Black Box Advanced Console Server User`s manual

Black Box Advanced Console Server User`s manual
November 2009
LES1208A
LES1216A
LES1248A
LES1108A
LES1116A
LES1148A
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers User’s Manual
Securely manage data center and network
BLACK
BOX
equipment from anywhere in the
world.
®
Customer
Support
Information
Order toll-free in the U.S.: Call 877-877-BBOX (outside U.S. call 724-746-5500)
FREE technical support 24 hours a day, 7 days a week: Call 724-746-5500 or fax 724-746-0746
Mailing address: Black Box Corporation, 1000 Park Drive, Lawrence, PA 15055-1018
Web site: www.blackbox.com • E-mail: [email protected]
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
Trademarks Used in this Manual
Black Box and the Double Diamond logo are registered trademarks of BB Technologies, Inc.
Mac is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Internet Explorer, Windows, Windows Me, Windows NT, and Windows Vista are a registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Nagios is a registered trademark of Nagios Enterprises LLC.
Java and Solaris are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Unix is a registered trademark of X/Open Company Ltd.
Any other trademarks mentioned in this manual are acknowledged to be the property of the trademark owners.
Page 2
724-746-5500 | blackbox.com
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
We‘re here to help! If you have any questions about your application
or our products, contact Black Box Tech Support at 724-746-5500
or go to blackbox.com and click on “Talk to Black Box.”
You’ll be live with one of our technical experts in less than 20 seconds.
724-746-5500 | blackbox.com
Page 3
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
Federal Communications Commission and Industry Canada Radio Frequency Interference
Statements
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy, and if not installed and used
properly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, may cause inter­ference to radio communication. It has
been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart
B of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when the equipment is
operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which
case the user at his own expense will be required to take whatever measures may be necessary to correct
the interference.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emis­sion from digital apparatus set out in the Radio
Interference Regulation of Industry Canada.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils numériques de
la classe A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique publié par Industrie Canada.
Page 4
724-746-5500 | blackbox.com
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
Instrucciones de Seguridad
(Normas Oficiales Mexicanas Electrical Safety Statement)
1. Todas las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser leídas antes de que el aparato eléctrico sea operado.
2. Las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser guardadas para referencia futura.
3. Todas las advertencias en el aparato eléctrico y en sus instrucciones de operación deben ser respetadas.
4. Todas las instrucciones de operación y uso deben ser seguidas.
5. El aparato eléctrico no deberá ser usado cerca del agua—por ejemplo, cerca de la tina de baño, lavabo, sótano mojado o cerca
de una alberca, etc..
6. El aparato eléctrico debe ser usado únicamente con carritos o pedestales que sean recomendados por el fabricante.
7. El aparato eléctrico debe ser montado a la pared o al techo sólo como sea recomendado por el fabricante.
8. Servicio—El usuario no debe intentar dar servicio al equipo eléctrico más allá a lo descrito en las instrucciones de operación.
Todo otro servicio deberá ser referido a personal de servicio calificado.
9. El aparato eléctrico debe ser situado de tal manera que su posición no interfiera su uso. La colocación del aparato eléctrico
sobre una cama, sofá, alfombra o superficie similar puede bloquea la ventilación, no se debe colocar en libreros o gabinetes
que impidan el flujo de aire por los orificios de ventilación.
10. El equipo eléctrico deber ser situado fuera del alcance de fuentes de calor como radiadores, registros de calor, estufas u otros
aparatos (incluyendo amplificadores) que producen calor.
11. El aparato eléctrico deberá ser connectado a una fuente de poder sólo del tipo descrito en el instructivo de operación, o como
se indique en el aparato.
12. Precaución debe ser tomada de tal manera que la tierra fisica y la polarización del equipo no sea eliminada.
13. Los cables de la fuente de poder deben ser guiados de tal manera que no sean pisados ni pellizcados por objetos colocados
sobre o contra ellos, poniendo particular atención a los contactos y receptáculos donde salen del aparato.
14. El equipo eléctrico debe ser limpiado únicamente de acuerdo a las recomendaciones del fabricante.
15. En caso de existir, una antena externa deberá ser localizada lejos de las lineas de energia.
16. El cable de corriente deberá ser desconectado del cuando el equipo no sea usado por un largo periodo de tiempo.
17. Cuidado debe ser tomado de tal manera que objectos liquidos no sean derramados sobre la cubierta u orificios de ventilación.
18. Servicio por personal calificado deberá ser provisto cuando:
A: El cable de poder o el contacto ha sido dañado; u
B: Objectos han caído o líquido ha sido derramado dentro del aparato; o
C: El aparato ha sido expuesto a la lluvia; o
D: El aparato parece no operar normalmente o muestra un cambio en su desempeño; o
E: El aparato ha sido tirado o su cubierta ha sido dañada.
724-746-5500 | blackbox.com
Page 5
INDEX
INTRODUCTION
INSTALLATION
2.1
Models
11
15
15
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
16
16
17
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
Kit components LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A Advanced Console Servers
Kit components LES1116A and LES1148A Console Servers
Kit components LES1108A Console Server
Power connection
17
LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A power
LES1116A and LES1148A power
LES1108A power
17
17
18
2.3
Network connection
2.4
Serial Port connection
2.5
USB Port Connection
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
3.1
Management console connection
18
18
19
20
20
3.1.1
3.1.2
20
21
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.4
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
Connected PC/workstation set up
Browser connection
Administrator Password
Network IP address
22
23
IPv6 configuration
25
System Services
Communications Software
25
27
SDT Connector
PuTTY
SSHTerm
27
28
28
Management network configuration (LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A only)
29
Enable the Management LAN
Configure the DHCP server
Select Failover or broadband OOB
Bridging the network ports
29
30
32
33
SERIAL PORT AND NETWORK HOST
4.1
Configure Serial Ports
35
35
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.8
36
37
42
43
43
43
44
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.7
4.8
Common Settings
Console Server Mode
SDT Mode
Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode
Terminal Server Mode
Serial Bridging Mode
Syslog
Add/ Edit Users
Authentication
Network Hosts
Trusted Networks
Serial Port Cascading
45
47
47
48
50
Automatically generate and upload SSH keys
Manually generate and upload SSH keys
Configure the slaves and their serial ports
Managing the Slaves
50
51
53
54
Serial Port Redirection
Managed Devices
54
55
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 6
FAILOVER AND OoB DIAL-IN
5.1
OoB Dial-In Access
58
58
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
59
61
61
62
62
Configure Dial-In PPP
Using SDT Connector client
Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client
Set up earlier Windows clients
Set up Linux clients for dial-in
5.2
OoB broadband access
5.3
Broadband Ethernet Failover
5.4
Dial-Out Failover
SECURE SSH TUNNELING AND SDT CONNECTOR
6.1
Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts
6.2
SDT Connector Client Configuration
62
62
63
65
66
66
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
SDT Connector installation
Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client
Auto-configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges
Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host
Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway
Manually adding new services to the new hosts
Adding a client program to be started for the new service
Dial in configuration
67
68
69
70
71
72
74
76
SDT Connector to Management Console
SDT Connector - telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices
Using SDT Connector for out-of-band connection to the gateway
Importing (and exporting) preferences
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access
76
77
79
80
81
81
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2
Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed
Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client
82
83
SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC
87
Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed
Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer
87
88
6.10
Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway
90
6.10.1
6.10.2
6.10.3
Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server
Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server
Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port
90
93
94
6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY)
ALERTS AND LOGGING
7.1
Configure SMTP/SMS/SNMP/Nagios alert service
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
94
98
98
Email alerts
SMS alerts
SNMP alerts
Nagios alerts
98
99
100
101
Activate Alert Events and Notifications
101
Add a new alert
Configuring general alert types
Configuring environment and power alert type
Configuring alarm sensor alert type
102
103
104
105
7.3
Remote Log Storage
7.4
Serial Port Logging
7.5
Network TCP or UDP Port Logging
POWER & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
8.1
Remote Power Control (RPC)
105
106
106
108
108
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 7
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
RPC connection
RPC access privileges and alerts
User power management
RPC status
108
111
111
112
Uninterruptible Power Supply Control (UPS)
112
Managed UPS connections
Remote UPS management
Controlling UPS powered computers
UPS alerts
UPS status
Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT)
113
116
117
118
118
119
Environmental Monitoring
121
Connecting the EMD
Environmental alerts
Environmental status
122
123
123
AUTHENTICATION
9.1
Authentication Configuration
125
125
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.1.5
126
126
127
128
128
Local authentication
TACACS authentication
RADIUS authentication
LDAP authentication
RADIUS/TACACS user configuration
9.2
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
9.3
SSL Certificate
NAGIOS INTEGRATION
10.1 Nagios Overview
10.2 Central management and setting up SDT for Nagios
129
131
134
134
135
10.2.1
10.2.2
136
136
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5
10.3.6
10.4
10.4.1
10.4.2
10.4.3
10.4.4
10.4.5
Set up central Nagios server
Set up distributed console servers
Configuring Nagios distributed monitoring
139
Enable Nagios on the console server
Enable NRPE monitoring
Enable NSCA monitoring
Configure selected Serial Ports for Nagios monitoring
Configure selected Network Hosts for Nagios monitoring
Configure the upstream Nagios monitoring host
139
140
140
141
141
142
Advanced Distributed Monitoring Configuration
142
Sample Nagios configuration
Basic Nagios plug-ins
Additional plug-ins
Number of supported devices
Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios
142
145
146
146
147
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
11.1 System Administration and Reset
11.2 Upgrade Firmware
11.3 Configure Date and Time
11.4 Configuration Backup
STATUS REPORTS
12.1 Port Access and Active Users
12.2 Statistics
12.3 Support Reports
12.4 Syslog
12.5 Dashboard
150
150
151
152
153
156
156
157
157
158
158
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 8
12.5.1
12.5.2
Configuring the Dashboard
Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard
159
161
MANAGEMENT
13.1 Device Management
13.2 Port and Host Logs
13.3 Serial Port Terminal Connection
13.4 Power Management
CONFIGURATION FROM THE COMMAND LINE
14.1 Accessing config from the command line
14.2 Serial Port configuration
14.3 Adding and removing Users
14.4 Adding and removing user Groups
14.5 Authentication
14.6 Network Hosts
14.7 Trusted Networks
14.8 Cascaded Ports
14.9 UPS Connections
14.10 RPC Connections
14.11 Environmental
14.12 Managed Devices
14.13 Port Log
14.14 Alerts
14.15 SMTP & SMS
14.16 SNMP
14.17 Administration
14.18 IP settings
14.19 Date & Time settings
14.20 Dial-in settings
14.21 DHCP server
14.22 Services
14.23 NAGIOS
ADVANCED CONFIGURATION
15.1 Custom Scripting
162
162
163
163
164
165
165
168
171
172
173
174
175
176
176
177
178
179
179
180
182
183
183
184
184
185
186
186
187
189
189
15.1.1
15.1.2
15.1.3
15.1.4
15.1.5
15.1.6
15.1.7
15.1.8
15.1.9
189
190
191
191
191
194
196
196
197
Custom script to run when booting
Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered
Example script - Power cycling on pattern match
Example script - Multiple email notifications on each alert
Deleting configuration values from the CLI
Power cycle any device upon a ping request failure
Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked
Backing-up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick
Backing-up the configuration off-box
15.2 Advanced Portmanager
198
15.2.1
15.2.2
198
199
Portmanager commands
External Scripts and Alerts
15.3 Raw Access to Serial Ports
200
15.3.1
15.3.2
200
201
Access to serial ports
Accessing the console/modem port
15.4 IP- Filtering
15.5 Modifying SNMP Configuration
201
202
15.5.1
15.5.2
202
203
15.6
/etc/config/snmpd.conf
Adding more than one SNMP server
Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication
204
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 9
15.6.1
15.6.2
15.6.3
15.6.4
15.6.5
15.6.6
15.6.7
15.6.8
SSH Overview
Generating Public Keys (Linux)
Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering)
Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux)
Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows)
Fingerprinting
SSH tunneled serial bridging
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
204
205
205
206
207
209
210
212
15.7 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support
15.8 HTTPS
213
213
15.8.1
15.8.2
15.8.3
15.8.4
213
213
214
214
Generating an encryption key
Generating a self-signed certificate with OpenSSL
Installing the key and certificate
Launching the HTTPS Server
15.9 Power Strip Control
215
15.9.1 The PowerMan tool
15.9.2
The pmpower tool
15.9.3
Adding new RPC devices
215
216
217
15.10 IPMItool
15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK)
15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves
218
221
222
APPENDIX
A. CLI Commands and Source Code
B. Hardware Specification
C. Safety and Certifications
D. Connectivity and Serial I/O
E. Terminology
F. End User License Agreement
G. Service and Warranty
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 10
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Introduction
This Manual
This User’s Manual walks you through installing and configuring your Black Box Console Server
(LES1108A, LES1116A, LES1148A) or Advanced Console Server (LES1208A, LES1216A, LES1248A). Each of
these products is referred to generically in this manual as a “console server.”
Once configured, you will be able to use your console server to securely monitor access and control the
computers, networking devices, telecommunications equipment, power-supplies, and operating
environments in your data room or communications centers. This manual guides you in managing this
infrastructure locally (across your operations or management LAN or through the local serial console
port), and remotely (across the Internet, private network, or via dial up).
Manual Organization
This manual contains the following chapters:
1. Introduction
An overview of the features of console server and information on this
manual.
2. Installation
Physical installation of the console server and how to interconnect
controlled devices.
3. System Configuration
Describes the initial installation and configuration using the
Management Console. Covers configuration of the console server on the
network and the services that will be supported.
4. Serial & Network
Covers configuring serial ports and connected network hosts, and
setting up Users and Groups.
5. Failover and OoB dial-in
Describes setting up the high availability access features of the console
server.
6. Secure Tunneling (SDT)
Covers secure remote access using SSH and configuring for RDP, VNC,
HTTP, HTTPS, etc. access to network and serially connected devices.
7. Alerts and Logging
Explains how to set up local and remote event/data logs and how to
trigger SNMP and email alerts.
8. Power & Environment
Describes how to manage USB, serial, and network attached power
strips and UPS supplies including Network UPS Tool (NUT) operation,
IPMI power control, and EMD environmental sensor configuration.
9. Authentication
Access to the console server requires usernames and passwords that are
locally or externally authenticated.
10. Nagios Integration
Describes how to set Nagios central management with SDT extensions
and configure the console server as a distributed Nagios server.
11. System Management
Covers access to and configuration of services that will run on the
console server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 11
12. Status Reports
View a dashboard summary and detailed status and logs of serial and
network connected devices (ports, hosts, power, and environment)
13. Management
Includes port controls that Users can access.
14 Basic Configuration
Command line installation and configuration using the config command.
15. Advanced Config
More advanced command line configuration activities where you will
need to use Linux commands.
The latest update of this manual can be found online at www.Black Box.com/download.html
Types of users
The console server supports two classes of users:
I.
First, there are the administrative users who will be authorized to configure and control the console
server; and to access and control all the connected devices. These administrative users will be set up
as members of the admin user group and any user in this class is referred to generically in this
manual as the Administrator. An Administrator can access and control the console server using the
config utility, the Linux command line, or the browser-based Management Console. By default, the
Administrator has access to all services and ports to control all the serial connected devices and
network connected devices (hosts).
II.
The second class of users are those who have been set up by the Administrator with specific limits of
their access and control authority. These users are set up as members of the users user group (or
some other user groups the Administrator may have added). They are only authorized to perform
specified controls on specific connected devices and are referred to as Users. These Users (when
authorized) can access serial or network connected devices; and control these devices using the
specified services (for example, Telnet, HHTPS, RDP, IPMI, Serial over LAN, Power Control). An
authorized User also has a limited view of the Management Console and can only access authorized
configured devices and review port logs.
In this manual, when the term user (lower case) is used, it refers to both the above classes of users. This
document also uses the term remote users to describe users who are not on the same LAN segment as
the console server. These remote users may be Users, who are on the road connecting to managed
devices over the public Internet, or it may be an Administrator in another office connecting to the
console server itself over the enterprise VPN, or the remote user may be in the same room or the same
office but connected on a separate VLAN than the console server.
Management Console
The Management Console provides a view of the console server and all the connected devices.
Administrators can use any browser to log into the Management Console either locally or from a remote
location. They can then use Management Console to manage the console server, the users, the serial
ports and serially connected devices, network connected hosts, and connected power devices; and to
view associated logs and configure alerts.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 12
A User can also use the Management Console, but has limited menu access to control select devices,
review their logs and access them using the built-in java terminal or control power to them.
The console server runs an embedded Linux operating system, and experienced Linux® and UNIX® users
may prefer to configure it at the command line. To get command line access, connect through a terminal
emulator or communications program to the console serial port; connect via ssh or telnet through the
LAN; or connect through an SSH tunneling to the console server.
Manual Conventions
This manual uses different fonts and typefaces to show specific actions:
Note Text presented like this indicates issues to note.
Text presented like this highlights important information. Make sure you read
and follow these warnings.
 Text presented with an arrow head indent indicates an action you should take as part of the
procedure.
Bold text indicates text that you type, or the name of a screen object (for example, a menu or button)
on the Management Console.
Italic text indicates a text command you enter at the command line level.
Publishing history
Date
Revision Update details
September 2009 0.9 Prelease
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 13
Copyright
©Black Box Corporation 2009. All Rights Reserved.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment
on the part of Black Box. Black Box provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness or merchantability
for a particular purpose.
Black Box may make improvements and/or changes in this manual or in the product(s) and/or the
program(s) described in this manual at any time. This manual could include technical inaccuracies or
typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes may be
incorporated in new editions of the publication.
Notice to Users
Use proper back-up systems and necessary safety devices to protect against injury, death, or property
damage caused by system failure. This protection is the user’s responsibility.
This device is not approved for use as a life-support or medical system.
Any changes or modifications made to this device without the explicit approval or consent of Black Box
will void Black Box of any liability or responsibility of injury or loss caused by any malfunction.
This equipment is for indoor use and all the communication wirings are limited to the inside of the
building.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 14
Chapter 2
INSTALLATION
Installation
Introduction
This chapter describes how to install the console server hardware and connect it to controlled devices.
To avoid physical and electrical hazards please read Appendix C on Safety.
2.1
Models
There are multiple console server models, each with a different number of network and serial ports or
power supply configurations:
LES1248A
LES1216A
LES1208A
LES1148A
LES1116A
LES1108A
Serial
Ports
USB
Ports
Network
Ports
Console
Port
Modem
48
16
8
48
16
8
1
1
1
-
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Internal
Internal
Internal
-
RJ
Pinout
01
01
01
00
00
00
Power
Memory
(flash/RAM)
Dual DC
Dual AC
Dual AC
Single AC
Single AC
Ext AC/DC
16/64MB
16/64MB
16/64MB
16/64MB
16/64MB
8/16MB
The next sections show the components shipped with each of these models.
 Unpack your kit and verify you have all the parts shown above, and that they all appear in good
working order.
 If you are installing the console server in a rack, you will need to attach the rack mounting
brackets supplied with the unit, then install the unit in the rack. Make sure you follow the Safety
Precautions listed in Appendix C.
 Connect your console server to the network, to the serial ports of the controlled devices, and to
power as outlined next.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 15
2.1.1
Kit components LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A Advanced Console Servers
LES1208A, LES1216A, or LES1248A Advanced Console Server
(2) UTP CAT5 blue cables
DB9F-RJ45S straight and DB9F-RJ45S cross-over connectors
Dual IEC AC power cords
Printed Quick Start Guide and User’s Manual on CD-ROM
2.1.2
Kit components LES1116A and LES1148A Console Servers
LES1116A or LES1148A Console Server
(2) UTP CAT5 blue cables
DB9F-RJ45S straight and DB9F-RJ45S cross-over connectors
IEC AC power cord
Printed Quick Start Guide and User’s Manual on CD-ROM
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 16
2.1.3
Kit components LES1108A Console Server
LES1108A Console Server
(2) UTP CAT5 blue cables
DB9F-RJ45S straight and DB9F-RJ45S cross-over connectors
5-VDC, 2.0A, Power Supply with IEC Socket and AC power cable
Printed Quick Start Guide and this User‘s Manual on CD-ROM
2.2
Power connection
2.2.1
LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A power
The LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A console servers all have dual universal AC power supplies with
auto failover built in. These power supplies each accept AC input voltage between 100 and 240 VAC with
a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The total power consumption per console server is less than 30W. Two IEC
AC power sockets are located at the rear of the metal case, and these IEC power inlets use conventional
IEC AC power cords. Power cords for various regions are available, although the North American power
cord is provided by default. There is a warning notice printed on the back of each unit.
To avoid electrical shock, connect the power cord grounding conductor to
ground!
2.2.2
LES1116A and LES1148A power
The LES1116A and LES1148A models have a built-in universal auto-switching AC power supply. This
power supply accepts AC input voltage between 100 and 240 VAC with a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The
power consumption is less than 20W.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 17
Both LES1116A and LES1148A models have an IEC AC power socket located in the rear of the metal case.
This IEC power inlet uses a conventional IEC AC power cord, and the power cords for various regions are
available. Call Black Box Technical Support for details at 724-746-5500. (The North American power cord
is provided by default.) There is a warning notice printed on the back of each unit.
To avoid electrical shock, connect the power cord grounding conductor to
ground.
2.2.3
LES1108A power
The LES1108A includes an external DC power supply unit. This unit accepts an AC input voltage between
100 and 250 VAC with a frequency of 50Hz or 60Hz. The DC power supply has an IEC AC power socket,
which accepts a conventional IEC AC power cord. The power cord for North America is included in the
kit. The 5-VDC connector from the power supply plugs into the 5VDC power socket on the rear of the
LES1108A.
2.3
Network connection
The RJ-45 LAN ports are located on the rear panel of the LES1108A and on the front panel of the rackmount console servers. Use industry standard Cat5 cabling and connectors. Make sure that you only
connect the LAN port to an Ethernet network that supports 10BASE-T/100BASE-T. To initially configure
the console server, you must connect a PC or workstation to the console server’s principal network port
(labeled NETWORK1 or LAN).
2.4
Serial Port connection
The RJ-45 serial ports are located on the LES1108A’s rear panel and on the rackmount console servers’
front panel.
The LES1108A, LES1116A and LES1148A Console Servers have the Black Box Classic RJ-45 pinout shown
below:
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
RTS
DSR
DCD
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
CTS
DEFINITION
Request To Send
Data Set Ready
Data Carrier Detect
Receive Data
Transmit Data
Signal Ground
Data Terminal Ready
Clear To Send
DIRECTION
Output
Input
Input
Input
Output
NA
Output
Input
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 18
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A Advanced Console Servers have the Cyclades RJ-45 pinout
shown next:
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
RTS
DTR
TXD
GND
CTS
RXD
DCD
DSR
DEFINITION
Request To Send
Data Terminal Ready
Transmit Data
Signal Ground
Clear To Send
Receive Data
Data Carrier Detect
Data Set Ready
DIRECTION
Output
Output
Output
NA
Input
Input
Input
Input
The console servers also have a DB9 LOCAL (Console/Modem) port that is on the LE1108A’s rear panel
and on the rackmount units’ front panels.
Conventional CAT5 cabling with RJ-45 jacks is used for serial connections. Before connecting an external
device’s console port to the console server serial port, confirm that the device supports the standard
RS-232C (EIA-232).
Black Box supplies a range of cables and adapters that may be required to connect to the more popular
servers and network appliances. Call Technical Support at 724-746-5500 for details.
2.5
USB Port Connection
The LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A console servers each also have one USB port. These console
servers ship with a USB memory. Install the memory stick in the USB port to store log files.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 19
Chapter 3
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Initial System Configuration
Introduction
This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for the console server’s initial configuration, and for
connecting it to the Management or Operational LAN. The Administrator must:

Activate the Management Console.

Change the Administrator password.

Set the IP address console server’s principal LAN port.

Select the network services that will be supported.
This chapter also discusses the communications software tools that the Administrator may use to access
the console server.
3.1
Management console connection
Your console server is configured with a default IP Address 192.168.0.1 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

Directly connect a PC or workstation to the console server.
Note For initial configuration we recommend that you connect the console server directly to a single PC
or workstation. However, if you choose to connect your LAN before completing the initial setup
steps, it is important that:


you make sure that there are no other devices on the LAN with an address of 192.168.0.1
the console server and the PC/workstation are on the same LAN segment, with no interposed
router appliances.
3.1.1 Connected PC/workstation set up
To configure the console server with a browser, the connected PC/workstation should have an IP
address in the same range as the console server (e.g. 192.168.0.100):
 To configure the IP Address of your Linux or Unix PC/workstation simply run ifconfig
 For Windows PCs (Win9x/Me/2000/XP/ Vista/ NT):

Click Start -> (Settings ->) Control Panel and double click Network Connections (for
95/98/Me, double click Network).

Right click on Local Area Connection and select Properties.

Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.

Select Use the following IP address and enter the following details:
o
IP address: 192.168.0.100
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 20
o

Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
If you want to retain your existing IP settings for this network connection, click Advanced
and Add the above as a secondary IP connection.
 If it is not convenient to change your PC/workstation network address, you can use the ARP-Ping
command to reset the console server IP address. To do this from a Windows PC:

Click Start -> Run (or select All Programs then Accessories then Run).

Type cmd and click OK to bring up the command line.

Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache.

Type arp –a to view the current ARP cache (this should be empty).
Now add a static entry to the ARP table and ping the console server to assign the IP address to
the console server. In the example below, a console server has a MAC Address 00:13:C6:00:02:0F
(designated on the label on the bottom of the unit) and we are setting its IP address to
192.168.100.23. Also the PC/workstation issuing the arp command must be on the same
network segment as the console server (that is, have an IP address of 192.168.100.xxx)
3.1.2

Type arp -s 192.168.100.23 00-13-C6-00-02-0F (Note for UNIX the syntax is: arp -s
192.168.100.23 00:13:C6:00:02:0F).

Type ping -t 192.18.100.23 to start a continuous ping to the new IP Address.

Turn on the console server and wait for it to configure itself with the new IP address. It will
start replying to the ping at this point.

Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache again.
Browser connection
 Activate your preferred browser on the connected PC/workstation and enter
https://192.168.0.1 The Management Console supports all current versions of the popular
browsers (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, and more).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 21
 You will be prompted to log in. Enter the default
administration username and administration
password:
Username: root
Password: default
Note Console servers are factory configured with HTTPS access enabled and HTTP access disabled.
A Welcome screen, which lists four initial installation configuration steps, will be displayed:
1. Change the default administration password on the System/Administration page (Chapter 3).
2. Configure the local network settings on the System/IP page (Chapter 3).
3. Configure port settings and enable ….. the Serial & Network/Serial Port page (Chapter 4).
4. Configure users with access to serial ports on the Serial & Network/Users page (Chapter 3).
After completing each of the above steps, you can return to the configuration list by clicking in the top
left corner of the screen on the Black Box logo.
Note If you are not able to connect to the Management Console at 192.168.0.1 or if the default
Username/Password were not accepted, then reset your console server (refer to Chapter 11).
3.2
Administrator Password
For security reasons, only the administrator user named root can initially log into your console server.
Only people who know the root password can access and reconfigure the console server itself. However,
anyone who correctly guesses the root password could gain access (and the default root password is
default). To avoid this, enter and confirm a new root password before giving the console server any
access to, or control of, your computers and network appliances.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 22
Note: We recommend that you set up a new Administrator user as soon as convenient and log in as this
new user for all ongoing administration functions (rather than root). This Administrator can be
configured in the admin group with full access privileges through the Serial & Network: Users &
Groups menu as detailed in Chapter 4.
 Select System: Administration.
 Enter a new System Password then re-enter it in Confirm System Password. This is the new
password for root, the main administrative user account, so choose a complex password, and
keep it safe.
 At this stage, you may also wish to enter a System Name and System Description for the
console server to give it a unique ID and make it simple to identify.
Note The System Name can contain from 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters (however you can also use
the special characters ―-‖, ―_‖, and ―.‖)
There are no restrictions on the characters that can be used in the System Description or the
System Password (each can contain up to 254 characters). However, only the first eight System
Password characters are used to make the password hash.
 Click Apply. Since you have changed the password you will be prompted to log in again. This
time, use the new password.
Note If you are not confident that your console server has the current firmware release, you can
upgrade. Refer to Upgrade Firmware—Chapter 10.
3.3
Network IP address
The next step is to enter an IP address for the principal Ethernet (LAN/Network/Network1) port on the
console server; or enable its DHCP client so that it automatically obtains an IP address from a DHCP
server on the network it will connect to.
 On the System: IP menu, select the Network Interface page then check dhcp or static for the
Configuration Method.
 If you selected Static, you must manually enter the new IP Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway,
and DNS server details. This selection automatically disables the DHCP client.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 23
 If you selected DHCP, the console server will look for configuration details from a DHCP server
on your management LAN. This selection automatically disables any static address. The console
server MAC address is printed on a label on the base plate.
Note In its factory default state (with no Configuration Method selected) the console server has its
DHCP client enabled, so it automatically accepts any network IP address assigned by a DHCP
server on your network. In this initial state, the console server will then respond to both its Static
address (192.168.0.1) and its newly assigned DHCP address.
 By default the console server LAN port auto-detects the Ethernet connection speed. You can use
the Media menu to lock the Ethernet to 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and to Full Duplex (FD) or Half
Duplex (HD).
Note If you changed the console server IP address, you may need to reconfigure your PC/workstation
so it has an IP address that is in the same network range as this new address.
 Click Apply.
 Enter http://new IP address to reconnect the browser on the PC/workstation that is connected
to the console server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 24
3.3.1
IPv6 configuration
You can also configure the console server Network and Management LAN Interfaces for IPv6 operation:
 On the System: IP menu select General Settings page and check Enable IPv6.
 Then, configure the IPv6 parameters on each Interface page.
3.4
System Services
The Administrator can access and configure the console server and connect to the managed devices
using a range of access protocols (services). The factory default enables HTTPS and SSH access to the
console server and disables HTTP and Telnet.
A User or Administrator can also use nominated enabled services to connect through the console server
to attached serial and network connected managed devices.
The Administrator can simply disable any of the services, or enable others:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 25
 Select the System: Services option, then select/deselect for the service to be enabled/disabled.
The following access protocol options are available:
HTTPS
This ensures secure browser access to all the Management Console menus. It also
allows appropriately configured Users secure browser access to selected
Management Console Manage menus. If you enable HTTPS, the Administrator will be
able to use a secure browser connection to the Console server’s Management
Console. For information on certificate and user client software configuration, refer
to Chapter 9—Authentication. By default, HTTPS is enabled, and we recommend that
that you only use HTTPS access if the console server will be managed over any public
network (for example, the Internet).
HTTP
By default HTTP is disabled. We recommend that the HTTP service remain disabled if
the console server will be remotely accessed over the Internet.
Telnet
This gives the Administrator Telnet access to the system command line shell (Linux
commands). This may be suitable for a local direct connection over a management
LAN. By default, Telnet is disabled. We recommend that this service remain disabled
if you will remotely administer the console server.
SSH
This service provides secure SSH access to the Linux command line shell. We
recommend that you choose SSH as the protocol where the Administrator connects
to the console server over the Internet or any other public network. This will provide
authenticated communications between the SSH client program on the remote
PC/workstation and the SSH sever in the console server. By default SSH is enabled.
For more information on SSH configuration refer Chapter 9—Authentication.
 You can configure related service options at this stage:
SNMP
This will enable netsnmp in the console server, which will keep a remote log of all
posted information. SNMP is disabled by default. This SNMP service is only available
in rackmount models. To modify the default SNMP settings, the Administrator must
make the edits at the command line as described in Chapter 15—Advanced
Configuration.
TFTP
This service will set up the default tftp server on the USB flash card (and is relevant
to LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A console servers only). This server can be used
to store config files, and maintain access and transaction logs, etc.
Ping
This allows the console server to respond to incoming ICMP echo requests. Ping is
enabled by default. For security reasons, you should disable this service after initial
configuration.
 And there are some serial port access parameters that you can configure on this menu:
Base
The console server uses specific default ranges for the TCP/IP ports for the various
access services that Users and Administrators can use to access devices attached to
serial ports (as covered in Chapter 4—Configuring Serial Ports). The Administrator
can also set alternate ranges for these services, and these secondary ports will then
be used in addition to the defaults.
The default TCP/IP base port address for telnet access is 2000, and the range for
telnet is IP Address: Port (2000 + serial port #) i.e. 2001 – 2048. If the Administrator
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 26
sets 8000 as a secondary base for telnet, then serial port #2 on the console server can
be accessed via telnet at IP Address:2002 and at IP Address:8002.
The default base for SSH is 3000; for Raw TCP is 4000; and for RFC2217 it is 5000.
 Click Apply. As you apply your services selections, the screen will be updated with a
confirmation message:
Message Changes to configuration succeeded.
3.5
Communications Software
You have configured access protocols for the Administrator client to use when connecting to the console
server. User clients (who you may set up later) will also use these protocols when accessing console
server serial attached devices and network attached hosts. You will need to have appropriate
communications software tools set up on the Administrator (and User) PC/workstation.
Black Box provides the SDT Connector Java applet as the recommended client software tool. You can use
other generic tools such as PuTTY and SSHTerm. These tools are all described below as well.
3.5.1 SDT Connector
Each console server has an unlimited number of SDT Connector licenses to use with that console server.
LAN
SDT connector
(RDP/VNC/Telnet/
HTTP client)
SSH encrypted
tunnel
RDP/VNC/Telnet/HTTP sessions
forwarded to devices/computers/
service processors on the LAN
Network
appliance
Applications and
database server
Web
server
Desktop
PC
SDT Connector is a lightweight tool that enables Users and Administrators to securely access the console
server and the various computers, network devices, and appliances that may be serially or network
connected to the console server.
SDT Connector is a Java applet that couples the trusted SSH tunneling protocol with popular access tools
such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, VNC, and RDP to provide point-and-click secure remote management
access to all the systems and devices being managed.
Information on using SDT Connector for browser access to the console server’s Management Console,
Telnet/SSH access to the console server command line, and TCP/UDP connecting to hosts that are
network connected to the console server is in Chapter 6—Secure Tunneling.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 27
SDT Connector can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista PCs, and on most Linux, UNIX, and
Solaris computers.
3.5.2
PuTTY
You can also use communications packages like PuTTY to connect to the console server command line
(and to connect serially attached devices as covered in Chapter 4). PuTTY is a freeware implementation
of Telnet and SSH for Windows and UNIX platforms. It runs as an executable application without needing
to be installed onto your system. PuTTY (the Telnet and SSH client itself) can be downloaded from
http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html
3.5.3

To use PuTTY for an SSH terminal session from a
Windows client, enter the console server’s IP
address as the ”Host Name (or IP address).”

To access the console server command line,
select “SSH” as the protocol, and use the
default IP Port 22.

Click “Open” and the console server login
prompt will appear. (You may also receive a
“Security Alert” that the host’s key is not
cached. Choose “yes” to continue.)

Using the Telnet protocol is similarly simple but you use the default port 23.
SSHTerm
Another popular communications package you can use is SSHTerm, an open source package that you can
download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sshtools

To use SSHTerm for an SSH terminal session from a Windows Client, simply Select the “File” option
and click on “New Connection.”

A new dialog box will appear for your “Connection Profile.”
Type in the host name or IP address (for the console server
unit) and the TCP port that the SSH session will use (port 22).
Then type in your username, choose password
authentication, and click connect.

You may receive a message about the host key fingerprint.
Select “yes” or “always” to continue.

The next step is password authentication. The system
prompts you for your username and password from the
remote system. This logs you on to the console server
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 28
3.6
Management network configuration (LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A
only)
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers have a second network port that you can
configure as a management LAN port or as a failover/ OOB access port.
3.6.1
Enable the Management LAN
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers provide a firewall, router, and DHCP server.
You need to connect an external LAN switch to Network 2 to attach hosts to this management LAN.
Gateway to the
management LAN
NETWORK 1
NETWORK 2
Operations
network
Serially connected
consoles
Management
network
This Management LAN feature is disabled by default. To configure the Management LAN gateway:
 Select the Management LAN page on the System: IP menu and uncheck Disable.

