Profibus
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PROFIBUS
Technology and Application
System Description
Open Solutions for the World of Automation
The production of this brochure was kindly supported
by the following PROFIBUS Competence Centers
TMG i-tec
We provide competent and
dedicated
assistance to solve
bottlenecksin
? Development
? Quality Assurance
? Maintenance
by
? Product- & Systemdefinition
? Technology Integration
? Tools
? System-/Projectmanagement
TMG i-tec GmbH | Pfinztalstrasse 90 | D-76227Karlsruhe
Tel.: ++49 721 82806 - 0 | Fax: ++49 721 82806 - 10
E-Mail: i [email protected] | WEB: www.tmgitec.de
PROFIBUS training
Sales center for
service tools
Engineeringsupport
Installationinspection
& commissioning
Productdevelopment
Remote & o n-site
troubleshooting
Productcertification
The PROFIBUS andPROFInet
Competence Centerand Test Lab
in Fürthisyour partner for
PROFIBUS
- Demonstration
- Training
- Consultation
Japanese PROFIBUS Competence Center (JPCC)
c/o Yaskawa Siemens Automation & Drives Corp.
3-1Ariake,Koto-ku,Tokyo
135-8072Japan
Tel. 81-3-3570-3034 Fax. 81-3-3570-3063
E-mail:[email protected]
General technicalsupport
ASIC support
PROFIBUS Certification tests for
DP-V0,DP-V1, DP-V2
PA, PROFIsafe
PROFInetCertifications
Address:
ComDeC
Würzburger Strasse 121
90766 Fürth/Germany
You can reach u s by
phone: +49 (0) 9117502080/2074,fax:+49(0)9117502100
e-mail: [email protected]
ChinesePROFIBUS CompetenceCenter
takes charge of consultation,training,
appliction andpopularization of
PROFIBUS technology in China.
EmbeddedPROFIBUSCommunication
Bridge, theInterface offersasolutionof
developingPROFIBUSproductsquickly
intheOEMwayforenterprises.
PROFIBUS RS232/485Bridge-connecting
devicesof232/485interfacewithPROFIBUSotherfieldbusdevicesas well.
Chinese PROFIBUSCompetence Center
No.1Jiaochangkou,Deshengmenwai
100011 B eijing,China
Tel.:+8610 82078264Fax:+8610 82078264
e-mail: [email protected] web: www.c-profibus.com.cn
The PROFIBUSInterface Center
inJohnsonCity,Tennessee,USA,
isanaccreditedCompetenceCenter
and Test Lab for b oth PROFIBUSandPROFInet.
We provide:
-Generaltechnical& development s upport
-PROFIBUSASICsupport
PROFIBUSCertificationTestingfor:
-DP-V0 Master & Slave
-DP-V1 Master & SlaveincludingAlarms
-PROFInet
PROFIBUS InterfaceCenter
One InternetPlaza
PO Box4991
JohnsonCity, TN 37602-4991
Phone:+1423.262.2576FAX:+1 423.262.2103
e-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Commitment
We are and will remain the world’s leading organization in the field of digital networking for industrial
and process automation, serving our customers,
our members and the press with the best solutions, benefits and information.
We are committed to setting and protecting the
standards for open communication and control in
the automation and process market.
Introduction
From the outset, the field of automation has been subject to continuous change. Not so long ago,
this change was limited to the production area of a company. In production, the implementation of
fieldbus technology has meant
considerable innovation, enabling
the migration from centralized to
decentralized automation systems.
This has been the PROFIBUS objective for more than 10 years.
In those 10 years PROFIBUS has
become the world market leader in
fieldbus technology. In spite of the
outstanding success of recent
years, PROFIBUS development
continues with undiminished enthusiasm and energy. Initially the
focus was on communication technology. Current activities center
around system integration, engineering and, in particular, the application profiles. These profiles
have made PROFIBUS the only
fieldbus that provides comprehensive both factory and process
automation.
Additionally, Information Technology (IT) increasingly determines
development in today´s world of
automation. Modern fieldbus systems have adopted IT principles
and are achieving greater consistency with the corporate management level. In this respect, industrial automation is following the development trends of the office
world, where IT has long since left
its mark, radically transforming infrastructure, systems and processes. The integration of informa-
tion technology in the world of
automation opens up many new
prospects for global data communication between automation systems. In pursuit of this objective,
PROFIBUS is enhanced by the
Ethernet-based
communication
standard PROFInet.
The use of open standards rather
than proprietary solutions ensures
long-term compatibility and expandability - in other words - protection of existing investment. This
is a matter of key importance to the
PROFIBUS User Organization. The
continuous development of PROFIBUS
technology
provides
members with a long-term perspective.
Contents
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.
3.1
3.2
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Communication in Automation .........................1
6.
System Profiles................................................ 23
Industrial Communication..............................1
Fieldbus Technology Terms ..........................2
International Standardization.........................3
7.
Device Management ........................................ 25
PROFIBUS at a Glance.......................................4
History ...........................................................4
Market Position .............................................4
Organization..................................................4
The PROFIBUS ”Tool Box” ...........................5
PROFIBUS - The keys to success ................6
PROFIBUS Transmission and
Communication ..................................................7
Transmission Technology .............................7
Communication Protocol DP .......................10
General Application Profiles ...........................17
PROFIsafe ..................................................17
HART on PROFIBUS DP ............................17
Time Stamp.................................................18
Slave Redundancy ......................................18
Specific Application Profiles ...........................19
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.
8.1
8.2
9.
9.1
9.2
GSD ........................................................... 25
EDD ........................................................... 26
FDT/DTM Concept ..................................... 27
Quality Assurance ........................................... 28
Test procedure ........................................... 28
Conformance Certificate............................. 28
Implementation ................................................ 29
Standard Components................................ 29
Implementation of Interfaces ...................... 30
10. PROFInet .......................................................... 31
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
The PROFInet Engineering Model ............. 31
The PROFInet Communications Model........ 32
The PROFInet Migration Model .................. 32
XML ............................................................ 32
OPC and OPC DX ...................................... 32
11. PROFIBUS International................................. 33
PROFIdrive .................................................19
PA Devices..................................................20
Fluid Power .................................................21
SEMI Devices..............................................22
Ident Systems .............................................22
Remote I/O for PA .......................................22
Contents
This document describes the essential aspects of PROFIBUS and
takes into account the level of
technology available at the end of
2002. Its objective is to provide a
comprehensive description of the
world's leading fieldbus system,
PROFIBUS, without becoming too
engulfed in specific details.
This brochure not only offers sufficient information to those with a
basic knowledge and readers interested in an overview, but it also
introduces experts to more extensive specialized literature. In this
context, we would like to point out
that, in spite of the care that has
been taken in the preparation of
this overview, only the PROFIBUS
documents available on the Internet are definitive and binding.
Please refer to them for more detailed information.
Chapters 1 and 2 offer an introduction to the principles of fieldbus
technology and their implementation with PROFIBUS.
Chapters 3 to 6 deal with the core
aspects of PROFIBUS and any
repetition of subject matter dealt
with in Chapter 2 is intentional for
reasons of completeness.
These chapters emulate the modular layout of PROFIBUS, from
communication technology through
application profiles to system profiles.
Chapters 7 to 9 are more practically oriented. They deal with subjects such as device management,
implementation and certification.
Chapter 10 presents the theory of
operation of PROFInet.
Chapter 11 completes the brochure with details of PROFIBUS International and the PROFIBUS
User Organization.
1. Communication in
Automation
PROFIBUS fulfills these criteria
and offers an universal solution for
both factory and process automation.
The communication capability of
devices and subsystems and consistent information methodology
are indispensible components of
future-oriented automation concepts. Communications are increasingly occuring horizontally at
the field level as well as vertically
through several hierarchical levels
simultaneously. Layered and coordinated industrial communication
systems, such as PROFIBUS with
lower-level interfacing to ASInterface and upper level interfacing to Ethernet (over PROFInet)
(see Figure 1), offer ideal preconditions for transparent networking in
all areas of the production process.
At the cell level programmable
1.1 Industrial
Communication
At the sensor-actuator level
signals of binary sensors and actuators are transmitted over a sensor actuator bus. This provides a
simple and cost-effective technology where data and power are
transmitted over a shared medium.
AS-Interface offers a suitable bus
system for this field of application.
At field level distributed devices
Production
Automation
In the following PROFIBUS will be
described in detail as the central
connecting link for the information
flow in the automation industry. For
information on AS-Interface please
reffer to the relevant literature. Furthermore PROFInet will be briefly
presented in chapter 10.
Fieldbuses are industrial communication systems that use a
range of media such as copper cable, fiber optics or wireless, with
bit-serial transmission for coupling
distributed field devices (sensors,
actuators, drives, transducers, etc.)
to a central control or management
system. Fieldbus technology was
developed in the 80s with the aim
of replacing the commonly used
central parallel wiring and prevailing analog signal transmission
(4-20 mA- or +/- 10V interface)
withdigital technology. Due, in
parts, to the different industryspecific demands and preferred
proprietary solutions of large manufacturers, several bus systems with
varying properties were established
in the market. The key technologies are now included in recently
Cell level
Field communications
Enterprise
As well as PROFIBUS, Ethernetbased PROFInet offers a trendsetting solution for this purpose.
Data communications
such as I/O modules, transducers,
drive units, analysis devices,
valves or operator terminals, communicate with automation systems
over a powerful, real-time communication system. Transmission of
the process data is cyclic, while
additional interrupts, configuration
data and diagnosis data are transmitted acyclically as required.
controllers such as PLCs and IPCs,
communicate with each other and
with IT systems of the office world
using standards such as Ethernet,
TCP/IP, Intranet and Internet. This
information flow requires large data
packets and a range of powerful
communication functions.
PROFInet
Field level
Sensor/actuator level
adopted standards IEC 61158 and
IEC 61784. PROFIBUS is an integral part of these standards.
Recently, Ethernet-based communication systems have emerged in
industrial automation. They offer
wide-ranging options for communications between the different levels
of industrial automation and the office world. PROFInet is an example
of one such Ethernet-based communication system.
A need for the coordinated development and distribution of these
fieldbus systems in the market has
seen the emergence of a number
of User Organizations comprising
manufacturers, users and institutes, such as the PROFIBUS User
Organization (PNO) and its parent
organization PROFIBUS International (PI) for PROFIBUS and
PROFInet technologies.
User benefits are the motivation
for the emergence and continual
development of fieldbus technology. This ultimately manifests itself
as a reduction of the total cost of
ownership, as well as an increase
in performance and quality improvement during the setup and
operation of automation plants. The
benefits are achieved during configuration, cabling, engineering,
documentation,
assembly
and
commissioning, as well as during
production. An additional benefit is
achieved by the reduction of the total life-cycle costs in the form of
easy modification and continuous
availability due to regular diagnosis
information, preventive maintenance, simple parameter assignment, consistent data flow and asset management.
Fieldbuses increase the productivity and flexibility of automated
processes compared to conventional technology and they create
the basic prerequisite for the configuration of distributed automation
systems.
Today PROFIBUS is used in virtually all areas of automation, in factory automation and process automation, but also in traffic engineering, power generation and power
distribution.
IEC 61158/61784
PROFIBUS IEC 61158/61784
AS-Interface IEC 62026
Fig. 1: Communication in automation technology
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
1
Sender
Receiver
7
7
Application layer
6
6
Presentation layer
5
5
Session layer
4
4
Transport layer
3
3
Network layer
2
2
Data-link layer
1
Physical layer
1
Designation and function of the layers
Interface to application program with application-oriented
commands (read, write)
Representation (coding) of data for analysis and
interpretation in the next layer
Establishing and clearing temporary station connections;
synchronization of communicating processes
Controlling data transmission for layer 5 (transport errors,
break down into packets)
Establishing and clearing connections, avoiding network
congestion
Description of bus access protocol (Medium Access
Control, MAC) including data security
Definition of the medium (hardware), coding and speed of
the data transmission
Transmission medium
Fig. 2: The OSI reference model
1.2 Fieldbus Technology
Terms
The ISO/OSI reference model
describes communications between the stations of a communication system. In order for it to run effectively, defined rules and transfer
interfaces need to be used for the
communications protocol. In 1983,
the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) developed
the OSI reference model ("Open
Systems
Interconnection
Reference Model") for just this purpose. This protocol defines the
elements, structures and tasks required for communication and arranges them into seven layers with
each layer building upon the layer
beneath (Fig. 2). Each layer has to
fulfill specified functions within the
communication process. If a communication system does not require some of those specific functions, the corresponding layers
have no purpose and are bypassed. PROFIBUS uses layers 1,
2 and 7.
Communications
Protocols
define how two or more stations
exchange data using message
frames. A data frame contains different fields for messages and control information. The actual data
field is preceded by the header information (source and destination
address and details of the subsequent message) and followed by
the data security part containing
check information with regard to
the correctness of the transmission
(fault recognition).
A feature of fieldbuses is that they
enable optimum transmission of
small, time-critical data volumes
2
and simplify the transmission process.
Bus access control (MAC, Medium Access Control) is a specific
procedure that determines at which
point in time a station can send
data. While active stations can start
the exchange of information, passive stations may only begin communication when prompted by an
active station.
A distinction is made between a
controlled, deterministic access
procedure with real-time capability
(master-slave with PROFIBUS)
and a random, non-deterministic
access procedure (CSMA/CD with
Ethernet).
Addressing is necessary to selectively identify a station. For this
purpose, station addresses are assigned either by an address switch
(hard addresses) or during parameter assignment during commissioning (soft addresses).
Communication Services fulfill
communication tasks of the station
either cyclic or acyclic user data
communication. The number and
type of these services are criteria
for the application area of a communications protocol. A distinction
is made between connectionIEC 61158
document
IEC 61158-1
IEC 61158-2
IEC 61158-3
IEC 61158-4
IEC 61158-5
IEC 61158-6
oriented services (that means with
handshake procedure and monitoring) and connectionless services.
The second group includes multicast and broadcast messages that
are sent either to a specific group
or to all stations.
Profiles are used in automation
technology to define specific properties and behavior for devices,
device families or entire systems.
Only devices and systems using a
vendor-independent profile provide
interoperability on a fieldbus,
thereby fully exploiting the advantages of a fieldbus.
Application profiles refer primarily
to devices (field devices, controls
and integration tools) and comprise
both an agreed selection of bus
communications and the specific
device application. This type of profile serves manufacturers as a
specification for the development of
profile-conforming and interoperable devices. System profiles describe classes of systems that include functionality, program interfaces and integration tools.
Contents
Introduction
Physical layer specification and service
definition
Data-link service definition
Data-link protocol specification
Application layer service definition
Application layer protocol specification
OSI
layer
1
2
2
7
7
Table 1: Breakdown of IEC 61158
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
Data link
Physical
layer
Profile 3/1
IEC 61158 subsets;
asynchronous
transmission
RS485
Plastic fiber
Glass fiber
PCF fiber
PROFIBUS
IEC 61158 notes that bus communication (by definition) is only possible between devices that belong
to the same protocol type.
Profile 3/2
IEC 61158 subsets;
synchronous
transmission
MBP
PROFIBUS
IEC 61784 bears the title "Profile
ISO/IEC
8802-3
PROFInet
ISO/IEC8802-3
Profile 3/3 TCP/UDP/IP/Ethernet
Implementation
PROFIBUS is Type 3 and PROFInet Type 10.
Profile set
Table 2: Properties of the Communication Profile Family CPF 3
(PROFIBUS)
1.3 International
Standardization
International standardization
of a fieldbus system is necessary
for its acceptance, establishment
and its benefits. PROFIBUS
achieved national standardization
in 1991/1993 in DIN 19245, Part 13 and Europe-wide standardization
in 1996 in EN 50170.
