1364391537dev2190en

Managed L-Band Distribution System

Product:

DEV 2190 Managed L-Band Distribution System

Features:

Versatile 4 RU chassis which can be equipped individually with up to 16 amplifier modules

Various amplifier options, distribution amplifier options, active combiner options, and matrix switch options are available

Alternatively, the chassis can be equipped with a matrix option to realize a distributing matrix providing variable gain, variable tilt, RF sensing and LNB bias feeding with current monitoring in addition

50 Ohm and 75 Ohm and mixed impedances are available for input ports and output ports

Variable gain, monitoring output, RF sensing, and LNB bias feeding with current monitoring for each amplifier module

Variable tilt control is available as an option for amplifier modules

Redundancy options for amplifier modules are available to realize

“No single point of failure” solutions

Configuration, surveillance and control via comfortable

Web Interface with signal recording feature

SNMP remote control support

Redundant power supplies

DEV 2190

Technical Data

DEV 2190 Managed L-Band Distribution System

Capacity

A B C

Power Supply Power Supply Power Supply

Operation

Failure

12-0020

Operation

Failure

12-0020

Operation

Failure

12-0020

Top Slot

Slot 1

A/B-Alarm

Supply 2 - Fuse 6 A T

Power 1

Power 2

Fan

Temp

Alarm

Remote

Local

Slot 2

Slot 3

Ethernet 100...240 V

50/60 Hz

Supply 1 - Fuse 6 A T

Reset

Com

WARNING:

Disconnect power before opening!

Slot 4

Slot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 F

C P

Red. Unit 1 2 3 4

Slot Configuration Front Side

Front side

5

50 Ohm, SMA (f)

>18 dB

Slot Configuration Rear Side

Rear side

RF Specifications

Frequency range

Impedance, connectors

3 horizontal power supply slots &

16 slots for amplifier modules and other functional modules

4 horizontal slots plus top slot for the inputs standard: with Option 25:

950…2150 MHz

700…2300 MHz for all 50 Ohm ports: 50 Ohm, SMA (f) for all 75 Ohm ports: 75 Ohm, precision F (f)

(for selected options, 75 Ohm ports can be ordered with BNC (f) connectors instead of precision F (f) connectors)

+10 dBm @ 50 Ohm / 120 dBµV @ 75 Ohm Damage level

Nominal input level

Return loss

Amplifier gain variation

–10 dBm @ 50 Ohm / 85 dBµV @ 75 Ohm

>14 dB standard: with Option 25:

0…21 dB

0…31 dB

Variable tilt with Option 25 only: 0…8 dB

Isolation between output ports >25 dB

<5 ns

<10 dB

Group delay

Noise figure

Monitoring Port

Impedance, connector

Return loss

Bias & Bias Current Alarm

Bias

Adjustable level setting:

• Upper alarm level

• Lower alarm level

Alarm indication

(continued on next page)

15+3/-0 V; max. 500 mA per input; total max. 1.4 A (if equipped with 2 power supply modules) or total max. 2.8 A (if equipped with 3 power supply modules)

• max. 500 mA (DEV factory setting: 350 mA)

• min. 50 mA (DEV factory setting: 150 mA)

Via LED on the front panel and via remote interface

2/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Technical Data (cont.)

RF Sensing

Adjustable threshold level 0 dBm > threshold level > -50 dBm

±3 dBm

(DEV factory setting: -40 dBm)

Threshold level accuracy

Threshold repeatability

Alarm indication

Remote Communication

<0.5 dB

Via LED on the front panel and via remote interface

Interface (connector)

Remote control & surveillance

(interface)

Redundant Power Supply

Number of power supplies

Redundant power supplies

• Ethernet (RJ-45).

• via Web Interface (Ethernet);

• via SNMP (Ethernet). standard: 2 with Option 16: 3

For ≥8 amplifier modules the 3 rd

power supply module is recommended for keeping the power supply redundancy.