Configure the IP Address and Subnet Mask for the Management LAN (but leave the DNS fields
blank).
 Click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 29
Note You can configure the second Ethernet port as either a gateway port or as an OOB/Failover port
(but not both). Make sure you did not allocate Network 2 as the Failover Interface when you
configured the principal Network connection on the System: IP menu.
The management gateway function is now enabled with default firewall and router rules. By default,
these rules are configured so the Management LAN can only be accessible by SSH port forwarding. This
ensures that the remote and local connections to Managed Devices on the Management LAN are secure.
You can also configure the LAN ports in bridged mode (as described later in this chapter) or you can
configure them from the command line.
3.6.2
Configure the DHCP server
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers also host a DHCP server which by default is
disabled. The DHCP server enables the automatic distribution of IP addresses to hosts on the
Management LAN that are running DHCP clients. To enable the DHCP server:
 On the System: IP menu select the Management LAN page and click the Disable label in the
DHCP Server field (or go to the System: DHCP Server menu and check Enable DHCP Server).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 30
 Enter the Gateway address that you want to issue to the DHCP clients. If you leave this field
blank, the console server’s IP address will be used.
 Enter the Primary DNS and Secondary DNS address to issue the DHCP clients. If you leave this
field blank, the console server’s IP address is used. So, leave this field blank for automatic DNS
server assignment.
 Optionally, enter a Domain Name suffix to issue DHCP clients.
 Enter the Default Lease time and Maximum Lease time in seconds. The lease time is the time
that a dynamically assigned IP address is valid before the client must request it again.
 Click Apply.
The DHCP server will sequentially issue IP addresses from a specified address pool(s):
 Click Add in the Dynamic Address Allocation Pools field.
 Enter the DHCP Pool Start Address and End Address and click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 31
The DHCP server also supports pre-assigning IP addresses to be allocated only to specific MAC addresses
and reserving IP addresses to be used by connected hosts with fixed IP addresses. To reserve an IP
addresses for a particular host:
 Click Add in the Reserved Addresses field.
 Enter the Hostname, the Hardware Address (MAC), and the Statically Reserved IP address for
the DHCP client and click Apply.
When DHCP has initially allocated hosts addresses, copy these addresses into the pre-assigned list so the
same IP address will be reallocated if you reboot the system.
3.6.3
Select Failover or broadband OOB
The LES1208A, LES1216A and LES1248A console servers provide a broadband failover option. If you have
a problem using the main LAN connection for accessing the console server, an alternate access path is
used.
NETWORK
#1
Redundant LAN connection
#2
Serially
connected
consoles
Management
network
 By default, the failover is not enabled. To enable, select the Network page on the System: IP
menu.
 Select the Failover Interface to be used if the main fails. This can be:
o
an alternate broadband Ethernet connection (which would be the Network2 port on the
LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A) or
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 32
o
the internal modem, or
o
an external serial modem connected to the Console port (for dialing out to an ISP or the
remote management office).
 Click Apply. You have selected the failover method. It is not active until you specify the external
sites to be probed to trigger failover, and set up the failover ports themselves. This is covered in
Chapter 5.
Note With the LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A, you can configure the second Ethernet port as
either a gateway port or as an OOB/Failover port, but not both. Make sure you did not enable the
Management LAN function on Network 2.
3.6.4
Bridging the network ports
By default, you can only access the console server's Management LAN network ports using SSH tunneling/port
forwarding. However, all the wired network ports on the console servers can also be bridged.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 33
 Select Enable Bridging on the System: IP General Settings menu.
 All the Ethernet ports are all transparently connected at the data link layer (layer 2) and they are
configured collectively using the Network Interface menu.
When bridging is enabled, network traffic is forwarded between all Ethernet ports with no firewall
restrictions. This mode also removes all the Management LAN Interface and Out-of-Band/Failover
Interface functions, and disables the DHCP Server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 34
Chapter 4
Serial Port, Host, Device & User Configuration
SERIAL PORT AND NETWORK HOST
Introduction
The Black Box console server enables access and control of serially attached devices and network
attached devices (hosts). The Administrator must configure access privileges for each of these devices,
and specify the services that can be used to control the devices. The Administrator can also set up new
users and specify each user’s individual access and control privileges.
Network
connected
(HTTP,
HTTPS, IPMI,
ALOM, SOL,
VNC, RDP,
SSH, X.Telnet)
Serial
connected
(Linux,
Solaris, Windows
UNIX, BSD servers)
VoIP PBX switch,
router, firewall,
power strip, UPS
This chapter covers each of the steps in configuring hosts and serially attached devices:
Configure Serial Ports—setting up the protocols to be used in accessing serially-connected devices.
Users & Groups—setting up users and defining the access permissions for each of these users.
Authentication—covered in more detail in Chapter 9.
Network Hosts—configuring access to network connected devices (referred to as hosts).
Configuring Trusted Networks—nominate user IP addresses.
Cascading and Redirection of Serial Console Ports.
Connecting to Power (UPS PDU and IPMI) and Environmental Monitoring (EMD) devices.
Managed Devices—presents a consolidted view of all the connections.
4.1
Configure Serial Ports
To configure a serial port, you must first set the Common Settings (the protocols and the RS-232
parameters (such as baud rate) that will be used for the data connection to that port.
Select what mode the port is to operate in. You can set each port to support one of five operating
modes:
1) Console Server Mode is the default and this enables general access to serial console port on the
serially attached devices.
2) Device Mode sets the serial port up to communicate with an intelligent serial controlled PDU,
UPS, or Environmental Monitor Device (EMD).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 35
3) SDT Mode enables graphical console access (with RDP, VNC, HTTPS, etc.) to hosts that are serially
connected.
4) Terminal Server Mode sets the serial port to wait for an incoming terminal login session.
5) Serial Bridge Mode enables transparently interconnects two serial port devices over a network.
 Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and you will see the current labels, modes, logging levels,
and RS-232 protocol options that are currently set up for each serial port.
 By default, each serial port is set in Console Server mode. To reconfigure the port, click Edit.
 When you have reconfigured the common settings (Chapter 4.1.1) and the mode (Chapters 4.1.2
–4.1.6) for each port, you can set up any remote syslog (Chapter 4.1.7), then click Apply.
Note If you want to set the same protocol options for multiple serial ports at once, click Edit Multiple
Ports and select which ports you want to configure as a group.
 If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you
will also be presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to
be monitored (refer Chapter 10—Nagios Integration).
4.1.1
Common Settings
There are a number of common settings that you can set for each serial port. These are independent of
the mode in which the port is being used. Set these serial port parameters to match the serial port
parameters on the device you attach to that port.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 36
 Specify a label for the port.
 Select the appropriate Baud Rate, Parity, Data Bits, Stop Bits, and Flow Control for each port.
(Note: The RS-485/RS-422 option is not relevant for console servers.)
 Before proceeding with further serial port configuration, connect the ports to the serial devices
they will be controlling, and make sure they have matching settings.
Note The serial ports are all set at the factory to RS232 9600 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
and Console server Mode. You can change the baud rate to 2400–230400 baud using the
management console. You can configure lower baud rates (50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600,
1200, 1800 baud) from the command line. Refer to Chapter 14— Basic Configuration (Linux
Commands).
4.1.2
Console Server Mode
Select Console Server Mode to enable remote management access to the serial console that is attached
to this serial port:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 37
Logging Level This specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored (referto Chapter 7—
Alerts and Logging).
Telnet When the Telnet service is enabled on the console server, a Telnet client on a User or
Administrator’s computer can connect to a serial device attached to this serial port on the
console server. The Telnet communications are unencrypted, so this protocol is generally
recommended only for local connections.
With Win2000/XP/NT you can run telnet from the command prompt (cmd.exe). Vista and
Windows 7 include a Telnet client and server, but they are not enabled by default. To enable
Telnet:

Log in as Admin and go to Start/Control Panel/Programs and Features.

Select Turn Windows features on or off, check the Telnet Client, and click OK.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 38
If the remote communications are tunneled with SDT Connector, then you can use Telnet to
securely access these attached devices (refer to the Note below).
Note In Console Server mode, Users and Administrators can use SDT Connector to set up secure
Telnet connections that are SSH tunneled from their client PC/workstations to the serial port on
the console server. SDT Connector can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and
Windows 7 PCs and on most Linux platforms. You can also set up secure Telnet connections
with a simple point-and-click.
To use SDT Connector to access consoles on the console server serial ports, you configure SDT
Connector with the console server as a gateway, then configure it as a host, Next, you enable
Telnet service on Port (2000 + serial port #) i.e. 2001–2048. Refer to Chapter 6 for more details
on using SDT Connector for Telnet and SSH access to devices that are attached to the console
server serial ports.
You can also use standard communications packages like PuTTY to set a direct Telnet (or SSH)
connection to the serial ports (refer to the Note below).
Note PuTTY also supports Telnet (and SSH) and the procedure to set up a Telnet session is simple.
Enter the console server’s IP address as the ―Host Name (or IP address).‖ Select ―Telnet‖ as the
protocol and set the ―TCP port‖ to 2000 plus the physical serial port number (that is, 2001 to
2048).
Click the ―Open‖ button. You may then receive a ―Security Alert‖ that the host‗s key is not cached.
Choose ―yes‖ to continue. You will then be presented with the login prompt of the remote system
connected to the serial port chosen on the console server. Login as normal and use the host
serial console screen.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 39
PuTTY can be downloaded at http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html
SSH
We recommend that you use SSH as the protocol where the User or Administrator connects
to the console server (or connects through the console server to the attached serial consoles)
over the Internet or any other public network. This will provide authenticated SSH
communications between the SSH client program on the remote user’s computer and the
console server, so the user’s communication with the serial device attached to the console
server is secure.
For SSH access to the consoles on devices attached to the console server serial ports, you can
use SDT Connector. Configure SDT Connector with the console server as a gateway, then as a
host, and enable SSH service on Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001-3048. Chapter 6—Secure
Tunneling has more information on using SDT Connector for SSH access to devices that are
attached to the console server serial ports.
You can also use common communications packages, like PuTTY or SSHTerm to SSH connect
directly to port address IP Address _ Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001–3048.
SSH connections can be configured using the standard SSH port 22. Identify the the serial
port that’s accessed by appending a descriptor to the username. This syntax supports:
<username>:<portXX>
<username>:<port label>
<username>:<ttySX>
<username>:<serial>
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 40
For a User named “fred” to access serial port 2, when setting up the SSHTerm or the PuTTY
SSH client, instead of typing username = fred and ssh port = 3002, the alternate is to type
username = fred:port02 (or username = fred:ttyS1) and ssh port = 22.
Or, by typing username=fred:serial and ssh port = 22. A port selection option appears to the
User:
This syntax enables Users to set up SSH tunnels to all serial ports with only opening a single IP
port 22 in their firewall/gateway.
TCP
RAW TCP allows connections directly to a TCP socket. Communications programs like PuTTY
also support RAW TCP. You would usually access this protocol via a custom application.
For RAW TCP, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (4000 + serial port #) i.e. 4001 –
4048.
RAW TCP also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial
port devices can transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.1.6—Serial
Bridging).
RFC2217 Selecting RFC2217 enables serial port redirection on that port. For RFC2217, the default port
address is IP Address _ Port (5000 + serial port #), that is, 5001 – 5048.
Special client software is available for Windows UNIX and Linux that supports RFC2217 virtual
com ports, so a remote host can monitor and manage remote serially attached devices, as
though they were connected to the local serial port (see Chapter 4.6—Serial Port Redirection
for details).
RFC2217 also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial
port devices can transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.1.6—Serial
Bridging).
Unauthenticated Telnet Selecting Unauthenticated Telnet enables telnet access to the serial port
without requiring the user to provide credentials. When a user accesses the console server to
telnet to a serial port he normally is given a login prompt. With unauthenticated telnet, the
user connects directly through to a port with any console server login. This mode is mainly
used when you have an external system (such as conserver) managing user authentication
and access privileges at the serial device level.
For Unauthenticated Telnet, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (6000 + serial port
#) i.e. 6001 – 6048
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 41
Accumulation Period By default, once a connection is established for a particular serial port (such as a
RFC2217 redirection or Telnet connection to a remote computer) then any incoming
characters on that port are forwarded over the network on a character by character basis.
The accumulation period changes this by specifying a period of time that incoming characters
will be collected before then being sent as a packet over the network.
Escape Character
This enables you to change the character used for sending escape characters.
The default is ~.
Power Menu This setting enables the shell power command. A user can control the power connection
to a Managed Device from command line when they are connected to the device via telnet
or ssh. To operate, the Managed Device must be set up with both its Serial port connection
and Power connection configured. The command to bring up the power menu is ~p
Single Connection
This setting limits the port to a single connection> If multiple users have access
privileges for a particular port, only one user at a time can access that port (that is, port
“snooping” is not permitted).
4.1.3
SDT Mode
This setting allows port forwarding of RDP, VNC, HTPP, HTTPS, SSH, Telnet, and other LAN protocols
through to computers that are locally connected to the console server by their serial COM port. Port
forwarding requires that you set up a PPP link over this serial port.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 42
For configuration details, refer to Chapter 6.6—Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices
that are serially attached to the console server.
4.1.4
Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode
This mode configures the selected serial port to communicate with a serial controlled Uninterruptable
Power Supply (UPS), Remote Power Controller/Power Distribution Unit (RPC) or Environmental
Monitoring Device (EMD).
 Select the desired Device Type (UPS, RPC or EMD)
 Proceed to the appropriate device configuration page (Serial & Network: UPS Connections, RPC
Connection or Environmental) as detailed in Chapter 8—Power & Environmental Management.
4.1.5
Terminal Server Mode
 Select Terminal Server Mode and the Terminal Type (vt220, vt102, vt100, Linux, or ANSI) to
enable a getty on the selected serial port.
The getty will then configure the port and wait for a connection to be made. An active connection on a
serial device is usually indicated by the Data Carrier Detect (DCD) pin on the serial device being raised.
When a connection is detected, the getty program issues a login: prompt, and then invokes the login
program to handle the actual system login.
Note Selecting Terminal Server mode will disable Port Manager for that serial port, so data is no longer
logged for alerts, etc.
4.1.6
Serial Bridging Mode
With serial bridging, the serial data on a nominated serial port on one console server is encapsulated
into network packets and then transported over a network to a second console server. It is then
represented on its serial port again as serial data. The two console servers effectively act as a virtual
serial cable over an IP network.
One console server is configured as the Server. Set the Server serial port to be bridged in Console Server
mode with either RFC2217 or RAW enabled (as described in Chapter 4.1.2—Console Server Mode).
For the Client console server, the serial port to bridge must be set in Bridging Mode:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 43
 Select Serial Bridging Mode and specify the IP address of the Server console server and the TCP
port address of the remote serial port (for RFC2217 bridging this will be 5001-5048).
 By default, the bridging client will use RAW TCP. Select RFC2217 if this is the console server
mode you have specified on the server console server.
Console Server
COM port
connected
control PC
Local Ethernet
LAN
Serially connected
control PC
 You may secure the communications over the local Ethernet by enabling SSH. You will need to
generate and upload keys (refer to Chapter 14— Advanced Configuration).
4.1.8
Syslog
In addition to built-in logging and monitoring (which can be applied to serial-attached and networkattached management accesses, as covered in Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging), you can also configure
the console server to support the remote syslog protocol on a per serial port basis:
 Select the Syslog Facility/Priority fields to enable logging of traffic on the selected serial port to
a syslog server; and to appropriately sort and action those logged messages (that is, redirect
them/send alert email etc.).
For example, if the computer attached to serial port 3 should never send anything out on its serial
console port, the Administrator can set the Facility for that port to local0 (local0 .. local7 are for site
local values), and the Priority to critical. At this priority, if the console server syslog server does receive a
message, it will automatically raise an alert. Refer to Chapter 7—Alerts & Logging.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 44
4.2
Add/ Edit Users
The Administrator uses this menu selection to set up, edit, and delete users, and to define the access
permissions for each of these users.
Users can be authorized to access specified console server serial ports and specified network-attached
hosts. These users can also be given full Administrator status (with full configuration and management
and access privileges).
To simplify user set up, they can be configured as members of Groups. There are two Groups set up by
default (admin and user).
1.
Members of the admin group have full Administrator privileges. The admin user (Administrator)
can access the console server using any of the services that are enabled in System: Services. For
example, if only HTTPS has been enabled, then the Administrator can only access the console
server using HTTPS. Once logged in, they can reconfigure the console server settings (for
example, to enabled HTTP/Telnet for future access). They can also access any of the connected
Hosts or serial port devices using any of the services that have been enabled for these
connections. The Administrator can reconfigure the access services for any Host or serial port.
Only trusted users should have Administrator access.
Note: For convenience, the SDT Connector ―Retrieve Hosts‖ function retrieves and auto-configures
checked serial ports and checked hosts only, even for admin group users.
2.
Members of the user group have limited access to the console server and connected Hosts and
serial devices. These Users can access only the Management section of the Management
Console menu and they have no command line access to the console server. They also can only
access those Hosts and serial devices that are checked for them, using services that are enabled.
3.
The Administrator can also set up additional Groups with specific serial port and host access
permissions (same as Users). However, users in these additional groups don’t have any access to
the Management Console menu or any command line access to the console server itself. Finally,
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 45
the Administrator can also set up users who are not a member of any Groups. They will have the
same access as users in the additional groups.
To set up new Groups and new users, and to classify users as members of particular Groups:
 Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups to display the configured Groups and Users.
 Click Add Group to add a new Group.
 Add a Group name and Description for each new Group, then nominate the Accessible Hosts,
Accessible Ports, and Accessible RPC Outlets(s) that you want any users in this new Group to be
able to access.
 Click Apply.
 Click Add User to add a new user.
 Add a Username and a confirmed Password for each new user. You may also include
information related to the user (for example, contact details) in the Description field.
Note The User Name can contain from 1 to 127 alphanumeric characters (you can also use the special
characters ―-‖, ―_‖, and ―.‖ ).
There are no restrictions on the characters that you can use in the user Password (each can
contain up to 254 characters). Only the first eight Password characters are used to make the
password hash.
 Specify which Group (or Groups) you want the user to join.
 Check specific Accessible Hosts and/or Accessible Ports to nominate the serial ports and
network connected hosts you want the user to have access privileges to.
 If there are configured RPCs, you can check Accessible RPC Outlets to specify which outlets the
user is able to control (that is, Power On/Off).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 46
 Click Apply. The new user can now access the Network Devices, Ports, and RPC Outlets you
nominated as accessible. Plus, if the user is a Group member they can also access any other
device/port/outlet that was set up as accessible to the Group.
Note There are no specific limits on the number of users you can set up; nor on the number of users
per serial port or host. Multiple users (Users and Administrators) can control/monitor one port or
host.
There are no specific limits on the number of Groups. Each user can be a member of a number of
Groups (they take on the cumulative access privileges of each of those Groups). A user does not
have to be a member of any Groups (but if the User is not even a member of the default user
group. then he will not be able to use the Management Console to manage ports).
The time allowed to re-configure increases as the number and complexity increases. We
recommend that you keep the aggregate number of users and groups under 250.
The Administrator can also edit the access settings for any existing users:
 Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups and click Edit for the User to be modified.
Note For more information on enabling the SDT Connector so each user has secure tunneled remote
RPD/VNC/Telnet/HHTP/HTTPS/SoL access to the network connected hosts, refer to Chapter 6.
4.3
Authentication
Refer to Chapter 9.1— Remote Authentication Configuration for authentication configuration details.
4.4
Network Hosts
To access a locally networked computer or device (referred to as a Host), you must identify the Host and
specify the TCP or UDP ports/services that will be used to control that Host.
 Selecting Serial & Network: Network Hosts presents all the network connected Hosts that have
been enabled for access, and the related access TCP ports/services.
 Click Add Host to enable access to a new Host (or select Edit to update the settings for an
existing Host).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 47
 Enter the IP Address or DNS Name and a Host Name (up to 254 alphanumeric characters) for
the new network connected Host (and optionally enter a Description).
 Add or edit the Permitted Services (or TCP/UDP port numbers) that are authorized to be used in
controlling this host. Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by SDT to the
Host. All other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked.
 The Logging Level specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored for each Host
access (refer to Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging).
 If the Host is a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power control, then specify RPC
(for IPMI and PDU) or UPS and the Device Type. The Administrator can then configure these
devices and enable which users have permission to remotely cycle power, etc. (refer to Chapter
8). Otherwise, leave the Device Type set to None.
 If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you
will also be presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to
be monitored (refer to Chapter 10— Nagios Integration).
 Click Apply. This will create the new Host and also create a new Managed Device (with the same
name).
4.5
Trusted Networks
The Trusted Networks facility gives you an option to nominate specific IP addresses where users
(Administrators and Users) must be located to access console server serial ports.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 48
 Select Serial & Network: Trusted Networks.
 To add a new trusted network, select Add Rule.
 Select the Accessible Port(s) that the new rule is to be applied to.
 Then, enter the Network Address of the subnet to be permitted access.
 Then, specify the range of addresses that are to be permitted by entering a Network Mask for
that permitted IP range, for example:



To permit all the users located with a particular Class C network (for example, 204.15.5.0)
connection to the nominated port then you would add the following Trusted Network New
Rule:
Network Address
204.15.5.0
Network Mask
255.255.255.0
If you want to permit only the one user who is located at a specific IP address (for example,
204.15.5.13 say) to connect:
Network Address
204.15.5.0
Network Mask
255.255.255.255
If, however, you want to allow all the users operating from within a specific range of IP
addresses (for example, any of the thirty addresses from 204.15.5.129 to 204.15.5.158) to
be permitted connection to the nominated port:
Host /Subnet Address
204.15.5.128
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.224
 Click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 49
Note The above Trusted Networks will limit Users and Administrators access to the console serial
ports. They do not restrict access to the console server itself or to attached hosts. To change the
default settings for this access, you will to need to edit the IPtables rules as described in Chapter
14—Advanced.
4.6
Serial Port Cascading
Cascaded Ports enables you to cluster distributed console servers. A large number of serial ports (up to
1000) can be configured and accessed through one IP address and managed through one Management
Console. One console server, the Master, controls other console servers as Slave units and all the serial
ports on the Slave units appear as if they are part of the Master.
Black Box’s clustering connects each Slave to the Master with an SSH connection. This uses public key
authentication so the Master can access each Slave using the SSH key pair (rather than using
passwords). This ensures secure authenticated communications between Master and Slaves, enabling
the Slave console server units to be distributed locally on a LAN or remotely around the world.
Local or remote
administration
The Master
Distributed slaves
4.6.1 Automatically generate and upload SSH keys
To set up public key authentication, you must first generate an RSA or DSA key pair and upload them
into the Master and Slave console servers. This can all be done automatically from the Master.
 Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.
 Check Generate SSH keys automatically and click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 50
Next, you must select whether to generate keys using RSA and/or DSA (if unsure, select only RSA).
Generating each set of keys will require approximately two minutes, and the new keys will destroy any
old keys of that type that may previously been uploaded.
Also, while the new generation is underway on the master, functions relying on SSH keys (for example,
cascading) may stop functioning until they are updated with the new set of keys.
To generate keys:
 Select RSA Keys and/or DSA Keys.
 Click Apply.
 Once the new keys have been successfully generated, Click here to return and the keys will
automatically be uploaded to the Master and connected Slaves.
4.6.2 Manually generate and upload SSH keys
Or, if you have an RSA or DSA key pair. you can manually upload them to the Master and Slave console
servers.
Note If you already have an RSA or DSA key pair that you do not want to use, you will need to create a
key pair using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool as detailed in Chapter 15.6.
To manually upload the public and private key pair to the Master console server:
 Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.
 Browse to the location where you have stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to SSH RSA
(DSA) Public Key.
 Browse to the stored RSA (or DSA) Private Key and upload it to SSH RSA (DSA) Private Key.
 Click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 51
Next, you must register the Public Key as an Authorized Key on the Slave. In a case that has only one
Master with multiple Slaves, you only need to upload the one RSA or DSA public key for each Slave.
Note Using key pairs can be confusing since one file (Public Key) fulfills two roles— Public Key and
Authorized Key. For a more detailed explanation, refer to the Authorized Keys section of Chapter
15.6. Also, refer to this chapter if you need to use more than one set of Authorized Keys in the
Slave.
 Select System: Administration on the Slave’s Management Console.
 Browse again to the stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to Slave’s SSH Authorized Key.
 Click Apply.
The next step is to Fingerprint each new Slave-Master connection. This one-time step will validate that
you are establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the first connection, the Slave will
receive a fingerprint from the Master which will be used on all future connections:
 To establish the fingerprint, first log in the Master server as root and establish an SSH
connection to the Slave remote host:
# ssh remhost
Once the SSH connection has been established, the system asks you to accept the key. Answer yes and
the fingerprint will be added to the list of known hosts. For more details on Fingerprinting, refer to
Chapter 15.6.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 52
 If the system asks you to supply a password, then there is a problem with uploading keys. The
keys should remove any need to supply a password.
4.6.3 Configure the slaves and their serial ports
You can now begin setting up the Slaves and configuring Slave serial ports from the Master console
server:
 Select Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports on the Master’s Management Console:
 To add clustering support, select Add Slave.
Note You can‘t add any Slaves until you automatically or manually generate SSH keys.
To define and configure a Slave:
 Enter the remote IP Address (or DNS Name) for the Slave console server.
 Enter a brief Description and a short Label for the Slave (use a convention here that enables you
to effectively manage large networks of clustered console servers and the connected devices).
 Enter the full number of serial ports on the Slave unit in Number of Ports.
 Click Apply. This will establish the SSH tunnel between the Master and the new Slave.
The Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports menu displays all the Slaves and the port numbers that have
been allocated on the Master. If the Master console server has 16 ports of its own, then ports 1-16 are
pre-allocated to the Master. The first Slave added will be assigned port number 17 and up.
Once you have added all the Slave console servers, you can assign and access the Slave serial ports and
the connected devices from the Master’s Management Console menu. You can also access them
through the Master’s IP address.
 Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit to configure the serial ports on the
Slave.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 53
 Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Users & Groups to add new users with access
privileges to the Slave serial ports (or to extend existing users’ access privileges).
 Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Trusted Networks to specify network addresses that
can access nominated Slave serial ports .
 Select the appropriate Alerts & Logging: Alerts to configure Slave port Connection, State
Change, or Pattern Match alerts.
 The configuration changes made on the Master are propagated out to all the Slaves when you
click Apply.
4.6.4 Managing the Slaves
The Master is in control of the Slave serial ports. For example, if you change User access privileges or
edit any serial port setting on the Master, the updated configuration files will be sent out to each Slave
in parallel. Each Slave will then automatically make changes to its local configuration (and only make
those changes that relate to its particular serial ports).
You can still use the local Slave Management Console to change the settings on any Slave serial port
(such as alter the baud rates). These changes will be overwritten next time the Master sends out a
configuration file update.
Also, while the Master is in control of all Slave serial port related functions, it is not master over the
Slave network host connections or over the Slave console server system itself.
You must access each Slave directly to manage Slave functions such as IP, SMTP & SNMP Settings, Date
&Time, and DHCP server. These functions are not overwritten when configuration changes are
propagated from the Master. Similarly, you have to configure the Slaves Network Host and IPMI settings
at each Slave.
The Master’s Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the
Slave’s serial ports. The Master does not provide a fully consolidated view. For example, if you want to
find out who's logged in to cascaded serial ports from the master, you’ll see that Status: Active Users
only displays those users active on the Master’s ports, so you may need to write custom scripts to
provide this view. This is covered in Chapter 11.
4.7
Serial Port Redirection
To allow an application on a client PC to access the virtual serial ports on the console server, you need to
run client software (to redirect the local serial port traffic to remote console server serial port).
There’s a selection of commercial software available including Serial to Ethernet from Eltima
(www.eltima.com) and Serial/IP™ COM Port Redirector from Tactical Software
(www.tacticalsoftware.com/products/serialip.htm).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 54
Remote Console
Server
Retail data
systems
Serial device
applications
Remote Console
Server
Remote Console
Server
Serial/IP redirector
virtual COM ports
Building
automation
systems
Controllers
Sensors
This serial port redirector software is loaded in your desktop PC, and it allows you to use a serial device
that’s connected to the remote console server as if it were connected to your local serial port.
4.8
Managed Devices
Managed Devices presents a consolidated view of all the connections to a device that you can access
and monitor through the console server. To view the connections to the devices:
 Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices.
This screen displays all the Managed Devices with their Description/Notes. It also lists all the configured
Connections, that is, Serial Port # (if serially connected) or USB if USB connected; IP Address (if network
connected); Power PDU/outlet details (if applicable), and any UPS connections. Devices such as servers
will commonly have more than one power connections (for example, dual power supplied) and more
than one network connection (for example, for BMC/service processor).
All Users can view (but not edit) these Managed Device connections by selecting Manage: Devices. The
Administrator user can edit and add/delete these Managed Devices and their connections.
To edit an existing device and add a new connection:
 Select Edit on the Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Connection.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 55
 Select the connection type for the new connection (Serial, Network Host, UPS, or RPC) and then
select the specific connection from the presented list of configured unallocated
hosts/ports/outlets.
To add a new network-connected Managed Device:
 The Administrator adds a new network-connected Managed Device using Add Host on the Serial
& Network: Network Host menu. This automatically creates a corresponding new Managed
Device (as covered in Section 4.4—Network Hosts).
 When adding a new network-connected RPC or UPS power device, you set up a Network Host,
designate it as RPC or UPS, then go to RPC Connections (or UPS Connections) to configure the
relevant connection. A corresponding new Managed Device (with the same Name /Description
as the RPC/UPS Host) is not created until you complete this connection step (refer Chapter 8—
Power and Environment).
Note The outlet names on this newly created PDU will by default be ―Outlet 1‖ and ―Outlet 2.‖ When
you connect a particular Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet), then the outlet will
take the powered Managed Device‘s name.
To add a new serially connected Managed Device:
 Configure the serial port using the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu (refer to Section 4.1—
Configure Serial Port).
 Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Device.
 Enter a Device Name and Description for the Managed Device.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 56
 Click Add Connection and select Serial and the Port that connects to the Managed Device.
 To add a UPS/RPC power connection or network connection or another serial connection, click
Add Connection.
 Click Apply.
Note To set up a new serially connected RPC UPS or EMD device, configure the serial port, designate
it as a Device, then enter a Name and Description for that device in the Serial & Network: RPC
Connections (or UPS Connections or Environmental). When applied, this will automatically
create a corresponding new Managed Device with the same Name /Description as the RPC/UPS
Host (refer to Chapter 8—Power and Environment).
All the outlet names on the PDU will by default be ―Outlet 1‖ and ―Outlet 2.‖ When you connect a
particular Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet) then the outlet will then take up the
name of the powered Managed Device.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 57
Chapter 5
Failover and OoB Dial Access
FAILOVER AND OoB DIAL-IN
Introduction
The console server has a number of fail-over and out-of-band access capabilities to make sure it’s
available if there are difficulties accessing the console server through the principal network path. This
chapter covers:
5.1

out-of-band (OoB) access from a remote location using dial-up modem.

out-dial failover.

OoB access using an alternate broadband link (LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A
models only).

broadband failover.
OoB Dial-In Access
To enable OoB dial-in access, you first configure the console server. Once it’s set up for dial-in PPP
access, the console server will await an incoming dial-in connection. Set up the remote client dial-in
software so it can establish a network connection from the Administrator’s client modem to the dial-in
modem on the console server.
Dial-in
management
Modem
Note The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A models all have an internal modem and a DB9
Local/Console port for OoB access. With these models, you can still attach an external modem
via a serial cable to the DB9 port, and you can configure the second Ethernet port for broadband
OoB access.
Make sure you unplug the console server power before installing the modem. When it next boots,
it will detect the modem and a PC Card Modem tab will appear under System -> Dial.
The LES1108A, LES1116A, and LES1148A models need to have an external modem attached
via a serial cable to the DB9 port marked Local (located on the front of the unit).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 58
5.1.1
Configure Dial-In PPP
To enable dial-in PPP access on the modem:
 Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or Internal
Modem Port).
Note The console server console/modem serial port is set by default to 115200 baud, No parity, 8 data
bits and 1 stop bit, with software (Xon-Xoff) flow control enabled for the Serial DB9 Port and 9600
baud for the Internal modem and PC Card Ports. When enabling OoB dial-in, we recommend that
this be changed to 38,4000 baud with Hardware Flow Control.
 Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.
Note You can further configure the console/modem port (for example, to include modem init strings) by
editing /etc/mgetty.config files as described in the Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration.
 Check the Enable Dial-In Access box.
 Enter the User name and Password to be used for the dial-in PPP link.
 In the Remote Address field, enter the IP address to be assigned to the dial-in client. You can
select any address for the Remote IP Address. It, and the Local IP Address, must both be in the
same network range (e.g. 200.100.1.12 and 200.100.1.67).
 In the Local Address field, enter the IP address for the Dial-In PPP Server. This is the IP address
that will be used by the remote client to access console server once the modem connection is
established. You can select any address for the Local IP Address but it must be in the same
network range as the Remote IP Address.
 The Default Route option enables the dialed PPP connection to become the default route for
the Console server.
 The Custom Modem Initialization option allows you to enter a custom AT string modem
initialization string (for example, AT&C1&D3&K3).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 59
 You must select the Authentication Type to apply to the dial-in connection. The console server
uses authentication to challenge Administrators who dial-in to the console server. (For dial-in
access, the username and password received from the dial-in client are verified against the local
authentication database stored on the console server). The Administrator must also configure
the client PC/workstation to use the selected authentication scheme. Select PAP, CHAP,
MSCHAPv2, or None, and click Apply.
None
With this selection, no username or password authentication is required for
dial-in access. We do not recommend this.
PAP
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is the usual method of user
authentication used on the internet: sending a username and password to a
server where they are compared with a table of authorized users. While most
common, PAP is the least secure of the authentication options.
CHAP
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used to verify a user's
name and password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than PAP,
the other main authentication protocol.
MSCHAPv2
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP) is
authentication for PPP connections between a computer using a Microsoft
Windows operating system and a network access server. It is more secure than
PAP or CHAP, and is the only option that also supports data encryption.
 Console servers support dial-back for additional security. Check the Enable Dial-Back box and
enter the phone number to call to re-establish an OoB link once a dial-in connection is logged.
Note Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration) has examples of Linux commands that you can use to
control the modem port operation at the command line level.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 60
5.1.2
Using SDT Connector client
Administrators can use their SDT Connector client to set up secure OoB dial-in access to all their remote
console servers. With a point and click, you can initiate a dial up connection. Refer to Chapter 6.5.
5.1.3
Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client
 Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the
New Connection Wizard.
 Select Connect to the Internet and click Next.
 On the Getting Ready screen, select Set up my connection manually and click Next.
 On the Internet Connection screen, select Connect using a dial-up modem and click Next.
 Enter a Connection Name (any name you choose) and the dial-up Phone number that will
connect through to the console server modem.
 Enter the PPP User name and Password you set up for the console server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 61
5.1.4
Set up earlier Windows clients
 For Windows 2000, the PPP client set up procedure is the same as above, except you get to the
Dial-Up Networking Folder by clicking the Start button and selecting Settings. Then, click
Network and Dial-up Connections and click Make New Connection.
 Similarly, for Windows 98, you double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-Up
Networking and double click Make New Connection. Then, proceed as above.
5.1.5
Set up Linux clients for dial-in
The online tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a selection of
methods for establishing a dial up PPP connection:
-
Command line PPP and manual configuration (works with any Linux distribution).
Using the Linuxconf configuration tool (for Red Hat compatible distributions). This configures
the scripts ifup/ifdown to start and stop a PPP connection.
Using the Gnome control panel configuration tool.
WVDIAL and the Redhat “Dialup configuration tool“ .
GUI dial program X-isp. Download/Installation/Configuration.
Note For all PPP clients:



5.2
Set the PPP link up with TCP/IP as the only protocol enabled.
Specify that the Server will assign IP address and do DNS.
Do not set up the console server PPP link as the default for Internet connection.
OoB broadband access
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers have a second Ethernet port (Network 2) that
you can configure for alternate and OoB (out-of-band) broadband access. With two active broadband
access paths to the console server, if you are unable to access it through the primary management
network (Network or Network1), you can still access it through the alternate broadband path (for
example, a T1 link).
 On the System: IP menu select Network 2 and configure the IP Address, Subnet Mask,
Gateway, and DNS with the access settings for the alternate link.
 Make sure that when you configure the principal Network 1 Settings connection, the Failover
Interface is set to None.
5.3
Broadband Ethernet Failover
The second Ethernet port on the LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A Advanced Console Servers can also
be configured for failover to ensure transparent high availability.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 62

When configuring the principal network connection, specify Network 2 (eth1) as the Failover
Interface to use when a fault is detected with Network 1 (eth0).

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the Advanced Console
Server is to ping to determine if Network 1 (eth0) is still operating.

