each
accidental spillages, which are removed
Polyflor product, and will prove helpful in
immediately, do not normally damage the
selecting colours which are least affected by
flooring. A comprehensive guide to chemical
specific chemicals.
effects and staining by product shade is
Note: Polyflor test for resistance to chemicals
available on request.
is evaluated over a 24 hour contact period at
16.3 REACTION TO RUBBER
a room temperature of 21ºC, followed by
Antioxidants used in the manufacture of
rinsing with cold water. Polyflor believes this
rubber can cause staining. Non-rubber traffic
simulates the worst situation where spillages
mats are recommended, as are tyre trays for
are not removed immediately and are only
car showrooms, etc. Using black or dark brown
cleaned by normal maintenance. Some stains
floorcoverings will not prevent staining but will
can be removed by abrading with a nylon pad
disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also be
during maintenance. A metallised emulsion
specified for appliance feet, trolley wheels etc.
floor polish can be used as a sacrificial layer
16.4 ALCO-BASED HAND GELS
for protecting the floor against staining.
Polyflor homogeneous PUR, heterogeneous
16.2 POLYFLOR RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS
PUR and Polysafe safety flooring ranges are
Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings have average
compatible for use with the most commonly
resistance to mild and dilute acids, alkalis, soaps
used alco-based hand gels.
and detergents. Prolonged exposure to petrol,
Some alco-based hand gels contain a high
oils, greases and fats will cause softening and
concentration of ethanol and to discuss their
swelling. Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings are
compatibility with other Polyflor floorcoverings,
unsuitable for garage workshops or food
contact Customer Technical Services.
preparation areas, but are suitable for areas
ORGANIC LIQUIDS
EFFECT
ACTION
Aldehydes
Esters
Halogenated hydrocarbons
Ketones
Flooring attack occurs after
several minutes.
Wipe up immediately.
Alcohols
Ethers
Glycols
Hydrocarbons (aromatic & aliphatic)
Petroleum spirit
Vegetable oil
After several days, plasticiser
extraction occurs, with associated
problems of shrinkage and
embrittlement.
Wipe up immediately.
selected to minimise the staining effect.
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
EFFECT
ACTION
into contact with Polyflor vinyl flooring.
The following tables summarise the general
Mild acids and alkalis
No effect.
However, if this should happen, the effect can
chemical resistance of Polyflor vinyl flooring
Strong alkalis
Dilute and remove.
be minimised by removing the spillage
(see footnote for brief description of test
Will strip polish and may
cause discolouration in some shades.
procedure). Where specific chemicals are used
Strong acids
immediately and leaving any solvent residue to
Prolonged contact can
cause discolouration.
Dilute and remove
immediately.
Dyes (indicators)
Contact can cause discolouration.
Dilute and remove
immediately.
16.1 POLYFLOR VINYL FLOORING
use in all areas where most chemicals are used
Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl floorcoverings show
and there is only risk of accidental spillage.
an above average resistance to mild and dilute
However, some chemicals contain very strong
acids, alkalis, soaps and detergents. Petrol and
dyes, which, even after a short period of
strong acids are not harmful, provided any
contact, will stain the vinyl flooring. In areas
spillage is cleaned off immediately.
where these types of chemicals are used, it is
Ketones, chlorinated solvents, acetone and
similar solvents should not be allowed to come
evaporate, prior to allowing any foot traffic.
suggested that an appropriate dark colour be
– for instance in a photographic laboratory – a
set of chemical resistance charts is available on
Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings are suitable for
index
17
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Use area classifications
CLASS
21
22
23
31
32
33
34
Selecting a floorcovering that will satisfy the
So in order to help the end user and/or the
actual or expected service requirements is
building designer make an informed choice, the
essential if a product is to perform up to the
majority of Polyflor products now show the
end user’s expectations. With so much product
European use area classifications and the
information now available, it is hardly surprising
Agrément ratings. The Use Area Classifications
that selection can sometimes be difficult.
41
42
43
can only be claimed if the products meet the
SYMBOL
A
B
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
LEVEL OF USE
DESCRIPTION
domestic
areas considered for
residential use
Moderate
Areas with low or intermittent use
General
Areas with medium use
Heavy
Areas with intense use
commercial
areas considered for
public and commercial use
Moderate
Areas with low or intermittent use
General
Areas with medium traffic
Heavy
Areas with heavy traffic
Very Heavy
Areas with intense use
industrial
areas considered for
light industrial use
Moderate
Areas where work is mainly sedentary with
occasional use of light vehicles
General
Areas where work is mainly standing and/or
with vehicular traffic
Heavy
Other light industrial areas
Use area classification table
Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings, for example, are
manufactured in a range of thicknesses, with
differing levels of filler and constructions, to
suit a variety of applications. In addition, some
vinyl floorings have specialist features such as
acoustical, static control or slip-resisting
properties. These are the variables from
just one manufacturer!
index
requirements of the performance criteria that
products. A general guide to both systems
varies and some applications may require a
follows:
higher rated product.
assessment bodies and only after an
17.1 EUROPEAN CLASSIFICATION EN 685
The European system has three specific use
independent assessment of the product, both
This European Norm describes the various
categories, with sub-divisions based on type
in laboratory conditions and on-site use.
levels of use area, the relevant icons and typical
and intensity of traffic (see the above chart.)
have been laid down. The Agrément rating is
awarded by one of the national Agrément
A basic understanding of both systems is
useful when making decisions on suitability of
applications. These typical applications may
Individual EN product specifications detail the
vary from country to country as room usage
performance and physical criteria that a
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product must meet to achieve the classification
useful. The revision, carried out in conjunction
– and products can meet the criteria of all
with the European floorcovering manufacturers,
local national body that can provide this
These groups were chosen with reference to
three groups. When a higher classification
made the overall scheme simpler. As all vinyl
information.
the already well established Agrément system,
number is claimed, the product will meet all the
floorcoverings achieved a C2 rating when
requirements of the lower classes in that
tested, it was felt unnecessary to include this
group.
and the new system concentrated on the U, P
and E ratings.