100…240 V AC supplied by two different lines OR

Power consumption

Dry Contacts

Alarm connector

Contact load

Summary Alarm

-40…-56 V DC supplied by two different lines (Option 14)

<100 VA (<150 VA) with 2 (3) power supply modules installed

Sub-D-9 (m)

60 V; 300 mA

Via remote interface and via dry contacts

Two Stage Alarm Signalization for Power Line Failure:

B-Alarm One power supply unit does not deliver any secondary power.

A-Alarm All power supply units do not deliver any secondary power.

General Specifications

Size

Weight

Environmental conditions

19“ (483 mm max.), 4 RU (178 mm), ~490 mm depth

~16 kg

ETS 300019 Part 1-3 Class 3.1

3/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Technical Data (cont.)

Amplifier / Distribution Amplifier (DA) Options

Amplifier options are required for the direct access to the ports of an installed amplifier module.

Amplifier options are available with one or two outputs.

The input signal of a distribution amplifier option is first routed through the amplifier module, before it feeds the corresponding splitter.

The rear side of the DEV 2190 provides 4 horizontal slots, a slot provides up to 32 output ports for amplifier options or for distribution amplifier options.

Naturally, a horizontal slot can be used for pre-divider options, for active combiner options, for matrix switch options, or for additional splitter options, as well.

Please refer to the Order Information section for the available types of amplifier options and distribution amplifier options including their space requirements.

Unused output ports need to be terminated!

Capacity

Number of outputs per amplifier option: per DA option:

1 or 2

2*4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128

RF Specifications

Frequency response

(over entire band) for up to 16 outputs:

±

1.0 dB for 1:32 DA options:

±

1.5 dB for 1:64 DA options:

±

2.0 dB

(with applied Option 23 or Option 24: add 0.5 dB to the tolerance)

Frequency response

(in any 36 MHz interval)

Intermodulation distortion for up to 16 outputs:

±

0.3 dB for 1:32 DA options:

±

0.5 dB for 1:64 DA options:

±

0.6 dB

(with applied Option 23 or Option 24: add 0.5 dB to the tolerance)

<-40 dBc @ -10 dBm

Active Combiner Options

The input signals of an active combiner option are combined first, before this signal feeds the input of the corresponding amplifier module.

The rear side of the DEV 2190 provides 4 horizontal slots, a slot provides up to 32 input ports for active combiner options.

Naturally, a horizontal slot can be used for pre-divider options, for amplifier options, for distribution amplifier options, for matrix switch options, or for additional splitter options, as well.

Please refer to the Order Information section for the available types of active combiner options including their space requirements.

Unused input ports need to be terminated!

Capacity per active combiner option: 2*4, 8, or 16 Number of inputs

RF Specifications

Frequency response ±

1.0 dB (over entire band)

±

0.3 dB (in any 36 MHz interval)

Intermodulation distortion

(with applied Option 23 or Option 24: add 0.5 dB to the tolerance)

<-40 dBc @ -10 dBm

4/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Technical Data (cont.)

Matrix Switch Options

The two or four input signals of a matrix switch option are routed first through the corresponding amplifier modules. The amplified signals are e.g. fed to a number of connected IRDs, capable of selecting one of the two or four signals electrically.

By applying additional splitter options (please refer to the Order Information section), it is possible to access amplified signals directly in addition.

The rear side of the DEV 2190 provides 4 horizontal slots, a slot provides up to 16 output ports for matrix switch options.

Naturally, a horizontal slot can be used for pre-divider options, for amplifier options, for distribution amplifier options, for active combiner options, or for additional splitter options, as well.

Please refer to the Order Information section for the available types of matrix switch options including their space requirements.

Unused output ports need to be terminated!

Capacity

Number of inputs per matrix switch option: 2 or 4

Number of outputs

RF Specifications

Frequency range

Return loss

Frequency response per matrix switch option: 16, 32, 48, or 64

Note, that additional splitter options are available for matrix switch options with less than 64 outputs, for hard wiring 8 (Option plus8/zz) or 16 (Option plus16/zz) additional outputs to each of the two or four amplified input signals.