On the Management LAN Interface - Network 2, configure the IP Address/Subnet Mask/Gateway
the same as Network Interface - Network 1.
In this mode, Network 2 (eth1) is available as the transparent back-up port to Network 1 (eth0) for
accessing the management network. Network 2 will automatically and transparently take over the work
of Network 1, if Network 1 becomes unavailable for any reason. When Network 1 becomes available
again, it takes over the work again.
5.4
Dial-Out Failover
The console servers can be configured so a dial-out PPP connection is automatically set up in case the
principal management network is disrupted:

When configuring the principal network connection in System: IP, specify Internal Modem (or the
Dial Serial DB9 if you are using an external modem on the Console port) as the Failover Interface to
use when a fault is detected with Network1 (eth0).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 63

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the console server is to
ping to determine if Network1 is still operating.

Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or Internal
Modem Port).

Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.
Note You can further configure the console/modem port (for example, to include modem init strings) by
editing /etc/mgetty.config files as described in Chapter 13.

Check the Enable Dial-Out box in System: Dial and enter the access details to call the
remote PPP server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 64
Chapter 6
Secure SSH Tunneling & SDT Connector
SECURE SSH TUNNELING AND SDT CONNECTOR
Introduction
Each Black Box console server has an embedded SSH server and uses SSH tunneling so remote users can
securely connect through the console server to Managed Devices—using text-based console tools (such
as SSH, telnet, SoL) or graphical tools (such VNC, RDP, HTTPS, HTTP, X11, VMware, DRAC, iLO).
The Managed Devices you access can be located on the same local network as the console server or they
can be attached to the console server via a serial port. The remote User/Administrator connects to the
console server thru an SSH tunnel via dial-up, wireless or ISDN modem; a broadband Internet
connection; the enterprise VPN network; or the local network.
Secure remote
management
Secure local
management
Secure OoB
(dial -in or
broadband)
Console
server
Network
connected
Serial
connected
To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the client PC to the console server, install and launch SSH client
software on the User/Administrator’s PC. Black Box recommends you use the SDT Connector client
software supplied with the console server for this. SDT Connector is simple to install and auto-configure
and it provides all your users with point-and-click access to all the systems and devices in the secure
network. With one click, SDT Connector sets up a secure SSH tunnel from the client to the selected
console server, then establishes a port forward connection to the target network connected host or
serial connected device. Next, it executes the client application that it uses in communicating with the
host.
This chapter details the basic SDT Connector operations:

Configuring the console server for SSH tunneled access to network attached hosts and setting up
permitted Services and user access (Section 6.1).

Setting up the SDT Connector client with gateway, host, service, and client application details,
and making connections between the Client PC and hosts connected to the console server
(Section 6.2).

Using SDT Connector to access the Management Console via a browser (Section 6.3).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 65

Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices that are serially attached to the
console server (Section 6.4).
The chapter then covers more advanced SDT Connector and SSH tunneling topics:
6.1

Using SDT Connector for out-of-band access (Section 6.5).

Automatic importing and exporting configurations (Section 6.6).

Configuring Public Key Authentication (Section 6.7).

Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for Remote Desktop (Section 6.8).

Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for VNC (Section 6.9).

Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the console server (Section 6.10).
Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts
To set up the console server to SSH tunnel access a network attached host:
 Add the new host and the permitted services using the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu
as detailed in Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4). Only these permitted services will be forwarded
through by SSH to the host. All other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked.
Note Following are some of the TCP Ports used by SDT in the console server:
22
23
80
3389
5900
73XX
79XX
SSH (All SDT Tunneled connections)
Telnet on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
HTTP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
VNC on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number (that is, 7301 to
7348 on a 48 port console server)
VNC over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number
 Add the new Users using Serial & Network: Users & Groups menu as detailed in
Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4). Users can be authorized to access the console server ports
and specified network attached hosts. To simplify configuration, the Administrator can
first set up Groups with group access permissions, then Users can be classified as
members of particular Groups.
6.2
SDT Connector Client Configuration
The SDT Connector client works with all Black Box console servers. Each of these remote console servers
has an embedded OpenSSH based server that you can configure to port forward connections from the
SDT Connector client to hosts on their local network (as detailed in the previous chapter). You can also
pre-configure the SDT Connector with the access tools and applications that are available to run when
you’ve established access to a particular host.
SDT Connector can connect to the console server using an alternate OoB access. It can also access the
console server itself and access devices connected to serial ports on the console server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 66
6.2.1
SDT Connector installation
 The SDT Connector set up program (SDTConnector Setup-1.n.exe or sdtcon-1.n.tar.gz) is
included on the CD supplied with your Black Box console server.
 Run the set-up program.
Note For Windows clients, the SDTConnectorSetup-1.n.exe application will install the SDT Connector
1.n.exe and the config file defaults.xml. If there is already a config file on the Windows PC, then it
will not be overwritten. To remove an earlier config file, run the regedit command and search for
―SDT Connector,‖ then remove the directory with this name.
For Linux and other Unix clients, SDTConnector.tar.gz application will install the sdtcon-1.n.jar
and the config file defaults.xml.
Once the installer completes you will have a working SDT Connector client installed on your machine and
an icon on your desktop:

Note
Click the SDT Connector icon on your desktop to start the client.
SDT Connector is a Java application, so it must have a Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
installed. You can download this for free from http://java.sun.com/j2se/. It installs on Windows
2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and 7 PCs and on most Linux platforms. Solaris platforms are also
supported, but they must have Firefox installed. SDT Connector can run on any system with
Java 1.4.2 and above installed, but it assumes the web browser is Firefox, and that xterm -e
telnet opens a telnet window.
To operate SDT Connector, you first need to add new gateways to the client software by entering the
access details for each console server (refer to Section 6.2.2). Then, let the client auto-configure all host
and serial port connections from each console server (refer to Section 6.2.3). Finally, point-and-click to
connect to the Hosts and serial devices (refer to Section 6.2.4).
Or, you can manually add network connected hosts (refer to Section 6.2.5) and manually configure new
services to use to access the console server and the hosts (refer to Section 6.2.6). Then, manually
configure clients to run on the PC that will use the service to connect to the hosts and serial port devices
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 67
(refer to Section 6.2.7 and 6.2.9). You can also set up SDT Connector to connect out-of-band to the
console server (refer to Section 6.2.9).
6.2.2
Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client
To create a secure SSH tunnel to a new console server:
 Click the New Gateway
icon or select the File: New Gateway menu option.
 Enter the IP or DNS Address of the console server and the SSH port that you will use (typically
22).
Note If SDT Connector is connecting to a remote console server through the public Internet or routed
network you will need to:

Determine the public IP address of the console server (or of the router/ firewall that connects
the console server to the Internet) as assigned by the ISP. One way to find the public IP
address is to access http://checkip.dyndns.org/ or http://www.whatismyip.com/ from a
computer on the same network as the console server and note the reported IP address.

Set port forwarding for TCP port 22 through any firewall/NAT/router that is located between
SDT Connector and the console server so it points to the console server.
http://www.portforward.com has port forwarding instructions for a range of routers. Also, you
can use the Open Port Check tool from http://www.canyouseeme.org to check if port
forwarding through local firewall/NAT/router devices has been properly configured.
 Enter the Username and Password of a user on the gateway that is enabled to connect via SSH
and/or create SSH port redirections.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 68
 Or, enter a Descriptive Name to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any Notes or a
Description of this gateway (such as its firmware version, site location, or anything special about
its network configuration).
 Click OK and an icon for the new gateway will now appear in the SDT Connector home page.
Note
For an SDT Connector user to access a console server (and then access specific hosts or serial
devices connected to that console server), that user must first be setup on the console server,
and must be authorized to access the specific ports/hosts (refer to Chapter 5). Only these
permitted services will be forwarded through by SSH to the Host. All other services (TCP/UDP
ports) will be blocked.
6.2.3
Auto-configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges
Each user on the console server has an access profile that was configured with those specific connected
hosts and serial port devices the user has authority to access, and a specific set of the enabled services
for each of these. You can upload this configuration automatically into the SDT Connector client:
 Click on the new gateway icon and select Retrieve Hosts. This will:

configure access to network connected Hosts that the user is authorized to access
and set up (for each of these Hosts) the services (for example, HTTPS, IPMI2.0) and
the related IP ports being redirected.

configure access to the console server itself (this is shown as a Local Services host).

configure access with the enabled services for the serial port devices connected to
the console server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 69
Note
6.2.4
The Retrieve Hosts function will auto-configure all user classes (that is, they can be members
of user or admin or some other group or no group. SDT Connector will not auto-configure the
root (and we recommend that you only use this account for initial config and to add an initial
admin account to the console server).
Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host
 Simply point at the host to be accessed and click on the service to use to access that host. The
SSH tunnel to the gateway is then automatically established, the appropriate ports redirected
through to the host, and the appropriate local client application is launched pointing at the local
endpoint of the redirection:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 70
Note
You can configure the SDT Connector client can be configured with unlimited number of
Gateways (that is, console servers). You can configure each Gateway to port forward to an
unlimited number of locally networked Hosts. There is no limit on the number of SDT Connector
clients that can be configured to access the one Gateway. Nor are there limits on the number of
Host connections that an SDT Connector client can concurrently have open through the one
Gateway tunnel.
There is a limit on the number of SDT Connector SSH tunnels that can be open at the same time
on a particular Gateway (console server). Each Gateway (console server) can support at least 50
such concurrent connections. At any time, you could have up to 50 users securely controlling an
unlimited number of Managed Devices at a remote site through the on-site console server
Gateway.
6.2.5
Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway
For each gateway, you can manually specify the network connected hosts that you will access through
that console server; and for each host, specify the services that you will use to communicate with the
host.
 Select the newly added gateway and click the Host icon
to create a host that will be
accessible via this gateway. (Alternatively select File: New Host).
 Enter the IP or DNS Host Address of the host (if this is a DNS address, it must be able to be
resolved by the gateway).
 Select which Services to use to access the new host. A range of service options are preconfigured in the default SDT Connector client (RDP, VNC, HTTP, HTTPS, Dell RAC, VMware, etc.).
However if you want to add new services to the range, then proceed to the next section (Adding
a new service) then return here.
 Or, enter a Descriptive Name for the host to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any
Notes or a Description of this host (such as its operating system/release, or anything special
about its configuration).
 Click OK.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 71
6.2.6
Manually adding new services to the new hosts
To extend the range of services that you can use when accessing hosts with SDT Connector:
 Select Edit: Preferences and click the Services tab. Click Add.
 Enter a Service Name and click Add.
 Under the General tab, enter the TCP Port that this service runs on (for example, 80 for HTTP).
Or, select the client to use to access the local endpoint of the redirection.
 Select which Client application is associated with the new service. A range of client application
options are pre-configured in the default SDT Connector (RDP client, VNC client, HTTP browser,
HTTPS browser, Telnet client, etc.). If you want to add new client applications to this range,
proceed to the next section (Adding a new client), then return here.
 Click OK, then Close.
A service typically consists of a single SSH port redirection and a local client to access it. It may consist of
several redirections, and some or all may have clients associated with them.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 72
An example is the Dell RAC service. The first redirection is for the HTTPS connection to the RAC server—
it has a client associated with it (web browser) that it launches immediately when you click the button
for this service.
The second redirection is for the VNC service that you may choose to later launch from the RAC web
console. It automatically loads in a Java client served through the web browser, so it does not need to
have a local client associated with it.
 On the Add Service screen, you can click Add as many times as needed to add multiple new port
redirections and associated clients.
You may also specify Advanced port redirection options:
 Enter the local address to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. It is not
usually necessary to change this from “localhost.”
 Enter a local TCP port to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. If you
leave this blank, a random port is selected.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 73
Note SDT Connector can also tunnel UDP services. SDT Connector tunnels the UDP traffic through
the TCP SSH redirection, so it is a ―tunnel within a tunnel.‖
Enter the UDP port where the service is running on the host. This will also be the local UDP port
that SDT Connector binds as the local endpoint of the tunnel.
Note that for UDP services, you still need to specify a TCP port under General. This will be an
arbitrary TCP port that is not in use on the gateway. An example of this is the SOL Proxy service.
It redirects local UDP port 623 to remote UDP port 623 over the arbitrary TCP port 6667.
6.2.7
Adding a client program to be started for the new service
Clients are local applications that you may launch when a related service is clicked. To add to the pool of
client programs:
 Select Edit: Preferences and click the Client tab. Click Add.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 74
 Enter a Name for the client. Enter the Path to the executable file for the client (or click Browse
to locate the executable).
 Enter a Command Line associated with launching the client application. SDT Connector typically
launches a client using command line arguments to point it at the local endpoint of the
redirection. There are three special keywords for specifying the command line format. When
launching the client, SDT Connector substitutes these keywords with the appropriate values:
%path% is path to the executable file, that is, the previous field.
%host% is the local address to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the
Local Address field for the Service redirection Advanced options.
%port% is the local port to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the Local
TCP Port field for the Service redirection Advanced options. If this port is unspecified (that is,
“Any”), the appropriate randomly selected port will be substituted.
For example SDT Connector is preconfigured for Windows installations with a HTTP service client that
will connect with the local browser that the local Windows user has configured as the default.
Otherwise, the default browser used is Firefox:
Also some clients are launched in a command line or terminal window. The Telnet client is an example
of this so the “Path to client executable file” is telnet and the “Command line format for client
executable” is cmd /c start %path% %host% %port% :
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 75
 Click OK.
6.2.8
Dial in configuration
If the client PC is dialing into Local/Console port on the console server, you will need to set up a dial-in
PPP link:
 Configure the console server for dial-in access (following the steps in the Configuring for Dial-In
PPP Access section in Chapter 5, Configuring Dial In Access).
 Set up the PPP client software at the remote User PC (following the Set up the remote Client
section in Chapter 5).
Once you have a dial-in PPP connection established, you then can set up the secure SSH tunnel from the
remote Client PC to the console server.
6.3
SDT Connector to Management Console
You can also configure SDT Connector for browser access to the console server’s Management Console
—and for Telnet or SSH access to the command line. For these connections to the console server itself,
you must configure SDT Connector to access the Gateway itself by setting the Gateway (console server)
up as a host, and then configuring the appropriate services:
 Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Assuming you have already set up the console server as a
Gateway in your SDT Connector client (with username/ password etc.), select this newly added
Gateway and click the Host icon to create a host. Or, select File -> New Host.
 Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and provide details in Descriptive Name/Notes. Click OK.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 76
 Click the HTTP or HTTPS Services icon to access the Management Console, and/or click SSH
or Telnet to access the command line console.
Note: To enable SDT access to the console, you must also configure the console server to allow the
port forwarded network access to itself:
6.4

Browse to the console server and select Network Hosts from Serial & Network, click Add
Host, and in the IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network
loopback address). Then, enter Loopback in Description.

Remove all entries under Permitted Services except for those that you will use to access the
Management Console (80/http or 443/https) or the command line (22/ssh or 23/telnet). Scroll
to the bottom and click Apply.

Administrators by default have gateway access privileges. For Users to access the console
server Management Console, you will need to give those Users the required access
privileges. Select Users & Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a
Username, Description and Password/Confirm. Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s)
and click Apply.
SDT Connector - telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices
You can also use SDT Connector to access text consoles on devices that are attached to the console
server serial ports. For these connections, you must configure the SDT Connector client software with a
Service that will access the target gateway serial port, and then set the gateway up as a host:
 Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Select Edit -> Preferences and click the Services tab. Click
Add.
 Enter "Serial Port 2" in Service Name and click Add.
 Select Telnet client as the Client. Enter 2002 in TCP Port. Click OK, then Close and Close again.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 77
 Assuming you have already set up the target console server as a gateway in your SDT Connector
client (with username/ password etc), select this gateway and click the Host icon to create a
host. Or, select File -> New Host.
 Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and select Serial Port 2 for Service. In Descriptive Name,
enter something such as Loopback ports, or Local serial ports. Click OK.
 Click Serial Port 2 icon for Telnet access to the serial console on the device attached to serial
port #2 on the gateway.
To enable SDT Connector to access to devices connected to the gateway’s serial ports, you must also
configure the Console server itself to allow port forwarded network access to itself, and enable access to
the nominated serial port:
 Browse to the Console server and select Serial Port from Serial & Network.
 Click Edit next to selected Port # (for example, Port 2 if the target device is attached to the
second serial port). Make sure the port’s serial configuration is appropriate for the attached
device.
 Scroll down to Console server Setting and select Console server Mode. Check Telnet (or SSH)
and scroll to the bottom and click Apply.
 Select Network Hosts from Serial & Network and click Add Host.
 In the IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network loopback
address) and enter Loopback in Description.
 Remove all entries under Permitted Services, select TCP, and enter 200n in Port. (This
configures the Telnet port enabled in the previous step, so for Port 2 you would enter 2002.)
 Click Add, then scroll to the bottom and click Apply.
 Administrators by default have gateway and serial port access privileges; however for Users to
access the gateway and the serial port, you will need to give those Users the required access
privileges. Select Users & Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a Username,
Description, and Password/Confirm. Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s) and select Port 2
from Accessible Port(s). Click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 78
6.5
Using SDT Connector for out-of-band connection to the gateway
You can also set up SDT Connector to connect to the console server (gateway) out-of-band (OoB). OoB
access uses an alternate path for connecting to the gateway to that used for regular data traffic. OoB
access is useful for when the primary link into the gateway is unavailable or unreliable.
Typically, a gateway’s primary link is a broadband Internet connection or Internet connection via a LAN
or VPN, and the secondary out-of-band connectivity is provided by a dial-up or wireless modem directly
attached to the gateway. Out-of-band access enables you to access the hosts and serial devices on the
network, diagnose any connectivity issues, and restore the gateway's primary link.
In SDT Connector, to configure OoB access, you provide the secondary IP address of the gateway, and
tell SDT Connector how to start and stop the OoB connection. You can start an OoB connection by
initiating a dial up connection, or adding an alternate route to the gateway. SDT Connector allows for
maximum flexibility. It allows you to provide your own scripts or commands for starting and stopping
the OoB connection.
To configure SDT Connector for OoB access:
 When adding a new Gateway or editing an existing Gateway select the Out Of Band tab.
 Enter the secondary, OoB IP address of the gateway (for example, the IP address it is using when
dialed in directly). You also may modify the gateway’s SSH port if it's not using the default of 22.
 Enter the command or path to a script to start the OoB connection in Start Command.

To initiate a pre-configured dial-up connection under Windows, use the following Start
Command:
cmd /c start "Starting Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection login
password
where network_connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control
Panel -> Network Connections, login is the dial-in username, and password is the dial-in
password for the connection.

To initiate a pre-configured dial-up connection under Linux, use the following Start
Command:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 79
pon network_connection
where network_connection is the name of the connection.
 Enter the command or path to a script to stop the OoB connection in Stop Command.

To stop a pre-configured dial-up connection under Windows, use the following Stop
Command:
cmd /c start "Stopping Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection
/disconnect
where network connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control
Panel -> Network Connections.

To stop a pre-configured dial-up connection under Linux, use the following Stop Command:
poff network_connection
To make the OoB connection using SDT Connector:
 Select the console server and click Out Of Band. The status bar will change color to indicate that
this console server is now accessed using the OoB link rather than the primary link.
When you connect to a service on a host behind the console server, or to the console server itself, SDT
Connector will initiate the OoB connection using the provided Start Command. The OoB connection
does not stop (using the provided Stop Command) until you click off Out Of Band under Gateway
Actions; then the status bar will return to its normal color.
6.6
Importing (and exporting) preferences
To enable the distribution of pre-configured client config files, SDT Connector has an Export/Import
facility:
 To save a configuration.xml file (for backup or for importing into
other SDT Connector clients) select File -> Export Preferences and
select the location where you want to save the configuration file.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 80
 To import a configuration, select File -> Import Preferences and select the .xml configuration file to
install.
6.7
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
SDT Connector can authenticate against an SSH gateway using your SSH key pair instead of requiring you
to enter your password. This is known as public key authentication.
To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, first you must add the public part of your SSH key
pair to your SSH gateway:
 Make sure the SSH gateway allows public key authentication, this is typically the default
behavior.
 If you do not already have a public/private key pair for your client PC (the one running SDT
Connector), generate them now using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool. You may use RSA
or DSA; however, leave the passphrase field blank:
-
PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
-
OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/
-
OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/

Upload the public part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub)
to the SSH gateway, or otherwise add to .ssh/authorized keys in your home directory on the SSH
gateway.

Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to
SDT Connector. Click Edit -> Preferences -> Private Keys -> Add, locate the private key file, and
click OK.
You do not have to add the public part of your SSH key pair, the private key calculates it.
SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when connecting through the SSH gateway
(console server). You may have to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were
established using password authentication.
If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT
Connector, you may also want to configure access to it for public key authentication as well. This
configuration is entirely independent of SDT Connector and the SSH gateway. You must configure the
SSH client that SDT Connector launches (for example, Putty, OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH server for
public key authentication. Essentially what you are using is SSH over SSH, and the two SSH connections
are entirely separate.
6.8
Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access
The Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) enables the system manager to securely access and
manage remote Windows computers—to reconfigure applications and user profiles, upgrade the
server’s operating system, reboot the machine, etc. Black Box’s Secure Tunneling uses SSH tunneling, so
this RDP traffic is securely transferred through an authenticated and encrypted tunnel.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 81
SDT with RDP also allows remote Users to connect to Windows XP, Vista, Server2003, and Server 2008
computers and to Windows 2000 Terminal Servers; and to access to all of the applications, files, and
network resources (with full graphical interface just as though they were in front of the computer screen
at work). To set up a secure Remote Desktop connection, enable Remote Desktop on the target
Windows computer that you want to access and configure the RPD client software on the client PC.
6.8.1
Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed
To enable Remote Desktop on the Windows computer being accessed:
 Open System in the Control Panel and click the Remote tab.
 Check Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.
 Click Select Remote Users.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 82
 To set the user(s) who can remotely access the system with RDP, click Add on the Remote
Desktop Users dialog box.
Note If you need to set up new users for Remote Desktop access, open User Accounts in the Control
Panel and follow the steps to nominate the new user‘s name, password, and account type
(Administrator or Limited).
Note With Windows XP Professional and Vista, you have only one Remote Desktop session and it
connects directly to the Windows root console. With Windows Server 2008, you can have
multiple sessions (and with Server 2003 you have three sessions— the console session and
two other general sessions). More than one user can have active sessions on a single
computer.
When the remote user connects to the accessed computer on the console session, Remote
Desktop automatically locks that computer (no other user can access the applications and
files). When you come back to your computer at work, you can unlock it by typing
CTRL+ALT+DEL.
6.8.2
Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client
Now that you have the Client PC securely connected to the console server (either locally, or remotely—
through the enterprise VPN, or a secure SSH internet tunnel, or a dial-in SSH tunnel), you can establish
the Remote Desktop connection from the Client. Simply enable the Remote Desktop Connection on the
remote client PC, then point it to the SDT Secure Tunnel port in the console server:
A. On a Windows client PC
 Click Start. Point to Programs, then to Accessories, then Communications, and click Remote
Desktop Connection.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 83
 In Computer, enter the appropriate IP Address and Port Number:

Where there is a direct local or enterprise VPN connection, enter the IP Address of the
console server, and the Port Number of the SDT Secure Tunnel for the console server serial
port that you attach to the Windows computer you want to control. For example, if the
Windows computer is connected to serial Port 3 on a console server located at
192.168.0.50, then you would enter 192.168.0.50:7303.

Where there is an SSH tunnel (over a dial up PPP connection or over a public internet
connection or private network connection), simply enter the localhost as the IP address,
127.0.0.1. For Port Number, enter the source port you created when setting SSH tunneling
/port forwarding (in Section 6.1.6), for example, :1234.
 Click Option. In the Display section, specify an appropriate color depth (for example, for a
modem connection we recommend that you not use over 256 colors). In Local Resources,
specify the peripherals on the remote Windows computer that are to be controlled (printer,
serial port, etc.).
 Click Connect.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 84
Note The Remote Desktop Connection software is pre-installed with Windows XP, Vista and Server
2003/2008. For earlier Windows PCs, you need to download the RDP client:
 Go to the Microsoft Download Center site
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=80111F21-D48D-426E-96C208AA2BD23A49&displaylang=en and click the Download button
This software package will install the client portion of Remote Desktop on Windows 95, Windows
98 and 98 Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000. When run, this
software allows these older Windows platforms to remotely connect to a computer running current
Windows.
B. On a Linux or UNIX client PC:
 Launch the open source rdesktop client:
rdesktop -u windows-user-id -p windows-password -g 1200x950 ms-windows-terminalserver-host-name
option
description
-a
Color depth: 8, 16, 24
-r
Device redirection. ( Redirect sound on remote machine to local device. -0 -r sound
(MS/Windows 2003)
-g
Geometry: widthxheight or 70% screen percentage.
-p
Use -p - to receive password prompt.
 You can use GUI front end tools like the GNOME Terminal Services Client tsclient to configure
and launch the rdesktop client. (Using tsclient also enables you to store multiple configurations
of rdesktop for connection to many servers)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 85
Note The rdesktop client is supplied with Red Hat 9.0:

rpm -ivh rdesktop-1.2.0-1.i386.rpm
For Red Hat 8.0 or other distributions of Linux; download source, untar, configure, make, make,
then install.
rdesktop currently runs on most UNIX based platforms with the X Window System and can be
downloaded from http://www.rdesktop.org/
C. On a Macintosh client:
 Download Microsoft's free Remote Desktop Connection client for Mac OS X
http://www.microsoft.com/mac/otherproducts/otherproducts.aspx?pid=remotedesktopclient
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 86
6.9
SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC
With SDT and Virtual Network Computing (VNC), Users and Administrators can securely access and
control Windows 98/NT/2000/XP/2003, Linux, Macintosh, Solaris, and UNIX computers. There’s a range
of popular free and commercial VNC software available (UltraVNC, RealVNC, TightVNC). To set up a
secure VNC connection, install and configure the VNC Server software on the computer the user will
access, then install and configure the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC.
6.9.1
Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software enables users to remotely access computers running Linux,
Macintosh, Solaris, UNIX, all versions of Windows, and most other operating systems.
A. For Microsoft Windows servers (and clients):
Windows does not include VNC software, so you will need to download, install, and activate a third
party VNC Server software package:
RealVNC http://www.realvnc.com is fully cross-platform, so a desktop
running on a Linux machine may be displayed on a Windows PC, on a Solaris
machine, or on any number of other architectures. There is a Windows
server, allowing you to view the desktop of a remote Windows machine on
any of these platforms using exactly the same viewer. RealVNC was founded
by members of the AT&T team who originally developed VNC.
TightVNC http://www.tightvnc.com is an enhanced version of VNC. It has
added features such as file transfer, performance improvements, and readonly password support. They have just recently included a video drive much
like UltraVNC. TightVNC is still free, cross-platform (Windows Unix, and
Linux), and compatible with the standard (Real) VNC.
UltraVNC http://ultravnc.com is easy to use, fast, and free VNC software that
has pioneered and perfected features that the other flavors have
consistently refused or been very slow to implement for cross platform and
minimalist reasons. UltraVNC runs under Windows operating systems (95,
98, Me, NT4, 2000, XP, 2003). Download UltraVNC from Sourceforge's
UltraVNC file list.
B. For Linux servers (and clients):
Most Linux distributions now include VNC Servers and Viewers and they generally can be
launched from the (Gnome/KDE etc) front end; for example, with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
there’s VNC Server software and a choice of Viewer client software, and to launch:
 Select the Remote Desktop entry in the Main Menu -> Preferences menu.
 Click the Allow other users… checkbox to allow remote users to view and control your
desktop.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 87
 To set up a persistent VNC server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
o
o
o
o
o
Set a password using vncpasswd
Edit /etc/sysconfig/vncservers
Enable the service with chkconfig vncserver on
Start the service with service vncserver start
Edit /home/username/.vnc/xstartup if you want a more advanced session than just twm
and an xterm.
C. For Macintosh servers (and clients):
OSXvnc http://www.redstonesoftware.com/vnc.html is a robust, full-featured VNC server for Mac
OS X that allows any VNC client to remotely view and/or control the Mac OS X machine. OSXvnc is
supported by Redstone Software.
D. Most other operating systems (Solaris, HPUX, PalmOS etc) either come with VNC bundled, or have
third-party VNC software that you can download.
6.9.2
Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer
VNC is truly platform-independent so a VNC Viewer on any operating system can connect to a VNC
Server on any other operating system. There are Viewers (and Servers) from a wide selection of sources
(for example, UltraVNC TightVNC or RealVNC) for most operating systems. There are also a wealth of
Java viewers available so that any desktop can be viewed with any Java-capable browser
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC lists many of the VNC Viewers sources).
 Install the VNC Viewer software and set it up for the appropriate speed connection.
Note To make VNC faster, when you set up the Viewer:

Set encoding to ZRLE (if you have a fast enough CPU).

Decrease color level (e.g. 64 bit).

Disable the background transmission on the Server or use a plain wallpaper.
(Refer to http://doc.uvnc.com for detailed configuration instructions)
 To establish the VNC connection, first configure the VNC Viewer, entering the VNC Server IP
address.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 88
A. When the Viewer PC is connected to the console server thru an SSH tunnel (over the public Internet,
or a dial-in connection, or private network connection), enter localhost (or 127.0.0.1) as the IP VNC
Server IP address; and the source port you entered when setting SSH tunneling /port forwarding (in
Section 6.2.6) e.g. :1234
B. When the Viewer PC is connected directly to the console server (i.e. locally or remotely through a
VPN or dial in connection); and the VNC Host computer is serially connected to the console server;
enter the IP address of the console server unit with the TCP port that the SDT tunnel will use. The
TCP port will be 7900 plus the physical serial port number (i.e. 7901 to 7948, so all traffic directed to
port 79xx on the console server is tunneled thru to port 5900 on the PPP connection on serial Port
xx). For a Windows Viewer PC using UltraVNC connecting to a VNC Server attached to Port 1 on a
console server, it is located at 192.168.0.1

To establish the VNC connection, simply activate the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC and
enter the password.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 89
Note For general background reading on Remote Desktop and VNC access we recommend the
following:
 The Microsoft Remote Desktop How-To.
 http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/getstarted/remoteintro.mspx
 The Illustrated Network Remote Desktop help page.
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/RemoteDesktopSetupandTroubleshooting.ht
ml
 What is Remote Desktop in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003? by Daniel Petri.
http://www.petri.co.il/what's_remote_desktop.htm
 Frequently Asked Questions about Remote Desktop.
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/rdfaq.mspx
 Secure remote access of a home network using SSH, Remote Desktop and VNC for the home user
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/SSH-RDPVNC/RemoteDesktopVNCandSSH.html
 Taking your desktop virtual with VNC, Red Hat magazine.
http://www.redhat.com/magazine/006apr05/features/vnc/ and
http://www.redhat.com/magazine/007may05/features/vnc/
 Wikipedia general background on VNC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC.
6.10 Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway
Network (IP) protocols like RDP, VNC and HTTP can also be used for connecting to host devices that are
serially connected through their COM port to the console server. To do this you must:
●
establish a PPP connection (Section 6.7.1) between the host and the gateway, then
●
set up Secure Tunneling—Ports on the console server (Section 6.7.2), then
●
configure SDT Connector to use the appropriate network protocol to access IP consoles on the host
devices that are attached to the Console server serial ports (Section 6.7.3)
6.10.1
Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server
(This step is only necessary for serially connected computers)
First, physically connect the COM port on the host computer you want to access to the serial port on the
console server, then:
A. For non Windows (Linux, UNIX, Solaris, etc.) computers, establish a PPP connection over the serial
port. The online tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a
selection of methods for establishing a PPP connection for Linux.
B. For Windows XP and 2003 computers, follow the steps below to set up an advanced network
connection between the Windows computer, through its COM port to the console server. Both
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 90
Windows 2003 and Windows XP Professional allow you to create a simple dial in service which can
be used for the Remote Desktop/VNC/HTTP/X connection to the console server:
 Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the New Connection Wizard.
 Select Set up an advanced connection and click Next.
 On the Advanced Connection Options screen, select Accept Incoming Connections and click
Next.
 Select the Connection Device (i.e. the serial COM port on the Windows computer that you
cabled through to the console server). By default, select COM1. The COM port on the Windows
computer should be configured to its maximum baud rate. Click Next.
 On the Incoming VPN Connection Options screen, select Do not allow virtual private
connections and click Next.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 91
 Specify which Users will be allowed to use this connection. This should be the same Users who
were given Remote Desktop access privileges in the earlier step. Click Next.
 On the Network Connection screen select TCP/IP and click Properties.
 Select Specify TCP/IP addresses on the Incoming TCP/IP Properties screen, select TCP/IP.
Nominate a From: and a To: TCP/IP address, and click Next.
Note You can choose any TCP/IP addresses so long as they are addresses that are not used
anywhere else on your network. The From: address will be assigned to the Windows XP/2003
computer and the To: address will be used by the console server. For simplicity, use the IP
address as shown in the illustration above:
From: 169.134.13.1
To: 169.134.13.2
Or, you can set the advanced connection and access on the Windows computer to use the
console server defaults:

Specify 10.233.111.254 as the From: address

Select Allow calling computer to specify its own address
Also, you could use the console server default username and password when you set up the
new Remote Desktop User and gave this User permission to use the advance connection to
access the Windows computer:

The console server default Username is portXX where XX is the serial port number on the
console server.

The default Password is portXX
To use the defaults for a RDP connection to the serial port 2 on the console server, you would
have set up a Windows user named port02.
 When the PPP connection has been set up, a network icon will appear in the Windows task bar.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 92
Note The above notes describe setting up an incoming connection for Windows XP. The steps are
similar for Vista and Windows Server 2003/2008, but the set up screens present slightly differently:
You need to put a check in the box for Always allow directly connected devices such as
palmtop…..
The option for to Set up an advanced connection is not available in Windows 2003 if RRAS is
configured. If RRAS has been configured, you can enable the null modem connection for the dialin configuration.
C. For earlier version Windows computers, follow the steps in Section B. above. To get to the Make
New Connection button:

For Windows 2000, click Start, and select Settings. At the Dial-Up Networking Folder, click
Network and Dial-up Connections, and click Make New Connection. You may need to first set
up a connection over the COM port using Connect directly to another computer before
proceeding to Set up an advanced connection.

For Windows 98, double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-Up Networking
and double click.
6.10.2
Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server
To set up RDP (and VNC) forwarding on the console server Serial Port that is connected to the Windows
computer COM port:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 93
 Select the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu option and click Edit (for the particular Serial Port
that is connected to the Windows computer COM port).
 On the SDT Settings menu, select SDT Mode (this will enable port forwarding and SSH tunneling)
and enter a Username and User Password.
Note When you enable SDT, it will override all other Configuration protocols on that port.
Note If you leave the Username and User Password fields blank, they default to portXX and portXX
where XX is the serial port number. The default username and password for Secure RDP over
Port 2 is port02.
 Make sure the console server Common Settings (Baud Rate, Flow Control) are the same as those
set up on the Windows computer COM port and click Apply.
 RDP and VNC forwarding over serial ports is enabled on a Port basis. You can add Users who can
have access to these ports (or reconfigure User profiles) by selecting Serial & Network: User &
Groups menu tag—as described earlier in Chapter 4, Configuring Serial Ports.
6.10.3 Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port
In the SDT Connector software running on your remote computer, specify the gateway IP address of
your console server and a username/password for a user you set up on the console server that has
access to the desired port.
Next, add a New SDT Host. In the Host address, put portxx, where xx = the port you are connecting to.
Example: for port 3 you would have a Host Address of: port03. Then select the RDP Service check box.
6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY)
As covered in the previous sections of this chapter, we recommend that you use the SDT Connector
client software that is supplied with the console server. There’s also a wide selection of commercial and
free SSH client programs that can provide the secure SSH connections to the console servers and secure
tunnels to connected devices:
-
PuTTY is a complete (though not very user friendly) freeware implementation of SSH for Win32 and
UNIX platforms.
-
SSHTerm is a useful open source SSH communications package.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 94
-
SSH Tectia is leading end-to-end commercial communications security solution for the enterprise.
-
Reflection for Secure IT (formerly F-Secure SSH) is another good commercial SSH-based security
solution.
For example, the steps below show how to establish an SSH tunneled connection to a network
connected device using the PuTTY client software.
 In the Session menu, enter the IP address of the console server in the Host Name or IP address
field.
 For dial-in connections, this IP address will be the Local Address that you assigned to the
console server when you set it up as the Dial-In PPP Server.
 For Internet (or local/VPN connections) connections, this will be the console server’s public IP
address.
 Select the SSH Protocol, and the Port will be set as 22.
 Go to the SSH -> Tunnels menu and in Add new forwarded port enter any high unused port
number for the Source port, for example, 54321.
 Set the Destination: IP details.
 If your destination device is network-connected to the console server and you are connecting
using RDP, set the Destination as <Managed Device IP address/DNS Name>:3389. For
example, if when setting up the Managed Device as Network Host on the console server you
specified its IP address to be 192.168.253.1 (or its DNS Name was
accounts.myco.intranet.com), then specify the Destination as 192.168.523.1:3389 (or
accounts.myco.intranet.com:3389 ). Only devices that are configured as networked Hosts can
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 95
be accessed using SSH tunneling (except by the “root” user who can tunnel to any IP address
the console server can route to).
 If your destination computer is serially connected to the console server, set the Destination
as <port label>:3389. For example, if the Label you specified on the serial port on the console
server is win2k3, then specify the remote host as win2k3:3389. Or, you can set the
Destination as portXX:3389 (where XX is the SDT enabled serial port number). For example, if
port 4 is on the console server is to carry the RDP traffic, then specify port04:3389
Note http://www.jfitz.com/tips/putty_config.html has useful examples on configuring PuTTY for SSH
tunneling.
 Select Local and click the Add button.
 Click Open to SSH connect the Client PC to the console server. You will now be prompted for the
Username/Password for the console server user.