Together with other fieldbus systems, PROFIBUS has been standardized in IEC 61158 since 1999.
2002 saw the completion of activities to update IEC 61158. In the
course of these activities, the latest
PROFIBUS and PROFInet developments were incorporated in this
standard.
IEC 61158 bears the title "Digital
Data Communication for Measurement and Control – Fieldbus for
Use in Industrial Control Systems“
and is broken down into 6 parts
that are designated 61158-1,
61158-2 etc. The contents of Part 1
deal with introductory subjects,
while the subsequent parts are oriented towards the OSI reference
model (layers 1, 2 and 7); see
Table 1.
The various parts of IEC 61158 define, among other things, the numerous services and protocols for
communication between stations
which are regarded as the total
available set, from which a specific
selection (subset) is made for specific fieldbus systems.
The fact that a wide range of different fieldbus systems is available on
the market is acknowledged in IEC
61158 by the definition of 10 "fieldbus protocol types“ with the designation Type 1 to Type 10.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
Sets for Continuous and Discrete
Manufacturing Relative to Fieldbus
Use in Industrial Control Systems“.
Assignment to IEC 61158 is established through the following introductory comment: "This international standard (i.e. IEC 61784)
specifies a set of protocol specific
communication profiles based on
IEC 61158, to be used in the design of devices involved in communications in factory manufacturing
and process control“.
IEC 61784 depicts which subsets
of the total available set of "services“ and “protocols” specified in
IEC 61158 (and other standards)
are used by a specific fieldbus system for communication. The fieldbus-specific "communication profiles“ determined in this manner are
summarized in the "Communication Profile Families (CPF)“ according to their implementation in the
individual fieldbus systems.
The profile sets implemented with
PROFIBUS are summarized under
the designation "Family 3“ with
subdivisions 3/1, 3/2 und 3/3. Table
2 shows their assignment to
PROFIBUS and PROFInet.
3
System
Profiles 1…x
V2.0 and
and V3.0
V3.0
V2.0
Ident Systems
Systems
Ident
The success of PROFIBUS stems
in equal measures from its pro-
PI forms the largest fieldbus user
association in the world. This
represents future opportunities and
responsibility in equal measure,
opportunity to continue creating
and establishing leading technologies that are useful to users and
responsibility for those at the head
of these user associations to be
unwavering in their endeavors to
target openness and investment
protection for PROFIBUS in the future. This commitment (see introduction) serves as the guiding principle for all concerned.
Master Conformance
Conformance Classes
Classes
•• Master
Interfaces (Comm-FB,
(Comm-FB, FDT,
FDT, etc.)
etc.)
•• Interfaces
Constraints
•• Constraints
Transmission
Technologies
2.3 Organization
As well as sponsoring the wide
range development of technology
and its acceptance, PI also undertakes additional tasks for the
worldwide support of members
(users and manufacturer) with advice, information and procedures
for quality assurance as well as the
standardization of technology in international standards.
Common Application Profiles (optional):
Application
Profiles I
Communication
Technologies
RIO for
for PA
PA
RIO
Application
Profiles II
PA Devices
Devices
PA
The history of PROFIBUS goes
back to a association venture project supported by the public authorities, which began in 1987 in
Germany. Within the framework of
this venture, 21 companies and institutes joined forces and created a
strategic fieldbus project. The goal
was the realization and establishment of a bit-serial fieldbus, the
basic requirement of which was the
standardization of the field device
interface. For this purpose, the
relevant member companies of the
Building on these two communications protocols, coupled with the
development of numerous application-oriented profiles and a fast
growing number of devices,
PROFIBUS began ist advance, initially in factory automation and,
since 1995, in process automation.
Today, PROFIBUS is the fieldbus
world market leader with more than
a 20% share of the market, approx.
500,000 equipped applications and
more than 5 million nodes. Today,
there are more than 2000
PROFIBUS products available from
a wide range of manufacturers.
PROFIdrive
PROFIdrive
2.1 History
2.2 Market Position
SEMI
SEMI
PROFIBUS communication is anchored in the international standards IEC 61158 and IEC 61784.
The application and engineering
aspects are specified in the generally available guidelines of the
PROFIBUS User Organization.
This fulfills user demand for manufacturer independence and openness and ensures communication
between devices of various manufacturers.
Integration
Technologies
A first step saw the specification of
the complex communications protocol PROFIBUS FMS (Fieldbus
Message Specification), which was
tailored to demanding communication tasks. A further step in 1993
saw completion of the specification
for the more simply configured and
faster PROFIBUS DP protocol
(Decentralized Periphery). This
protocol is now available in three
functionally scaleable versions DPV0, DP-V1 and DP-V2.
Descriptions (GSD,
(GSD, EDD)
EDD)
•• Descriptions
Tools (DTM,
(DTM, Configurators)
Configurators)
•• Tools
PROFIBUS is an open, digital
communication system with a wide
range of applications, particularly in
the fields of factory and process
automation. PROFIBUS is suitable
for both fast, time-critical applications and complex communication
tasks.
gressive technology and the success of its non-commercial PROFIBUS User Organisation e.V.
(PNO), the trade body of manufacturers and users founded in 1989.
Together with the 22 other regional
PROFIBUS associations in countries around the world, and the international umbrella organization
PROFIBUS
International
(PI)
founded in 1995, this organization
now boasts more than 1,100 members worldwide. Objectives are the
continuous further development of
PROFIBUS technology and increased acceptance worldwide.
Encoder
Encoder
ZVEI (Central Association for the
Electrical Industry) agreed to support a mutual technical concept for
factory and process automation.
Weighing &
& Dosing
Dosing
Weighing
2. PROFIBUS
at a Glance
PROFIsafe, Time Stamp, Redundancy, etc.
IEC 61158/61784
PROFIBUS DP
RS485:
RS485-IS:
NRZ
Intrinsic Safety
Fiber:
Optics:
Glass Multi Mode
Glass Single Mode
PCF / Plastic Fiber
MBP *):
MBP-LP:
MBP-IS:
DP-V0...V2
Manchester Bus Powered
Low Power
Intrinsic Safety
Fig. 3: Technical system structure PROFIBUS
4
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
2.4 The PROFIBUS
”Tool Box”
best known PROFIBUS versions
(Fig. 4).
PROFIBUS has a modular design
and offers a range of communication technologies, numerous application and system profiles, as well
as device management tools. Thus
PROFIBUS covers the diverse and
application-specific demands from
the field of factory and process
automation. The number of installed PROFIBUS plants are proof
of the high acceptance of this fieldbus technology.
PROFIBUS DP is the main em-
From the technological standpoint the lower level (communications) of the system structure of
PROFIBUS (see Fig. 3) is based
on the aforementioned ISO/OSI
reference model. This intentionally
gave an abstract description of the
communication steps without providing details of content/practical
implementation. Fig. 3 contains the
implementation of the OSI model
(layers 1, 2 and 7) in PROFIBUS
with details on how the layers are
individually implemented/specified.
Specifications agreed between
manufacturers and users on specific device applications are arranged above layer 7 in application
profiles I and II.
phasis for factory automation; it
uses RS485 transmission technology, one of the DP communications protocol versions and one
or more application profile(s) typical of factory automation, such as
Ident Systems or Robots/NC.
PROFIBUS PA is the main emphasis for process automation,
typically with MBP-IS transmission
technology, the communications
protocol version DP-V1 and the
application profile PA Devices.
Motion Control with PROFIBUS is the main emphasis for
drive technology using RS485
transmission technology, the communications protocol version DPV2 and the application profile
PROFIdrive.
PROFIsafe is the main emphasis
for safety-relevant applications
(universal use for allmost all industries), using RS485 or MBP-IS
transmission technology, one of the
available DP versions for communication and the application profile
PROFIsafe.
Across several layers, the modular
system as shown in Fig. 3 has the
following:
2.4.1 Transmission
Technologies
•
There is a whole range of transmission technologies available for
PROFIBUS.
•
Functions and tools for device
description and integration
(umbrella term: Integration
Technologies, see Chapter 7)
and
A range of standards (interfaces, master profiles; umbrella term: system profiles)
that primarily serve the realization of uniform, standardized
systems, see Chapter 6.
From the user standpoint
PROFIBUS presents itself in the
form of different typical-application
main emphases that are not specifically defined but have proven
useful as a result of frequent applications. Each main emphasis results from a typical (but not specifically defined) combination of
modular elements from the groups
"transmission technology", "communications protocol" and "application profiles". The following examples explain this principle using the
RS485 is the most commonly
used transmission technology. It
uses a shielded twisted pair cable
and enables transmission rates up
to 12 Mbit/sec.
The
newly
specified version
RS485-IS has been recently
specified as a 4-wire medium in
protection type EEx-i for use in potentially explosive areas. The
specified levels of voltage and current refer to the safety-relevant
maximum values that must not be
exceeded in either individual devices or during interconnection in
the system. In contrast to the
FISCO model (see Chapter 3.1.2),
which only has one intrinsically
safe source, in this case all stations
represent active sources.
The MBP transmission technology
(Manchester Coded, Bus Powered,
previous designation "IEC 1158-2 Physics", see Chapter 3.1) is available for applications in process
automation with a demand for bus
powering and intrinsic safety of devices. Compared to the previously
used procedure, the "Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept“ (FISCO,
see Chapter 3.1.2), which was
specially developed for interconnection of intrinsically safe fieldbus
devices, considerably simplifies
planning and installation.
Fiber-optic transmission is suitable for use in areas with high electromagnetic interference or where
greater network distances are required (see chapter 3.1.3).
2.4.2 Communication
Protocols
At the protocol level, PROFIBUS
with DP and its versions DP-V0 to
DP-V2 offers a broad spectrum of
options, which enable optimum
communication between different
applications. Historically speaking,
FMS was the first PROFIBUS
communications protocol.
FMS
(Fieldbus Message Specification) is designed for communication at the cell level, where programmable controllers, such as
Fig. 4: Typical, application-oriented features of PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
5
PLCs and PCs primarily communicate with each other. It was the
forerunner of PROFIBUS DP.
DP
(Decentralized Periphery) is the
simple, fast, cyclic and deterministic process data exchange between
a bus master and the assigned
slave devices. The original version,
designated DP-V0, has been expanded to include version DP-V1,
offering acyclic data exchange between master and slave. A further
version DP-V2 is also available,
which provides for direct slave-toslave communication with an
isochronous bus cycle.
The Bus Access Protocol,
layer 2 or the data-link layer, defines the master-slave procedure
and the token passing procedure
for coordination of several masters
on the bus (Fig. 5). The tasks of
layer 2 also include functions, such
as data security and the handling
of data frames.
The Application Layer, Layer 7,
defines the application layer and
forms the interface to the application program. It offers various services for cyclic and acyclic data exchange.
cial features of field devices, controls and methods of integration
(engineering). The term profile
ranges from just a few specifications for a specific device class
through comprehensive specifications for applications in a specific
industry. The generic term used for
all profiles is application profiles.
A distinction is then drawn between
general application profiles with
implementation options for different
applications (this includes, for example, the profiles PROFIsafe,
Redundancy and Time Stamp),
specific application profiles,
which are developed for a specific
application, such as PROFIdrive,
SEMI or PA Devices, and system
and master profiles, which describe specific system performance
that is available to field devices.
PROFIBUS offers a wide range of
such application profiles, which allow application-oriented implementation.
2.5 PROFIBUS The keys to success
The success of PROFIBUS, its
world market leadership is determined by many factors:
•
PROFIBUS offers plant manufacturers and operators an industry-wide, universal, open
technology.
•
PROFIBUS is a key factor in
noticeably reducing costs in
the field of machine and plant
engineering.
•
PROFIBUS has consistently
and logically expanded its application area while taking into
account the demands of the
respective application fields.
This ensures optimum support
of industry-specific applications.
•
PROFIBUS means optimum
integration in many automation
and engineering systems for
users due to its overall acceptance and widespread use.
•
PROFIBUS has pursued the
stabilization and broad acceptance of communication platforms, the further development
of application profiles and the
connection of industrial automation to the IT world of corporate management.
2.4.3 Profiles
Profiles are the specifications defined by manufacturers and users
regarding specific properties, performance features and behavior of
devices and systems. Profile specifications define the parameters and
behavior of devices and systems
that belong to a profile family built
around to profile-conformance development, which facilitate device
interoperability and, in some instances, device interchangeability
on a bus. Profiles take into account
application and type-specific spe-
6
Fig. 5: PROFIBUS configuration with active masters and slaves
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
3. PROFIBUS
Transmission and
Communication
3.1 Transmission
Technology
In the ISO/OSI reference model,
layer 1 defines the method of
"physical" data transmission, i.e.
electrical and mechanical. This includes the type of encoding and
the transmission standard used
(RS485). Layer 1 is called the
physical layer.
PROFIBUS
provides different
versions of layer 1 as a transmission technology (see Table 4). All
versions are based on international
standards and are assigned to
PROFIBUS in both IEC 61158 and
IEC 61784.
Transmission
Rate
[KBit/s]
9.6; 19.2; 45.45;
93.75
187.5
Range per
Segment
[m]
1200
1000
500
400
1500
200
3000; 6000; 12000
100
The values refer to cable type A
with the following properties:
Impedance
135 to 165 Ω
Capacity
≤ 30 pf/m
Loop resistance
≤ 110 Ω/km
Wire diameter
> 0.64 mm
Core cross-section > 0.34 mm2
Table 3: Transmission rate and
range for cable type A
3.1.1 RS485 Transmission
Technology
RS485 transmission technology is
simple and cost-effective and primarily used for tasks that require
high transmission rates. Shielded,
twisted pair copper cable with one
conductor pair is used.
RS485 transmission technology is
easy to use. No expert knowledge
is required for installation of the
cable. The bus structure allows addition or removal of stations or the
step-by-step commissioning of the
system without influencing other
stations. Subsequent expansions
(within defined limits) have no ef-
fect on stations already in operation.
One new option is the ability of
RS485 to also operate in intrinsically safe areas (RS485-IS, see
explanation at the end of this section).
Characteristics of RS485
Various transmission rates can
be selected between 9.6 Kbit/s and
12 Mbit/s. One uniform speed is
selected for all devices on the bus
when commissioning the system.
Up to 32 stations can be connected. The maximum permissible
line length depends on the transmission rate. These and other
properties are summarized in
Table 4.
Installation instructions for
RS485
Topology
All devices are connected in a bus
structure (line). Up to 32 stations
(masters or slaves) can be connected in a single segment. The
beginning and end of each segment is fitted with an active bus
terminator (Fig. 6). Both bus terminators have a permanent power
supply to ensure error-free operation. The bus terminator is usually
switched in the devices or in the
connectors. If more than 32 stations are implemented or there is a
need to expand the network area,
repeaters must be used to link the
individual bus segments.
Cables and Connectors
Different cable types (type designation A - D) for different applications
are available on the market for
connecting devices either to each
other or to network elements (segment couplers, links and repeaters). When using RS485 transmission technology, PI recommends
the use of cable type A (see data in
Table 3).
"PROFIBUS" cables are offered by
a wide range of manufacturers; PI
particularly recommends the fastconnect system which, when used
with a suitable cable and special
stripping tool, allows fast, reliable
and extremely simple wiring.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
When connecting the stations, always ensure that the data lines are
not reversed. Always use a
shielded data line (type A is
shielded) to ensure high interference immunity of the system
against electromagnetic emissions.
The shield should be grounded on
both sides where possible and
large-area shield clamps should be
used for grounding to ensure good
conductivity. Furthermore, always
ensure that the data line is laid
separately and, where possible,
away from all power cables. Never
use spur lines for transmission
rates ≥ 1.5 Mbit/s.
Commercially available connectors
support direct connection of the incoming and outgoing data cable in
the connector. This eliminates the
need for spur lines and the bus
connector can be connected and
disconnected to the bus at any time
without interrupting data communications. The type of connector
suitable for RS485 transmission
technology depends on the degree
of protection. A 9-pin D-Sub connector is primarily used for protection rating IP 20. For IP 65/67 there
are three common alternatives:
•
M12 circular connector in accordance with IEC 947-5-2
•
Han-Brid connector in accordance with DESINA recommendation
•
Siemens hybrid connector
The hybrid connector system also
provides a version for the transmission of data using fiber optics
and 24 V working voltage for peripherals over copper cable in a
shared hybrid cable.
Problems with data transmission in
PROFIBUS networks can usually
be attributed to incorrect wiring or
installation. These problems can
often be solved using bus test devices, which are able to detect
many typical wiring errors even before commissioning.
For a list of suppliers of the many
different connectors, cables, repeaters, bus test devices mentioned here, please refer to the
PROFIBUS online Product Catalog
(www.profibus.com).
RS485-IS
There has been great demand
among users to support the use of
7
Station 1
ing attributes
VP (6)
Station 2
390 Ω
RxD/TxD-P (3)
(3) RxD/TxD-P
DGND (5)
Data line
(5) DGND
VP (6)
RxD/TxD-P (3)
(8) RxD/TxD-N
Data line
RxD/TxD-N (8)
Shielding
Protective
ground
390 Ω
Protective
ground
DGND (5)
Wiring
Bus termination
Fig. 6: Wiring and bus termination for RS485 transmission technology
RS485 with its fast transmission
rates in intrinsically safe areas.
The PNO has addressed this task
and worked out a guideline for the
configuration of intrinsically safe
RS485 solutions with simple device
interchangeability.
The specification of the interface
details the levels for current and
voltage that must be adhered to by
all stations in order to ensure safe
functioning during operation. An
electric circuit permits maximum
currents at a specified voltage
level. When connecting active
sources, the sum of the currents of
all stations must not exceed the
"Manchester Coding (M)", and
•
"Bus Powered", (BP).
This term replaces the previously
common terms for intrinsically safe
transmission "Physics in accordance with IEC 61158-2", "1158-2",
etc. The reason for this change is
that, in its definitive version, the
IEC 61158-2 (physical layer) describes several different connection
technologies, including MBP technology, not being therefore unambiguos.
220 Ω
(6) VP
RxD/TxD-N (8)
•
maximum permissible current.
An innovation of the RS485-IS
concept is that, in contrast to the
FISCO model that only has one intrinsically safe source, all stations
now represent active sources. The
continuing investigations of the
testing agency lead us to expect
that it will be possible to connect up
to 32 stations to the intrinsically
safe bus circuit.
3.1.2 Transmission in
Accordance with MBP
MBP is synchronous transmission
with a defined transmission rate of
31.25 Kbit/s and Manchester coding. This transmission technology
is frequently used in process automation as it satisfies the key demands of the chemical and petrochemical industries for intrinsic
safety and bus power using twowire technology. The characteristics of this transmission technology
are summarized in Table 4. This
means that PROFIBUS can also be
used in potentially explosive areas
and be intrinsically safe.
The term MBP stands for transmission technology with the follow-
MBP
RS485
Data transmission Digital, bit-synchronous,
Manchester encoding
RS485-IS
Digital, differential
signals according
to RS485, NRZ
Transmission rate 31.25 KBit/s
9.6 to 12,000 KBit/s
Data security
Preamble,error-protected, HD=4, Parity bit,
start/end delimiter
start/end delimiter
Cable
Shielded, twisted pair
Shielded, twisted pair
copper
copper, cable type A
Digital, differential
signals according
to RS485, NRZ
9.6 to 1,500 KBit/s
HD=4, Parity bit,
start/end delimiter
Shielded, twisted
4-wire, cable type A
Remote feeding
Available over
additional wire
Instrinsic safety
(EEx ib)
Line topology with
termination
Protection type
Topology
Number
of stations
Number
of repeaters
Optional available over
signal wire
Instrinsic safety
(EEx ia/ib)
Line and tree topology
with termination; also in
combination
Up to 32 stations per
segment; total sum of
max. 126 per network
Max. 4 repeater
Available over
additional wire
None
Line topology with
termination
Up to 32 stations per
segment without
repeater; up to 126
stations with repeater
Max. 9 repeater with
signal refreshing
Up to 32 stations per
segment; up to 126
stations with repeater
Max. 9 repeater with
signal refreshing
Fiber Optic
Optical, digital, NRZ
9.6 to 12,000 KBit/s
HD=4, Parity bit,
start/end delimiter
Multimode glass fiber,
singlemode glass
fiber, PCF, plastic
Available over
hybrid line
None
Star and ring topology
typical; line topology
possible
Up to 126 stations per
network
Unlimited with signal
refreshing (time delay
of signal)
Table 4: Transmission technologies (Physical Layer) at PROFIBUS
8
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
Installation Instructions for
MBP
Connection technology
The intrinsically safe transmission
technology MBP is usually limited
to a specific segment (field devices
in hazardous areas) of a plant,
which are then linked to the RS485
segment (control system and engineering devices in the control
room) via a segment coupler or
links (Fig. 7).
Segment couplers are signal converters that modulate the RS485
signals to the MBP signal level and
vice versa. They are transparent
from the bus protocol standpoint.
In contrast, links have their own intrinsic intelligence. They map all
the field devices connected to the
MBP segment as a single slave in
the RS485 segment. There is no
limit to the transmission rate in the
RS485 segment when using links,
so that fast networks can also be
implemented using field devices
with MBP connection.
Network Topologies with
MBP
Tree or line structures (and any
combination of the two) are network topologies supported by
PROFIBUS with MBP transmission.
In a line structure, stations are
connected to the trunk cable using
tee adapters. The tree topology is
comparable to the classic field installation method. The multi-core
master cable is replaced by the
two-wire bus master cable, the field
distributor retains its function of
connecting the field devices and
detecting the bus terminator im-
pedance. When using a tree topology, all field devices connected to
the fieldbus segment are wired in
parallel in the field distributor. In all
cases, the maximum permissible
spur line lengths must be taken into
account when calculating the overall line length. In intrinsically safe
applications, a spur line has a max.
permissible length of 30 m.
Transmission Medium
A shielded two-wire cable is used
as the transmission medium, see
Fig. 6. The bus trunk cable has a
passive line terminator at each
end, which comprises an RC element connected in series with R =
100 Ω and C = 2 µF. The bus terminator is already integrated in the
segment coupler or link. When using MBP technology, incorrect connection of a field device (i.e. polarity reversal) has no effect on the
functionality of the bus as these
devices are usually fitted with an
automatic polarity detection function.
No. of Stations,
Line Length
The number of stations that can be
connected to a segment is limited
to 32. However, this number may
be further determined by the protection type selected and bus
power (if any).
In intrinsically safe networks, both
the maximum feed voltage and the
maximum feed current are defined
within strict limits. But the output of
the supply unit is limited even for
nonintrinsically safe networks.
As a rule of thumb for determining
the max. line length, it suffices to
calculate the power requirements
of the connected field devices, and
to specify a supply unit and the line
length for the selected cable type.
The required current (=Σ power requirements) is derived from the
sum of the basic currents of the
field devices connected in the respective segment plus, where applicable, a reserve of 9 mA per
segment for the operating current
of the FDE (Fault Disconnection
Electronics). The FDE prevents
faulty devices permanently blocking the bus.
Joint operation of bus-powered and
externally fed devices is permissible. Please note that externally fed
devices also consume a basic current over the bus terminator, which
must be taken into account accordingly when calculating the max.
available feed current.
The FISCO model considerably
simplifies the planning, installation
and expansion of PROFIBUS networks in potentially explosive areas
(see chapter 3.1.4).
3.1.3 Fiber Optic Transmission Technology
Some fieldbus application conditions place restrictions on wirebound transmission technology,
such as those in environments with
very high electromagnetic interference or when particularly large distances need to be covered.
Fiber optic transmission over fiber
optic conductors is suitable in such
cases. The PROFIBUS guideline
(2.022) for fiber optic transmission
specifies the technology available
for this purpose. When determining
these specifications, great care
was naturally taken to allow problem-free integration of existing
PROFIBUS devices in a fiber optic
network without the need to
change the protocol behavior of
PROFIBUS (layer 1). This ensures
backward compatibility with existing PROFIBUS installations.
The supported fiber optic types are
shown in Table 5. The transmission
characteristics support not only star
and ring topology structures, but
also line structures.
Fig. 7: Plant topology and bus powering of field devices using MBP
transmission technology
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
In the simplest case, a fiber optic
network is implemented using electrical/optical transformers that are
connected to the device and the fiber optics over a RS485 interface.
This allows you to switch between
RS485 and fiber optic transmission
9
within a plant, depending on the
circumstances.
Boundary conditions for the application of FISCO
•
•
•
3.1.4 The FISCO model
The FISCO model (Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept) considerably
simplifies the planning, installation
and expansion of PROFIBUS networks in potentially explosive areas.
•
•
This model was developed in Germany by the PTB ( Physikalisch
Technische Bundesanstalt - German Federal Technical Institute)
and is now internationally recognized as the basic model for the
operation of fieldbuses in potentially explosive areas.
The model is based on the specification that a network is intrinsically
safe and requires no individual intrinsic safety calculations when the
relevant four bus components (field
devices, cables, segment couplers
and bus terminators) fall within
predefined limits with regard to
voltage, current, output, inductance
and capacity. The corresponding
proof can be provided by certification of the components through authorized accreditation agencies,
such as PTB (Germany) or UL
(USA) and others.
If FISCO-approved devices are
used, not only is it possible to operate more devices on a single line,
but the devices can be replaced
during runtime by devices of other
manufacturers or the line can be
expanded - all without the need for
time-consuming calculations or
system certification. So you can
simply plug & play - even in hazardous areas! You merely need to
ensure adherence to the aforementioned rules (see "Installation instructions for MBP) when selecting
supply unit, line length and bus
terminator.
Only one power source permitted per segment
All stations must be approved in accordance with FISCO
The cable length must not exceed 1000 m (ignition protection
class i, category a)/ 1900 m (ignition protection class i, category b)
The cable must satisfy the following values:
R´= 15 ... 150 Ω/km
L´= 0.4 ... 1mH/km
C´= 80 ... 200 nF/km
All combinations of power supply unit and field devices must ensure
that the permissible input variables of any of the field devices (Ui, Ii
and Pi) must be above the, in case of a fault, maximum possible and
approved output variables (U0, I0 and P0; in the US: Vmax, Imax and
Pmax) of the relevant supply unit.
User benefits of FISCO
•
•
•
•
Plug & Play supported, even in hazardous areas
No system certification
Interchangeability of devices or expansion
of plant without time-consuming calculations
Maximization of the number of connected devices
•
No power is fed to the bus
when a station is sending.
•
Each segment has only one
source of power, the supply
unit.
•
Each field device consumes a
constant basic current of at
least 10 mA in steady state.
•
The field devices act as a passive current sink.
•
Passive line termination is implemented at both ends of the
bus trunk line.
•
Networks in line, tree and star
topology are supported.
With bus power, the basic current
of at least 10 mA per device serves
to supply power to the field device.
Communication signals are generated by the sending device, which
modulates ± 9 mA to the basic current.
Transmission according to MBP
and the FISCO model is based on
the following principles:
Fiber type
Core diameter [µm] Range
Multimode glass fiber
62.5/125
2-3 km
Singlemode glass fiber
9/125
> 15 km
Plastic fiber
980/1000
< 80 m
HCS® fiber
200/230
approx. 500 m
3.2 Communication
Protocol DP
The communications protocol DP
(Decentralized Peripherals) has
been designed for fast data exchange at field level. This is where
central programmable controllers,
such as PLCs, PCs or process
control systems, communicate with
distributed field devices, such as
I/O, drives, valves, transducers or
analysis devices, over a fast serial
connection. Data exchange with
the distributed devices is primarily
cyclic. The communication functions required for this are specified
through the DP basic functions
(version DP-V0). Geared towards
the special demands of the various
areas of application, these basic
DP functions have been expanded
step-by-step with special functions,
so that DP is now available in three
versions; DP-V0, DP-V1 and DPV2, whereby each version has its
own special key features (see Fig.
8). This breakdown into versions
largely reflects the chronological
sequence of specification work as
a result of the ever-increasing demands of applications. Versions V0
and V1 contain both "characteristics" (binding for implementation)
and options, while version V2 only
specifies options.
Table 5: Characteristics of optical fibers
10
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, August 2002
Functional
Levels
DP-V2
DP-V0 provides the basic func-
„ Data Exchange Broadcast (Publisher / Subscriber)
„ Isochronous Mode (Equidistance)
tionality of DP, including cyclic data
exchange as well as station diagnosis, module diagnosis and channel-specific diagnosis.
„
„
„
„
DP-V1
„ Acyclic Data Exchange between PC or PLC and Slave Devices
DP-V1 contains enhancements
geared towards process automation, in particular acyclic data
communication for parameter assignment, operation, visualization
and alarm handling of intelligent
field devices, parallel to cyclic user
data communication. This permits
online access to stations using engineering tools. In addition, DP-V1
defines alarms. Examples for different types of alarms are status
alarm, update alarm and a manufacturer-specific alarm.
DP-V2 contains further enhancements and is geared primarily towards the demands of drive technology. Due to additional functionalities, such as isochronous slave
mode and slave-to-slave communication (DXB, Data eXchange
Broadcast) etc., the DP-V2 can
also be implemented as a drive bus
for controlling fast movement sequences in drive axes.
The various versions of DP are
specified in detail in the IEC 61158.
The following explains the key
characteristics.
3.2.1 Basic Functions
DP-V0
The central controller (master)
•
reads input information from
the slaves cyclically and
•
writes output information to the
slaves cyclically.
The bus cycle time should be
shorter than the program cycle time
of the central automation system,
which is approx. 10 ms for many
applications. However, a faster
data throughput alone is not
enough for successful implementation of a bus system. Simple handling, good diagnosis capabilities
and interference-proof transmission
technology are also key factors. DP
provides an optimum combination
plus extensions:
Clock Synchronization & Time Stamps
HARTonDP
Up/Download (Segmentation)
Redundancy
„
„
„
„
plus extensions:
Integration within Engineering: EDD and FDT
Portable PLC Software Function Blocks (IEC 61131-3)
Fail-Safe Communication (PROFIsafe)
Alarms
DP-V0
„ Cyclic Data Exchange between PLC and Slave Devices
plus extensions:
„ GSD Configuration
„ Diagnosis
Device Features
Features
Device
The key contents of the three versions are as follows:
Time
Fig. 8: Functionality of the PROFIBUS DP version with key features
of these characteristics (see summary in table 6).
System Configuration
and Device Types
Transmission Speed
DP supports implementation of
both mono-master and multimaster systems. This affords a
high degree of flexibility during system configuration. A maximum of
126 devices (masters or slaves)
can be connected to a bus. The
specifications for system configuration define the following:
DP only requires approx. 1 ms at
12 Mbit/s for the transmission of
512 bits of input and 512 bits of
output data distributed over 32 stations.
Fig. 9 shows typical DP transmission times, depending on the number of stations and the transmission rate. When using DP, input
and output data are transmitted in
a single message cycle. With DP,
user data is transmitted using the
SRD Services (Send and Receive
Data Service) of layer 2.
Diagnosis Functions
The
comprehensive
diagnosis
functions of DP enable fast location
of faults. The diagnosis messages
are transmitted over the bus and
collected at the master. These
messages are divided into three
levels:
Device-Specific Diagnosis
Messages on the general readiness for service of a station, such
as "Overheating", "Undervoltage"
or "Interface unclear".
Module-Related Diagnosis
These messages indicate whether
a diagnosis is pending within a
specific I/O subdomain of a station
(for example 8-bit output module).
Channel-Related Diagnosis
These messages indicate the
cause of a fault related to an individual input/output bit (channel),
such as "Short-circuit at output".
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
•
number of stations
•
assignment of station addresses to the I/O addresses,
•
data consistences of I/O data,
•
the format of diagnosis messages and
•
the bus parameters used.
Device Types
Each DP system is made up of 3
different device types.
DP Master Class 1 (DPM1)
This is a central controller that cyclically exchanges information with
the distributed stations (slaves) at a
specified message cycle. Typical
DPM1 devices are programmable
logic controllers (PLCs) or PCs. A
DPM1 has active bus access with
which it can read measurement
data (inputs) of the field devices
and write the setpoint values (outputs) of the actuators at fixed
times. This continuously repeating
cycle is the basis of the automation
function.
11
DP Master Class 2 (DPM2)
Devices of this type are engineering, configuration or operating devices. They are implemented during commissioning and for maintenance and diagnosis in order to
configure
connected
devices,
evaluate measured values and parameters and request the device
status. A DPM2 does not have to
be permanently connected to the
bus system. The DPM2 also has
active bus access.
Slaves
A slave is a peripheral (I/O devices, drives, HMIs, valves, transducers, analysis devices), which
reads in process information
and/or uses output information to
intervene in the process. There are
also devices that solely process
input information or output information. As far as communication is
concerned, slaves are passive devices, they only respond to direct
queries. This behavior is simple
and cost-effective to implement (in
the case of DP-V0 it is already
completely included in the hardware).
In the case of mono-master systems, only one master is active on
the bus during operation of the bus
system. Figure 10 shows the system configuration of a monomaster system. The PLC is the
central control component. The
slaves are decentrally coupled to
the PLC over the transmission
medium. This system configuration
enables the shortest bus cycle
times.
In multi-master operation several
masters are connected to one bus.
They represent either independent
subsystems,
comprising
one
DPM1 and its assigned slaves, or
additional configuration and diagnosis devices. The input and output images of the slaves can be
read by all DP masters, while only
one DP master (the DPM1 assigned during configuration) can
write-access the outputs.
System Behavior
In order to ensure a high degree of
device interchangeability among
devices of the same type, the system behavior of DP has also been
standardized. This behavior is determined primarily by the operating
state of the DPM1.
This can be controlled either locally
or over the bus from the configura-
12
•
Bus access
•
•
Communication
•
Operating states
•
•
•
•
Synchronization
•
•
•
•
Functionality
•
•
•
•
•
Protective functions
•
•
•
•
Device types
•
•
•
Token passing procedure between masters
and data passing between masters and slaves
Mono-master or multi-master system option
Master and slave devices, max. 126 stations
on one bus
Peer-to-peer (user data communication) or
multicast (control commands)
Cyclic master-slave user data communication
Operate
Cyclic transmission of input and output data
Clear
Inputs are read, outputs remain in fail-safe
state
Stop
Diagnosis and parameter assignment, no
user data transmission
Control commands enable the
synchronization of inputs and outputs
Sync mode
Outputs are synchronized
Freeze mode
Inputs are synchronized
Cyclic user data transfer between
DP master and slave(s)
Dynamic activation/deactivation of individual
slaves; checking of slave configuration
Powerful diagnosis functions,
3 levels of diagnosis messages
Synchronization of inputs and/or outputs
Optional address assignment for slaves over
the bus
Maximum 244 bytes of input/output data per
slave
Message transmission at Hamming Distance
HD=4
Watchdog control of DP slaves
detects failure of assigned master
Access protection for outputs of slaves
Monitoring of user data communication with
adjustable monitoring timer in master
DP master class 1 (DPM1) for example central programmable controllers, such as PLCs,
PCs.
DP master class 2 (DPM2)
for example engineering or diagnosis tools
DP slave for example devices with binary or
analog inputs/outputs, drives, valves
Table 6: Overview of DP-V0
tion device. There are three main
states:
Stop
No data communication between
the DPM1 and the slaves.
Clear
The DPM1 reads the input information of the slaves and keeps the
outputs of the slaves in a fail-safe
state ("0" output).
Operate
The DPM1 is in the data transfer
phase. In cyclic data communica-
tion, inputs are read from the
slaves and output information written to the slaves.
The DPM1 cyclically sends its
status to all its assigned slaves at
configurable intervals using a multicast command.
The reaction of the system to a
fault during the data transfer phase
of the DPM1, for example the
failure of a slave, is determined by
the "auto clear" configuration parameter.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
If this parameter is set to True, the
DPM1 switches the outputs of all
assigned slaves to a fail-safe state
the moment a slave is no longer
ready for user data transmission.
The DPM1 subsequently switches
to the clear state.
If this parameter is set to False, the
DPM1 remains in the operate state
even in the event of a fault and the
user can control the reaction of the
system.
Bus cycle time
[ms]
18
14
500 Kbit/s
10
1.5 Mbit/s
6
12 Mbit/s
2
2
Cyclic Data Communication
between the DPM1 and the
Slaves
Data communication between the
DPM1 and its assigned slaves is
automatically handled by the DPM1
in a defined, recurring sequence
(see Fig. 11). The user defines the
assignment of the slave(s) to the
DPM1 when configuring the bus
system. The user also defines
which slaves are to be included/excluded in the cyclic user
data communication.
Data communication between the
DPM1 and the slaves is divided
into three phases: parameterization, configuration and data transfer. Before the master includes a
DP slave in the data transfer
phase, a check is run during the
parameterization and configuration
phase to ensure that the configured
setpoint configuration matches the
actual device configuration. During
this check, the device type, format
and length information and the
number of inputs and outputs must
also correspond. This provides the
user with reliable protection against
parameterization errors. In addition
to user data transfer, which is
automatically executed by the
DPM1, the user can also request
that new parameterization data are
sent to the slaves.
10
20
30
Slaves
Fig. 9: Bus cycle times of a DP mono-master system. Boundary conditions:
each slave has 2 bytes of input and output data
The slaves begin sync mode when
they receive a sync command from
the assigned master. The outputs
of all addressed slaves are then
frozen in their current state. During
subsequent user data transmission, the output data are stored at
the slave while the output states
remain unchanged. The stored
output data are not sent to the outputs until the next sync command
is received. Sync mode is terminated with the "unsync" command.
In the same way, a freeze command causes the addressed slaves
to enter freeze mode. In this
mode, the states of the inputs are
frozen at their current value. The
input data are not updated again
until the master sends the next
freeze command. Freeze mode is
terminated with the "unfreeze"
command.
Protective Mechanisms
For safety reasons, it is necessary
to ensure that DP has effective protective functions against incorrect
parameterization or failure of
transmission equipment. For this
purpose the DP master and the
slaves are fitted with monitoring
mechanisms in the form of time
monitors. The monitoring interval is
defined during configuration.
At the DP Master
The
DPM1
uses
a
Data_Control_Timer to monitor the
data communication of the slaves.
A separate timer is used for each
slave. The time monitor is tripped if
no correct user data transfer is
executed within the monitoring interval. In this case, the user is notified. If the automatic error handling
(Auto_Clear = True) is enabled, the
DPM1 exits the operate state,
switches the outputs of the assigned slaves to the fail-safe state
and shifts to the clear mode.
At the Slave
The slave uses the watchdog control to detect errors of the master or
transmission. If no data communication with the master occurs
within the watchdog control interval,
the
slave
automatically
switches its outputs to the fail-safe
state.
In addition, access protection is required for the outputs of the slaves
operating in multi-master systems.
This ensures that only the author-
Sync and freeze mode
In addition to the station-related
user data communication, which is
automatically handled by the
DPM1, the master can also send
control commands to all slaves or a
group of slaves simultaneously.
These control commands are
transmitted as multicast commands
and enable sync and freeze modes
for event-controlled synchronization of the slaves.
Fig. 10: PROFIBUS DP mono-master system
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
13
into the categories alarms and
status messages (see Fig. 12).
3.2.3 Version DP-V2
Slave-to-Slave
Communications (DXB)
Fig. 11: Cyclic user data
transmission in DP
ized master has direct access. For
all other masters, the slaves provide an image of their inputs and
that can be read without access
rights.
3.2.2 Version DP-V1
Acyclic data communications
The key feature of version DP-V1
is the extended function for acyclic
data communication. This forms
the requirement for parameterization and calibration of the field devices over the bus during runtime
and for the introduction of confirmed alarm messages. Transmission of acyclic data is executed
parallel to cyclic data communication, but with lower priority. Figure
13 shows some sample communication sequences. The master
class 1 has the token and is able to
send messages to or retrieve them
from slave 1, then slave 2, etc. in a
fixed sequence until it reaches the
last slave of the current list (MS0
channel); it then passes on the token to the master class 2. This
master can then use the remaining
available time ("gap") of the programmed cycle to set up an acyclic
connection to any slave (in Figure
13 slave 3) to exchange records
(MS2 channel); at the end of the
current cycle time it returns the token to the master class 1. The
acyclic exchange of records can
last for several scan cycles or their
"gaps"; at the end, the master class
2 uses the gap to clear the connection. Similarly, as well as the master class 2, the master class 1 can
also execute acyclic data exchange
with slaves (MS1 channel).
This function enables direct and
time-saving communication between slaves using broadcast
communication without the detour
over a master. In this case the
slaves act as "publisher", i.e., the
slave response does not go
through the coordinating master,
but directly to other slaves embedded in the sequence, the so-called
"subscribers" (see Fig. 15). This
enables slaves to directly read data
from other slaves and use them as
their own input. This opens up the
possibility of completely new applications; it also reduces response
times on the bus by up to 90 %.
Isochronous Mode
This function enables clock synchronous control in masters and
slaves, irrespective of the bus load.
The function enables highly precise
positioning processes with clock
deviations of less than one microsecond. All participating device cycles are synchronized to the bus
master cycle through a "global control" broadcast message. A special
sign of life (consecutive number)
allows monitoring of the synchronization. Fig. 14 shows the available
times for data exchange (DX,
green), access of a master class 2
(yellow) and reserve (white). The
red arrow identifies the route from
the actual data acquisition (TI )
over control (Rx) through to the
setpoint data output (TO), which
usually extends over two bus cycles.
Clock Control
This function (a real-time master
sends time stamps to all slaves
over the new connectionless MS3
services, designed for this purpose) synchronizes all stations to a
system time with a deviation of less
than one millisecond. This allows
the precise tracking of events. This
is particularly useful for the acquisition of timing functions in networks
with numerous masters. This facilitates the diagnosis of faults as well
as the chronological planning of
events.
Upload and Download
(Load Region)
This function allows the loading of
any size of data area in a field device with few commands. This enables, for example, programs to be
updated or devices replaced without the need for manual loading
processes.
Additional available services are
shown in Table 7.
Extended diagnosis
As a further function, the devicespecific diagnosis of the DP-V1
have been enhanced and divided
14
Fig. 12: Configuration of diagnosis messages in DP-V0 and DP-V1
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
PROFIBUS-DP
Master Class 1
PROFIBUS-DP
Master Class 2
Token
DP- Slave
DP-Slave
DP-Slave
1
2
3
Cycle:
Slave1
Slave2
blocks enabled for read/write access are also regarded as assigned to the modules and can be
addressed using slot number and
index. The slot number addresses
the module and the index addresses the data blocks assigned
to a module. Each data block can
be up to 244 bytes (see Fig. 16). In
the case of modular devices, the
slot number is assigned to the
modules. The modules begin at 1
and are numbered in ascending
contiguous sequence. The slot
number 0 is for the device itself.
Slave3
Slave3
Cyclic Access
of Master 1
Compact devices are regarded as
a unit of virtual modules. These
can also be addressed with slot
number and index.
Acyclic Access
of Master 2
Through the length specification in
the read/write request it is also
possible to read/write parts of a
data block. When access to the
data block was successful, the
slave sends a positive read/write
response or may otherwise be able
to classify the problem by means of
its negative response.
Fig. 13: Cyclic and acyclic communication in DP-V1
Master
position controller cycle
DP-cycle
TM
global
control
TM
R1 R2 R3
R1 R2 R3
DX
MSG
TM
R1 R2 R3
DX
S1
velocity controller cycle
Slave1..3
TO TI
TO TI
TO TI
Fig. 14: Isochronous mode
Function Invocation
Function Invocation services allow
to control (start, stop, return, restart) of programs or call of functions (for example acquisition of
measured values) in a DP slave.
3.2.4 Addressing with Slot
and Index
When addressing data, PROFIBUS
assumes that the physical structure
of the slaves is modular or can be
structured internally in logical functional units, so-called modules.
This model is also used in the basic DP functions for cyclic data
communication, where each module has a constant number of input/output bytes that are transmitted in a fixed position in the user
data telegram. The addressing
procedure is based on identifiers,
which characterize a module type
as input, output or a combination of
both. All identifiers combined produce the configuration of a slave,
which is also checked by the DPM1
when the system starts up.
The acyclic data communication is
also based on this model. All data
PROFIBUS - DP
Master Class 1
Output
data
Input data via Broadcast
Publisher
Subscriber
Subscriber
(e.g. light array)
(e.g. drive)
(e.g. drive)
Slave
Slave
Slave
Slave-to-slave communications
Fig. 15: Slave-slave data exchange
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
15
Services for Acyclic Data Communication
between the DPM1 and Slaves
Read
Write
The master reads a data block from the slave
The master writes a data block to the slave
An alarm is transmitted from the slave to the master,
which explicitly acknowledges receipt. The slave can
Alarm
only send a new alarm message after it has received
this acknowledgment; this prevents any alarms being
overwritten.
Alarm_AckThe master acknowledges receipt of an alarm to the
nowledge
slave
A status message is transmitted from the slave to the
Status
master. There is no acknowledgment.
Data transmission is connection-oriented over a MS1 connection. This is set
up by the DPM1 and is closely linked to the connection for cyclic data communication. It can be used by the master that has parameterized and configured the respective slave.
Services for Acyclic Data Communication
between the DPM2 and Slaves
Initiate
Abort
Read
Write
Setup and termination of a connection for acyclic data
communication between the DPM2 and the slave
The master reads a data block from the slave
The master writes a data block to the slave
The master can write application-specific data (speciData_ Transport
fied in profiles) acyclically to the slave and, if required,
read data from the slave in the same cycle.
Data transmission is connection-oriented over a MS2 connection. This is set
up before the start of the acyclic data communication by the DPM2 using the
Initiate service. The connection is then available for Read, Write and
Data_Transport services. The connection is terminated correspondingly. A
slave can maintain several active MS2 connections simultaneously. However, the number of connections is limited by the resources available in the
respective slave.
Table 7: Services for acyclic data communication
Fig. 16: Addressing with slot and index
16
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
4. General
Application Profiles
General application profiles describe functions and characteristics
that relate to more than just one
application. They can also be used
in conjunction with specific application profiles.
4.1 PROFIsafe
For considerable time, the distributed fieldbus technology for factory
and process automation was subject to the restriction that safety
tasks could only be solved using
conventional technology in a second layer or distributed over special buses. With PROFIsafe,
PROFIBUS has created a comprehensive, open solution for safetyrelevant applications that satisfies
most known safety criteria.