950…2150 MHz

>14 dB (inputs)

>12 dB (outputs)

±

0.6 dB (in any 36 MHz interval)

>25 dB Isolation between input ports

Intermodulation distortion

IMA

3

output level

IMA

2

output level

Input Selection

Switch control

<-35 dBc @ 85 dBµV

<89 dBµV

<87 dBµV

14 V, 18 V and 0 Hz, 22 kHz at each output

Matrix Options

By applying a matrix option a DEV 2190 becomes a distributing matrix providing variable gain, variable tilt, RF sensing and LNB bias feeding with current monitoring in addition.

Except for Option 8x8/zz, which can be applied up to two times, all other matrix options can be applied once. It is not possible to combine matrix options with other options (pre-divider options, amplifier options, distribution amplifier options, active combiner options, matrix switch options, additional splitter options, redundant amplifier options, or upgrade options).

Please refer to the Order Information section for the available types of matrix options.

Capacity

Number of inputs

Number of outputs

(continued on next page) per matrix option: per matrix option:

8 or 16

8 or 16

5/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Technical Data (cont.)

RF Specifications

Frequency range

Nominal input level

Amplifier gain variation

Variable tilt

Frequency response

Isolation

Option 26

Option 28

Option 78

950…2150 MHz

-20 dBm

0…31 dB

0…8 dB

±

1.5 dB (over entire band)

±

0.3 dB (in any 36 MHz interval) input/input, output/output: >55 dB input/output (crosstalk): >50 dB off: >80 dB

<-40 dBc (two tones @ -23 dBm) Intermodulation distortion

Order Information

Product:

DEV 2190

Options:

Option 14

Option 16

Option 25

Managed L-Band Distribution System

-40…-56 V DC supply voltage

Additional power supply module

Extended L-Band & variable tilt

(This option replaces one (!) L-Band amplifier module with a module for the frequency range of the extended L-Band (700…2300 MHz) which additionally comprises more gain and tilt control functionality.

Option 25 is not available in combination with matrix options!)

Delete one amplifier

(with this upgrade option, the chassis is prepared for a desired functionality ((distribution) amplifier option or active combiner option or matrix switch option) but is not delivered with the corresponding amplifier module. At a later point in time, the appropriate amplifier module can be ordered and can be easily installed by the customer. Note, that an applied

DA Option 2*4/zz (or combiner Option 2*4C/zz) requires 2 * Option 26, matrix switch options require 2 * or 4 * Option 26.)

Automatic switch back

(only available in combination with applied redundant amplifier option(s)

(Option 23/zz, Option 24/zz). The automatic switch back feature permits the autonomous switching in both directions, instead of switching from main to redundancy channel(s), only.)

Additional web license

6/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Order Information (cont.)

Pre-Divider Options

A quadruple passive 1:2 pre-divider option is necessary, if the 50 Ohm or 75 Ohm distribution system is to be cascaded, i.e. if more than one 4 RU chassis is required. The option requires a half horizontal slot on the rear side of the chassis. The remaining ½ horizontal slot can be used for applying a second passive pre-splitter option, but not for (distribution) amplifier option outputs or for active combiner module inputs!

Option 4*1:2/50

Option 4*1:2/75

Pre-Divider 4*1:2; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: rear: ½)

Pre-Divider 4*1:2; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: rear: ½)

Amplifier Options

With applied amplifier options, the amplified input signal feeds one or two outputs.

The vertical slot requirements on the front side of the chassis and the fractional horizontal slot requirements on the rear side of the chassis are stated in parentheses for each amplifier option.

Option 1/50 Amplifier; 1 input, 1 output; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/32)

Option 1/75

Option 2/50

Amplifier; 1 input, 1 output; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/32)

Amplifier; 1 input, 2 outputs; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/16)

Option 2/50-50-75

Option 2/50-75

Option 2/75

Amplifier; 1 input, 2 outputs; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); output 50 Ohm, SMA (f) and 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/16)

Amplifier; 1 input, 2 outputs; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/16)

Amplifier; 1 input, 2 outputs; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1/16)

Distribution Amplifier Options

With applied distribution amplifier options, the amplified input signal feeds the splitter outputs.

The vertical slot requirements on the front side of the chassis and the (fractional) horizontal slot requirements on the rear side are stated in parentheses for each distribution amplifier option.