If you are connecting as a User in the “users” group, then you can only SSH tunnel to Hosts
and Serial Ports where you have specific access permission.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 96

If you are connecting as an Administrator (in the “admin” group), then you can connect to
any configured Host or Serial Ports (that has SDT enabled).
To set up the secure SSH tunnel for a HTTP browser connection to the Managed Device, specify port 80
(instead of port 3389 that was used for RDP) in the Destination IP address.
To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the Client (Viewer) PC to the console server for VNC, follow the
steps above, but when you configure the VNC port redirection, specify port 5900 in the Destination IP
address.
Note How secure is VNC? VNC access generally allows access to your whole computer, so security is
very important. VNC uses a random challenge-response system to provide the basic
authentication that allows you to connect to a VNC server. This is reasonably secure and the
password is not sent over the network.
Once connected, all subsequent VNC traffic is unencrypted. A malicious user could snoop your
VNC session. There are also VNC scanning programs available, which will scan a subnet looking
for PCs that are listening on one of the ports that VNC uses.
Tunneling VNC over a SSH connection ensures all traffic is strongly encrypted. No VNC port is
ever open to the internet, so anyone scanning for open VNC ports will not be able to find your
computers. When tunneling VNC over a SSH connection, the only port that you‘re opening on
your console server is the SDT port 22.
Sometimes it may be prudent to tunnel VNC through SSH even when the Viewer PC and the
console server are both on the same local network.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 97
Chapter 7
Alerts and Logging
ALERTS AND LOGGING
Introduction
This chapter describes the alert generation and logging features of the console server. The Alert facility
monitors the serial ports, all logins, the power status, and environmental monitors and probes, and
sends emails, SMS, Nagios, or SNMP alerts when specified trigger events occur.

First, enable and configure the service that will be used to carry the alert (Section 7.1).

Then, specify the alert trigger condition and the actual destination to which that particular alert
will be sent (Section 7.2).
All console server models can maintain log records of all access and communications with the console
server and with the attached serial devices. A log of all system activity is also maintained, as is a history
of the status of any attached environmental monitors.
Some models also log access and communications with network attached hosts and maintain a history
of the UPS and PDU power status.
7.1

If port logs are to be maintained on a remote server, then configure the access path to this
location (Section 7.3).

Then you need to activate and set the desired levels of logging for each serial (Section 7.4)
and/or network port (Section 7.5) and/or power and environment UPS (refer to Chapter 8).
Configure SMTP/SMS/SNMP/Nagios alert service
The Alerts facility monitors nominated ports/hosts/UPSs/PDUs/EMDs, etc. for trigger conditions. When
triggered, the facility sends an alert notification over the nominated alert service. Before setting up the
alert trigger, configure these alert services:
7.1.1 Email alerts
The console server uses SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending the email alert notifications.
To use SMTP, the Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email:
 Select Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 98
 In the SMTP Server field, enter the outgoing mail Server’s IP address.
 If this mail server uses a Secure Connection, specify its type.
 You may enter a Sender email address which will appear as the “from” address in all email
notifications sent from this console server. Many SMTP servers check the sender’s email address
with the host domain name to verify the address as authentic. So it may be useful to assign an
email address for the console server such as [email protected]
 You may also enter a Username and Password if the SMTP server requires authentication.
 You can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email.
 Click Apply to activate SMTP.
7.1.2
SMS alerts
The console server uses email-to-SMS services to send SMS alert notifications to mobile devices. Sending
SMS via email using SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is much faster than sending text pages via a
modem using the TAP Protocol. Almost all mobile phone carriers provide an SMS gateway service that
forwards email to mobile phones on their networks. There’s also a wide selection of SMS gateway
aggregators that provide email to SMS forwarding to phones on any carriers. To use SMTP SMS, the
Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 99
 In the SMTP SMS Server field in the Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS menu, enter the IP address
of the outgoing mail Server (and Secure Connection if applicable).
 You may enter a Sender email address, which will appear as the “from” address in all email
notifications sent from this console server. Some SMS gateway service providers only forward
email to SMS when the email has been received from authorized senders. You might need to
assign a specific authorized email address for the console server.
 You may also enter a Username and Password, because some SMS gateway service providers
use SMTP servers which require authentication.
 You can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email. Generally, the email
subject will contain a truncated version of the alert notification message (which is contained in
full in the body of the email). However some SMS gateway service providers require blank
subjects or require specific authentication headers to be included in the subject line.
 Click Apply to activate SMTP.
7.1.3 SNMP alerts
The Administrator can configure the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent that resides
on the console server to send SNMP trap alerts to an NMS management application:
 Select Alerts & Logging: SNMP
 Enter the SNMP transport protocol. SNMP is generally a UDP-based protocol, though
infrequently, it uses TCP instead.
 Enter the IP address of the SNMP Manager and the Port to use for connecting (default = 162)
 Select the version being used. The console server SNMP agent supports SNMP v1, v2, and v3.
 Enter the Community name for SNMP v1 or 2c. An SNMP community is the group that devices
and management stations running SNMP belong to. It helps define where information is sent.
SNMP default communities are private for Write (and public for Read).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 100
 To configure for SNMP v3, you will need to enter an ID and authentication password and contact
information for the local Administrator (in the Security Name).
 Click Apply to activate SNMP.
Note All console servers have the snmptrap daemon to send traps/notifications to remote SNMP
servers on defined trigger events as detailed above. LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A
console servers also embed the net-snmpd daemon. It accepts SNMP requests from remote
SNMP management servers and provides information on network interface, running processes,
etc. (refer to Chapter 15.5—Modifying SNMP Configuration for more details).
7.1.4 Nagios alerts
To notify the central Nagios server of Alerts, NSCA must be enabled under System: Nagios and Nagios
must be enabled for each applicable host or port under Serial & Network: Network Hosts or Serial &
Network: Serial Ports (refer to Chapter 10).
7.2
Activate Alert Events and Notifications
The Alert facility monitors the status of the console server and connected devices. When an alert event
is triggered, the Alert facility notifies a nominated email address or SMS gateway, or the configured
SNMP or Nagios server. The data stream from nominated serial ports can be monitored for matched
patterns or flow control status changes can be configured to trigger alerts, as can user connections to
serial ports and Hosts, or power events.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 101
 Select Alerts & Logging: Alerts, which will display all the alerts currently configured. Click Add
Alert.
7.2.1 Add a new alert
The first step is to specify the alert service that this event will use for sending notification, who to notify
there, and what port/host/device is to be monitored:
 At Add a New Alert, enter a Description for this new alert.
 Nominate the email address for the Email Recipient(s) and/or the SMS Recipient(s) to be
notified of the alert. For multiple recipients, enter comma separated addresses.
 Activate SNMP notification if an SNMP trap is to be sent for this event.
 Activate Nagios notification to use it for this event. In a SDT Nagios centrally managed
environment, you can check the Nagios alert option. On the trigger condition (for matched
patterns, logins, power events, and signal changes), an NSCA check “warning” result will be sent
to the central Nagios server. This condition is displayed on the Nagios status screen and triggers
a notification, which can cause the Nagios central server itself to send out an email or an SMS,
page, etc.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 102
7.2.2
Configuring general alert types
Next, you must select the Alert Type (Connection, Signal, Pattern Match, UPS Power Status,
Environment and Power Sensor or Alarm Sensor) to monitor. You can configure a selection of different
Alert types and any number of specific triggers.
 Connection Alert—This alert will be triggered when a user connects or disconnects from the
applicable Host or Serial Port, or when a Slave connects or disconnects from the applicable UPS
(and you must specify the applicable connections to Apply Alert To).
 Serial Port Signal Alert—This alert will be triggered when the specified signal changes state and
applies to serial ports only. You must specify the particular Signal Type (DSR, DCD or CTS) trigger
condition and the Applicable Ports(s).
 Serial Port Pattern Match Alert—This alert will be triggered if a regular expression is found in
the serial ports character stream that matches the regular expression you enter in the Pattern
field. This alert type will only be applied to serial ports selected as Applicable Ports(s).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 103
 UPS Power Status Alert— This alert will be triggered when the UPS power status changes
between on line, on battery, and low battery. This status will only be monitored on the
Applicable UPS(es) you select.
 Environment and Power Alert—(next section).
 Alarm Sensor Alert—(next section).
7.2.3
Configuring environment and power alert type
This alert type monitors UPSes, RPCs, power devices, and EMD environmental devices.
 Select Environment and Power Alert to activate.
 Specify which Sensor Type to alert on (Temperature, Humidity, Power Load and Battery Charge).
 Set the levels at which Critical and/or Warning alerts are to be sent. You can also specify High
and/or Low Set Points for sending alerts and the Hysteresis to be applied before resetting off
the alerts.
Note
Specify the Set Point values are in Degrees Centigrade for Temperature, Amps (Current)
for Power Load, and % (Percentage) for both Humidity and Battery Charge.

_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 104
 Specify the applicable UPSes, RPCs (and RPC outlets), and Environmental Sensors to Apply Alert
To.
Note An alert notification (SNMP, SMTP etc) is only sent out when there is a transition to or from a
trigger event/level. For example, if a High temperature alert is set at 40 degrees with a 5 degree
hysteresis then an High alert notification will be sent when the sensor temperature reads 40
degrees. The next alert will be sent when the temperature falls below 35 degrees. If the temp was
over 40 degrees when the alert was first set, no high temp notification will be sent.
7.2.4
Configuring alarm sensor alert type
You can set an alert on sensor devices that may be attached to any EMD devices connected to the
console server:
 Select Alarm Sensor Alert and then set the time windows when these sensors will not be
monitored. For example, for a door open sensor, you may not want to deactivate the sensor
alert monitoring during the working day (and the default 00:00 settings actively monitor the
sensors 24/7).
 Select the Applicable Alarm Sensor(s) for this alert and click Apply.
7.3
Remote Log Storage
Before activating Serial or Network Port Logging on any port or UPS logging, you must specify where
those logs are to be saved:
 Select the Alerts & Logging: Port Log menu option and specify the Server Type to use, and the
details to enable log server access.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 105
7.4
Serial Port Logging
In Console Server mode, activity logs of all serial port activity can be maintained. These records are
stored on an off-server, or in the Advanced Console Server flash memory. To specify which serial ports
have activities recorded and to what level data is to be logged:
 Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit the port to be logged.
 Specify the Logging Level of for each port as:
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Turns off logging for the selected port.
Logs all connection events to the port.
Logs all data transferred to and from the port, all changes in hardware flow
control status, and all User connection events.
 Click Apply
Note
A cache of the most recent 8K of logged data per serial port is maintained locally (in addition to
the Logs that are transmitted for remote/USB flash storage). To view the local cache of logged
serial port data, select Manage: Port Logs.
7.5
Network TCP or UDP Port Logging
The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A models support optional logging of access to and
communications with network attached Hosts.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 106
 For each Host, when you set up the Permitted Services that you authorize to use, you also must
set up the level of logging to maintain for each service.
 Specify the logging level to maintain for that particular TDC/UDP port/service, on that particular
Host:
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2

Turns off logging for the selected TDC/UDP port to the selected Host.
Logs all connection events to the port.
Logs all data transferred to and from the port.
Click Add then click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 107
Chapter 8
Power & Environmental Management
POWER & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Black Box console servers manage embedded software that you can use to manage connected Power
Distribution Systems (PDUs), IPMI devices, and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs) supplied by a
number of vendors, and some environmental monitoring devices.
8.1
Remote Power Control (RPC)
The console server Management Console monitors and controls Remote Power Control (RPC) devices
using the embedded PowerMan and Network UPS Tools open source management tools and the Black
Box power management software. RPCs include power distribution units (PDUs) and IPMI power
devices.
You can control serial PDUs invariably using their command line console, so you could manage the PDU
through the console server using a remote Telnet client. Also, you could use proprietary software tools
supplied by the vendor. This generally runs on a remote Windows PC, and you could configure the
console server serial port to operate with a serial COM port redirector in the PC (as detailed in Chapter
4).
Similarly, you can control network-attached PDUs with a browser (for example, with SDT as detailed in
Chapter 6.3), an SNMP management package, or using the vendor-supplied control software. Servers
and network-attached appliances with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs invariably have their
own management tools (like SoL) that provide secure management when connected with SDT
Connector.
For simplicity, you can now control all these devices through one window using the Management
Console’s RPC remote power control tools.
8.1.1 RPC connection
Serial and network connected RPCs must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with,
the console server:
 For serial RPCs, connect the PDU to the selected serial port on the console server. From the
Serial and Network: Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the
RS-232 properties etc required by the PDU (refer to Chapter 4.1.1 Common Settings). Then
select RPC as the Device Type.
 For each network-connected RPC, go to Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and configure
the RPC as a connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: RPC and clicking Apply (refer to
Section 4.4, Network Hosts).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 108
 Select the Serial & Network: RPC Connections menu. This will display all the RPC connections
that have already been configured.
 Click Add RPC.
 Connected Via presents a list of serial ports and network Host connections that you have set up
with device type RPC (but have yet to connect to a specific RPC device):

When you select Connect Via for a Network RPC connection, then the corresponding
Host Name/Description that you set up for that connection will be entered as the Name
and Description for the power device.

Or, if you select to Connect Via a Serial connection, enter a Name and Description for
the power device.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 109
 Select the appropriate RPC Type for the PDU (or IPMI) being connected:
 If you are connecting to the RPC via the network, you will be presented with the IPMI
protocol options and the SNMP RPC Types currently supported by the embedded
Network UPS Tools.
 If you are connecting to the RPC by a serial port, you will be presented with all the serial
RPC types currently supported by the embedded PowerMan and the Black Box power
manager:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 110
 Enter the Username and Password used to login into the RPC (Note that these login credentials
are not related to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial & Networks: Users &
Groups).
 If you selected SNMP protocol, enter the SNMP v1 or v2c Community for Read/Write access (by
default this would be “private”).
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status
from this RPC to be logged. View these logs from the Status: RPC Status screen.
 Click Apply.
 For SNMP PDUs, the console server probes the configured RPC to confirm the RPC Type matches
and reports the number of outlets it finds that can be controlled. If unsuccessful, it will report
Unable to probe outlets and you’ll need to check the RPC settings or network/serial connection.
 For serially connected RPC devices, a new Managed Device (with the same name as given to the
RPC) will be created. The console server will then configure the RPC with the number of outlets
specified in the selected RPC Type or will query the RPC itself for this information.
Note The Black Box console servers support most popular network and serial PDUs. If your PDU is not
on the default list, then you can add support directly (as covered in Chapter 14—Advanced
Configurations) or add the PDU support to either the Network UPS Tools or PowerMan open
source projects.
Configure IPMI service processors and BMCs so that all authorized users can use the
Management Console to remotely cycle power and reboot computers, even when their operating
system is unresponsive. To set up IPMI power control, the Administrator first enters the IP
address/domain name of the BMC or service processor (for example, a Dell DRAC) in Serial &
Network: Network Hosts, then in Serial & Network: RPC Connections specifies the RPC
Type to be IPMI1.5 or 2.0.
8.1.2
RPC access privileges and alerts
You can now set PDU and IPMI alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to Chapter 7). You can also
assign which user can access and control which particular outlet on each RPC using Serial & Network:
User & Groups (refer Chapter 4).
8.1.3
User power management
The Power Manager enables both Users and Administrators to access and control the configured serial
and network attached PDU power strips, and servers with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs.
 Select the Manage: Power and the particular Target power device to be controlled (and the
Outlet to be controlled if the RPC supports outlet level control).
 The outlet status is displayed and you can initiate the Action you want to take by selecting the
appropriate icon:
Turn ON
Turn OFF
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 111
Cycle
Status
You will only be presented with icons for those operations that are supported by the Target you
have selected.
8.1.4
RPC status
You can monitor the current status of your network and serially connected PDUs and IPMI RPCs.
 Select the Status: RPC Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected RPC
hardware will be displayed.
 Click on View Log or select the RPCLogs menu and you will be presented with a table of the
history and detailed graphical information on the selected RPC.
 Click Manage to query or control the individual power outlet. This will take you to the Manage:
Power screen.
8.2
Uninterruptible Power Supply Control (UPS)
You can configure all Black Box console servers to manage locally and remotely connected UPS hardware
using Network UPS Tools.
Network UPS Tools (NUT) is a group of open source programs that provide a common interface for
monitoring and administering UPS hardware. These programs ensure safe shutdowns of the systems
that are connected. NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server, and
clients (covered in some detail in Chapter 8.2.6).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 112
Console Server
Multiple local
(serial USB
networked) UPSs
Managed
UPS
Multiple remote
UPSs
8.2.1 Managed UPS connections
A Managed UPS is a UPS that is directly connected as a Managed Device to the console server. You can
connect it via serial or USB cable or by the network. The console server becomes the master of this UPS,
and runs a upsd server to allow other computers that are drawing power through the UPS (slaves) to
monitor the UPS status and take appropriate action, such as shutdown when the UPS battery is low.
Master
Serial USB or
network
connections
Slaves
Managed UPS
The console server may or may not be drawing power itself through the Managed UPS. When the UPS’s
battery power reaches critical, the console server signals and waits for slaves to shut down, then powers
off the UPS.
Serial and network connected UPSes must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with
the console server:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 113
 For serial UPSes attach the UPS to the selected serial port on the console server. From the Serial
and Network: Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the RS-232
properties, etc. required by the UPS (refer to Chapter 4.1.1—Common Settings). Then select
UPS as the Device Type.
 For each network connected UPS, go to the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and
configure the UPS as a connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: UPS and clicking Apply.
 No such configuration is required for USB connected UPS hardware.
 Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Managed UPSes section will display
all the UPS connections that have already been configured.
 Click Add Managed UPS.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 114
 Select if the UPS will be Connected Via USB, over a pre-configured serial port, or via
SNMP/HTTP/HTTPS over the preconfigured network Host connection.
 When you select a network UPS connection, then the corresponding Host Name/Description
that you set up for that connection will be entered as the Name and Description for the power
device. Or, if you selected to Connect Via a USB or serial connection then you will need to
enter a Name and Description for the power device (and these details will also be used to
create a new Managed Device entry for the serial/USB connected UPS devices).
 Enter the login details. This Username and Password is used by slaves of this UPS (that is, other
computers that are drawing power through this UPS) to connect to the console server to
monitor the UPS status so they can shut themselves down when battery power is low.
Monitoring will typically be performed using the upsmon client running on the slave server
(refer to Section 8.2.3)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 115
Note: These login credentials are not related to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial
& Networks: Users & Groups.
 If you have multiple UPSes and require them to be shut down in a specific order, specify the
Shutdown Order for this UPS. This is a whole positive number, or -1. 0s shut down first, then
1s, 2s, etc. -1s are not shut down at all. Defaults to 0.
 Select the Driver that you will use to communicate with the UPS. Most console servers are
preconfigured so the drop down menu presents a full selection of drivers from the latest
Network UPS Tools (NUT version 2.4).
 Click New Options in Driver Options if you need to set driver-specific options for your selected
NUT driver and hardware combination (more details at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc).
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status
from this UPS to be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.
 If you have enabled Nagios services, then you will presented with an option for Nagios
monitoring. Check Enable Nagios to enable this UPS to be monitored using Nagios central
management.
 Check Enable Shutdown Script if this is the UPS providing power to the console server itself and
if a critical power failure occurs, you can perform any "last gasp" actions on the console server
before power is lost. Place a custom script in /etc/config/scripts/ups-shutdown (you may use the
provided /etc/scripts/ups-shutdown as a template). This script only runs when then UPS reaches
critical battery status.
 Click Apply.
Note: You can also customize the upsmon, upsd, and upsc settings for this UPS hardware directly from
the command line.
8.2.2 Remote UPS management
A Remote UPS is a UPS that is connected as a Managed Device to a remote console server that is
monitored (but not managed) by your console server.
You can configure the upsc and upslog clients in the Black Box console server to monitor remote servers
that are running Network UPS Tools managing their locally connected UPSes. These remote servers
might be other Black Box console servers or generic Linux servers running NUT. You can centrally
monitor all these distributed UPSes (which may be spread in a row in a data center, around a campus
property, or across the country) through the one central console server window. To add a Remote UPS:
 Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Remote UPSes section will display all
the remote UPS devices being monitored.
 Click Add Remote UPS.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 116
 Enter the Name of the particular remote UPS that you want to remotely monitor. This name
must be the name that the remote UPS was configured with on the remote console server
(because the remote console server may itself have multiple UPSes attached that it manages
locally with NUT). Optionally, enter a Description.
 Enter the IP Address or DNS name of the remote console server* that is managing the remote
UPS. (*This may be another Black Box console server or it may be a generic Linux server running
Network UPS Tools.)
Note An example where centrally monitor remotely distributed UPSes is useful is a campus or large
business site where there‘s a multitude of computer and other equipment sites spread afar, each
with their own UPS supply … and many of these (particularly the smaller sites) will be USB or
serially connected.
Having a console server at these remote sites would enable the system manager to centrally
monitor the status of the power supplies at all sites, and centralize alarms. So he/she can be
warned to initiate a call-out or shut-down.
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status
from this UPS to be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.
 Check Enable Shutdown Script if this remote UPS is the UPS providing power to the console
server itself. If the UPS reaches critical battery status, the custom script in
/etc/config/scripts/ups-shutdown runs, enabling you to perform any “last gasp” actions.
 Click Apply.
8.2.3
Controlling UPS powered computers
One of the advantages of having a Managed UPS is that you can configure computers that draw power
through that UPS to shut down gracefully if you have UPS problems.
For Linux computers, set up upsmon on each computer and direct them to monitor the console server
that is managing their UPS. This will set the specific conditions that will be used to initiate a power down
of the computer. Non-critical servers may be powered down some seconds after the UPS starts running
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 117
on battery. In contrast, more critical servers may not be shut down until a low battery warning is
received). Refer to the online NUT documentation for details on how to do this:
http://eu1.networkupstools.org/doc/2.2.0/INSTALL.html
http://linux.die.net/man/5/upsmon.conf
http://linux.die.net/man/8/upsmon
An example upsmon.conf entry might look like:
MONITOR [email protected] 1 username password slave
- managedups is the UPS Name of the Managed UPS
- 192.168.0.1 is the IP address of the Black Box console server
- 1 indicates the server has a single power supply attached to this UPS
- username is the Username of the Managed UPS
- password is the Password of the Manager UPS
There are NUT monitoring clients available for Windows computers (WinNUT).
If you have an RPC (PDU), you can shut down UPS powered computers and other equipment if if the
they don’t have a client running (for example, communications, and surveillance gear). Set up a UPS
alert and using this to trigger a script that controls a PDU to shut off the power (refer to Chapter 15).
8.2.4
UPS alerts
You can set UPS alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer Chapter — Alerts & Logging).
8.2.5 UPS status
You can monitor the current status of your network, serially or USB connected Managed UPSes, and any
configured Remote UPSes.
 Select the Status: UPS Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected UPS
hardware displays.
 Click on any particular UPS System name in the table and more detailed graphical information
on the selected UPS System appears.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 118
 Click on any particular All Data for any UPS System in the table for more status and
configuration information about the selected UPS System.
 Select UPS Logs and you will be presented with the log table of the load, battery charge level,
temperature, and other status information from all the Managed and Monitored UPS systems.
This information will be logged for all UPSes that were configured with Log Status checked. The
information is also presented graphically.
8.2.6 Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT)
NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server and clients. Configure NUT
using the Management Console as described above, or configure the tools and manage the UPSes
directly from the command line. This section provides an overview of NUT. You can find full
documentation at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc.
Monitor log graph
and alert
NUT upsc client
Console
Server
Local NUT upsc server
NUT serial/USB/SNMP UPS drivers
NUT upsd server
UPS drivers
Multiple local
UPSs
Multiple
remote
UPSs
NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server and clients:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 119

The driver programs talk directly to the UPS equipment and run on the same host as the NUT
network server (upsd). Drivers are provided for a wide assortment of equipment from most of
the popular UPS vendors and understand the specific language of each UPS. They communicate
with serial, USB, and SNMP network connected UPS hardware and map the communications
back to a compatibility layer. This means both an expensive “smart” protocol UPS and a simple
“power strip” model can be handled transparently.

The NUT network server program upsd is responsible for passing status data from the drivers to
the client programs via the network. upsd can cache the status from multiple UPSes and then
serve this status data to many clients. upsd also contains access control features to limit the
abilities of the clients (only authorized hosts may monitor or control the UPS hardware).

There are a number of NUT clients that connect to upsd to check on the status of the UPS
hardware and do things based on the status. These clients can run on the same host as the NUT
server or they can communicate with the NUT server over the network (enabling them to
monitor any UPS anywhere):


The upsc client provides a quick way to poll the status of a UPS server. Use it inside shell
scripts and other programs that need UPS data but don't want to include the full
interface.

The upsmon client enables servers that draw power through the UPS to shutdown
gracefully when the battery power reaches critical.

There are also logging clients (upslog) and third party interface clients (Big Sister, Cacti,
Nagios, Windows, and more. Refer www.networkupstools.org/client-projects.)
The latest release of NUT (2.4) also controls PDU systems. It can do this either natively using
SNMP or through a binding to Powerman (open source software from Livermore Labs that also
is embedded in Black Box console servers).
These NUT clients and servers all are embedded in each Black Box console server (with a Management
Console presentation layer added) —and they also are run remotely on distributed console servers and
other remote NUT monitoring systems. This layered distributed NUT architecture enables:

Multiple manufacturer support: NUT can monitor UPS models from 79 different
manufacturers—and PDUs from a growing number of vendors—with a unified interface.

Multiple architecture support: NUT can manage serial and USB connected UPS models with the
same common interface. Network-connected USB and PDU equipment can also be monitored
using SNMP.

Multiple clients monitoring one UPS: Multiple systems may monitor a single UPS using only their
network connections. There is a wide selection of client programs that support monitoring UPS
hardware via NUT (Big Sister, Cacti, Nagios and more).

Central management of multiple NUT servers: A central NUT client can monitor multiple NUT
servers that may be distributed throughout the data center, across a campus, or around the
world.
NUT supports the more complex power architectures found in data centers, communications centers,
and distributed office environments where many UPSes from many vendors power many systems with
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 120
many clients. Each of the larger UPSes power multiple devices, and many of these devices are in turn
dual powered.
8.3
Environmental Monitoring
The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any Black Box console server serial port and each
console server can support multiple EMDs. Each EMD device has one temperature and one humidity
sensor and one or two general-purpose status sensors that you can connect to a smoke detector, water
detector, vibration, or open-door sensor.
Using the Management Console, Administrators can view the ambient temperature (in °C) and humidity
(percentage), and set the EMD to automatically send alarms progressively from warning levels to critical
alerts.
Vibration sensor
Motion detector
EMD temperature
and humidity
sensor
Door open
Airflow sensor
EMD temperature and
humidity
sensor
Smoke detector
Water leak sensor
EMD temperature and
humidity
sensor
Glass broken
detector
EMD temperature
and humidity
sensor
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 121
8.3.1 Connecting the EMD
The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any serial port on the console server via a
special EMD Adapter and standard CAT5 cable. The EMD is powered over this serial connection
and communicates using a custom handshake protocol. It is not an RS-232 device and should not
be connected without the adapter:

Plug the male RJ plug on the EMD Adapter into EMD and
then connect it to the console server serial port using the
provided UTP cable. If the 6-foot (2-meter) UTP cable
provided with the EMD is not long enough, you can
replace it with a standard CAT5 UTP cable up to 33 feet
(10 meters) long.
 Screw the bare wires on any smoke detector, water
detector, vibration sensor, open-door sensor, or general
purpose open/close status sensors into the terminals on
the EMD.
Note: You can attach two external sensors onto the terminals on EMDs that are connected to LES1108A,
LES1116A, and LES1148A console servers. LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers
only support attaching a single sensor to each EMD.
You can only use the EMD with a Black Box console server; you cannot connect it to standard
RS-232 serial ports on other appliances.
 Select Environmental as the Device Type in the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu for the port
to which the EMD will be attached. No particular Common Settings are required.
 Click Apply.
 Select the Serial & Network: Environmental menu. This will display all the EMD connections
that have already been configured.
 Click Add.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 122
 Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the EMD and select the pre-configured serial
port that the EMD will be Connected Via.
 You may optionally calibrate the EMD with a Temperature Offset (+ or - °C) or Humidity Offset
(+ or percent).
 Provide Labels for each of the two alarms (if used).
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want to log the
status from this EMD. These logs can be views from the Status: Environmental Status screen.
 Click Apply. This will also create a new Managed Device (with the same name).
8.3.2
Environmental alerts
You can now set temperature, humidity and probe status alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to
Chapter 7).
8.3.3 Environmental status
You can monitor the current status of all EMDs and their probes.
 Select the Status: Environmental Status menu and a table with the summary status of all
connected EMD hardware will be displayed.
 Click on View Log or select the Environmental Logs menu and you will be presented with a table
and graphical plot of the selected EMD’s log history.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 123
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 124
Chapter 9
Authentication
AUTHENTICATION
Introduction
The console server is a dedicated Linux computer with a myriad of popular and proven Linux software
modules for networking, secure access (OpenSSH), and communications (OpenSSL), and sophisticated
user authentication (PAM, RADIUS, TACACS+ and LDAP).
9.1

This chapter details how the Administrator can use the Management Console to establish
remote AAA authentication for all connections to the console server and attached serial and
network host devices.

This chapter also covers how to establish a secure link to the Management Console using HTTPS
and using OpenSSL and OpenSSH to establish a secure Administration connection to the console
server.
Authentication Configuration
Authentication can be performed locally, or remotely using an LDAP, Radius, or TACACS+ authentication
server. The default authentication method for the console server is Local.
Any authentication method that is configured will be used for authentication of any user who attempts
to log in through Telnet, SSH, or the Web Manager to the console server and any connected serial port
or network host devices.
You can configure the console server to the default (Local) or using an alternate authentication method
(TACACS, RADIUS, or LDAP). Optionally, you can select the order in which local and remote
authentication is used:
Local TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP: Tries local authentication first, falling back to remote if local fails.
TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if remote
fails.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 125
TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Down Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if the
remote authentication returns an error condition (for example, if the remote authentication
server is down or inaccessible).
9.1.1
Local authentication
 Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check Local.
 Click Apply.
9.1.2
TACACS authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the TACACS+ authentication method to use whenever the
console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:
 Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check TACAS or LocalTACACS or TACACSLocal
or TACACSDownLocal
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/Authorization server.
Multiple remote servers may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in
succession.
 In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/
Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the
Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead.
 Enter the Server Password.
 Click Apply. TACAS+ remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server
and serially or network attached devices.
TACACS+
The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) security protocol is a
recent protocol developed by Cisco. It provides detailed accounting information and flexible
administrative control over the authentication and authorization processes. TACACS+ allows for a
single access control server (the TACACS+ daemon) to provide authentication, authorization, and
accounting services independently. Each service can be tied into its own database to take
advantage of other services available on that server or on the network, depending on the
capabilities of the daemon. There is a draft RFC detailing this protocol. You can find further
information on configuring remote TACACS+ servers at the following sites:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094e99.shtml
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 126
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps4911/products_user_guide_chapter09186a0
0800eb6d6.html
http://cio.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios113ed/113ed_cr/secur_c/scprt2/sctplu
s.htm
9.1.3
RADIUS authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the RADIUS authentication method to use whenever the
console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:
 Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check RADIUS or LocalRADIUS or RADIUSLocal
or RADIUSDownLocal.
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/ Authorization server.
Multiple remote servers may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in
succession.
 In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/
Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the
Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead.
 Enter the Server Password.
 Click Apply. RADIUS remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server
and serially or network-attached devices.
RADIUS
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol was developed by
Livingston Enterprises as an access server authentication and accounting protocol. The RADIUS
server can support a variety of methods to authenticate a user. When it is provided with the
username and original password given by the user, it can support PPP, PAP, or CHAP, UNIX
login, and other authentication mechanisms. You can find further information on configuring
remote RADIUS servers at the following sites:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/library/DepKit/d4fe8248-eecd49e4-88f6-9e304f97fefc.mspx
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a00800945cc.shtml
http://www.freeradius.org/
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 127
9.1.4
LDAP authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the LDAP authentication method to use whenever the
console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:
 Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check LDAP or LocalLDAP or LDAPLocal or
LDAPDownLocal
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication server. Multiple
remote servers may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in succession.
 Enter the Server Password.
Note To interact with LDAP requires that the user account exist on our console server to work with the
remote server. (You can't just create the user on your LDAP server and not tell the console server
about it.) You need to add the user account.
 Click Apply. LDAP remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server
and serially or network attached devices.
LDAP The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is based on the X.500 standard, but is
significantly simpler and more readily adapted to meet custom needs. The core LDAP
specifications are all defined in RFCs. LDAP is a protocol used to access information stored in an
LDAP server. You can find further information on configuring remote RADIUS servers at the
following sites:
http://www.ldapman.org/articles/intro_to_ldap.html
http://www.ldapman.org/servers.html
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5050/1/
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5074/4/
9.1.5
RADIUS/TACACS User Configuration
Users may be added to the local console server appliance. If they are not added and they log in via
remote AAA, a user will be added for them. This user will not show up in the Black Box configurators
unless they are specifically added, at which point they are transformed into a completely local user. The
newly added user must authenticate from the remote AAA server, and will have no access if it is down.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 128
If a local user logs in, they may be authenticated/authorized from the remote AAA server, depending on
the chosen priority of the remote AAA. A local user’s authorization is the union of local and remote
privileges.
Example 1:
User Tim is locally added, and has access to ports 1 and 2. He is also defined on a remote
TACACS server, which says he has access to ports 3 and 4. Tim may log in with either his local or
TACACS password, and will have access to ports 1 through 4. If TACACS is down, he will need to
use his local password, and will only be able to access ports 1 and 2.
Example 2:
User Ben is only defined on the TACACS server, which says he has access to ports 5 and 6. When
he attempts to log in, a new user will be created for him, and he will be able to access ports 5
and 6. If the TACACS server is down he will have no access.
Example 3:
User Paul is defined on a RADIUS server only. He has access to all serial ports and network hosts.
Example 4:
User Don is locally defined on an appliance using RADIUS for AAA. Even if Don is also defined on
the RADIUS server, he will only have access to those serial ports and network hosts he has been
authorized to use on the appliance.
If a “no local AAA” option is selected, then root will still be authenticated locally.
You can add remote users to the admin group via either RADIUS or TACACS. Users may have a set of
authorizations set on the remote TACACS server. Users automatically added by RADIUS will have
authorization for all resources, whereas those added locally will still need their authorizations specified.
LDAP has not been modified, and will still need locally defined users.
9.2
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
The console server supports RADIUS, TACACS+, and LDAP for two-factor authentication via PAM
(Pluggable Authentication Modules). PAM is a flexible mechanism for authenticating users. Nowadays, a
number of new ways of authenticating users have become popular. The challenge is that each time a
new authentication scheme is developed, you need to rewrite all the necessary programs (login, ftpd,
etc.) to support it.
PAM provides a way to develop programs that are independent of authentication scheme. These
programs need “authentication modules” to be attached to them at run-time in order to work. Which
authentication module is attached depends on the local system setup and is at the discretion of the local
Administrator.
The console server family supports PAM with the following modules added for remote authentication:
RADIUS
- pam_radius_auth
(http://www.freeradius.org/pam_radius_auth/)
TACACS+
- pam_tacplus
(http://echelon.pl/pubs/pam_tacplus.html)
LDAP
- pam_ldap
(http://www.padl.com/OSS/pam_ldap.html)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 129
Further modules can be added as required.
Changes may be made to files in /etc/config/pam.d/ that will persist, even if the authentication
configurator runs.