The individual EN product specifications allow
for products of different filler levels and
17.3 EUROPEAN NORMS
European Norms – or “EN”s – are aimed at
harmonising industry standards throughout
the European Union and EFTA countries, and
The new scheme was termed the GWS system,
abrasion resistance and define minimum overall
their overseas agents for the address of the
with G being the general classification ranging
and wear layer thickness for each classification.
from 1 to 5 and being a combination of the
Homogeneous products, being 100% wear
previous U and P ratings. W indicates that the
layer, are classified using the minimum wear
product can tolerate wet cleaning but not
layer thickness and the overall thickness.
standing water. WS indicates the product can
Compared to an heterogeneous product of the
tolerate standing water by having the joints
same classification which would give a typical
welded. The W and S replace the previous
life expectancy of 10 years, a ‘P’ abrasion group
E rating.
have now replaced the old British Standards
relating to floorcoverings.
The standards are:
The ratings are expressed as T,P, M and F.
and relate to the idea of a notional 10-year life
expectancy in a given use area. The initials
come from the French: Transparent, Pas or Peu
chargé, Moyen chargé and Fortement chargé,
and basically relate to the amount of filler
(chargé) used in a formulation.
EN 649 defines the performance criteria which
products must meet in order to claim Use Area
EN 649 covering homogeneous and
Classification under EN 685, as discussed in
heterogeneous vinyls, and replacing
BS 3261A.
EN 650 covering jute or polyester backed
vinyls.
homogenous product has twice as much useful
G1 is equivalent to U2 P2
The Agrément system, which originated in
G3 is equivalent to U3 P2
France, has been in use for many years.
G4 is equivalent to U3 P3
heterogeneous vinyls on PVC foam,
EN 652 covering vinyl flooring with a cork
based backing.
EN 653 covering expanded PVC flooring such
as cushion vinyls.
The ratings were based on four key physical
G5 is equivalent to U4 P3
properties. The results which the product
EN 651 covering homogeneous and
and replacing BS 5085.
G2 is equivalent to U2+P2
17.2 AGRÉMENT SYSTEM
EN 654 covering semi-flexible PVC tiles,
achieved against a test criteria in each
No W rating is equivalent to E1
category gave it the overall rating. (The higher
W rating is equivalent to E2
and replacing BS 3260.
EN 655 for PVC tiles with a base of
agglomerated cork and a PVC
the number, the better the performance.)
WS rating is equivalent to E3
wear layer.
The overall performance was then quoted as a
The Agrément bodies produce a comprehensive
The relevant ENs which apply to Polyflor vinyl
UPEC rating and this system is still recognised
listing of typical use areas, which are too
floorcoverings are 649, 651 and 654.
today in France. In 1987, the scheme for
numerous to list here, together with the
floorcoverings was revised, but still retained
product rating required. Contact Polyflor or
the basic concepts that made the scheme so
PROPERTY
Wear
Penetration
Water resistance
Chemical resistance
index
In addition to the vinyl specification,
specifications for rubber flooring have now
been published. They are:
A comparison of both ratings is as follows:
life and as such the life expectancy would be
20 years in a class 34/43 use area.
Section 17.1.
Under EN 649, products are given an abrasion
group rating. There are two test methods
(FRENCH TERM)
SY M B O L
RANGE
(Unsure)
U
1-4
(Poinçonnements)
P
1-4
(Eau)
E
1-3
(Chimique)
C
1-3
accepted for abrasion which have an
established correlation; EN 660 Parts 1 and 2.
Either can be used to establish the abrasion
category.
EN 1817 Homogeneous and heterogeneous
rubber flooring.
EN 1816 Homogeneous and heterogeneous
rubber flooring with foam backing.
EN 12199 Homogeneous and heterogeneous
relief rubber flooring.
18
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temperature caused by short-term contact with
Operating service temperature
hot water and steam. Long-term or regular
bond strength, which is normally three days.
contact should be avoided. Where there is a
To ensure the best results, shade all windows,
possibility of regular contact with liquid gases,
turn off any underfloor heating, provide
which are extremely cold, the constant
background heating at 18°C and select an
expansion and contraction of the vinyl may
epoxy or polyurethane grade adhesive.
cause premature failure. In these instances,
Condition the tiles correctly prior to
it can be beneficial to have a second piece of
installation. Polyflor will not accept
vinyl loose laid on top of the floor, to protect it.
responsibility for any expansion or shrinkage
Should this become damaged, it can be easily
problems, which may result from changes in
and economically replaced.
temperature during the period when the
18.1 UNDERFLOOR HEATING
All the Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl product
ranges can be installed over underfloor
heating. In installations where underfloor
heating is used, this should be switched off
from 48 hours prior to installation until
48 hours afterwards. It should then be slowly
brought back up to the working temperature, a
maximum of 27°C. Adhesives capable of
withstanding temperatures up to 27°C should
be used.