Option 2*4/50 Distribution Amplifiers 2*1:4; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: ¼)

Option 2*4/75

Option 8/50

Distribution Amplifiers 2*1:4; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: ¼)

Distribution Amplifier 1:8; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ¼)

Option 8/50-75

Option 8/75

Option 16/50

Option 16/50-75

Distribution Amplifier 1:8; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ¼)

Distribution Amplifier 1:8; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ¼)

Distribution Amplifier 1:16; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ½)

Distribution Amplifier 1:16; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ½)

Option 16/75

Option 32/50

(continued on next page)

Distribution Amplifier 1:16; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ½)

Distribution Amplifier 1:32; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1)

7/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Order Information (cont.)

Option 32/50-75

Option 32/75

Option 64/50

Option 64/50-75

Option 64/75

Option 128/50

Option 128/50-75

Option 128/75

Distribution Amplifier 1:32; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1)

Distribution Amplifier 1:32; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 1)

Distribution Amplifier 1:64; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 2)

Distribution Amplifier 1:64; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 2)

Distribution Amplifier 1:64; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 2)

Distribution Amplifier 1:128; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 4)

Distribution Amplifier 1:128; input 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 4)

Distribution Amplifier 1:128; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: 4)

Additional Options

The 75 Ohm versions (Option xx/75) are available with BNC (f) instead of F (f) connectors for input and output ports. The Option 8/BNC is to be ordered per 8 ports of a distribution amplifier option.

Option 8/BNC Upgrade from F (f) to BNC (f) for 8 ports plus common port

Active Combiner Options

With applied active combiner options, first, the input signals are combined. This signal is fed to the input of an amplifier module.

The vertical slot requirements on the front side of the chassis and the fractional horizontal slot requirements on the rear side of the chassis are stated in parentheses for each active combiner option.

Option 2*C4/50

Option 2*C4/75

Active Combiners 2*4:1; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: ¼)

Active Combiners 2*4:1; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: ¼)

Option C8/50

Option C8/75

Option C16/50

Option C16/75

Active Combiner 8:1; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ¼)

Active Combiner 8:1; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ¼)

Active Combiner 16:1; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ½)

Active Combiner 16:1; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 1, rear: ½)

Additional Options

The 75 Ohm versions (Option Cxx/75) are available with BNC (f) instead of F (f) connectors for input and output ports. The Option 8/BNC is to be ordered per 8 ports of an active combiner option.

Option 8/BNC Upgrade from F (f) to BNC (f) for 8 ports plus common port

8/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Order Information (cont.)

Matrix Switch Options

Matrix switch options are available with 2 or 4 inputs (thus 2 or 4 amplifier modules) and with 16,

32, 48, or 64 outputs.

Matrix switch options can be extended using the additional splitter options (see below).

The vertical slot requirements on the front side of the chassis and the horizontal slot requirements on the rear side of the chassis are stated in parentheses for each matrix switch option.

Option 2x16/50-75 Matrix Switch 2x16; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 1)

Option 2x16/75

Option 4x16/50-75

Matrix Switch 2x16; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 1)

Matrix Switch 4x16; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 1)

Option 4x16/75

Option 2x32/50-75

Option 2x32/75

Option 4x32/50-75

Matrix Switch 4x16; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 1)

Matrix Switch 2x32; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 2)

Matrix Switch 2x32; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 2)

Matrix Switch 4x32; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 2)

Option 4x32/75

Option 2x48/50-75

Option 2x48/75

Option 4x48/50-75

Option 4x48/75

Option 2x64/50-75

Option 2x64/75

Option 4x64/50-75

Matrix Switch 4x32; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 2)

Matrix Switch 2x48; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 3)

Matrix Switch 2x48; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 3)

Matrix Switch 4x48; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 3)

Matrix Switch 4x48; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 3)

Matrix Switch 2x64; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 4)

Matrix Switch 2x64; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 2, rear: 4)

Matrix Switch 4x64; 950…2150 MHz; inputs 50 Ohm, SMA (f); outputs 75 Ohm, F (f) (slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 4)

Option 4x64/75 Matrix Switch 4x64; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: 4, rear: 4)

Additional Splitter Options

Additional splitter options are available in combination with matrix switch options with up to 48 outputs only and are to be ordered per matrix switch input. 8 or 16 additional outputs are hard wired to some or to each of the 2 or 4 amplified inputs of a matrix switch option if additional splitter options are ordered. Note, that the application is dependant on the available space on the rear side of the chassis.