PROFIsafe defines how fail-safe
devices (emergency stop pushbuttons, light arrays, overfill cutouts,
etc.) can communicate over
PROFIBUS with fail-safe controllers so safely that they can be used
for safety-related automation tasks
up to KAT4 compliant with EN954,
AK6 or SIL3 (Safety Integrity
Level). It implements safe communications over a profile, i.e. over a
special format of user data and a
special protocol.
The specification has been jointly
drawn up by manufacturers, users,
standardization committees and inspectorates (TÜV, BIA). It is based
on the relevant standards, primarily
the IEC 61508, which address the
concerns of software development
in particular.
PROFIsafe takes into account a
number of error possibilities that
can occur in serial bus communications, such as the delay, loss or
repetition of data, incorrect sequences, addressing or corrupt
data.
•
Timeout for incoming message
frames and their acknowledgment.
•
Identifier between sender and
receiver ("password").
•
Additional
data
security
(Cyclic Redundancy Check,
CRC).
By skillfully combining these remedial measures in connection with a
patented "SIL monitor" (monitoring
of the frequency of failed messages) PROFIsafe achieves safety
classes up to SIL 3 and beyond.
PROFIsafe is a single-channel
software solution, which is implemented in the devices as an additional layer "above" layer 7 (see
Fig. 17); the standard PROFIBUS
components, such as lines, ASICs
or protocols, remain unchanged.
This ensures redundancy mode
and retrofit capability.
Devices with the PROFIsafe profile
can be operated in coexistence
with standard devices without restriction on the same cable.
PROFIsafe uses acyclic communication and can be used with
RS485, fiber optic or MBP transmission technology. This ensures
both fast response times (important
for the manufacturing industry) and
intrinsically safe operation (important for process automation).
In process technology, it is only
necessary to provide and prepare
one standard device type for failsafe or normal operation, as the
fail-safe functionality can be configured during application (SIL2 for
operational reliability).
As a generic software driver,
PROFIsafe is available for a wide
range of development and runtime
environments. The specification
can be found in the document
"PROFIsafe, Profile for Safety
Technology", Order No. 3.092.
4.2 HART on PROFIBUS DP
In view of the large number of
HART devices installed in the field,
the integration of these devices in
existing or new PROFIBUS systems is of key importance to most
users.
The PROFIBUS "HART" specification offers an open solution for this
problem. It includes the benefits of
the PROFIBUS communication
mechanisms without any changes
required to the PROFIBUS protocol
and services, the PROFIBUS
PDUs (Protocol Data Units) or the
state machines and functional
characteristics.
This specification defines a profile
of PROFIBUS that is implemented
in the master and slave above
layer 7, thus enabling mapping of
the HART client-master-server
model on PROFIBUS. The cooperation of the HART Foundation on
the specification work ensures
complete conformity with the HART
specifications.
The HART-client application is integrated in a PROFIBUS master
and the HART master in a
PROFIBUS slave (see Fig. 19),
whereby the latter serves as a multiplexer and handles communication to the HART devices.
For the transmission of HART
messages, a communication channel has been defined that operates
independently of the MS1 and MS2
connections. An HMD (HART Master Device) can support several clients. The number of clients depends on the implementation.
There are a range of remedial
measures, the following of which
have been selected for PROFIsafe:
•
Consecutive numbering
safety telegrams.
of
Fig. 17: Fail-safe mode with PROFIsafe
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
17
PROFIBUS master
HART devices can be connected
with the HMD to PROFIBUS over
different components (PROFIBUS
Guideline "PROFIBUS Profile for
HART“ Order No. 3.102).
4.3 Time Stamp
When recording timing functions in
networks, particularly those such
as diagnosis or fault location, it is
useful to be able to provide certain
events and actions with a time
stamp, which enables precise time
assignment.
For this purpose, PROFIBUS offers
the time stamp profile. Precondition
is clock control in the slaves
through a clock master over MS3
services. An event can be given a
precise system time stamp and
read out accordingly. A concept of
graded messages is used. The
message types are summarized
Fig. 18: Time stamp and alarm
messages
under the term "Alerts" and are divided into high-priority "alarms"
(these transmit a diagnosis message) and low-priority "events". In
both cases, the master acyclically
reads (using the MS1 services) the
time-stamped process values and
alarm messages from the alarm
and event buffer of the field device
(see Fig. 18). Please refer to the
corresponding
document,
the
PROFIBUS
Guideline
"Time
Stamp", Order No. 2.192.
4.4 Slave Redundancy
The installation of field devices with
redundant communication behavior
is desired in many applications. For
this reason, PROFIBUS has drawn
up the specification for a slaveredundancy mechanism that describes the following device
characteristics (see Fig. 20):
18
HART
server
HART
master
HART client
application
HART profile
HART device
PROFIBUS slave
HART profile
7
7
2
2
1
1
HART
comm
HART
comm
HART communication
PROFIBUS DP
Fig. 19:Integration of HART devices into PROFIBUS DP
•
Slave devices contain two different PROFIBUS interfaces
that are called primary and
backup
(slave
interface).
These may be either in a single device or distributed over
two devices.
•
The devices are equipped with
two
independent
protocol
stacks with a special redundancy expansion.
•
A redundancy communication (RedCom) runs between
the protocol stacks, i.e. within
a device or between two devices, that is independent of
PROFIBUS and whose performance capability is largely
determined by the redundancy
reversing times.
In normal mode, communications
are sent exclusively over the primary slave; only this slave is configured, it also sends the diagnosis
data of the backup slave. In the
event that the primary slave fails
the backup slave takes over its
functions, either because it has detected the failure itself or because it
was requested to do so by the
master. In addition, the master
monitors all slaves and sends a diagnosis message as soon as the
backup slave fails and there is no
further redundancy.
•
No additional configuration of
the backup slave required,
thus no need for complex
tools.
•
Complete monitoring of both
slave parts possible.
•
The slave device has no influence on the bus load and
therefore on the dynamic response of PROFIBUS.
The redundancy of PROFIBUS
slave devices provides high availability, short reversing times, no
data loss and ensures fault tolerance. Please refer to the corresponding
document,
the
PROFIBUS Guideline "Specification Slave Redundancy", Order No.
2.212.
n
Control System (Master)
LifeLife-List
FDL_Status
FDL_Status
PROFIBUS
(Backup)
PROFIBUS
(Primary)
Redundancy
Extensions
RedCom
Redundancy
Extensions
Process Data
Redundant Slave
Fig. 20: Slave redundancy in
PROFIBUS
A redundant slave device can be
operated on one PROFIBUS line
or, in the event of an additional line
redundancy, on two PROFIBUS
lines. The advantages of this redundancy solution for the user are
as follows:
•
Only one device version required to implement different
redundancy structures.
•
Master, line and slave redundancy are available independently of one another.
m
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
5. Specific
Application Profiles
PROFIBUS stands out from other
fieldbus systems primarily due to
the extraordinary breadth of application options. The PROFIBUS
concept has set new standards.
Not only has it developed specific
profiles that take into account key
industry-specific user demands - it
has also successfully united all key
aspects across all applications in a
standardized and open fieldbus
system, thus ensuring full protection of existing investment.
Table 8 shows all current specific
PROFIBUS application profiles as
well as those pending.
5.1 PROFIdrive
The PROFIdrive profile defines device behavior and the access procedure
to
drive
data
for
electric drives on PROFIBUS, from
simple
frequency
converters
through
to
highly
dynamic
servo-controls.
The integration of drives in automa-
tion solutions is highly dependent
on the task of the drive. For this
reason, PROFIdrive defines six
application classes, which cover
the majority of applications.
With standard drives (class 1),
the drive is controlled by means of
a main setpoint value (for example
rotational speed), whereby the
speed control is carried out in the
drive controller.
In the case of standard drives
with
technological
function
(class 2), the automation process
is broken down into several subprocesses and some of the automation functions are shifted from
the central programmable controller to the drive controllers.
PROFIBUS serves as the technology interface in this case.
ing on and off of bottle tops). The
positioning tasks are passed to the
drive controller over PROFIBUS
and started.
The central motion control
(classes 4 and 5) enables the coordinated motion sequence of multiple drives. The motion is primarily
controlled over a central numeric
control (CNC). PROFIBUS serves
to close the position control loop as
well as synchronize the clock (Fig.
21). The position control concept
(Dynamic Servo Control) of this solution also supports extremely sophisticated applications with linear
motors.
Slave-to-slave communication between the individual drive controllers is a requirement for this solution.
Distributed automation by means
of clocked processes and electronic shafts (class 6) can be implemented using slave-to-slave
communication and isochronous
slaves. Sample applications include "electrical gears", "curve
discs" and "angular synchronous
processes".
The positioning drive (class 3)
integrates an additional position
controller in the drive, thus covering an extremely broad spectrum of
applications (for example the twist-
PROFIdrive defines a device model
as functional modules that operate
together internally and which reflect
the intelligence of the drive system.
These modules are assigned ob-
Designation
Profile contents
PROFIdrive
The profile specifies the behavior of devices and the access procedure to data for variable-speed electrical drives on PROFIBUS.
PA devices
Robots/NC
Panel devices
Encoders
Fluid power
SEMI
Low-voltage
switchgear
Dosing/weighing
Ident systems
Liquid pumps
Remote I/O for PA
devices
The profile specifies the characteristics of devices of process engineering in process automation on PROFIBUS.
The profile describes how handling and assembly robots are controlled over PROFIBUS.
The profile describes the interfacing of simple human machine interface devices (HMI) to higher-level automation components.
The profile describes the interfacing of rotary, angle and linear encoders with single-turn or multi-turn resolution.
The profile describes the control of hydraulic drives over PROFIBUS.
In cooperation with VDMA.
The profile describes characteristics of devices for semiconductor
manufacture on PROFIBUS (SEMI standard).
The profile defines data exchange for low-voltage switchgear (switchdisconnectors, motor starters, etc.) on PROFIBUS DP.
The profile describes the implementation of weighing and dosage systems on PROFIBUS DP.
The profile describes the communications between devices for identification purposes (bar codes, transponders).
The profile defines the implementation of liquid pumps on PROFIBUS
DP. In cooperation with VDMA.
Due to their special place in bus operations, a different device model
and data types are applied to the remote I/Os compared to the
PROFIBUS PA devices.
Current status
of
PNO guideline
V2
3.072
V3
3.172
V3.0
3.042
V1.0
3.052
V1.0D
3.082
V1.1
3.062
V1.5
3.112
3.152
3.122
3.162
3.142
3.172
3.132
Table 8: The PROFIBUS specific application profiles
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
19
Physical Block (PB)
A PB contains the characteristic
data of a device, such as device
name, manufacturer, version and
serial number, etc. There can only
be one physical block in each device.
Application Class 4
Automation
Technology
Interpolation
Pos.Control
Clock
Control Word + Speed Setpoint + ...
Status Word + Actual Position...
Clock synchronism
Drive
Drive
Drive
Closed Loop Speed Ctrl.
Closed Loop Speed Ctrl.
Closed Loop Speed Ctrl.
M
M
M
Encoder
Encoder
Encoder
Fig. 21: PROFIdrive, positioning with central interpolation and
position control
jects that are described in the profile and defined with regard to their
functions. The overall functionality
of a drive is described by the sum
of its parameters.
In contrast to other drive profiles,
PROFIdrive only defines the access mechanisms to the parameters and a subset of approx. 30
profile parameters, which include
fault buffers, drive controllers, device identification, etc.
All other parameters (which may
number more than 1,000 in complex devices) are manufacturerspecific, which provide drive manufacturers great flexibility when implementing control functions. The
elements of a parameter are accessed acyclic over the DP-V1 parameter channel.
PROFIdrive V3 uses the version
DP-V2 as its communications protocol with its innovative slave-toslave communication and isochronous mode, see Chapter 3.2.
Both application profiles are available on the Internet: "Profiles for
variable speed drives", V2, OrderNo.: 3.072; "PROFIdrive Profile
Drive Technology", V3, Order-No.:
3.172.
5.2 PA Devices
Modern process devices are intrinsically intelligent and can execute
part of the information processing
or even the overall functionality in
automation systems. The PA Devices profile defines all functions
and parameters for different
classes of process devices that are
20
typical for signal flow - from process sensor signals through to the
preprocessed process value which
is read out at the control system
together with a measured value
status. The various steps of information processing (signal chain)
and the status forming process are
shown in Fig. 25.
The PA devices profile is documented in a general requirement
part containing the currently valid
specifications for all device types
and in device data sheets containing the agreed specifications for
specific device classes. The PA
device profile is available in version
3.0 and contains device data
sheets for the following:
•
Pressure
pressure
•
Level, temperature and flow
rate
•
Analog and digital inputs and
outputs
•
Valves and actuators
•
Analyzers
and
differential
The Block Model
In process engineering it is common to use blocks to describe the
characteristics and functions of a
measuring point or manipulating
point at a certain control point and
to represent an automation application through a combination of these
types of blocks. The specification
of PA devices uses this function
block model to represent functional
sequences as shown in Fig. 22.
The following three block types are
used:
Transducer Block (TB)
A TB contains all the data required
for processing an unconditioned
signal delivered from a sensor for
passing on to a function block. If no
processing is required, the TB can
be omitted.
Multifunctional devices with two or
more sensors have a corresponding number of TBs.
Function Block (FB)
An FB contains all data for final
processing of a measured value
prior to transmission to the control
system, or on the other hand, for
processing of a setting before the
setting process.
The following function blocks are
available:
Analog Input Block (AI)
An AI delivers the measured value
from the sensor/TB to the control
system.
Analog Output Block (AO)
An AO provides the device with the
value specified by the control system.
Digital Input (DI)
A DI provides the control system
with a digital value from the device.
Digital Output (DO)
A DO provides the device with the
value specified by the control system.
The blocks are implemented by the
manufacturers as software in the
field devices and, taken as a
whole, represent the functionality of
the device. As a rule, several
blocks work together in an application, see Fig. 22, which shows a
simplified block structure of a multifunctional field device.
The configuration corresponds to
the division of a signal chain in two
subprocesses:
The functionality of the first subprocess "measuring/actuating principle" (Fig. 25- calibration, linearization, scaling) is in the transducer blocks, the functionality of
the second subprocess "preprocessing
measured
val-
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
warning/alarm limits are exceeded
or fallen below (see Fig. 24).
Value Status
A value status information item is
added to the measured value,
which delivers a statement of the
quality of the measured value.
There are three quality levels bad,
uncertain and good and additional
information is provided on a substatus that is assigned to each
quality level.
Fig. 22: Block structure of a field device (with multifunctionality)
Specifications in the
PA Device Profile
It is only possible to show a selection of the specifications in brief.
For further details, please refer to
the specification or the relevant literature, for example "PROFIBUS
PA" (Ch. Diedrich/ Th. Bangemann,
Oldenbourg-Industrieverlag).
Illustration of the Signal
Chain
The profile PA Devices specifies
the functions and parameters that
are related to each step of the signal chain, as shown in Fig. 25. As
an example, Fig. 23 and Table 9
provide details of the step "calibration" and Fig. 24 shows the step
"limit-value check".
Addressing Parameters
Blocks are determined by means of
their start address and parameters
through a relative index within the
block; as a rule, these can be freely
selected by the device manufacturer. For access to the parameters
(for example using an operator
tool) the device-specific block
structures are stored in the directory of the device.
Batch Parameter Sets
For implementation of field devices
in batch processes, the profile allows storage of several parameter
sets even during the commissioning phase. The current batch process is then switched to the assigned parameter set during runtime.
Fail-Safe Behavior
block is a "module" in this context.
The PA Device profile offers a selection of function blocks for this
purpose. Devices with a configured
modularity are described as multivariable devices.
Devices with Several
Process Variables
Process devices increasingly offer
several process variables, for example using several sensors or in
the form of derived variables. This
is taken into account in the transducer blocks of the profile by differentiating between Primary Value
(PV) and Secondary Value (SV).
Limit-Value Check
Part of the information processing
transferred to the device is the
limit-value check. For this purpose,
PA Devices offers corresponding
mechanisms for signalling when
Parameter
The PA Device profile also provides fail-safe characteristics. If a
fault has occurred in the measuring
chain, the device output is set to a
user-definable value. Users can select between three different failsafe behavior types.
Please refer to the relevant document, the PROFIBUS Guideline
"Profile for Process Control Devices", Order No. 3.042.
5.3 Fluid Power
This profile describes data exchange formats and parameters for
proportional valves, hydrostatic
pumps and drives and is based
closely on the PROFIdrive definitions. Either a parameter channel
on DP-V0 or acyclic communication over DP-V1 are used for supplying device parameters.
Parameter description
LEVEL_HI
Range of measured filling level
LEVEL_LO
Section from the sensor measuring
range with which the level range is
mapped.
CAL_POINT_HI
CAL_POINT_LO
Table 9: Parameters for the calibration function
Values of
of
Values
the sensor
sensor
the
ues/postprocessing settings" (Fig.
21- filter, limit value control, failsafe behavior, operating mode selection) is in the function blocks.
Level
Output
in cm³
Upper limit
S
S
Sensor
Lower limit
Lower
calibration point
Upper
calibration point
Sensor value
Modular Devices
With PROFIBUS a distinction is
made between compact and modular devices, whereby a function
Sensor measured value
Adaptation of measuring range
Time
Fig. 23: Specification of the calibration function
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
21
5.5 Ident Systems
Fig. 24: Specification of the limit-value check function
Please refer to the corresponding
document, the PROFIBUS Guideline "Profile Fluid Power Technology", Order No. 3.112.
Sensor measured value
Measured value status
Calibration
Linearization, scaling
Filter
Limit value control
Fail-safe behavior
Operating mode selection
Over the bus to the control system
Fig. 25: Signal chain in the
PA device profil
22
5.4 SEMI Devices
Some kind of devices used in process automation are, together with
others, also applied in semiconductor manufacturing, such as
vacuum pumps or flow meters.
The organization "Semiconductor
Equipment and Materials International" did already specify a
branch-specific device standard
(SECS, Semiconductor Equipment
Communication Standard) to which
the PROFIBUS Application Profile
SEMI is compatible.
SEMI is structured in 4 parts (General Definitions, Massflow Controllers, Vacuum Pressure Gauges
and Vacuum Pumps).
Ident systems is a profile for barcode readers and transponder systems. These are primarily intended
for extensive use with the DP-V1
functionality. While the cyclic data
transmission channel is used for
small data volumes to transfer
status/control
information,
the
acyclic channel serves the transmission of large data volumes that
result from the information in the
barcode reader or transponder.
The definition of standard function
blocks has facilitated the use of
these systems and paves the way
for the application of open solutions
on completion of international
standards, such as ISO/IEC 15962
and ISO/IEC18000.
5.6 Remote I/O for PA
Due to their largely (fine) modular
design, remote I/O devices are difficult to bring in line with the "ideal"
PA Device model. For this reason,
they have a special place in the
field of distributed process automation. Furthermore, economic sensitivity also strongly influences the
selected device configurations
(modules, blocks, ...), resources
(memory, records, ...) and functions (for example acyclic access).
For this reason a simplified device
model has been defined and the
quantity framework restricted. The
aim is to offer maximum support on
the basis of cyclically exchanged
data formats.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
6. System Profiles
Profiles in automation technology
define specific characteristics and
behavior for devices and systems
so that these are uniquely characterized (in classes or families) and
are vendor-independent, thus supporting device interoperability and
interchangeability on a bus.
Master Profiles for PROFIBUS
describe classes of controller, each
of which support a specific "subset“
of all the possible master functionalities, such as
•
Cyclic communications
•
Acyclic communications
•
Diagnosis, alarm handling
•
Clock control
•
Slave-to-slave communication,
isochronous mode
•
Safety
System Profiles for PROFIBUS
go a step further and describe
classes of systems including the
master functionality, the possible
functionality of Standard Program
Interfaces (FB in accordance with
IEC 61131-3, safety layer and
FDT) and integration options (GSD,
EDD and DTM). Fig. 26 shows the
standard platforms available today.
In the PROFIBUS system, the
master and system profiles provide
the much needed counterpart to
the application profiles (Fig. 27):
•
Fig. 27: System and application profiles (in correlation)
rameters that are made available to the field devices,
•
application profiles require
specific system parameters in
order to simplify their defined
characteristics.
By using these profiles the device
manufacturers focus on existing or
specified system profiles and the
system manufacturers can provide
the platforms required by the existing or specified device application
profiles.
PROFIBUS has realized a number
of system profiles based on tried
and tested applications in the field,
(see Fig. 26). These are expected
to be stipulated in specifications in
the near future and extended by
further profiles in keeping with future demands.
Master and system profiles
describe specific system pa-
.....
Application Profiles
are using one or more of these
Master/System Profiles
are supporting one ore more of
these Application Profiles
Master/System Profiles
Discrete
Manufacturing
Discrete
Manufacturing
Lower
Range
Upper
Range
Process
Safety
Motion
Control
Fig. 26: Master/system profiles for PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
e.g.
PG/PC
Master
Class 2
Standardized Function
Blocks (Communication
Function Blocks)
To realize manufacturer independent system profiles, it is necessary
to specify, additionally to the already existing communications
platform, an Application Programmer´s Interface (API, Fig. 27), using standardized function blocks.
While application programmers can
usually access cyclic communication data (MS0 channel) over the
process image of a control system,
in the past there was no systemneutral program interface for acyclic data. In view of the wide range
of manufacturers and devices,
standards are needed to be established in this area to enable integration of different field devices
without specific communication
knowledge in the application programs of different control systems.
For this purpose, the PNO has now
specified its guideline "Communication and Proxy Function Blocks
according to IEC 61138-3". This
guideline specifies function blocks
in a " combinations of standards "
that are based on the widely used
standard IEC 61131-3 (programming languages) and also use the
PROFIBUS-defined communication
services of the IEC 61158.
The guideline defines communications blocks for Master Classes 1
and 2 as well as slaves and several
auxiliary functions. The technological functionality of a field device
can be addressed under a compact
identification, which is used consistently by all blocks. All blocks also
have a common concept for displaying errors with coding in accordance with IEC 61158-6.
The PLC manufacturers of the corresponding system classes/profiles
23
offer these standard communication blocks ("Comm-FBs") in PLCspecific "IEC libraries". The field
device manufacturers can respond
by creating uniform proxy function
blocks, which can be used with all
control systems.
UserProgram
Process
Image
MS0
Application Programmer's
Interface (API)
Field-Device Tool (FDT)
MS1
Communications
Platform
MS2
PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS
MS0
MS1
Communications
Platform
MS2
Fig. 28: Application Programmer´s Interface, API
PLC System A
3 FD-M delivers
Proxy FB
Proxy Function Blocks
Proxy function blocks represent a
technological device function by
providing all the necessary input
and output parameters at the block
interface. These proxy function
blocks are usually created once by
the field device manufacturers and
can be implemented in the control
systems of the relevant system
classes/profiles without any special
adjustment (see Fig. 29).
(EDD – Interpreter)
Comm -FB
(IEC 61131 -3)
Application Programmer´s
Interface (API)
In order to make it as easy as possible for application programmers
to use the communication services,
blocks or function calls are made
available in the standard programming language libraries. Together
with the FDT interface, the PROFIBUS "Comm-FBs" expand the
Application Programmer's Interface
as shown in Fig. 28.
Device Type
Manager (DTM),
z.B. Proxy-FB
(IEC 61131-3)
Library:
Proxy FB
2 FD-M uses
CommFB
C
Library:
Proxy FB
Comm FB
1 PLC-M delivers
A
PLC System B
Field Device
Manufacturer
(FD-M) C
Comm FB
Comm FB
C
B
4 Programmer (D) uses
Comm FB and Proxy FB
D
C
D
A
Proxy Comm
FB
FB
Application program
C
B
Proxy
FB
Comm
FB
Portability
Application program
Fig. 29: Portable function blocks
24
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
7. Device Management
Modern field devices provide a
wide range of information and also
execute functions that were previously executed in PLCs and control
systems. To execute these tasks,
the tools for commissioning, maintenance, engineering and parameterization of these devices require
an exact and complete description
of device data and functions, such
as the type of application function,
configuration parameters, range of
values, units of measurement, default values, limit values, identification, etc. The same applies to the
controller/control system, whose
device-specific parameters and
data formats must also be made
known (integrated) to ensure errorfree data exchange with the field
devices.
PROFIBUS has developed a number of methods and tools ("integration technologies") for this type of
device description which enable
standardization of device management. The performance range
of these tools is optimized to specific tasks, which has given rise to
the term scaleable device integration. Therefore the tools are put together in one specification with
three volumes.
In factory automation, for historical
reasons, the GSD is used preferably, but the use of FDT increases
as well. In process automation, depending on the requirements, EDD
and FDT are used (see Fig. 30).
Methods of device description:
The communication features of a
PROFIBUS device are described in
a communication feature list
(GSD) in a defined data format; the
GSD is very much suited for simple
applications. It is created by the
device manufacturer and is included in the delivery of the device.
are
optional,
for
example
Sync_Mode_supported. A GSD replaces the previously conventional
manuals and supports automatic
checks for input errors and data
consistency, even during the configuration phase.
The application features of a
PROFIBUS device (device characteristics) are described by means
of a universal Electronic Device
Description Language (EDDL). The
file (EDD) created in this manner is
also provided by the device manufacturer. The interpreter based
EDD is very much proven for applications with medium complexity.
Structure of a GSD
For complex applications there is
also the solution of mapping all device-specific functions, including
the user interface for parameterization, diagnosis, etc., as software
component in a Device Type Manager (DTM). The DTM acts as the
"driver" of the device opposite the
standardized FDT interface, which
is implemented in the engineering
tool or in the control system.
A GSD is a readable ASCII text file
and contains both general and device-specific
specifications
for
communication. Each of the entries
describes a feature that is supported by a device. By means of
keywords, a configuration tool
reads the device identification, the
adjustable parameters, the corresponding data type and the permitted limit values for the configuration
of the device from the GSD. Some
of the keywords are mandatory, for
example Vendor_Name. Others
• Network
Configuration
• Drives
• Functional Safety
Program
• Device Specific Handling
• Application Interface
• Middle to high Complexity
Continuous Manufacturing
(Process Automation)
This section contains information
on vendor and device names,
hardware and software release
versions, as well as the supported
transmission rates, possible time
intervals for monitoring times and
signal assignment on the bus connector.
Master Specifications
This section contains all the master-related parameters, such as the
maximum number of connectable
slaves or upload and download options. This section is not available
in slave devices.
This section contains all slavespecific information, such as the
number and type of I/O channels,
specification of diagnosis text and
information on the available modules in the case of modular devices.
It is also possible to integrate bitmap files with the symbols of the
devices. The format of the GSD is
designed for maximum flexibility. It
contains lists, such as the transmission rates supported by the device, as well as the option to describe the modules available in a
modular device. Plain text can also
be assigned to the diagnosis messages.
There are two ways to use the
GSD:
•
GSD for compact devices
whose block configuration is
already known on delivery.
This GSD can be created
completely by the device
manufacturer.
•
GSD for modular devices
whose block configuration is
not yet conclusively specified
on delivery. In this case, the
user must use the configuration tool to configure the GSD
in accordance with the actual
module configuration.
• In-process
Measurement
GSD
FDT
General Specifications
Slave Specifications
7.1 GSD
• Controls
• Parameterization at Start-up
• Binary Remote I/O • Simplest Handling
• Fixed Configuration
Discrete Manufacturing
(Factory Automation)
A GSD is divided into three sections:
EDD
Interpreter
• Uniform Device Handling
• Device Description
Language
• Low to middle Complexity
• Closed-loop Control
• Tool-based Parameterization & Diagnosis
• Device Tuning at Run-time
Fig. 30: Integration technologies at PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
25
By reading the GSD into the configuration tool (into a PROFIBUS
configurator), the user is able to
make optimum use of the special
communication features of the device.
Certification with GSD
The device manufacturers are responsible for the scope and quality
of the GSD of their devices. Submission of a GSD profile (contains
the information from the profile of a
device family) or an individual device GSD (device-specific) is essential for certification of a device.
PNO Support
To support device manufacturers,
the PROFIBUS Web site has a
special GSD editor/checker available to download, which facilitates
the creation and checking of GSD
files.
The specification of the GSD file
formats is described in the following PROFIBUS guideline GSD, order No. 2.122.
New Development Stages
of the communication functions of
PROFIBUS are continually integrated in the GSD by the PNO.
Thus, the keywords for DP-V1 can
be found in the GSD Revision 3
and those for DP-V2 in the GSD
Revision 4.
Manufacturer ID
Every PROFIBUS slave and every
master class 1 must have an ID
number. This is required so that a
master can identify the types of
connected devices without the
need for extensive protocol overheads. The master compares the
ID number of the connected devices with the ID numbers specified
in the configuration data by the
configuration tool. Transfer of the
user data is not started until the
correct device types with the correct station addresses are connected to the bus. This ensures optimum protection against configuration errors.
For an ID number for each device
type, device manufacturers must
apply to the PROFIBUS User Organization who also handle administration of the ID numbers. Application forms can be obtained
from
any
regional
agency
or from the PROFIBUS Web site
on the Internet.
26
Profile ID
A special range of ID numbers (generic ID numbers) have been reserved for field devices for process
automation and drives respectively:
9700h - 977Fh or 3A00h - 3AFFh.
All field devices corresponding exactly to the specifications of the
PROFIBUS PA Devices profile version 3.0 or higher, or PROFIdrive
version 3, may use ID numbers
from this special range. The specification of these profile ID numbers
has further increased the interchangeability of these devices. The
ID number to be selected for the
respective device depends on various factors for example in the case
of PA Devices on the type and
number of existing function blocks.
The ID number 9760H is reserved
for PA field devices that provide
several different function blocks
(multivariable devices). Special
conventions also apply to the designation of the GSD files of these
PA field devices. These are described in detail in the PA Devices
profile.
The first profile ID number reserved
for PROFIdrive (3A00h) is used
during the DP-V1 connection
buildup to check that the master
and slave are using the same profile. Slaves that positively acknowledge this identifier support the DPV1 parameter channel described in
the PROFIdrive profile. All further
profile ID numbers serve to identify
vendor-independent GSD files.
This enables the interchangeability
of devices of different manufacturer
without the need for new bus configurations. For example, the VIKNAMUR mode with vendorindependent PROFIdrive GSD is
defined as a component of the
PROFIdrive profile for the chemical
industry.
This also contains support mechanisms to
•
integrate existing profile descriptions in the device description,
•
allow references to existing
objects so that only supplements require description,
•
allow access to standard dictionaries and
•
allow assignment of the device
description to a device.
Using the EDDL device manufacturers can create the relevant EDD
file for their devices which, like the
GSD file, supplies the device information to the engineering tool
and then subsequently to the control system.
EDD application
An EDD is a very versatile source
of information, for example
•
•
•
•
•
Engineering
Commissioning
Runtime
Asset Management
Documentation and eCommerce
EDD advantages
An EDD provides significant advantages to both device users and device manufacturers.
The uniform user and operation interface supports the user by
•
•
•
•
Reducing training expenses
Reliable operation
Only one tool for all applications
Validation of the input data
The device manufacturer is supported by the fact, that developing
an EDD is very easy and cost effective
7.2 EDD
•
The GSD is inadequate for describing application-related parameters
and functions of a field device (for
example configuration parameters,
ranges of values, units of measurement, default values, etc.). This
requires a more powerful description language, which has been developed in the form of the universally applicable Electronic Device
Description Language (EDDL).
Above all, the EDDL provides the
language means for the description
of the functionality of field devices.
•
•
Without specific knowledge, by
the device developer
By using existing EDDs and
text libraries
By universal suitability for simple to complex devices
An EDD also provides investment
protection to both users and manufactures because an EDD is independent of operating systems and
easy to extent.
New Development Stages
As with the GSD, the EDDL will
also be subject to upgrade that
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
keep it in step with the continuous
development of advancing device
technology. Work is currently underway on a unique specification
for dynamic semantics and for the
description of hardware modular
slaves.
The specification of the EDDL is an
integral component of the international standard IEC 61804. It is included in the PROFIBUS guideline
2.152.
7.3 FDT/DTM Concept
The existing description languages
for configuration and parameterization have their limits. This becomes
clear when, for example
•
complex,
non-standardized
characteristics of intelligent
field devices including the diagnosis capabilities are to be
made useable for the plant operator or
•
in the "Optimization of assets"
field, functions for preventative
maintenance or for maintenance procedures are to be
supported.
•
the operation of devices needs
to be "encapsulated" in software (safety technology, calibration, etc).
These complex task areas, require
an "auxiliary tool" that allows device manufacturers to provide users with expanded and also very
specific characteristics of their field
devices in standardized form and
which at the same time allows the
manufacturers of automation systems to integrate these field device
characteristics in the control system over standardized interfaces.
The FDT specification is currently
available as version 1.2. The specification of FDT is contained in the
PROFIBUS guideline 2.162.
Device Description as
Software Component
The specific functions and dialog of
a field device for parameterization,
configuration, diagnosis and maintenance, complete with user interface, are mapped in a software
component. This component is
called the DTM (Device Type Manager) and is integrated in the engineering tool or control system over
the FDT interface.
A DTM uses the routing function of
an engineering system for communicating across the hierarchical
levels. Furthermore it uses its project
data
management
with
versioning. It works as a "driver",
similar to a printer driver, which the
printer supplier includes in delivery
and must be installed on the PC by
the user. The DTM is generated by
the device manufacturer and is included in delivery of the device.
DTM generation
MS VisualBasic.
With DTMs it is possible to obtain
direct access to all field devices for
planning, diagnosis and maintenance purposes from a central
workstation. A DTM is not a standalone tool, but an ActiveX component with defined interfaces.
User Benefits
of FDT/DTM
The FDT/DTM concept is protocolindependent and, with its mapping
of device functions in software
components, opens up interesting
new user options.
The concept incorporates integration options where they are most
useful, in the areas of engineering,
diagnosis, service and asset management - liberated from the specific communication technologies of
the various fieldbuses and the specific engineering environment of
automation systems.
The FDT standard provides a basis
for integrated solutions from the
field to the tools and methods of
corporate management.
There are various options for generating the DTM:
•
Specific programming in a
higher programming language.
•
Reuse of existing component
or tools through their encapsulation as DTM.
•
Generation from an existing
device description using a
compiler or interpreter.
•
Use of the DTM toolkit of
The solution to this is the fieldbusindependent interface concept
FDT/DTM (see Fig. 31), which was
developed in a working group of
the PNO and the ZVEI (Central Association for the Electrical Industry)
and made generally available.
The FDT Interface
The definition of a universal interface provides the ability to implement suitable created software
components on all engineering or
other integration platforms of
automation systems fitted with this
interface. Such an interface has
been specified and designated
FDT (Field Device Tool).
Fig. 31: FDT/DTM concept
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
27
pared with the target behavior and
the result is written to the protocol
file.
8. Quality Assurance
In order for PROFIBUS devices of
different types and manufacturers
to correctly fulfill tasks in the automation process, it is essential to
ensure the error-free exchange of
information over the bus. The requirement for this is a standardcompliant implementation of the
communications protocol and application profiles by device manufacturers.
To ensure that this requirement is
fulfilled, the PNO has established a
quality
assurance
procedure
whereby, on the basis of test reports, certificates are issued to devices that successfully complete
the test .
The aim of the certification is to
provide users the necessary security for error-free functionality during the common operation of devices of different manufacturers. To
achieve this, the device undergoes
rigorous practical testing in independent test laboratories. This enables early detection of any misinterpretations of the standards by
developers, thus allowing remedial
action by manufacturers before devices are implemented in the field.
Interoperability of the device with
other certified devices is also part
of the test. Upon successful completion of the test, the manufacturer
can apply for a device certificate.
Basis for the certification procedure
(see Fig. 35) is the standard EN
45000. The PROFIBUS User Organization has approved manufacturer-independent test laboratories
in accordance with the specifications of this standard. Only these
test laboratories are authorized to
carry out device tests, which form
the basis for certification.
The test procedure and sequence
for certification are described in the
guidelines No. 2.032 (DP slaves),
No. 2.062 (PA field devices) and
No. 2.072 (DP master).
8.1 Test procedure
A precondition for the test is the
assigned ID number and a GSD
file, as well as an EDD for the device where applicable.
28
Behavior in the Case of Fault,
which simulates bus faults, such as
interruptions, short-circuits of the
bus line and power failure.
Addressability: the test
addressed under three
addresses within the
range and tested for
functionality.
device is
arbitrary
address
error-free
Diagnosis Data: the diagnosis
data must correspond to the entry
in the GSD and the standard. This
requires external activation of the
diagnosis.
Fig. 32: Device certification procedure
The test procedure, which is the
same for all test laboratories, is
made up of several parts:
The GSD/EDD Check ensures that
the device description files comply
with the specification.
The Hardware Test tests the electric
characteristics
of
the
PROFIBUS interface of the device
for compliance with the specifications. This includes terminating resistors, suitability of the implemented drivers and other modules
and the quality of line level.
The Function Test examines the
bus access and transmission protocol and the functionality of the
test device. The GSD is used to
parameterize and customize the
test system. The black-box procedure is used during testing, which
means that no knowledge is required of the internal structure of
the implementation. The reactions
generated in the test specimen and
their time ratios are recorded on
the bus monitor. If necessary, the
outputs of the test device are monitored and logged.
The Conformity Test forms the
main part of the test. The object is
to test conformity of the protocol
implementation with the standard.
Essentially, the test deals with the:
Mixed Operation: combination
slaves are checked for correct
functioning with an FMS and DP
master.
Interoperability test: the test device is checked for interoperability
with the PROFIBUS devices of
other manufacturers in a multivendor plant. This checks that the
functionality of the plant is maintained when the test device is
added. Operation is also tested
with different masters.
Each step of the test is carefully
documented. The test records are
made available to the manufacturer
and
the
PROFIBUS
User
Organization. The test report
serves as the basis for issuing a
certificate.
8.2 Conformance Certificate
Once a device has successfully
passed all the tests, the manufacturer can apply for a certificate from
the PROFIBUS User Organization.
Each certified device contains a
certification number as a reference.
The certificate is valid for 3 years
but can be extended after undergoing a further test.
The addresses of the test laboratories can be obtained from the
PROFIBUS Web site.
State machine: the PROFIBUS
protocol is defined in the form of a
state machine. All externally visible
state transitions are tested. The
target behavior is summarized in
programmable sequences. The actual behavior is analyzed, comPROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
9. Implementation
This chapter contains instructions
on how to implement the communications protocol and the interfaces
in automation/field devices.
For the device development or implementation of the PROFIBUS
protocol, a broad spectrum of standard components and development
tools (PROFIBUS ASICs, PROFIBUS stacks, monitor and commissioning tools) as well as services
are available that enable device
manufacturers to realize costeffective development. A corresponding overview is available in
the product catalog of the PROFIBUS
User
Organization
(www.profibus.com/productguide.htm).
For further details please use technical literature and, for expert advice, contact one of the PROFIBUS
Competence Centers.
During
implementation
of
a
PROFIBUS interface, please note
that the certification refers to the
overall device. Standard components are not subject to the certification process as this does not
provide a guarantee for the end
product device. However the quality of the standard components
also plays an important role in the
successful certification of devices.
9.1
Standard Components
Interface Modules
The use of a complete PROFIBUS
interface module is ideal for a
low/medium number of devices.
These credit card size modules implement the entire bus protocol.
They are fitted on the master board
of the device as an additional module.
Protocol Chips
In the case of high numbers of devices, an individual implementation
on the basis of commercially available PROFIBUS basic technology
components is recommendable,
whereby a distinction is made between
•
Single chips, in which all protocol functions are integrated
on the chip and which do not
require an additional controller,
•
Communications
chips,
which implement smaller or
larger parts of the protocol on
Fig. 33: Example for the implementation of a PROFIBUS slave
the chip and also require an
additional controller and
•
Protocol chips with integrated
microcontroller.
The type of implementation version
largely depends on the complexity
of the field device, and the performance and functionality required. The following offers some
examples.
Implementation of
Simple Slaves
The implementation of single-chip
ASICs is ideal for simple I/O devices. All protocol functions are already integrated on the ASIC. No
microprocessors or software are
required. Only the bus interface
driver, the quartz and the power
electronics are required as external
components.
Implementation of
Intelligent Slaves
In this form of implementation, the
essential layer-2 parts of the
PROFIBUS protocol are implemented on a protocol chip and the
remaining protocol parts implemented as software on a microcontroller. In most of the ASICS available on the market all cyclic protocol parts have been implemented,
which are responsible for transmission of time-critical data.
Alternatively, protocol chips with interpreted controllers may be used,
where part of the protocol for less
time-critical data transmission can
be realized.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
These ASICs offer a universal interface and operate together with
common microcontrollers. A further
option is offered by microprocessors with an integrated PROFIBUS
core.
Implementation of
Complex Masters
In this form of implementation, the
time-critical parts of the PROFIBUS
protocol are also implemented on a
protocol chip and the remaining
protocol parts implemented as
software on a microcontroller. Various ASICs of different suppliers are
currently available for the implementation of complex master devices. They can be operated in
combination with many common
microprocessors.
A corresponding protocol chip
overview is available on the
PROFIBUS website. For further information please contact the suppliers directly.
PROFIBUS Stacks
Frequently, chips and the respective protocol software (PROFIBUS
stacks) may originate from different
suppliers, positively increasing the
variety of solutions available in the
market.
Based on that, technically optimized and cost effective products
can be developed, which meet application specific market requirements, in accordance with the respective commitment of the PROFIBUS User Organization. This
29
This also proves the openness and
multi-vendor
capability
of
PROFIBUS which are not limited to
specifications but also comprise
product implementations.
Pure software solutions are rare
because of their unfavorable
cost/performance relation compared with chip-oriented implementations. Therefore, they are used
only for specific applications.
A corresponding overview of
PROFIBUS stacks that are available on the market is presented on
the PROFIBUS website. For further
information please contact the respective suppliers.
9.2 Implementation of
Interfaces
MBP transmission
technology
When implementing a bus-powered
field device with MBP transmission
technology, particular attention
30
must be paid to low power consumption.
sion technology, please refer to the
technical PNO guideline No. 2.092.
As a rule, only a feed current of
10-15 mA over the bus cable is
available for these devices, which
must supply the overall device, including the bus interface and the
measuring electronics.
RS485 Transmission
Technology
Special modem chips are available
to meet these requirements. These
modems take the required operating energy for the overall device
from the MBP bus connection and
make it available as feed voltage
for the other electronic components
of the device. At the same time, the
digital signals of the connected protocol chip are converted into the
bus signal of the MBP connection
modulated to the energy supply. A
typical configuration with a commercially available roundboard is
shown in Fig. 36.
For further details on how to implement the bus connection for
field devices with MBP transmis-
For field devices that cannot be
powered over the bus, it is possible
to use the standard RS485 interface. This increases flexibility when
implementing the device as this
can then be connected to a PROFIBUS DP segment without a coupler or link.
Key features of RS485 Technology
are its low interface costs and ruggedness. Data rates of 9.6 Kbit/s
to12 Mbit/s are supported without
the need to implement any
changes.
As a further enhancement, the
RS485 IS has been developed,
which offers an intrinsically safe
version of the RS485.
The RS485 modules are available
from various manufacturers and
proven in millions of applications.
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
10. PROFInet
PROFInet is a comprehensive
automation concept that has
emerged as a result of the trend in
automation technology towards
modular, reusable machines and
plants with distributed intelligence.
With its comprehensive design
(uniform model for engineering,
runtime and migration architecture
to other communication systems,
such as PROFIBUS and OPC)
PROFInet fulfills all the key demands of automation technology
for
•
consistent
communications
from field level to corporate
management
level
using
Ethernet,
•
a vendor-independent plantwide engineering model for the
entire automation landscape,
•
openness to other systems,
•
implementation of IT standards
and
•
integration
capability
of
PROFIBUS segments without
the need to change them.
PROFInet is available as a specification and as an operating system-independent source software.
The specification describes all aspects of PROFInet: the object and
component model, the runtime
communication, the proxy concept
and the engineering. PROFInet
software covers all runtime communications. This combination of
specification and software as
source code enables simple and
efficient integration of PROFInet in
the broadest range of device operating system environments. The
chosen path of preparing a source
software upon which all product
implementations are built presents
an outstanding opportunity to ensure the consistent quality of the
PROFInet interface in products.
The procedure ensures that any interoperability problems are reduced
to a minimum.
PROFInet components
The basic approach of PROFInet is the application of the object model,
already tried and tested in the software world, on automation technology. For this purpose, machines, plants and their parts are divided into
technological modules, each of which comprises mechchanical, electrical/electronical and application software. The functionality of the technological module is encapsulated in PROFInet components, which can
be accessed over universally defined "interfaces". The components can
be combined over their interfaces according to the modular principle
and interconnected to applications.
In this context "components" means an encapsulated, reusable software unit. For the implementation of this component model, PROFInet
uses the model most common in the PC world, the Microsoft Component Object Model (COM), in its expansion for distributed systems
(DCOM). In this case, all the objects of a system are equal and, to all
outward appearances, identical.
This type of distributed automation system enables the modular design
of plants and machines and supports reusability of plant and machine
parts.
specification
of
manufacturer/customized functional expansions.
The PROFInet engineering model
distinguishes
between
the
programming of the control logics
of the individual technological
modules and the configuration of
the overall plant for an application.
As previously, programming of the
individual devices and their configuration and parameterization is
carried out by the manufacturer
with manufacturer-specific tools.
The software created during programming is then encapsulated in
the form of a PROFInet component
using the component editor interface that is also to be integrated in
the tool. The component editor interface generates the component
description in the form of an XML
file whose configuration and contents are defined in the PROFInet
specification.
nents to an application using the
PROFInet engineering tool (connection editor). To do this, the generated PROFInet components are
transferred to the connection editor
by importing their XML files and the
relationship is established over
graphical lines. This allows plantwide combination of distributed applications (of different manufacturers) to an overall application (see
Fig. 34). The decisive advantage of
this is the fact that the communication no longer needs to be programmed. Instead, the communication relationships between the
components are established over
lines, called interconnections.
The interconnection information is
then downloaded to the device with
a simple mouse click. This means
that each device knows its communication partners and relationships and the information to be exchanged.
The plant is configured by interconnecting the PROFInet compo-
10.1 The PROFInet
Engineering Model
A vendor-independent engineering
concept has been defined to enable user-friendly configuration of a
PROFInet system. It is based on
an engineering object model which
enables the development of configuration tools as well as the
Fig. 34: Creation and interconnection of components
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
31
10.2 The PROFInet
Communications Model
The PROFInet communications
model
defines
a
vendorindependent standard for communication on Ethernet with conventional IT mechanisms (runtime
communications). It uses TCP/IP
and COM/DCOM, the most common standards of the PC world. It
provides direct access from the office world to the automation level
and vice versa (vertical integration).
With PROFInet, the DCOM wire
protocol, together with the aforementioned standards, defines the
data exchange between the components of different manufacturers
over Ethernet. Alternatively, there
is also an optimized communication mechanism available for application areas with hard real time requirements.
Devices that are operated on
Ethernet require the implementation of communication mechanisms
in accordance with the PROFInetstandard (see Fig. 35). The connection technology required for the
link to Ethernet is available in
protection classes IP 20 and
IP65/67.
10.3 The PROFInet
Migration Model
The integration of PROFIBUS
segments in PROFInet is implemented using proxies (see Fig. 36).
These assume a proxy function for
all the devices connected to PROFIBUS. This means that when rebuilding or expanding plants, the
entire spectrum of PROFIBUS devices, including products of PROFIdrive and PROFIsafe can be
Fig. 36: PROFInet migration model
implemented unchanged, thus providing users with maximum investment protection. Proxy technology
also allows integration of other
fieldbus systems.
the OPC Foundation with the goal
of developing a protocol for the exchange of non-time-critical user
data between automation systems
of different manufacturers and
types (PLC, DCS, PC).
10.4 XML
OPC DX is based on the existing
specification OPC DA (Data Access). At the same time an engineering interface has been defined,
which enables configuration of the
connected systems. In contrast to
PROFInet, OPC DX is not objectorientated, but tag-orientated, i.e.
the automation objects do not exist
as COM objects but as (tag)
names.
XML (EXtensible Markup Language) is a flexible data description
language based on a simple ASCII
code. XML documents can be exchanged with applications in a
number of ways, for example on
diskette, by e-mail, using TCP/IP or
with HTTP over the Internet.
XML is important in automation
technology for, among other things,
parameter descriptions in FDT, as
import and export format for field
device parameters in engineering
tools or as a means of vertical integration (data exchange independent of the operating system used).
OPC DX will enable the connection
of different automation systems in
a plant at the Ethernet level. However, it is not possible to access
field level, so that existing fieldbus
systems and PROFInet are not influenced in any way.
10.5 OPC and OPC DX
OPC is a standard interface introduced in 1996 for access to Windows-based applications in automation. The implementation of
OPC enables the flexible, manufacturer-independent
selection
of
components and their interconnection without the need for programming. OPC is currently based on
the Microsoft DCOM model.
Since 2000, OPC data and OPC
services are mapped in XML,
which means that OPC data can
even be exchanged between nonWindows platforms by means of
readable XML documents.
Fig. 35: Device structure of
PROFInet
32
OPC DX (Data EXchange) is being
developed within the framework of
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
11. PROFIBUS
International
In order to ensure its maintenance,
development and market dominance, open technology requires a
company-independent institute as
a working platform. In 1989, the
PROFIBUS User Organization
e.V. (PNO) was founded to promote PROFIBUS technology in this
very manner. It is a nonprofit trade
body of manufacturers, users and
institutes. The PNO is a member of
PROFIBUS International (PI)
founded in 1995, which now boasts
23 regional user organizations
(Regional PROFIBUS Associations, RPA) and more than 1,100
members including those in the
US, China and Japan who represent the largest trade body in the
field of industrial communications
worldwide (Fig. 38).
The RPAs organize exhibitions and
information seminars but take care
that new market demands are considered during future development
work.
Tasks
The key tasks of PI are as follows:
•
Maintenance and development
of PROFIBUS technology.
•
Extending worldwide acceptance and use of PROFIBUS
technology.
•
Investment protection for users
and manufacturer through influencing control of standardization.
•
Representation of members'
interests with regards to stan-
dardization committees
associations.
•
•
and
Worldwide technical support of
companies through the Competence Centers.
Quality assurance through device certification.
Organization
PI has handed over the development of PROFIBUS technology to
PNO Germany. The advisory
committee of PNO Germany now
controls the development activities.
The development teams are organized in 5 Technical Committees
(TCs) with more than 35 permanent Working Groups (WGs). In
addition to this, there are also a
changing number of ad hoc WGs
that handle specific subjects limited
to certain time periods. The WGs
with more than 300 experts draw
up new specifications and profiles,
deal with quality assurance and
standardization, work in standardization committees and undertake
effective
marketing
measures
(trade fairs, presentations) for expanding PROFIBUS technology.
The PI support center coordinates
all ongoing events.
Membership
Membership in the PNO is open to
all companies, associations, institutes and persons who would like
to play a constructive role in the
development and acceptance of
PROFIBUS technology. The mutual efforts of members who are of-
ten very different and come from a
broad spectrum of industries (particularly in the WGs) produce a
considerable synergy effect and
generate a rigorous exchange of
information. This leads to innovative solutions, effective use of resources and last but not least, a
significant market advantage.
Working Groups
The WGs with their 300 honorary
members make a key contribution
to the success of PROFIBUS.
Fig. 37 shows how the 5 TCs are
broken down to deal with different
areas. The further division into
more than 35 WGs allows very focussed development work on specific technologies and industries.
All members are entitled to participate in the working groups and are
thus able to take a proactive stance
on further development. All new
work results are submitted to
members for further comment before they are released by the advisory committee.
Competence Centers
PI has approved 22 Competence
Centers worldwide as well as 7 test
laboratories for certification work.
These facilities offer all manner of
advice and support to users and
manufacturers as well as carrying
out tests for the certification of devices. As part of PROFIBUS International, they offer their services
company-neutral according to the
agreed documents of rules.
Competence Centers as well as
Test Laboratories are regularly
checked with respect to their qualification by performing an approval
procedure specifically oriented to
their tasks. Current addresses can
be found on the PI Web site.
Documentation
By way of further support, the PNO
offers all users and manufacturers
a wide and very comprehensive
range of documentation. This is
provided in English and divided into
the following categories:
PROFIBUS Standard contains the
basic PROFIBUS specification and
a selection of other documents.
Fig. 37: Structure of the PROFIBUS User Organization
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
PROFIBUS Guidelines contains
specifications on implementations,
test procedures, installations, description languages, as well as application-oriented
specifications,
such as Time Stamp or PROFInet.
33
PROFIBUS profiles contains all
approved profile specifications.
Technical overviews and
catalogs
The key themes of PROFIBUS are
presented in numerous technical
overviews from a marketing standpoint. The product catalog, containing more than 2000 PROFIBUS
products and services, offers an
excellent overview of the performance capability of the member
companies of PROFIBUS.
The documents are available in
PDF format on the PROFIBUS
Web site. If required you can also
obtain the documentation on CDROM.
Fig. 38: PI Organization
A list of all available documentation
can also be obtained from the PNO
or on the PROFIBUS Web site.
34
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
Index
A
Actuator/sensor level .......................................1
Acyclic data communication ..........................11
Addressing.......................................................2
Addressing with slot and index......................15
AS-Interface.....................................................1
B
Block model ...................................................20
Broadcast.........................................................2
Bus access control ..........................................2
C
Cell level ..........................................................1
Certification....................................................28
Clock synchronization....................................11
Comm-FB ......................................................24
Communication
Communication in automation.....................1
Communications protocols........................10
Competence Centers.....................................33
conformity test ...............................................28
CPF..................................................................3
Cyclic data communication............................13
D
Data
Data frame...................................................2
Lateral data communication ......................11
Device management......................................25
Device types ..................................................11
Diagnostic functions ......................................12
Documentation ..............................................33
DP....................................................................6
DP-V0........................................................11
DP-V1........................................................11
DP-V2........................................................11
DPM
DPM1 ..................................................11, 12
DPM2 ........................................................12
DTM ...............................................................25
H
HART ............................................................ 17
I
Ident systems................................................ 22
IEC
IEC 61158................................................... 3
IEC 61784................................................... 3
Implementation ............................................. 29
Installation instructions
Installation instructions for MBP ................. 9
Interface module ........................................... 29
ISO/OSI reference model ............................... 2
Issue of a certificate ...................................... 28
K
Keys to success .............................................. 6
L
Links................................................................ 9
M
Manufacturer ID ............................................ 26
MBP ................................................................ 8
Modular devices............................................ 21
O
OPC .............................................................. 32
P
EDD .........................................................25, 26
PA devices .................................................... 20
Physical Block (PB) ...................................... 20
PROFIBUS...................................................... 4
PROFIBUS DP ......................................... 10
PROFIBUS International ............................ 4
PROFIBUS User Organization ................. 33
PROFIdrive ................................................... 19
Profiles ........................................................ 2, 6
Profile ID................................................... 26
PROFInet .................................................. 3, 31
The PROFInet engineering model............ 31
PROFIsafe .................................................... 17
Protocol chips ............................................... 29
F
R
FDT/DTM concept .........................................27
Fiber optics ......................................................9
Field level.........................................................1
FISCO model.................................................10
Fluid power ....................................................21
FMS .................................................................5
Remote I/Os.................................................. 22
Repeaters ....................................................... 7
RPA............................................................... 33
RS485
RS485......................................................... 5
RS485-IS ................................................ 5, 7
G
S
General application profiles ...........................17
GSD ...............................................................25
Segment couplers ........................................... 9
SEMI ............................................................. 22
SIL monitor.................................................... 17
E
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
35
Slaves
Slave redundancy .....................................18
Slaves........................................................12
Slave-to-slave communications ................14
Software components....................................27
Specific application profiles ...........................19
Sync and freeze mode...................................13
System
System behavior .......................................12
System profiles..........................................23
T
Time stamps ..................................................18
Transducer Block (TB)...................................20
36
Transmission technology ................................ 7
U
Upload and download ................................... 14
User benefits................................................... 1
V
Version
Version DP-V1.......................................... 14
Version DP-V2.......................................... 14
X
XML............................................................... 32
PROFIBUS Technology and Application, October 2002
PROFIBUS
System Description
Version October 2002
Order Number 4.002
Publisher
PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation e.V. PNO
Haid-und-Neu-Str. 7
76313 Karlsruhe
Deutschland
Tel.: ++49 (0) 721 / 96 58 590
Fax: ++49 (0) 721 / 96 58 589
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Trade Organization PTO
16101 N. 82nd Street, Suite 3B
AZ 85260 Scottsdale
USA
Tel.: ++1 480 483 2456
Fax: ++1 480 483 7202
[email protected]
Liability Exclusion
PNO / PTO has elaborated the contents of this brochure carefully. Nevertheless, errors can not be excluded. Liability of PNO / PTO is excluded, regardless of its reason. The data in this brochure is
checked periodically, however. Necessary corrections will be contained in subsequent versions. We
gratefully accept suggestions for improvement.
Terms used in this brochure may be trade marks, their use by third parties for any purposes may violate the rights of the owner.
This brochure is not a substitute for standards IEC 61158 and IEC 61784 and the PROFIBUS guidelines and profiles. In case of doubt, IEC 61158 and IEC 61784 take precedence.
Copyright by PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation e.V. 2002. All rights reserved.
02092 PNO Titel AR1
07.08.2002
11:15 Uhr
Seite 3
Australia and New Zealand
PROFIBUS User Group (ANZPA)
c/o OSItech Pty. Ltd.
P.O. Box 315
Kilsyth, Vic. 3137
Phone ++61 3 9761 5599
Fax ++61 3 9761 5525
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Belgium
August Reyerslaan 80
1030 Brussels
Phone ++32 2 706 80 00
Fax ++32 2 706 80 09
[email protected]
Association PROFIBUS Brazil
c/o Siemens Ltda IND1 AS
R. Cel. Bento Bicudo, 111
05069-900 Sao Paolo, SP
Phone ++55 11 3833 4958
Fax ++55 11 3833 4183
[email protected]
Chinese PROFIBUS User Organisation
c/o China Ass. for Mechatronics Technology
and Applications
1Jiaochangkou Street Deshengmenwai
100011 Bejing
Phone ++86 10 62 02 92 18
Fax ++86 10 62 01 78 73
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Association Czech Republic
Karlovo nam. 13
12135 Prague 2
Phone ++420 2 2435 76 10
Fax ++420 2 2435 76 10
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Denmark
Maaloev Byvej 19 - 23
2760 Maaloev
Phone ++45 40 78 96 36
Fax ++45 44 65 96 36
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Finland
c/o AEL Automaatio
Kaarnatie 4
00410 Helsinki
Phone ++35 8 9 5307259
Fax ++35 8 9 5307360
[email protected]
France PROFIBUS
4, rue des Colonels Renard
75017 Paris
Phone ++33 1 45 74 63 22
Fax ++33 1 45 74 03 33
[email protected]
PROFIBUS International
Support Center
Haid-und-Neu-Straße 7
D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Phone ++49 721 96 58 590
Fax ++49 721 96 58 589
[email protected]
www.profibus.com
PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation
Haid-und-Neu-Straße 7
76131 Karlsruhe
Phone ++49 7 21 96 58 590
Fax ++49 7 21 96 58 589
[email protected]
Irish PROFIBUS User Group
c/o Flomeaco Endress + Hauser
Clane Business Park
Kilcock Road, Clane, Co. Kildare
Phone ++353 45 868615
Fax ++353 45 868182
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Network Italia
Via Branze, 38
25123 Brescia (I)
Phone ++39 031 3384030
Fax ++39 030 396999
[email protected]
Japanese PROFIBUS Organisation
TFT building West 9F
3-1 Ariake Koto-ku
Tokyo 135-8072
Phone ++81 3 3570 3034
Fax ++81 3 3570 3064
[email protected]
Korea PROFIBUS Association
#306, Seoungduk Bldg.
1606-3, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu
Seoul 137-070, Korea
Phone ++82 2 523 5143
Fax ++82 2 523 5149
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Nederland
c/o FHI
P.O. Box 2099
3800 CB Amersfoort
Phone ++31 33 469 0507
Fax ++31 33 461 6638
[email protected]
PROFIBUS User Organisation Norway
c/o AD Elektronikk AS
Haugenveien 2
1401 Ski
Phone ++47 909 88640
Fax ++47 904 05509
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Slovakia
c/o Dept. of Automation KAR FEI STU
Slovak Technical University
Ilkovièova 3
812 19 Bratislava
Phone ++421 2 6029 1411
Fax ++421 2 6542 9051
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Association South East Asia
c/o Endress + Hauser
1 Int. Bus. Park #01-11/12 The Synergy
609917 Singapore
Phone ++65 566 1332
Fax ++65 565 0789
[email protected]
PROFIBUS User Organisation Southern Africa
P.O. Box 26 260
East Rand
Phone ++27 11 397 2900
Fax ++27 11 397 4428
[email protected]
PROFIBUS i Sverige
Kommandörsgatan 3
28135 Hässleholm
Phone ++46 4 51 49 460
Fax ++46 4 51 89 833
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation Schweiz
Kreuzfeldweg 9
4562 Biberist
Phone ++41 32 672 03 25
Fax ++41 32 672 03 26
[email protected]
The PROFIBUS Group U.K.
Unit 6 Oleander Close
Locks Heath, Southampton, Hants, SO31 6WG
Phone ++44 1489 589574
Fax ++44 1489 589574
[email protected]
PROFIBUS Trade Organization, PTO
16101 N. 82nd Street, Suite 3B
Scottsdale, AZ 85260 USA
Phone ++1 480 483 2456
Fax ++1 480 483 7202
[email protected]
PROFIBUS User Organisation Russia
c/o Vera + Association
Nikitinskaya str, 3
105037 Moscow, Russia
Phone ++7 0 95 742 68 28
Fax ++7 0 95 742 68 29
[email protected]
© Copyright by PNO 10/02
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