Please note: It is recommended that
underfloor heating systems are commissioned
The full range of Polyflor and Polysafe sheet
It is important that the materials be
prior to the flooring being installed to ensure
vinyl floorcoverings can be used under a wide
conditioned and installed at normal room
the heating system is operating correctly.
range of service temperatures.
temperatures: 18°C (65°F). The material should
The above installation procedure should then
be fully adhered to the substrate, taking care to
be followed.
Maximum upper temperature 60°C (140°F)
ensure that there are no unsupported voids
Minimum lower temperature -20°C (-4°F)
beneath the vinyl. In these types of installation,
Use in such extreme conditions is dependent
and where site coving is specifıed, then a pencil
upon the correct selection of adhesive.
cove should be used, and not one with a cove
Guidance should be sought from the adhesive
former. All joints should be hot welded 24
manufacturer for approval of the adhesive at
hours after installation and before the
the expected temperatures. Typically, an
installation is taken to the service temperature.
approved two-part epoxy or polyurethane
adhesive should be used in the main field, and
a contact adhesive for vertical applications.
index
period and until the adhesive reaches its full
18.2 AREAS SUBJECTED TO PROLONGED
SUNLIGHT
Large, sun-facing windows (especially where
under-floor heating is in use) and
conservatories can experience problems due to
high daytime temperatures and low night-time
temperatures. In these instances, it is necessary
Both Polyflor and Polysafe ranges can
to ensure that an even day and night
withstand occasional sudden changes in
temperature is maintained during the laying
adhesive is reaching full bond strength.
All Polyflor floor coverings are designed for
internal usage only. We cannot guarantee the
performance of any of our floor coverings in
external environments.
19
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Maintenance
To others, it is someone who comes in three
approach is the best solution for all types of
evenings a week to dust and mop the floors.
floorcoverings.
In each case, the requirement for cleanliness
and gloss can be completely different.
It is this variability in what is considered normal
that makes it impracticable in this manual to
These include floor location, type and quantity
of traffic, and the existence or otherwise of dirt
specific end user locations. The instructions
barriers. Armed with this information, a
given are intended to be used as a guide.
solution which gives real savings without
They are based on general experience using
affecting the floor’s appearance, hygiene or
established methods and cleaning materials.
cleanliness can be developed.
Polyflor recommends that the instructions
become established, the frequency is tailored
to suit.
19.1.3 Tailored Maintenance
Reducing maintenance costs is not difficult;
what takes much more skill is reducing these
costs without cutting the effectiveness of the
maintenance system. By tailoring a
maintenance programme, real savings can be
made without compromising standards of
appearance, hygiene and cleanliness.
which, if left uncontrolled, would shorten the
19.1.1 Why is floorcare necessary?
life of a floorcovering, causing premature
Floorcoverings are selected for many reasons
replacement. Regular and well planned
including their colour, design and sometimes
maintenance keeps the floorcovering in
specialist properties such as static control or
pristine condition and can enhance the original
slip resistance. Without regular maintenance,
dust and soiling would soon build up, making
We begin by looking at the many variables
which have a part to play in maintenance.
give precise maintenance instructions to suit
are followed initially and, as traffic patterns
19.1 INTRODUCTION TO MAINTENANCE
19.1.4 The Polyflor in-depth approach
19.2 POINTS TO CONSIDER
Before establishing a maintenance programme,
there are some points which should be
considered, as they can affect the method and
frequency – and hence the cost – of maintenance.
19.2.1 Dirt Barrier Systems
Evidence from a wide range of studies indicates
that up to 80% of all dirt, grit and moisture is
carried into a building by the people using it.
One of the easiest ways to reduce maintenance
costs must therefore be to reduce the amount
of dirt, grit and moisture they bring in. Not only
A tailored maintenance programme is simple to
would this cut the cost of its removal, but it
apply, with the effort (and thus the cost),
would also cause less abrasive action on the
concentrated where each location demands.
floorcovering, which in turn would ensure a
This produces definite savings and considerable
longer useful life. With less moisture, there
return on a floorcovering investment.
would also be less potential for slipping.
appearance. Maintenance can also reduce wear
Certain Polyflor ranges benefit from enhanced
Unfortunately, notices asking people to
and ultimately improve the life expectancy of
formulations in relation to maintenance.
thoroughly wipe their feet rarely work. What is
needed is an effective “passive” dirt barrier
the colour and design indistinguishable and the
the floorcovering.
The PUR or Supratec PUR families provide long
specialist properties practically useless. Dirt
19.1.2 What is maintenance?
and soiling can also harbour bacteria, making
Maintenance means many things to many
the floorcovering a health hazard e.g. in
people. To some, it is an army of operatives
hospitals or food processing areas. Dust and
using modern powered machines working to a
grit underfoot can also act as an abrasive,
comprehensive maintenance programme.
index
term maintenance benefits. The PU family
system. At first, these systems can seem
facilitates a reduction in the intensity of the
expensive but the savings they provide over
construction clean and provides the foundation
the long term are substantial.
for the ongoing maintenance regime.
In our experience, a tailored maintenance
An effective dirt barrier system has both
scraping and absorbing qualities and is
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standards of appearance, hygiene and
from that where soft soled trainers or pumps are
Smooth products without PUR or PU
both feet during normal walking – hence
cleanliness. The first part of this process is to
used in the school sports hall.
“passive”. Dirt barrier systems should be
break down areas to be cleaned into a series of
TYPE OF CLEANING EQUIPMENT
Polysafe products with Supratec PUR enhanced
formulation
considered early in the specification stage.
independent locations. Each location should
Manual methods can be time consuming in large
They should not be an afterthought, when
then be assessed before a particular
areas and may be incompatible with the
there are rarely sufficient funds or space to do
maintenance regime is employed.
frequency requirement. However, large machines
This should provide a clear indication as to
used in confined spaces can take longer than
where the effort and therefore the cost should
manual methods.
The general maintenance procedures are listed
COLOUR OF FLOORCOVERING
in the subsequent pages. We also provide hard
sufficiently large to perform these actions on
the job properly.
19.2.2 The Ideal Dirt Barrier
best be applied.
These assessments should be reviewed
periodically, to ensure that standards are to the
level expected by the client and that cost
Polysafe products without Supratec PUR
ESD ranges where no polish should be applied
Rubber floorcoverings
In general, light colours show soiling more easily,
copies (on request) or electronic copies
dark colours show loss of gloss more easily.
(through the web site) of individual floorcare
Mid range colours will give a balance between
procedures, to guide the end user or
the two extremes.
maintenance staff.
PREVAILING WEATHER
19.5 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYLS WITH PUR
In icy conditions, grit and salt are sometimes
The Polyflor PUR family of products
savings are being achieved wherever this is
Figure 40 An exterior scraper mat at least two paces
wide, set into a matwell. The choice of materials is
varied. Clearance should be sufficient to allow grit
and debris to fall below. Also allowances must be made
for the wearers of various types of shoes
e.g. stiletto heels.
possible.
19.3.1 Points to consider
used outside building entrances. In dry
incorporates a polyurethane reinforcement,
The assessment should consider the following
conditions, dust and sand can also be found
which protects the floorcovering by resisting
points:
outside buildings. In both instances, soiling and
soiling and scuffing. Combined with the superior
LOCATION
abrasion can be accelerated if effective measures
closed surface finish, this enhanced protection
Position of the location in the building. Entrance
are not taken to prevent them being trafficked
areas and receptions will require more intensive,
into the building.
allows the use of a polish-free maintenance
regime. This protection ensures that the
frequent cleaning than upper floor, low
19.3.2 The Assessment should establish the
intensity of the maintenance and overall
circulation corridors.
following:
cleaning costs are significantly reduced.
SOILING
1. The type of cleaning needed
The following maintenance instructions are
Type of soiling which is likely to be found in the
2. The frequency of cleaning
designed to maximise the benefits of the PUR,
particles. This can also be set into a matwell. Again, the
location. Dirt and grit from an outside car park
3. The cleaning products and equipment needed
choice of materials is wide and often the barrier will be a
will require a different treatment from chemical
composite of several materials.
spillage in a laboratory.
Figure 41 An interior grade combination scraper/
moisture mat of two to three metres in length. This will
remove the majority of moisture and any fine abrasive
Note: To maintain the effectiveness of dirt
barrier systems, they must be cleaned
regularly, otherwise they can actually increase
the soil intake by creating a “soil reservoir” at
the entrance to the building.
19.3 ASSESSING THE LOCATION
As mentioned earlier, by tailoring the
savings can be made without compromising
index
your floorcovering.
5. The time to be allocated
CLIENT EXPECTATIONS
The expectation of the client for that particular
location plays an important part. Obviously, if a
high shine is required, the maintenance regime
must be able to provide this.
TRAFFIC
Traffic types, density and frequency in the given
maintenance programme, real and achievable
4. The level of labour required
resulting in lower maintenance costs, without
compromising the long-term appearance of
location. The type of footwear used by children in
school corridors provides a different situation
19.4 INDIVIDUAL PRODUCT MAINTENANCE
PROCEDURES
19.5.1 Initial construction clean
A. Remove all loose debris.
As the Polyflor product portfolio has developed,
B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed
the maintenance procedures have become
from the surface of the floorcovering.
specific to generic types which are:
Smooth products with PUR (polyurethane
reinforcement)
Smooth products with PU (polyurethane
surface treatment)
C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit.
D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent.
E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus
rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
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19.5.2 Routine maintenance
5. These maintenance instructions are intended
The following recommendations are provided
for the PUR family of floorcoverings, which have
as a guideline, and the frequency can be
a polyurethane reinforcement.
changed to optimise the appearance.
For other Polyflor products, reference should be
made to the relevant section or to their specific
DAILY
Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose
dirt. If required, spot mop to remove stubborn
marks, with a neutral cleanser.
WEEKLY
Assess the appearance of the floor.
Undertake the following as required:
Light scuffing – dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus
rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
floorcare sheets.
E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus
rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
However where there is no mechanical means of
maintaining the floor, an emulsion floor polish
should be applied. Details of the procedure to be
used can be found under the Standard Vinyl with
Heavier scuffing – spray clean using a floor
7. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
maintainer and 1000 rpm plus rotary machine
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
fitted with a suitable clean pad.
occasional heavy cleaning.
19.5.3 Periodic Maintenance
19.6 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL WITH PU
The following recommendations are provided
changed to optimise the appearance.
has dirt build–up, machine scrub with a scrubber
dryer (approx. 165 rpm) fitted with a suitable
clean pad, using a neutral or alkaline detergent,
as appropriate.