The fractional horizontal slot requirements on the rear side of the chassis are stated in parentheses for each additional splitter option.

Please specify in the order for which polarity the additional splitter option is to be applied!

Option plus8/50

(continued on next page)

Additional Splitter 1:8; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); for matrix switch only

(slot requirements: rear: ¼)

9/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Order Information (cont.)

Option plus8/75

Option plus16/50

Additional Splitter 1:8; 75 Ohm, F (f); for matrix switch only

(slot requirements: rear: ¼)

Additional Splitter 1:16; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); for matrix switch only

(slot requirements: rear: ½)

Option plus16/75 Additional Splitter 1:16; 75 Ohm, F (f); for matrix switch only

(slot requirements: rear: ½)

Matrix Options

If matrix options are to be applied in a DEV 2190, it is not possible to apply any other amplifier options, distribution amplifier options, active combiner options, or matrix switch options.

A matrix option can be applied once per chassis, only Option 8x8/zz can be applied twice.

Option 8x8/50 8x8 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); with variable Gain, variable

Tilt, RF Sensing and LNB Bias

Option 8x8/75

Option 8x16/50

8x8 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f); with variable Gain, variable Tilt,

RF Sensing and LNB Bias

8x16 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); with variable Gain, variable

Tilt, RF Sensing and LNB Bias

Option 8x16/75

Option 16x8/50

Option 16x8/75

Option 16x16/50

Option 16x16/75

8x16 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f); with variable Gain, variable Tilt,

RF Sensing and LNB Bias

16x8 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); with variable Gain, variable

Tilt, RF Sensing and LNB Bias

16x8 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f); with variable Gain, variable Tilt,

RF Sensing and LNB Bias

16x16 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 50 Ohm, SMA (f); with variable Gain, variable

Tilt, RF Sensing and LNB Bias

16x16 Matrix; 950…2150 MHz; 75 Ohm, F (f); with variable Gain, variable

Tilt, RF Sensing and LNB Bias

10/11 The Experts in RF Signal Handling

DEV 2190

Order Information (cont.)

Redundant Amplifier Options

With the application of redundant amplifier option(s) “no single point of failure” solutions can be established. Per redundant amplifier option, one installed amplifier module is supplemented by a

2 nd

amplifier module and a redundancy switch module to form a redundancy unit.

With Option 23/zz two input signals feed directly the inputs of the two amplifier modules and with

Option 24/zz a single input signal is split via an internal 1:2 splitter to feed the inputs of the two amplifier modules.

A redundant amplifier option requires two additional slots on the front side per channel, i.e. three vertical slots per redundancy unit. Thus, up to 5 redundancy units can be applied in a DEV 2190.

The impedance (“/zz”) for the input(s) is to be selected either “/50” (50 Ohm, SMA (f)) or “/75”

(75 Ohm, precision F (f)).

Option 23/50 Redundant Amplifier Kit for 1 channel; dual input; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: +2)

Option 23/75

Option 24/50

Redundant Amplifier Kit for 1 channel; dual input; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: +2)

Redundant Amplifier Kit for 1 channel; single input; 50 Ohm, SMA (f)

(slot requirements: front: +2)

Option 24/75 Redundant Amplifier Kit for 1 channel; single input; 75 Ohm, F (f)

(slot requirements: front: +2)

Contact

DEV Systemtechnik GmbH & Co. KG

Grüner Weg 4A

61169 Friedberg

GERMANY

Phone: +49 6031 6975 100

Fax: +49 6031 6975 114 [email protected] www.dev-systemtechnik.com

11/11

DEV America LP [email protected] www.dev-america.com

Rev. 22-JAN-2013

Technical specifications are subject to change

The Experts in RF Signal Handling

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