Users added on demand:
When a user attempts to log in, but does not already have an account on the console server, a
new user account will be created. This account will have no rights, and no password set. It will
not appear in the Black Box configuration tools.
Automatically added accounts will not be able to log in if the remote servers are unavailable.
RADIUS users are currently assumed to have access to all resources, so they will only be
authorized to log in to the console server. RADIUS users will be authorized each time they access
a new resource.

Admin rights granted over AAA:
Users may be granted Administrator rights via networked AAA. For TACACS a priv-lvl of 12 of
above indicates an Administrator. For RADIUS, Administrators are indicated via the Framed Filter
ID. (See the example configuration files below for example.)

Authorization via TACACS for both serial ports and host access:
Permission to access resources may be granted via TACACS by indicating a Black Box Appliance
and a port or networked host the user may access. (See the example configuration files below
for example.)
TACACS Example:
user = tim {
service = raccess {
priv-lvl = 11
port1 = les1116/port02
port2 = 192.168.254.145/port05
}
global = cleartext mit
}
RADIUS Example:
paul Cleartext-Password := "luap"
Service-Type = Framed-User,
Fall-Through = No,
Framed-Filter-Id=":group_name=admin"
The list of groups may include any number of entries separated by a comma. If the admin group
is included, the user will be made an Administrator.
If there is already a Framed-Filter-Id, simply add the list of group_names after the existing
entries, including the separating colon “:”.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 130
9.3
SSL Certificate
The console server uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol for encrypted network traffic between
itself and a connected user. When establishing the connection, the console server has to expose its
identity to the user’s browser using a cryptographic certificate. The default certificate that comes with
the console server device upon delivery is for testing purposes only.
The System Administrator should not rely on the default certificate as the
secured global access mechanism for use through Internet.
 Activate your preferred browser and enter https:// IP address. Your browser may respond with a
message that verifies the security certificate is valid but notes that it is not necessarily verified
by a certifying authority. To proceed, you need to click yes if you are using Internet Explorer or
select accept this certificate permanently (or temporarily) if you are using Mozilla Firefox.
 You will then be prompted for the Administrator account and password as normal.
We recommend that you generate and install a new base64 X.509 certificate that is unique for a
particular console server.
To do this, the console server must be enabled to generate a new cryptographic key and the associated
Certificate Signing Request (CSR) that needs to be certified by a Certification Authority (CA). A
certification authority verifies that you are the person who you claim you are, and signs and issues a SSL
certificate to you. To create and install a SSL certificate for the console server:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 131
 Select System: SSL Certificate and fill out the fields as explained below:
Common name This is the network name of the console server once it is installed in the
network (usually the fully qualified domain name). It is identical to the name that is used to
access the console server with a web browser (without the “http://” prefix). In case the
name given here and the actual network name differ, the browser will pop up a security
warning when the console server is accessed using HTTPS.
Organizational Unit Use this field to specify which department within an organization the
console server belongs to.
Organization The name of the organization that the console server belongs to.
Locality/City The city where the organization is located.
State/Province The state or province where the organization is located.
Country The country where the organization is located. This is the two-letter ISO code,
for example, DE for Germany, or US for the USA. (Note: Enter the country code in CAPITAL
LETTERS.)
Email
The email address of a contact person that is responsible for the console server
and its security.
Challenge Password Some certification authorities require a challenge password to
authorize later changes on the certificate (for example, revocation of the certificate). The
password must be at least 4 characters long.
Confirm Challenge Password
Confirmation of the Challenge Password.
Key length This is the length of the generated key in bits. 1024 Bits are supposed to be
sufficient for most cases. Longer keys may result in slower response time of the console
server when establishing connection.
 Once this is done, click on the button Generate CSR which will initiate the Certificate
Signing Request generation. The CSR can be downloaded to your administration machine
with the Download button.
 Send the saved CSR string to a Certification Authority (CA) for certification. You will get the
new certificate from the CA after a more or less complicated traditional authentication
process (depending on the CA).
 Upload the certificate to the console server using the Upload button as shown below.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 132
After completing these steps, the console server has its own certificate that is used for identifying the
console server to its users.
Note You can find information on issuing certificates and configuring HTTPS from the command line in
Chapter 15.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 133
Chapter 10
Nagios Integration
NAGIOS INTEGRATION
Introduction
Nagios is a powerful, highly extensible open source tool for monitoring network hosts and services. The
core Nagios software package will typically be installed on a server or virtual server, the central Nagios
server.
Console servers operate in conjunction with a central/upstream Nagios server to distribute and monitor
attached network hosts and serial devices. They embed the NSCA (Nagios Service Checks Acceptor) and
NRPE (Nagios Remote Plug-in Executor) add-ons—this allows them to communicate with the central
Nagios server, so you won’t need a dedicated slave Nagios server at remote sites.
The console server products all support basic distributed monitoring. Additionally, the Advanced Console
Server (LES1208A, LES1216A, LES1248A) family supports extensive customizable distributed monitoring.
Even if distributed monitoring is not required, the console servers can be deployed locally alongside the
Nagios monitoring host server, to provide additional diagnostics and points of access to managed
devices.
Central site
(Nagios server)
Remote site
Console Server
Network
Managed hosts
and services
SDT for Nagios extends the capabilities of the central Nagios server beyond monitoring, enabling it to be
used for central management tasks. It incorporates the SDT Connector client, enabling point-and-click
access and control of distributed networks of console servers and their attached network and serial
hosts, from a central location.
Note If you have an existing Nagios deployment, you may want to use the console server gateways in a
distributed monitoring server capacity only. If this case and you are already familiar with Nagios,
skip ahead to section 10.3.
10.1 Nagios Overview
Nagios provides central monitoring of the hosts and services in your distributed network. Nagios is freely
downloadable, open source software. This section offers a quick background of Nagios and its
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 134
capabilities. A complete overview, FAQ, and comprehensive documentation are available at:
http://www.nagios.org
Nagios does take some time to install and configure, however once Nagios is up and running however, it
provides an outstanding network monitoring system.
With Nagios you can:

Display tables showing the status of each monitored server and network service in real time.

Use a wide range of freely available plug-ins to make detailed checks of specific services—for
example, don't just check that a database is accepting network connections, check that it can
actually validate requests and return real data.

Display warnings and send warning e-mails, pager, or SMS alerts when a service failure or
degradation is detected.

Assign contact groups who are responsible for specific services in specific time frames.
10.2 Central management and setting up SDT for Nagios
The Black Box Nagios solution has three parts: the Central Nagios server, Distributed Black Box console
servers, and the SDT for Nagios software.
Central Nagios server
Distributed console
servers
Central Nagios server



A vanilla Nagios 2.x or 3.x installation (typically on a Linux server) generally running on a blade, PC,
virtual machine, etc. at a central location.
Runs a web server that displays the Nagios GUI.
Imports configuration from distributed console servers using the SDT for Nagios Configuration
Wizard.
Distributed console servers



Black Box console servers.
Serial and network hosts are attached to each console server.
Each runs Nagios plug-ins, NRPE, and NSCA add-ons, but not a full Nagios server.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 135
Clients






Typically a client PC, laptop, etc., running Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X.
Runs SDT Connector client software 1.5.0 or later.
Possibly remote to the central Nagios server or distributed console servers (i.e. a road warrior).
May receive alert emails from the central Nagios server or distributed console servers.
Connects to the central Nagios server web UI to view status of monitored hosts and serial devices.
Uses SDT Connector to connect through the console servers to manage monitored hosts and serial
devices.
SDT Nagios setup involves the following steps:
i.
Install Nagios and the NSCA and NRPE add-ons on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.1—Set
up central Nagios server).
ii.
Configure each Black Box distributed console server for Nagios monitoring, alerting, and SDT
Nagios integration (Section 10.2.2— Set up distributed Black Box servers).
iii.
Run the SDT for Nagios Configuration Wizard on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.3— Set
up SDT Nagios on central Nagios server) and perform any additional configuration tasks.
iv.
Install SDT Connector on each client (Section 10.2.4—Set up clients).
10.2.1 Set up central Nagios server
SDT for Nagios requires a central Nagios server running Nagios 2.x or 3.x. Nagios 1.x is not supported.
The Nagios server software is available for most major distributions of Linux using the standard package
management tools. Your distribution will have documentation available on how to install Nagios. This is
usually the quickest and simplest way to get up and running.
Note that you will need the core Nagios server package, and at least one of the NRPE or NSCA add-ons.
NSCA is required to use the alerting features of the Black Box distributed hosts, installing both NRPE and
NSCA is recommended.
You will also require a web server such as Apache to display the Nagios web UI (and this may be installed
automatically depending on the Nagios packages).
Or, you may wish to download the Nagios source code directly from the Nagios website, and build and
install the software from scratch. The Nagios website (http://www.nagios.org) has several Quick Start
Guides that walk through this process.
Once you are able to browse to your Nagios server and see its web UI and the local services it monitors
by default, you are ready to continue.
10.2.2 Set up distributed console servers
This section provides a brief walkthrough on configuring a single console server to monitor the status of
one attached network host (a Windows IIS server running HTTP and HTTPS services) and one serially
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 136
attached device (the console port of a network router), and to send alerts back to the Nagios server
when an Administrator connects to the router or IIS server.
This walkthrough provides an example, but details of the configuration options are described in the next
section. This walkthrough also assumes the network host and serial devices are already physically
connected to the console server. The first step is to set up the Nagios features on the console server:
 Browse the Black Box console server and select System: Nagios on the console server
Management Console. Check Nagios service Enabled.
 Enter the Host Name and the Nagios Host Address (for example, IP address) that the central
Nagios server will use to contact the distributed Black Box console server.
 Enter the IP address that the distributed Black Box console server will use to contact the central
Nagios server in Nagios Server Address.
 Enter the IP address that the clients running SDT Connector will use to connect through the
distributed Black Box servers in SDT Gateway address.
 Check Prefer NRPE, NRPE Enabled, and NRPE Command Arguments.
 Check NSCA Enabled, choose an NSCA Encryption Method and enter and confirm an NSCA
Secret. Remember these details because you will need them later on. For NSCA Interval, enter:
5
 Click Apply.
Next, you must configure the attached Window network host and specify the services you will be
checking with Nagios (HTTP and HTTPS):
 Select Network Hosts from the Serial & Network menu and click Add Host.
 Enter the IP Address/DNS Name of the network server, for example: 192.168.1.10 and enter a
Description, for example: Windows 2003 IIS Server.
 Remove all Permitted Services. This server will be accessible using Terminal Services, so check
TCP, Port 3389 and log level 1 and click Add. Remove and re-add the service to enable logging.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 137
 Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.
 Click New Check and select Check Ping. Click check-host-alive.
 Click New Check and select Check Permitted TCP. Select Port 3389
 Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 80.
 Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 443.
 Click Apply.
Similarly, you now must configure the serial port to the router to be monitored by Nagios:
 Select Serial Port from the Serial & Network menu.
 Locate the serial port that has the router console port attached and click Edit.
 Make sure the serial port settings under Common Settings are correct and match the attached
router’s console port.
 Click Console server Mode, and select Logging Level 1.
 Check Telnet (SSH access is not required, as SDT Connector is used to secure the otherwise
insecure Telnet connection).
 Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.
 Check Port Log and Serial Status.
 Click Apply.
Now you can set the console server to send alerts to the Nagios server:
 Select Alerts from the Alerts & Logging menu and click Add Alert.
 In Description enter: Administrator connection.
 Check Nagios (NSCA).
 In Applicable Ports check the serial port that has the router console port attached. In
Applicable Hosts check the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server.
 Click Connection Alert.
 Click Apply.
Finally, you need to add a User for the client running SDT Connector:
 Select Users & Groups from the Serial & Network menu.
 Click Add User.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 138
 In Username, enter: sdtnagiosuser, then enter and confirm a Password.
 In Accessible Hosts click the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server, and in Accessible Ports click
the serial port that has the router console port attached.
 Click Apply.
10.3 Configuring Nagios distributed monitoring
To activate the console server Nagios distributed monitoring:

Nagios integration must be enabled and a path established to the central/upstream Nagios server.

If the console server is to periodically report on Nagios monitored services, then the NSCA client
embedded in the console server must be configured—the NSCA program enables scheduled checkins with the remote Nagios server and is used to send passive check results across the network to
the remote server.

If the Nagios server is to actively request status updates from the console server, then the NRPE
server embedded in the console server must be configured— the NRPE server is the Nagios daemon
for executing plug-ins on remote hosts.

Each of the Serial Ports and each of the Hosts connected to the console server that you want to
monitor must have Nagios enabled and any specific Nagios checks configured.

Configure the central/upstream Nagios monitoring host.
10.3.1 Enable Nagios on the console server
 Select System: Nagios on the console server Management Console and tick the Nagios service
Enabled.
 Enter the Nagios Host Name that the Console server will be referred to in the Nagios central
server—this will be generated from local System Name (entered in System: Administration) if
unspecified.
 In Nagios Host Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the upstream Nagios server will
use to reach the console server— if unspecified this will default to the first network port’s IP
(Network (1) as entered in System: IP).
 In Nagios Server Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the console server will use to
reach the upstream Nagios monitoring server.
 Check the Disable SDT Nagios Extensions option if you want to disable the SDT Connector
integration with your Nagios server at the head end— this would only be checked if you want to
run a vanilla Nagios monitoring.
 If not, enter the IP address or DNS name that the SDT Nagios clients will use to reach the console
server in SDT Gateway Address.
 When NRPE and NSCA are both enabled, NSCA is preferred method for communicating with the
upstream Nagios server— check Prefer NRPE to use NRPE whenever possible (that is, for all
communication except for alerts).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 139
10.3.2 Enable NRPE monitoring
Tunneled
SSH
Nagios
check_serial
check_nrpe
Serial
NRPE
check_tcp
Nagios monitoring host
Network
Remote Console Server
Remote managed
devices
Enabling NRPE allows you to execute plug-ins (such as check_tcp and check_ping) on the remote Console
server to monitor serial or network attached remote servers. This will offload CPU load from the
upstream Nagios monitoring machine. This is especially valuable if you are monitoring hundreds or
thousands of hosts. To enable NRPE:

Select System: Nagios and check NRPE Enabled

Enter the details for the user connection to the upstream Nagios monitoring server and again
refer to the sample Nagios configuration example below for details about how to configure
specific NRPE checks.
By default, the console server will accept a connection between the upstream Nagios monitoring server
and the NRPE server with SSL encryption, without SSL, or tunneled through SSH. The security for the
connection is configured at the Nagios server.
10.3.3 Enable NSCA monitoring
Nagios
External
command
file
Tunneled
SSH
NSCA
send_nsca
Nagios monitoring host
Program/
script
Remote Console Server
Remote Managed devices
NSCA is the mechanism that allows you to send passive check results from the remote console server to
the Nagios daemon running on the monitoring server. To enable NSCA:
 Select System: Nagios and check NSCA Enabled.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 140
 Select the Encryption to be used from the drop down menu, then enter a Secret password and
specify a check Interval.
 Refer to the sample Nagios configuration section below for some examples of configuring
specific NSCA checks.
10.3.4 Configure Selected Serial Ports for Nagios Monitoring
The individual Serial Ports connected to the console server to be monitored must be configured for
Nagios checks. Refer to Chapter 4.4—Network Host Configuration for details on enabling Nagios
monitoring for Hosts that are network connected to the console server. To enable Nagios to monitor a
device connected to the console server serial port:
 Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and click Edit on the serial Port # you want to monitor.
 Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device on the upstream server and determine the
check you want to run on this port. Serial Status monitors the handshaking lines on the serial
port and Check Port monitors the data logged for the serial port.
10.3.5 Configure Selected Network Hosts for Nagios Monitoring
The individual Network Hosts connected to the console server that you want to monitor must also be
configured for Nagios checks:
 Select Serial & Network: Network Port and click Edit on the Network Host you want to monitor.
 Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device as it will appear on the upstream Nagios
server.
 Click New Check to add a specific check which will be run on this host.
 Select Check Permitted TCP/UDP to monitor a service that you have previously added as a
Permitted Service.
 Select Check TCP/UDP to specify a service port that you want to monitor, without allowing
external (SDT Connector) access.
 Select Check TCP to monitor.

The Nagios Check nominated as the check-host-alive check is the check used to determine
whether the network host itself is up or down.
 Typically this will be Check Ping—although in some cases the host will be configured not to
respond to pings.
 If no check-host-alive check is selected, the host will always be assumed to be up.
 You may deselect check-host-alive by clicking Clear check-host-alive.
 If required, customize the selected Nagios Checks to use custom arguments.
 Click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 141
10.3.6 Configure the upstream Nagios monitoring host
Refer to the Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) for configuring the upstream server:
 The section entitled Distributed Monitoring steps through what you need to do to configure
NSCA on the upstream server (under Central Server Configuration).
 NRPE Documentation was recently added that steps through configuring NRPE on the upstream
server http://nagios.sourceforge.net/docs/nrpe/NRPE.pdf.
At this stage, Nagios at the upstream monitoring server is configured, and individual serial port and
network host connections on the console server are configured for Nagios monitoring. If NSCA is
enabled, each selected check will be executed once over the period of the check interval. If NRPE is
enabled, then the upstream server will be able to request status updates under its own scheduling.
10.4 Advanced Distributed Monitoring Configuration
10.4.1 Sample Nagios configuration
An example configuration for Nagios is listed below. It shows how to set up a remote Console server to
monitor a single host, with both network and serial connections. For each check it has two
configurations, one each for NRPE and NSCA. In practice, these would be combined into a single check
which used NSCA as a primary method, falling back to NRPE if a check was late— for details see the
Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) on Service and Host Freshness Checks.
; Host definitions
;
; Black Box console server
define host{
use
generic-host
host_name
Black Box
alias
Console server
address
192.168.254.147
}
; Managed Host
define host{
use
host_name
alias
address
}
generic-host
server
server
192.168.254.227
; NRPE daemon on gateway
define command {
command_name
check_nrpe_daemon
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666
}
define service {
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 142
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
NRPE Daemon
Black Box
generic-service
check_nrpe_daemon
; Serial Status
define command {
command_name
check_serial_status
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c check_serial_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
Serial Status
server
generic-service
check_serial_status
define service {
service_description
serial-signals-server
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_serial_status
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Serial Status
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
; Port Log
define command{
command_name check_port_log
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c port_log_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
Port Log
server
generic-service
check_port_log
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 143
}
define service {
service_description
port-log-server
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_port_log
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Port Log
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
; Ping
define command{
command_name check_ping_via_Black Box
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c host_ping_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
Host Ping
server
generic-service
check_ping_via_Black Box
define service {
service_description
host-ping-server
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_ping_via_Black Box
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Host Ping
NRPE Daemon
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 144
execution_failure_criteria
}
w,u,c
; SSH Port
define command{
command_name check_conn_via_Black Box
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c
host_$HOSTNAME$_$ARG1$_$ARG2$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
SSH Port
server
generic-service
check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22
define service {
service_description
host-port-tcp-22-server
; host-port-<protocol>-<port>-<host>
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
SSH Port
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
10.4.2 Basic Nagios plug-ins
Plug-ins are compiled executables or scripts that can be scheduled to run on the console server to check
the status of a connected host or service. This status is then communicated to the upstream Nagios
server that uses the results to monitor the current status of the distributed network. Each console server
is preconfigured with a selection of the checks that are part of the Nagios plug-ins package:
check_tcp and check_udp are used to check open ports on network hosts
check_ping is used to check network host availability
check_nrpe is used to execute arbitrary plug-ins in other devices
Each console server is preconfigured with two checks that are specific to Black Box:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 145
check_serial_signals is used to monitor the handshaking lines on the serial ports
check_port_log is used to monitor the data logged for a serial port.
10.4.3 Additional plug-ins
Additional Nagios plug-ins (listed below) are available for Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A,
LES1216A, LES1248A:
check_apt
check_by_ssh
check_clamd
check_dig
check_dns
check_dummy
check_fping
check_ftp
check_game
check_hpjd
check_http
check_imap
check_jabber
check_ldap
check_load
check_mrtg
check_mrtgtraf
check_nagios
check_nntp
check_nntps
check_nt
check_ntp
check_nwstat
check_overcr
check_ping
check_pop
check_procs
check_real
check_simap
check_smtp
check_snmp
check_spop
check_ssh
check_ssmtp
check_swap
check_tcp
check_time
check_udp
check_ups
check_user
You can download these plug-ins from the Nagios plug-ins package from www.blackbox.com.
You can also download and run bash scripts (primarily check_log.sh).
 To configure additional checks, save the downloaded plug-in program in the tftp addins
directory on the USB flash and save the downloaded text plug-in file in /etc/config
 To enable these new additional checks, select Seria l& Network: Network Port, then Edit the
Network Host you want to monitor, and select New Checks. The additional check option is
included in the updated Nagios Checks list, and you can again customize the arguments.
10.4.4 Number of supported devices
Ultimately the number of devices that by any particular console server can support depends upon the
number of checks made, and how often they are performed. Access method will also play a part. The
table below shows the performance of three of the console servers:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 146
Time
No
encryption
3DES
SSH tunnel
NSCA for single check
~ ½ second
~ ½ second
~ ½ second
NSCA for 100 sequential checks
100 seconds
100 seconds
100 seconds
NSCA for 10 sequential checks, batched upload
1 ½ seconds
2 seconds
1 second
NSCA for 100 sequential checks, batched upload
7 seconds
11 seconds
6 seconds
No
encryption
SSL
no encryption tunneled over
existing SSH session
NRPE time to service 1 check
1/10th second
1/3rd second
1/8th second
NRPE time to service 10
simultaneous checks
1 second
3 seconds
1 ¼ seconds
Maximum number of simultaneous
checks before timeouts
30
20 (1,2 and 8) or
25 (16 and 48 port)
25 (8 port), 35 (16
and 48 port)
The results were from running tests 5 times in succession with no timeouts on any runs. There are a
number of ways to increase the number of checks you can do.
Usually when using NRPE checks, an individual request will need to set up and tear down an SSL
connection. This overhead can be avoided by setting up an SSH session to the console server and
tunneling the NRPE port. This allows the NRPE daemon to run securely without SSL encryption, because
SSH will provide the security.
When the console server submits NSCA results, it staggers them over a certain time period (for example,
20 checks over 10 minutes will result in two check results every minute). Staggering the results like this
means that if the power fails or other incident causes multiple problems, the individual freshness checks
will be staggered too.
NSCA checks are also batched. In the previous example, the two checks per minute are sent through in a
single transaction.
10.4.5 Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios
Below are a number of distributed monitoring Nagios scenarios:
I.
Local office
In this scenario, the console server is set up to monitor each managed device’s console. Configure it
to make a number of checks, either actively at the Nagios server's request, or passively at preset
intervals, and submit the results to the Nagios server in a batch.
You can augment the console server at the local office site by one or more Intelligent Power
Distribution Units (IPDUs) to remotely control the power supply to the managed devices.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 147
PC running
NAGIOS
Network checks over Ethernet
Serial checks over RS-232
Power monitoring and
manipulation via IPDU
Console
Server
Hosts
I
P
D
U
II.
Remote site
In this scenario, configure the console server NRPE server or NSCA client to actively check configured
services and upload the checks to the Nagios server that’s waiting passively. You can also configure
it to service NRPE commands to perform checks on demand.
In this situation, the console server will perform checks based on both serial and network access.
Modem
Internet
Network checks over Internet
Serial checks over RS-232
Results updated to Nagios via
NSCA
Firewall
Outgoing connections only
Modem
Console
Server
Remote site with restrictive firewall
In this scenario, the role of the console server will vary. One aspect may be to upload check results
through NSCA. Another may be to provide an SSH tunnel to allow the Nagios server to run NRPE
commands.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 148
PC running
NAGIOS
SSH travel initiated for remote site
NRPE server at branch server‘s request
Internet
Console
server
Remote site with no network access
In this scenario the console server allows dial-in access for the Nagios server. Periodically, the Nagios
server will establish a connection to the console server and execute any NRPE commands, before
dropping the connection.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 149
Chapter 11
System Management
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Introduction
This chapter describes how the Administrator can perform a range of general console server system
administration and configuration tasks such as:

Applying Soft and Hard Resets to the gateway.

Re-flashing the Firmware.

Configuring the Date, Time and NTP.

Setting up Backup of the configuration files.
System administration and configuration tasks that are covered elsewhere include:

Resetting the System Password and entering a new System Name and Description (Chapter
3.2).

Setting the System IP Address (Chapter 3.3).

Setting the permitted Services by which to access the gateway (Chapter 3.4).

Setting up OoB Dial-in (Chapter 5).

Configuring the Dashboard (Chapter 12).
11.1 System Administration and Reset
The Administrator can reboot or reset the gateway to default settings.
A soft reset is affected by:
 Selecting Reboot in the System: Administration menu and clicking Apply.
The console server reboots with all settings (for example, the assigned network IP address) preserved.
This soft reset disconnects all users and ends any established SSH sessions.
A soft reset will also occur when you switch OFF power from the console server, and then switch the
power back ON. If you cycle the power and the unit is writing to flash, you could corrupt or lose data, so
rebooting the software is the safer option.
A hard erase (hard reset) is performed by:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 150
 Pushing the Erase button on the rear panel twice. A ball-point pen or bent paper clip is a
suitable tool for this procedure. Do not use a graphite pencil. Press the button gently twice
(within a couple of seconds) while the unit is powered ON.
This will reset the console server back to its factory default settings and clear the console server’s stored
configuration information.
The hard erase will clear all custom settings and
return the unit back to factory default settings (i.e.
the IP address will be reset to 192.168.0.1).
You will be prompted to log in and must enter the
default administration username and
administration password:
Username: root
Password: default
11.2 Upgrade Firmware
Before upgrading, make sure you are already running the most current firmware in your gateway. Your
console server will not allow you to upgrade to the same or an earlier version.
 The Firmware version is displayed in each page’s header.
 Or select Status: Support Report and note the Firmware Version.
 To upgrade, you first must download the latest firmware image from the Black Box.web site.
 Save this downloaded firmware image file to a system on the same subnet as the console server.
 Download and read the release_notes.txt for the latest information.
 To upload the firmware image file to your console server, select System: Firmware.
 Specify the address and name of the downloaded Firmware Upgrade File, or Browse the local
subnet and locate the downloaded file.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 151
 Click Apply and the console server appliance will perform a soft reboot and start upgrading the
firmware. This process will take several minutes.
 After the firmware upgrade completes, click here to return to the Management Console. Your
console server will have retained all its pre-upgrade configuration information.
11.3 Configure Date and Time
We recommend that you set the local Date and Time in the console server as soon as it is configured.
Features like Syslog and NFS logging use the system time for time-stamping log entries, while certificate
generation depends on a correct Timestamp to check the validity period of the certificate.
 Select the System: Date & Time menu option.
 Manually set the Year, Month, Day, Hour and Minute using the Date and Time selection boxes,
then click Apply.
The gateway can synchronize its system time with a remote time server using the Network Time
Protocol (NTP). Configuring the NTP time server ensures that the console server clock will be accurate
soon after the Internet connection is established. Also if NTP is not used, the system clock will reset
randomly every time the console server is powered up. To set the system time using NTP:
 Select the Enable NTP checkbox on the Network Time Protocol page.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 152
 Enter the IP address of the remote NTP Server and click Apply.
You must now also specify your local time zone so the system clock can show local time (and not UTP):
 Set your appropriate region/locality in the Time Zone selection box and click Apply.
11.4 Configuration Backup
We recommend that you back up the console server configuration whenever you make significant
changes (such as adding new Users or Managed Devices) or before performing a firmware upgrade.
 Select the System: Configuration Backup menu option or click the
icon.
Note You can also back up the configuration files from the command line (refer to Chapter 14).
With all console servers, you can save the backup file remotely on your PC and you can restore
configurations from remote locations:
 Click Save Backup in the Remote Configuration Backup menu.
 The config backup file (System Name_date_config.opg) will be downloaded to your PC and
saved in the location you nominate.
To restore a remote backup:
 Click Browse in the Remote Configuration Backup menu and select the Backup File you want to
restore.
 Click Restore and click OK. This will overwrite all the current configuration settings in your
console server.
With Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A, LES1216A, LES1248A), you can save the backup file locally
on the console server USB storage. To do this you must have an external USB flash drive installed.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 153
To backup and restore using USB:
 Make sure the USB flash is the only USB device attached to the console server and click Prepare
Storage in the Local Configuration Backup menu.
 This will set a Volume Label on the USB storage device. This preparation step is only necessary
the first time, and will not affect any other information you have saved onto the USB storage
device. We recommend that you back up any critical data from the USB storage device before
using it with your console server.

If there are multiple USB devices installed, you will be warned to remove them.
 To backup to the USB, enter a brief Description of the backup in the Local Configuration Backups
menu and select Save Backup.
 The Local Configuration Backup menu will display all the configuration backup files you have
stored onto the USB flash.
 To restore a backup from the USB simply select Restore on the particular backup you wish to
restore and click Apply.
After saving a local configuration backup, you may choose to use it as the alternate default
configuration. When the console server is reset to factory defaults, it will then load your alternate
default configuration instead of its factory settings:
 To set an alternate default configuration, check Load On Erase and click Apply.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 154
Note: Before selecting Load On Erase, make sure that you have tested your alternate default
configuration by clicking Restore.
If your alternate default configuration causes the console server to not boot, recover your unit to
factory settings using the following steps:
-
If the configuration is stored on an external USB storage device, unplug the storage device
and reset to factory defaults as per section 11.1 of the user manual.
-
If the configuration is stored on an internal USB storage device, reset it to factory defaults
using a specially prepared USB storage device:
o The USB storage device must be formatted with a Windows FAT32/VFAT file system
on the first partition or the entire disk; most USB thumb drives are already formatted
this way.
o The file system must have the volume label: OPG_DEFAULT.
o Insert this USB storage device into an external USB port on the console server and
reset to factory defaults as described in Section 11.1.
- After recovering your console server, make sure the problem configuration is no longer selected
for Load On Erase.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 155
Chapter 12
Status Reports
STATUS REPORTS
Introduction
This chapter describes the dashboard feature and the status reports that are available:

Port Access and Active Users

Statistics

Support Reports

Syslog

Dashboard
Other status reports that are covered elsewhere include:

UPS Status (Chapter 8.2)

RPC Status (Chapter 8.1)

Environmental Status (Chapter 8.3)
12.1 Port Access and Active Users
The Administrator can see which Users have access privileges with which serial ports:
 Select the Status: Port Access
The Administrator can also see the current status as to Users who have active sessions on those ports:
 Select the Status: Active Users
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 156
12.2 Statistics
The Statistics report provides a snapshot of the status, current traffic, and other activities and
operations of your console server:
 Select the Status: Statistics
 You can find detailed statistics reports by selecting the various submenus.
12.3 Support Reports
The Support Report provides useful status information that will assist the Black Box Technical Support
team to solve any problems you may experience with your console server.
If you do experience a problem and have to contact tech support, make sure you include the Support
Report with your email support request. The Support Report is generated when the issue is occurring,
and is attached in plain text format.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 157
 Select Status: Support Report and you will be presented with a status snapshot.
 Save the file as a text file and attach it to your support email.
12.4 Syslog
The Linux System Logger in the console server maintains a record of all system messages and errors:
 Select Status: Syslog
You can redirect the syslog record to a remote Syslog Server:
 Enter the remote Syslog Server Address and Syslog Server Port details and click Apply.
The console maintains a local Syslog. To view the local Syslog file:
 Select Status: Syslog
To make it easier to find information in the local Syslog file, use the provided pattern matching filter
tool.
 Specify the Match Pattern that you want to search for (for example, the search for mount is
shown below) and click Apply. The Syslog will then be represented with only those entries that
actually include the specified pattern.
12.5 Dashboard
The Dashboard provides the Administrator with a summary of the status of the console server and its
Managed Devices. You can configure custom dashboards for each user group.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 158
12.5.1 Configuring the Dashboard
Only users who are members of the admin group (and the root user) can configure and access the
dashboard. To configure a custom dashboard:
 Select System: Configure Dashboard and select the user (or group) you are configuring this
custom dashboard layout for.
 Click Next.
Note: You can configure a custom dashboard for any admin user or for the admin group or you can
reconfigure the default dashboard.
The Status:Dashboard screen is the first screen displayed when admin users (other than root) log
into the console manager. If you log in as ―John,‖ and John is member of the admin group and
there is a dashboard layout configured for John, then you will see the dashboard for John upon
log-in and each time you click on the Status:Dashboard menu item.
If there is no dashboard layout configured for John, but there is an admin group dashboard
configured, then you will see the admin group dashboard instead. If there is no user dashboard or
admin group dashboard configured, then you will see the default dashboard.
The root user does not have its own dashboard.
Use the above configuration options to enable admin users to setup their own custom
dashboards.
The Dashboard displays six widgets. These widgets include each of the Status screens (alerts, devices,
ports ups, rpc, and environmental status) and a custom script screen. The admin user can configure
which of these widget is to be displayed where:
 Go to the Dashboard layout panel and select which widget is to be displayed in each of the six
display locations (widget1 …6).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 159
 Click Apply.
Note: The Alerts widget is a new screen that shows the current alerts status. When an alert gets
triggered, a corresponding .XML file is created in /var/run/alerts/. The dashboard scans all these files and
displays a summary status in the alerts widget. When an alert is deleted, the corresponding .XML files
that belong to that alert are also deleted.
To configure what is to be displayed by each widget:
 Go to the Configure widgets panel and configure each selected widget (for example, specify
which UPS status is to be displayed on the ups widget or the maximum number of Managed
Devices to be displayed in the devices widget.
 Click Apply.
Note: Dashboard configuration is stored in the /etc/config/config.xml file. Each configured dashboard
will increase the config file. If this file gets too big, you can run out of memory space on the
console manager.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 160
12.5.2 Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard
T o run a custom script inside a dashboard widget:
Create a file called "widget-<name>.sh" in the folder /etc/config/scripts/ where <name> can be
anything. You can have as many custom dashboard files as you want.
Inside this file you can put any code you want. When configuring the dashboard, choose "widget<name>.sh" in the dropdown list. The dashboard will run the script and display the output of the script
commands directly on the screen, inside the specific widget.
The best way to format the output would be to send HTML commands back to the browser by adding
echo commands in the script:
echo '<table>'
You can of course run any command and its output will be displayed in the widget window directly.
Below is an example script that writes the current date to a file, and then echos HTML code back to the
browser. The HTML code gets an image from a specific URL and displays it in the widget.
#!/bin/sh
date >> /tmp/test
echo '<table>'
echo '<tr><td> This is my custom script running </td></tr>'
echo '<tr><td>'
echo '<img src="http://www.vinras.com/images/linux-online-inc.jpg">'
echo '</td></tr>'
echo '</table>'
exit 0
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 161
Chapter 13
Management
MANAGEMENT
Introduction
The console server has a small number of Manage reports and tools that are available to both
Administrators and Users:

Access and control authorized devices.

View serial port logs and host logs for those devices.

Use SDT Connector or the java terminal to access serially attached consoles.