Polyflor smooth vinyl ‘PU’ floorcoverings
incorporate a polyurethane surface treatment,
which protects the floorcovering by resisting
soiling and scuffing. This protection facilitates
a reduction in the intensity of the construction
clean and provides the foundation for the
B. Rinse thoroughly and allow to dry.
ongoing maintenance regime. This easier
C. Dry buff to restore finish.
cleanability offers maintenance cost savings
19.5.4 Additional Information:
when compared with non-treated materials.
1. The maintenance regime requires the
The following maintenance instructions are
installation of an effective barrier matting system.
designed to minimise the cost factor, without
2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as
DAILY
3. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
dirt. If required, spot clean to remove stubborn
marks with a neutral cleanser. If required, dry
buff to restore finish.
WEEKLY/MONTHLY
Assess the appearance of the floor. If required,
scrub with a scrubber dryer fitted with suitable
pads, and using neutral cleanser (pH 7 to 9).
provided.
4. Fit protective feet to table and chair legs, to
prevent scratching.
index
19.6.3 Application of a floor dressing
In order to minimise costs, subsequent polish
applications may be applied only to traffic
paths.
Periodically – generally every six months –
assess the appearance of the floor. If there is
an unacceptable build-up of polish, this should
be stripped and reapplied, as per the
instructions above.
19.6.4 Additional Information:
1. The maintenance regime requires the installation
provide initial protection for the floorcovering.
of an effective barrier matting system.
However, an application of a metallised polish
2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as
may be required eventually to provide extra
per the manufacturers’ instructions.
protection. The level and intensity of traffic and
soiling will determine how soon the polish will
3. These maintenance instructions are intended
have to be applied. For polish free maintenance,
for the Polyflor ‘PU’ family, which incorporates a
see the Polyflor PUR range of products.
polyurethane surface treatment. For other
For polish application, please follow details of
Polyflor products, reference should be made to
the procedure below.
the relevant section or to their specific floorcare
sheets.
your floorcovering.
with wringer and bucket, the first coat should be
applied thinly and evenly across the floor, to
A. Remove all loose debris.
assessments for the particular location.
The Polyurethane surface treatment will
compromising the long-term appearance of
19.6.1 Initial construction clean
scuffing and removal of black heel marking.
Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose
A. Using an applicator and tray, or Kentucky mop
per the manufacturers’ instructions.
Two to three thin coats are usually sufficient to
provide excellent resistance to abrasion,
However, be guided by your own periodic
If required, dry buff to restore finish.
A. Assess the appearance of the floor. If the floor
at right angles, and the final coat should be
19.6.2 Routine maintenance
regime will be sufficient to ensure your
floorcovering retains the optimum appearance.
should be applied at right angles to the direction
of the first. Subsequent coats should be applied
applied right up to the skirting.
as a guideline, and the frequencies can be
6. In most instances, the above maintenance
PU section.
or
D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent.
4. For further guidance, contact Polyflor
Customer Technical Services.
within 200mm of the skirtings. It should then be
5. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
left to dry. This normally takes approximately
provided.
B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed
thirty minutes, depending on the ambient
6. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
from the surface of the floorcovering.
conditions and the thickness of the coating.
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit.
B. When the first coat is dry, a second coat
occasional heavy cleaning.
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19.7 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL RANGES
the first 2–3 applications, to enable a protective
cleaned after use. Failure to do so will result in a
the environment, without compromising such
WITHOUT PU OR PUR
film to be developed as quickly as possible and,
shiny, dirty floor.
key elements as hygiene and underfoot safety.
thereafter, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
or
instructions.
Using a neutral or germicidal cleanser, diluted to
Polysafe PUR is designed to resist soiling,
Note: To provide adequate protection in high
the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor
which ensures that – even after transportation,
traffic areas, it can be more effective to apply
and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to
installation and the period prior to handover –
an emulsion polish, rather than spray clean/
2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the
the intensity of construction clean can be
polish. Where a high shine finish is undesirable,
desired level of shine.
significantly reduced. This will have a beneficial
a matt finish polish should be used.
Note: When high speed burnishing, it is
impact on the initial costs.
important that the machine is kept constantly
A. Remove all loose debris.
19.7.1 Initial construction clean
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to
remove dust, grit and debris.
B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a
neutral cleanser diluted to the manufacturer’s
instructions.
or
For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline
cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s
instructions, to the floor and leave for sufficient
19.7.3 Routine maintenance
The frequency of each of the operations is
moving. This avoids excessive heat build-up on
dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic.
the floor. As an additional precaution,
we advise that a spray of clean water is used,
time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to
350 rpm rotary machine fitted with a scrubbing
remove dust and loose dirt.
pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up
the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse the floor
thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with
a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly.
19.7.2 Application of a floor dressing
A. Ensure that there is a good key between the
floor dressing and the surface of the flooring,
scrubbing the floor if required.
B. Either of the following methods can be used:
19.7.4 Removal of a floor dressing
B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks
An unsightly build-up of polish should be
can be removed by using the centre disc of a
avoided. The polish should be removed
Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion polish
in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions, with either a proprietary polish
applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent
over-application of polish. The polish should be
applied up to 150mm from the edges of the
room, and subsequent coats should be applied at
90º to the previous one. The final coat should be
applied right up to the edges of the room.
or
SPRAY CLEAN/POLISH.
The floor maintainer should be used undiluted for
index
B. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or
vacuuming.
C. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline
cleanser, dependent upon the level of soiling),
diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, with a
spray over the section to be cleaned. Leave for
sufficient time to react with the soiling.
scrubbing pad and a small amount of undiluted
regularly - the interval between application and
alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of
removal depends on the wear conditions and
D. Pick up the solution with a clean microfibre
the shoe and rub – this gives greater pressure.
the number of polish layers (normally six
mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion.
Rinse the area well with clean warm water and
months in heavy traffic areas.) Follow the
When the mop head becomes loaded, it will start
manufacturer’s instructions.
streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop
leave to dry.
C. Depending upon the end user requirement
19.7.5 Additional Information
and the equipment available, one of the
following methods should be used:
EMULSION POLISH.
to help lubricate the pad.
19.8.1 Construction clean
Using floor maintainer, diluted to the
head should be removed and placed into a
laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted.
1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
The cycle should then be repeated until the
provided.
whole floor is completed.
manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor and
2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
E. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered
leave to dry. If a shine is required, the floor
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
in preparation for reuse.
should be buffed with a 500 to 2000 rpm rotary
occasional heavy cleaning.
machine fitted with a suitable pad.
19.8 POLYSAFE RANGES WITH PUR
it may be necessary to use a Doodle bug or
or
The following maintenance instructions are
similar tool fitted with a suitable pad to
Using floor maintainer, diluted to the
designed to minimise the cost factor, while
remove the scuff marks
manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine mist
ensuring that your floorcovering retains the
onto the floor. Using a 165 to 500 rpm rotary
optimum appearance and performance.
machine and suitable spray cleaning pad, buff
The exclusive Polysafe PUR system reduces
the floor to the desired shine. The dirt is picked
the intensity of cleaning and the use of
up in the pad, which should be thoroughly
chemicals, which helps minimise the effect on
Note: If the floor has been heavily scuffed,
19.8.2 Daily maintenance
A. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or
vacuuming.
B. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline
cleanser, dependent upon the level of grease or
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oily contaminates), diluted to the manufacturer’s
3. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
vacuum or mop and bucket system.
C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser,
instructions, with a spray over the section to be
provided.
Dilution rates above the manufacturer’s
diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the
cleaned. Leave for sufficient time to react with
4. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
minimum recommendations may be necessary
floor and leave for sufficient time to react with
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
for very heavy soiling.
the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine
occasional heavy cleaning.
For Polysafe Hydro, the scrubbing pad should
the soiling.
C. Pick up the solution with a clean microfibre
mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion.
When the mop head becomes loaded, it will start
streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop
head should be removed and placed into a
laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted.
5. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as
be replaced with a rotary scrubbing brush or a
per the manufacturers’ instructions.
cylindrical type scrubbing machine.
For recommended products, see the Polyflor
19.9.2 Ongoing maintenance
Approved Maintenance Products sheet located
For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of
within the Technical section of www.polyflor.com
each of the operations is dependent upon the
6. Polysafe safety flooring ranges are compatible
type and intensity of traffic as well as the
for use with the most commonly used alco-based
appearance expectations and should be
hand gels and are suitable for steam cleaning on
adjusted to suit.
a periodic basis.
19.9.3 Standard surface finish
All the above methods of maintenance can be
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to
The cycle should then be repeated until the
whole floor is completed.
D. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered,
in preparation for reuse.
E. Where detergent residue remains on the floor
surface, the area should be rinsed completely
with clean, warm water, picked up with a wet
vacuum and left to dry thoroughly.
F. In areas subject to heavy soiling, machine
scrubbing should be undertaken on a periodic
basis, after neutral or alkaline cleanser has been
fitted with a bristle brush, cylindrical machine or
deck scrubber, scrub the floor and pick up the
slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse thoroughly with
clean, warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum
and allow to dry thoroughly.
19.9.5 Additional Information
1. A floor dressing should not be applied to
Polysafe floorcoverings, as this may impair the
slip resistance. If in doubt, consult our Customer
Technical Services staff.
applied to Polysafe PUR and Polysafe
remove dust and loose dirt.
Supratec PUR products - the 3rd generation
B. Spot mop regularly. Stubborn black marks can
2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
provided.
3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
maintenance enhancement available on
be removed by using the centre disc of a scrubbing
flagship Polysafe ranges.
pad and a small amount of undiluted alkaline
19.9 POLYSAFE RANGES WITHOUT PUR
cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of the shoe
4. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as
per the manufacturers’ instructions.
applied to the floor, diluted to the manufacturers’
19.9.1 Construction clean
and rub – this gives greater pressure. Rinse the
instructions.
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor to
area well with clean warm water and leave to dry.
occasional heavy cleaning.
For recommended products, see the Polyflor
Approved Maintenance Products sheet located
remove dust, grit and debris.
C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser,
1. This maintenance procedure has been designed
B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to
diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the
the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor and
floor and leave for sufficient time to react with
5. Polysafe safety flooring ranges are compatible
to optimise the benefits of the Polysafe PUR
system – the latest in proven cleaning technology.
leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling.
the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted
for use with the most commonly used alco-based
The maximum benefits are derived from this
C. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted with a
system by carrying out this quick and simple
rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary,
procedure on a daily basis, and by using clean
a scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and
19.8.3 Additional Information
equipment each time, to maximise dirt pick-up
and eliminate streaking.
then pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum.
D. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm
2. A floor dressing or maintainer containing
water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to
polish should not be applied to Polysafe ranges
dry thoroughly.
with PUR, as this may impair the slip resistance.
For small areas, where there is no suitable
If in doubt, consult our Customer Technical
scrubbing machine available, a deck scrubber
Services staff.
should be used in conjunction with a wet
index
within the Technical section of www.polyflor.com
with a rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary, a
hand gels and are suitable for steam cleaning on
scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and then
a periodic basis.
pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse
19.10 THE ESD FAMILY
thoroughly with clean, warm water, pick up with
The ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings are
a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly.
designed to prevent damage to processes,
19.9.4 Polysafe Hydro with embossed surface
equipment or people by conducting static
finish
charges away at a rate that prevents damage.
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum to remove
In order to ensure the ESD features work
dust and loose dirt.
effectively, it is important that the instructions
B. Spot scrub regularly with a deck scrubber.
below are followed. Failure to do so could
render the ESD system ineffective.
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19.10.1 Construction clean
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum, to remove
2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
applied right up to the edges of the room.
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to
dust and loose dirt.
provided.
19.11.3 Routine maintenance
remove dust, grit and debris.
B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks
3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of
B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a
can be removed by using the centre disc of a
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
each of the operations should be adjusted to
neutral cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s
scrubbing pad and a small amount of undiluted
occasional heavy cleaning.
suit the appearance expectations and the type
instructions.
alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of
19.11 RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS
and intensity of traffic.
or
the shoe and rub – this gives greater pressure.
19.11.1 Construction clean
A. Sweep or dry vacuum daily, to remove dust
For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline
Rinse the area well with clean warm water and
After installation, wait 48 hours before
and loose dirt.
cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s
allow to dry.
proceeding with the construction/intensive
instructions, to the floor and leave for sufficient
B. Spot mop frequently. Rinse the area with clean
C. Depending upon the end user requirement
clean.
time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to
warm water and allow to dry.
and the equipment available, one of the
350 rpm rotary machine fitted with a scrubbing
A. Sweep or dry vacuum the floor to remove dust,
following methods should be used:
C. As required (normally at least once per week)
grit and debris.
mop the floor using a floor maintainer, diluted as
Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted
B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted as
per the manufacturer’s instructions, and leave to
pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up
the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse the floor
thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with
a wet vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly.
to the manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine
per the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor
dry. If a shine is required, the floor should be
mist onto the floor. Using a 165 to 500 rpm
and leave for at least 5 minutes (or longer if
buffed with a low-speed machine, typically
rotary machine and suitable spray cleaning pad,
19.10.2 Application of a Floor Dressing
manufacturer recommends) to react before
150/500 rpm, fitted with suitable fibre or nylon
buff the floor to the desired shine. The dirt is
Normal, commercially available polishes should
proceeding.
brushes.
picked up in the pad, which should be thoroughly
not be applied to Polyflor ESD products, as
C. Using a 150/175 rpm rotary machine fitted
Regular buffing of the floorcovering will
cleaned after use. Failure to do so will result in a
they will inhibit the conductive properties.
with fibre or nylon brushes, machine scrub the
enhance its appearance.
shiny, dirty floor.
floor and then pick up the slurry with a mop or
19.11.4 Removal of a floor dressing
Polishes described as ’antistatic‘ are classified
by a different standard from that of the
or
Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted
floorcovering, and should be treated as a
to the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor
standard polish in static control terms.
and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to
wet vacuum. The floor should then be rinsed with
An unsightly build-up of polish should be
clean water and allowed to dry.
avoided. The polish should be removed
19.11.2 Application of a floor dressing
regularly; the interval between application and
removal depends on the wear conditions and
Consequently, they should not be applied.
2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the
A. Prior to the application of a floor dressing,
ensure that the floor is completely stripped, clean
the number of polish layers. (Normally, six
Conductive polishes which are approved by
desired level of shine.
Polyflor can be applied in strict accordance
NOTE : When high speed burnishing, it is
and free from any contaminants. This will ensure
months in heavy traffic areas.)
with the manufacturer’s instructions. Prior to
important that the machine is kept constantly
that there is a good key between the dressing
A. Apply a solution of emulsion polish stripper,
application of a floor dressing, ensure that the
moving. This avoids excessive heat build-up on
and the surface of the floor.
diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the
floor and leave for approximately 15 minutes.
floor is thoroughly scrubbed. This will ensure
the floor. As an additional precaution, we
B. Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion
that there is a good key between the dressing
advise that a spray of clean water is used to
polish, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
B. Machine scrub with a 150/175 rpm machine
and the surface of the flooring. Always discuss
help lubricate the pad.
instructions, with either a proprietary polish
fitted with a scrubbing brush, and then remove
with our Technical Services staff before
19.10.4 Additional Information
applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent
slurry with a wet vacuum. Thoroughly rinse the
over-application of polish. The polish should be
floor with clean warm water, pick up with a wet
applied up to 150mm from the edges of the
vacuum and allow to dry completely. The cycle of
applying a conductive polish.
1. Always ensure mops and pads are kept
19.10.3 Regular maintenance
especially for the static control areas, to prevent
The frequency of each of the operations is
a possible transfer of polish.
dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic.
index
room, and subsequent coats should be applied at
polish application and routine maintenance
90° to the previous one. The final coat should be
should then be repeated.
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19.12.3 Rubber Tyres etc
of scuffing. Shrinkage of the vinyl can also occur
complaints arise from a general comment that
1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance
Antioxidants used in the manufacture of rubber
in the long term.
the floor is not as clean as expected. The most
provided.
can cause staining. Non-rubber traffic mats are
7. Never apply a floor dressing which cannot
common reason is usually that the maintenance
recommended, as are tyre trays for car
easily be removed – such as polyurethane or
method being applied is not compatible with
showrooms. Using black or dark brown
acrylic sealers – unless approved by Polyflor.
19.11.5 Additional Information
2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the
floorcovering and more cost-effective than
occasional heavy cleaning.
floorcoverings will not prevent staining but will
disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also be
3. Polyflor homogeneous PUR and Polysafe
periodic basis.
19.12 TIPS, HINTS AND PROBLEM SOLVING
8. Never deviate from the manufacturer’s
9. Always take precautions to prevent dark
19.12.4 Scratches
rubber from coming into contact with the
Prevention is the first step to protecting vinyl
flooring. If this cannot be avoided, select darker
flooring from scratches:
colours of floorcovering.
programme is to provide cost savings without
1. Use mats at external doorways to reduce the
10. Never use black nylon carborundum abrasive
any compromise in cleanliness and hygiene.
trafficking of grit, dust and water into the building.
pads on the flooring.
The main objective of the tailored maintenance
their causes and our recommended actions.
recommended dilution rates.
specified for appliance feet, trolley wheels etc.
ranges are suitable for steam cleaning on a
the type and level of traffic found. The table
below contains more specific problems with
19.13 HEALTH AND SAFETY
When using cleaning machines, polishes and
chemicals, always follow the health and safety
advice given by the relevant manufacturers.
When maintaining floors, wherever possible
cordon off the area. This is much safer and will
ensure that the job can be completed quicker.
Bearing this in mind, the most important tip is
2. Furniture can cause scratches to a vinyl floor,
11. Only use water based floor maintenance
to regularly assess the various locations and be
therefore appropriate protection (felt pads, etc.)
products.
flexible about the maintenance employed in
should be attached to the feet of tables and chair
them. If the floor in a particular location needs
legs etc.
more attention, then ensure that it gets it
3. Keeping pets nails well clipped will reduce the
sooner rather than later. If some areas seem
likelihood of scratching from pets.
COMMON PROBLEM
over-maintained (with polish build-up, perhaps,
19.12.5 Points to Note
Powdering of polish/
Breakdown of polish due to either excessive use
Strip off polish, thoroughly rinse
in the non-trafficked areas), then pull back the
1. Regular light maintenance is more cost
excess of white dust.
of alkaline cleansers, inadequate rinsing, use of
and when dry, re-apply.
maintenance level, but always monitor the
effective than periodic heavy maintenance and
situation to ensure that it remains within
more beneficial to the floorcovering.
control. In addition, there are certain
precautions which can be taken.
19.12.1 Asphalt and Tarmacadam
Where asphalt or tarmacadam is present
Always use warning signs to advise that
cleaning is in progress, especially in heavily
19.12.6 Problem Solving
trafficked areas and where wet cleaning
It is our experience that most floorcare
methods are used.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
RECOMMENDED ACTION
bleaches or other harsh chemicals.
Poor gloss, streaks
Polish could be applied to a dirty floor.
Strip off polish, thoroughly rinse
or patchy finish.
Polish could have been applied with dirty
and when dry, re-apply.
2. Always sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the
equipment. A residue of alkaline cleanser
floor regularly.
is on the floor.
3. Always use clean equipment – dirty equipment
Polished floor
Incorrect polish type applied. Application of too
If polish is identified as the
only redistributes the dirt.
is slippery.
much or too little polish. Polish build up.
problem, strip off and re-apply.
Surface contaminants such as water or dust
Ensure daily maintenance to remove
immediately outside an entrance and there is
not a sufficient dirt barrier system in place,
4. Do not mix cleaning products from different
are not being removed. Cross trafficking
dust and other surface contaminants.
of wax from other areas.
If cross trafficking is a problem,
use non-rubber traffic mats at least two paces
manufacturers –they may not be compatible.
wide. Staining of the floor may occur if traffic
5. Always remove any spillage immediately.
mats are not used.
Always remove excess water. It is not only
19.12.2 Gravel Paths and Roadways
use walk off mats.
Polish may not be dry. There may be a
Strip off polish and re-apply.
detergent build up.
Ensure adequate rinsing after
dangerous but, on unwelded tile floors, the water
Traffic mats should also be considered when
can attack the adhesive and break the bond.
gravel paths or roadways are immediately
6. Do not use products containing pine gel or
outside an entrance. Mats must always be
phenolic acid on Polyflor vinyl flooring. These can
cleaned frequently.
soften the vinyl surface and increase the possibility
index
Sticky floors.
use of detergent to avoid build up.
Fading colour.
Equipment contaminated with bleach or
Ensure all cleaning equipment
bleach based products used.
is clean before use.
We strongly advise that a reputable professional maintenance company is used to provide chemicals and equipment.
Always ask for help and advice sooner rather than later. A problem solved sooner is a problem solved cheaper.
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