Control power devices (where authorized).
All other Management Console menu items are available to Administrators only.
13.1 Device Management
To display the Managed Devices and their associated serial, network, and power connections:
 Select Manage: Devices. The Administrator will be presented with a list of all configured
Managed Devices, whereas the User will only see the Managed Devices they (or their Group) has
been given access privileges for.
 Select Serial Network or Power for a view of the specific connections. The user can then take a
range of actions using these serial, network or power connections by selecting the Action icon
or the related Manage menu item. (For example, selecting the Manager Power icon [or Manage:
Power from the menu] would enable the user to power Off/On/Cycle any power outlet on any
PDU the user has been given access privileges to [refer to Chapter 8 for details]).
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 162
13.2 Port and Host Logs
Administrators and Users can view logs of data transfers to connected devices.
 Select Manage: Port Logs and the serial Port # to be displayed.
 To display Host logs, select Manage: Host Logs and the Host to be displayed.
13.3 Serial Port Terminal Connection
Administrator and Users can communicate directly with the console server command line and with
devices attached to the console server serial ports using SDT Connector and their local tenet client, or
use a java terminal in their browser.
 Select Manage: Terminal.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 163
 Click Connect to SDT Connector to access the console server’s command line shell or the serial
ports via SDT Connector. This will to activate the SDT Connector client on the computer you are
browsing from and load your local telnet client to connect to the command line or serial port
using SSH.
Note You must install SDT Connector on the computer you are browsing from and add and the
console server as a gateway as detailed in Chapter 6.
The alternate to using SDT Connector and your local telnet client is to run the open source jcterm java
terminal applet into your browser to connect to the console server and attached serial port devices.
jcterm does have some JRE compatibility issues that may prevent it from loading.
 Select Manage: Terminal. The jcterm java applet is downloaded from the console server to your
browser and the virtual terminal will be displayed.
 Select File -> Open SHELL Session from the jcterm menu to access the command line using SSH.
 To access the console server’s command line, enter its TCP address (e.g. 192.168.254.198) as
hostname and the Username, for example, [email protected] Then enter the Password.
 To access the console server's serial ports, append :serial to the username. With the gateway’s
TCP address (for example, 192.168.254.198), the Username (for example, root), enter
root:[email protected] Then enter Password and select the TCP Port address for the
serial port to be accessed. By default 3001 is selected (that is, Port 1). To access Port 4 for
example, change this to 3004 for the Username.
13.4 Power Management
Administrators and Users can access and manage the connected power devices.
 Select Manage: Power
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 164
Chapter 14
Command Line Configuration
CONFIGURATION FROM THE COMMAND LINE
Introduction
For those who prefer to configure their console server at the Linux command line level (rather than use a
browser and the Management Console), this chapter describes how to use command line access and the
config tool to manage the console server and configure the ports, etc.
This config documentation in this chapter walks through command line configuration to deliver the
functions provided using the Management Console GUI.
For advanced and custom configurations and for details using other tools and commands, refer to the
next chapter.
When displaying a command, the convention used in the rest of this chapter is to use single quotes ('')
for user-defined values (for example, descriptions and names). Element values without single quotes
must be typed exactly as shown.
After the initial section on accessing the config command, the menu items in this document follow the
same structure as the menu items in the web GUI.
14.1 Accessing config from the command line
The console server runs a standard Linux kernel and embeds a suite of open source applications. If you
do not want to use a browser and the Management Console tools, you can configure the console server
and manage connected devices from the command line using standard Linux and Busybox commands
and applications such as ifconfig, gettyd, stty, powerman, nut etc. Without care, these configurations
may not withstand a power-cycle-reset or reconfigure.
Black Box provides a number of custom command line utilities and scripts to make it simple to configure
the console server and make sure the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc.
In particular, the config utility allows you to manipulate the system configuration from the command
line. With config, you can activate a new configuration by running the relevant configurator, which
performs the action needed to make the configuration changes live.
To access config from the command line:
 Power on the console server and connect the “terminal” device:
o
If you are connecting using the serial line, plug a serial cable between the console server
local DB9 console port and terminal device. Configure the serial connection of the terminal
device you are using to 115200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, and one stop bit.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 165
o
If you are connecting over the LAN, then you will need to interconnect the Ethernet ports
and direct your terminal emulator program to the IP address of the console server
(192.168.0.1 by default).
 Log on to the console server by pressing “return” a few times. The console server will request a
username and password. Enter the username root and the password default. You should now
see the command line prompt which is a hash (#).
This chapter is not intended to teach you Linux. We assume you already have
a certain level of understanding before you execute Linux kernel level
commands.
The config tool
Syntax
config [ -ahv ] [ -d id ] [ -g id ] [ -p path ] [ -r configurator ] [ -s id=value ] [ -P id ]
Description
The config tool is designed to perform multiple actions from one command if needed, so options can be
chained together.
The config tool allows you to manipulate and query the system configuration from the command line.
Using config, you can activate the new configuration by running the relevant configurator that performs
the action needed to make the configuration changes live.
The custom user configuration is saved in the /etc/config/config.xml file. This file is transparently
accessed and edited when configuring the device using the Management Console browser GUI. Only the
user “root” can configure from the shell.
By default, the config elements are separated by a '.' character. The root of the config tree is called
<config>. To address a specific element place a '.' between each node/branch e.g. to access and display
the description of user1 type:
# config -g config.users.user1.description
The root node of the config tree is <config>. To display the entire config tree, type:
# config -g config
To display the help text for the config command, type:
# config -h
The config application resides in the /bin directory. The environmental variable called PATH contains a
route to the /bin directory. This allows a user to simply type config at the command prompt instead of
the full path /bin/config.
Options
-a –run-all
Run all registered configurators. This performs every configuration
synchronization action pushing all changes to the live system
-h –help
Display a brief usage message
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 166
-v –verbose
Log extra debug information.
-d –del=id
Remove the given configuration element specified by a '.' separated
identifier.
-g –get=id
Display the value of a configuration element.
-p –path=file
Specify an alternate configuration file to use. The default file is located
at /etc/config/config.xml.
-r –run=configurator
Run the specified registered configurator. Registered configurators are
listed below.
-s --set=id=value
Change the value of configuration element specified by a '.' separated
identifier.
-e --export=file
Save active configuration to file.
-i --import=file
Load configuration from file.
-t --test-import=file
Pretend to load configuration from file.
-S --separator=char
The pattern to separate fields with, default is '.'
-P --password=id
Prompt user for a value. Hash the value, then save it in id.
The registered configurators are:
alerts
auth
cascade
console
dhcp
dialin
eventlog
hosts
ipaccess
ipconfig
nagios
power
serialconfig
services
slave
systemsettings
time
ups
users
There are three ways to delete a config element value. The simplest way is use the delete-node script
detailed later in Chapter 15. You can also assign the config element to "", or delete the entire config
node using -d:
# /bin/config -d 'element name'
All passwords are saved in plaintext except the user passwords and the system passwords, which are
encrypted.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 167
Note: The config command does not verify whether the nodes edited/added by the user are valid. This
means that any node may be added to the tree. If a user runs the following command:
# /bin/config -s config.fruit.apple=sweet
The configurator will not complain, but this command is useless. When the configurators are run
(to turn the config.xml file into live config) they will simply ignore this <fruit> node. Administrators
must make sure of the spelling when typing config commands. Incorrect spelling for a node will
not be flagged.
Most configurations made to the XML file will be immediately active. To make sure that all configuration
changes are active, especially when editing user passwords, run all the configurators:
# /bin/config -a
For information on backing up and restoring the configuration file, refer to Chapter 15, Advanced
Configuration.
14.2 Serial Port configuration
The first set of configurations you need to make to any serial port are the RS-232 common settings. For
example, setup serial port 5 to use the following properties:
Baud Rate
Parity
Data Bits
Stop Bits
label
log level
protocol
flow control
9600
None
8
1
Myport
0
RS232
None
To do this, use the following commands:
# config -s config.ports.port5.speed=9600
# config -s config.ports.port5.parity=None
# config -s config.ports.port5.charsize=8
# config -s config.ports.port5.stop=1
# config -s config.ports.port5.label=myport
# config -s config.ports.port5.loglevel=0
# config -s config.ports.port5.protocol=RS232
# config -s config.ports.port5.flowcontrol=None
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r serialconfig
Note: Supported serial port baud-rates are ‘50’, ‘75’, ‘110’, ‘134’, ‘150’, ‘200’, ‘300’, ‘600’,
‘1200’, ‘1800’, ‘2400’, ‘4800’, ‘9600’, '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'.
Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'.
Supported data-bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'.
Supported stop-bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'.
Supported flow-control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 168
Additionally, before any port can function properly, you need to set the port mode. Set any port to run
in one of the five possible modes (refer Chapter 4 for details): [Console server mode|Device mode|SDT
mode|Terminal server mode|Serial bridge mode]. All these modes are mutually exclusive.
Console server mode
The command to set the port in portmanager mode:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=portmanager
To set the following optional config elements for this mode:
Data accumulation period
100 ms
Escape character
% (default is ~)
log level
2 (default is 0)
Shell power command menu
Enabled
RFC2217 access
Enabled
Limit pot to 1 connection
Enabled
SSH access
Enabled
TCP access
Enabled
telnet access
Disabled
Unauthorized telnet access
Disabled
# config -s config.ports.port5.delay=100
# config -s config.ports.port5.escapechar=%
# config -s config.ports.port5.loglevel=2
# config -s config.ports.port5.powermenu=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.rfc2217=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.singleconn=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.ssh=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.tcp=on
# config -d config.ports.port5.telnet
# config -d config.ports.port5.unauthtel
Device Mode
For a device mode port, set the port type to ups, rpc, or enviro:
# config -s config.ports.port5.device.type=[ups | rpc | enviro]
For port 5 as a UPS port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved
For port 5 as an RPC port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=powerman
For port 5 as an Environmental port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved
SDT mode
To enable access over SSH to a host connected to serial port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=sdt
# config -s config.ports.port5.sdt.ssh=on
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 169
To configure a username and password when accessing this port with Username = user1 and Password =
secret:
# config -s config.ports.port#.sdt.username=user1
# config -s config.ports.port#.sdt.password=secret
Terminal server mode
Enable a TTY login for a local terminal attached to serial port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=terminal
# config -s config.ports.port5.terminal=[vt220 | vt102 | vt100 | linux | ansi]
The default terminal is vt220.
Serial bridge mode
Create a network connection to a remote serial port via RFC-2217 on port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=bridge
Optional configurations for the network address of RFC-2217 server of 192.168.3.3 and TCP port used by
the RFC-2217 service = 2500:
# config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.address=192.168.3.3
# config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.port=2500
To enable RFC-2217 access: # config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.rfc2217=on
To redirect the serial bridge over an SSH tunnel to the server: # config -s
config.ports.port5.bridge.ssh.enabled=on
Syslog settings
Additionally, the global system log settings can be set for any specific port, in any mode:
# config -s config.ports.port#.syslog.facility='facility'
'facility' can be:
Default
local 0-7
auth
authpriv
cron
daemon
ftp
kern
lpr
mail
news
user
uucp
# config -s config.ports.port#.syslog.priority='priority'
'priority' can be:
Default
warning
notice
Info
error
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 170
emergency
debug
critical
alert
14.3 Adding and Removing Users
First, determine the total number of existing Users (if you have no existing Users you can assume this is
0):
# config -g config.users.total
This command should display config.users.total 1. Note that if you see config.users.total this means you
have 0 Users configured.
Your new User will be the existing total plus 1. If the previous command gave you 0, then you start with
user number 1. If you already have 1 user your new user will be number 2, etc.
To add a user (with Username=John, Password=secret and Description =mySecondUser)
commands:
issue
the
# config -s config.users.total=2 (assuming we already have 1 user configured)
# config -s config.users.user2.username=John
# config -s config.users.user2.description=mySecondUser
# config -P config.users.user2.password
NOTE: The -P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value
of any config element using the -P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords
are supported. If any other element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and
will have to be reset.
To add this user to specific groups (admin/users):
# config -s config.users.user2.groups.group1='groupname'
# config -s config.users.user2.groups.group2='groupname2'
etc...
To give this user access to a specific port:
# config -s config.users.user2.port1=on
# config -s config.users.user2.port2=on
# config -s config.users.user2.port5=on
etc...
To remove port access:
# config -s config.users.user2.port1='' (the value is left blank)
or simply:
# config -d config.users.user2.port1
The port number can be anything from 1 to 48, depending on the available ports on the specific
console server.
For example, assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console server and the RPC is
configured. To give this user access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the 2 commands
below:
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.user2=John
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 171
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total=2 (total number of users that have
access to this outlet)
If more users are given access to this power
'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total' element accordingly.
outlet,
then
increment
the
To give this user access to network host 5 (assuming the host is configured):
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user1=John
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=1 (total number of users having access to host)
To give another user called “Peter” access to the same host:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user2=Peter
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=2 (total number of users having access to host)
To edit any of the user element values, use the same approach as when adding user elements, that is,
use the “-s” parameter. If any of the config elements do not exist, they will automatically be created.
To delete the user called John, use the delete-node script:
# ./delete-node config.users.user2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r users
14.4 Adding and removing user Groups
The console server is configured with a few default user groups (even though only two of these groups
are visible in the Management Console GUI). To find out how many groups are already present:
# config -g config.groups.total
Assume this value is six. Make sure you number any new groups you create from seven and up.
To add a custom group to the configuration with Group name=Group7, Group description=MyGroup and
Port access= 1,5 you’d issue the commands:
# config -s config.groups.group7.name=Group7
# config -s config.groups.group7.description=MyGroup
# config -s config.groups.total=7
# config -s config.groups.group7.port1=on
# config -s config.groups.group7.port5=on
Assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console manager, and the RPC is configured.
To give this group access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the two commands below:
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.group1=Group7
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total=1 (total number of groups that have
access to this outlet)
If more groups are given access to this power outlet,
'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total' element accordingly.
then
increment
the
To give this group access to network host 5:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group1=Group7
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=1 (total number of groups having access to host)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 172
To give another group called 'Group8' access to the same host:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group2=Group8
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=2 (total number of users having access to host)
To delete the group called Group7, use the following command:
# rmuser Group7
Attention: The rmuser script is a generic script to remove any config element from config.xml correctly.
However, any dependencies or references to this group will not be affected. Only the group details are
deleted. The Administrator is responsible for going through config.xml and removing group
dependencies and references manually, specifically if the group had access to a host or RPC device.
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.5 Authentication
To change the type of authentication for the console server:
# config -s config.auth.type='authtype'
'authtype' can be:
Local
LocalTACACS
TACACS
TACACSLocal
TACACSDownLocal
LocalRADIUS
RADIUS
RADIUSLocal
RADIUSDownLocal
LocalLDAP
LDAP
LDAPLocal
LDAPDownLocal
To configure TACACS authentication:
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction
and authorization servers.)
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting
servers. If unset, Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.)
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.password='password'
To configure RADIUS authentication:
# config -s config.auth.radius.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction
and authorization servers.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting
servers. If unset, Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.password='password'
To configure LDAP authentication:
# config -s config.auth.ldap.server='comma separated list' (list of remote servers.)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 173
# config -s config.auth.ldap.basedn='name' (The distinguished name of the search base. For
example: dc=my-company,dc=com)
# config -s config.auth.ldap.binddn='name' (The distinguished name to bind to the server with.
The default is to bind anonymously.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.password='password'
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r auth
14.6 Network Hosts
To determine the total number of currently configured hosts:
# config -g config.sdt.hosts.total
Assume this value is equal to 3. If you add another host, make sure you increment the total number of
hosts from 3 to 4:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.total=4
If the output is config.sdt.hosts.total then assume 0 hosts are configured.
Add power device host
To add a UPS/RPC network host with the following details:
IP address/ DNS name
Host name
Description
Type
Allowed services
Log level for services
192.168.2.5
remoteUPS
UPSroom3
UPS
ssh port 22 and https port 443
0
Issue the commands below:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.2.5
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=remoteUPS
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=UPSroom3
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type=ups
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=0
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2=443
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2.loglevel=0
The loglevel can have a value of 0 or 1.
The default services that you should configure are: 22/tcp (ssh), 23/tcp (telnet), 80/tcp (http), 443/tcp
(https), 1494/tcp (ica), 3389/tcp (rdp), 5900/tcp (vnc)
Add other network host
To add any other type of network host with the following details:
IP address/ DNS name
Host name
Description
Allowed sevices
log level for services
192.168.3.10
OfficePC
MyPC
ssh port 22,https port 443
1
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 174
Issue the commands below. If the Host is not a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power
control, then leave the device type blank:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.3.10
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=MyPC
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=OfficePC
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type='' (leave this value blank)
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=1
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcppport2=443
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcpport2.loglevel=1
If you want to add the new host as a managed device, make sure you use the current total number of
managed devices + 1, for the new device number.
To get the current number of managed devices:
# config -g config.devices.total
Assuming we already have one managed device, our new device will be device 2. Issue the following
commands:
# config -s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.name=192.168.3.10
# config -s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.type=Host
# config -s config. devices.device2.name=OfficePC
# config -s config. devices.device2.description=MyPC
# config -s config.devices.total=2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -hosts
14.7 Trusted Networks
You can further restrict remote access to serial ports based on the source IP address. To configure this
via the command line, you need to do the following:
Determine the total number of existing trusted network rules. If you have no existing rules, you can
assume this is 0.
# config -g config.portaccess.total
This command should display config.portaccess.total 1
Note that if you see config.portaccess.total this means you have 0 rules configured.
Your new rule will be the existing total plus 1. So if the previous command gave you 0, then you start
with rule number 1. If you already have 1 rule your new rule will be number 2, etc.
If you want to restrict access to serial port 5 to computers from a single class C network (192.168.5.0 for
example), you need to issue the following commands (assuming you have a previous rule in place).
Add a trusted network:
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.address=192.168.5.0
# config -s "config.portaccess.rule2.description=foo bar"
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.netmask=255.255.255.0
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.port5=on
# config -s config.portaccess.total=2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 175
# config -r serialconfig
14.8 Cascaded Ports
To add a new slave device with the following settings:
IP address/DNS name
Description
Label
Number of ports
192.168.0.153
Console in office 42
les1116-5
16
The following commands must be issued:
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.address=192.168.0.153
# config -s "config.cascade.slaves.slave1.description=CM in office 42"
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.label=les1116-5
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.ports=16
The total number of slaves must also be incremented. If this is the first slave you’re adding, type:
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.total=1
Increment this value when adding more slaves.
NOTE: If a slave is added using the CLI, then the master SSH public key will need to be manually copied
to every slave device before cascaded ports will work (refer Chapter 4).
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r cascade
14.9 UPS Connections
Managed UPSes
Before adding a managed UPS, make sure that at least 1 port has been configured to run in 'device
mode', and that the device is set to 'ups'.
To add a managed UPS with the following values:
Connected via
UPS name
Description
Username to connect to UPS
Password to connect to UPS
shutdown order
Driver
Driver option - option
Driver option - argument
Logging
Log interval
Run script when power is critical
Port 1
My UPS
UPS in room 5
User2
secret
2 (0 shuts down first)
genericups
option
argument
Enabled
2 minutes
Enabled
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port01
If the port number is higher than 9, eg port 13, enter:
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port13
# config -s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.name=My UPS"
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 176
# config -s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.description=UPS in room 5"
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.username=User2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.password=secret
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.sdorder=2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.driver=genericups
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.opt=option
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.arg=argument
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.total=1
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.interval=2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.script.enabled=on
Make sure to increment the total monitors:
# config -s config.ups.monitors.total=1
The five commands below will add the UPS to Managed devices. Assuming there are already two
managed devices configured:
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=My UPS"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=UPS Unit"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.name=My UPS"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.description=UPS in toom 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=3
To delete this managed UPS:
# config -d config.ups.monitors.monitor1
Decrement monitors.total when deleting a managed UPS.
Remote UPSes
To add a remote UPS with the following details (assuming this is our first remote UPS):
UPS name
Description
Address
Log status
Log rate
Run shutdown script
oldUPS
UPS in room 2
192.168.50.50
Disabled
240 seconds
Enabled
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.name=oldUPS
# config -s "config.ups.remotes.remote1.description=UPS in room 2"
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.address=192.168.50.50
# config -d config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.enabled
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.interval=240
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.script.enabled=on
# config -s config.ups.remotes.total=1
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.10 RPC Connections
You can add an RPC connection from the command line. We do not recommend that you do this
because of dependency issues.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 177
However FYI before adding an RPC the Management Console GUI code makes sure that at least one port
has been configured to run in 'device mode', and that the device is set to 'rpc'.
To add an RPC with the following values:
RPC type
Connected via
UPS name
Description
Login name for device
Login password for device
SNMP community
Logging
Log interval
Number of power outlets
APC 7900
Port 2
MyRPC
RPC in room 5
rpclogin
secret
v1 or v2c
Enabled
600 second
4 (depends on the type/model of the RPC)
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.type=APC 7900
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.name=MyRPC
# config -s "config.ports.port2.power.description=RPC in room 5"
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.username=rpclogin
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.password=secret
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.snmp.community=v1
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.log.interval=600
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.outlets=4
The following five commands are used by the Management Console to add the RPC to “Managed
Devices”:
# config -s config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=myRPC
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=RPC Unit"
# config -s config.devices.device3.name=myRPC
# config -s "config.devices.device3.description=RPC in room 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=3
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.11 Environmental
To configure an environmental monitor with the following details:
Monitor name
Monitor Description
Temperature offset
Humidity offset
Enable alarm 1 ?
Alarm 1 label
Enable alarm 2 ?
Alarm 2 label
Logging enabled ?
Log interval
Envi4
Monitor in room 5
2
5
yes
door alarm
yes
window alarm
yes
120 seconds
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.name=Envi4
# config -s "config.ports.port3.enviro.description=Monitor in room 5"
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 178
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.temp=2
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.humid=5
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.alarmstate=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.label=door alarm
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.alarmstate=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.label=window alarm
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.total=2
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.interval=120
Assign alarms.total=2 even if they are off.
The following 5 commands will add the environmental monitor to “Managed devices”:
To get the total number of managed devices:
# config -g config.devices.total
Make sure you use the total + 1 for the new device below:
# config -s config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.name=Envi4
# config -s "config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.type=EMD Unit"
# config -s config. devices.device5.name=Envi4
# config -s "config. devices.device5.description=Monitor in room 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=5
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.12 Managed Devices
To add a managed device: (also see UPS, RPC connections and Environmental)
# config -s "config.devices.device8.name=my device"
# config -s "config.devices.device8.description=The eighth device"
# config -s "config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.name=my device"
# config -s config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.type=[serial | Host | UPS | RPC]
# config -s config.devices.total=8
(decrement this value when deleting a managed device)
To delete the above managed device:
# config -d config.devices.device8
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.13 Port Log
To configure serial/network port logging:
# config -s config.eventlog.server.address='remote server ip address'
# config -s config.eventlog.server.logfacility='facility'
'facility' can be:
Daemon
Local 0-7
Authentication
Kernel
User
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 179
Syslog
Mail
News
UUCP
# config -s config.eventlog.server.logpriority='priority'
'priority' can be:
Info
Alert
Critical
Debug
Emergency
Error
Notice
Warning
Assume the remote log server needs a username 'name1' and password 'secret':
# config -s config.eventlog.server.username=name1
# config -s config.eventlog.server.password=secret
To set the remote path as '/Black Box/logs' to save logged data:
# config -s config.eventlog.server.path=/Black Box/logs
# config -s config.eventlog.server.type=[none | syslog | nfs | cifs | usb]
If the server type is set to usb, none of the other values need to be set. The mount point for storing on a
remote USB device is /var/run/portmanager/logdir
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.14 Alerts
You can add an email, SNMP or NAGIOS alert by following the steps below.
The general settings for all alerts
Assume this is our second alert, and we want to send alert emails to [email protected] Box.com and sms's to
[email protected] Box.com:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.description=MySecondAlert
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
To use NAGIOS to notify of this alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.nsca.enabled=on
To use SNMP to notify of this alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.snmp.enabled=on
Increment the total alerts:
# config -s config.alerts.total=2
Below are the specific settings depending on the type of alert required:
Connection Alert
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 180
To trigger an alert when a user connects to serial port 5 or network host 3:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.host3='host name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port5=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=login
Signal Alert
To trigger an alert when a signal changes state on port 1:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port1=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=[ DSR | DCD | CTS ]
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=signal
Pattern Match Alert
To trigger an alert if the regular expression '.*0.0% id' is found in serial port 10's character stream.
# config -s "config.alerts.alert2.pattern=.*0.0% id"
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port10=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=pattern
UPS Power Status Alert
To trigger an alert when myUPS (on localhost) or thatUPS (on remote host 192.168.0.50) power status
changes between on line, on battery and low battery.
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=ups
# config -s [email protected]
# config -s [email protected]
Environmental and Power Sensor Alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical='critical value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning='warning value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis='value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical='critical value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning='warning value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1='Enviro sensor name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet#='RPCname'.outlet#
'alert2.outlet#' increments sequentially with each added outlet. The second 'outlet#' refers to the
specific RPC power outlets.
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.rpc#='RPC name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=[ temp | humid | load | charge]
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.ups1='[email protected]'
Example1: To configure a temperature sensor alert for a sensor called 'SensorInRoom42':
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 181
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=60
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=50
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=2
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=5
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=10
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1=SensorInRoom42
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
Example2: To configure a load sensor alert for outlets 2 and 4 for an RPC called 'RPCInRoom20':
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet1='RPCname'.outlet2
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet2='RPCname'.outlet4
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=300
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=280
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=20
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=50
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=70
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.rpc1=RPCInRoom20
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=load
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
Alarm Sensor Alert
To set an alert for 'doorAlarm' and 'windowAlarm' that are two alarms connected to an environmental
sensor called 'SensorInRoom3'. Both alarms are disabled on Mondays from 8:15 am to 2:30 pm:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm1 (doorAlarm)
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm2 (windowAlarm)
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=8
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=15
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=14
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=30
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.description='description'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=alarm
To enable an alarm for the entire day:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=0
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r alerts
14.15 SMTP & SMS
To set-up an SMTP mail or SMS server with the following details:
Outgoing server address
Secure connection type
Sender
mail.Black Box.com
SSL
[email protected] Box.com
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 182
Server username
Server password
Subject line
john
secret
SMTP alerts
# config -s config.system.smtp.server=mail.Black Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.encryption=SSL (can also be TLS or None )
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.username=john
# config -s config.system.smtp.password=secret
# config -s config.system.smtp.subject=SMTP alerts
To set-up an SMTP SMS server with the same details as above:
# config -s config.system.smtp.server2=mail.Black Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.encryption2=SSL (can also be TLS or None )
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.username2=john
# config -s config.system.smtp.password2=secret
# config -s config.system.smtp.subject2=SMTP alerts
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.16 SNMP
To set-up the SNMP agent on the device:
# config -s config.system.snmp.protocol=[ UDP | TCP ]
# config -s config.system.snmp.trapport='port number' (default is 162)
# config -s config.system.snmp.address='NMS IP network address'
# config -s config.system.snmp.commnity='community name' (v1 and v2c only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.engineid='ID' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.username='username' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.password='password' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.version=[ 1 | 2c | 3 ]
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.17 Administration
To change the administration settings to:
System Name
System Password (root account)
Description
og.mydomain.com
secret
Device in office 2
# config -s config.system.name=og.mydomain.com
# config -P config.system.password
(will prompt user for a password)
# config -s "config.system.location=Device in office 2"
NOTE: The -P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value
of any config element using the -P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords
are supported. If any other element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and
will have to be reset.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 183
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.18 IP settings
To configure the primary network interface with static settings:
IP address
Netmask
Default gateway
DNS server 1
DNS server 2
192.168.0.23
255.255.255.0
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.2
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.address=192.168.0.23
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.netmask=255.255.255.0
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.gateway=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.dns1=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.dns2=192.168.0.2
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.mode=static
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.media=[ Auto | 100baseTx-FD | 100baseTx-HD | 10baseT-HD ]
10baseT-FD
To enable bridging between all interfaces:
# config -s config.system.bridge.enabled=on
To enable IPv6 for all interfaces
# config -s config.system.ipv6.enabled=on
To configure the management LAN interface, use the same commands as above but replace:
config.interfaces.wan, with config.interfaces.lan
Note: Not all devices have a management LAN interface.
To configure a failover device in case of an outage:
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address1='ip address'
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address2='ip address'
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.interface=[ eth1 | console | modem ]
The network interfaces can also be configured automatically:
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.mode=dhcp
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.mode=dhcp
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# /bin/config –-run=ipconfig
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r ipconfig
14.19 Date & Time Settings
To enable NTP using a server at pool.ntp.org, issue the following commands:
# config -s config.ntp.enabled=on
# config -s config.ntp.server=pool.ntp.org
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 184
Alternatively, you can manually change the clock settings:
To change running system time:
# date 092216452005.05
Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]
Then the following command will save this new system time to the hardware clock:
# /bin/hwclock -systohc
Alternatively, to change the hardware clock:
# /bin/hwclock -- set --date=092216452005.05
Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]
Then the following command will save this new hardware clock time as the system time:
# /bin/hwclock -hctosys
To change the timezone:
# config -s config.system.timezone=US/Eastern
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r time
14.20 Dial-in settings
To enable dial-in access on the DB9 serial port from the command line with the following attributes:
Local IP Address
Remote IP Address
Authentication Type:
Serial Port Baud Rate:
Serial Port Flow Control:
Custom Modem Initialization:
Callback phone
User to dial as
Password for user
172.24.1.1
172.24.1.2
MSCHAPv2
115200
Hardware
ATQ0V1H0
0800223665
user1
secret
Run the following commands:
# config -s config.console.ppp.localip=172.24.1.1
# config -s config.console.ppp.remoteip=172.24.1.2
# config -s config.console.ppp.auth=MSCHAPv2
# config -s config.console.speed=115200
# config -s config.console.flow=Hardware
# config -s config.console.initstring=ATQ0V1H0
# config -s config.console.ppp.enabled=on
# config -s config.console.ppp.callback.enabled=on
# config -s config.console.ppp.callback.phone1=0800223665
# config -s config.console.ppp.username=user1
# config -s config.console.ppp.password=secret
To make the dialed connection the default route:
# config -s config.console.ppp.defaultroute=on
Please note that supported authentication types are 'None', 'PAP', 'CHAP' and 'MSCHAPv2'.
Supported serial port baud-rates are '9600', '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'.
Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'.
Supported data-bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 185
Supported stop-bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'.
Supported flow-control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'.
If you do not want to use out-of-band dial-in access, note that the procedure for enabling start-up
messages on the console port is covered in Chapter 15—Accessing the Console Port.
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.21 DHCP server
To enable the DHCP server on the console management LAN, with settings:
Default lease time
Maximum lease time
DNS server1
DNS server2
Domain name
Default gateway
IP pool 1 start address
IP pool 1 end address
Reserved IP address
MAC to reserve IP for
Name to identify this host
200000 seconds
300000 seconds
192.168.2.3
192.168.2.4
company.com
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.20
192.168.0.100
192.168.0.50
00:1e:67:82:72:d9
John-PC
Issue the commands:
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.enabled=on
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.defaultlease=200000
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.maxlease=300000
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns1=192.168.2.3
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns2=192.168.2.4
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.domain=company.com
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.gateway=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.start=192.168.0.20
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.end=192.168.0.100
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.total=1
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.ip=192.168.0.50
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.mac=00:1e:67:82:72:d9
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.host=John-PC
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.total=1
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.22 Services
You can manually enable or disable network servers from the command line. For example, if you wanted
to guarantee the following server configuration:
HTTP Server
HTTPS Server
Telnet Server
SSH Server
SNMP Server
Ping Replies (Respond to ICMP echo requests)
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 186
TFTP server
Enabled
# config -s config.services.http.enabled=on
# config -d config.services.https.enabled
# config -d config.services.telnet.enabled
# config -s config.services.ssh.enabled=on
# config -d config.services.snmp.enabled
# config -d config.services.pingreply.enabled
# config -s config.services.tftp.enabled=on
To set secondary port ranges for any service
# config -s config.services.telnet.portbase='port base number' Default: 2000
# config -s config.services.ssh.portbase='port base number'
Default: 3000
# config -s config.services.tcp.portbase='port base number'
Default: 4000
# config -s config.services.rfc2217.portbase='port base number' Default: 5000
# config -s config.services.unauthtel.portbase='port base number
Default: 6000
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.23 NAGIOS
To configure NAGIOS with the following settings:
NAGIOS host name
NAGIOS host address
NAGIOS server address
Enable SDT for NAGIOS ext.
SDT gateway address
Prefer NRPE over NSCA
console at R3 (Name of this system)
192.168.0.1 (IP to find this device at)
192.168.0.10 (upstream NAGIOS server)
Enabled
192.168.0.1 (defaults to host address)
Disabled (defaults to Disabled)
# config -s config.system.nagios.enabled=on
# config -s config.system.nagios.name=les1116
# config -s config.system.nagios.address=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.system.nagios.server.address=192.168.0.10
# config -s config.system.nagios.sdt.disabled=on
(diables SDT for nagios extensions)
# config -s config.system.nagios.sdt.address=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.prefer=''
To configure NRPE with following settings:
NRPE port
NRPE user
NRPE group
Allow command arguments
5600 (port to listen on for nrpe. Defualts to 5666)
user1 (User to run as. Defaults to nrpe)
group1 (Group to run as. Defaults to nobody)
Enabled
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.enabled=on
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.port=5600
# config -s config.system.nagios.user=user1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.group=group1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.cmdargs=on
To configure NSCA with the following settings:
NSCA encryption
BLOWFISH (can be: [ None | XOR | DES | TRPLEDES | CAST-256
| BLOWFISH | TWOFISH | RIJNDAEL-256 | SERPENT | GOST ]
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 187
NSCA password
NSCA check-in interval
NSCA port
user to run as
group to run as
secret
5 minutes
5650 (defaults to 5667)
User1 (defaults to nsca)
Group1 (defaults to nobody)
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.enabled=on
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.encryption=BLOWFISH
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.secret=secret
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.interval=2
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.port=5650
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.user=User1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.group=Group1
Then synchronize the live system with the new configuration using # config -a
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 188
Chapter 15
Advanced Configuration
ADVANCED CONFIGURATION
Introduction
Black Box console servers run the embedded Linux operating system. So Administrator class users can
configure the console server and monitor and manage attached serial console and host devices from the
command line using Linux commands and the config utility as described in Chapter 14.
The Linux kernel in the console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to
run custom scripts. This chapter presents a number of useful scripts and scripting tools including:
-
delete-node which is a general script for deleting users, groups, hosts, UPSes etc.
-
ping-detect which will run specified commands when a specific host stops responding to ping
requests.
This chapter then details how to perform advanced and custom management tasks using Black Box
commands, Linux commands, and the open source tools embedded in the console server:
-
portmanager serial port management
-
raw data access to the ports and modems
-
iptables modifications and updating IP filtering rules
-
modifying SNMP with net-snmpd
-
public key authenticated SSH communications
-
SSL, configuring HTTPS and issuing certificates
-
using pmpower for NUT and PowerMan power device management
-
using IPMItools
-
CDK custom development kit
15.1 Custom Scripting
The console server supports GNU bash shell commands (refer to Appendix A) enabling the Administrator
to run custom scripts.
15.1.1 Custom script to run when booting
The /etc/config/rc.local script runs whenever the system boots. By default, this script file is empty. You
can add any commands to this file if you want them to run at boot time (for example, if you wanted to
display hello world:)
#!/bin/sh
echo "Hello World!"
If this script has been copied from a Windows machine, you may need to run the following command on
the script before bash can run it successfully:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 189
# dos2unix /etc/config/rc.local
Another scenario would be to call another custom script from the /etc/config/rc.local file, making sure
that your custom script will run whenever the system is booted.
15.1.2 Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered
Whenever an alert gets triggered, specific scripts get called. These scripts all reside in /etc/scripts/.
Below is a list of the default scripts that get run for each applicable alert:
-
For a connection alert (when a user connects or disconnects from a port or network host):
/etc/scripts/portmanager-user-alert (for port connections) or /etc/scripts/sdt-user-alert (for host
connections)
-
For a signal alert (when a signal on a port changes state): /etc/scripts/portmanager-signal-alert
-
For a pattern match alert (when a specific regular expression is found in the serial ports character
stream): /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
-
For a UPS status alert (when the UPS power status changes between on line, on battery, and low
battery): /etc/scripts/ups-status-alert
-
For a environmental, power and alarm sensor alerts (temperature, humidity, power load, and
battery charge alerts): /etc/scripts/environmental-alert
-
For an interface failover alert: /etc/scripts/interface-failover-alert
All of these scripts do a check to see whether you have created a custom script to run instead. The code
that does this check is shown below (an extract from the file /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert):
# If there's a user-configured script, run it instead
scripts[0]="/etc/config/scripts/pattern-alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}"
scripts[1]="/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert"
for (( i=0 ; i < ${#scripts[@]} ; i++ )); do
if [ -f "${scripts[$i]}" ]; then
exec /bin/sh "${scripts[$i]}"
fi
done
This code shows that there are two alternative scripts that can be run instead of the default one. This
code first checks whether a file "/etc/config/scripts/pattern-alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}" exists. The
variable ${ALERT_PORTNAME} must be replaced with "port01" or "port13" or whichever port the alert
should run for. If this file cannot be found, the script checks whether the file
"/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert" exists. If either of these files exists, the script calls the
exec command on the first file that it finds and runs that custom file/script instead.
As an example, you can copy the /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert:
script
file
to
# cd /
# mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist)
# cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
The next step will be to edit the new script file. First, open the file /etc/config/scripts/portmanagerpattern-alert using vi (or any other editor), and remove the lines that check for a custom script (the code
from above). This will prevent the new custom script from repeatedly calling itself. After these lines have
been removed, edit the file, or add any additional scripting to the file.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 190
15.1.3 Example script - Power Cycling on Pattern Match
For example, we have an RPC (PDU) connected to port 1 on a console server and also have some
telecommunications device connected to port 2 (which is powered by the RPC outlet 3). Now assume
the telecom device transmits a character stream "EMERGENCY" out on its serial console port every time
that it encounters some specific error, and the only way to fix this error is to power cycle the telecom
device.
The first step is to setup a pattern-match alert on port 2 to check for the pattern "EMERGENCY".
Next we need to create a custom script to deal with this alert:
# cd /
# mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist)
# cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
Note: Make sure to remove the if statement (which checks for a custom script) from the new script, in
order to prevent an infinite loop.
The pmpower utility is used to send power commands to RPC device in order to power cycle our telecom
device:
# pmpower -l port01 -o 3 cycle (The RPC is on serial port 1. The telecom device is powered by
RPC outlet 3)
We can now append this command to our custom script. This will guarantee that our telecom device will
be power cycled every time the console reads the "EMERGENCY" character stream on port 2.
15.1.4 Example script - Multiple email notifications on each alert
If you want to send more than one email when an alert triggers, you have to create a replacement script
using the method described above and add the appropriate lines to your new script.
Currently, there is a script /etc/scripts/alert-email that runs from within all the alert scripts (for example,
portmanager-user-alert or environmental-alert). The alert-email script sends the email. The line that
invokes the email script is as follows:
/bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-email $suffix &
If you want to send another email to a single address or the same email to many recipients, edit the
custom script appropriately. You can follow the examples in any of the seven alert scripts listed above.
In particular, consider the portmanager-user-alert script. If you need to send the same alert email to
more than one email address, find the lines in the script responsible for invoking the alert-email script,
then add the following lines below the existing lines:
export TOADDR="[email protected]"
/bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-email $suffix &
These two lines assign a new email address to TOADDR and invoke the alert-email script in the
background.
15.1.5 Deleting Configuration Values from the CLI
The delete-node script is provided to help with deleting nodes from the command line. The "deletenode" script takes one argument, the node name you want to delete (for example, "config.users.user1"
or "config.sdt.hosts.host1").
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 191
delete-node is a general script for deleting any node you desire (users, groups, hosts, UPSes, etc.) from
the command line. The script deletes the specified node and shuffles the remainder of the node values.
For example, if we have five users configured and we use the script to delete user 3, then user 4 will
become user 3, and user 5 will become user 4.
This creates an obvious complication because this script does NOT check for any other dependencies
that the node being deleted may have. You are responsible for making sure that any references and
dependencies connected to the deleted node are removed or corrected in the config.xml file.
The script treats all nodes the same. The syntax to run the script is # ./delete-node {node name}. To
remove user 3:
# ./delete-node config.users.user3
The delete-node script
#!/bin/bash
#User must provide the node to be removed. e.g. "config.users.user1"
# Usage: delete-node {full node path}
if [ $# != 1 ]
then
echo "Wrong number of arguments"
echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}"
exit 2
fi
# test for spaces
TEMP=`echo "$1" | sed 's/.* .*/N/'`
if [ "$TEMP" = "N" ]
then
echo "Wrong input format"
echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}"
exit 2
fi
# testing if node exists
TEMP=`config -g config | grep "$1"`
if [ -z "$TEMP" ]
then
echo "Node $1 not found"
exit 0
fi
# LASTFIELD is the last field in the node path e.g. "user1"
# ROOTNODE is the upper level of the node e.g. "config.users"
# NUMBER is the integer value extracted from LASTFIELD e.g. "1"
# TOTALNODE is the node name for the total e.g. "config.users.total"
# TOTAL is the value of the total number of items before deleting e.g. "3"
# NEWTOTAL is the modified total i.e. TOTAL-1
# CHECKTOTAL checks if TOTAL is the actual total items in .xml
LASTFIELD=${1##*.}
ROOTNODE=${1%.*}
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 192
NUMBER=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/^[a-zA-Z]*//g'`
TOTALNODE=`echo ${1%.*} | sed 's/\(.*\)/\1.total/'`
TOTAL=`config -g $TOTALNODE | sed 's/.* //'`
NEWTOTAL=$[ $TOTAL -1 ]
# Make backup copy of config file
cp /etc/config/config.xml /etc/config/config.bak
echo "backup of /etc/config/config.xml saved in /etc/config/config.bak"
if [ -z $NUMBER ] # test whether a singular node is being \
#deleted e.g. config.sdt.hosts
then
echo "deleting $1"
config -d "$1"
echo Done
exit 0
elif [ $NUMBER = $TOTAL ] # Test if only one item exists
then
echo "only one item exists"
# Deleting node
echo "Deleting $1"
config -d "$1"
# Modifying item total.
config -s "$TOTALNODE=0"
echo Done
exit 0
elif [ $NUMBER -lt $TOTAL ] # more than one item exists
then
# Modify the users list so user numbers are sequential
# by shifting the users into the gap one at a time...
echo "Deleting $1"
LASTFIELDTEXT=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/[0-9]//g'`
CHECKTOTAL=`config -g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL`
if [ -z "$CHECKTOTAL" ]
then
echo "WARNING: "$TOTALNODE" greater than number of items"
fi
COUNTER=1
while [ $COUNTER != $((TOTAL-NUMBER+1)) ]
do
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 193
config -g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER)) \
| while read LINE
do
config -s \
"`echo "$LINE" | sed -e "s/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+ \
COUNTER))/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER-1))/" \
-e 's/ /=/'`"
done
let COUNTER++
done
# deleting last user
config -d $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL
# Modifying item total.
config -s "$TOTALNODE=$NEWTOTAL"
echo Done
exit 0
else
echo "error: item being deleted has an index greater than total items. Increase the total count
variable."
exit 0
fi
15.1.6 Power Cycle any device when a ping request fails
The ping-detect script is designed to run specified commands when a monitored host stops responding
to ping requests.
The first parameter taken by the ping-detect script is the hostname/IP address of the device to ping. Any
other parameters are then regarded as a command to run whenever the ping to the host fails. pingdetect can run any number of commands.
Below is an example using ping-detect to power cycle an RPC (PDU) outlet whenever a specific host fails
to respond to a ping request. The ping-detect runs from /etc/config/rc.local to make sure that the
monitoring starts whenever the system boots.
Suppose we have a serially controlled RPC connected to port01 on a console server and have a router
powered by outlet 3 on the RPC (and the router has an internal IP address of 192.168.22.2). The
following instructions will show you how to continuously ping the router. When the router fails to
respond to a series of pings, the console server will send a command to RPC outlet 3 to power cycle the
router, and write the current date/time to a file:
-
Copy the ping-detect script to /etc/config/scripts/ on the console server
-
Open /etc/config/rc.local using vi
-
Add the following line to rc.local:
/etc/config/scripts/ping-detect 192.168.22.2 /bin/bash -c "pmpower -l port01 -o 3 cycle && date" >
/tmp/output.log &
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 194
The above command will cause the ping-detect script to continuously ping the host at 192.168.22.2
which is the router. If the router crashes, it will no longer respond to ping requests. If this happens, the
two commands pmpower and date will run. The output from these commands is sent to the file
/tmp/output.log so that we have a record. The ping-detect is also run in the background using the "&".
Remember the rc.local script only runs by default when the system boots. You can manually run the
rc.local script or the ping-detect script if desired.
The ping-detect script
The above is just one example of using the ping-detect script. The idea of the script is to run any number
of commands when a specific host stops responding to ping requests. Here are details of the ping-detect
script itself:
#!/bin/sh
# Usage: ping-detect HOST [COMMANDS...]
# This script takes 2 types of arguments: hostname/IPaddress to ping, and the commands to
# run if the ping fails 5 times in a row. This script can only take one host/IPaddress per
# instance. Multiple independent commands can be sent to the script. The commands will be
# run one after the other.
#
# PINGREP is the entire reply from the ping command
# LOSS is the percentage loss from the ping command
# $1 must be the hostname/IPaddress of device to ping
# $2... must be the commands to run when the pings fail.
COUNTER=0
TARGET="$1"
shift
# loop indefinitely:
while true
do
# ping the device 10 times
PINGREP=`ping -c 10 -i 1 "$TARGET" `
#get the packet loss percentage
LOSS=`echo "$PINGREP" | grep "%" | sed -e 's/.* \([0-9]*\)% .*/\1/'`
if [ "$LOSS" -eq "100" ]
then
COUNTER=`expr $COUNTER + 1`
else
COUNTER=0
sleep 30s
fi
if [ "$COUNTER" -eq 5 ]
then
COUNTER=0
"[email protected]"
sleep 2s
fi
done
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 195
15.1.7 Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked
A configurator is responsible for reading the values in /etc/config/config.xml and making the
appropriate changes live. Some changes made by the configurators are part of the Linux configuration
itself, such as user passwords or ipconfig.
Currently there are nineteen configurators. Each one is responsible for a specific group of config (for
example, the "users" configurator makes the user configurations in the config.xml file live). To see all the
available configurators type the following from a command line prompt:
# config
When a change is made using the Management Console web GUI, the appropriate configurator
automatically runs. This can be a problem if another Administrator makes a change using the
Management Console. The configurator could possibly overwrite any custom CLI/linux configurations
you may have set.
The solution is to create a custom script that runs after each configurator runs. After each configurator
runs, it will check whether that appropriate custom script exists. You can then add any commands to the
custom script and they will be invoked after the configurator runs.
The custom scripts must be in the correct location:
/etc/config/scripts/config-postTo create an alerts custom script:
# cd /etc/config/scripts
# touch config-post-alerts
# vi config-post-alerts
You could use this script to recover a specific backup config or overwrite a config or make copies of
config files, etc.
15.1.8 Backing-up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick
The /etc/scripts/backup-usb script is written to save and load custom configuration using a USB flash
disk. Before saving configuration locally, you must prepare the USB storage device for use. To do this,
disconnect all USB storage devices except for the storage device you want to use.
Usage: /etc/scripts/backup-usb COMMAND [FILE]
COMMAND:
check-magic -- check volume label
set-magic -- set volume label
save [FILE] -- save configuration to USB
delete [FILE] -- delete a configuration tarbal from USB
list -- list available config backups on USB
load [FILE] -- load a specific config from USB
load-default -- load the default configuration
set-default [FILE] -- set which file becomes the default
The first thing to do is to check if the USB disk has a label:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb check-magic
If this command returns "Magic volume not found", then run the following command:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb set-magic
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 196
To save the configuration:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb save config-20May
To check if the backup was saved correctly:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb list
If this command does not display "* config-20May" then there was an error saving the configuration.
The set-default command takes an input file as an argument and renames it to "default.opg". This
default configuration remains stored on the USB disk. The next time you want to load the default config,
it will be sourced from the new default.opg file. To set a config file as the default:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb set-default config-20May
To load this default:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb load-default
To load any other config file:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb load {filename}
The /etc/scripts/backup-usb script can be executed directly with various COMMANDS or called from
other custom scripts you may create. We recommend that you do not customize the
/etc/scripts/backup-usb script itself at all.
15.1.9 Backing-up the configuration off-box
If you do not have a USB port on your console server, you can back up the configuration to an
off-box file. Before backing up you need to arrange a way to transfer the backup off-box. This
could be via an NFS share, a Samba (Windows) share to USB storage, or copied off-box via the
network. If backing up directly to off-box storage, make sure it is mounted.
/tmp is not a good location for the backup except as a temporary location before transferring it
off-box. The /tmp directory will not survive a reboot. The /etc/config directory is not a good
place either, because it will not survive a restore.
Backup and restore should be done by the root user to make sure correct file permissions are
set. The config command is used to create a backup tarball:
config -e <Output File>
The tarball will be saved to the indicated location. It will contain the contents of the
/etc/config/ directory in an uncompressed and unencrypted form.
Example nfs storage:
# mount -t nfs 192.168.0.2:/backups /mnt # config -e /mnt/les4108.config #
umount/mnt/
Example transfer off-box via scp:
# config -e /tmp/les4108.config
# scp /tmp/les4108.config 192.168.0.2:/backups
The config command is also used to restore a backup:
config -i <Input File>
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 197
This will extract the contents of the previously created backup to /tmp, and then synchronize
the /etc/config directory with the copy in /tmp.
One problem that can crop up here is that there is not enough room in /tmp to extract files to.
The following command will temporarily increase the size of /tmp:
mount -t tmpfs -o remount,size=2048k tmpfs /var
If restoring to either a new unit or one that has been factory defaulted, make sure that the
process generating SSH keys either stops or completes before restoring configuration. If this is
not done, then a mix of old and new keys may be put in place.
SSH uses these keys to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks. Logging in may be disrupted.
15.2 Advanced Portmanager
Black Box’s portmanger program manages the console server serial ports. It routes network connection
to serial ports, checks permissions, and monitors and logs all the data flowing to/from the ports.
15.2.1 Portmanager commands
pmshell
The pmshell command acts similar to the standard tip or cu commands, but all serial port access is
directed via the portmanager.
Example: To connect to port 8 via the portmanager:
# pmshell -l port08
pmshell Commands:
Once connected, the pmshell command supports a subset of the '~' escape commands that
tip/cu support. For SSH you must prefix the escape with an additional ‘~’ command (i.e. use the
‘~~’ escape)
Send Break: Typing the character sequence '~b' will generate a BREAK on the serial port.
History: Typing the character sequence '~h' will generate a history on the serial port.
Quit pmshell: Typing the character sequence '~.' will exit from pmshell.
Set RTS to 1 run the command: pmshell --rts=1
Show all signals: # pmshell –signals
DSR=1 DTR=1 CTS=1 RTS=1 DCD=0
Read a line of text from the serial port: # pmshell –getline
pmchat
The pmchat command acts similar to the standard chat command, but all serial port access is directed
via the portmanager.
Example: To run a chat script via the portmanager:
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 198
# pmchat -v -f /etc/config/scripts/port08.chat < /dev/port08
For more information on using chat (and pmchat) you should consult the UNIX man pages:
http://techpubs.sgi.com/library/tpl/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?coll=linux&db=man&fname=/usr/share/catman/
man8/chat.8.html
pmusers
The pmusers command is used to query the portmanager for active user sessions.
Example: To detect which users are currently active on which serial ports:
# pmusers
This command will output nothing if there are no active users currently connected to any ports.
Otherwise, it will respond with a sorted list of usernames per active port:
Port 1:
user1
user2
Port 2:
user1
Port 8:
user2
The above output indicates that a user named “user1” is actively connected to ports 1 and 2, while
“user2” is connected to both ports 1 and 8.
portmanager daemon
There is normally no need to stop and restart the daemon. To restart the daemon normally, just run the
command:
# portmanager
Supported command line options are:
Force portmanager to run in the foreground:
Set the level of debug logging:
--nodaemon
--loglevel={debug,info,warn,error,alert}
Change which configuration file it uses: -c /etc/config/portmanager.conf
Signals
Sending a SIGHUP signal to the portmanager will cause it to re-read its configuration file
15.2.2 External Scripts and Alerts
The portmanager can execute external scripts on certain events.
When the portmanager opens a port:
-
It attempts to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.init (where XX is the number of the port, e.g. 08).
The script is run with STDIN and STDOUT both connected to the serial port.
-
If the script cannot be executed, then portmanager will execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.chat via
the chat command on the serial port.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 199
When an alert occurs on a port:
-
The portmanager will attempt to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.alert (where XX is the port
number, e.g. 08)
-
The script is run with STDIN containing the data which triggered the alert, and STDOUT redirected to
/dev/null, NOT to the serial port. If you want to communicate with the port, use pmshell or pmchat
from within the script.
-
If the script cannot be executed, then the alert will be mailed to the address configured in the
system administration section.
When a user connects to any port:
-
If a file called /etc/config/pmshell-start.sh exists it is run when a user connects to a port. It is
provided 2 arguments, the "Port number" and the "Username". Here is a simple example:
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh >
#!/bin/sh
PORT="$1"
USER="$2"
echo "Welcome to port $PORT $USER"
< /etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
-
The return value from the script controls whether the user is accepted or not, if 0 is returned (or
nothing is done on exit as in the above script) the user is permitted, otherwise the user is denied
access.
-
Here is a more complex script which reads from configuration to display the port label if available
and denies access to the root user:
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
#!/bin/sh
PORT="$1"
USER="$2"
LABEL=$(config -g config.ports.port$PORT.label | cut -f2- -d' ')
if [ "$USER" == "root" ]; then
echo "Permission denied for Super User"
exit 1
fi
if [ -z "$LABEL" ]; then
echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT"
else
echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT ($LABEL)"
fi
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
15.3 Raw Access to Serial Ports
15.3.1 Access to serial ports
You can use tip and stty to completely bypass the portmanager and have raw access to the serial ports.
When you run tip on a portmanager controlled port, portmanager closes that port, and stops
monitoring it until tip releases control of it.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 200
With stty, the changes made to the port only “stick” until that port is closed and opened again. People
probably will not want to use stty for more than initial debugging of the serial connection.
If you want to use stty to configure the port, you can put stty commands in
/etc/config/scripts/portXX.init which gets run whenever portmanager opens the port.
Otherwise, any setup you do with stty will get lost when the portmanager opens the port. (The reason
that portmanager sets things back to its config rather than using whatever is on the port, is so the port is
in a known good state, and will work, no matter what things are done to the serial port outside of
portmanager.)
15.3.2 Accessing the console/modem port
The console dial-in is handled by mgetty, with automatic PPP login extensions. mgetty is a smart getty
replacement, designed to be used with Hayes compatible data and data/fax modems. mgetty knows
about modem initialization, manual modem answering (your modem doesn’t answer if the machine
isn’t ready), UUCP locking (you can use the same device for dial-in and dial-out). mgetty provides very
extensive logging facilities. All standard mgetty options are supported.
Modem initialization strings:
-
To override the standard modem initialization string either use the Management Console (refer
Chapter 5) or the command line config tool (refer to Dial-In Configuration Chapter 14).
Enabling Boot Messages on the Console:
-
If you are not using a modem on the DB9 console port and instead want to connect to it directly via
a Null Modem cable, enable verbose mode, which allows you to see the standard linux start-up
messages. Follow these commands:
# /bin/config --set=config.console.debug=on # /bin/config --run=console # reboot
-
If at some point in the future you chose to connect a modem for dial-in out-of-band access, you can
reverse the procedure with the following commands.
# /bin/config --del=config.console.debug # /bin/config --run=console # reboot
15.4 IP- Filtering
The console server uses the iptables utility to provide a stateful firewall of LAN traffic. By default, rules
are automatically inserted to allow access to enabled services, and serial port access via enabled
protocols. The commands that add these rules are contained in configuration files:
/etc/config/ipfilter
This is an executable shell script that runs whenever the LAN interface is brought up and whenever
modifications are made to the iptables configuration as a result of CGI actions or the config command
line tool.
The basic steps performed are as follows:
-
The current iptables configuration is erased.
-
If a customized IP-Filter script exists it is executed and no other actions are performed.
-
Standard policies are inserted that will drop all traffic not explicitly allowed to and through the
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 201
system.
-
Rules are added which explicitly allow network traffic to access enabled services, for example, TTP,
SNMP, etc.
-
Rules are added that explicitly allow traffic network traffic access to serial ports over enabled
protocols e.g. Telnet, SSH and raw TCP.
If the standard system firewall configuration is not adequate for your needs you can bypass it safely by
creating a file at /etc/config/filter-custom containing commands to build a specialized firewall. This
firewall script will run whenever the LAN interface is brought up (including initially) and will override any
automated system firewall settings.
Below is a simple example of a custom script that creates a firewall using the iptables command. Only
incoming connections from computers on a C-class network 192.168.10.0 will be accepted when this
script is installed at /etc/config/filter-custom. Note that when this script is called, any preexisting chains
and rules have been flushed from iptables:
#/bin/sh
# Set default policies to drop any incoming or routable traffic
# and blindly accept anything from the 192.168.10.0 network.
iptables –-policy FORWARD DROP
iptables –-policy INPUT DROP
iptables –-policy OUTPUT ACCEPT
# Allow responses to outbound connections back in.
iptables –-append INPUT \
–-match state –-state ESTABLISHED,RELATED –-jump ACCEPT
# Explicitly accept any connections from computers on
# 192.168.10.0/24
iptables –-append INPUT –-source 192.168.10.0/24 –-jump ACCEPT
There’s good documentation about using the iptables command at the Linux netfilter website
http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html. There are also many high-quality tutorials and HOWTOs
available via the netfilter website, in particular peruse the tutorials listed on the netfilter HOWTO page.
15.5 Modifying SNMP Configuration
15.5.1 /etc/config/snmpd.conf
The net-snmpd is an extensible SNMP agent which responds to SNMP queries for management
information from SNMP management software. Upon receiving a request, it processes the request(s),
collects the requested information and/or performs the requested operation(s) and returns the
information to the sender.
This includes built-in support for a wide range of MIB information modules, and can be extended using
dynamically loaded modules, external scripts and commands. snmpd when enabled should run with a
default configuration. You can customize its behavior via the options in /etc/config/snmpd.conf.
To change standard system information such as system contact, name, and location, edit
/etc/config/snmpd.conf file and locate the following lines:
sysdescr
syscontact
"Black Box"
root <[email protected]>(configure /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 202
sysname
syslocation
Not defined (edit /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
Not defined (edit /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
Simply change the values of sysdescr, syscontact, sysname and syslocation to the desired settings and
restart snmpd.
The snmpd.conf provides is extremely powerful and too flexible to completely cover here. The
configuration file itself is commented extensively and good documentation is available at the net-snmp
website http://www.net-snmp.org, specifically:
Man Page:
http://www.net-snmp.org/docs/man/snmpd.conf.html
FAQ:
http://www.net-snmp.org/docs/FAQ.html
Net-SNMPD Tutorial:
http://www.net-snmp.org/tutorial/tutorial-5/demon/snmpd.html
15.5.2 Adding more than one SNMP server
To add more than one SNMP server for alert traps add the first SNMP server using the Management
Console (refer Chapter 7) or the command line config tool. Secondary and any further SNMP servers are
added manually using config.
Log in to the console server’s command line shell as root or an admin user. Refer back to the
Management Console UI or user documentation for descriptions of each field.
To set the Manager Protocol field:
config --set config.system.snmp.protocol2=UDP or
config --set config.system.snmp.protocol2=TCP
To set the Manager Address field:
config --set config.system.snmp.address2=w.x.y.z
.. replacing w.x.y.z with the IP address or DNS name.
To set the Manager Trap Port field
config --set config.system.snmp.trapport2=162
.. replacing 162 with the TCP/UDP port number
To set the Version field
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=1 or
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=2c or
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=3
To set the Community field (SNMP version 1 and 2c only)
config --set config.system.snmp.community2=yourcommunityname
.. replacing yourcommunityname with the community name
To set the Engine ID field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.engineid2=800000020109840301
.. replacing 800000020109840301 with the engine ID
To set the Username field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.username2=yourusername
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 203
.. replacing yourusername with the username
config.system.snmp.username2 (3 only)
To set the Engine ID field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.password2=yourpassword
.. replacing yourpassword with the password
Once the fields are set, apply the configuration with the following command:
config --run snmp
You can add a third or more SNMP servers by incrementing the "2" in the above commands, e.g.
config.system.snmp.protocol3, config.system.snmp.address3, etc.
15.6 Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication
This section covers how to generate public and private keys in a Linux and Windows environment and
configure SSH for public key authentication. The steps to use in a Clustering environment are:
- Generate a new public and private key pair.
- Upload the keys to the Master and to each Slave console server.
- Fingerprint each connection to validate.
15.6.1 SSH Overview
Popular TCP/IP applications such as telnet, rlogin, ftp, and others transmit their passwords unencrypted.
Doing this across pubic networks like the Internet can have catastrophic consequences. It leaves the
door open for eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other network-level attacks.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a
remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and
secure communications over insecure channels.
OpenSSH, the de facto open source SSH application, encrypts all traffic (including passwords) to
effectively eliminate these risks. Additionally, OpenSSH provides a myriad of secure tunneling
capabilities, as well as a variety of authentication methods.
OpenSSH is the port of OpenBSD's excellent OpenSSH[0] to Linux and other versions of Unix. OpenSSH is
based on the last free version of Tatu Ylonen's sample implementation with all patent-encumbered
algorithms removed (to external libraries), all known security bugs fixed, new features reintroduced, and
many other clean-ups. http://www.openssh.com/ The only changes in the Black Box SSH
implementation are:
-
PAM support
-
EGD[1]/PRNGD[2] support and replacements for OpenBSD library functions that are absent from
other versions of UNIX
-
The config files are now in /etc/config. e.g.
 /etc/config/sshd_config instead of /etc/sshd_config
 /etc/config/ssh_config instead of /etc/ssh_config
 /etc/config/users/<username>/.ssh/ instead of /home/<username>/.ssh/
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 204
15.6.2 Generating Public Keys (Linux)
To generate new SSH key pairs use the Linux ssh-keygen command. This will produce an RSA or DSA
public/private key pair and you will be prompted for a path to store the two key files, for example,
id_dsa.pub (the public key) and id_dsa (the private key). For example:
$ ssh-keygen -t [rsa|dsa]
Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
Create a new directory to store your generated keys. You can also name the files after the device they
will be used for. For example:
$ mkdir keys
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
Make sure that there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the Black Box
devices will have no way to supply it as runtime.
Full documentation for the ssh-keygen command can be found at http://www.openbsd.org/cgibin/man.cgi?query=ssh-keygen
15.6.3 Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering)
For Black Box console servers, the keys can be simply uploaded through the web interface, on the
System: Administration page. This enables you to upload stored RSA or DSA Public Key pairs to the
Master and apply the Authorized key to the slave and is described in Chapter 4. Once complete, you
then proceed to Fingerprinting as described below.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 205
15.6.4 Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux)
Alternately, the public key can be installed on the unit remotely from the linux host with the scp utility
as follows.
Assuming the user on the Management Console is called "fred"; the IP address of the console server is
192.168.0.1 (default); and the public key is on the linux/unix computer in ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub. Execute the
following command on the linux/unix computer:
scp ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub \
[email protected]:/etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys
The authorized_keys file on the console server needs to be owned by "fred", so login to the
Management Console as root and type:
chown fred /etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys
Master
id_rsa
Slave
----BEGIN RSA
PRIVATE KEY---MIEogIBAAKCAQEA
yIPGsNIS+a0LnPUMc
nujXXPGiOGyD3b79
KZg3UZ4MjZI525sCy
GYTByUdI
authorized_key
ssh-rsa
AAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+t
[email protected]
Slave
authorized_key
ssh-rsa
AAAAB3NzaC1ycEfg4+1
[email protected]
id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa [email protected]
If the Black Box device selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 206
authorized_keys file is simply a copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be
clients of the server, then the authorized_keys file will contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and
DSA keys may be freely mixed in the authorized_keys file. For example, assume we already have one
server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the control_room and the plant_entrance:
$ ls /home/user/keys control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub $ cat
/home/user/keys/control_room.pub /home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub >
/home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server
Master
Master
Slave
authorized_keys
id_dsa
----BEGIN DSA
PRIVATE KEY---MIIBugIBAAKBgQCR
kixjJOSKuiEXTM
x0PFp9HqBvEg7Ww9
oynY4QNIXj1YU7T
87IFLQiAhn3yp7ZWy
7Z5C4sLF8o46Go
ssh-rsa AAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+GHI
[email protected]
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaZr+OV01C8gdgz
[email protected]
ssh-dss
AAAAB3NzaZr+OV01C8gdgz
[email protected]
ssh-rsa
AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+tG
[email protected]
id_dsa.pub
id_rsa
----BEGIN DSA
PRIVATE KEY---MIIEogIBAAKCAQEA
yIPGsNf5+a0LnPUMc
nujXXPGiQGyD3b79
KZg3UZ4MjZI525sCy
opv4TJTvTK6e8QIYt
GYTByUdI
id_rsa.pub
More documentation on OpenSSH can be found at:
http://openssh.org/portable.html
http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=ssh&sektion=1
http://www openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=sshd.
15.6.5 Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows)
This section describes how to generate and configure SSH keys using Windows.
First create a new user from the Black Box Management (the following example uses a user called
"testuser") making sure it is a member of the "users" group.
If you do not already have a public/private key pair you can generate them now using ssh-keygen,
PuTTYgen or a similar tool:
PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 207
OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/
OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/
For example, using PuTTYgen, make sure you have a recent version of the puttygen.exe (available from
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html) Make sure you have a recent
version of WinSCP (available from http://winscp.net/eng/download.php )
To generate a SSH key using PuTTY http://sourceforge.net/docs/F02/#clients:
-
Execute the PUTTYGEN.EXE program.
-
Select the desired key type SSH2 DSA (you may use RSA or DSA) within the Parameters section.
-
It is important that you leave the passphrase field blank.
-
Click on the Generate button.
-
Follow the instruction to move the mouse over the blank area of the program in order to create
random data used by PUTTYGEN to generate secure keys. Key generation will occur once PUTTYGEN
has collected sufficient random data.
-
Create a new file " authorized_keys " (with notepad) and copy your public key data from the "Public
key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file" section of the PuTTY Key Generator, and paste
the key data to the "authorized_keys" file. Make sure there is only one line of text in this file.
-
Use WinSCP to copy this "authorized_keys" file into the users home directory: e.g.
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys of the Black Box gateway which will be the SSH
server. You will need to make sure this file is in the correct format with the correct permissions with
the following commands:
# dos2unix \
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys && chown testuser \
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 208
-
Using WinSCP copy the attached sshd_config over /etc/config/sshd_config on the server (Makes
sure public key authentication is enabled).
-
Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" to the
client Black Box device and typing (you should not need to enter anything): # ssh -o
StrictHostKeyChecking=no <server-ip>
To automate connection of the SSH tunnel from the client on every power-up you need to make the
clients /etc/config/rc.local look like the following:
#!/bin/sh
ssh -L9001:127.0.0.1:4001 -N -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no [email protected]<server-ip> &
This will run the tunnel redirecting local port 9001 to the server port 4001.
15.6.6 Fingerprinting
Fingerprints are used to ensure you are establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the
first connection to a remote server you will receive a fingerprint that you can use on future connections.
This fingerprint is related to the host key of the remote server. Fingerprints are stored in
~/.ssh/known_hosts.
To receive the fingerprint from the remote server, log in to the client as the required user (usually root)
and establish a connection to the remote host:
# ssh remhost
The authenticity of host 'remhost (192.168.0.1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 8d:11:e0:7e:8a:6f:ad:f1:94:0f:93:fc:7c:e6:ef:56.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
At this stage, answer yes to accept the key. You should get the following message:
Warning: Permanently added 'remhost,192.168.0.1' (RSA) to the list of
known hosts.
You may be prompted for a password, but there is no need to log in— you have received the fingerprint
and can Ctrl-C to cancel the connection. If the host key changes you will receive the following warning,
and not be allowed to connect to the remote host:
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @
@ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY! @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
ab:7e:33:bd:85:50:5a:43:0b:e0:bd:43:3f:1c:a5:f8.
Please contact your system Administrator.
Add correct host key in /.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 209
Offending key in /.ssh/known_hosts:1
RSA host key for remhost has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.
If the host key has been legitimately changed, it can be removed from the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file and
the new fingerprint added. If it has not changed, this indicates a serious problem that should be
investigated immediately.
15.6.7 SSH tunneled serial bridging
You have the option to apply SSH tunneling when two Black Box console servers are configured for serial
bridging.
Ethernet LAN
Console Server
Console Server
COM port connected
control PC
Serially connected device
(e.g. security appliance)
As detailed in Chapter 4, the Server console server is setup in Console server mode with either RAW or
RFC2217 enabled and the Client console server is set up in Serial Bridging Mode with the Server Address,
and Server TCP Port (4000 + port for RAW or 5000 + port # for RFC2217) specified:

Select SSH Tunnel when configuring the Serial Bridging Setting.
Next, you will need to set up SSH keys for each end of the tunnel and upload these keys to the Server
and Client console servers.
Client Keys:
The first step in setting up ssh tunnels is to generate keys. Ideally, you will use a separate, secure,
machine to generate and store all keys to be used on the console servers. If this is not ideal for your
situation, keys may be generated on the console servers themselves.
It is possible to generate only one set of keys, and reuse them for every SSH session. While we do not
recommend this, each organization will need to balance the security of separate keys against the
additional administration they bring.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 210
Generated keys may be one of two types—RSA or DSA (and it is beyond the scope of this document to
recommend one over the other). RSA keys will go into the files id_rsa and id_rsa.pub. DSA keys will be
stored in the files id_dsa and id_dsa.pub.
For simplicity going forward, the term private key will be used to refer to either id_rsa or id_dsa and
public key to refer to either id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub.
Client #1
Server
Client #2
Authorized keys
id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
Client #1 Keys
id_rsa.pub
id_rsa
Client #2 Keys
To generate the keys using OpenBSD's OpenSSH suite, we use the ssh-keygen program:
$ ssh-keygen -t [rsa|dsa]
Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
It is advisable to create a new directory to store your generated keys. It is also possible to name the files
after the device they will be used for. For example:
$ mkdir keys
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
You should ensure there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the
console servers will have no way to supply it as runtime.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 211
Authorized Keys:
If the console server selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the authorized_keys
file is simply a copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be clients of the server,
then the authorized_keys file will contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and DSA keys may be
freely mixed in the authorized_keys file.
For example, assume we already have one server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the
control_room and the plant_entrance:
$ ls /home/user/keys
control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub
$ cat /home/user/keys/control_room.pub
/home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub >
/home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server
Uploading Keys:
The keys for the server can be uploaded through the web interface, on the System: Administration page
as detailed earlier. If only one client will be connecting, then simply upload the appropriate public key as
the authorized keys file. Otherwise, upload the authorized keys file constructed in the previous step.
Each client will then need its own set of keys uploaded through the same page. Take care to ensure that
the correct type of keys (DSA or RSA) go in the correct spots, and that the public and private keys are in
the correct spot.
15.6.8 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
SDT Connector can authenticate against a console servers using your SSH key pair, rather than requiring
you to enter your password (i.e. public key authentication).

To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, you must first create an RSA or DSA key pair
(using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool) and add the public part of your SSH key pair to the
Black Box gateway—as described in the earlier section.

Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to SDT
Connector client. Click Edit -> Preferences -> Private Keys -> Add, locate the private key file and click
OK. You do not have to add the public part of your SSH key pair, it is calculated using the private key.
SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when SSH connecting through the console server.
You may have to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were established using
password authentication.
If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT
Connector, you can also configure it for public key authentication. Essentially what you are using is SSH
over SSH, and the two SSH connections are entirely separate, and the host configuration is entirely
independent of SDT Connector and the console server. You must configure the SSH client that SDT
Connector launches (e.g. Putty, OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH server for public key authentication.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 212
15.7 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via
the Internet. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection.
The console server includes OpenSSL. The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a robust,
commercial-grade, full-featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL
v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-strength general purpose
cryptography library. The project is managed by a worldwide community of volunteers that use the
Internet to communicate, plan, and develop the OpenSSL toolkit and its related documentation.
OpenSSL is based on the excellent SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson. The
OpenSSL toolkit is licensed under an Apache-style licence, which basically means that you are free to get
and use it for commercial and non-commercial purposes subject to some simple license conditions. In
the console server, OpenSSL is used primarily in conjunction with ‘http’ to have secure browser access to
the GUI management console across insecure networks.
More documentation on OpenSSL is available from:
http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/openssl.html
http://www.openssl.org/docs/HOWTO/certificates.txt
15.8 HTTPS
The Management Console can be served using HTTPS by running the webserver via sslwrap. The server
can be launched on request using inetd.
The HTTP server provided is a slightly modified version of the fnord-httpd from
http://www.fefe.de/fnord/
The SSL implementation is provided by the sslwrap application compiled with OpenSSL support. You can
find more detailed documentation at http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/
If your default network address is changed or the unit is to be accessed via a known Domain Name, you
can use the following steps to replace the default SSL Certificate and Private Key with ones tailored for
your new address.
15.8.1 Generating an encryption key
To create a 1024 bit RSA key with a password, issue the following command on the command line of a
linux host with the openssl utility installed:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out ssl_key.pem 1024
15.8.2 Generating a self-signed certificate with OpenSSL
This example shows how to use OpenSSL to create a self-signed certificate. OpenSSL is available for most
Linux distributions via the default package management mechanism. (Windows users can check
http://www.openssl.org/related/binaries.html)
To create a 1024 bit RSA key and a self-signed certificate, issue the following openssl command from the
host you have openssl installed on:
openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 1000 \
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 213
-newkey rsa:1024 -keyout ssl_key.pem -out ssl_cert.pem
You will be prompted to enter a lot of information. Most of it doesn’t matter, but the "Common Name"
should be the domain name of your computer (e.g. test.Black Box.com). When you have entered
everything, the certificate will be created in a file called ssl_cert.pem.
15.8.3 Installing the key and certificate
We recommend that you use an SCP (Secure Copying Protocol) client to copy files securely to the
console server unit. The scp utility is distributed with OpenSSH for most Unix distributions, while
Windows users can use something like the PSCP command line utility available with PuTTY.
You can install remotely the files created in the steps above with the scp utility as follows:
scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
or using PSCP:
pscp -scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
pscp -scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
PuTTY and the PSCP utility can be downloaded from:
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
More detailed documentation on the PSCP can be found:
http://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/0.58/htmldoc/Chapter5.html#pscp
15.8.4 Launching the HTTPS Server
Note that the easiest way to enable the HTTPS server is from the web Management Console. Simply click
the appropriate checkbox in Network -> Services -> HTTPS Server and the HTTPS server will be activated
(assuming the ssl_key.pem & ssl_cert.pem files exist in the /etc/config directory).
Alternatively inetd can be configured to launch the secure fnord server from the command line of the
unit as follows.
Edit the inetd configuration file. From the unit command line:
vi /etc/config/inetd.conf
Append a line:
443 stream tcp nowait root sslwrap -cert /etc/config/ssl_cert.pem -key /etc/config/ssl_key.pem exec /bin/httpd /home/httpd"
Save the file and signal inetd of the configuration change.
kill -HUP `cat /var/run/inetd.pid`
The HTTPS server should be accessible from a web client at a URL similar to this: https://<common name
of unit>
More detailed documentation about the openssl utility can be found at the website:
http://www.openssl.org/
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 214
15.9 Power Strip Control
The console server supports a growing list of remote power-control devices (RPCs) that you can
configure using the Management Console as described in Chapter 8. These RPCs are controlled using the
open source PowerMan and Network UPS Tools and with Black Box’s pmpower utility.
15.9.1 The PowerMan tool
PowerMan provides power management in a data center or compute cluster environment. It performs
operations such as power on, power off, and power cycle via remote power controller (RPC) devices.
Synopsis
powerman [-option] [targets]
pm [-option] [targets]
Options
-1, --on Power ON targets.
-0, --off Power OFF targets.
-c, --cycle
Power cycle targets.
-r, --reset
Assert hardware reset for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-f, --flash
Turn beacon ON for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-u, --unflash
Turn beacon OFF for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-l, --list List available targets. If possible, output will be compressed into a host range (see TARGET
SPECIFICATION below).
-q, --query
Query plug status of targets. If none specified, query all targets. Status is not cached;
each time this option is used, powermand queries the appropriate RPC's. Targets
connected to RPC's that could not be contacted (e.g. due to network failure) are
reported as status "unknown". If possible, output will be compressed into host ranges.
-n, --node
Query node power status of targets (if implemented by RPC). If no targets specified,
query all targets. In this context, a node in the OFF state could be ON at the plug but
operating in standby power mode.
-b, --beacon
Query beacon status (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all
targets.
-t, --temp
Query node temperature (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all
targets. Temperature information is not interpreted by powerman and is reported as
received from the RPC on one line per target, prefixed by target name.
-h, --help
Display option summary.
-L, --license
Show powerman license information.
-d, --destination host[:port] Connect to a powerman daemon on non-default host and optionally port.
-V, --version
Display the powerman version number and exit.
-D, --device
Displays RPC status information. If targets are specified, only RPC's matching the target
list are displayed.
-T, --telemetry Causes RPC telemetry information to be displayed as commands are processed. Useful
for debugging device scripts.
-x, --exprange Expand host ranges in query responses.
For more details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 215
Also refer powermand (http://linux.die.net/man/1/powermand) documentation and powerman.conf
(http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.conf)
Target Specification
powerman target hostnames may be specified as comma separated or space separated hostnames or
host ranges. Host ranges are of the general form: prefix[n-m,l-k,...], where n < m and l < k, etc., This form
should not be confused with regular expression character classes (also denoted by ''[]''). For example,
foo[19] does not represent foo1 or foo9, but rather represents a degenerate range: foo19.
This range syntax is meant only as a convenience on clusters with a prefix NN naming convention and
specification of ranges should not be considered necessary—the list foo1,foo9 could be specified as
such, or by the range foo[1,9].
Some examples of powerman targets follows.
Power on hosts bar,baz,foo01,foo02,...,foo05: powerman --on bar baz foo[01-05]
Power on hosts bar,foo7,foo9,foo10: powerman --on bar,foo[7,9-10]
Power on foo0,foo4,foo5: powerman --on foo[0,4-5]
As a reminder to the reader, some shells will interpret brackets ([ and ]) for pattern matching.
Depending on your shell, you might need to enclose ranged lists within quotes. For example, in tcsh, the
last example above should be executed as:
powerman --on "foo[0,4-5]"
15.9.2 The pmpower tool
The pmpower utility is a high level tool for manipulating remote preconfigured power devices connected
to the console server either via a serial or network connection. The PDU UPS and IPMI power devices are
variously controlled using the open source PowerMan, IPMItool or Network UPS Tools and Black Box’s
pmpower utility arches over these tools so the devices can be controlled through one command line:
pmpower [-?h] [-l device | -r host] [-o outlet] [-u username] [-p password] action
-?/-h This help message.
-l The serial port to use.
-o The outlet on the power target to apply to
-r The remote host address for the power target
-u Override the configured username
-p Override the configured password
on This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) on
off This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off
cycle This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off and on again
status This action retrieves the current status of the device or outlet
Examples:
To turn outlet 4 of the power device connected to serial port 2 on: # pmpower -l port02 -o 4 on
To turn an IPMI device off located at IP address 192.168.1.100 (where username is 'root' and
password is 'calvin': # pmpower -r 192.168.1.100 -u root -p calvin off
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 216
Default system Power Device actions are specified in /etc/powerstrips.xml. Custom Power Devices can
be added in /etc/config/powerstrips.xml. If an action is attempted which has not been configured for a
specific Power Device, pmpower will exit with an error.
15.9.3 Adding new RPC devices
There are a number of simple paths to adding support for new RPC devices.
The first is to have scripts to support the particular RPC included in either the open source PowerMan
project (http://sourceforge.net/projects/powerman) or the open source NUT UPS Tools project. The
PowerMan device specifications are rather weird and it is suggested that you leave the actual writing of
these scripts to the PowerMan authors. Documentation on how they work can be found at
http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.dev. The Network UPS Tools (NUT) project has recently moved on
from its UPS management origins to also cover SNMP PDUs (and embrace PowerMan). Black Box
progressively includes the updated PowerMan and NUT build into the console server firmware releases.
The second path is to directly add support for the new RPC devices (or to customize the existing RPC
device support) on your particular console server. The Manage: Power page uses information contained
in /etc/powerstrips.xml to configure and control devices attached to a serial port. The configuration also
looks for (and loads) /etc/config/powerstrips.xml if it exists.
The user can add their own support for more devices by putting definitions for them into
/etc/config/powerstrips.xml. This file can be created on a host system and copied to the Management
Console device using scp. Alternatively, login to the Management Console and use ftp or wget to
transfer files.
Here is a brief description of the elements of the XML entries in /etc/config/powerstrips.xml.
<powerstrip>
<id>Name or ID of the device support</id>
<outlet port="port-id-1">Display Port 1 in menu</outlet>
<outlet port="port-id-2">Display Port 2 in menu</outlet>
...
<on>script to turn power on</on>
<off>script to power off</off>
<cycle>script to cycle power</cycle>
<status>script to write power status to /var/run/power-status</status>
<speed>baud rate</speed>
<charsize>character size</charsize>
<stop>stop bits</stop>
<parity>parity setting</parity>
</powerstrip>
The id appears on the web page in the list of available devices types to configure.
The outlets describe targets that the scripts can control. For example, a power control board may
control several different outlets. The port-id is the native name for identifying the outlet. This value will
be passed to the scripts in the environment variable outlet, allowing the script to address the correct
outlet.
There are four possible scripts: on, off, cycle and status.
When a script is run, its standard input and output is redirected to the appropriate serial port. The
script receives the outlet and port in the outlet and port environment variables respectively.
The script can be anything that can be executed within the shell.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 217
All of the existing scripts in /etc/powerstrips.xml use the pmchat utility.
pmchat works just like the standard unix "chat" program, only it ensures interoperation with the port
manager.
The final options, speed, charsize, stop and parity define the recommended or default settings for the
attached device.
15.10 IPMItool
The console server includes the ipmitool utility for managing and configuring devices that support the
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) version 1.5 and version 2.0 specifications.
IPMI is an open standard for monitoring, logging, recovery, inventory, and control of hardware that is
implemented independent of the main CPU, BIOS, and OS. The service processor (or Baseboard
Management Controller, BMC) is the brain behind platform management and its primary purpose is to
handle the autonomous sensor monitoring and event logging features.
The ipmitool program provides a simple command-line interface to this BMC. It features the ability to
read the sensor data repository (SDR) and print sensor values, display the contents of the System Event
Log (SEL), print Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) inventory information, read and set LAN configuration
parameters, and perform remote chassis power control.
SYNOPSIS
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I open <command>
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I lan -H <hostname>
[-p <port>]
[-U <username>]
[-A <authtype>]
[-L <privlvl>]
[-a|-E|-P|-f <password>]
[-o <oemtype>]
<command>
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I lanplus -H <hostname>
[-p <port>]
[-U <username>]
[-L <privlvl>]
[-a|-E|-P|-f <password>]
[-o <oemtype>]
[-C <ciphersuite>]
<command>
DESCRIPTION
This program lets you manage Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) functions of either the
local system, via a kernel device driver, or a remote system, using IPMI V1.5 and IPMI v2.0. These
functions include printing FRU information, LAN configuration, sensor readings, and remote chassis
power control.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 218
IPMI management of a local system interface requires a compatible IPMI kernel driver to be installed
and configured. On Linux, this driver is called OpenIPMI and it is included in standard distributions. On
Solaris, this driver is called BMC and is inclued in Solaris 10. Management of a remote station requires
the IPMI-over-LAN interface to be enabled and configured. Depending on the particular requirements of
each system, it may be possible to enable the LAN interface using ipmitool over the system interface.
OPTIONS
-a
Prompt for the remote server password.
-A <authtype>
Specify an authentication type to use during IPMIv1.5 lan session activation. Supported types
are NONE, PASSWORD, MD5, or OEM.
-c
Present output in CSV (comma separated variable) format. This is not available with all
commands.
-C <ciphersuite>
The remote server authentication, integrity, and encryption algorithms to use for IPMIv2 lanplus
connections. See table 22-19 in the IPMIv2 specification. The default is 3 which specifies RAKPHMAC-SHA1 authentication, HMAC-SHA1-96 integrity, and AES-CBC-128 encryption algorightms.
-E
The remote server password is specified by the environment variable IPMI_PASSWORD.
-f <password_file>
Specifies a file containing the remote server password. If this option is absent, or if
password_file is empty, the password will default to NULL.
-h
Get basic usage help from the command line.
-H <address>
Remote server address, can be IP address or hostname. This option is required for lan and
lanplus interfaces.
-I <interface>
Selects IPMI interface to use. Supported interfaces that are compiled in are visible in the usage
help output.
-L <privlvl>
Force session privilege level. Can be CALLBACK, USER, OPERATOR, ADMIN. Default is ADMIN.
-m <local_address>
Set the local IPMB address. The default is 0x20 and there should be no need to change it for
normal operation.
-o <oemtype>
Select OEM type to support. This usually involves minor hacks in place in the code to work
around quirks in various BMCs from various manufacturers. Use -o list to see a list of current
supported OEM types.
-p <port>
Remote server UDP port to connect to. Default is 623.
-P <password>
Remote server password is specified on the command line. If supported it will be obscured in
the process list. Note! Specifying the password as a command line option is not recommended.
-t <target_address>
Bridge IPMI requests to the remote target address.
-U <username>
Remote server username, default is NULL user.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 219
-v
-V
Increase verbose output level. This option may be specified multiple times to increase the level
of debug output. If given three times you will get hexdumps of all incoming and outgoing
packets.
Display version information.
If no password method is specified, then ipmitool will prompt the user for a password. If no password is
entered at the prompt, the remote server password will default to NULL.
SECURITY
The ipmitool documentation highlights that there are several security issues to be considered before
enabling the IPMI LAN interface. A remote station has the ability to control a system's power state as
well as being able to gather certain platform information. To reduce vulnerability, we strongly advise
that the IPMI LAN interface only be enabled in 'trusted' environments where system security is not an
issue or where there is a dedicated secure 'management network' or access has been provided through
an console server.
Further, we strongly advise that you do not enable IPMI for remote access without setting a password,
and that that password should not be the same as any other password on that system.
When an IPMI password is changed on a remote machine with the IPMIv1.5 lan interface, the new
password is sent across the network as clear text. This could be observed and then used to attack the
remote system. We recommend that IPMI password management only be done over IPMIv2.0 lanplus
interface or the system interface on the local station.
For IPMI v1.5, the maximum password length is 16 characters. Passwords longer than 16 characters will
be truncated.
For IPMI v2.0, the maximum password length is 20 characters; longer passwords are truncated.
COMMANDS
help
This can be used to get command-line help on ipmitool commands. It may also be placed at the
end of commands to get option usage help.
ipmitool help
Commands:
raw
Send a RAW IPMI request and print
response
lan
Configure LAN Channels
chassis Get chassis status and set power
state
event Send pre-defined events to MC
mc
Management Controller status and
global enables
sdr
Print Sensor Data Repository
entries and readings
sensor Print detailed sensor information
fru
Print built-in FRU and scan SDR
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 220
for FRU locators
Print System Event Log (SEL)
Configure Platform Event Filtering
(PEF)
sol
Configure IPMIv2.0 Serial-over-LAN
isol
Configure IPMIv1.5 Serial-over-LAN
user
Configure Management Controller
users
channel Configure Management Controller
channels
session Print session information
exec
Run list of commands from file
set
Set runtime variable for shell and
exec
sel
pef
ipmitool chassis help
Chassis Commands: status, power, identify, policy, restart_cause, poh, bootdev
ipmitool chassis power help
chassis power Commands: status, on, off, cycle, reset, diag, soft
You will find more details on ipmitools at http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net/manpage.html
15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK)
As detailed in this manual customers can copy scripts, binaries, and configuration files directly to the
console server.
Black Box also freely provides a development kit that allows changes to be made to the software in
console server firmware image. The customer can use the CDK to:

generate a firmware image without certain programs, such as telnet, which may be banned by
company policy.

generate an image with new programs, such as custom Nagios plug-in binaries or company specific
binary utilities.

generate an image with custom defaults e.g. it may be required that the console server be configured
to have a specific default serial port profile which is reverted to even in event of a factory reset.

place configuration files into the firmware image, which cannot then be modified e.g. # /bin/config –set= tools update the configuration files in /etc/config which are read/write, whereas the files in /etc
are read only and cannot be modified
The CDK essentially provides a snapshot of the Black Box build process (taken after the programs have
been compiled and copied to a temporary directory romfs) just before the compressed file systems are
generated. You can obtain a copy of the Black Box CDK for the particular appliance you are working with
from Black Box
Note
The CDK is free.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 221
15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves
When the console servers are cascaded the Master is in control of the serial ports on the Slaves, and the
Master’s Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the
Slave’s serial ports. The Master does not provide a fully consolidated view, for example, Status: Active
Users only displays those users active on the Master’s ports and you will need to write a custom bash
script that parses the port logs if you want to find out who’s logged in to cascaded serial ports from the
master.
You will probably also want to enable remote or USB logging, because local logs only buffer 8K of data
and don’t persist between reboots.
This script would, for example, parse each port log file line by line, each time it sees 'LOGIN: username',
it adds username to the list of connected users for that port, each time it sees 'LOGOUT: username' it
removes it from the list. The list can then be nicely formatted and displayed. You can run the script on
the remote log server. To enable log storage and connection logging:
- Select Alerts & Logging: Port Log
- Configure log storage
- Select Serial & Network: Serial Port, Edit the serial port(s)
- Under Console server, select Logging Level 1 and click Apply
There’s a useful tutorial on creating a bash script CGI at
http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialCgiShellScript.html
Similarly, the Master does maintain a view of the status of the slaves:
- Select Status: Support Report
- Scroll down to Processes
- Look for: /bin/ssh -MN -o ControlPath=/var/run/cascade/%h slavename
- These are the slaves that are connected
- Note the end of the Slaves' names will be truncated, so the first 5 characters must be unique
Alternatively, you can write a custom CGI script as described above. The currently connected Slaves can
be determined by running: ls /var/run/cascade and the configured slaves can be displayed by running:
config -g config.cascade.slaves
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 222
Appendix A
Linux Commands & Source Code
The console server platform is a dedicated Linux computer, optimized to provide monitoring and secure
access to serial and network consoles of critical server systems and their supporting power and
networking infrastructure.
Black Box console servers are built on the 2.4 uCLinux kernel as developed by the uCLinux project. This is
GPL code and source can be found at http://cvs.uclinux.org. Some uCLinux commands have config files
that can be altered (e.g. portmanager, inetd, init, ssh/sshd/scp/sshkeygen, ucd-snmpd, samba, fnord,
sslwrap). Other commands you can run and do neat stuff with (e.g. loopback, bash (shell), ftp, hwclock,
iproute, iptables, netcat, ifconfig, mii-tool, netstat, route, ping, portmap, pppd, routed, setserial,
smtpclient, stty, stunel, tcpdump, tftp, tip, traceroute)
Below are most of the standard uCLinux and BusyBox commands (and some custom Black Box
commands) that are in the default build tree. The Administrator can use these to configure the console
server, and monitor and manage attached serial console and host devices:
addgroup *
adduser *
agetty
arp
arping
bash
busybox
cat *
chat
chgrp *
chmod *
chown *
config
cp *
date *
dd *
deluser *
df *
dhcpd
discard
dmesg *
echo *
erase
eraseall
false *
find
Add a group or add an user to a group
Add an user
alternative Linux getty
Manipulate the system ARP cache
Send ARP requests/replies
GNU Bourne-Again Shell
Swiss army knife of embedded Linux commands
Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout
Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout
Change file access permissions
Change file access permissions
Change file owner and group
Black Box tool to manipulate and query the system configuration from the
command line
Copy files and directories
Print or set the system date and time
Convert and copy a file
Delete USER from the system
Report filesystem disk space usage
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server
Network utility that listens on the discard port
Print or control the kernel ring buffer
Print the specified ARGs to stdout
Tool for erasing MTD partitions
Tool for erasing entire MTD partitions
Do nothing, unsuccessful
Search for files
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 223
flashw
flatfsd
ftp
gen-keys
getopt *
gettyd
grep *
gunzip *
gzip *
hd
hostname *
httpd
hwclock
inetd
inetd-echo
init
ip
ipmitool
iptables
ip6tables
iptablesrestore
iptables-save
kill *
ln *
login
loopback
loopback1
loopback2
loopback8
loopback16
loopback48
ls *
mail
mkdir *
mkfs.jffs2
mknod *
more *
mount *
msmtp
mv *
nc
netflash
netstat
ntpd
Write data to individual flash devices
Daemon to save RAM file systems back to FLASH
Internet file transfer program
SSH key generation program
Parses command options
Getty daemon
Print lines matching a pattern
Compress or expand files
Compress or expand files
ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
Get or set hostname or DNS domain name
Listen for incoming HTTP requests
Query and set hardware clock (RTC)
Network super-server daemon
Network echo utility
Process control initialization
Show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
Linux IPMI manager
Administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT
Administration tool for IPv6 packet filtering
Restore IP Tables
Save IP Tables
Send a signal to a process to end gracefully
Make links between files
Begin session on the system
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
List directory contents
Send and receive mail
Make directories
Create an MS-DOS file system under Linux
Make block or character special files
File perusal filter for crt viewing
Mount a file system
SMTP mail client
Move (rename) files
TCP/IP Swiss army knife
Upgrade firmware on ucLinux platforms using the blkmem interface
Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics etc
Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 224
pgrep
pidof
ping
ping6
pkill
pmchat
pmdeny
pminetd
pmloggerd
pmshell
pmusers
portmanager
portmap
pppd
ps *
pwd *
reboot *
rm *
rmdir *
routed
routed
routef
routel
rtacct
rtmon
scp
sed *
setmac
setserial
sh
showmac
sleep *
smbmnt
smbmount
smbumount
snmpd
snmptrap
sredird
ssh
ssh-keygen
sshd
sslwrap
stty
stunnel
Display process(es) selected by regex pattern
Find the process ID of a running program
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
IPv6 ping
Sends a signal to process(es) selected by regex pattern
Black Box command similar to the standard chat command (via portmanager)
Black Box command similar to the standard tip or cu but all serial port access is
directed via the portmanager.
Black Box command to query portmanager for active user sessions
Black Box command that handles all serial port access
DARPA port to RPC program number mapper
Point-to-Point protocol daemon
Report a snapshot of the current processes
Print name of current/working directory
Soft reboot
Remove files or directories
Remove empty directories
Show or manipulate the IP routing table
Show or manipulate the IP routing table
IP Route tool to flush IPv4 routes
IP Route tool to list routes
Applet printing /proc/net/rt_acct
RTnetlink listener
Secure copy (remote file copy program)
Text stream editor
Sets the MAC address
Sets and reports serial port configuration
Shell
Shows MAC address
Delay for a specified amount of time
Helper utility for mounting SMB file systems
Mount an SMBFS file system
SMBFS umount for normal users
SNMP daemon
Sends an SNMP notification to a manager
RFC 2217 compliant serial port redirector
OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program)
Authentication key generation, management, and conversion
OpenSSH SSH daemon
Program that allows plain services to be accessed via SSL
Change and print terminal line settings
Universal SSL tunnel
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 225
sync *
sysctl
syslogd
tar *
tc
tcpdump
telnetd
tftp
tftpd
tip
top
touch *
traceroute
traceroute6
true *
umount *
uname *
usleep *
vconfig *
vi *
w
zcat *
Flush file system buffers
Configure kernel parameters at runtime
System logging utility
The tar archiving utility
Show traffic control settings
Dump traffic on a network
Telnet protocol server
Client to transfer a file from/to tftp server
Trivial file Transfer Protocol (tftp) server
Simple terminal emulator/cu program for connecting to modems and serial
devices
Provide a view of process activity in real time
Change file timestamps
Print the route packets take to network host
Traceroute for IPv6
Returns an exit code of TRUE (0)
Unmount file systems
Print system information
Delay for a specified amount of time
Create and remove virtual ethernet devices
Busybox clone of the VI text editor
Show who is logged on and what they are doing
Identical to gunzip -c
Commands above which are appended with '*' come from BusyBox (the Swiss Army Knife of embedded
Linux) http://www.busybox.net/downloads/BusyBox.html. Others are generic Linux commands and most
commands the -h or --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. More
details on the generic Linux commands can found online at http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTOINDEX/howtos.html and http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Remote-Serial-Console-HOWTO.html
An updated list of the commands may found using ls command to view all the commands actually
available in the /bin directory in your console server.
There were a number of Black Box tools listed above that make it simple to configure the console server
and make sure the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc. These commands are
covered in the previous chapters and include:
config which allows manipulation and querying of the system configuration from the command
line. With config a new configuration can be activated by running the relevant configurator,
which performs the action necessary to make the configuration changes live.
portmanager which provides a buffered interface to each serial port. It is supported by the
pmchat and pmshell commands which ensure all serial port access is directed via the
portmanager.
pmpower is a configurable tool for manipulating remote power devices that are serially or
network connected to the console server.
SDT Connector is a java client applet that provides point-and-click SSH tunneled connections to
the console server and Managed Devices.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 226
There are also a number of other CLI commands related to other open source tools embedded in the
console server including:
PowerMan provides power management for many preconfigured remote power controller
(RPC) devices. For CLI details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman
Network UPS Tools (NUT) provides reliable monitoring of UPS and PDU hardware and ensure
safe shutdowns of the systems which are connected - with a goal to monitor every kind of UPS
and PDU. For CLI details refer http://www.networkupstools.org
Nagios is a popular enterprise-class management tool that provides central monitoring of the
hosts and services in distributed networks. For CLI details refer http://www.nagios.org
Many components of the console server software are licensed under the GNU General Public License
(version 2), which Black Box supports. You may obtain a copy of the GNU General Public License at
http://www.fsf.org/copyleft/gpl.html. Black Box will provide source code for any of the components
of the software licensed under the GNU General Public License upon request.
The console server also embodies the okvm console management software. This is GPL code and the full
source is available from http://okvm.sourceforge.net.
The console server BIOS (boot loader code) is a port of uboot, which is also a GPL package with source
openly available.
The console server CGIs (the html code, xml code and web config tools for the Management Console) are
proprietary to Black Box, however the code will be provided to customers, under NDA.
Also inbuilt in the console server is a Port Manager application and Configuration tools as described in
Chapters 14 and 15. These both are proprietary to Black Box, but open to customers (as above).
The console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to run custom scripts.
GNU bash, version 2.05.0(1)-release (arm-Black Box-linux-gnu) offers the following shell commands:
alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
bg [job_spec]
bind [-lpvsPVS] [-m keymap] [-f fi break [n]
builtin [shell-builtin [arg ...]]
case WORD in [PATTERN [| PATTERN]
cd [-PL] [dir]
command [-pVv]
command [arg ...]
compgen [-abcdefjkvu] [-o option]
complete [-abcdefjkvu] [-pr] [-o o]
continue [n]
declare [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value]
dirs [-clpv] [+N] [-N]
disown [-h] [-ar] [jobspec ...]
echo [-neE] [arg ...]
enable [-pnds] [-a] [-f filename]
eval [arg ...]
exec [-cl] [-a name] file [redirec]
exit [n]
export [-nf] [name ...] or export
local name[=value] ...
logout
popd [+N | -N] [-n]
printf format [arguments]
pushd [dir | +N | -N] [-n]
pwd [-PL]
read [-ers] [-t timeout] [-p promp]
readonly [-anf] [name ...] or read return [n]
select NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do
COMMANDS
set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o opti]
shift [n]
shopt [-pqsu] [-o long-option] opt
source filename
suspend [-f]
test [expr]
time [-p] PIPELINE
times
trap [arg] [signal_spec ...]
true
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 227
false
fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
fg [job_spec]
for NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do COMMA
function NAME { COMMANDS ; } or NA
getopts optstring name [arg]
hash [-r] [-p pathname] [name ...]
help [-s] [pattern ...]
history [-c] [-d offset] [n] or hi
if COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; [ elif
jobs [-lnprs] [jobspec ...] or job kill [-s
sigspec | -n signum | -si let arg [arg ...]
type [-apt] name [name ...]
typeset [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value ulimit [SHacdflmnpstuv] [limit]
umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
unalias [-a] [name ...]
unset [-f] [-v] [name ...]
until COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done
variables - Some variable names an wait
[n]
while COMMANDS; do COMMANDS;
done { COMMANDS ; }
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 228
Appendix B
Hardware Specifications
FEATURE
VALUE
Dimensions
LES1208A/16A/48A: 17 x 12 x 1.75 in (43.2 x 31.3. x 4.5 cm)
LES1116A/48A: 17 x 8.5 x 1.75 in (43.2 x 21. x 4.5 cm)
LES1108A: 8.2 x 4.9 x 1.2 in (20.8 x 12.6 x 4.5 cm)
Weight
LES1208A/16A/48A: 5.4 kg (11.8 lbs)
LES1116A/48A: 3.9 kg (8.5 lbs)
LES1108A: 1.7 kg (3.7 lbs)
Ambient operating temperature
Non operating storage
temperature
Humidity
Power
Power Consumption
CPU
Memory
5°C to 50°C (41°F to 122°F)
-30°C to +60°C (-20°F to +140°F)
Serial Connectors
LES1208A: 8 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
LES1216A: 16 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
LES1248A: 48 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
LES1116A: 16 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
LES1148A: 48 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
LES1108A 8 RJ-45 RS-232 serial ports
All models: 1 DB-9 RS-232 console/ modem serial port
RJ45 ports - 50 to 230,400bps)
DB9 port - 2400 to 115,200 bps
LES1208A/16A/48A: Two RJ-45 10/100Base-T Ethernet ports
LES1108A/16A/48A: One RJ-45 10/100Base-T Ethernet ports
Serial Baud Rates
Ethernet Connectors
5% to 90%
Refer to Chapter 2 for various models
All less than 30W
Micrel KS8695P controller
LES1208A/16A/48A: 64MB SDRAM 16MB Flash 512MB USB Flash
LES1116A/48A: 64MB SDRAM 16MB Flash
LES1108A:: 16MB SDRAM 8MB Flash
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 229
Appendix C
Safety & Certifications
Please take care to follow the safety precautions below when installing and operating the console
server:
-
Do not remove the metal covers. There are no operator serviceable components inside. Opening or
removing the cover may expose you to dangerous voltage which may cause fire or electric shock.
Refer all service to Black Box qualified personnel.
-
To avoid electric shock the power cord protective grounding conductor must be connected through
to ground.
-
Always pull on the plug, not the cable, when disconnecting the power cord from the socket.
Do not connect or disconnect the console server during an electrical storm. We recommend that you use
a surge suppressor or UPS to protect the equipment from transients.
FCC War n in g St at e m e n t
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation of this device is subject to the following
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference that may cause undesired operation.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 230
Appendix F
End User License Agreement
READ BEFORE USING THE ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING THE
ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE, THE USE OF WHICH IS LICENSED FOR USE ONLY AS SET FORTH BELOW. IF
YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT, DO NOT USE THE
SOFTWARE. IF YOU USE ANY PART OF THE SOFTWARE, SUCH USE WILL INDICATE THAT YOU ACCEPT
THESE TERMS.
You have acquired a product that includes Black Box (―Black Box‖) proprietary software and/or proprietary software
licensed to Black Box. This Black Box End User License Agreement (―EULA‖) is a legal agreement between you
(either an individual or a single entity) and Black Box for the installed software product of Black Box origin, as well as
associated media, printed materials, and ―online‖ or electronic documentation (―Software‖). By installing, copying,
downloading, accessing, or otherwise using the Software, you agree to be bound by the terms of this EULA. If you
do not agree to the terms of this EULA, Black Box is not willing to license the Software to you. In such event, do not
use or install the Software. If you have purchased the Software, promptly return the Software and all accompanying
materials with proof of purchase for a refund.
Products with separate end user license agreements that may be provided along with the Software are licensed to
you under the terms of those separate end user license agreements.
LICENSE GRANT. Subject to the terms and conditions of this EULA, Black Box grants you a nonexclusive right and
license to install and use the Software on a single CPU, provided that, (1) you may not rent, lease, sell, sublicense or
lend the Software; (2) you may not reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or modify the Software, except and
only to the extent that such activity is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstanding this limitation; and (3)
you may not transfer rights under this EULA unless such transfer is part of a permanent sale or transfer of the
Product, you transfer at the same time all copies of the Software to the same party or destroy such materials not
transferred, and the recipient agrees to this EULA.
No license is granted in any of the Software‘s proprietary source code. This license does not grant you any rights to
patents, copyright, trade secrets, trademarks or any other rights with respect to the Software.
You may make a reasonable number of copies of the electronic documentation accompanying the Software for each
Software license you acquire, provided that, you must reproduce and include all copyright notices and any other
proprietary rights notices appearing on the electronic documentation. Black Box reserves all rights not expressly
granted herein.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The Software is protected by copyright laws, international copyright treaties,
and other intellectual property laws and treaties. Black Box and its suppliers retain all ownership of, and intellectual
property rights in (including copyright), the Software components and all copies thereof, provided however, that (1)
certain components of the Software, including SDT Connector, are components licensed under the GNU General
Public License Version 2, which Black Box supports, and (2) the SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure
Java implementation of SSH2 which is licensed under BSD style license. Copies of these licenses are detailed below
and Black Box will provide source code for any of the components of the Software licensed under the GNU General
Public License upon request.
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You agree that you will not export or re-export the Software, any part thereof, or any
process or service that is the direct product of the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of the
United States or the country in which you obtained them.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. The Software and related documentation are provided with Restricted
Rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c) (1)
(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c) (1)
and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software – Restricted Rights at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19, as applicable, or any
successor regulations.
TERM AND TERMINATION. This EULA is effective until terminated. The EULA terminates immediately if you fail to
comply with any term or condition. In such an event, you must destroy all copies of the Software. You may also
terminate this EULA at any time by destroying the Software.
GOVERNING LAW AND ATTORNEY‘S FEES. This EULA is governed by the laws of the State of Utah, USA,
excluding its conflict of law rules. You agree that the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 231
Sale of Goods is hereby excluded in its entirety and does not apply to this EULA. If you acquired this Software in a
country outside of the United States, that country‘s laws may apply. In any action or suit to enforce any right or
remedy under this EULA or to interpret any provision of this EULA, the prevailing party will be entitled to recover its
costs, including reasonable attorneys‘ fees.
ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This EULA constitutes the entire agreement between you and Black Box with respect to the
Software, and supersedes all other agreements or representations, whether written or oral. The terms of this EULA
can only be modified by express written consent of both parties. If any part of this EULA is held to be unenforceable
as written, it will be enforced to the maximum extent allowed by applicable law, and will not affect the enforceability of
any other part.
Should you have any questions concerning this EULA, or if you desire to contact Black Box for any reason, please
contact the Black Box representative serving your company.
THE FOLLOWING DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS INCORPORATED INTO THIS
EULA BY REFERENCE. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. YOU HAVE INDEPENDENTLY
DETERMINED HOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND BLACK BOX HAS RELIED UPON YOU TO
CONDUCT SUFFICIENT TESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLE FOR SUCH USE.
LIMITED WARRANTY Black Box warrants the media containing the Software for a period of ninety (90) days from the
date of original purchase from Black Box or its authorized retailer. Proof of date of purchase will be required. Any
updates to the Software provided by Black Box (which may be provided by Black Box at its sole discretion) shall be
governed by the terms of this EULA. In the event the product fails to perform as warranted, Black Box‘s sole
obligation shall be, at Black Box‘s discretion, to refund the purchase price paid by you for the Software on the
defective media, or to replace the Software on new media. Black Box makes no warranty or representation that its
Software will meet your requirements, will work in combination with any hardware or application software products
provided by third parties, that the operation of the software products will be uninterrupted or error free, or that all
defects in the Software will be corrected.
BLACK BOX DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. OTHER THAN AS STATED HEREIN, THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO SATISFACTORY QUALITY,
PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, AND EFFORT IS WITH YOU. ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST
INTERFERENCE WITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE
RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE WARRANTIES DO
NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDING ON, BLACK BOX.
NO LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN DAMAGES. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BY LAW, BLACK BOX SHALL HAVE NO
LIABILITY FOR COSTS, LOSS, DAMAGES OR LOST OPPORTUNITY OF ANY TYPE WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOST OR ANTICIPATED PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF DATA, OR ANY
INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER UNDER CONTRACT, TORT,
WARRANTY OR OTHERWISE ARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS EULA OR THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT SHALL BLACK BOX BE LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT IN
EXCESS OF THE LICENSE FEE PAID TO BLACK BOX UNDER THIS EULA. SOME STATES AND COUNTRIES
DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
JSch License
SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure Java implementation of SSH2. JSch is licensed under BSD style
license and it is:
Copyright (c) 2002, 2003, 2004 Atsuhiko Yamanaka, JCraft,Inc. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 232
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The names of the authors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL JCRAFT, INC. OR ANY CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS
SOFTWARE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
SDT Connector License
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying
it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such
program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under
copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications
and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term
"modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.
The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is
true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium,
provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and
give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection
in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the
Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you
also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of
any change.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 233
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the
Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this
License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started
running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an
appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and
that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work
based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from
the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License,
and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute
the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on
the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and
every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the
intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on
the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable
form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under
the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than
your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding
source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This
alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or
executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable
work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special
exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or
binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the
executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering
equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even
though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.
Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will
not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you
permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program),
you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or
modifying the Program or works based on it.
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 234
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives
a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not
responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited
to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the
conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as
to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a
consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free
redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you
could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the
section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest
validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution
system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the
wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to
the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted
interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical
distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus
excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time
to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License
which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are
different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be
guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 235
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
_____________________________________________________________________
724-746-5500 | b lackb o x.co m
Page 236
Black Box Tech Support: FREE! Live. 24/7.
Tech support the
way it should be.
Great tech support is just 20 seconds away at 724-746-5500 or blackbox.com.
About Black Box
Black Box Network Services is your source for more than 118,000 networking and infrastructure products. You’ll find everything
from cabinets and racks and power and surge protection products to media converters and Ethernet switches all supported by
free, live 24/7 Tech support available in 20 seconds or less.
© Copyright 2009. All rights reserved. Black Box and the Double Diamond logo are registered trademarks of BB Technologies,
Inc. Any third-party trademarks appearing in this white paper are acknowledged to be the property of their respective owners.
®
724-746-5500 | blackbox.com
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement