# JPEG

# INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

**CCITT**

## THE INTERNATIONAL

## TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE

## CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE

**T.81**

# (09/92)

**TERMINAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTOCOLS**

**FOR TELEMATIC SERVICES**

**INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –**

**DIGITAL COMPRESSION AND CODING**

**OF CONTINUOUS-TONE STILL IMAGES –**

**REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES**

**Recommendation T.81**

**Foreword**

ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations Specialized Agency in the field of telecommunications. The CCITT (the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) is a permanent organ of the ITU. Some 166 member countries, 68 telecom operating entities, 163 scientific and industrial organizations and 39 international organizations participate in CCITT which is the body which sets world telecommunications standards (Recommendations).

The approval of Recommendations by the members of CCITT is covered by the procedure laid down in CCITT Resolution

No. 2 (Melbourne, 1988). In addition, the Plenary Assembly of CCITT, which meets every four years, approves

Recommendations submitted to it and establishes the study programme for the following period.

In some areas of information technology, which fall within CCITT’s purview, the necessary standards are prepared on a collaborative basis with ISO and IEC. The text of CCITT Recommendation T.81 was approved on 18th September 1992.

The identical text is also published as ISO/IEC International Standard 10918-1.

___________________

CCITT NOTE

In this Recommendation, the expression “Administration” is used for conciseness to indicate both a telecommunication administration and a recognized private operating agency.

ITU 1993

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the ITU.

**Contents**

3

4

Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................

2 Normative references.....................................................................................................................................

Definitions, abbreviations and symbols .........................................................................................................

General .........................................................................................................................................................

5

6

7

Interchange format requirements ...................................................................................................................

Encoder requirements ...................................................................................................................................

Decoder requirements ...................................................................................................................................

Annex A – Mathematical definitions........................................................................................................................

Annex B – Compressed data formats........................................................................................................................

Annex C – Huffman table specification....................................................................................................................

Annex D – Arithmetic coding ..................................................................................................................................

Annex E – Encoder and decoder control procedures ................................................................................................

Annex F – Sequential DCT-based mode of operation...............................................................................................

Annex G – Progressive DCT-based mode of operation.............................................................................................

119

Annex H – Lossless mode of operation ....................................................................................................................

132

54

77

87

Annex J – Hierarchical mode of operation................................................................................................................

137

Annex K – Examples and guidelines........................................................................................................................

143

Annex L – Patents....................................................................................................................................................

179

Annex M – Bibliography..........................................................................................................................................

181

24

31

50

23

23

23

*Page*

1

12 iii

1

1

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) i**

**Introduction**

This CCITT Recommendation | ISO/IEC International Standard was prepared by CCITT Study Group VIII and the Joint

Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 10. This Experts Group was formed in 1986 to establish a standard for the sequential progressive encoding of continuous tone grayscale and colour images.

*Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-tone Still images*, is published in two parts:

– Requirements and guidelines;

– Compliance testing.

This part, Part 1, sets out requirements and implementation guidelines for continuous-tone still image encoding and decoding processes, and for the coded representation of compressed image data for interchange between applications.

These processes and representations are intended to be generic, that is, to be applicable to a broad range of applications for colour and grayscale still images within communications and computer systems. Part 2, sets out tests for determining whether implementations comply with the requirments for the various encoding and decoding processes specified in Part

1.

The user’s attention is called to the possibility that – for some of the coding processes specified herein – compliance with this Recommendation | International Standard may require use of an invention covered by patent rights. See Annex L for further information.

The requirements which these processes must satisfy to be useful for specific image communications applications such as facsimile, Videotex and audiographic conferencing are defined in CCITT Recommendation T.80. The intent is that the generic processes of Recommendation T.80 will be incorporated into the various CCITT Recommendations for terminal equipment for these applications.

In addition to the applications addressed by the CCITT and ISO/IEC, the JPEG committee has developped a compression standard to meet the needs of other applications as well, including desktop publishing, graphic arts, medical imaging and scientific imaging.

Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and J are normative, and thus form an integral part of this Specification. Annexes K, L and M are informative and thus do not form an integral part of this Specification.

This Specification aims to follow the guidelines of CCITT and ISO/IEC JTC 1 on *Rules for presentation of CCITT *|

*ISO/IEC common text*.

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**INTERNATIONAL STANDARD**

ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)

CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)

**CCITT RECOMMENDATION**

**INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY – DIGITAL COMPRESSION**

**AND CODING OF CONTINUOUS-TONE STILL IMAGES –**

**REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES**

**1 Scope**

This CCITT Recommendation | International Standard is applicable to continuous-tone – grayscale or colour – digital still image data. It is applicable to a wide range of applications which require use of compressed images. It is not applicable to bi-level image data.

This Specification

– specifies processes for converting source image data to compressed image data;

– specifies processes for converting compressed image data to reconstructed image data;

– gives guidance on how to implement these processes in practice;

– specifies coded representations for compressed image data.

NOTE – This Specification does not specify a complete coded image representation. Such representations may include certain parameters, such as aspect ratio, component sample registration, and colour space designation, which are applicationdependent.

**2 Normative references**

The following CCITT Recommendations and International Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this CCITT Recommendation | International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All Recommendations and Standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this CCITT Recommendation | International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the Recommendations and Standards listed below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. The CCITT Secretariat maintains a list of currently valid CCITT

Recommendations.

–

*CCITT Recommendation T.80 (1992), Common components for image compression and communication –*

*Basic principles*.

**3 Definitions, abbreviations and symbols**

**3.1**

**Definitions and abbreviations**

For the purposes of this Specification, the following definitions apply.

**3.1.1**

**abbreviated format:** A representation of compressed image data which is missing some or all of the table specifications required for decoding, or a representation of table-specification data without frame headers, scan headers, and entropy-coded segments.

**3.1.2**

**AC coefficient:** Any DCT coefficient for which the frequency is not zero in at least one dimension.

**3.1.3**

**(adaptive) (binary) arithmetic decoding:** An entropy decoding procedure which recovers the sequence of symbols from the sequence of bits produced by the arithmetic encoder.

**3.1.4**

**(adaptive) (binary) arithmetic encoding:** An entropy encoding procedure which codes by means of a recursive subdivision of the probability of the sequence of symbols coded up to that point.

**3.1.5**

**application environment:** The standards for data representation, communication, or storage which have been established for a particular application.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 1**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.6**

**arithmetic decoder:** An embodiment of arithmetic decoding procedure.

**3.1.7**

**arithmetic encoder:** An embodiment of arithmetic encoding procedure.

**3.1.8**

**baseline (sequential):** A particular sequential DCT-based encoding and decoding process specified in this

Specification, and which is required for all DCT-based decoding processes.

**3.1.9**

**binary decision: **Choice between two alternatives.

**3.1.10**

**bit stream:** Partially encoded or decoded sequence of bits comprising an entropy-coded segment.

**3.1.11**

**block:** An 8

×

8 array of samples or an 8

×

8 array of DCT coefficient values of one component.

**3.1.12**

**block-row:** A sequence of eight contiguous component lines which are partitioned into 8

×

8 blocks.

**3.1.13**

**byte:** A group of 8 bits.

**3.1.14**

**byte stuffing:** A procedure in which either the Huffman coder or the arithmetic coder inserts a zero byte into the entropy-coded segment following the generation of an encoded hexadecimal X’FF’ byte.

**3.1.15**

**carry bit:** A bit in the arithmetic encoder code register which is set if a carry-over in the code register overflows the eight bits reserved for the output byte.

**3.1.16**

**ceiling function:** The mathematical procedure in which the greatest integer value of a real number is obtained by selecting the smallest integer value which is greater than or equal to the real number.

**3.1.17**

**class (of coding process):** Lossy or lossless coding processes.

**3.1.18**

**code register:** The arithmetic encoder register containing the least significant bits of the partially completed entropy-coded segment. Alternatively, the arithmetic decoder register containing the most significant bits of a partially decoded entropy-coded segment.

**3.1.19**

**coder:** An embodiment of a coding process.

**3.1.20**

**coding:** Encoding or decoding.

**3.1.21**

**coding model:** A procedure used to convert input data into symbols to be coded.

**3.1.22**

**(coding) process:** A general term for referring to an encoding process, a decoding process, or both.

**3.1.23**

**colour image:** A continuous-tone image that has more than one component.

**3.1.24**

**columns:** Samples per line in a component.

**3.1.25**

**component:** One of the two-dimensional arrays which comprise an image.

**3.1.26**

**compressed data:** Either compressed image data or table specification data or both.

**3.1.27**

**compressed image data:** A coded representation of an image, as specified in this Specification.

**3.1.28**

**compression:** Reduction in the number of bits used to represent source image data.

**3.1.29**

**conditional exchange:** The interchange of MPS and LPS probability intervals whenever the size of the LPS interval is greater than the size of the MPS interval (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.30**

**(conditional) probability estimate:** The probability value assigned to the LPS by the probability estimation state machine (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.31**

**conditioning table:** The set of parameters which select one of the defined relationships between prior coding decisions and the conditional probability estimates used in arithmetic coding.

**3.1.32**

**context:** The set of previously coded binary decisions which is used to create the index to the probability estimation state machine (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.33**

**continuous-tone image:** An image whose components have more than one bit per sample.

**3.1.34**

**data unit:** An 8

×

8 block of samples of one component in DCT-based processes; a sample in lossless processes.

**2 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.35**

**DC coefficient:** The DCT coefficient for which the frequency is zero in both dimensions.

**3.1.36**

**DC prediction:** The procedure used by DCT-based encoders whereby the quantized DC coefficient from the previously encoded 8

×

8 block of the same component is subtracted from the current quantized DC coefficient.

**3.1.37**

**(DCT) coefficient:** The amplitude of a specific cosine basis function – may refer to an original DCT coefficient, to a quantized DCT coefficient, or to a dequantized DCT coefficient.

**3.1.38**

**decoder:** An embodiment of a decoding process.

**3.1.39**

**decoding process:** A process which takes as its input compressed image data and outputs a continuous-tone image.

**3.1.40**

**default conditioning:** The values defined for the arithmetic coding conditioning tables at the beginning of coding of an image.

**3.1.41**

**dequantization:** The inverse procedure to quantization by which the decoder recovers a representation of the

DCT coefficients.

**3.1.42**

**differential component:** The difference between an input component derived from the source image and the corresponding reference component derived from the preceding frame for that component (in hierarchical mode coding).

**3.1.43**

**differential frame:** A frame in a hierarchical process in which differential components are either encoded or decoded.

**3.1.44**

**(digital) reconstructed image (data):** A continuous-tone image which is the output of any decoder defined in this Specification.

**3.1.45**

**(digital) source image (data):** A continuous-tone image used as input to any encoder defined in this

Specification.

**3.1.46**

**(digital) (still) image:** A set of two-dimensional arrays of integer data.

**3.1.47**

**discrete cosine transform; DCT:** Either the forward discrete cosine transform or the inverse discrete cosine transform.

**3.1.48**

**downsampling (filter):** A procedure by which the spatial resolution of an image is reduced (in hierarchical mode coding).

**3.1.49**

**encoder:** An embodiment of an encoding process.

**3.1.50**

**encoding process:** A process which takes as its input a continuous-tone image and outputs compressed image data.

**3.1.51**

**entropy-coded (data) segment:** An independently decodable sequence of entropy encoded bytes of compressed image data.

**3.1.52**

**(entropy-coded segment) pointer:** The variable which points to the most recently placed (or fetched) byte in the entropy encoded segment.

**3.1.53**

**entropy decoder:** An embodiment of an entropy decoding procedure.

**3.1.54**

**entropy decoding:** A lossless procedure which recovers the sequence of symbols from the sequence of bits produced by the entropy encoder.

**3.1.55**

**entropy encoder:** An embodiment of an entropy encoding procedure.

**3.1.56**

**entropy encoding:** A lossless procedure which converts a sequence of input symbols into a sequence of bits such that the average number of bits per symbol approaches the entropy of the input symbols.

**3.1.57**

**extended (DCT-based) process:** A descriptive term for DCT-based encoding and decoding processes in which additional capabilities are added to the baseline sequential process.

**3.1.58**

**forward discrete cosine transform; FDCT:** A mathematical transformation using cosine basis functions which converts a block of samples into a corresponding block of original DCT coefficients.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 3**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.59**

**frame:** A group of one or more scans (all using the same DCT-based or lossless process) through the data of one or more of the components in an image.

**3.1.60**

**frame header:** A marker segment that contains a start-of-frame marker and associated frame parameters that are coded at the beginning of a frame.

**3.1.61**

**frequency:** A two-dimensional index into the two-dimensional array of DCT coefficients.

**3.1.62**

**(frequency) band:** A contiguous group of coefficients from the zig-zag sequence (in progressive mode coding).

**3.1.63**

**full progression:** A process which uses both spectral selection and successive approximation (in progressive mode coding).

**3.1.64**

**grayscale image:** A continuous-tone image that has only one component.

**3.1.65**

**hierarchical: **A mode of operation for coding an image in which the first frame for a given component is followed by frames which code the differences between the source data and the reconstructed data from the previous frame for that component. Resolution changes are allowed between frames.

**3.1.66**

**hierarchical decoder:** A sequence of decoder processes in which the first frame for each component is followed by frames which decode an array of differences for each component and adds it to the reconstructed data from the preceding frame for that component.

**3.1.67**

**hierarchical encoder:** The mode of operation in which the first frame for each component is followed by frames which encode the array of differences between the source data and the reconstructed data from the preceding frame for that component.

**3.1.68**

**horizontal sampling factor:** The relative number of horizontal data units of a particular component with respect to the number of horizontal data units in the other components.

**3.1.69**

**Huffman decoder:** An embodiment of a Huffman decoding procedure.

**3.1.70**

**Huffman decoding:** An entropy decoding procedure which recovers the symbol from each variable length code produced by the Huffman encoder.

**3.1.71**

**Huffman encoder:** An embodiment of a Huffman encoding procedure.

**3.1.72**

**Huffman encoding:** An entropy encoding procedure which assigns a variable length code to each input symbol.

**3.1.73**

**Huffman table:** The set of variable length codes required in a Huffman encoder and Huffman decoder.

**3.1.74**

**image data:** Either source image data or reconstructed image data.

**3.1.75**

**interchange format:** The representation of compressed image data for exchange between application environments.

**3.1.76**

**interleaved:** The descriptive term applied to the repetitive multiplexing of small groups of data units from each component in a scan in a specific order.

**3.1.77**

**inverse discrete cosine transform; IDCT:** A mathematical transformation using cosine basis functions which converts a block of dequantized DCT coefficients into a corresponding block of samples.

**3.1.78**

**Joint Photographic Experts Group; JPEG:** The informal name of the committee which created this

Specification. The “joint” comes from the CCITT and ISO/IEC collaboration.

**3.1.79**

**latent output:** Output of the arithmetic encoder which is held, pending resolution of carry-over (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.80**

**less probable symbol; LPS:** For a binary decision, the decision value which has the smaller probability.

**3.1.81**

**level shift:** A procedure used by DCT-based encoders and decoders whereby each input sample is either converted from an unsigned representation to a two’s complement representation or from a two’s complement representation to an unsigned representation.

**4 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.82**

**lossless:** A descriptive term for encoding and decoding processes and procedures in which the output of the decoding procedure(s) is identical to the input to the encoding procedure(s).

**3.1.83**

**lossless coding:** The mode of operation which refers to any one of the coding processes defined in this

Specification in which all of the procedures are lossless (see Annex H).

**3.1.84**

**lossy:** A descriptive term for encoding and decoding processes which are not lossless.

**3.1.85**

**marker:** A two-byte code in which the first byte is hexadecimal FF (X’FF’) and the second byte is a value between 1 and hexadecimal FE (X’FE’).

**3.1.86**

**marker segment:** A marker and associated set of parameters.

**3.1.87**

**MCU-row:** The smallest sequence of MCU which contains at least one line of samples or one block-row from every component in the scan.

**3.1.88**

**minimum coded unit; MCU:** The smallest group of data units that is coded.

**3.1.89**

**modes (of operation):** The four main categories of image coding processes defined in this Specification.

**3.1.90**

**more probable symbol; MPS:** For a binary decision, the decision value which has the larger probability.

**3.1.91**

**non-differential frame:** The first frame for any components in a hierarchical encoder or decoder. The components are encoded or decoded without subtraction from reference components. The term refers also to any frame in modes other than the hierarchical mode.

**3.1.92**

**non-interleaved:** The descriptive term applied to the data unit processing sequence when the scan has only one component.

**3.1.93**

**parameters: **Fixed length integers 4, 8 or 16 bits in length, used in the compressed data formats.

**3.1.94**

**point transform:** Scaling of a sample or DCT coefficient.

**3.1.95**

**precision:** Number of bits allocated to a particular sample or DCT coefficient.

**3.1.96**

**predictor:** A linear combination of previously reconstructed values (in lossless mode coding).

**3.1.97**

**probability estimation state machine:** An interlinked table of probability values and indices which is used to estimate the probability of the LPS (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.98**

**probability interval:** The probability of a particular sequence of binary decisions within the ordered set of all possible sequences (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.99**

**(probability) sub-interval:** A portion of a probability interval allocated to either of the two possible binary decision values (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.100 procedure: **A set of steps which accomplishes one of the tasks which comprise an encoding or decoding process.

**3.1.101 process:** See coding process.

**3.1.102 progressive (coding):** One of the DCT-based processes defined in this Specification in which each scan typically improves the quality of the reconstructed image.

**3.1.103 progressive DCT-based:** The mode of operation which refers to any one of the processes defined in Annex G.

**3.1.104 quantization table:** The set of 64 quantization values used to quantize the DCT coefficients.

**3.1.105 quantization value: **An integer value used in the quantization procedure.

**3.1.106 quantize:** The act of performing the quantization procedure for a DCT coefficient.

**3.1.107 reference (reconstructed) component:** Reconstructed component data which is used in a subsequent frame of a hierarchical encoder or decoder process (in hierarchical mode coding).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 5**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.108 renormalization:** The doubling of the probability interval and the code register value until the probability interval exceeds a fixed minimum value (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.109 restart interval:** The integer number of MCUs processed as an independent sequence within a scan.

**3.1.110 restart marker:** The marker that separates two restart intervals in a scan.

**3.1.111 run (length):** Number of consecutive symbols of the same value.

**3.1.112 sample:** One element in the two-dimensional array which comprises a component.

**3.1.113 sample-interleaved: **The descriptive term applied to the repetitive multiplexing of small groups of samples from each component in a scan in a specific order.

**3.1.114 scan:** A single pass through the data for one or more of the components in an image.

**3.1.115 scan header:** A marker segment that contains a start-of-scan marker and associated scan parameters that are coded at the beginning of a scan.

**3.1.116 sequential (coding):** One of the lossless or DCT-based coding processes defined in this Specification in which each component of the image is encoded within a single scan.

**3.1.117 sequential DCT-based:** The mode of operation which refers to any one of the processes defined in Annex F.

**3.1.118 spectral selection: **A progressive coding process in which the zig-zag sequence is divided into bands of one or more contiguous coefficients, and each band is coded in one scan.

**3.1.119 stack counter:** The count of X’FF’ bytes which are held, pending resolution of carry-over in the arithmetic encoder.

**3.1.120 statistical conditioning:** The selection, based on prior coding decisions, of one estimate out of a set of conditional probability estimates (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.121 statistical model: **The assignment of a particular conditional probability estimate to each of the binary arithmetic coding decisions.

**3.1.122 statistics area: **The array of statistics bins required for a coding process which uses arithmetic coding.

**3.1.123 statistics bin:** The storage location where an index is stored which identifies the value of the conditional probability estimate used for a particular arithmetic coding binary decision.

**3.1.124 successive approximation:** A progressive coding process in which the coefficients are coded with reduced precision in the first scan, and precision is increased by one bit with each succeeding scan.

**3.1.125 table specification data:** The coded representation from which the tables used in the encoder and decoder are generated and their destinations specified.

**3.1.126 transcoder:** A procedure for converting compressed image data of one encoder process to compressed image data of another encoder process.

**3.1.127 (uniform) quantization:** The procedure by which DCT coefficients are linearly scaled in order to achieve compression.

**3.1.128 upsampling (filter):** A procedure by which the spatial resolution of an image is increased (in hierarchical mode coding).

**3.1.129 vertical sampling factor:** The relative number of vertical data units of a particular component with respect to the number of vertical data units in the other components in the frame.

**3.1.130 zero byte:** The X’00’ byte.

**3.1.131 zig-zag sequence:** A specific sequential ordering of the DCT coefficients from (approximately) lowest spatial frequency to highest.

**3.1.132 3-sample predictor:** A linear combination of the three nearest neighbor reconstructed samples to the left and above (in lossless mode coding).

**6 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

A

AC

AC ji

Ah

Al

Ap i

APP n

B

B2

BE

Bx

C

C i

C u

C v

CE

Cx

CX d ji d ji k

D

C-low

Cm i

CNT

CODE

CODESIZE(V)

COM

Cs

Cs i

CT

**3.2**

**Symbols**

The symbols used in this Specification are listed below.

BITS

BP

BPST

BR probability interval

AC DCT coefficient

AC coefficient predicted from DC values successive approximation bit position, high successive approximation bit position, low

*i*th 8-bit parameter in APP n

segment marker reserved for application segments current byte in compressed data next byte in compressed data when B

=

X’FF’ counter for buffered correction bits for Huffman coding in the successive approximation process

16-byte list containing number of Huffman codes of each length pointer to compressed data pointer to byte before start of entropy-coded segment counter for buffered correction bits for Huffman coding in the successive approximation process byte modified by a carry-over value of bit stream in code register component identifier for frame horizontal frequency dependent scaling factor in DCT vertical frequency dependent scaling factor in DCT conditional exchange low order 16 bits of the arithmetic decoder code register

*i*th 8-bit parameter in COM segment bit counter in NEXTBYTE procedure

Huffman code value code size for symbol V comment marker conditioning table value component identifier for scan renormalization shift counter high order 16 bits of arithmetic decoder code register conditional exchange data unit from horizontal position i, vertical position j d ji

for component k decision decoded

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 7**

H i

H max

HUFFCODE

HUFFSIZE

HUFFVAL i

I j

Index(S)

J

DAC

Db

DC

DC i

DC k

DHP

DHT

DIFF

DNL

DQT

DRI

E

EC

ECS

ECS i

Eh

EHUFCO

EHUFSI

EOB

EOBn

EOBx

EOB0, EOB1, ..., EOB14

EOI

Ev

EXP

FREQ(V)

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Da in DC coding, the DC difference coded for the previous block from the same component; in lossless coding, the difference coded for the sample immediately to the left define-arithmetic-coding-conditioning marker the difference coded for the sample immediately above

DC DCT coefficient

DC coefficient for *i*th block in component

*k*th DC value used in prediction of AC coefficients define hierarchical progression marker define-Huffman-tables marker difference between quantized DC and prediction define-number-of-lines marker define-quantization-tables marker define restart interval marker exponent in magnitude category upper bound event counter entropy-coded segment

*i*th entropy-coded segment horizontal expansion parameter in EXP segment

Huffman code table for encoder encoder table of Huffman code sizes end-of-block for sequential; end-of-band for progressive run length category for EOB runs position of EOB in previous successive approximation scan run length categories for EOB runs end-of-image marker vertical expansion parameter in EXP segment expand reference components marker frequency of occurrence of symbol V horizontal sampling factor for *i*th component largest horizontal sampling factor list of Huffman codes corresponding to lengths in HUFFSIZE list of code lengths list of values assigned to each Huffman code subscript index integer variable index to probability estimation state machine table for context index S subscript index integer variable

**8 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Lf

Lh

Lp

LPS

LASTK

Lc

Ld

Le

JPG

JPG n k

K

Kmin

Kx

L

L i

L i

(t)

La m m t

M

Lq

Lr

Ls

LSB

Mn

MAXCODE

MCU

MCU i

MCUR

MINCODE

MPS

MPS(S)

MSB

M2, M3, M4, ... , M15 n

N

N/A

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

marker reserved for JPEG extensions marker reserved for JPEG extensions subscript index integer variable index of 1st AC coefficient in band (1 for sequential DCT) conditioning parameter for AC arithmetic coding model

DC and lossless coding conditioning lower bound parameter element in BITS list in DHT segment element in BITS list in the DHT segment for Huffman table t length of parameters in APP n

segment largest value of K length of parameters in COM segment length of parameters in DNL segment length of parameters in EXP segment length of frame header parameters length of parameters in DHT segment length of parameters in DAC segment less probable symbol (in arithmetic coding) length of parameters in DQT segment length of parameters in DRI segment length of scan header parameters least significant bit modulo 8 counter for RST m

marker number of V i,j

parameters for Huffman table t bit mask used in coding magnitude of V

*n*th statistics bin for coding magnitude bit pattern category table with maximum value of Huffman code for each code length minimum coded unit

*i*th MCU number of MCU required to make up one MCU-row table with minimum value of Huffman code for each code length more probable symbol (in arithmetic coding) more probable symbol for context-index S most significant bit designation of context-indices for coding of magnitude bits in the arithmetic coding models integer variable data unit counter for MCU coding not applicable

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 9**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

P

Pq

Pq(t)

PRED

Pt

Px

Q ji

Q vu

Q

00

QAC ji

QDC k

Qe

Qe(S)

Ri

RRRR

RS

RST m s yx

S

S vu

R vu

Ra

Rb

Rc

Qk r vu

R

Rd

RES

Nb

Next_Index_LPS

Next_Index_MPS

Nf

NL

Ns

OTHERS(V) number of data units in MCU new value of Index(S) after a LPS renormalization new value of Index(S) after a MPS renormalization number of components in frame number of lines defined in DNL segment number of components in scan index to next symbol in chain sample precision quantizer precision parameter in DQT segment quantizer precision parameter in DQT segment for quantization table t quantized DC coefficient from the most recently coded block of the component point transform parameter calculated value of sample quantizer value for coefficient AC ji quantization value for DCT coefficient S vu quantizer value for DC coefficient quantized AC coefficient predicted from DC values

*k*th quantized DC value used in prediction of AC coefficients

LPS probability estimate

LPS probability estimate for context index S

*k*th element of 64 quantization elements in DQT segment reconstructed image sample length of run of zero amplitude AC coefficients dequantized DCT coefficient reconstructed sample value reconstructed sample value reconstructed sample value rounding in prediction calculation reserved markers restart interval in DRI segment

4-bit value of run length of zero AC coefficients composite value used in Huffman coding of AC coefficients restart marker number m reconstructed value from IDCT context index

DCT coefficient at horizontal frequency u, vertical frequency v

**10 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

S0 t

T

SP

Sq vu

SRL

SRL

α β

Ss

SS

SSSS

ST

Switch_MPS

Sz

SC

Se

SE

SI

SIGN

SIZE

SLL

SLL

α β

SN

SOF

7

SOF

9

SOF

10

SOF

11

SOF

13

SOF

14

SOF

15

SOI

SOF

0

SOF

1

SOF

2

SOF

3

SOF

5

SOF

6

SOS

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

context-index for coding of correction bit in successive approximation coding end of spectral selection band in zig-zag sequence context-index for coding of end-of-block or end-of-band

Huffman code size

1 if decoded sense of sign is negative and 0 if decoded sense of sign is positive length of a Huffman code shift left logical operation logical shift left of

α

by

β

bits context-index for coding of first magnitude category when V is negative baseline DCT process frame marker extended sequential DCT frame marker, Huffman coding progressive DCT frame marker, Huffman coding lossless process frame marker, Huffman coding differential sequential DCT frame marker, Huffman coding differential progressive DCT frame marker, Huffman coding differential lossless process frame marker, Huffman coding sequential DCT frame marker, arithmetic coding progressive DCT frame marker, arithmetic coding lossless process frame marker, arithmetic coding differential sequential DCT frame marker, arithmetic coding differential progressive DCT frame marker, arithmetic coding differential lossless process frame marker, arithmetic coding start-of-image marker start-of-scan marker context-index for coding of first magnitude category when V is positive quantized DCT coefficient shift right logical operation logical shift right of

α

by

β

bits start of spectral selection band in zig-zag sequence context-index for coding of sign decision

4-bit size category of DC difference or AC coefficient amplitude stack counter parameter controlling inversion of sense of MPS parameter used in coding magnitude of V context-index for coding of V

=

0 decision summation index for parameter limits computation temporary variable

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 11**

XHUFCO

XHUFSI

X’values’ y i

Y

ZRL

ZZ(K)

ZZ(0)

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Ta j

Tb

Tc

Td j

TEM

Th

Tq

Tq i

U

V

V i

V i,j

V max

V t

VALPTR

V1

V2 x i

X

X i

X1, X2, X3, ... , X15

AC entropy table destination selector for *j*th component in scan arithmetic conditioning table destination identifier

Huffman coding or arithmetic coding table class

DC entropy table destination selector for *j*th component in scan temporary marker

Huffman table destination identifier in DHT segment quantization table destination identifier in DQT segment quantization table destination selector for *i*th component in frame

DC and lossless coding conditioning upper bound parameter symbol or value being either encoded or decoded vertical sampling factor for *i*th component

*j*th value for length *i* in HUFFVAL largest vertical sampling factor temporary variable list of indices for first value in HUFFVAL for each code length symbol value symbol value number of columns in *i*th component number of samples per line in component with largest horizontal dimension

*i*th statistics bin for coding magnitude category decision designation of context-indices for coding of magnitude categories in the arithmetic coding models extended Huffman code table table of sizes of extended Huffman codes values within the quotes are hexadecimal number of lines in *i*th component number of lines in component with largest vertical dimension value in HUFFVAL assigned to run of 16 zero coefficients

*K*th element in zig-zag sequence of quantized DCT coefficients quantized DC coefficient in zig-zag sequence order

**4 General**

The purpose of this clause is to give an informative overview of the elements specified in this Specification. Another purpose is to introduce many of the terms which are defined in clause 3. These terms are printed in *italics* upon first usage in this clause.

**12 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**4.1**

**Elements specified in this Specification**

There are three elements specified in this Specification: a) An *encoder* is an embodiment of an *encoding process*. As shown in Figure 1, an encoder takes as input

*digital source image data* and *table specifications*, and by means of a specified set of *procedures* generates as output *compressed image data*.

b) A *decoder* is an embodiment of a *decoding process*. As shown in Figure 2, a decoder takes as input compressed image data and table specifications, and by means of a specified set of procedures generates as output *digital reconstructed image data*.

c) The *interchange format*, shown in Figure 3, is a compressed image data representation which includes all table specifications used in the encoding process. The interchange format is for exchange between

*application environments*.

Source image data

Encoder

TISO0650-93/d001

Table specifications

**Figure 1 – Encoder**

Compressed image data

FIGURE 1 [D01] 5 cm = 195%

Decoder

TISO0660-93/d002

Reconstructed image data

Compressed image data

Table specifications

**Figure 2 – Decoder**

FIGURE 2 [D02] 6 cm 234%

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the general case for which the *continuous-tone* source and reconstructed image data consist of multiple *components*. (A *colour* image consists of multiple components; a *grayscale* image consists only of a single component.) A significant portion of this Specification is concerned with how to handle multiple-component images in a flexible, application-independent way.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 13**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Application environment

A

Compressed image data, including table specifications

Application environment

B

TISO0670-93/d003

**Figure 3 – Interchange format for compressed image data**

FIGURE 3 [D03] 9,5cm = 371 %

These figures are also meant to show that the same tables specified for an encoder to use to compress a particular image must be provided to a decoder to reconstruct that image. However, this Specification does not specify how applications should associate tables with compressed image data, nor how they should represent source image data generally within their specific environments.

Consequently, this Specification also specifies the interchange format shown in Figure 3, in which table specifications are included within compressed image data. An image compressed with a specified encoding process within one application environment, A, is passed to a different environment, B, by means of the interchange format.

The interchange format does not specify a complete coded image representation. Application-dependent information, e.g. colour space, is outside the scope of this Specification.

**4.2**

**Lossy and lossless compression**

This Specification specifies two *classes* of encoding and decoding processes, *lossy* and *lossless* processes. Those based on the *discrete cosine transform* (DCT) are lossy, thereby allowing substantial *compression* to be achieved while producing a reconstructed image with high visual fidelity to the encoder’s source image.

The simplest DCT-based *coding process* is referred to as the *baseline sequential* process. It provides a capability which is sufficient for many applications. There are additional DCT-based processes which extend the baseline sequential process to a broader range of applications. In any decoder using *extended* *DCT-based decoding processes*, the baseline decoding process is required to be present in order to provide a default decoding capability.

The second class of coding processes is not based upon the DCT and is provided to meet the needs of applications requiring lossless compression. These lossless encoding and decoding processes are used independently of any of the

DCT-based processes.

A table summarizing the relationship among these lossy and lossless coding processes is included in 4.11.

The amount of compression provided by any of the various processes is dependent on the characteristics of the particular image being compressed, as well as on the picture quality desired by the application and the desired speed of compression and decompression.

**14 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**4.3**

**DCT-based coding**

Figure 4 shows the main procedures for all encoding processes based on the DCT. It illustrates the special case of a singlecomponent image; this is an appropriate simplification for overview purposes, because all processes specified in this

Specification operate on each image component independently.

8 × 8 blocks

FDCT

DCT-based encoder

Quantizer

Entropy encoder

Source image data

Table specifications

Table specifications

Compressed image data

TISO0680-93/d004

**Figure 4 – DCT-based encoder simplified diagram**

FIGURE 4 [D04] 7 cm = 273 %

In the encoding process the input component’s *samples* are grouped into 8

×

8 *blocks*, and each block is transformed by the *forward* *DCT* (FDCT) into a set of 64 values referred to as *DCT coefficients*. One of these values is referred to as the

*DC coefficient* and the other 63 as the *AC coefficients*.

Each of the 64 coefficients is then *quantized* using one of 64 corresponding values from a *quantization table* (determined by one of the table specifications shown in Figure 4). No default values for quantization tables are specified in this

Specification; applications may specify values which customize picture quality for their particular image characteristics, display devices, and viewing conditions.

After quantization, the DC coefficient and the 63 AC coefficients are prepared for *entropy encoding*, as shown in Figure

5. The previous quantized DC coefficient is used to predict the current quantized DC coefficient, and the difference is encoded. The 63 quantized AC coefficients undergo no such differential encoding, but are converted into a onedimensional *zig-zag sequence*, as shown in Figure 5.

The quantized coefficients are then passed to an entropy encoding procedure which compresses the data further. One of two entropy coding procedures can be used, as described in 4.6. If *Huffman encoding* is used, *Huffman table* specifications must be provided to the encoder. If *arithmetic encoding* is used, arithmetic coding *conditioning table* specifications may be provided, otherwise the default conditioning table specifications shall be used.

Figure 6 shows the main procedures for all DCT-based decoding processes. Each step shown performs essentially the inverse of its corresponding main procedure within the encoder. The entropy decoder decodes the zig-zag sequence of quantized DCT coefficients. After *dequantization* the DCT coefficients are transformed to an 8

×

8 block of samples by the *inverse DCT* (IDCT).

**4.4**

**Lossless coding**

Figure 7 shows the main procedures for the lossless encoding processes. A *predictor* combines the reconstructed values of up to three neighbourhood samples at positions a, b, and c to form a prediction of the sample at position x as shown in

Figure 8. This prediction is then subtracted from the actual value of the sample at position x, and the difference is losslessly entropy-coded by either Huffman or arithmetic coding.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 15**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

DC AC

01

AC

07

DC i - 1

DC i

Block i - 1

Block i i - 1

AC

70

Differential DC encoding Zig-zag order

**Figure 5 – Preparation of quantized coefficients for entropy encoding**

FIGURE 5 [D05] 8 cm = 313 %

DCT-based decoder

Entropy decoder

Dequantizer

IDCT

TISO0690-93/d005

AC

77

Compressed image data

Table specifications

Table specifications

TISO0700-93/d006

Reconstructed image data

FIGURE 6 [D06] 6,5 cm = 254 %

**Figure 6 – DCT-based decoder simplified diagram**

Lossless encoder

Predictor

Entropy encoder

TISO0710-93/d007

Source image data

Table specifications

Compressed image data

FIGURE 7 [D07] 6,5 cm = 254 %

**Figure 7 – Lossless encoder simplified diagram**

**16 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

c b a x

TISO0720-93/d008

**Figure 8 – 3-sample prediction neighbourhood**

FIGURE 8 [D08] 5 cm = 195 %

This encoding process may also be used in a slightly modified way, whereby the *precision* of the input samples is reduced by one or more bits prior to the lossless coding. This achieves higher compression than the lossless process (but lower compression than the DCT-based processes for equivalent visual fidelity), and limits the reconstructed image’s worst-case sample error to the amount of input precision reduction.

**4.5**

**Modes of operation**

There are four distinct *modes of operation* under which the various coding processes are defined: *sequential*

*DCT-based, progressive* *DCT-based*, lossless, and *hierarchical*. (Implementations are not required to provide all of these.) The lossless mode of operation was described in 4.4. The other modes of operation are compared as follows.

For the sequential DCT-based mode, 8

×

8 sample blocks are typically input block by block from left to right, and blockrow by block-row from top to bottom. After a block has been transformed by the forward DCT, quantized and prepared for entropy encoding, all 64 of its quantized DCT coefficients can be immediately entropy encoded and output as part of the compressed image data (as was described in 4.3), thereby minimizing coefficient storage requirements.

For the progressive DCT-based mode, 8

×

8 blocks are also typically encoded in the same order, but in multiple *scans* through the image. This is accomplished by adding an image-sized coefficient memory buffer (not shown in Figure 4) between the quantizer and the entropy encoder. As each block is transformed by the forward DCT and quantized, its coefficients are stored in the buffer. The DCT coefficients in the buffer are then partially encoded in each of multiple scans. The typical sequence of image presentation at the output of the decoder for sequential versus progressive modes of operation is shown in Figure 9.

There are two procedures by which the quantized coefficients in the buffer may be partially encoded within a scan. First, only a specified *band* of coefficients from the zig-zag sequence need be encoded. This procedure is called *spectral*

*selection*, because each band typically contains coefficients which occupy a lower or higher part of the *frequency* spectrum for that 8

×

8 block. Secondly, the coefficients within the current band need not be encoded to their full (quantized) accuracy within each scan. Upon a coefficient’s first encoding, a specified number of most significant bits is encoded first.

In subsequent scans, the less significant bits are then encoded. This procedure is called *successive approximation*. Either procedure may be used separately, or they may be mixed in flexible combinations.

In hierarchical mode, an image is encoded as a sequence of *frames*. These frames provide *reference reconstructed*

*components* which are usually needed for prediction in subsequent frames. Except for the first frame for a given component, *differential frames* encode the difference between source components and reference reconstructed components. The coding of the differences may be done using only DCT-based processes, only lossless processes, or

DCT-based processes with a final lossless process for each component. *Downsampling* and *upsampling filters* may be used to provide a pyramid of spatial resolutions as shown in Figure 10. Alternatively, the hierarchical mode can be used to improve the quality of the reconstructed components at a given spatial resolution.

Hierarchical mode offers a progressive presentation similar to the progressive DCT-based mode but is useful in environments which have multi-resolution requirements. Hierarchical mode also offers the capability of progressive coding to a final lossless stage.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 17**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

Progressive

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

Sequential

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA

TISO0730-93/d009

**Figure 9 – Progressive versus sequential presentation**

FIGURE 9 [D09] 9,5 cm = 371 %

TISO0740-93/d0 10

**Figure 10 – Hierarchical multi-resolution encoding**

FIGURE 10 [D10] 9.5 cm = 374 %

**4.6**

**Entropy coding alternatives**

Two alternative entropy coding procedures are specified: Huffman coding and arithmetic coding. Huffman coding procedures use Huffman tables, determined by one of the table specifications shown in Figures 1 and 2. Arithmetic coding procedures use arithmetic coding conditioning tables, which may also be determined by a table specification. No default values for Huffman tables are specified, so that applications may choose tables appropriate for their own environments.

Default tables are defined for the arithmetic coding conditioning.

**18 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The baseline sequential process uses Huffman coding, while the extended DCT-based and lossless processes may use either Huffman or arithmetic coding.

**4.7**

**Sample precision**

For DCT-based processes, two alternative sample precisions are specified: either 8 bits or 12 bits per sample. Applications which use samples with other precisions can use either 8-bit or 12-bit precision by shifting their source image samples appropriately. The baseline process uses only 8-bit precision. DCT-based implementations which handle 12-bit source image samples are likely to need greater computational resources than those which handle only

8-bit source images. Consequently in this Specification separate normative requirements are defined for 8-bit and

12-bit DCT-based processes.

For lossless processes the sample precision is specified to be from 2 to 16 bits.

**4.8**

**Multiple-component control**

Subclauses 4.3 and 4.4 give an overview of one major part of the encoding and decoding processes – those which operate on the sample values in order to achieve compression. There is another major part as well – the procedures which control the order in which the image data from multiple components are processed to create the compressed data, and which ensure that the proper set of table data is applied to the proper *data units* in the image. (A data unit is a sample for lossless processes and an 8

×

8 block of samples for DCT-based processes.)

**4.8.1**

**Interleaving multiple components**

Figure 11 shows an example of how an encoding process selects between multiple source image components as well as multiple sets of table data, when performing its encoding procedures. The source image in this example consists of the three components A, B and C, and there are two sets of table specifications. (This simplified view does not distinguish between the quantization tables and entropy coding tables.)

A

B

C

Encoding process

Source image data

Table specification 1

Table specification 2

Compressed image data

TISO0750-93/d011

**Figure 11 – Component-interleave and table-switching control**

FIGURE 11 [D11] 7 cm = 273 %

In sequential mode, encoding is *non-interleaved* if the encoder compresses all image data units in component A before beginning component B, and then in turn all of B before C. Encoding is *interleaved* if the encoder compresses a data unit from A, a data unit from B, a data unit from C, then back to A, etc. These alternatives are illustrated in Figure 12, which shows a case in which all three image components have identical dimensions: X *columns* by Y lines, for a total of n data units each.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 19**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

A

1

A

2

X

Y

Y

B

1

B

2

X

Y

C

1

C

2

X

A n

B n

B , B , ....B , C , C , ....C

Scan 1

Scan 2 Scan 3

Data unit encoding order, non-interleaved

Scan 1

Data unit encoding order, interleaved n

**Figure 12 – Interleaved versus non-interleaved encoding order**

C n

TISO0760-93/d012

FIGURE 12 [D12] 9,5 cm = 371 %

These control procedures are also able to handle cases in which the source image components have different dimensions.

Figure 13 shows a case in which two of the components, B and C, have half the number of horizontal samples relative to component A. In this case, two data units from A are interleaved with one each from B and C. Cases in which components of an image have more complex relationships, such as different horizontal and vertical dimensions, can be handled as well. (See Annex A.)

Y

A

1

A

2

X

A n

Y

X/2

B

1

B

2

B n/2

X/2

C

1

C

2

Y

C n/2

TISO0770-93/d013 n/2

Scan 1

Data unit encoding order, interleaved

**Figure 13 – Interleaved order for components with different dimensions**

FIGURE 13 [D13] 8 cm = 313 %

**20 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**4.8.2**

**Minimum coded unit**

Related to the concepts of multiple-component interleave is the *minimum coded unit* (MCU). If the compressed image data is non-interleaved, the MCU is defined to be one data unit. For example, in Figure 12 the MCU for the noninterleaved case is a single data unit. If the compressed data is interleaved, the MCU contains one or more data units from each component. For the interleaved case in Figure 12, the (first) MCU consists of the three interleaved data units A

1

, B

1

,

C

1

. In the example of Figure 13, the (first) MCU consists of the four data units A

1

, A

2

, B

1

, C

1

.

**4.9**

**Structure of compressed data**

Figures 1, 2, and 3 all illustrate slightly different views of compressed image data. Figure 1 shows this data as the output of an encoding process, Figure 2 shows it as the input to a decoding process, and Figure 3 shows compressed image data in the interchange format, at the interface between applications.

Compressed image data are described by a uniform structure and set of *parameters* for both classes of encoding processes

(lossy or lossless), and for all modes of operation (sequential, progressive, lossless, and hierarchical). The various parts of the compressed image data are identified by special two-byte codes called *markers*. Some markers are followed by particular sequences of parameters, as in the case of table specifications, *frame header*, or *scan header*. Others are used without parameters for functions such as marking the start-of-image and end-of-image. When a marker is associated with a particular sequence of parameters, the marker and its parameters comprise a *marker segment*.

The data created by the entropy encoder are also segmented, and one particular marker – *the restart marker* – is used to isolate *entropy-coded data segments*. The encoder outputs the restart markers, intermixed with the entropy-coded data, at regular *restart intervals* of the source image data. Restart markers can be identified without having to decode the compressed data to find them. Because they can be independently decoded, they have application-specific uses, such as parallel encoding or decoding, isolation of data corruptions, and semi-random access of entropy-coded segments.

There are three compressed data formats: a) the interchange format; b) the *abbreviated format* for compressed image data; c) the abbreviated format for table-specification data.

**4.9.1**

**Interchange format**

In addition to certain required marker segments and the entropy-coded segments, the interchange format shall include the marker segments for all quantization and entropy-coding table specifications needed by the decoding process. This guarantees that a compressed image can cross the boundary between application environments, regardless of how each environment internally associates tables with compressed image data.

**4.9.2**

**Abbreviated format for compressed image data**

The abbreviated format for compressed image data is identical to the interchange format, except that it does not include all tables required for decoding. (It may include some of them.) This format is intended for use within applications where alternative mechanisms are available for supplying some or all of the table-specification data needed for decoding.

**4.9.3**

**Abbreviated format for table-specification data**

This format contains only table-specification data. It is a means by which the application may install in the decoder the tables required to subsequently reconstruct one or more images.

**4.10**

**Image, frame, and scan**

Compressed image data consists of only one image. An image contains only one frame in the cases of sequential and progressive coding processes; an image contains multiple frames for the hierarchical mode.

A frame contains one or more scans. For sequential processes, a scan contains a complete encoding of one or more image components. In Figures 12 and 13, the frame consists of three scans when non-interleaved, and one scan if all three components are interleaved together. The frame could also consist of two scans: one with a non-interleaved component, the other with two components interleaved.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 21**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

For progressive processes, a scan contains a partial encoding of all data units from one or more image components.

Components shall not be interleaved in progressive mode, except for the DC coefficients in the first scan for each component of a progressive frame.

**4.11**

**Summary of coding processes**

Table 1 provides a summary of the essential characteristics of the various coding processes specified in this Specification.

The full specification of these processes is contained in Annexes F, G, H, and J.

**Table 1 – Summary: Essential characteristics of coding processes**

Baseline process (required for all DCT-based decoders)

•

DCT-based process

Source image: 8-bit samples within each component

•

Sequential

Huffman coding: 2 AC and 2 DC tables

•

Decoders shall process scans with 1, 2, 3, and 4 components

•

Interleaved and non-interleaved scans

Extended DCT-based processes

•

DCT-based process

Source image: 8-bit or 12-bit samples

•

Sequential or progressive

Huffman or arithmetic coding: 4 AC and 4 DC tables

•

Decoders shall process scans with 1, 2, 3, and 4 components

•

Interleaved and non-interleaved scans

Lossless processes

•

Predictive process (not DCT-based)

Source image: P-bit samples (2

≤

P

≤

16)

•

Sequential

Huffman or arithmetic coding: 4 DC tables

•

Decoders shall process scans with 1, 2, 3, and 4 components

•

Interleaved and non-interleaved scans

Hierarchical processes

•

Multiple frames (non-differential and differential)

Uses extended DCT-based or lossless processes

•

Decoders shall process scans with 1, 2, 3, and 4 components

•

Interleaved and non-interleaved scans

**22 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**5 Interchange format requirements**

The interchange format is the coded representation of compressed image data for exchange between application environments.

The interchange format requirements are that any compressed image data represented in interchange format shall comply with the syntax and code assignments appropriate for the decoding process selected, as specified in Annex B.

Tests for whether compressed image data comply with these requirements are specified in Part 2 of this Specification.

**6 Encoder requirements**

An encoding process converts source image data to compressed image data. Each of Annexes F, G, H, and J specifies a number of distinct encoding processes for its particular mode of operation.

An encoder is an embodiment of one (or more) of the encoding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, or J. In order to comply with this Specification, an encoder shall satisfy at least one of the following two requirements.

An encoder shall a) with appropriate accuracy, convert source image data to compressed image data which comply with the interchange format syntax specified in Annex B for the encoding process(es) embodied by the encoder; b) with appropriate accuracy, convert source image data to compressed image data which comply with the abbreviated format for compressed image data syntax specified in Annex B for the encoding process(es) embodied by the encoder.

For each of the encoding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, and J, the compliance tests for the above requirements are specified in Part 2 of this Specification.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder which embodies one of the encoding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, or J shall be able to operate for all ranges of the parameters which are allowed for that process. An encoder is only required to meet the compliance tests specified in Part 2, and to generate the compressed data format according to

Annex B for those parameter values which it does use.

**7 Decoder requirements**

A decoding process converts compressed image data to reconstructed image data. Each of Annexes F, G, H, and J specifies a number of distinct decoding processes for its particular mode of operation.

A decoder is an embodiment of one (or more) of the decoding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, or J. In order to comply with this Specification, a decoder shall satisfy all three of the following requirements.

A decoder shall a) with appropriate accuracy, convert to reconstructed image data any compressed image data with parameters within the range supported by the application, and which comply with the interchange format syntax specified in Annex B for the decoding process(es) embodied by the decoder; b) accept and properly store any table-specification data which comply with the abbreviated format for tablespecification data syntax specified in Annex B for the decoding process(es) embodied by the decoder; c) with appropriate accuracy, convert to reconstructed image data any compressed image data which comply with the abbreviated format for compressed image data syntax specified in Annex B for the decoding process(es) embodied by the decoder, provided that the table-specification data required for decoding the compressed image data has previously been installed into the decoder.

Additionally, any DCT-based decoder, if it embodies any DCT-based decoding process other than baseline sequential, shall also embody the baseline sequential decoding process.

For each of the decoding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, and J, the compliance tests for the above requirements are specified in Part 2 of this Specification.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 23**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex A**

**Mathematical definitions**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

**A.1**

**Source image**

Source images to which the encoding processes specified in this Specification can be applied are defined in this annex.

**A.1.1**

**Dimensions and sampling factors**

As shown in Figure A.1, a source image is defined to consist of Nf components. Each component, with unique identifier

*C i*

, is defined to consist of a rectangular array of samples of *x*

*i*

columns by *y*

*i*

lines. The component dimensions are derived from two parameters, *X* and *Y*, where *X* is the maximum of the *x*

*i*

values and *Y* is the maximum of the *y*

*i*

values for all components in the frame. For each component, sampling factors *H*

*i*

and *V*

*i*

are defined relating component dimensions *x*

*i*

and *y*

*i*

to maximum dimensions *X* and *Y*, according to the following expressions:

*x i*

= MM

L

*X*

×

*H i*

*H max*

PP

O and

*y i*

L

MM

*Y*

×

*V i*

*V max*

PP

O

, where *H*

*max*

and *V*

*max*

are the maximum sampling factors for all components in the frame, and

is the ceiling function.

As an example, consider an image having 3 components with maximum dimensions of 512 lines and 512 samples per line, and with the following sampling factors:

Component 0

Component 1

Component 2

*H*

0

*H*

1

*H*

2

=

=

=

4 ,

2 ,

1 ,

*V*

0

*V*

1

*V*

2

=

=

=

1

2

1

Then *X*

=

512, *Y*

=

512, *H*

*max*

=

4, *V*

*max*

=

2, and *x*

*i*

and *y*

*i*

for each component are

Component 0

Component

Component

1

2

*x*

0

*x*

1

*x*

2

=

=

=

512 ,

256 ,

128 ,

*y*

0

*y*

1

*y*

2

=

=

=

256

512

256

NOTE – The *X*, *Y*, *H*

*i*

, and *V*

*i*

parameters are contained in the frame header of the compressed image data (see B.2.2), whereas the individual component dimensions *x*

*i*

and *y*

*i*

are derived by the decoder. Source images with *x*

*i*

not satisfy the expressions above cannot be properly reconstructed.

and *y*

*i*

dimensions which do

**A.1.2**

**Sample precision**

A sample is an integer with precision P bits, with any value in the range 0 through 2

P

– 1

. All samples of all components within an image shall have the same precision P. Restrictions on the value of P depend on the mode of operation, as specified in B.2 to B.7.

**A.1.3**

**Data unit**

A data unit is a sample in lossless processes and an

8

×

8

block of contiguous samples in DCT-based processes. The leftmost 8 samples of each of the top-most 8 rows in the component shall always be the top-left-most block. With this top-leftmost block as the reference, the component is partitioned into contiguous data units to the right and to the bottom (as shown in Figure A.4).

**A.1.4**

**Orientation**

Figure A.1 indicates the orientation of an image component by the terms top, bottom, left, and right. The order by which the data units of an image component are input to the compression encoding procedures is defined to be left-to-right and top-to-bottom within the component. (This ordering is precisely defined in A.2.) Applications determine which edges of a source image are defined as top, bottom, left, and right.

**24 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

C

Nf-1

C

2

C

1 a) Source image with multiple components

C

Nf

Samples

C i

Top

Line

Left y i

Right x i

Bottom

TISO0780-93/d014 b) Characteristics of an image component

**Figure A.1 – Source image characteristics**

FIGURE A-1 [D14] 8 cm = 313 %

**A.2**

**Order of source image data encoding**

The scan header (see B.2.3) specifies the order by which source image data units shall be encoded and placed within the compressed image data. For a given scan, if the scan header parameter Ns

=

1, then data from only one source component

– the component specified by parameter Cs

1

– shall be present within the scan. This data is non-interleaved by definition.

If Ns > 1, then data from the Ns components Cs

1

through Cs

Ns

shall be present within the scan. This data shall always be interleaved. The order of components in a scan shall be according to the order specified in the frame header.

The ordering of data units and the construction of minimum coded units (MCU) is defined as follows.

**A.2.1**

**Minimum coded unit (MCU)**

For non-interleaved data the MCU is one data unit. For interleaved data the MCU is the sequence of data units defined by the sampling factors of the components in the scan.

**A.2.2**

**Non-interleaved order (Ns **

==

** 1)**

When Ns

=

1 (where Ns is the number of components in a scan), the order of data units within a scan shall be left-to-right and top-to-bottom, as shown in Figure A.2. This ordering applies whenever Ns

=

1, regardless of the values of

H

1

and V

1

.

Top

Left

Right

FIGURE A.2 [D15] 3,5 cm = 136 %

Bottom

TISO0790-93/d015

**Figure A.2 – Non-interleaved data ordering**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 25**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**A.2.3**

**Interleaved order (Ns > 1)**

When Ns > 1, each scan component Cs i

is partitioned into small rectangular arrays of H k

horizontal data units by V k vertical data units. The subscripts k indicate that H k

and V k

are from the position in the frame header componentspecification for which C k

=

Cs i

. Within each H k

by V k array, data units are ordered from left-to-right and top-to-bottom.

The arrays in turn are ordered from left-to-right and top-to-bottom within each component.

As shown in the example of Figure A.3, Ns

=

4, and MCU

1

consists of data units taken first from the top-left-most region of Cs

1

, followed by data units from the corresponding region of Cs

2

, then from Cs

3

and then from Cs

4

. MCU

2

follows the same ordering for data taken from the next region to the right for the four components.

0

1

2

3

0 1 2 3 4 5

0

1

0 1 2 3 4 5

Cs : H = 1, V = 2 Cs : H = 1, V = 1

0 1 2 0 1 2

0 0

1

2

1

TISO0800-93/d016

3

MCU =

1 1 1 1

00 01 10 11

1 1 1 1

02 03 12 13

2 2

00 01

2

02

2

03

3 3

00 10

3

01

3

11

4

00 d d d d d d d d d ,

MCU = d d d d d d d d d ,

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

04 05

2

2

2

3

02

3

3

12

3

4

02

4

4 11 10

Cs

2

Cs

3

Cs

4

**Figure A.3 – Interleaved data ordering example**

FIGURE A.3 [D16] 7,5 cm = 293 %

**A.2.4**

**Completion of partial MCU**

For DCT-based processes the data unit is a block. If x i

is not a multiple of 8, the encoding process shall extend the number of columns to complete the right-most sample blocks. If the component is to be interleaved, the encoding process shall also extend the number of samples by one or more additional blocks, if necessary, so that the number of blocks is an integer multiple of H i

. Similarly, if y i

is not a multiple of 8, the encoding process shall extend the number of lines to complete the bottom-most block-row. If the component is to be interleaved, the encoding process shall also extend the number of lines by one or more additional block-rows, if necessary, so that the number of block-rows is an integer multiple of V i

.

NOTE – It is recommended that any incomplete MCUs be completed by replication of the right-most column and the bottom line of each component.

For lossless processes the data unit is a sample. If the component is to be interleaved, the encoding process shall extend the number of samples, if necessary, so that the number is a multiple of H i

. Similarly, the encoding process shall extend the number of lines, if necessary, so that the number of lines is a multiple of V i

.

Any sample added by an encoding process to complete partial MCUs shall be removed by the decoding process.

**A.3**

**DCT compression**

**A.3.1**

**Level shift**

Before a non-differential frame encoding process computes the FDCT for a block of source image samples, the samples shall be level shifted to a signed representation by subtracting 2

P – 1

, where P is the precision parameter specified in B.2.2.

Thus, when P

=

8, the level shift is by 128; when P

=

12, the level shift is by 2048.

**26 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

After a non-differential frame decoding process computes the IDCT and produces a block of reconstructed image samples, an inverse level shift shall restore the samples to the unsigned representation by adding 2

P – 1

and clamping the results to the range 0 to 2

P – 1

.

**A.3.2**

**Orientation of samples for FDCT computation**

Figure A.4 shows an image component which has been partitioned into

8

×

8

blocks for the FDCT computations. Figure

A.4 also defines the orientation of the samples within a block by showing the indices used in the FDCT equation of A.3.3.

The definitions of block partitioning and sample orientation also apply to any DCT decoding process and the output reconstructed image. Any sample added by an encoding process to complete partial MCUs shall be removed by the decoding process.

C i

Top s

00 s

10 s

01 s

11 s

07 s

17

Left

Right s

70 s

71 s

77

TISO0810-93/d017

Bottom

**Figure A.4 – Partition and orientation of 8 x 8 sample blocks**

FIGURE A.4 [D17] 6 cm = 234 %

**A.3.3**

**FDCT and IDCT (informative)**

The following equations specify the ideal functional definition of the FDCT and the IDCT.

NOTE – These equations contain terms which cannot be represented with perfect accuracy by any real implementation. The accuracy requirements for the combined FDCT and quantization procedures are specified in Part 2 of this Specification. The accuracy requirements for the combined dequantization and IDCT procedures are also specified in Part 2 of this Specification.

FDCT:

IDCT:

*S vu*

=

1

4

*C u*

*C v*

7 7

*x*

∑ ∑

=

0

*y*

=

0

*s yx*

cos

( 2

*x*

+

1 )

*u*

π

16 cos

( 2

*y*

+

1 )

*v*

π

16

*s yx*

=

1

4

7

*u*

=

7

∑ ∑

0

*v*

=

0

*C C v*

*S vu*

cos

( 2

*x*

+

1 )

*u*

π

16 cos

( 2

*y*

+

1 )

*v*

π

16 where

*C u*

,

*C v*

=

1 2 for

*u v*

=

0

*C u*

,

*C v*

=

1 otherwise otherwise.

**A.3.4**

**DCT coefficient quantization **(informative)** and dequantization **(normative)

After the FDCT is computed for a block, each of the 64 resulting DCT coefficients is quantized by a uniform quantizer.

The quantizer step size for each coefficient *S*

*vu*

is the value of the corresponding element *Q*

*vu*

from the quantization table specified by the frame parameter *Tq*

*i*

(see B.2.2).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 27**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The uniform quantizer is defined by the following equation. Rounding is to the nearest integer:

*Sq vu*

=

*round*

HG

F

*S vu*

*Q vu*

KJ

I

*Sq vu*

is the quantized DCT coefficient, normalized by the quantizer step size.

NOTE – This equation contains a term which may not be represented with perfect accuracy by any real implementation. The accuracy requirements for the combined FDCT and quantization procedures are specified in Part 2 of this Specification.

At the decoder, this normalization is removed by the following equation, which defines dequantization:

*R vu*

=

*Sq vu*

×

*Q vu*

NOTE – Depending on the rounding used in quantization, it is possible that the dequantized coefficient may be outside the expected range.

The relationship among samples, DCT coefficients, and quantization is illustrated in Figure A.5.

**A.3.5**

**Differential DC encoding**

After quantization, and in preparation for entropy encoding, the quantized DC coefficient Sq

00

is treated separately from the 63 quantized AC coefficients. The value that shall be encoded is the difference (DIFF) between the quantized DC coefficient of the current block (*DC*

*i*

which is also designated as Sq

00

) and that of the previous block of the same component (PRED):

*DIFF*

=

*DC i*

−

*PRED*

**A.3.6**

**Zig-zag sequence**

After quantization, and in preparation for entropy encoding, the quantized AC coefficients are converted to the zig-zag sequence. The quantized DC coefficient (coefficient zero in the array) is treated separately, as defined in A.3.5. The zigzag sequence is specified in Figure A.6.

**A.4**

**Point transform**

For various procedures data may be optionally divided by a power of 2 by a point transform prior to coding. There are three processes which require a point transform: lossless coding, lossless differential frame coding in the hierarchical mode, and successive approximation coding in the progressive DCT mode.

In the lossless mode of operation the point transform is applied to the input samples. In the difference coding of the hierarchical mode of operation the point transform is applied to the difference between the input component samples and the reference component samples. In both cases the point transform is an integer divide by 2

Pt

, where Pt is the value of the point transform parameter (see B.2.3).

In successive approximation coding the point transform for the AC coefficients is an integer divide by 2

Al

, where Al is the successive approximation bit position, low (see B.2.3). The point transform for the DC coefficients is an arithmetic-shiftright by Al bits. This is equivalent to dividing by 2 Pt before the level shift (see A.3.1).

The output of the decoder is rescaled by multiplying by 2 Pt . An example of the point transform is given in K.10.

**28 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Left s

00 s

10 s

01 s

11

Top s

07 s

17

FDCT

S

00

S

10

S

01

S

11

Right

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Quantize

S

07

S

17 round

Svu

( )

Qvu

= Sq vu

Sq

00

Sq

01

Sq

10

Sq

11

Sq

07

Sq

17 s

70 s

71

Bottom

Source image samples

(after level shift) s

77

S

70

S

71

DCT coefficients

S

77

Sq

70

Sq

71

Sq

77

Quantized DCT coefficients

Q

00

Q

10

Q

01

Q

11

Q

07

Q

17

Transmission

Q

70

Q

71

Quantization table

Q

77

Left r

00 r

10 r

01 r

11

Top r

07 r

17

Right

R

00

R

10

R

01

R

11

R

07

R

17

R = Sq × Q vu

Sq

00

Sq

01

Sq

10

Sq

11

Sq

07

Sq

17 r

70 r

71 r

77

R

70

R

71

R

77

Bottom

Reconstructed image samples

(before level shift)

IDCT

Dequantized DCT coefficients

Sq

70

Sq

71

Sq

77

TISO0820-93/d018

Dequantize

Received quantized DCT coefficients

**Figure A.5 – Relationship between 8 × 8-block samples and DCT coefficients**

FIGURE A.5 [D18] 21 cm = 821 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 29**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

1 0 1 1 1 5 1 6 14 15 27 28

1 2 1 4 1 7 13 16 26 29 42

1 3 1 8 12 17 25 30 41 43

1 9 11 18 24 31 40 44 53

10 19 23 32 39 45 52 54

20 22 33 38 46 51 55 60

21 34 37 47 50 56 59 61

35 36 48 49 57 58 62 63

**Figure A.6 – Zig-zag sequence of quantized DCT coefficients**

**A.5**

**Arithmetic procedures in lossless and hierarchical modes of operation**

In the lossless mode of operation predictions are calculated with full precision and without clamping of either overflow or underflow beyond the range of values allowed by the precision of the input. However, the division by two which is part of some of the prediction calculations shall be approximated by an arithmetic-shift-right by one bit.

The two’s complement differences which are coded in either the lossless mode of operation or the differential frame coding in the hierarchical mode of operation are calculated modulo 65 536, thereby restricting the precision of these differences to a maximum of 16 bits. The modulo values are calculated by performing the logical AND operation of the two’s complement difference with X’FFFF’. For purposes of coding, the result is still interpreted as a 16 bit two’s complement difference. Modulo 65 536 arithmetic is also used in the decoder in calculating the output from the sum of the prediction and this two’s complement difference.

**30 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1 1993(E)**

ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1 1993(E)

CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)

**Annex B**

**Compressed data formats**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)

CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)

This annex specifies three compressed data formats: a) the interchange format, specified in B.2 and B.3; b) the abbreviated format for compressed image data, specified in B.4; c) the abbreviated format for table-specification data, specified in B.5.

B.1 describes the constituent parts of these formats. B.1.3 and B.1.4 give the conventions for symbols and figures used in the format specifications.

**B.1**

**General aspects of the compressed data format specifications**

Structurally, the compressed data formats consist of an ordered collection of parameters, markers, and entropy-coded data segments. Parameters and markers in turn are often organized into marker segments. Because all of these constituent parts are represented with byte-aligned codes, each compressed data format consists of an ordered sequence of 8-bit bytes. For each byte, a most significant bit (MSB) and a least significant bit (LSB) are defined.

**B.1.1**

**Constituent parts**

This subclause gives a general description of each of the constituent parts of the compressed data format.

**B.1.1.1**

**Parameters**

Parameters are integers, with values specific to the encoding process, source image characteristics, and other features selectable by the application. Parameters are assigned either 4-bit, 1-byte, or 2-byte codes. Except for certain optional groups of parameters, parameters encode critical information without which the decoding process cannot properly reconstruct the image.

The code assignment for a parameter shall be an unsigned integer of the specified length in bits with the particular value of the parameter.

For parameters which are 2 bytes (16 bits) in length, the most significant byte shall come first in the compressed data’s ordered sequence of bytes. Parameters which are 4 bits in length always come in pairs, and the pair shall always be encoded in a single byte. The first 4-bit parameter of the pair shall occupy the most significant 4 bits of the byte. Within any 16-, 8-, or 4-bit parameter, the MSB shall come first and LSB shall come last.

**B.1.1.2**

**Markers**

Markers serve to identify the various structural parts of the compressed data formats. Most markers start marker segments containing a related group of parameters; some markers stand alone. All markers are assigned two-byte codes: an X’FF’ byte followed by a byte which is not equal to 0 or X’FF’ (see Table B.1). Any marker may optionally be preceded by any number of fill bytes, which are bytes assigned code X’FF’.

NOTE – Because of this special code-assignment structure, markers make it possible for a decoder to parse the compressed data and locate its various parts without having to decode other segments of image data.

**B.1.1.3**

**Marker assignments**

All markers shall be assigned two-byte codes: a X’FF’ byte followed by a second byte which is not equal to 0 or X’FF’.

The second byte is specified in Table B.1 for each defined marker. An asterisk (*) indicates a marker which stands alone, that is, which is not the start of a marker segment.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 31**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table B.1 – Marker code assignments**

X’FFC0’

X’FFC1’

X’FFC2’

X’FFC3’

X’FFC5’

X’FFC6’

X’FFC7’

X’FFC8’

X’FFC9’

X’FFCA’

X’FFCB’

X’FFCD’

X’FFCE’

X’FFCF’

X’FFC4’

X’FFCC’

X’FFD0’ through X’FFD7’

X’FFD8’

X’FFD9’

X’FFDA’

X’FFDB’

X’FFDC’

X’FFDD’

X’FFDE’

X’FFDF’

X’FFE0’ through X’FFEF’

X’FFF0’ through X’FFFD’

X’FFFE’

X’FF01’

Code Assignment

X’FF02’ through X’FFBF’

Symbol Description

Start Of Frame markers, non-differential, Huffman coding

SOF

0

SOF

1

SOF

2

SOF

3

Baseline DCT

Extended sequential DCT

Progressive DCT

Lossless (sequential)

Start Of Frame markers, differential, Huffman coding

SOF

5

SOF

6

SOF

7

Differential sequential DCT

Differential progressive DCT

Differential lossless (sequential)

Start Of Frame markers, non-differential, arithmetic coding

JPG

SOF

9

SOF

10

SOF

11

Reserved for JPEG extensions

Extended sequential DCT

Progressive DCT

Lossless (sequential)

Start Of Frame markers, differential, arithmetic coding

SOF

SOF

SOF

13

14

15

Differential sequential DCT

Differential progressive DCT

Differential lossless (sequential)

DHT

Huffman table specification

Define Huffman table(s)

Arithmetic coding conditioning specification

DAC Define arithmetic coding conditioning(s)

RST

Restart interval termination m

* Restart with modulo 8 count “m”

Other markers

SOI*

EOI*

SOS

DQT

DNL

DRI

DHP

EXP

APP n

JPG n

COM

Start of image

End of image

Start of scan

Define quantization table(s)

Define number of lines

Define restart interval

Define hierarchical progression

Expand reference component(s)

Reserved for application segments

Reserved for JPEG extensions

Comment

Reserved markers

TEM*

RES

For temporary private use in arithmetic coding

Reserved

**32 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.1.1.4**

**Marker segments**

A marker segment consists of a marker followed by a sequence of related parameters. The first parameter in a marker segment is the two-byte length parameter. This length parameter encodes the number of bytes in the marker segment, including the length parameter and excluding the two-byte marker. The marker segments identified by the SOF and SOS marker codes are referred to as headers: the frame header and the scan header respectively.

**B.1.1.5**

**Entropy-coded data segments**

An entropy-coded data segment contains the output of an entropy-coding procedure. It consists of an integer number of bytes, whether the entropy-coding procedure used is Huffman or arithmetic.

NOTES

1 Making entropy-coded segments an integer number of bytes is performed as follows: for Huffman coding, 1-bits are used, if necessary, to pad the end of the compressed data to complete the final byte of a segment. For arithmetic coding, byte alignment is performed in the procedure which terminates the entropy-coded segment (see D.1.8).

2 In order to ensure that a marker does not occur within an entropy-coded segment, any X’FF’ byte generated by either a

Huffman or arithmetic encoder, or an X’FF’ byte that was generated by the padding of 1-bits described in NOTE 1 above, is followed by a “stuffed” zero byte (see D.1.6 and F.1.2.3).

**B.1.2**

**Syntax**

In B.2 and B.3 the interchange format syntax is specified. For the purposes of this Specification, the syntax specification consists of:

– the required ordering of markers, parameters, and entropy-coded segments;

– identification of optional or conditional constituent parts;

– the name, symbol, and definition of each marker and parameter;

– the allowed values of each parameter;

– any restrictions on the above which are specific to the various coding processes.

The ordering of constituent parts and the identification of which are optional or conditional is specified by the syntax figures in B.2 and B.3. Names, symbols, definitions, allowed values, conditions, and restrictions are specified immediately below each syntax figure.

**B.1.3**

**Conventions for syntax figures**

The syntax figures in B.2 and B.3 are a part of the interchange format specification. The following conventions, illustrated in Figure B.1, apply to these figures:

– **parameter/marker indicator:** A thin-lined box encloses either a marker or a single parameter;

– **segment indicator:** A thick-lined box encloses either a marker segment, an entropy-coded data segment, or combinations of these;

– **parameter length indicator:** The width of a thin-lined box is proportional to the parameter length (4, 8, or 16 bits, shown as E, B, and D respectively in Figure B.1) of the marker or parameter it encloses; the width of thick-lined boxes is not meaningful;

– **optional/conditional indicator:** Square brackets indicate that a marker or marker segment is only optionally or conditionally present in the compressed image data;

– **ordering:** In the interchange format a parameter or marker shown in a figure precedes all of those shown to its right, and follows all of those shown to its left;

– **entropy-coded data indicator:** Angled brackets indicate that the entity enclosed has been entropy encoded.

Segment [

Optional segment

[

[ B ] D E F

TISO0830-93/d019

**Figure B.1 – Syntax notation conventions**

Figure B.1 **[D19]**, = 3 cm = 118%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 33**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.1.4**

**Conventions for symbols, code lengths, and values**

Following each syntax figure in B.2 and B.3, the symbol, name, and definition for each marker and parameter shown in the figure are specified. For each parameter, the length and allowed values are also specified in tabular form.

The following conventions apply to symbols for markers and parameters:

– all marker symbols have three upper-case letters, and some also have a subscript. Examples: SOI, SOF n

;

– all parameter symbols have one upper-case letter; some also have one lower-case letter and some have subscripts. Examples: Y, Nf, H i

, Tq i

.

**B.2**

**General sequential and progressive syntax**

This clause specifies the interchange format syntax which applies to all coding processes for sequential DCT-based, progressive DCT-based, and lossless modes of operation.

**B.2.1**

**High-level syntax**

Figure B.2 specifies the order of the high-level constituent parts of the interchange format for all non-hierarchical encoding processes specified in this Specification.

Compressed image data

SOI Frame EOI

[

Tables/ misc.

[

Frame header

Scan

1

Frame

[

DNL segment

[

[ Scan

2

[

[

Tables/ misc.

[

Scan header

[ECS

0

RST

0

Scan

[Scan last

[

ECS last-1

RST last-1

]

ECS last

Entropy-coded segment

0

Entropy-coded segment last

TISO0840-93/d020

**Figure B.2 – Syntax for sequential DCT-based, progressive DCT-based, and lossless modes of operation**

Figure B.2 **[D20]**, = 10 cm = 391.%

The three markers shown in Figure B.2 are defined as follows:

**SOI:** Start of image marker – Marks the start of a compressed image represented in the interchange format or abbreviated format.

**EOI:** End of image marker – Marks the end of a compressed image represented in the interchange format or abbreviated format.

**RST m**

**:** Restart marker – A conditional marker which is placed between entropy-coded segments only if restart is enabled. There are 8 unique restart markers (m = 0 - 7) which repeat in sequence from 0 to 7, starting with zero for each scan, to provide a modulo 8 restart interval count.

The top level of Figure B.2 specifies that the non-hierarchical interchange format shall begin with an SOI marker, shall contain one frame, and shall end with an EOI marker.

**34 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The second level of Figure B.2 specifies that a frame shall begin with a frame header and shall contain one or more scans.

A frame header may be preceded by one or more table-specification or miscellaneous marker segments as specified in

B.2.4. If a DNL segment (see B.2.5) is present, it shall immediately follow the first scan.

For sequential DCT-based and lossless processes each scan shall contain from one to four image components. If two to four components are contained within a scan, they shall be interleaved within the scan. For progressive DCT-based processes each image component is only partially contained within any one scan. Only the first scan(s) for the components

(which contain only DC coefficient data) may be interleaved.

The third level of Figure B.2 specifies that a scan shall begin with a scan header and shall contain one or more entropycoded data segments. Each scan header may be preceded by one or more table-specification or miscellaneous marker segments. If restart is not enabled, there shall be only one entropy-coded segment (the one labeled “last”), and no restart markers shall be present. If restart is enabled, the number of entropy-coded segments is defined by the size of the image and the defined restart interval. In this case, a restart marker shall follow each entropy-coded segment except the last one.

The fourth level of Figure B.2 specifies that each entropy-coded segment is comprised of a sequence of entropycoded MCUs. If restart is enabled and the restart interval is defined to be Ri, each entropy-coded segment except the last one shall contain Ri MCUs. The last one shall contain whatever number of MCUs completes the scan.

Figure B.2 specifies the locations where table-specification segments **may** be present. However, this Specification hereby specifies that the interchange format **shall** contain all table-specification data necessary for decoding the compressed image. Consequently, the required table-specification data **shall** be present at one or more of the allowed locations.

**B.2.2**

**Frame header syntax**

Figure B.3 specifies the frame header which shall be present at the start of a frame. This header specifies the source image characteristics (see A.1), the components in the frame, and the sampling factors for each component, and specifies the destinations from which the quantized tables to be used with each component are retrieved.

SOF n

Lf P

Frame header

Y X Nf

Component-specification parameters

C

1

H

1

V

1

Tq

1

Frame component-specification parameters

C

2

H

2

V

2

Tq

2

C

Nf

H

Nf

V

Nf

Tq

Nf

TISO0850-93/d021

**Figure B.3 – Frame header syntax**

Figure B.3 **[D21]**, = 5.5 cm = 215.%

The markers and parameters shown in Figure B.3 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.2. In Table B.2 (and similar tables which follow), value choices are separated by commas (e.g. 8, 12) and inclusive bounds are separated by dashes (e.g. 0 - 3).

**SOF n**

**:** Start of frame marker – Marks the beginning of the frame parameters. The subscript n identifies whether the encoding process is baseline sequential, extended sequential, progressive, or lossless, as well as which entropy encoding procedure is used.

**SOF**

**0**

**:**

Baseline DCT

**SOF**

**1**

**:**

Extended sequential DCT, Huffman coding

**SOF**

**2**

**:**

Progressive DCT, Huffman coding

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 35**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**SOF**

**3**

**:**

Lossless (sequential), Huffman coding

**SOF**

**9**

**:**

Extended sequential DCT, arithmetic coding

**SOF**

**10**

**: **Progressive DCT, arithmetic coding

**SOF**

**11**

**: **Lossless (sequential), arithmetic coding

**Lf:** Frame header length – Specifies the length of the frame header shown in Figure B.3 (see B.1.1.4).

**P:** Sample precision – Specifies the precision in bits for the samples of the components in the frame.

**Y:** Number of lines – Specifies the maximum number of lines in the source image. This shall be equal to the number of lines in the component with the maximum number of vertical samples (see A.1.1). Value 0 indicates that the number of lines shall be defined by the DNL marker and parameters at the end of the first scan (see

B.2.5).

**X:** Number of samples per line – Specifies the maximum number of samples per line in the source image. This shall be equal to the number of samples per line in the component with the maximum number of horizontal samples (see A.1.1).

**Nf:** Number of image components in frame – Specifies the number of source image components in the frame.

The value of Nf shall be equal to the number of sets of frame component specification parameters (C i

, H i

, V i

, and Tq i

) present in the frame header.

**C i**

**:** Component identifier – Assigns a unique label to the *i*th component in the sequence of frame component specification parameters. These values shall be used in the scan headers to identify the components in the scan.

The value of C i

shall be different from the values of C

1

through C i

−

1

.

**H i**

**:** Horizontal sampling factor – Specifies the relationship between the component horizontal dimension and maximum image dimension X (see A.1.1); also specifies the number of horizontal data units of component

C i

in each MCU, when more than one component is encoded in a scan.

**V i**

**:** Vertical sampling factor – Specifies the relationship between the component vertical dimension and maximum image dimension Y (see A.1.1); also specifies the number of vertical data units of component C i

in each MCU, when more than one component is encoded in a scan.

**Tq i**

**:** Quantization table destination selector – Specifies one of four possible quantization table destinations from which the quantization table to use for dequantization of DCT coefficients of component C i

is retrieved. If the decoding process uses the dequantization procedure, this table shall have been installed in this destination by the time the decoder is ready to decode the scan(s) containing component C i

. The destination shall not be respecified, or its contents changed, until all scans containing C i

have been completed.

**Table B.2 – Frame header parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Lf

P

Y

X

Nf

C i

H i

V i

Tq i

Size (bits)

16

1 8

16

16

1 8

1 8

1 4

1 4

1 8

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Values

Progressive DCT

8

+

3

×

Nf

8 -255 8, 12 8, 12

0-65 535

1-65 535

1-255 1-255 1-4

0-255 35

1-4 3550

1-4 3550

0-3 12 0-3 55 0-3

Lossless

2-16 5

1-255

0 -125

**36 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.2.3**

**Scan header syntax**

Figure B.4 specifies the scan header which shall be present at the start of a scan. This header specifies which component(s) are contained in the scan, specifies the destinations from which the entropy tables to be used with each component are retrieved, and (for the progressive DCT) which part of the DCT quantized coefficient data is contained in the scan. For lossless processes the scan parameters specify the predictor and the point transform.

NOTE – If there is only one image component present in a scan, that component is, by definition, non-interleaved. If there is more than one image component present in a scan, the components present are, by definition, interleaved.

SOS Ls Ns

Scan header

Component-specification parameters

Ss Se Ah Al

Cs

1

Td

1

Ta

1

Scan component-specification parameters

Cs

2

Td

2

Ta

2

Cs

Ns

Td

Ns

Ta

Ns

TISO0860-93/d022

**Figure B.4 – Scan header syntax**

Figure B.4 **[D22]**, = 5.5 cm = 215.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.4 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.3.

**SOS:** Start of scan marker – Marks the beginning of the scan parameters.

**Ls:** Scan header length – Specifies the length of the scan header shown in Figure B.4 (see B.1.1.4).

**Ns:** Number of image components in scan – Specifies the number of source image components in the scan. The value of Ns shall be equal to the number of sets of scan component specification parameters (Cs j

, Td j

, and Ta j

) present in the scan header.

**Cs j**

**:** Scan component selector – Selects which of the Nf image components specified in the frame parameters shall be the *j*th component in the scan. Each Cs j

shall match one of the C i

values specified in the frame header, and the ordering in the scan header shall follow the ordering in the frame header. If Ns > 1, the order of interleaved components in the MCU is Cs

1

first, Cs

2

second, etc. If Ns > 1, the following restriction shall be placed on the image components contained in the scan:

*j*

*N*

∑

*s*

=

1

*H j*

×

*V j*

≤

10, where H j

and V j

are the horizontal and vertical sampling factors for scan component j. These sampling factors are specified in the frame header for component i, where i is the frame component specification index for which frame component identifier C i

matches scan component selector Cs j

.

As an example, consider an image having 3 components with maximum dimensions of 512 lines and

512 samples per line, and with the following sampling factors:

Component 0

Component 1

Component 2

*H*

0

*H*

1

*H*

2

=

=

=

4

1 ,

2

,

*V*

0

*V*

1

*V*

2

=

=

=

1

2

2

Then the summation of H j

×

V j

is (4

×

1)

+

(1

×

2)

+

(2

×

2) = 10.

The value of Cs j

shall be different from the values of Cs

1

to Cs j – 1

.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 37**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Td j**

**:** DC entropy coding table destination selector – Specifies one of four possible DC entropy coding table destinations from which the entropy table needed for decoding of the DC coefficients of component Cs j

is retrieved. The DC entropy table shall have been installed in this destination (see B.2.4.2 and B.2.4.3) by the time the decoder is ready to decode the current scan. This parameter specifies the entropy coding table destination for the lossless processes.

**Ta j**

**:** AC entropy coding table destination selector – Specifies one of four possible AC entropy coding table destinations from which the entropy table needed for decoding of the AC coefficients of component Cs j

is retrieved. The AC entropy table selected shall have been installed in this destination (see B.2.4.2 and B.2.4.3) by the time the decoder is ready to decode the current scan. This parameter is zero for the lossless processes.

**Ss:** Start of spectral or predictor selection – In the DCT modes of operation, this parameter specifies the first

DCT coefficient in each block in zig-zag order which shall be coded in the scan. This parameter shall be set to zero for the sequential DCT processes. In the lossless mode of operations this parameter is used to select the predictor.

**Se:** End of spectral selection – Specifies the last DCT coefficient in each block in zig-zag order which shall be coded in the scan. This parameter shall be set to 63 for the sequential DCT processes. In the lossless mode of operations this parameter has no meaning. It shall be set to zero.

**Ah:** Successive approximation bit position high – This parameter specifies the point transform used in the preceding scan (i.e. successive approximation bit position low in the preceding scan) for the band of coefficients specified by Ss and Se. This parameter shall be set to zero for the first scan of each band of coefficients. In the lossless mode of operations this parameter has no meaning. It shall be set to zero.

**Al:** Successive approximation bit position low or point transform – In the DCT modes of operation this parameter specifies the point transform, i.e. bit position low, used before coding the band of coefficients specified by Ss and Se. This parameter shall be set to zero for the sequential DCT processes. In the lossless mode of operations, this parameter specifies the point transform, Pt.

The entropy coding table destination selectors, Td j

and Ta j

, specify either Huffman tables (in frames using Huffman coding) or arithmetic coding tables (in frames using arithmetic coding). In the latter case the entropy coding table destination selector specifies both an arithmetic coding conditioning table destination and an associated statistics area.

**Table B.3 – Scan header parameter size and values**

Values a) b) c)

Parameter Size (bits) Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Progressive DCT

Ls

Ns

Csj

Tdj

Taj

Ss

Se

Ah

Al

16

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

8

8

4

4

8

8

4

4

0-1

0-1

0 -1

63 -

0 -1

0 -1

0-3

0-3

0 -1

63 -

0 -1

0 -1

Cs j shall be a member of the set of C i

specified in the frame header.

0 for lossless differential frames in the hierarchical mode (see B.3).

0 if Ss equals zero.

6

+

2

×

Ns

1-4

0-255 a)

0-3

0-3

0-63

Ss-63 c)

0-13

0-13

Lossless

0-3

0

1-7 b)

0

0

0-15

**38 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.2.4**

**Table-specification and miscellaneous marker segment syntax**

Figure B.5 specifies that, at the places indicated in Figure B.2, any of the table-specification segments or miscellaneous marker segments specified in B.2.4.1 through B.2.4.6 may be present in any order and with no limit on the number of segments.

If any table specification for a particular destination occurs in the compressed image data, it shall replace any previous table specified for this destination, and shall be used whenever this destination is specified in the remaining scans in the frame or subsequent images represented in the abbreviated format for compressed image data. If a table specification for a given destination occurs more than once in the compressed image data, each specification shall replace the previous specification. The quantization table specification shall not be altered between progressive DCT scans of a given component.

[

Marker segment

1

]

Tables or miscellaneous marker segment

[

Marker segment

2

] [

Marker segment last

]

TISO0870-93/d023

Marker segment

Quantization table-specification or

Huffman table-specification or

Arithmetic conditioning table-specification or

Restart interval definition or

Comment or

Application data

**Figure B.5 – Tables/miscellaneous marker segment syntax**

Figure B.5 **[D23]**, = 7.5 cm = 293.%

**B.2.4.1**

**Quantization table-specification syntax**

Figure B.6 specifies the marker segment which defines one or more quantization tables.

DQT Lq

Define quantization table segment

Pq Tq Q

0

Q

1

Q

63

Multiple (t = 1, ..., n)

TISO0880-93/d024

**Figure B.6 – Quantization table syntax**

Figure B.6 **[D24]**, = 3.5 cm = 136.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.6 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.4.

**DQT:** Define quantization table marker – Marks the beginning of quantization table-specification parameters.

**Lq:** Quantization table definition length – Specifies the length of all quantization table parameters shown in

Figure B.6 (see B.1.1.4).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 39**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Pq:** Quantization table element precision – Specifies the precision of the Q k

values. Value 0 indicates 8-bit Q k values; value 1 indicates 16-bit Q k

values. Pq shall be zero for 8 bit sample precision P (see B.2.2).

**Tq:** Quantization table destination identifier – Specifies one of four possible destinations at the decoder into which the quantization table shall be installed.

**Q k**

**:** Quantization table element – Specifies the *k*th element out of 64 elements, where *k* is the index in the zigzag ordering of the DCT coefficients. The quantization elements shall be specified in zig-zag scan order.

**Table B.4 – Quantization table-specification parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Lq

Pq

Tq

Q k

Size (bits)

16 16

1 4 16

1 4 16

1 8, 16

Sequential DCT

Baseline

2

*n*

+ ∑

*t*

=

1

Extended b

65

+

64

×

0 0, 1

Values

Progressive DCT g

0, 1

0-3

1-255, 1-65 535

Lossless

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

The value n in Table B.4 is the number of quantization tables specified in the DQT marker segment.

Once a quantization table has been defined for a particular destination, it replaces the previous tables stored in that destination and shall be used, when referenced, in the remaining scans of the current image and in subsequent images represented in the abbreviated format for compressed image data. If a table has never been defined for a particular destination, then when this destination is specified in a frame header, the results are unpredictable.

An 8-bit DCT-based process shall not use a 16-bit precision quantization table.

**B.2.4.2**

**Huffman table-specification syntax**

Figure B.7 specifies the marker segment which defines one or more Huffman table specifications.

DHT Lh

Define Huffman table segment

Tc Th L

1

L

2

L

16

Symbol-length assignment

V

1,1

V

1,2

V

1,L

1

V

2,1

Multiple (t = 1, ..., n)

Symbol-length assignment parameters

V

2,2

V

2,L

2

V

16,1

V

16,2

V

16,L

16

TISO0890-93/d025

**Figure B.7 – Huffman table syntax**

Figure B.7 **[D25]**, = 5.5 cm = 215.%

**40 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.7 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.5.

**DHT:** Define Huffman table marker – Marks the beginning of Huffman table definition parameters.

**Lh:** Huffman table definition length – Specifies the length of all Huffman table parameters shown in Figure B.7

(see B.1.1.4).

**Tc:** Table class – 0 = DC table or lossless table, 1 = AC table.

**Th:** Huffman table destination identifier – Specifies one of four possible destinations at the decoder into which the Huffman table shall be installed.

**L i**

**:** Number of Huffman codes of length i – Specifies the number of Huffman codes for each of the 16 possible lengths allowed by this Specification. L i

’s are the elements of the list BITS.

**V i,j**

**:** Value associated with each Huffman code – Specifies, for each i, the value associated with each Huffman code of length i. The meaning of each value is determined by the Huffman coding model. The V i,j

’s are the elements of the list HUFFVAL.

**Table B.5 – Huffman table specification parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Lh

Tc

Th

L i

V i, j

Size (bits)

16

1 4

1 4

1 8

1 8

Values

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Progressive DCT

2

*n*

+ ∑

*t*

=

1 c

17

+

*m t*

h

0, 1

0, 1 0-3

0-255

0-255

Lossless

0

The value n in Table B.5 is the number of Huffman tables specified in the DHT marker segment. The value m t

is the number of parameters which follow the 16 L i

(t) parameters for Huffman table t, and is given by:

*m t*

16

= ∑

*i*

=

1

*L i*

In general, m t

is different for each table.

Once a Huffman table has been defined for a particular destination, it replaces the previous tables stored in that destination and shall be used when referenced, in the remaining scans of the current image and in subsequent images represented in the abbreviated format for compressed image data. If a table has never been defined for a particular destination, then when this destination is specified in a scan header, the results are unpredictable.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 41**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.2.4.3**

**Arithmetic conditioning table-specification syntax**

Figure B.8 specifies the marker segment which defines one or more arithmetic coding conditioning table specifications.

These replace the default arithmetic coding conditioning tables established by the SOI marker for arithmetic coding processes. (See F.1.4.4.1.4 and F.1.4.4.2.1.)

Define arithmetic conditioning segment

DAC La Tc Tb Cs

TISO0900-93/d026

Multiple (t = 1, ..., n)

**Figure B.8 – Arithmetic conditioning table-specification syntax**

Figure B.8 **[D26]**, = 3 cm = 117.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.8 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.6.

**DAC:** Define arithmetic coding conditioning marker – Marks the beginning of the definition of arithmetic coding conditioning parameters.

**La:** Arithmetic coding conditioning definition length conditioning parameters shown in Figure B.8 (see B.1.1.4).

**Tc:** Table class – 0 = DC table or lossless table, 1 = AC table.

**Tb:** Arithmetic coding conditioning table destination identifier – Specifies one of four possible destinations at the decoder into which the arithmetic coding conditioning table shall be installed.

**Cs:** Conditioning table value – Value in either the AC or the DC (and lossless) conditioning table. A single value of Cs shall follow each value of Tb. For AC conditioning tables Tc shall be one and Cs shall contain a value of Kx in the range 1

≤

Kx

≤

63. For DC (and lossless) conditioning tables Tc shall be zero and Cs shall contain two 4-bit parameters, U and L. U and L shall be in the range 0

≤

L

≤

U

≤

15 and the value of Cs shall be

L

+

16

×

U.

The value n in Table B.6 is the number of arithmetic coding conditioning tables specified in the DAC marker segment.

The parameters L and U are the lower and upper conditioning bounds used in the arithmetic coding procedures defined for DC coefficient coding and lossless coding. The separate value range 1-63 listed for DCT coding is the Kx conditioning used in AC coefficient coding.

**Table B.6 – Arithmetic coding conditioning table-specification parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

La

Tc

Tb

Cs

Size (bits)

16

1 4

1 4

1 8

Values

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

Progressive DCT

2

+

2

×

n

0, 1

0-3

0-255 (Tc = 0), 1-63 (Tc = 1)

Lossless

0 -255

0-255

**42 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.2.4.4**

**Restart interval definition syntax**

Figure B.9 specifies the marker segment which defines the restart interval.

DRI

Define restart interval segment

Lr Ri

TISO0910-93/d027

**Figure B.9 – Restart interval definition syntax**

Figure B.9 **[D27]**, = 2.5 cm = 98.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.9 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.7.

**DRI:** Define restart interval marker – Marks the beginning of the parameters which define the restart interval.

**Lr:** Define restart interval segment length – Specifies the length of the parameters in the DRI segment shown in

Figure B.9 (see B.1.1.4).

**Ri:** Restart interval – Specifies the number of MCU in the restart interval.

In Table B.7 the value n is the number of rows of MCU in the restart interval. The value MCUR is the number of MCU required to make up one line of samples of each component in the scan. The SOI marker disables the restart intervals. A

DRI marker segment with Ri nonzero shall be present to enable restart interval processing for the following scans. A DRI marker segment with Ri equal to zero shall disable restart intervals for the following scans.

Parameter

Lr

Ri

**Table B.7 – Define restart interval segment parameter sizes and values**

Size (bits)

16

16

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Values

Progressive DCT

4

0-65 535

Lossless n

×

MCUR

**B.2.4.5**

**Comment syntax**

Figure B.10 specifies the marker segment structure for a comment segment.

COM

Comment segment

Lc Cm

1

. . . Cm

Lc-2

TISO00920-93/d028

**Figure B.10 – Comment segment syntax**

Figure B.10 **[D28]**, = 2.8cm = 98.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 43**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.10 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.8.

**COM:** Comment marker – Marks the beginning of a comment.

**Lc:** Comment segment length – Specifies the length of the comment segment shown in Figure B.10

(see B.1.1.4).

**Cm i**

**:** Comment byte – The interpretation is left to the application.

**Table B.8 – Comment segment parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Lc

Cm i

Size (bits)

16

1 8

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Values

Progressive DCT

2-65 535

0-255 22

Lossless

**B.2.4.6**

**Application data syntax**

Figure B.11 specifies the marker segment structure for an application data segment.

Application data segment

APP n

Lp Ap

1

. . .

Ap

Lp-2

TISO0930-93/d029

**Figure B.11 – Application data syntax**

Figure B.11 **[D29]**, = 2.8 cm = 98.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.11 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.9.

**APP n**

**:** Application data marker – Marks the beginning of an application data segment.

**Lp:** Application data segment length – Specifies the length of the application data segment shown in

Figure B.11 (see B.1.1.4).

**Ap i**

**:** Application data byte – The interpretation is left to the application.

The APP n

(Application) segments are reserved for application use. Since these segments may be defined differently for different applications, they should be removed when the data are exchanged between application environments.

**Table B.9 – Application data segment parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Lp

Ap i

Size (bits)

16

1 8

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Values

Progressive DCT

2-65 535

0-255 22

Lossless

**44 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**B.2.5**

**Define number of lines syntax**

Figure B.12 specifies the marker segment for defining the number of lines. The DNL (Define Number of Lines) segment provides a mechanism for defining or redefining the number of lines in the frame (the Y parameter in the frame header) at the end of the first scan. The value specified shall be consistent with the number of MCU-rows encoded in the first scan.

This segment, if used, shall only occur at the end of the first scan, and only after coding of an integer number of MCUrows. This marker segment is mandatory if the number of lines (Y) specified in the frame header has the value zero.

Define number of lines segment

DNL Ld NL

TISO0940-93/d030

**Figure B.12 – Define number of lines syntax**

Figure B.12 **[D30]**, = 2.8 cm = 98.%

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.12 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.10.

**DNL:** Define number of lines marker – Marks the beginning of the define number of lines segment.

**Ld:** Define number of lines segment length – Specifies the length of the define number of lines segment shown in Figure B.12 (see B.1.1.4).

**NL:** Number of lines – Specifies the number of lines in the frame (see definition of Y in B.2.2).

**Table B.10 – Define number of lines segment parameter sizes and values**

Values a)

Parameter Size (bits) Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Progressive DCT Lossless

Ld 16 4 -65535 a)

1-65 535 a)

NL 16

The value specified shall be consistent with the number of lines coded at the point where the DNL segment terminates the compressed data segment.

**B.3**

**Hierarchical syntax**

**B.3.1**

**High level hierarchical mode syntax**

Figure B.13 specifies the order of the high level constituent parts of the interchange format for hierarchical encoding processes.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 45**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

SOI [Tables/misc.]

Compressed image data

DHP segment

Frame

1

Frame last

EOI

TISO09 50-93/d 031

**Figure B.13 – Syntax for the hierarchical mode of operation**

Figure B.13 **[D31]**, = 3 cm = 117.%

Hierarchical mode syntax requires a DHP marker segment that appears before the non-differential frame or frames. The hierarchical mode compressed image data may include EXP marker segments and differential frames which shall follow the initial non-differential frame. The frame structure in hierarchical mode is identical to the frame structure in nonhierarchical mode.

The non-differential frames in the hierarchical sequence shall use one of the coding processes specified for SOF n

markers:

SOF

0

, SOF

1

, SOF

2

, SOF

3

, SOF

9

, SOF

10

and SOF

11

. The differential frames shall use one of the processes specified for

SOF

5

, SOF

6

, SOF

7

, SOF

13

, SOF

14

and SOF

15

. The allowed combinations of SOF markers within one hierarchical sequence are specified in Annex J.

The sample precision (P) shall be constant for all frames and have the identical value as that coded in the DHP marker segment. The number of samples per line (X) for all frames shall not exceed the value coded in the DHP marker segment.

If the number of lines (Y) is non-zero in the DHP marker segment, then the number of lines for all frames shall not exceed the value in the DHP marker segment.

**B.3.2**

**DHP segment syntax**

The DHP segment defines the image components, size, and sampling factors for the completed hierarchical sequence of frames. The DHP segment shall precede the first frame; a single DHP segment shall occur in the compressed image data.

The DHP segment structure is identical to the frame header syntax, except that the DHP marker is used instead of the

SOF n

marker. The figures and description of B.2.2 then apply, except that the quantization table destination selector parameter shall be set to zero in the DHP segment.

**B.3.3**

**EXP segment syntax**

Figure B.14 specifies the marker segment structure for the EXP segment. The EXP segment shall be present if (and only if) expansion of the reference components is required either horizontally or vertically. The EXP segment parameters apply only to the next frame (which shall be a differential frame) in the image. If required, the EXP segment shall be one of the table-specification segments or miscellaneous marker segments preceding the frame header; the EXP segment shall not be one of the table-specification segments or miscellaneous marker segments preceding a scan header or a DHP marker segment.

EXP

Expand segment

Le Eh Ev

TISO0960-93/d032

**Figure B.14 – Syntax of the expand segment**

Figure B.14 [**D32]**, = 2.5 cm = 98.%

**46 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The marker and parameters shown in Figure B.14 are defined below. The size and allowed values of each parameter are given in Table B.11.

**EXP:** Expand reference components marker – Marks the beginning of the expand reference components segment.

**Le:** Expand reference components segment length – Specifies the length of the expand reference components segment (see B.1.1.4).

**Eh:** Expand horizontally – If one, the reference components shall be expanded horizontally by a factor of two.

If horizontal expansion is not required, the value shall be zero.

**Ev:** Expand vertically – If one, the reference components shall be expanded vertically by a factor of two.

If vertical expansion is not required, the value shall be zero.

Both Eh and Ev shall be one if expansion is required both horizontally and vertically.

**Table B.11 – Expand segment parameter sizes and values**

Parameter

Le

Eh

Ev

Size (bits)

16

1 4

1 4

Sequential DCT

Baseline Extended

Values

Progressive DCT

3 ,1

0, 1

0, 1

Lossless

**B.4**

**Abbreviated format for compressed image data**

Figure B.2 shows the high-level constituent parts of the interchange format. This format includes all table specifications required for decoding. If an application environment provides methods for table specification other than by means of the compressed image data, some or all of the table specifications may be omitted. Compressed image data which is missing any table specification data required for decoding has the abbreviated format.

**B.5**

**Abbreviated format for table-specification data**

Figure B.2 shows the high-level constituent parts of the interchange format. If no frames are present in the compressed image data, the only purpose of the compressed image data is to convey table specifications or miscellaneous marker segments defined in B.2.4.1, B.2.4.2, B.2.4.5, and B.2.4.6. In this case the compressed image data has the abbreviated format for table specification data (see Figure B.15).

Compressed image data

SOI

[Tables/misc.]

EOI

TISO0970-93/d033

**Figure B.15 – Abbreviated format for table-specification data syntax**

Figure B.15 [**D33]**, = 3 cm = 117.% dim. à 100

**B.6**

**Summary**

The order of the constituent parts of interchange format and all marker segment structures is summarized in Figures B.16

and B.17. Note that in Figure B.16 double-lined boxes enclose marker segments. In Figures B.16 and B.17 thick-lined boxes enclose only markers.

The EXP segment can be mixed with the other tables/miscellaneous marker segments preceding the frame header but not with the tables/miscellaneous marker segments preceding the DHP segment or the scan header.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 47**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure ** à l'italienne** B.16 [**D34]**, = 21 cm = 821.%

**48 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure ** à l'italienne** B.17 [**D35]**, = 21 cm = 821.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 49**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex C**

**Huffman table specification**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

A Huffman coding procedure may be used for entropy coding in any of the coding processes. Coding models for

Huffman encoding are defined in Annexes F, G, and H. In this Annex, the Huffman table specification is defined.

Huffman tables are specified in terms of a 16-byte list (BITS) giving the number of codes for each code length from

1 to 16. This is followed by a list of the 8-bit symbol values (HUFFVAL), each of which is assigned a Huffman code. The symbol values are placed in the list in order of increasing code length. Code lengths greater than 16 bits are not allowed.

In addition, the codes shall be generated such that the all-1-bits code word of any length is reserved as a prefix for longer code words.

NOTE – The order of the symbol values within HUFFVAL is determined only by code length. Within a given code length the ordering of the symbol values is arbitrary.

This annex specifies the procedure by which the Huffman tables (of Huffman code words and their corresponding 8-bit symbol values) are derived from the two lists (BITS and HUFFVAL) in the interchange format. However, the way in which these lists are generated is not specified. The lists should be generated in a manner which is consistent with the rules for Huffman coding, and it shall observe the constraints discussed in the previous paragraph. Annex K contains an example of a procedure for generating lists of Huffman code lengths and values which are in accord with these rules.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in

Part 2.

**C.1**

**Marker segments for Huffman table specification**

The DHT marker identifies the start of Huffman table definitions within the compressed image data. B.2.4.2 specifies the syntax for Huffman table specification.

**C.2**

**Conversion of Huffman table specifications to tables of codes and code lengths**

Conversion of Huffman table specifications to tables of codes and code lengths uses three procedures. The first procedure

(Figure C.1) generates a table of Huffman code sizes. The second procedure (Figure C.2) generates the Huffman codes from the table built in Figure C.1. The third procedure (Figure C.3) generates the Huffman codes in symbol value order.

Given a list BITS (1 to 16) containing the number of codes of each size, and a list HUFFVAL containing the symbol values to be associated with those codes as described above, two tables are generated. The HUFFSIZE table contains a list of code lengths; the HUFFCODE table contains the Huffman codes corresponding to those lengths.

Note that the variable LASTK is set to the index of the last entry in the table.

**50 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Generate_size_table

K = 0

I = 1

J = 1

HUFFSIZE(K) = I

K = K + 1

J = J + 1

No

J > BITS(I)

?

Yes

I = I + 1

J = 1

No

I > 16

?

Yes

HUFFSIZE(K) = 0

LASTK = K

Done

TISO1000-93/d036

**Figure C.1 – Generation of table of Huffman code sizes**

Figure C.1 [**D36]**, = 16 cm = 625 %

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 51**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

A Huffman code table, HUFFCODE, containing a code for each size in HUFFSIZE is generated by the procedure in

Figure C.2. The notation “SLL CODE 1” in Figure C.2 indicates a shift-left-logical of CODE by one bit position.

Generate_code_table

K = 0

CODE = 0

SI = HUFFSIZE(0)

HUFFCODE(K) = CODE

CODE = CODE + 1

K = K + 1

Yes

HUFFSIZE(K) = SI

?

No

HUFFSIZE(K) = 0

?

No

Yes

CODE = SLL CODE 1

SI = SI + 1

Yes

HUFFSIZE(K) = SI

?

No

Done

TISO1010-93/d037

**Figure C.2 – Generation of table of Huffman codes**

Figure C.2 [**D37]**, = 16.5 cm = 645.%

Two tables, HUFFCODE and HUFFSIZE, have now been generated. The entries in the tables are ordered according to increasing Huffman code numeric value and length.

The encoding procedure code tables, EHUFCO and EHUFSI, are created by reordering the codes specified by

HUFFCODE and HUFFSIZE according to the symbol values assigned to each code in HUFFVAL.

**52 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure C.3 illustrates this ordering procedure.

Order_codes

K = 0

I = HUFFVAL(K)

EHUFCO(I) = HUFFCODE(K)

EHUFSI(I) = HUFFSIZE(K)

K = K + 1

Yes

K < LASTK

?

No

Done

TISO1020-93/d038

**Figure C.3 – Ordering procedure for encoding procedure code tables**

Figure C.3 [**D38]**, = 11.5 cm = 449.%

**C.3**

**Bit ordering within bytes**

The root of a Huffman code is placed toward the MSB (most-significant-bit) of the byte, and successive bits are placed in the direction MSB to LSB (least-significant-bit) of the byte. Remaining bits, if any, go into the next byte following the same rules.

Integers associated with Huffman codes are appended with the MSB adjacent to the LSB of the preceding Huffman code.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 53**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex D**

**Arithmetic coding**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

An adaptive binary arithmetic coding procedure may be used for entropy coding in any of the coding processes except the baseline sequential process. Coding models for adaptive binary arithmetic coding are defined in Annexes F, G, and H. In this annex the arithmetic encoding and decoding procedures used in those models are defined.

In K.4 a simple test example is given which should be helpful in determining if a given implementation is correct.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in

Part 2.

**D.1**

**Arithmetic encoding procedures**

Four arithmetic encoding procedures are required in a system with arithmetic coding (see Table D.1).

**Table D.1 – Procedures for binary arithmetic encoding**

Procedure

Code_0(S)

Code_1(S)

Initenc

Flush

Purpose

Code a “0” binary decision with context-index S

Code a “1” binary decision with context-index S

Initialize the encoder

Terminate entropy-coded segment

The “Code_0(S)”and “Code_1(S)” procedures code the 0-decision and 1-decision respectively; S is a context-index which identifies a particular conditional probability estimate used in coding the binary decision. The “Initenc” procedure initializes the arithmetic coding entropy encoder. The “Flush” procedure terminates the entropy-coded segment in preparation for the marker which follows.

**D.1.1**

**Binary arithmetic encoding principles**

The arithmetic coder encodes a series of binary symbols, zeros and ones, each symbol representing one possible result of a binary decision.

Each “binary decision” provides a choice between two alternatives. The binary decision might be between positive and negative signs, a magnitude being zero or nonzero, or a particular bit in a sequence of binary digits being zero or one.

The output bit stream (entropy-coded data segment) represents a binary fraction which increases in precision as bytes are appended by the encoding process.

**D.1.1.1**

**Recursive interval subdivision**

Recursive probability interval subdivision is the basis for the binary arithmetic encoding procedures. With each binary decision the current probability interval is subdivided into two sub-intervals, and the bit stream is modified (if necessary) so that it points to the base (the lower bound) of the probability sub-interval assigned to the symbol which occurred.

In the partitioning of the current probability interval into two sub-intervals, the sub-interval for the less probable symbol

(LPS) and the sub-interval for the more probable symbol (MPS) are ordered such that usually the MPS sub-interval is closer to zero. Therefore, when the LPS is coded, the MPS sub-interval size is added to the bit stream. This coding convention requires that symbols be recognized as either MPS or LPS rather than 0 or 1. Consequently, the size of the

LPS sub-interval and the sense of the MPS for each decision must be known in order to encode that decision.

**54 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The subdivision of the current probability interval would ideally require a multiplication of the interval by the probability estimate for the LPS. Because this subdivision is done approximately, it is possible for the LPS sub-interval to be larger than the MPS sub-interval. When that happens a “conditional exchange” interchanges the assignment of the sub-intervals such that the MPS is given the larger sub-interval.

Since the encoding procedure involves addition of binary fractions rather than concatenation of integer code words, the more probable binary decisions can sometimes be coded at a cost of much less than one bit per decision.

**D.1.1.2**

**Conditioning of probability estimates**

An adaptive binary arithmetic coder requires a statistical model – a model for selecting conditional probability estimates to be used in the coding of each binary decision. When a given binary decision probability estimate is dependent on a particular feature or features (the context) already coded, it is “conditioned” on that feature. The conditioning of probability estimates on previously coded decisions must be identical in encoder and decoder, and therefore can use only information known to both.

Each conditional probability estimate required by the statistical model is kept in a separate storage location or “bin” identified by a unique context-index S. The arithmetic coder is adaptive, which means that the probability estimates at each context-index are developed and maintained by the arithmetic coding system on the basis of prior coding decisions for that context-index.

**D.1.2**

**Encoding conventions and approximations**

The encoding procedures use fixed precision integer arithmetic and an integer representation of fractional values in which

X’8000’ can be regarded as the decimal value 0.75. The probability interval, A, is kept in the integer

X’8000’ A

<

X’10000’ by doubling it whenever its integer value falls below X’8000’. This is equivalent to keeping A in the decimal range 0.75

≤

A

<

1.5. This doubling procedure is called renormalization.

The code register, C, contains the trailing bits of the bit stream. C is also doubled each time A is doubled. Periodically

– to keep C from overflowing – a byte of data is removed from the high order bits of the C-register and placed in the entropy-coded segment.

Carry-over into the entropy-coded segment is limited by delaying X’FF’ output bytes until the carry-over is resolved. Zero bytes are stuffed after each X’FF’ byte in the entropy-coded segment in order to avoid the accidental generation of markers in the entropy-coded segment.

Keeping A in the range 0.75

≤

A

<

1.5 allows a simple arithmetic approximation to be used in the probability interval subdivision. Normally, if the current estimate of the LPS probability for context-index S is Qe(S), precise calculation of the sub-intervals would require:

Qe(S)

×

A Probability sub-interval for the LPS;

A – (Qe(S)

×

A) Probability sub-interval for the MPS.

Because the decimal value of A is of order unity, these can be approximated by

Qe(S)

A – Qe(S)

Probability sub-interval for the LPS;

Probability sub-interval for the MPS.

Whenever the LPS is coded, the value of A – Qe(S) is added to the code register and the probability interval is reduced to

Qe(S). Whenever the MPS is coded, the code register is left unchanged and the interval is reduced to A – Qe(S). The precision range required for A is then restored, if necessary, by renormalization of both A and C.

With the procedure described above, the approximations in the probability interval subdivision process can sometimes make the LPS sub-interval larger than the MPS sub-interval. If, for example, the value of Qe(S) is 0.5 and A is at the minimum allowed value of 0.75, the approximate scaling gives one-third of the probability interval to the MPS and twothirds to the LPS. To avoid this size inversion, conditional exchange is used. The probability interval is subdivided using the simple approximation, but the MPS and LPS sub-interval assignments are exchanged whenever the LPS sub-interval is larger than the MPS sub-interval. This MPS/LPS conditional exchange can only occur when a renormalization will be needed.

Each binary decision uses a context. A context is the set of prior coding decisions which determine the context-index, S, identifying the probability estimate used in coding the decision.

Whenever a renormalization occurs, a probability estimation procedure is invoked which determines a new probability estimate for the context currently being coded. No explicit symbol counts are needed for the estimation. The relative probabilities of renormalization after coding of LPS and MPS provide, by means of a table-based probability estimation state machine, a direct estimate of the probabilities.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 55**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.1.3**

**Encoder code register conventions**

The flow charts in this annex assume the register structures for the encoder as shown in Table D.2.

**Table D.2 – Encoder register connections**

C-register

A-register

MSB

0000cbbb,

00000000, bbbbbsss,

00000000, xxxxxxxx, aaaaaaaa,

LSB xxxxxxxx aaaaaaaa

The “a” bits are the fractional bits in the A-register (the current probability interval value) and the “x” bits are the fractional bits in the code register. The “s” bits are optional spacer bits which provide useful constraints on carry-over, and the “b” bits indicate the bit positions from which the completed bytes of data are removed from the C-register. The “c” bit is a carry bit. Except at the time of initialization, bit 15 of the A-register is always set and bit 16 is always clear (the LSB is bit 0).

These register conventions illustrate one possible implementation. However, any register conventions which allow resolution of carry-over in the encoder and which produce the same entropy-coded segment may be used. The handling of carry-over and the byte stuffing following X’FF’ will be described in a later part of this annex.

**D.1.4**

**Code_1(S) and Code_0(S) procedures**

When a given binary decision is coded, one of two possibilities occurs – either a 1-decision or a 0-decision is coded.

Code_1(S) and Code_0(S) are shown in Figures D.1 and D.2. The Code_1(S) and Code_0(S) procedures use probability estimates with a context-index S. The context-index S is determined by the statistical model and is, in general, a function of the previous coding decisions; each value of S identifies a particular conditional probability estimate which is used in encoding the binary decision.

Code_1(S)

No

MPS(S) = 1

?

Yes

Code_LPS(S) Code_MPS(S)

TISO1800-93/d039

Done

Figure D.1 [**D39]**, = 9 cm = 352.%

**56 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**Figure D.1 – Code_1(S) procedure**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Code_0(S)

No

MSP(S) = 0

?

Yes

Code_LPS(S) Code_MPS(S)

TISO1030-93/d040

Done

**Figure D.2 – Code_0(S) procedure**

Figure D.2 [**D40]**, = 9 cm = 352 %

The context-index S selects a storage location which contains Index(S), an index to the tables which make up the probability estimation state machine. When coding a binary decision, the symbol being coded is either the more probable symbol or the less probable symbol. Therefore, additional information is stored at each context-index identifying the sense of the more probable symbol, MPS(S).

For simplicity, the flow charts in this subclause assume that the context storage for each context-index S has an additional storage field for Qe(S) containing the value of Qe(Index(S)). If only the value of Index(S) and MPS(S) are stored, all references to Qe(S) should be replaced by Qe(Index(S)).

The Code_LPS(S) procedure normally consists of the addition of the MPS sub-interval A – Qe(S) to the bit stream and a scaling of the interval to the sub-interval, Qe(S). It is always followed by the procedures for obtaining a new LPS probability estimate (Estimate_Qe(S)_after_LPS) and renormalization (Renorm_e) (see Figure D.3).

However, in the event that the LPS sub-interval is larger than the MPS sub-interval, the conditional MPS/LPS exchange occurs and the MPS sub-interval is coded.

The Code_MPS(S) procedure normally reduces the size of the probability interval to the MPS sub-interval. However, if the LPS sub-interval is larger than the MPS sub-interval, the conditional exchange occurs and the LPS sub-interval is coded instead. Note that conditional exchange cannot occur unless the procedures for obtaining a new LPS probability estimate (Estimate_Qe(S)_after_MPS) and renormalization (Renorm_e) are required after the coding of the symbol (see

Figure D.4).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 57**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Code_LPS(S)

A = A – Qe(S)

A < Qe(S)

?

No

C = C + A

A = Qe(S)

Yes

Estimate_Qe(S)_after_LPS

Renorm_e

Done

TISO1040-93/d041

**Figure D.3 – Code_LPS(S) procedure with conditional MPS/LPS exchange**

Figure D.3 [**D41]**, = 13.5 cm = 528.%

**58 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Code_MPS(S)

A = A – Qe(S)

No

A < X’8000’

?

Yes

No

A < Qe(S)

?

Yes

C = C + A

A = Qe(S)

Estimate_Qe(S)_after_MPS

Renorm_e

Done

TISO1050-93/d042

**Figure D.4 – Code_MPS(S) procedure with conditional MPS/LPS exchange**

Figure D.4 [**D42]**, = 16.5 cm = 645.%

**D.1.5**

**Probability estimation in the encoder**

**D.1.5.1**

**Probability estimation state machine**

The probability estimation state machine consists of a number of sequences of probability estimates. These sequences are interlinked in a manner which provides probability estimates based on approximate symbol counts derived from the arithmetic coder renormalization. Some of these sequences are used during the initial “learning” stages of probability estimation; the rest are used for “steady state” estimation.

Each entry in the probability estimation state machine is assigned an index, and each index has associated with it a

Qe value and two Next_Index values. The Next_Index_MPS gives the index to the new probability estimate after an MPS renormalization; the Next_Index_LPS gives the index to the new probability estimate after an LPS renormalization. Note that both the index to the estimation state machine and the sense of the MPS are kept for each context-index S. The sense of the MPS is changed whenever the entry in the Switch_MPS is one.

The probability estimation state machine is given in Table D.3. Initialization of the arithmetic coder is always with an MPS sense of zero and a Qe index of zero in Table D.3.

The Qe values listed in Table D.3 are expressed as hexadecimal integers. To approximately convert the 15-bit integer representation of Qe to a decimal probability, divide the Qe values by (4/3)

×

(X’8000’).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 59**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table D.3 – Qe values and probability estimation state machine**

Index

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

35

36

37

38

39

40

29

30

31

32

33

34

23

24

25

26

27

28

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

10

11

12

13

14

15

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

Next_ Index

_LPS _MPS

69

70

72

73

74

75

77

33

37

64

65

67

68

57

59

60

62

63

32

48

49

51

52

54

56

78

79

48

50

50

51

52

53

54

38

39

40

42

43

45

46

35

1 9

10

12

15

36

20

23

25

28

30

33

1 1

14

16

18

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

1 9

37

38

39

40

41

30

31

32

33

34

35

24

25

26

27

28

29

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

11

12

13

13

15

16

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

Qe

_Value

X’055C’

X’0406’

X’0303’

X’0240’

X’01B1’

X’0144’

X’00F5’

X’00B7’

X’008A’

X’0068’

X’004E’

X’003B’

X’002C’

X’5AE1’

X’484C’

X’3A0D’

X’2EF1’

X’261F’

X’1F33’

X’19A8’

X’1518’

X’1177’

X’0E74’

X’0BFB’

X’09F8’

X’5A1D’

X’2586’

X’1114’

X’080B’

X’03D8’

X’01DA’

X’00E5’

X’006F’

X’0036’

X’001A’

X’000D’

X’0006’

X’0003’

X’0001’

X’5A7F’

X’3F25’

X’2CF2’

X’207C’

X’17B9’

X’1182’

X’0CEF’

X’09A1’

X’072F’

X’0861’

X’0706’

X’05CD’

X’04DE’

X’040F’

X’0363’

X’02D4’

X’025C’

X’01F8’

Switch

_MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

Index

1 98

1 99

100

101

102

103

104

1 92

1 93

1 94

1 95

1 96

1 97

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

1 86

1 87

1 88

1 89

1 90

1 91

1 80

1 81

1 82

1 83

1 84

1 85

1 73

1 74

1 75

1 76

1 77

1 78

1 79

1 67

1 68

1 69

1 70

1 71

1 72

1 57

1 58

1 59

1 60

1 61

1 62

1 63

1 64

1 65

1 66

Next_ Index

_LPS

103

104

1 99

105

106

107

103

1 99

1 99

1 93

1 95

101

102

105

108

109

110

111

110

112

112

1 93

1 86

1 88

1 95

1 96

1 97

1 80

1 88

1 89

1 90

1 91

1 92

1 72

1 72

1 74

1 74

1 75

1 77

1 77

1 82

1 83

1 84

1 86

1 87

1 87

1 55

1 56

1 57

1 58

1 59

1 61

1 61

1 65

1 80

1 81

_MPS

1 99

100

1 93

102

103

104

1 99

1 93

1 94

1 86

1 96

1 97

1 98

106

107

103

109

107

111

109

111

1 87

1 71

1 89

1 90

1 91

1 92

1 81

1 82

1 83

1 84

1 85

1 86

1 74

1 75

1 76

1 77

1 78

1 79

1 48

1 68

1 69

1 70

1 71

1 72

1 73

1 58

1 59

1 60

1 61

1 62

1 63

1 32

1 65

1 66

1 67

Qe

_Value

X’3824’

X’32B4’

X’2E17’

X’56A8’

X’4F46’

X’47E5’

X’41CF’

X’3C3D’

X’375E’

X’5231’

X’4C0F’

X’4639’

X’415E’

X’5832’

X’4D1C’

X’438E’

X’3BDD’

X’34EE’

X’2EAE’

X’299A’

X’2516’

X’5570’

X’4CA9’

X’44D9’

X’3E22’

X’5627’

X’50E7’

X’4B85’

X’5597’

X’504F’

X’5A10’

X’5522’

X’59EB’

X’01A4’

X’0160’

X’0125’

X’00F6’

X’00CB’

X’00AB’

X’008F’

X’5B12’

X’4D04’

X’412C’

X’37D8’

X’2FE8’

X’293C’

X’2379’

X’1EDF’

X’1AA9’

X’174E’

X’1424’

X’119C’

X’0F6B’

X’0D51’

X’0BB6’

X’0A40’

Switch

_MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

**60 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.1.5.2**

**Renormalization driven estimation**

The change in state in Table D.3 occurs only when the arithmetic coder interval register is renormalized. This must always be done after coding an LPS, and whenever the probability interval register is less than X'8000' (0.75 in decimal notation) after coding an MPS.

When the LPS renormalization is required, Next_Index_LPS gives the new index for the LPS probability estimate. When the MPS renormalization is required, Next_Index_MPS gives the new index for the LPS probability estimate. If

Switch_MPS is 1 for the old index, the MPS symbol sense must be inverted after an LPS.

**D.1.5.3**

**Estimation following renormalization after MPS**

The procedure for estimating the probability on the MPS renormalization path is given in Figure D.5. Index(S) is part of the information stored for context-index S. The new value of Index(S) is obtained from Table D.3 from the column labeled

Next_Index_MPS, as that is the next index after an MPS renormalization. This next index is stored as the new value of

Index(S) in the context storage at context-index S, and the value of Qe at this new Index(S) becomes the new Qe(S).

MPS(S) does not change.

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_MPS

I = Index(S)

I = Next_Index_MPS(I)

Index(S) = I

Qe(S) = Qe_Value(I)

Done

TISO1060-93/d043

**Figure D.5 – Probability estimation on MPS renormalization path**

Figure D.5 [**D43]**, = 7 cm = 273.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 61**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.1.5.4**

**Estimation following renormalization after LPS**

The procedure for estimating the probability on the LPS renormalization path is shown in Figure D.6. The procedure is similar to that of Figure D.5 except that when Switch_MPS(I) is 1, the sense of MPS(S) must be inverted.

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_LPS

I = Index(S)

No

Switch_MPS(I) = 1

?

Yes

MPS(S) = 1 – MPS(S)

I = Next_Index_LPS(I)

Index(S) = I

Qe(S) = Qe_Value(I)

Done

TISO1070-93/d044

**Figure D.6 – Probability estimation on LPS renormalization path**

Figure D.6 [**D44]**, = 14 cm = 547.%

**D.1.6**

**Renormalization in the encoder**

The Renorm_e procedure for the encoder renormalization is shown in Figure D.7. Both the probability interval register A and the code register C are shifted, one bit at a time. The number of shifts is counted in the counter CT; when CT is zero, a byte of compressed data is removed from C by the procedure Byte_out and CT is reset to 8. Renormalization continues until A is no longer less than X’8000’.

**62 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Renorm_e

A = SLL A 1

C = SLL C 1

CT = CT – 1

CT = 0

?

Yes

Byte_out

No

CT = 8

A < X’8000’

?

No

Done

Yes

TISO1080-93/d045

**Figure D.7 – Encoder renormalization procedure**

Figure D.7 [**D45]**, = 16.5 cm = 645.%

The Byte_out procedure used in Renorm_e is shown in Figure D.8. This procedure uses byte-stuffing procedures which prevent accidental generation of markers by the arithmetic encoding procedures. It also includes an example of a procedure for resolving carry-over. For simplicity of exposition, the buffer holding the entropy-coded segment is assumed to be large enough to contain the entire segment.

In Figure D.8 BP is the entropy-coded segment pointer and B is the compressed data byte pointed to by BP. T in Byte_out is a temporary variable which is used to hold the output byte and carry bit. ST is the stack counter which is used to count

X’FF’ output bytes until any carry-over through the X’FF’ sequence has been resolved. The value of ST rarely exceeds 3.

However, since the upper limit for the value of ST is bounded only by the total entropy-coded segment size, a precision of

32 bits is recommended for ST.

Since large values of ST represent a latent output of compressed data, the following procedure may be needed in high speed synchronous encoding systems for handling the burst of output data which occurs when the carry is resolved.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 63**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Byte_out

T = SRL C 19

B = B + 1

Yes

T > X’FF’

?

No

Stuff_0

Output_stacked_

zeros

ST = ST + 1

Yes

T = X’FF’

?

No

Output_stacked_

X’FF’s

BP = BP + 1

B = T

BP = BP + 1

B = T

C = C AND X’7FFFF’

Done

TISO1090-93/d046

**Figure D.8 – Byte_out procedure for encoder**

Figure D.8 [**D46]**, = 18 cm = 704.%

When the stack count reaches an upper bound determined by output channel capacity, the stack is emptied and the stacked

X’FF’ bytes (and stuffed zero bytes) are added to the compressed data before the carry-over is resolved. If a carry-over then occurs, the carry is added to the final stuffed zero, thereby converting the final X’FF00’ sequence to the X’FF01’ temporary private marker. The entropy-coded segment must then be post-processed to resolve the carry-over and remove the temporary marker code. For any reasonable bound on ST this post processing is very unlikely.

Referring to Figure D.8, the shift of the code register by 19 bits aligns the output bits with the low order bits of T. The first test then determines if a carry-over has occurred. If so, the carry must be added to the previous output byte before advancing the segment pointer BP. The Stuff_0 procedure stuffs a zero byte whenever the addition of the carry to the data already in the entropy-coded segments creates a X’FF’ byte. Any stacked output bytes – converted to zeros by the carryover – are then placed in the entropy-coded segment. Note that when the output byte is later transferred from T to the entropy-coded segment (to byte B), the carry bit is ignored if it is set.

**64 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

If a carry has not occurred, the output byte is tested to see if it is X’FF’. If so, the stack count ST is incremented, as the output must be delayed until the carry-over is resolved. If not, the carry-over has been resolved, and any stacked X’FF’ bytes must then be placed in the entropy-coded segment. Note that a zero byte is stuffed following each X’FF’.

The procedures used by Byte_out are defined in Figures D.9 through D.11.

Output_stacked_

zeros

ST = 0

?

No

BP = BP + 1

B = 0

ST = ST – 1

Yes

Done

TISO1810-93/d047

**Figure D.9 – Output_stacked_zeros procedure for encoder**

Figure D.9 [**D47]**, = 8.5 cm = 332.%

Output_stacked_

X’FF’s

ST = 0

?

No

BP = BP + 1

B = X’FF’

BP = BP + 1

B = 0

ST = ST – 1

Yes

Done

TISO1100-93/d048

**Figure D.10 – Output_stacked_X’FF’s procedure for encoder**

Figure D.10 [**D48]**, = 8.5 cm = 332.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 65**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Stuff_0

No

B = X’FF’

?

Yes

BP = BP + 1

B = 0

Figure D.11 [**D49]**, = 10 cm = 391.%

Done

TISO1110-93/d049

**Figure D.11 – Stuff_0 procedure for encoder**

**D.1.7**

**Initialization of the encoder**

The Initenc procedure is used to start the arithmetic coder. The basic steps are shown in Figure D.12.

Initenc

Initialize statistics areas

ST = 0

A = X’10000’

A = (see Note below)

C = 0

CT = 11

BP = BPST – 1

Figure D.12 [**D50]**, = 9 cm = 352.%

Done

TISO1120-93/d050

**Figure D.12 – Initialization of the encoder**

**66 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The probability estimation tables are defined by Table D.3. The statistics areas are initialized to an MPS sense of 0 and a

Qe index of zero as defined by Table D.3. The stack count (ST) is cleared, the code register (C) is cleared, and the interval register is set to X’10000’. The counter (CT) is set to 11, reflecting the fact that when A is initialized to X’10000’ three spacer bits plus eight output bits in C must be filled before the first byte is removed. Note that BP is initialized to point to the byte before the start of the entropy-coded segment (which is at BPST). Note also that the statistics areas are initialized for all values of context-index S to MPS(S) = 0 and Index(S) = 0.

NOTE – Although the probability interval is initialized to X’10000’ in both Initenc and Initdec, the precision of the probability interval register can still be limited to 16 bits. When the precision of the interval register is 16 bits, it is initialized to zero.

**D.1.8**

**Termination of encoding**

The Flush procedure is used to terminate the arithmetic encoding procedures and prepare the entropy-coded segment for the addition of the X’FF’ prefix of the marker which follows the arithmetically coded data. Figure D.13 shows this flush procedure. The first step in the procedure is to set as many low order bits of the code register to zero as possible without pointing outside of the final interval. Then, the output byte is aligned by shifting it left by CT bits; Byte_out then removes it from C. C is then shifted left by 8 bits to align the second output byte and Byte_out is used a second time. The remaining low order bits in C are guaranteed to be zero, and these trailing zero bits shall not be written to the entropycoded segment.

Flush

Clear_final_bits

C = SLL C CT

Byte_out

C = SLL C 8

Byte_out

Discard_final_zeros

Figure D.13 [**D51]**, = 15.5 cm = 606.%

Done

TISO1130-93/d051

**Figure D.13 – Flush procedure**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 67**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Any trailing zero bytes already written to the entropy-coded segment and not preceded by a X’FF’ may, optionally, be discarded. This is done in the Discard_final_zeros procedure. Stuffed zero bytes shall not be discarded.

Entropy coded segments are always followed by a marker. For this reason, the final zero bits needed to complete decoding shall not be included in the entropy coded segment. Instead, when the decoder encounters a marker, zero bits shall be supplied to the decoding procedure until decoding is complete. This convention guarantees that when a DNL marker is used, the decoder will intercept it in time to correctly terminate the decoding procedure.

Clear_final_bits

T = C + A – 1

T = T AND

T = X’FFFF0000’

T < C

?

Yes

T = T + X’8000’

No

C = T

Done

TISO1140-93/d052

**Figure D.14 – Clear_final_bits procedure in Flush**

Figure D.14 [**D52]**, = 14 cm = 547.%

**68 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Discard_final_zeros

BP = BP – 1

BP = BP + 1

Yes

Yes

BP < BPST

?

No

B = 0

?

No

B = X’FF’

?

No

Yes

Done

TISO1150-93/d053

**Figure D.15 – Discard_final_zeros procedure in Flush**

Figure D.15 [**D53]**, = 12.5cm = 489.%

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.2**

**Arithmetic decoding procedures**

Two arithmetic decoding procedures are used for arithmetic decoding (see Table D.4).

The “Decode(S)” procedure decodes the binary decision for a given context-index S and returns a value of either 0 or 1. It is the inverse of the “Code_0(S)” and “Code_1(S)” procedures described in D.1. “Initdec” initializes the arithmetic coding entropy decoder.

**Table D.4 – Procedures for binary arithmetic decoding**

Procedure

Decode(S)

Initdec

Purpose

Decode a binary decision with context-index S

Initialize the decoder

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 69**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.2.1**

**Binary arithmetic decoding principles**

The probability interval subdivision and sub-interval ordering defined for the arithmetic encoding procedures also apply to the arithmetic decoding procedures.

Since the bit stream always points within the current probability interval, the decoding process is a matter of determining, for each decision, which sub-interval is pointed to by the bit stream. This is done recursively, using the same probability interval sub-division process as in the encoder. Each time a decision is decoded, the decoder subtracts from the bit stream any interval the encoder added to the bit stream. Therefore, the code register in the decoder is a pointer into the current probability interval relative to the base of the interval.

If the size of the sub-interval allocated to the LPS is larger than the sub-interval allocated to the MPS, the encoder invokes the conditional exchange procedure. When the interval sizes are inverted in the decoder, the sense of the symbol decoded must be inverted.

**D.2.2**

**Decoding conventions and approximations**

The approximations and integer arithmetic defined for the probability interval subdivision in the encoder must also be used in the decoder. However, where the encoder would have added to the code register, the decoder subtracts from the code register.

**D.2.3**

**Decoder code register conventions**

The flow charts given in this section assume the register structures for the decoder as shown in Table D.5:

**Table D.5 – Decoder register conventions**

Cx register

C-low

A-register

MSB xxxxxxxx, bbbbbbbb, aaaaaaaa,

LSB xxxxxxxx

00000000 aaaaaaaa

Cx and C-low can be regarded as one 32-bit C-register, in that renormalization of C shifts a bit of new data from bit 15 of

C-low to bit 0 of Cx. However, the decoding comparisons use Cx alone. New data are inserted into the “b” bits of C-low one byte at a time.

NOTE – The comparisons shown in the various procedures use arithmetic comparisons, and therefore assume precisions greater than 16 bits for the variables. Unsigned (logical) comparisons should be used in 16-bit precision implementations.

**D.2.4**

**The decode procedure**

The decoder decodes one binary decision at a time. After decoding the decision, the decoder subtracts any amount from the code register that the encoder added. The amount left in the code register is the offset from the base of the current probability interval to the sub-interval allocated to the binary decisions not yet decoded. In the first test in the decode procedure shown in Figure D.16 the code register is compared to the size of the MPS sub-interval. Unless a conditional exchange is needed, this test determines whether the MPS or LPS for context-index S is decoded. Note that the LPS for context-index S is given by 1 – MPS(S).

**70 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

When a renormalization is needed, the MPS/LPS conditional exchange may also be needed. For the LPS path, the conditional exchange procedure is shown in Figure D.17. Note that the probability estimation in the decoder is identical to the probability estimation in the encoder (Figures D.5 and D.6).

Decode(S)

A = A – Qe(S)

Yes

Cx < A

?

No

No

A < X’8000’

Yes

D i = i Cond_MPS_exchange(S)

Renorm_d

D = MPS(S)

D = Cond_LPS_exchange(S)

Renorm_d

TISO1160-93/d054

Return D

Figure D.16 [**D54]**, = 13.5 cm = 528.%

**Figure D.16 – Decode(S) procedure**

For the MPS path of the decoder the conditional exchange procedure is given in Figure D.18.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 71**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Cond_LPS_ exchange(S)

Yes A < Qe(S)

?

No

D = MPS(S)

Cx = Cx – A

A = Qe(S)

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_MPS

D = 1 – MPS(S)

Cx = Cx – A

A = Qe(S)

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_LPS

Return D

TISO1170-93/d055

**Figure D.17 – Decoder LPS path conditional exchange procedure**

Figure D.17 [**D55]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

Cond_MPS_

exchange(S)

Yes A < Qe(S)

?

No

D = 1 – MPS(S) D = MPS(S)

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_LPS

Estimate_Qe(S)_

after_MPS

Return D

TISO1 180-93/d056

**Figure D.18 – Decoder MPS path conditional exchange procedure**

Figure D.18 [**D56]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

**72 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.2.5**

**Probability estimation in the decoder**

The procedures defined for obtaining a new LPS probability estimate in the encoder are also used in the decoder.

**D.2.6**

**Renormalization in the decoder**

The Renorm_d procedure for the decoder renormalization is shown in Figure D.19. CT is a counter which keeps track of the number of compressed bits in the C-low section of the C-register. When CT is zero, a new byte is inserted into C-low by the procedure Byte_in and CT is reset to 8.

Both the probability interval register A and the code register C are shifted, one bit at a time, until A is no longer less than

X’8000’.

Renorm_d

CT = 0

?

Yes

Byte_in

No

CT = 8

A = SLL A 1

C = SLL C 1

CT = CT – 1

A < X’8000’

?

No

Done

Yes

TISO1190-93/d057

**Figure D.19 – Decoder renormalization procedure**

Figure D.19 [**D57]**, = 16.5 cm = 645.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 73**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The Byte_in procedure used in Renorm_d is shown in Figure D.20. This procedure fetches one byte of data, compensating for the stuffed zero byte which follows any X’FF’ byte. It also detects the marker which must follow the entropy-coded segment. The C-register in this procedure is the concatenation of the Cx and C-low registers. For simplicity of exposition, the buffer holding the entropy-coded segment is assumed to be large enough to contain the entire segment.

B is the byte pointed to by the entropy-coded segment pointer BP. BP is first incremented. If the new value of B is not a

X’FF’, it is inserted into the high order 8 bits of C-low.

Byte_in

BP = BP + 1

Yes

B = X’FF’

?

No

Unstuff_0

C = C + SLL B 8

Figure D.20 [**D58]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

Done

TISO1200-93/d058

**Figure D.20 – Byte_in procedure for decoder**

**74 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The Unstuff_0 procedure is shown in Figure D.21. If the new value of B is X’FF’, BP is incremented to point to the next byte and this next B is tested to see if it is zero. If so, B contains a stuffed byte which must be skipped. The zero B is ignored, and the X’FF’ B value which preceded it is inserted in the C-register.

If the value of B after a X’FF’ byte is not zero, then a marker has been detected. The marker is interpreted as required and the entropy-coded segment pointer is adjusted (“Adjust BP” in Figure D.21) so that 0-bytes will be fed to the decoder until decoding is complete. One way of accomplishing this is to point BP to the byte preceding the marker which follows the entropy-coded segment.

Unstuff_0

BP = BP + 1

Yes

B = 0

?

No

C = C OR X’FF00’

Interpret_marker

Adjust BP

Done

TISO1210-93/d059

**Figure D.21 – Unstuff_0 procedure for decoder**

Figure D.21 [**D59]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 75**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**D.2.7**

**Initialization of the decoder**

The Initdec procedure is used to start the arithmetic decoder. The basic steps are shown in Figure D.22.

Initdec

Initialize statistics areas

BP = BPST – 1

A = X’0000’

A = (see Note below)

C = 0

Byte_in

C = SLL C 8

Byte_in

C = SLL C 8

CT = 0

Done

TISO1220-93/d060

**Figure D.22 – Initialization of the decoder**

Figure D.22 [**D60]**, = 16 cm = 625.%

The estimation tables are defined by Table D.3. The statistics areas are initialized to an MPS sense of 0 and a Qe index of zero as defined by Table D.3. BP, the pointer to the entropy-coded segment, is then initialized to point to the byte before the start of the entropy-coded segment at BPST, and the interval register is set to the same starting value as in the encoder.

The first byte of compressed data is fetched and shifted into Cx. The second byte is then fetched and shifted into Cx. The count is set to zero, so that a new byte of data will be fetched by Renorm_d.

NOTE – Although the probability interval is initialized to X’10000’ in both Initenc and Initdec, the precision of the probability interval register can still be limited to 16 bits. When the precision of the interval register is 16 bits, it is initialized to zero.

**D.3**

**Bit ordering within bytes**

The arithmetically encoded entropy-coded segment is an integer of variable length. Therefore, the ordering of bytes and the bit ordering within bytes is the same as for parameters (see B.1.1.1).

**76 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex E**

**Encoder and decoder control procedures**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

This annex describes the encoder and decoder control procedures for the sequential, progressive, and lossless modes of operation.

The encoding and decoding control procedures for the hierarchical processes are specified in Annex J.

NOTES

1 There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in Part 2.

2 Implementation-specific setup steps are not indicated in this annex and may be necessary.

**E.1**

**Encoder control procedures**

**E.1.1**

**Control procedure for encoding an image**

The encoder control procedure for encoding an image is shown in Figure E.1.

Encode_image

Append SOI marker

Encode_frame

Append EOI marker

Done

TISO1230-93/d061

**Figure E.1 – Control procedure for encoding an image**

Figure E.1 [**D61]**, = 11.5 cm = 449.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 77**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.1.2**

**Control procedure for encoding a frame**

In all cases where markers are appended to the compressed data, optional X’FF’ fill bytes may precede the marker.

The control procedure for encoding a frame is oriented around the scans in the frame. The frame header is first appended, and then the scans are coded. Table specifications and other marker segments may precede the SOF n

marker, as indicated by [tables/miscellaneous] in Figure E.2.

Figure E.2 shows the encoding process frame control procedure.

Encode_frame

[Append tables/miscellaneous]

of frame header

Encode_scan

First scan

?

No

Yes

[Append DNL segment]

Yes

More scans

?

No

Done

TISO1240-93/d062

**Figure E.2 – Control procedure for encoding a frame**

Figure E.2 [**D62]**, = 14 cm = 547.%

**E.1.3**

**Control procedure for encoding a scan**

A scan consists of a single pass through the data of each component in the scan. Table specifications and other marker segments may precede the SOS marker. If more than one component is coded in the scan, the data are interleaved. If restart is enabled, the data are segmented into restart intervals. If restart is enabled, a RST m

marker is placed in the coded data between restart intervals. If restart is disabled, the control procedure is the same, except that the entire scan contains a single restart interval. The compressed image data generated by a scan is always followed by a marker, either the EOI marker or the marker of the next marker segment.

**78 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure E.3 shows the encoding process scan control procedure. The loop is terminated when the encoding process has coded the number of restart intervals which make up the scan. “m” is the restart interval modulo counter needed for the

RST m

marker. The modulo arithmetic for this counter is shown after the “Append RST m

marker” procedure.

Encode_scan

[Append tables/miscellaneous]

Append SOS marker and rest of scan header m = 0

Encode_restart_

interval

More intervals

?

Yes

No m = (m + 1) AND 7

Done

TISO1250-93/d063

**Figure E.3 – Control procedure for encoding a scan**

Figure E.3 [**D63]**, = 13 cm = 508.%

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 79**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.1.4**

**Control procedure for encoding a restart interval**

Figure E.4 shows the encoding process control procedure for a restart interval. The loop is terminated either when the encoding process has coded the number of minimum coded units (MCU) in the restart interval or when it has completed the image scan.

Encode_restart_ interval

Reset_encoder

Encode_MCU

More MCU

?

Yes

No

Prepare_for_marker

Done

TISO1260-93/d064

**Figure E.4 – Control procedure for encoding a restart interval**

Figure E.4 [**D64]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

The “Reset_encoder” procedure consists at least of the following: a) if arithmetic coding is used, initialize the arithmetic encoder using the “Initenc” procedure described in D.1.7; b) for DCT-based processes, set the DC prediction (PRED) to zero for all components in the scan

(see F.1.1.5.1); c) for lossless processes, reset the prediction to a default value for all components in the scan (see H.1.1); d) do all other implementation-dependent setups that may be necessary.

The procedure “Prepare_for_marker” terminates the entropy-coded segment by: a) padding a Huffman entropy-coded segment with 1-bits to complete the final byte (and if needed stuffing a zero byte) (see F.1.2.3); or b) invoking the procedure “Flush” (see D.1.8) to terminate an arithmetic entropy-coded segment.

NOTE – The number of minimum coded units (MCU) in the final restart interval must be adjusted to match the number of MCU in the scan. The number of MCU is calculated from the frame and scan parameters. (See Annex B.)

**80 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.1.5**

**Control procedure for encoding a minimum coded unit (MCU)**

The minimum coded unit is defined in A.2. Within a given MCU the data units are coded in the order in which they occur in the MCU. The control procedure for encoding a MCU is shown in Figure E.5.

Encode_MCU

N = 0

N = N + 1

Encode data unit

No

N = Nb

?

Yes

Done

TISO1270-93/d065

**Figure E.5 – Control procedure for encoding a minimum coded unit (MCU)**

Figure E.5 [**D65]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

In Figure E.5, Nb refers to the number of data units in the MCU. The order in which data units occur in the MCU is defined in A.2. The data unit is an 8

×

8 block for DCT-based processes, and a single sample for lossless processes.

The procedures for encoding a data unit are specified in Annexes F, G, and H.

**E.2**

**Decoder control procedures**

**E.2.1**

**Control procedure for decoding compressed image data**

Figure E.6 shows the decoding process control for compressed image data.

Decoding control centers around identification of various markers. The first marker must be the SOI (Start Of Image) marker. The “Decoder_setup” procedure resets the restart interval (Ri = 0) and, if the decoder has arithmetic decoding capabilities, sets the conditioning tables for the arithmetic coding to their default values. (See F.1.4.4.1.4 and F.1.4.4.2.1.)

The next marker is normally a SOF n

(Start Of Frame) marker; if this is not found, one of the marker segments listed in

Table E.1 has been received.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 81**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Decode_image

SOI marker

?

Yes

Decoder_setup

No

Error

?

Yes

Decode_frame

No

Interpret markers

Done

TISO1280-93/d066

**Figure E.6 – Control procedure for decoding compressed image data**

Figure E.6 [**D66]**, = 14 cm = 547 %

DHT

DAC

DQT

DRI

APP n

COM

**Table E.1 – Markers recognized by “Interpret markers”**

Marker Purpose

Define Huffman Tables

Define Arithmetic Conditioning

Define Quantization Tables

Define Restart Interval

Application defined marker

Comment

Note that optional X’FF’ fill bytes which may precede any marker shall be discarded before determining which marker is present.

**82 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The additional logic to interpret these various markers is contained in the box labeled “Interpret markers”. DHT markers shall be interpreted by processes using Huffman coding. DAC markers shall be interpreted by processes using arithmetic coding. DQT markers shall be interpreted by DCT-based decoders. DRI markers shall be interpreted by all decoders.

APPn and COM markers shall be interpreted only to the extent that they do not interfere with the decoding.

By definition, the procedures in “Interpret markers” leave the system at the next marker. Note that if the expected SOI marker is missing at the start of the compressed image data, an error condition has occurred. The techniques for detecting and managing error conditions can be as elaborate or as simple as desired.

**E.2.2**

**Control procedure for decoding a frame**

Figure E.7 shows the control procedure for the decoding of a frame.

Decode_frame

Interpret frame header

SOS marker

?

Yes

Decode_scan

No

Interpret markers

No

EOI marker

?

Yes

Done

TISO1290-93/d067

**Figure E.7 – Control procedure for decoding a frame**

Figure E.7 [**D67]**, = 13.5 cm = 528.%

The loop is terminated if the EOI marker is found at the end of the scan.

The markers recognized by “Interpret markers” are listed in Table E.1. Subclause E.2.1 describes the extent to which the various markers shall be interpreted.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 83**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.2.3**

**Control procedure for decoding a scan**

Figure E.8 shows the decoding of a scan.

The loop is terminated when the expected number of restart intervals has been decoded.

Decode_scan

Interpret scan header m = 0

Decode_restart_

interval

More intervals

?

Yes

No

Done

TISO1300-93/d068

**Figure E.8 – Control procedure for decoding a scan**

Figure E.8 [**D68]**, = 11.5cm = 449.%

**84 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.2.4**

**Control procedure for decoding a restart interval**

The procedure for decoding a restart interval is shown in Figure E.9. The “Reset_decoder” procedure consists at least of the following: a) if arithmetic coding is used, initialize the arithmetic decoder using the “Initdec” procedure described in D.2.7; b) for DCT-based processes, set the DC prediction (PRED) to zero for all components in the scan

(see F.2.1.3.1); c) for lossless process, reset the prediction to a default value for all components in the scan (see H.2.1); d) do all other implementation-dependent setups that may be necessary.

Decode_restart_ interval

Reset_decoder

Decode_MCU

More MCU

?

Yes

No

Find marker

Done

TISO1310-93/d069

**Figure E.9 – Control procedure for decoding a restart interval**

Figure E.9 [**D69]**, = 12 cm = 469.%

At the end of the restart interval, the next marker is located. If a problem is detected in locating this marker, error handlin g procedures may be invoked. While such procedures are optional, the decoder shall be able to correctly recognize restart markers in the compressed data and reset the decoder when they are encountered. The decoder shall also be able to recognize the DNL marker, set the number of lines defined in the DNL segment, and end the “Decode_restart_interval” procedure.

NOTE – The final restart interval may be smaller than the size specified by the DRI marker segment, as it includes only the number of MCUs remaining in the scan.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 85**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**E.2.5**

**Control procedure for decoding a minimum coded unit (MCU)**

The procedure for decoding a minimum coded unit (MCU) is shown in Figure E.10.

In Figure E.10 Nb is the number of data units in a MCU.

The procedures for decoding a data unit are specified in Annexes F, G, and H.

Decode_MCU

N = 0

N = N + 1

Decode_data_unit

No

N = Nb

?

Yes

Done

TISO1320-93/d070

**Figure E.10 – Control procedure for decoding a minimum coded unit (MCU)**

Figure E.106 [**D70]**, = 11.5 cm = 449.%

**86 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex F**

**Sequential DCT-based mode of operation**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)

CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)

This annex provides a **functional specification** of the following coding processes for the sequential DCT-based mode of operation:

1) baseline sequential;

2) extended sequential, Huffman coding, 8-bit sample precision;

3) extended sequential, arithmetic coding, 8-bit sample precision;

4) extended sequential, Huffman coding, 12-bit sample precision;

5) extended sequential, arithmetic coding, 12-bit sample precision.

For each of these, the encoding process is specified in F.1, and the decoding process is specified in F.2. The functional specification is presented by means of specific flow charts for the various procedures which comprise these coding processes.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder which embodies one of the above-named processes shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in Part 2.

**F.1**

**Sequential DCT-based encoding processes**

**F.1.1**

**Sequential DCT-based control procedures and coding models**

**F.1.1.1**

**Control procedures for sequential DCT-based encoders**

The control procedures for encoding an image and its constituent parts – the frame, scan, restart interval and

MCU – are given in Figures E.1 to E.5. The procedure for encoding a MCU (see Figure E.5) repetitively calls the procedure for encoding a data unit. For DCT-based encoders the data unit is an 8

×

8 block of samples.

**F.1.1.2**

**Procedure for encoding an 8 **

××

** 8 block data unit**

For the sequential DCT-based processes encoding an 8

×

8 block data unit consists of the following procedures: a) level shift, calculate forward 8

×

8 DCT and quantize the resulting coefficients using table destination specified in frame header; b) encode DC coefficient for 8

×

8 block using DC table destination specified in scan header; c) encode AC coefficients for 8

×

8 block using AC table destination specified in scan header.

**F.1.1.3**

**Level shift and forward DCT (FDCT)**

The mathematical definition of the FDCT is given in A.3.3.

Prior to computing the FDCT the input data are level shifted to a signed two’s complement representation as described in

A.3.1. For 8-bit input precision the level shift is achieved by subtracting 128. For 12-bit input precision the level shift is achieved by subtracting 2048.

**F.1.1.4**

**Quantization of the FDCT**

The uniform quantization procedure described in Annex A is used to quantize the DCT coefficients. One of four quantization tables may be used by the encoder. No default quantization tables are specified in this Specification.

However, some typical quantization tables are given in Annex K.

The quantized DCT coefficient values are signed, two’s complement integers with 11-bit precision for 8-bit input precision and 15-bit precision for 12-bit input precision.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 87**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.1.1.5**

**Encoding models for the sequential DCT procedures**

The two dimensional array of quantized DCT coefficients is rearranged in a zig-zag sequence order defined in A.3.6. The zig-zag order coefficients are denoted ZZ (0) through ZZ(63) with:

ZZ(0)

=

Sq

00

,ZZ(1)

=

Sq

01

,ZZ(2)

=

Sq

10,

•

,

•,•

,

ZZ(63)

=

Sq

77

Sq vu

are defined in Figure A.6.

Two coding procedures are used, one for the DC coefficient ZZ(0) and the other for the AC coefficients ZZ(1)..ZZ(63).

The coefficients are encoded in the order in which they occur in zig-zag sequence order, starting with the DC coefficient.

The coefficients are represented as two’s complement integers.

**F.1.1.5.1**

**Encoding model for DC coefficients**

The DC coefficients are coded differentially, using a one-dimensional predictor, PRED, which is the quantized DC value from the most recently coded 8

×

8 block from the same component. The difference, DIFF, is obtained from

DIFF

=

ZZ(0) – PRED

At the beginning of the scan and at the beginning of each restart interval, the prediction for the DC coefficient prediction is initialized to 0. (Recall that the input data have been level shifted to two’s complement representation.)

**F.1.1.5.2**

**Encoding model for AC coefficients**

Since many coefficients are zero, runs of zeros are identified and coded efficiently. In addition, if the remaining coefficients in the zig-zag sequence order are all zero, this is coded explicitly as an end-of-block (EOB).

**F.1.2**

**Baseline Huffman encoding procedures**

The baseline encoding procedure is for 8-bit sample precision. The encoder may employ up to two DC and two AC

Huffman tables within one scan.

**F.1.2.1**

**Huffman encoding of DC coefficients**

**F.1.2.1.1**

**Structure of DC code table**

The DC code table consists of a set of Huffman codes (maximum length 16 bits) and appended additional bits (in most cases) which can code any possible value of DIFF, the difference between the current DC coefficient and the prediction.

The Huffman codes for the difference categories are generated in such a way that no code consists entirely of 1-bits

(X’FF’ prefix marker code avoided).

The two’s complement difference magnitudes are grouped into 12 categories, SSSS, and a Huffman code is created for each of the 12 difference magnitude categories (see Table F.1).

For each category, except SSSS

=

0, an additional bits field is appended to the code word to uniquely identify which difference in that category actually occurred. The number of extra bits is given by SSSS; the extra bits are appended to the

LSB of the preceding Huffman code, most significant bit first. When DIFF is positive, the SSSS low order bits of DIFF are appended. When DIFF is negative, the SSSS low order bits of (DIFF – 1) are appended. Note that the most significant bit of the appended bit sequence is 0 for negative differences and 1 for positive differences.

**F.1.2.1.2**

**Defining Huffman tables for the DC coefficients**

The syntax for specifying the Huffman tables is given in Annex B. The procedure for creating a code table from this information is described in Annex C. No more than two Huffman tables may be defined for coding of DC coefficients.

Two examples of Huffman tables for coding of DC coefficients are provided in Annex K.

**88 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**Table F.1 – Difference magnitude categories for DC coding**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

SSSS

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 9

10

11

DIFF values

0

–1,1

–3,–2,2,3

–7..–4,4..7

–15..–8,8..15

–31..–16,16..31

–63..–32,32..63

–127..–64,64..127

–255..–128,128..255

–511..–256,256..511

–1 023..–512,512..1 023

–2 047..–1 024,1 024..2 047

**F.1.2.1.3**

**Huffman encoding procedures for DC coefficients**

The encoding procedure is defined in terms of a set of extended tables, XHUFCO and XHUFSI, which contain the complete set of Huffman codes and sizes for all possible difference values. For full 12-bit precision the tables are relatively large. For the baseline system, however, the precision of the differences may be small enough to make this description practical.

XHUFCO and XHUFSI are generated from the encoder tables EHUFCO and EHUFSI (see Annex C) by appending to the

Huffman codes for each difference category the additional bits that completely define the difference. By definition,

XHUFCO and XHUFSI have entries for each possible difference value. XHUFCO contains the concatenated bit pattern of the Huffman code and the additional bits field; XHUFSI contains the total length in bits of this concatenated bit pattern.

Both are indexed by DIFF, the difference between the DC coefficient and the prediction.

The Huffman encoding procedure for the DC difference, DIFF, is:

SIZE

=

XHUFSI(DIFF)

CODE

=

XHUFCO(DIFF) code SIZE bits of CODE where DC is the quantized DC coefficient value and PRED is the predicted quantized DC value. The Huffman code

(CODE) (including any additional bits) is obtained from XHUFCO and SIZE (length of the code including additional bits) is obtained from XHUFSI, using DIFF as the index to the two tables.

**F.1.2.2**

**Huffman encoding of AC coefficients**

**F.1.2.2.1**

**Structure of AC code table**

Each non-zero AC coefficient in ZZ is described by a composite 8-bit value, RS, of the form

RS = binary ’RRRRSSSS’

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 89**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The 4 least significant bits, ’SSSS’, define a category for the amplitude of the next non-zero coefficient in ZZ, and the 4 most significant bits, ’RRRR’, give the position of the coefficient in ZZ relative to the previous non-zero coefficient (i.e.

the run-length of zero coefficients between non-zero coefficients). Since the run length of zero coefficients may exceed

15, the value ’RRRRSSSS’

=

X’F0’ is defined to represent a run length of 15 zero coefficients followed by a coefficient of zero amplitude. (This can be interpreted as a run length of 16 zero coefficients.) In addition, a special value

’RRRRSSSS’

=

’00000000’ is used to code the end-of-block (EOB), when all remaining coefficients in the block are zero.

The general structure of the code table is illustrated in Figure F.1. The entries marked “N/A” are undefined for the baseline procedure.

2

SSSS

. . .

9 10

RRRR

0

.

.

.

15

0

EOB

N/A

N/A

N/A

ZRL

1

COMPOSITE VALUES

TISO1330-93/d071

**Figure F.1 – Two-dimensional value array for Huffman coding**

Figure F.1 [D71] =4 cm = 156 %

The magnitude ranges assigned to each value of SSSS are defined in Table F.2.

**Table F.2 – Categories assigned to coefficient values**

SSSS

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

AC coefficients

–1,1

–3,–2,2,3

–7..–4,4..7

–15..–8,8..15

–31..–16,16..31

–63..–32,32..63

–127..–64,64..127

–255..–128,128..255

–511..–256,256..511

–1 023..–512,512..1 023

The composite value, RRRRSSSS, is Huffman coded and each Huffman code is followed by additional bits which specify the sign and exact amplitude of the coefficient.

The AC code table consists of one Huffman code (maximum length 16 bits, not including additional bits) for each possible composite value. The Huffman codes for the 8-bit composite values are generated in such a way that no code consists entirely of 1-bits.

**90 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The format for the additional bits is the same as in the coding of the DC coefficients. The value of SSSS gives the number of additional bits required to specify the sign and precise amplitude of the coefficient. The additional bits are either the low-order SSSS bits of ZZ(K) when ZZ(K) is positive or the low-order SSSS bits of ZZ(K) – 1 when ZZ(K) is negative.

ZZ(K) is the *K*th coefficient in the zig-zag sequence of coefficients being coded.

**F.1.2.2.2**

**Defining Huffman tables for the AC coefficients**

The syntax for specifying the Huffman tables is given in Annex B. The procedure for creating a code table from this information is described in Annex C.

In the baseline system no more than two Huffman tables may be defined for coding of AC coefficients. Two examples of

Huffman tables for coding of AC coefficients are provided in Annex K.

**F.1.2.2.3**

**Huffman encoding procedures for AC coefficients**

As defined in Annex C, the Huffman code table is assumed to be available as a pair of tables, EHUFCO (containing the code bits) and EHUFSI (containing the length of each code in bits), both indexed by the composite value defined above.

The procedure for encoding the AC coefficients in a block is shown in Figures F.2 and F.3. In Figure F.2, K is the index to the zig-zag scan position and R is the run length of zero coefficients.

The procedure “Append EHUFSI(X’F0’) bits of EHUFCO(X’F0’)” codes a run of 16 zero coefficients (ZRL code of

Figure F.1). The procedure “Code EHUFSI(0) bits of EHUFCO(0)” codes the end-of-block (EOB code). If the last coefficient (K

=

63) is not zero, the EOB code is bypassed.

CSIZE is a procedure which maps an AC coefficient to the SSSS value as defined in Table F.2.

**F.1.2.3**

**Byte stuffing**

In order to provide code space for marker codes which can be located in the compressed image data without decoding, byte stuffing is used.

Whenever, in the course of normal encoding, the byte value X’FF’ is created in the code string, a X’00’ byte is stuffed into the code string.

If a X’00’ byte is detected after a X’FF’ byte, the decoder must discard it. If the byte is not zero, a marker has been detected, and shall be interpreted to the extent needed to complete the decoding of the scan.

Byte alignment of markers is achieved by padding incomplete bytes with 1-bits. If padding with 1-bits creates a X’FF’ value, a zero byte is stuffed before adding the marker.

**F.1.3**

**Extended sequential DCT-based Huffman encoding process for 8-bit sample precision**

This process is identical to the Baseline encoding process described in F.1.2, with the exception that the number of sets of

Huffman table destinations which may be used within the same scan is increased to four. Four DC and four AC Huffman table destinations is the maximum allowed by this Specification.

**F.1.4**

**Extended sequential DCT-based arithmetic encoding process for 8-bit sample precision**

This subclause describes the use of arithmetic coding procedures in the sequential DCT-based encoding process.

NOTE – The arithmetic coding procedures in this Specification are defined for the maximum precision to encourage interchangeability.

The arithmetic coding extensions have the same DCT model as the Baseline DCT encoder. Therefore, Annex F.1.1 also applies to arithmetic coding. As with the Huffman coding technique, the binary arithmetic coding technique is lossless. It is possible to transcode between the two systems without either FDCT or IDCT computations, and without modification of the reconstructed image.

The basic principles of adaptive binary arithmetic coding are described in Annex D. Up to four DC and four AC conditioning table destinations and associated statistics areas may be used within one scan.

The arithmetic encoding procedures for encoding binary decisions, initializing the statistics area, initializing the encoder, terminating the code string, and adding restart markers are listed in Table D.1 of Annex D.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 91**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_AC_ coefficients

K = 0

R = 0

K = K + 1 R = R + 1

Append EHUFSI(X’F0’) bits

of EHUFCO(X’F0’)

R = R – 16

ZZ(K) = 0

?

No

Yes

K = 63

?

Yes

Append EHUFSI(X’00’) bits of EHUFCO(X’00’)

No

Yes R > 15

?

No

Encode_R,ZZ(K)

R = 0

No

K = 63

?

Yes

Done

TISO1340-93/d072

**Figure F.2 – Procedure for sequential encoding of AC coefficients with Huffman coding**

Figure F.2 [D72] = 21 cm = 821 %

**92 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_R,ZZ(K)

Yes

SSSS = CSIZE(ZZ(K))

RS = (16 × R) + SSSS

Append EHUFSI(RS) bits

of EHUFCO(RS)

ZZ(K) < 0

?

No

ZZ(K) = ZZ(K) – 1

Append SSSS low order bits of ZZ(K)

Done

TISO1350-93/d073

**Figure F.3 – Sequential encoding of a non-zero AC coefficient**

Figure F.3 [D73] 14 cm = 547 %

Some of the procedures in Table D.1 are used in the higher level control structure for scans and restart intervals described in Annex E. At the beginning of scans and restart intervals, the probability estimates used in the arithmetic coder are reset to the standard initial value as part of the Initenc procedure which restarts the arithmetic coder. At the end of scans and restart intervals, the Flush procedure is invoked to empty the code register before the next marker is appended.

**F.1.4.1**

**Arithmetic encoding of DC coefficients**

The basic structure of the decision sequence for encoding a DC difference value, DIFF, is shown in Figure F.4.

The context-index S0 and other context-indices used in the DC coding procedures are defined in Table F.4

(see F.1.4.4.1.3). A 0-decision is coded if the difference value is zero and a 1-decision is coded if the difference is not zero. If the difference is not zero, the sign and magnitude are coded using the procedure Encode_V(S0), which is described in F.1.4.3.1.

**F.1.4.2**

**Arithmetic encoding of AC coefficients**

The AC coefficients are coded in the order in which they occur in the zig-zag sequence ZZ(1,...,63). An end-of-block

(EOB) binary decision is coded before coding the first AC coefficient in ZZ, and after each non-zero coefficient. If the

EOB occurs, all remaining coefficients in ZZ are zero. Figure F.5 illustrates the decision sequence. The equivalent procedure for the Huffman coder is found in Figure F.2.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 93**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_DC_DIFF

V = DIFF

No

Code_1(S0)

Encode_V(S0)

V = 0

?

Yes

Code_0(S0)

Done

TISO1360-93/d074

**Figure F.4 – Coding model for arithmetic coding of DC difference**

Figure F.4 [D74] = 11.5 cm = 449 %

The context-indices SE and S0 used in the AC coding procedures are defined in Table F.5 (see F.1.4.4.2). In Figure F.5,

K is the index to the zig-zag sequence position. For the sequential scan, Kmin is 1 and Se is 63. The V

=

0 decision is part of a loop which codes runs of zero coefficients. Whenever the coefficient is non-zero, “Encode_V(S0)” codes the sign and magnitude of the coefficient. Each time a non-zero coefficient is coded, it is followed by an EOB decision. If the EOB occurs, a 1-decision is coded to indicate that the coding of the block is complete. If the coefficient for K

=

Se is not zero, the EOB decision is skipped.

**F.1.4.3**

**Encoding the binary decision sequence for non-zero DC differences and AC coefficients**

Both the DC difference and the AC coefficients are represented as signed two’s complement integer values. The decomposition of these signed integer values into a binary decision tree is done in the same way for both the DC and AC coding models.

Although the binary decision trees for this section of the DC and AC coding models are the same, the statistical models for assigning statistics bins to the binary decisions in the tree are quite different.

**F.1.4.3.1**

**Structure of the encoding decision sequence**

The encoding sequence can be separated into three procedures, a procedure which encodes the sign, a second procedure which identifies the magnitude category, and a third procedure which identifies precisely which magnitude occurred within the category identified in the second procedure.

At the point where the binary decision sequence in Encode_V(S0) starts, the coefficient or difference has already been determined to be non-zero. That determination was made in the procedures in Figures F.4 and F.5.

Denoting either DC differences (DIFF) or AC coefficients as V, the non-zero signed integer value of V is encoded by the sequence shown in Figure F.6. This sequence first codes the sign of V. It then (after converting V to a magnitude and decrementing it by 1 to give Sz) codes the magnitude category of Sz (code_log2_Sz), and then codes the low order magnitude bits (code_Sz_bits) to identify the exact magnitude value.

**94 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

There are two significant differences between this sequence and the similar set of operations described in F.1.2 for

Huffman coding. First, the sign is encoded before the magnitude category is identified, and second, the magnitude is decremented by 1 before the magnitude category is identified.

Encode_AC_

Coefficients

K = Kmin

K = EOB

?

No

Code_0(SE)

Yes

Code_1(SE)

K = K + 1 K = K + 1

V = ZZ(K)

V = 0

?

No

Code_1(S0)

Encode_V(S0)

Yes

Code_0(S0)

No K = Se

?

Yes

Done

TISO1370-93/d075

**Figure F.5 – AC coding model for arithmetic coding**

Figure F.5 [D75] = 21 cm = 821 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 95**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_V(S)

Encode_sign_of_V

Sz = | V | – 1

Encode_log2_Sz

Encode_Sz_bits

Done

TISO1380-93/d076

**Figure F.6 – Sequence of procedures in encoding non-zero values of V**

Figure F.6 [D76] = 13.5 cm = 528 %

**F.1.4.3.1.1**

**Encoding the sign**

The sign is encoded by coding a 0-decision when the sign is positive and a 1-decision when the sign is negative

(see Figure F.7).

The context-indices SS, SN and SP are defined for DC coding in Table F.4 and for AC coding in Table F.5. After the sign is coded, the context-index S is set to either SN or SP, establishing an initial value for Encode_log2_Sz.

**F.1.4.3.1.2**

**Encoding the magnitude category**

The magnitude category is determined by a sequence of binary decisions which compares Sz against an exponentially increasing bound (which is a power of 2) in order to determine the position of the leading 1-bit. This establishes the magnitude category in much the same way that the Huffman encoder generates a code for the value associated with the difference category. The flow chart for this procedure is shown in Figure F.8.

The starting value of the context-index S is determined in Encode_sign_of_V, and the context-index values X1 and X2 are defined for DC coding in Table F.4 and for AC coding in Table F.5. In Figure F.8, M is the exclusive upper bound for the magnitude and the abbreviations “SLL” and “SRL” refer to the shift-left-logical and shift-right-logical operations – in this case by one bit position. The SRL operation at the completion of the procedure aligns M with the most significant bit of Sz (see Table F.3).

The highest precision allowed for the DCT is 15 bits. Therefore, the highest precision required for the coding decision tree is 16 bits for the DC coefficient difference and 15 bits for the AC coefficients, including the sign bit.

**96 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_sign_of_V

Yes V < 0

?

No

Code_1(SS) Code_0(SS)

S = SN S = SP

Done

TISO1390-93/d077

**Figure F.7 – Encoding the sign of V**

Figure F.7 [D77] = 11 cm = 430 %

**Table F.3 – Categories for each maximum bound**

Exclusive upper bound (M)

12 128

25 256

15 512

1 1 024

2 2 048

1 4 096

1 8 192

16 384

32 768

1111 1

1111 2

1111 4

1111 8

111 16

323 32

664 64

Sz range

0

1

2,3

4,...,7

8,...,15

16,...,31

32,...,63

64,...,127

128,...,255

256,...,511

512,...,1 023

1 024,...,2 047

2 048,...,4 095

4 096,...,8 191

8 192,...,16 383

16 384,...,32 767

Number of low order magnitude bits

10

11

12

13

14

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 0

1 0

1 1

1 2

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 97**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_log2_Sz

M = 1

Sz < M

?

No

Code_1(S)

Yes

M = 2

S = X1

Sz < M

?

No

Code_1(S)

Yes

M = 4

S = X2

Sz < M

?

No

Code_1(S)

Yes

Code_0(S)

M = SLL M 1

S = S + 1

M = SRL M 1

**98**

Done

TISO1400-93/d078

**Figure F.8 – Decision sequence to establish the magnitude category**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.1.4.3.1.3**

**Encoding the exact value of the magnitude**

After the magnitude category is encoded, the low order magnitude bits are encoded. These bits are encoded in order of decreasing bit significance. The procedure is shown in Figure F.9. The abbreviation “SRL” indicates the shift-rightlogical operation, and M is the exclusive bound established in Figure F.8. Note that M has only one bit set – shifting M right converts it into a bit mask for the logical “AND” operation.

The starting value of the context-index S is determined in Encode_log2_Sz. The increment of S by 14 at the beginning of this procedure sets the context-index to the value required in Tables F.4 and F.5.

Encode_Sz-bits

S = S + 14

M = SRL M 1

Yes

M = 0

?

No

T = M AND Sz

Yes

Done

T = 0

?

No

Code_0(S) Code_1(S)

TISO1410-93/d079

**Figure F.9 – Decision sequence to code the magnitude bit pattern**

Figure F.9 [D79] = 16.5 cm = 645 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 99**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.1.4.4**

**Statistical models**

An adaptive binary arithmetic coder requires a statistical model. The statistical model defines the contexts which are used to select the conditional probability estimates used in the encoding and decoding procedures.

Each decision in the binary decision trees is associated with one or more contexts. These contexts identify the sense of the

MPS and the index in Table D.3 of the conditional probability estimate Qe which is used to encode and decode the binary decision.

The arithmetic coder is adaptive, which means that the probability estimates for each context are developed and maintained by the arithmetic coding system on the basis of prior coding decisions for that context.

**F.1.4.4.1**

**Statistical model for coding DC prediction differences**

The statistical model for coding the DC difference conditions some of the probability estimates for the binary decisions on previous DC coding decisions.

**F.1.4.4.1.1**

**Statistical conditioning on sign**

In coding the DC coefficients, four separate statistics bins (probability estimates) are used in coding the zero/not-zero (V

=

0) decision, the sign decision and the first magnitude category decision. Two of these bins are used to code the V

=

0 decision and the sign decision. The other two bins are used in coding the first magnitude decision, Sz < 1; one of these bins is used when the sign is positive, and the other is used when the sign is negative. Thus, the first magnitude decision probability estimate is conditioned on the sign of V.

**F.1.4.4.1.2**

**Statistical conditioning on DC difference in previous block**

The probability estimates for these first three decisions are also conditioned on Da, the difference value coded for the previous DCT block of the same component. The differences are classified into five groups: zero, small positive, small negative, large positive and large negative. The relationship between the default classification and the quantization scale is shown in Figure F.10.

. . .

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 . . .

DC difference

– large – small 0 + small + large

TISO1420-93/d080

Classification

**Figure F.10 – Conditioning classification of difference values**

Figure F.10 [D80] = 3 cm = 117 %

The bounds for the “small” difference category determine the classification. Defining L and U as integers in the range 0 to

15 inclusive, the lower bound (exclusive) for difference magnitudes classified as “small” is zero for L

=

0, and is 2

L–1

for

L > 0.

The upper bound (inclusive) for difference magnitudes classified as “small” is 2

U

.

L shall be less than or equal to U.

These bounds for the conditioning category provide a segmentation which is identical to that listed in Table F.3.

**F.1.4.4.1.3**

**Assignment of statistical bins to the DC binary decision tree**

As shown in Table F.4, each statistics area for DC coding consists of a set of 49 statistics bins. In the following explanation, it is assumed that the bins are contiguous. The first 20 bins consist of five sets of four bins selected by a context-index S0. The value of S0 is given by DC_Context(Da), which provides a value of 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16, depending on the difference classification of Da (see F.1.4.4.1.2). The remaining 29 bins, X1,...,X15,M2,...,M15, are used to code magnitude category decisions and magnitude bits.

**100 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Context-index

X2

X3

.

.

X15

M2

M3

.

.

M15

S0

SS

SP

SN

X1

**Table F.4 – Statistical model for DC coefficient coding**

Value

DC_Context(Da)

S0

+

1

S0

+ 2

S0

+

3

.

20

X1

+

1

X1

+

2

.

.

X1

+

14

X2

+

14

X3

+

14

.

X15

+

14

Coding decision

V

= 0

Sign of V

Sz < 1 if V > 0

Sz < 1 if V < 0

Sz < 2

Sz < 4

Sz < 8

.

.

Sz < 2

15

Magnitude bits if Sz < 4

Magnitude bits if Sz < 8

.

.

Magnitude bits if Sz < 2

15

**F.1.4.4.1.4**

**Default conditioning for DC statistical model**

The bounds, L and U, for determining the conditioning category have the default values L

=

0 and U

=

1. Other bounds may be set using the DAC (Define Arithmetic coding Conditioning) marker segment, as described in Annex B.

**F.1.4.4.1.5**

**Initial conditions for DC statistical model**

At the start of a scan and at the beginning of each restart interval, the difference for the previous DC value is defined to be zero in determining the conditioning state.

**F.1.4.4.2**

**Statistical model for coding the AC coefficients**

As shown in Table F.5, each statistics area for AC coding consists of a contiguous set of 245 statistics bins. Three bins are used for each value of the zig-zag index K, and two sets of 28 additional bins X2,...,X15,M2,...,M15 are used for coding the magnitude category and magnitude bits.

The value of SE (and also S0, SP and SN) is determined by the zig-zag index K. Since K is in the range 1 to 63, the lowest value for SE is 0 and the largest value for SP is 188. SS is not assigned a value in AC coefficient coding, as the signs of the coefficients are coded with a fixed probability value of approximately 0.5 (Qe

=

X’5A1D’, MPS

=

0).

The value of X2 is given by AC_Context(K). This gives X2

=

189 when K

≤

Kx and X2

=

217 when K > Kx, where Kx is defined using the DAC marker segment (see B.2.4.3).

Note that a X1 statistics bin is not used in this sequence. Instead, the 63

×

1 array of statistics bins for the magnitude category is used for two decisions. Once the magnitude bound has been determined – at statistics bin Xn, for example – a single statistics bin, Mn, is used to code the magnitude bit sequence for that bound.

**F.1.4.4.2.1**

**Default conditioning for AC coefficient coding**

The default value of Kx is 5. This may be modified using the DAC marker segment, as described in Annex B.

**F.1.4.4.2.2**

**Initial conditions for AC statistical model**

At the start of a scan and at each restart, all statistics bins are re-initialized to the standard default value described in

Annex D.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 101**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Context-index

SE

S0

SS

SN,SP

X1

X2

X3

.

.

X15

M2

M3

.

.

M15

**Table F.5 – Statistical model for AC coefficient coding**

Value

3

×

(K – 1)

SE

+

1

Fixed estimate

S0

+

1

S0

+

1

.

AC_Context(K)

X2

+

1

.

.

X2

+

13

X2

+

14

X3

+

14

.

X15

+

14

Coding decision

.

K

=

EOB

V

=

0

Sign of V

Sz

<

1

Sz

<

2

Sz

<

4

Sz

<

8

.

.

Sz

<

2

15

Magnitude bits if Sz

<

4

Magnitude bits if Sz

<

8

.

Magnitude bits if Sz

<

2 15

**F.1.5**

**Extended sequential DCT-based Huffman encoding process for 12-bit sample precision**

This process is identical to the sequential DCT process for 8-bit precision extended to four Huffman table destinations as documented in F.1.3, with the following changes.

**F.1.5.1**

**Structure of DC code table for 12-bit sample precision**

The two’s complement difference magnitudes are grouped into 16 categories, SSSS, and a Huffman code is created for each of the 16 difference magnitude categories.

The Huffman table for DC coding (see Table F.1) is extended as shown in Table F.6.

**Table F.6 – Difference magnitude categories for DC coding**

SSSS

12

13

14

15

Difference values

–4 095..–2 048,2 048..4 095

–8 191..–4 096,4 096..8 191

–16 383..–8 192,8 192..16 383

–32 767..–16 384,16 384..32 767

**F.1.5.2**

**Structure of AC code table for 12-bit sample precision**

The general structure of the code table is extended as illustrated in Figure F.11. The Huffman table for AC coding is extended as shown in Table F.7.

**102 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

RRRR

0

.

.

.

15

0

EOB

N/A

N/A

N/A

ZRL

1 2

SSSS

. . .

13

COMPOSITE VALUES

14

TISO1430-93/d081

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Figure F.11 – Two-dimensional value array for Huffman coding**

Figure F.11 {D81] = 4.5 cm = 176 %

**Table F.7 – Values assigned to coefficient amplitude ranges**

SSSS

11

12

13

14

AC coefficients

–2 047..–1 024,1 024..2 047

–4 095..–2 048,2 048..4 095

–8 191..–4 096,4 096..8 191

–16 383..–8 192,8 192..16 383

**F.1.6**

**Extended sequential DCT-based arithmetic encoding process for 12-bit sample precision**

The process is identical to the sequential DCT process for 8-bit precision except for changes in the precision of the FDCT computation.

The structure of the encoding procedure is identical to that specified in F.1.4 which was already defined for a 12-bit sample precision.

**F.2**

**Sequential DCT-based decoding processes**

**F.2.1**

**Sequential DCT-based control procedures and coding models**

**F.2.1.1**

**Control procedures for sequential DCT-based decoders**

The control procedures for decoding compressed image data and its constituent parts – the frame, scan, restart interval and

MCU – are given in Figures E.6 to E.10. The procedure for decoding a MCU (Figure E.10) repetitively calls the procedure for decoding a data unit. For DCT-based decoders the data unit is an 8

×

8 block of samples.

**F.2.1.2**

**Procedure for decoding an 8 **

××

** 8 block data unit**

In the sequential DCT-based decoding process, decoding an 8

×

8 block data unit consists of the following procedures: a) decode DC coefficient for 8

×

8 block using the DC table destination specified in the scan header; b) decode AC coefficients for 8

×

8 block using the AC table destination specified in the scan header; c) dequantize using table destination specified in the frame header and calculate the inverse 8

×

8 DCT.

**F.2.1.3**

**Decoding models for the sequential DCT procedures**

Two decoding procedures are used, one for the DC coefficient ZZ(0) and the other for the AC coefficients ZZ(1)...ZZ(63).

The coefficients are decoded in the order in which they occur in the zig-zag sequence order, starting with the DC coefficient. The coefficients are represented as two’s complement integers.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 103**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.2.1.3.1**

**Decoding model for DC coefficients**

The decoded difference, DIFF, is added to PRED, the DC value from the most recently decoded 8

×

8 block from the same component. Thus ZZ(0)

=

PRED

+

DIFF.

At the beginning of the scan and at the beginning of each restart interval, the prediction for the DC coefficient is initialized to zero.

**F.2.1.3.2**

**Decoding model for AC coefficients**

The AC coefficients are decoded in the order in which they occur in ZZ. When the EOB is decoded, all remaining coefficients in ZZ are initialized to zero.

**F.2.1.4**

**Dequantization of the quantized DCT coefficients**

The dequantization of the quantized DCT coefficients as described in Annex A, is accomplished by multiplying each quantized coefficient value by the quantization table value for that coefficient. The decoder shall be able to use up to four quantization table destinations.

**F.2.1.5**

**Inverse DCT (IDCT)**

The mathematical definition of the IDCT is given in A.3.3.

After computation of the IDCT, the signed output samples are level-shifted, as described in Annex A, converting the output to an unsigned representation. For 8-bit precision the level shift is performed by adding 128. For 12-bit precision the level shift is performed by adding 2 048. If necessary, the output samples shall be clamped to stay within the range appropriate for the precision (0 to 255 for 8-bit precision and 0 to 4 095 for 12-bit precision).

**F.2.2**

**Baseline Huffman Decoding procedures**

The baseline decoding procedure is for 8-bit sample precision. The decoder shall be capable of using up to two DC and two AC Huffman tables within one scan.

**F.2.2.1**

**Huffman decoding of DC coefficients**

The decoding procedure for the DC difference, DIFF, is:

T

=

DECODE

DIFF

=

RECEIVE(T)

DIFF

=

EXTEND(DIFF,T) where DECODE is a procedure which returns the 8-bit value associated with the next Huffman code in the compressed image data (see F.2.2.3) and RECEIVE(T) is a procedure which places the next T bits of the serial bit string into the low order bits of DIFF, MSB first. If T is zero, DIFF is set to zero. EXTEND is a procedure which converts the partially decoded DIFF value of precision T to the full precision difference. EXTEND is shown in Figure F.12.

**104 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

EXTEND(V,T)

V < V t

?

No

Yes

Return V

TISO1440-93/d082

**Figure F.12 – Extending the sign bit of a decoded value in V**

Figure F.12 [D82] = 11 cm = 430 %

**F.2.2.2**

**Decoding procedure for AC coefficients**

The decoding procedure for AC coefficients is shown in Figures F.13 and F.14.

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 105**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Decode_AC_ coefficients

K = 1

ZZ(1,...,63) = 0

K = K + 1 K = K + 16

RS = DECODE

SSSS = RS modulo 16

RRRR = SRL RS 4

R = RRRR

SSSS = 0

?

No

K = K + R

Yes

Decode_ZZ(K)

No

K = 63

?

Yes

R = 15

?

No

Yes

Done

TISO1450-93/d083

**Figure F.13 – Huffman decoding procedure for AC coefficients **

Figure F.13 [D83] = 21 cm = 821 %

**106 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Decode_ZZ(K)

ZZ(K) = RECEIVE(SSSS)

ZZ(K) = EXTEND(ZZ(K),SSSS)

Done

TISO1460-93/d084

Figure F.14 [D84] = 7 cm = 273 %

**Figure F.14 – Decoding a non-zero AC coefficient**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The decoding of the amplitude and sign of the non-zero coefficient is done in the procedure “Decode_ZZ(K)”, shown in

Figure F.14.

DECODE is a procedure which returns the value, RS, associated with the next Huffman code in the code stream

(see F.2.2.3). The values SSSS and R are derived from RS. The value of SSSS is the four low order bits of the composite value and R contains the value of RRRR (the four high order bits of the composite value). The interpretation of these values is described in F.1.2.2. EXTEND is shown in Figure F.12.

**F.2.2.3**

**The DECODE procedure**

The DECODE procedure decodes an 8-bit value which, for the DC coefficient, determines the difference magnitude category. For the AC coefficient this 8-bit value determines the zero run length and non-zero coefficient category.

Three tables, HUFFVAL, HUFFCODE, and HUFFSIZE, have been defined in Annex C. This particular implementation of DECODE makes use of the ordering of the Huffman codes in HUFFCODE according to both value and code size.

Many other implementations of DECODE are possible.

NOTE – The values in HUFFVAL are assigned to each code in HUFFCODE and HUFFSIZE in sequence. There are no ordering requirements for the values in HUFFVAL which have assigned codes of the same length.

The implementation of DECODE described in this subclause uses three tables, MINCODE, MAXCODE and VALPTR, to decode a pointer to the HUFFVAL table. MINCODE, MAXCODE and VALPTR each have 16 entries, one for each possible code size. MINCODE(I) contains the smallest code value for a given length I, MAXCODE(I) contains the largest code value for a given length I, and VALPTR(I) contains the index to the start of the list of values in HUFFVAL which are decoded by code words of length I. The values in MINCODE and MAXCODE are signed 16-bit integers; therefore, a value of –1 sets all of the bits.

The procedure for generating these tables is shown in Figure F.15. The procedure for DECODE is shown in Figure F.16.

Note that the 8-bit “VALUE” is returned to the procedure which invokes DECODE.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 107**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Decoder_tables

I = 0

J = 0

MAXCODE(I) = –1 I = I + 1

I > 16

?

No

Yes

Yes

BITS(I) = 0

?

No

VALPTR(I) = J

MINCODE(I) = HUFFCODE(J)

J = J + BITS(I) – 1

MAXCODE(I) = HUFFCODE(J)

J = J + 1

Done

TISO1470-93/d085

**Figure F.15 – Decoder table generation**

Figure F.15 [D85] = 14.5 cm = 567 %

**108 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

DECODE

I = 1

CODE = NEXTBIT

I = I + 1

CODE = (SLL CODE 1) + NEXTBIT

Yes

CODE > MAXCODE(I)

?

No

J = VALPTR(I)

J = J + CODE – MINCODE(I)

VALUE = HUFFVAL(J)

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Return VALUE

TISO1480-93/d086

**Figure F.16 – Procedure for DECODE**

Figure F.16 [D86] = 14 cm = 547 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 109**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.2.2.4**

**The RECEIVE procedure**

RECEIVE(SSSS) is a procedure which places the next SSSS bits of the entropy-coded segment into the low order bits of

DIFF, MSB first. It calls NEXTBIT and it returns the value of DIFF to the calling procedure (see Figure F.17).

RECEIVE(SSSS)

I = 0

V = 0

I = I + 1

V = (SLL V 1) + NEXTBIT

No

I = SSSS

?

Yes

Return V

TISO1490-93/d087

F igu r e F .17 – Pr oced u r e f or R E C E I V E (SSSS)

Figure F.17 [D87] = 11.5 cm = 449 %

**F.2.2.5**

**The NEXTBIT procedure**

NEXTBIT reads the next bit of compressed data and passes it to higher level routines. It also intercepts and removes stuff bytes and detects markers. NEXTBIT reads the bits of a byte starting with the MSB (see Figure F.18).

Before starting the decoding of a scan, and after processing a RST marker, CNT is cleared. The compressed data are read one byte at a time, using the procedure NEXTBYTE. Each time a byte, B, is read, CNT is set to 8.

The only valid marker which may occur within the Huffman coded data is the RST m

marker. Other than the EOI or markers which may occur at or before the start of a scan, the only marker which can occur at the end of the scan is the

DNL (define-number-of-lines).

Normally, the decoder will terminate the decoding at the end of the final restart interval before the terminating marker is intercepted. If the DNL marker is encountered, the current line count is set to the value specified by that marker. Since the

DNL marker can only be used at the end of the first scan, the scan decode procedure must be terminated when it is encountered.

**110 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

NEXTBIT

CNT = 0

?

No

Yes

B = NEXTBYTE

CNT = 8

No

B = X’FF’

?

Yes

B2 = NEXTBYTE

BIT = SRL B 7

CNT = CNT – 1

B = SLL B 1

Return BIT

Yes

B2 = 0

?

No

B2 = DNL

?

No

Error

Yes

Process DNL marker

Terminate scan

TISO1500-93/d088

**Figure F.18 – Procedure for fetching the next bit of compressed data**

Figure F.18 [D88] = 17 cm = 665 %

**F.2.3**

**Sequential DCT decoding process with 8-bit precision extended to four sets of Huffman tables**

This process is identical to the Baseline decoding process described in F.2.2, with the exception that the decoder shall be capable of using up to four DC and four AC Huffman tables within one scan. Four DC and four AC Huffman tables is the maximum allowed by this Specification.

**F.2.4**

**Sequential DCT decoding process with arithmetic coding**

This subclause describes the sequential DCT decoding process with arithmetic decoding.

The arithmetic decoding procedures for decoding binary decisions, initializing the statistical model, initializing the decoder, and resynchronizing the decoder are listed in Table D.4 of Annex D.

Some of the procedures in Table D.4 are used in the higher level control structure for scans and restart intervals described in F.2. At the beginning of scans and restart intervals, the probability estimates used in the arithmetic decoder are reset to the standard initial value as part of the Initdec procedure which restarts the arithmetic coder.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 111**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The statistical models defined in F.1.4.4 also apply to this decoding process.

The decoder shall be capable of using up to four DC and four AC conditioning tables and associated statistics areas within one scan.

**F.2.4.1**

**Arithmetic decoding of DC coefficients**

The basic structure of the decision sequence for decoding a DC difference value, DIFF, is shown in Figure F.19. The equivalent structure for the encoder is found in Figure F.4.

Decode_DC_DIFF

D = Decode(S0)

No

D = 0

?

Yes

Decode_V(S0) DIFF = 0

DIFF = V

Done

TISO1510-93/d089

**Figure F.19 – Arithmetic decoding of DC difference**

Figure F.19 [D89] = 13 cm = 508 %

The context-indices used in the DC decoding procedures are defined in Table F.4 (see F.1.4.4.1.3).

The “Decode” procedure returns the value “D” of the binary decision. If the value is not zero, the sign and magnitude of the non-zero DIFF must be decoded by the procedure “Decode_V(S0)”.

**F.2.4.2**

**Arithmetic Decoding of AC coefficients**

The AC coefficients are decoded in the order that they occur in ZZ(1,...,63). The encoder procedure for the coding process is found in Figure F.5. Figure F.20 illustrates the decoding sequence.

**112 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Decode_AC_ coefficients

K = Kmin

K = K + 1

D = Decode(SE)

D = 1

?

No

Yes

K = K + 1

D = Decode(S0)

D = 0

?

No

Decode_V(S0)

Yes

ZZ(K) = V

No

K = Se

?

Yes

Done

TISO1520-93/d090

**Figure F.20 – Procedure for decoding the AC coefficients**

Figure F.20 [D90] = 21 cm = 821 % presque pleine...

The context-indices used in the AC decoding procedures are defined in Table F.5 (see F.1.4.4.2).

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 113**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

In Figure F.20, K is the index to the zig-zag sequence position. For the sequential scan, Kmin

=

1 and Se

=

63. The decision at the top of the loop is the EOB decision. If the EOB occurs (D

=

1), the remaining coefficients in the block are set to zero. The inner loop just below the EOB decoding decodes runs of zero coefficients. Whenever the coefficient is non-zero, “Decode_V” decodes the sign and magnitude of the coefficient. After each non-zero coefficient is decoded, the

EOB decision is again decoded unless K

=

Se.

**F.2.4.3**

**Decoding the binary decision sequence for non-zero DC differences and AC coefficients**

Both the DC difference and the AC coefficients are represented as signed two’s complement 16-bit integer values. The decoding decision tree for these signed integer values is the same for both the DC and AC coding models. Note, however, that the statistical models are not the same.

**F.2.4.3.1**

**Arithmetic decoding of non-zero values**

Denoting either DC differences or AC coefficients as V, the non-zero signed integer value of V is decoded by the sequence shown in Figure F.21. This sequence first decodes the sign of V. It then decodes the magnitude category of V

(Decode_log2_Sz), and then decodes the low order magnitude bits (Decode_Sz_bits). Note that the value decoded for Sz must be incremented by 1 to get the actual coefficient magnitude.

Decode_V(S)

Decode_sign_of_V

Decode_log2_Sz

Decode_Sz_bits

V = Sz + 1

SIGN = 1

?

No

Yes

V = –V

Done

TISO1530-93/d091

**Figure F.21 – Sequence of procedures in decoding non-zero values of V**

Figure F.21 [D91] = 15.5 cm = 606 %

**114 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.2.4.3.1.1**

**Decoding the sign**

The sign is decoded by the procedure shown in Figure F.22.

The context-indices are defined for DC decoding in Table F.4 and AC decoding in Table F.5.

If SIGN

=

0, the sign of the coefficient is positive; if SIGN

=

1, the sign of the coefficient is negative.

Decode_sign_of_V

S = SN

SIGN = Decode(SS)

Yes

SIGN = 1

?

No

S = SP

Figure F.22 [D92] = 11 cm = 430 %

Done

TISO1540-93/d092

**Figure F.22 – Decoding the sign of V**

**F.2.4.3.1.2**

**Decoding the magnitude category**

The context-index S is set in Decode_sign_of_V and the context-index values X1 and X2 are defined for DC coding in

Table F.4 and for AC coding in Table F.5.

In Figure F.23, M is set to the upper bound for the magnitude and shifted left until the decoded decision is zero. It is then shifted right by 1 to become the leading bit of the magnitude of Sz.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 115**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Decode_log2_Sz

M = 1

D = Decode(S)

D = 0

?

No

M = 2

S = X1

Yes

D = Decode(S)

D = 0

?

No

M = 4

S = X2

Yes

D = Decode(S)

D = 0

?

No

M = SLL M 1

S = S + 1

Yes

M = SRL M 1

Sz = M

**116**

Done

TISO1550-93/d093

**Figure F.23 – Decoding procedure to establish the magnitude category**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**F.2.4.3.1.3**

**Decoding the exact value of the magnitude**

After the magnitude category is decoded, the low order magnitude bits are decoded. These bits are decoded in order of decreasing bit significance. The procedure is shown in Figure F.24.

The context-index S is set in Decode_log2_Sz.

Decode_Sz_bits

S = S + 14

M = SRL M 1

M = 0

?

No

D = Decode(S)

Yes

Done

Yes

D = 0

?

No

Sz = M OR Sz

TISO1560-93/d094

**Figure F.24 – Decision sequence to decode the magnitude bit pattern**

Figure F.24 [D94] = 16 cm = 625 %

**F.2.4.4**

**Decoder restart**

The RST m

markers which are added to the compressed data between each restart interval have a two byte value which cannot be generated by the coding procedures. These two byte sequences can be located without decoding, and can therefore be used to resynchronize the decoder. RST m

markers can therefore be used for error recovery.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 117**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Before error recovery procedures can be invoked, the error condition must first be detected. Errors during decoding can show up in two places: a) The decoder fails to find the expected marker at the point where it is expecting resynchronization.

b) Physically impossible data are decoded. For example, decoding a magnitude beyond the range of values allowed by the model is quite likely when the compressed data are corrupted by errors. For arithmetic decoders this error condition is extremely important to detect, as otherwise the decoder may reach a condition where it uses the compressed data very slowly.

NOTE – Some errors will not cause the decoder to lose synchronization. In addition, recovery is not possible for all errors; for example, errors in the headers are likely to be catastrophic. The two error conditions listed above, however, almost always cause the decoder to lose synchronization in a way which permits recovery.

In regaining synchronization, the decoder can make use of the modulo 8 coding restart interval number in the low order bits of the RST m

marker. By comparing the expected restart interval number to the value in the next RST m marker in the compressed image data, the decoder can usually recover synchronization. It then fills in missing lines in the output data by replication or some other suitable procedure, and continues decoding. Of course, the reconstructed image will usually be highly corrupted for at least a part of the restart interval where the error occurred.

**F.2.5**

**Sequential DCT decoding process with Huffman coding and 12-bit precision**

This process is identical to the sequential DCT process defined for 8-bit sample precision and extended to four Huffman tables, as documented in F.2.3, but with the following changes.

**F.2.5.1**

**Structure of DC Huffman decode table**

The general structure of the DC Huffman decode table is extended as described in F.1.5.1.

**F.2.5.2**

**Structure of AC Huffman decode table**

The general structure of the AC Huffman decode table is extended as described in F.1.5.2.

**F.2.6**

**Sequential DCT decoding process with arithmetic coding and 12-bit precision**

The process is identical to the sequential DCT process for 8-bit precision except for changes in the precision of the IDCT computation.

The structure of the decoding procedure in F.2.4 is already defined for a 12-bit input precision.

**118 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex G**

**Progressive DCT-based mode of operation**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation |

International Standard)

This annex provides a **functional specification** of the following coding processes for the progressive DCT-based mode of operation:

1) spectral selection only, Huffman coding, 8-bit sample precision;

2) spectral selection only, arithmetic coding, 8-bit sample precision;

3) full progression, Huffman coding, 8-bit sample precision;

4) full progression, arithmetic coding, 8-bit sample precision;

5) spectral selection only, Huffman coding, 12-bit sample precision;

6) spectral selection only, arithmetic coding, 12-bit sample precision;

7) full progression, Huffman coding, 12-bit sample precision;

8) full progression, arithmetic coding, 12-bit sample precision.

For each of these, the encoding process is specified in G.1, and the decoding process is specified in G.2. The functional specification is presented by means of specific flow charts for the various procedures which comprise these coding processes.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder which embodies one of the above-named processes shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in Part 2.

The number of Huffman or arithmetic conditioning tables which may be used within the same scan is four.

Two complementary progressive procedures are defined, spectral selection and successive approximation.

In spectral selection the DCT coefficients of each block are segmented into frequency bands. The bands are coded in separate scans.

In successive approximation the DCT coefficients are divided by a power of two before coding. In the decoder the coefficients are multiplied by that same power of two before computing the IDCT. In the succeeding scans the precision of the coefficients is increased by one bit in each scan until full precision is reached.

An encoder or decoder implementing a full progression uses spectral selection within successive approximation. An allowed subset is spectral selection alone.

Figure G.1 illustrates the spectral selection and successive approximation progressive processes.

**G.1**

**Progressive DCT-based encoding processes**

**G.1.1**

**Control procedures and coding models for progressive DCT-based procedures**

**G.1.1.1 Control procedures for progressive DCT-based encoders**

The control procedures for encoding an image and its constituent parts – the frame, scan, restart interval and MCU – are given in Figures E.1 through E.5.

The control structure for encoding a frame is the same as for the sequential procedures. However, it is convenient to calculate the FDCT for the entire set of components in a frame before starting the scans. A buffer which is large enough to store all of the DCT coefficients may be used for this progressive mode of operation.

The number of scans is determined by the progression defined; the number of scans may be much larger than the number of components in the frame.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 119**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

DCT coefficients

Blocks

0

1

1

2

62

63

7 6 1 0

MSB LSB

0

1st scan

Sending a) Image component a) as quantized a) DCT coefficients b) Sequential encoding

Sending

1

2

2nd scan

Sending

3

4

5

3rd scan

Sending

0

7

1st scan

0

1

2

62

63

7 6 5 4

MSB

2nd scan

Sending

Sending

3

3rd scan

**120**

61

62

63 nth scan

Sending

Sending

TISO1570-93/d095

0

(LSB)

6th scan d) Progressive encoding – a) Successive approximation c) Progressive encoding – a) Spectral selection

**Figure G.1 – Spectral selection and successive approximation progressive processes**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The procedure for encoding a MCU (see Figure E.5) repetitively invokes the procedure for coding a data unit. For

DCT-based encoders the data unit is an 8

×

8 block of samples.

Only a portion of each 8

×

8 block is coded in each scan, the portion being determined by the scan header parameters Ss,

Se, Ah, and Al (see B.2.3). The procedures used to code portions of each 8

×

8 block are described in this annex. Note, however, that where these procedures are identical to those used in the sequential DCT-based mode of operation, the sequential procedures are simply referenced.

**G.1.1.1.1**

**Spectral selection control**

In spectral selection the zig-zag sequence of DCT coefficients is segmented into bands. A band is defined in the scan header by specifying the starting and ending indices in the zig-zag sequence. One band is coded in a given scan of the progression. DC coefficients are always coded separately from AC coefficients, and only scans which code DC coefficients may have interleaved blocks from more than one component. All other scans shall have only one component.

With the exception of the first DC scans for the components, the sequence of bands defined in the scans need not follow the zig-zag ordering. For each component, a first DC scan shall precede any AC scans.

**G.1.1.1.2**

**Successive approximation control**

If successive approximation is used, the DCT coefficients are reduced in precision by the point transform (see A.4) defined in the scan header (see B.2.3). The successive approximation bit position parameter Al specifies the actual point transform, and the high four bits (Ah) – if there are preceding scans for the band – contain the value of the point transform used in those preceding scans. If there are no preceding scans for the band, Ah is zero.

Each scan which follows the first scan for a given band progressively improves the precision of the coefficients by one bit, until full precision is reached.

**G.1.1.2 Coding models for progressive DCT-based encoders**

If successive approximation is used, the DCT coefficients are reduced in precision by the point transform (see A.4) defined in the scan header (see B.2.3). These models also apply to the progressive DCT-based encoders, but with the following changes.

**G.1.1.2.1**

**Progressive encoding model for DC coefficients**

If Al is not zero, the point transform for DC coefficients shall be used to reduce the precision of the DC coefficients. If Ah is zero, the coefficient values (as modified by the point transform) shall be coded, using the procedure described in Annex

F. If Ah is not zero, the least significant bit of the point transformed DC coefficients shall be coded, using the procedures described in this annex.

**G.1.1.2.2**

**Progressive encoding model for AC coefficients**

If Al is not zero, the point transform for AC coefficients shall be used to reduce the precision of the AC coefficients. If Ah is zero, the coefficient values (as modified by the point transform) shall be coded using modifications of the procedures described in Annex F. These modifications are described in this annex. If Ah is not zero, the precision of the coefficients shall be improved using the procedures described in this annex.

**G.1.2**

**Progressive encoding procedures with Huffman coding**

**G.1.2.1 Progressive encoding of DC coefficients with Huffman coding**

The first scan for a given component shall encode the DC coefficient values using the procedures described in F.1.2.1. If the successive approximation bit position parameter Al is not zero, the coefficient values shall be reduced in precision by the point transform described in Annex A before coding.

In subsequent scans using successive approximation the least significant bits are appended to the compressed bit stream without compression or modification (see G.1.2.3), except for byte stuffing.

**G.1.2.2 Progressive encoding of AC coefficients with Huffman coding**

In spectral selection and in the first scan of successive approximation for a component, the AC coefficient coding model is similar to that used by the sequential procedures. However, the Huffman code tables are extended to include coding of runs of End-Of-Bands (EOBs). See Table G.1.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 121**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table G.1 – EOBn code run length extensions**

EOBn code

EOB8

EOB9

EOB10

EOB11

EOB12

EOB13

EOB14

EOB0

EOB1

EOB2

EOB3

EOB4

EOB5

EOB6

EOB7

Run length

1

2,3

4..7

8..15

16..31

32..63

64..127

128..255

256..511

512..1 023

1 024..2 047

2 048..4 095

4 096..8 191

8 192..16 383

16 384..32 767

The end-of-band run structure allows efficient coding of blocks which have only zero coefficients. An EOB run of length

5 means that the current block and the next four blocks have an end-of-band with no intervening non-zero coefficients.

The EOB run length is limited only by the restart interval.

The extension of the code table is illustrated in Figure G.2.

RRRR .

.

.

0

1

14

15

0

EOB0

EOB1

.

.

.

EOB14

ZRL

1 2

SSSS

. . .

13

COMPOSITE VALUES

14

TISO1580-93/d096

**Figure G.2 – Two-dimensional value array for Huffman coding**

Figure G.2 [D96] = 4.5 cm = 176 %

The EOBn code sequence is defined as follows. Each EOBn code is followed by an extension field similar to the extension field for the coefficient amplitudes (but with positive numbers only). The number of bits appended to the EOBn code is the minimum number required to specify the run length.

If an EOB run is greater than 32 767, it is coded as a sequence of EOB runs of length 32 767 followed by a final EOB run sufficient to complete the run.

At the beginning of each restart interval the EOB run count, EOBRUN, is set to zero. At the end of each restart interval any remaining EOB run is coded.

The Huffman encoding procedure for AC coefficients in spectral selection and in the first scan of successive approximation is illustrated in Figures G.3, G.4, G.5, and G.6.

**122 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_AC_ coefficients_SS

K = Ss – 1

R = 0

K = K + 1

No

ZZ(K) = 0

?

Yes

Encode_EOBRUN R = R + 1

Yes

R < 16

?

No

Encode_ZRL

K = Se

?

Yes

EOBRUN =

EOBRUN + 1

No

Encode_R_ZZ(K)

EOBRUN = X’7FFF’

?

No

Yes

Encode_EOBRUN

No

K = Se

?

Yes

Done

TISO1590-93/d097

**Figure G.3 – Procedure for progressive encoding of AC coefficients with Huffman coding**

Figure G.3[D97] = Pleine page

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 123**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

In Figure G.3, Ss is the start of spectral selection, Se is the end of spectral selection, K is the index into the list of coefficients stored in the zig-zag sequence ZZ, R is the run length of zero coefficients, and EOBRUN is the run length of

EOBs. EOBRUN is set to zero at the start of each restart interval.

If the scan header parameter Al (successive approximation bit position low) is not zero, the DCT coefficient values ZZ(K) in Figure G.3 and figures which follow in this annex, including those in the arithmetic coding section, shall be replaced by the point transformed values ZZ’(K), where ZZ’(K) is defined by:

ZZ’(K) =

ZZ(K)x

2

*Al*

EOBSIZE is a procedure which returns the size of the EOB extension field given the EOB run length as input. CSIZE is a procedure which maps an AC coefficient to the SSSS value defined in the subclauses on sequential encoding (see F.1.1

and F.1.3).

Encode_EOBRUN

Yes

EOBRUN = 0

?

No

SSSS = EOBSIZE(EOBRUN)

I = SSSS × 16

Append EHUFSI(I)

bits of EHUFCO(I)

Append SSSS low order

bits of EOBRUN

EOBRUN = 0

Done

TISO1600-93/d098

**Figure G.4 – Progressive encoding of a non-zero AC coefficient**

Figure G.4 [98] = 11 cm = 430 %

Encode_ZRL

Append EHUFSI(X’F0’)

bits of EHUFCO(X’F0’)

R = R – 16

**124**

Done

TISO1610-93/d099

**Figure G.5 – Encoding of the run of zero coefficients**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_R_ZZ(K)

SSSS = CSIZE(ZZ(K))

I = (16 × R) + SSSS

Append EHUFSI(I)

bits of EHUFCO(I)

ZZ(K) < 0

?

No

Yes

ZZ(K) = ZZ(K) – 1

Append SSSS low order

bits of ZZ(K)

R = 0

Done

TISO1620-93/d100

Figure G.5 [99] = 7 cm = 273 %

**Figure G.6 – Encoding of the zero run and non-zero coefficient**

Figure G.6 [D100] = 12.5 cm = 489 %

**G.1.2.3 Coding model for subsequent scans of successive approximation**

The Huffman coding structure of the subsequent scans of successive approximation for a given component is similar to the coding structure of the first scan of that component.

The structure of the AC code table is identical to the structure described in G.1.2.2. Each non-zero point transformed coefficient that has a zero history (i.e. that has a value

±

1, and therefore has not been coded in a previous scan) is defined by a composite 8-bit run length-magnitude value of the form:

RRRRSSSS

The four most significant bits, RRRR, give the number of zero coefficients that are between the current coefficient and the previously coded coefficient (or the start of band). Coefficients with non-zero history (a non-zero value coded in a previous scan) are skipped over when counting the zero coefficients. The four least significant bits, SSSS, provide the magnitude category of the non-zero coefficient; for a given component the value of SSSS can only be one.

The run length-magnitude composite value is Huffman coded and each Huffman code is followed by additional bits: a) One bit codes the sign of the newly non-zero coefficient. A 0-bit codes a negative sign; a 1-bit codes a positive sign.

b) For each coefficient with a non-zero history, one bit is used to code the correction. A 0-bit means no correction and a 1-bit means that one shall be added to the (scaled) decoded magnitude of the coefficient.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 125**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Non-zero coefficients with zero history are coded with a composite code of the form:

HUFFCO(RRRRSSSS) + additional bit (rule a) + correction bits (rule b)

In addition whenever zero runs are coded with ZRL or EOBn codes, correction bits for those coefficients with non-zero history contained within the zero run are appended according to rule b above.

For the Huffman coding version of Encode_AC_Coefficients_SA the EOB is defined to be the position of the last point transformed coefficient of magnitude 1 in the band. If there are no coefficients of magnitude 1, the EOB is defined to be zero.

NOTE – The definition of EOB is different for Huffman and arithmetic coding procedures.

In Figures G.7 and G.8 BE is the count of buffered correction bits at the start of coding of the block. BE is initialized to zero at the start of each restart interval. At the end of each restart interval any remaining buffered bits are appended to the bit stream following the last EOBn Huffman code and associated appended bits.

In Figures G.7 and G.9, BR is the count of buffered correction bits which are appended to the bit stream according to rule b. BR is set to zero at the beginning of each Encode_AC_Coefficients_SA. At the end of each restart interval any remaining buffered bits are appended to the bit stream following the last Huffman code and associated appended bits.

**G.1.3**

**Progressive encoding procedures with arithmetic coding**

**G.1.3.1 Progressive encoding of DC coefficients with arithmetic coding**

The first scan for a given component shall encode the DC coefficient values using the procedures described in F.1.4.1. If the successive approximation bit position parameter is not zero, the coefficient values shall be reduced in precision by the point transform described in Annex A before coding.

In subsequent scans using successive approximation the least significant bits shall be coded as binary decisions using a fixed probability estimate of 0.5 (Qe

=

X’5A1D’, MPS

=

0).

**G.1.3.2 Progressive encoding of AC coefficients with arithmetic coding**

Except for the point transform scaling of the DCT coefficients and the grouping of the coefficients into bands, the first scan(s) of successive approximation is identical to the sequential encoding procedure described in F.1.4. If Kmin is equated to Ss, the index of the first AC coefficient index in the band, the flow chart shown in Figure F.5 applies. The

EOB decision in that figure refers to the “end-of-band” rather than the “end-of-block”. For the arithmetic coding version of Encode_AC_Coefficients_SA (and all other AC coefficient coding procedures) the EOB is defined to be the position following the last non-zero coefficient in the band.

NOTE - The definition of EOB is different for Huffman and arithmetic coding procedures.

The statistical model described in F.1.4 also holds. For this model the default value of Kx is 5. Other values of Kx may be specified using the DAC marker code (Annex B). The following calculation for Kx has proven to give good results for 8bit precision samples:

Kx

=

Kmin

+

SRL (8

+

Se – Kmin) 4

This expression reduces to the default of Kx

=

5 when the band is from index 1 to index 63.

**126 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_AC_ coefficients_SA

K = Ss – 1

R = 0

BR = 0

K = K + 1

No ZZ(K) = 0

?

Yes

R > 15

?

Yes

No

|ZZ(K)| = 1

?

No

Yes

Encode_EOBRUN

Append_BE_bits

Encode_R_ZZ(K)

Append_BR_bits

No

K

≥

EOB

?

Yes

No

Append LSB of ZZ(K)

to buffered bits

BR = BR + 1

K = Se

?

No

K = Se

?

Yes

Yes

EOBRUN =

EOBRUN + 1

BE = BE + BR

Encode_EOBRUN

Append_BE_bits

Encode_ZRL

Append_BR_bits

R = R + 1

EOBRUN = X’7FFF’

?

No

Yes

Encode_EOBRUN

Append_BE_bits

TISO1630-93/d101

Done

**Figure G.7 – Successive approximation coding of AC coefficients using Huffman coding**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 127**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Append_BE_bits

Yes

BE = 0

?

No

Append BE buffered bits

to bit stream

BE = 0

Done

TISO1640-93/d102

**Figure G.8 – Transferring BE buffered bits from buffer to bit stream**

Figure G.8 [D102] = 9.5 cm = 371 %

Append_BR_bits

Yes

BR = 0

?

No

Append BR buffered bits

to bit stream

BR = 0

Done

TISO1650-93/d103

**Figure G.9 – Transferring BR buffered bits from buffer to bit stream**

Figaure G.9 [D103] = 9.5 cm = 371 %

**128 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**G.1.3.3 Coding model for subsequent scans of successive approximation**

The procedure “Encode_AC_Coefficient_SA” shown in Figure G.10 increases the precision of the AC coefficient values in the band by one bit.

As in the first scan of successive approximation for a component, an EOB decision is coded at the start of the band and after each non-zero coefficient.

However, since the end-of-band index of the previous successive approximation scan for a given component, EOBx, is known from the data coded in the prior scan of that component, this decision is bypassed whenever the current index, K, is less than EOBx. As in the first scan(s), the EOB decision is also bypassed whenever the last coefficient in the band is not zero. The decision ZZ(K)

=

0 decodes runs of zero coefficients. If the decoder is at this step of the procedure, at least one non-zero coefficient remains in the band of the block being coded. If ZZ(K) is not zero, the procedure in Figure G.11

is followed to code the value.

The context-indices in Figures G.10 and G.11 are defined in Table G.2 (see G.1.3.3.1). The signs of coefficients with magnitude of one are coded with a fixed probability value of approximately 0.5 (Qe = X’5A1D’, MPS

=

0).

**G.1.3.3.1**

**Statistical model for subsequent successive approximation scans**

As shown in Table G.2, each statistics area for subsequent successive approximation scans of AC coefficients consists of a contiguous set of 189 statistics bins. The signs of coefficients with magnitude of one are coded with a fixed probability value of approximately 0.5 (Qe

=

X’5A1D’, MPS

=

0).

**G.2**

**Progressive decoding of the DCT**

The description of the computation of the IDCT and the dequantization procedure contained in A.3.3 and A.3.4 apply to the progressive operation.

Progressive decoding processes must be able to decompress compressed image data which requires up to four sets of

Huffman or arithmetic coder conditioning tables within a scan.

In order to avoid repetition, detailed flow diagrams of progressive decoder operation are not included. Decoder operation is defined by reversing the function of each step described in the encoder flow charts, and performing the steps in reverse order.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 129**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Encode_AC_ coefficients_SA

K = Kmin

Yes K < EOBx

?

No

K = EOB

?

No

Code_0(SE)

Yes

Code_1(SE)

K = K + 1 K = K + 1

ZZ(K) = 0

?

No

CodeSA_ZZ(K)

Yes

Code_0(S0)

No

K = Se

?

Yes

Done

TISO1660-93/d104

**Figure G.10 – Subsequent successive approximation scans for coding of AC coefficients using arithmetic coding**

Figure G.10 [D104] = PLEINE

**130 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

CodeSA_ZZ(K)

No

T = LSB ZZ(K)

Yes | ZZ(K) | > 1

?

No

Code_1(S0)

T = 1

?

Yes No ZZ(K) > 0

?

Yes

Code_0(SC) Code_1(SC) Code_1(SS) Code_0(SS)

TISO1670-93/d105

Done

**Figure G.11 – Coding non-zero coefficients for subsequent successive approximation scans**

Figure G.11 [D105] = 11 cm = 430 %

**Table G.2 – Statistical model for subsequent scans of successive approximation coding of AC coefficient**

Context-index

SE

S0

SS

SC

AC coding

3

×

(K–1)

SE

+

1

Fixed estimate

S0

+

1

Coding decision

K

=

EOB

V

=

0

Sign

LSB ZZ(K)

=

1

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 131**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)

CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)

**Annex H**

**Lossless mode of operation**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

This annex provides a **functional specification** of the following coding processes for the lossless mode of operation:

1) lossless processes with Huffman coding;

2) lossless processes with arithmetic coding.

For each of these, the encoding process is specified in H.1, and the decoding process is specified in H.2. The functional specification is presented by means of specific procedures which comprise these coding processes.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder which embodies one of the above-named processes shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this

Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in Part 2.

The processes which provide for sequential lossless encoding and decoding are not based on the DCT. The processes used are spatial processes based on the coding model developed for the DC coefficients of the DCT. However, the model is extended by incorporating a set of selectable one- and two-dimensional predictors, and for interleaved data the ordering of samples for the one-dimensional predictor can be different from that used in the DCT-based processes.

Either Huffman coding or arithmetic coding entropy coding may be employed for these lossless encoding and decoding processes. The Huffman code table structure is extended to allow up to 16-bit precision for the input data. The arithmetic coder statistical model is extended to a two-dimensional form.

**H.1**

**Lossless encoder processes**

**H.1.1**

**Lossless encoder control procedures**

Subclause E.1 contains the encoder control procedures. In applying these procedures to the lossless encoder, the data unit is one sample.

Input data precision may be from 2 to 16 bits/sample. If the input data path has different precision from the input data, the data shall be aligned with the least significant bits of the input data path. Input data is represented as unsigned integers and is not level shifted prior to coding.

When the encoder is reset in the restart interval control procedure (see E.1.4), the prediction is reset to a default value. If arithmetic coding is used, the statistics are also reset.

For the lossless processes the restart interval shall be an integer multiple of the number of MCU in an MCU-row.

**H.1.2**

**Coding model for lossless encoding**

The coding model developed for encoding the DC coefficients of the DCT is extended to allow a selection from a set of seven one-dimensional and two-dimensional predictors. The predictor is selected in the scan header (see Annex B). The same predictor is used for all components of the scan. Each component in the scan is modeled independently, using predictions derived from neighbouring samples of that component.

**H.1.2.1 Prediction**

Figure H.1 shows the relationship between the positions (a, b, c) of the reconstructed neighboring samples used for prediction and the position of x, the sample being coded.

**132 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

c a b x

TISO1680-93/d106

**Figure H.1 – Relationship between sample and prediction samples**

Figure H.1 [D106] = 4.5 cm = 176 %

Define Px to be the prediction and Ra, Rb, and Rc to be the reconstructed samples immediately to the left, immediately above, and diagonally to the left of the current sample. The allowed predictors, one of which is selected in the scan header, are listed in Table H.1.

**Table H.1 – Predictors for lossless coding**

Selection-value Prediction

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 a)

Shift right arithmetic operation

No prediction (See Annex J)

Px

=

Ra

Px

=

Rb

Px

=

Rc

Px

=

Ra

+

Rb – Rc

Px

=

Ra

+

((Rb – Rc)/2) a)

Px

=

Rb

+

((Ra – Rc)/2) a)

Px

=

(Ra

+

Rb)/2

Selection-value 0 shall only be used for differential coding in the hierarchical mode of operation. Selections 1, 2 and 3 are one-dimensional predictors and selections 4, 5, 6, and 7 are two-dimensional predictors.

The one-dimensional horizontal predictor (prediction sample Ra) is used for the first line of samples at the start of the scan and at the beginning of each restart interval. The selected predictor is used for all other lines. The sample from the line above (prediction sample Rb) is used at the start of each line, except for the first line. At the beginning of the first line and at the beginning of each restart interval the prediction value of 2

P – 1

is used, where P is the input precision.

If the point transformation parameter (see A.4) is non-zero, the prediction value at the beginning of the first lines and the beginning of each restart interval is 2

P – Pt – 1

, where Pt is the value of the point transformation parameter.

Each prediction is calculated with full integer arithmetic precision, and without clamping of either underflow or overflow beyond the input precision bounds. For example, if Ra and Rb are both 16-bit integers, the sum is a 17-bit integer. After dividing the sum by 2 (predictor 7), the prediction is a 16-bit integer.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 133**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

For simplicity of implementation, the divide by 2 in the prediction selections 5 and 6 of Table H.1 is done by an arithmetic-right-shift of the integer values.

The difference between the prediction value and the input is calculated modulo 2

16

. In the decoder the difference is decoded and added, modulo 2

16

, to the prediction.

**H.1.2.2 Huffman coding of the modulo difference**

The Huffman coding procedures defined in Annex F for coding the DC coefficients are used to code the modulo 2

16 differences. The table for DC coding contained in Tables F.1 and F.6 is extended by one additional entry. No extra bits are appended after SSSS

=

16 is encoded. See Table H.2.

**Table H.2 – Difference categories for lossless Huffman coding**

SSSS

10

11

12

13

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

14

15

16

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

Difference values

0

–1,1

–3,–2,2,3

–7..–4,4..7

–15..–8,8..15

–31..–16,16..31

–63..–32,32..63

–127..–64,64..127

–255..–128,128..255

–511..–256,256..511

–1 023..–512,512..1 023

–2 047..–1 024,1 024..2 047

–4 095..–2 048,2 048..4 095

–8 191..–4 096,4 096..8 191

–16 383..–8 192,8 192..16 383

–32 767..–16 384,16 384..32 767

32 768

**H.1.2.3 Arithmetic coding of the modulo difference**

The statistical model defined for the DC coefficient arithmetic coding model (see F.1.4.4.1) is generalized to a twodimensional form in which differences coded for the sample to the left and for the line above are used for conditioning.

**H.1.2.3.1**

**Two-dimensional statistical model**

The binary decisions are conditioned on the differences coded for the neighbouring samples immediately above and immediately to the left from the same component. As in the coding of the DC coefficients, the differences are classified into 5 categories: zero(0), small positive (

+

S), small negative (–S), large positive (

+

L), and large negative (–L). The two independent difference categories combine to give 25 different conditioning states. Figure H.2 shows the two-dimensional array of conditioning indices. For each of the 25 conditioning states probability estimates for four binary decisions are kept.

At the beginning of the scan and each restart interval the conditioning derived from the line above is set to zero for the first line of each component. At the start of each line, the difference to the left is set to zero for the purposes of calculating the conditioning.

**134 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

0

Difference above (position b)

0 +S –S +L –L

0 4 8 12 16

Difference to left

(position a)

+S

–S

20 24 28 32 36

40 44 48 52 56

+L 60 64 68 72 76

–L 80 84 88 92 96

TISO1690-93/d107

**Figure H.2 – 5 × 5 Conditioning array for two-dimensional statistical model**

Figure H.2 [D107] = 7 cm = 273 %

**H.1.2.3.2**

**Assignment of statistical bins to the DC binary **

**decision tree**

Each statistics area for lossless coding consists of a contiguous set of 158 statistics bins. The first 100 bins consist of

25 sets of four bins selected by a context-index S0. The value of S0 is given by L_Context(Da,Db), which provides a value of 0, 4,..., 92 or 96, depending on the difference classifications of Da and Db (see H.1.2.3.1). The value for S0 provided by L_Context(Da,Db) is from the array in Figure H.2.

The remaining 58 bins consist of two sets of 29 bins, X1, ..., X15, M2, ..., M15, which are used to code magnitude category decisions and magnitude bits. The value of X1 is given by X1_Context(Db), which provides a value of 100 when

Db is in the zero, small positive or small negative categories and a value of 129 when Db is in the large positive or large negative categories.

The assignment of statistical bins to the binary decision tree used for coding the difference is given in Table H.3.

Context-index

.

.

X15

M2

M3

.

.

M15

S0

SS

SP

SN

X1

X2

X3

**Table H.3 – Statistical model for lossless coding**

Value

L_Context(Da,Db)

S0

+

1

S0

+

2

S0

+

3

.

X1_Context(Db)

X1

+

1

X1

+

2

.

X1

+

14

X2

+

14

X3

+ 14

.

.

X15

+

14

Coding decision

V

=

0

Sign

Sz < 1 if V > 0

Sz < 1 if V < 0

Sz < 2

Sz < 4

Sz < 8

.

.

Sz < 2

15

Magnitude bits if Sz < 4

Magnitude bits if Sz < 8

.

.

Magnitude bits if Sz < 2

15

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 135**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**H.1.2.3.3**

**Default conditioning bounds**

The bounds, L and U, for determining the conditioning category have the default values L

=

0 and U

=

1. Other bounds may be set using the DAC (Define-Arithmetic-Conditioning) marker segment, as described in Annex B.

**H.1.2.3.4**

**Initial conditions for statistical model**

At the start of a scan and at each restart, all statistics bins are re-initialized to the standard default value described in

Annex D.

**H.2**

**Lossless decoder processes**

Lossless decoders may employ either Huffman decoding or arithmetic decoding. They shall be capable of using up to four tables in a scan. Lossless decoders shall be able to decode encoded image source data with any input precision from 2 to

16 bits per sample.

**H.2.1**

**Lossless decoder control procedures**

Subclause E.2 contains the decoder control procedures. In applying these procedures to the lossless decoder the data unit is one sample.

When the decoder is reset in the restart interval control procedure (see E.2.4) the prediction is reset to the same value used in the encoder (see H.1.2.1). If arithmetic coding is used, the statistics are also reset.

Restrictions on the restart interval are specified in H.1.1.

**H.2.2**

**Coding model for lossless decoding**

The predictor calculations defined in H.1.2 also apply to the lossless decoder processes.

The lossless decoders, decode the differences and add them, modulo 2

16

, to the predictions to create the output. The lossless decoders shall be able to interpret the point transform parameter, and if non-zero, multiply the output of the lossless decoder by 2

Pt

.

In order to avoid repetition, detailed flow charts of the lossless decoding procedures are omitted.

**136 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex J**

**Hierarchical mode of operation**

(This annex forms an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

This annex provides a **functional specification** of the coding processes for the hierarchical mode of operation.

In the hierarchical mode of operation each component is encoded or decoded in a non-differential frame. Such frames may be followed by a sequence of differential frames. A non-differential frame shall be encoded or decoded using the procedures defined in Annexes F, G and H. Differential frame procedures are defined in this annex.

The coding process for a hierarchical encoding containing DCT-based processes is defined as the highest numbered process listed in Table J.1 which is used to code any non-differential DCT-based or differential DCT-based frame in the compressed image data format. The coding process for a hierarchical encoding containing only lossless processes is defined to be the process used for the non-differential frames.

**Table J.1 – Coding processes for hierarchical mode**

Process

11

12

13

14

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

Non-differential frame specification

Extended sequential DCT, Huffman, 8-bit

Extended sequential DCT, arithmetic, 8-bit

Extended sequential DCT, Huffman, 12-bit

Extended sequential DCT, arithmetic, 12-bit

Spectral selection only, Huffman, 8-bit

Spectral selection only, arithmetic, 8-bit

Full progression, Huffman, 8-bit

Full progression, arithmetic, 8-bit

Spectral selection only, Huffman, 12-bit

Spectral selection only, arithmetic, 12-bit

Full progression, Huffman, 12-bit

Full progression, arithmetic, 12-bit

Lossless, Huffman, 2 through 16 bits

Lossless, arithmetic, 2 through 16 bits

Annex F, process 2

Annex F, process 3

Annex F, process 4

Annex F, process 5

Annex G, process 1

Annex G, process 2

Annex G, process 3

Annex G, process 4

Annex G, process 5

Annex G, process 6

Annex G, process 7

Annex G, process 8

Annex H, process 1

Annex H, process 2

Hierarchical mode syntax requires a DHP marker segment that appears before the non-differential frame or frames. It may include EXP marker segments and differential frames which shall follow the initial non-differential frame. The frame structure in hierarchical mode is identical to the frame structure in non-hierarchical mode.

Either all non-differential frames within an image shall be coded with DCT-based processes, or all non-differential frames shall be coded with lossless processes. All frames within an image must use the same entropy coding procedure, either

Huffman or arithmetic, with the exception that non-differential frames coded with the baseline process may occur in the same image with frames coded with arithmetic coding processes.

If the non-differential frames use DCT-based processes, all differential frames except the final frame for a component shall use DCT-based processes. The final differential frame for each component may use a differential lossless process.

If the non-differential frames use lossless processes, all differential frames shall use differential lossless processes.

For each of the processes listed in Table J.1, the encoding processes are specified in J.1, and decoding processes are specified in J.2.

NOTE – There is **no requirement** in this Specification that any encoder or decoder which embodies one of the above-named processes shall implement the procedures in precisely the manner specified by the flow charts in this annex. It is necessary only that an encoder or decoder implement the **function** specified in this annex. The sole criterion for an encoder or decoder to be considered in compliance with this Specification is that it satisfy the requirements given in clause 6 (for encoders) or clause 7 (for decoders), as determined by the compliance tests specified in Part 2.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 137**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

In the hierarchical mode of operation each component is encoded or decoded in a non-differential frame followed by a sequence of differential frames. A non-differential frame shall use the procedures defined in Annexes F, G, and H.

Differential frame procedures are defined in this annex.

**J.1**

**Hierarchical encoding**

**J.1.1**

**Hierarchical control procedure for encoding an image**

The control structure for encoding of an image using the hierarchical mode is given in Figure J.1.

Encode_image

[Generate down-sampled images]

Append SOI marker

[Append tables/miscellaneous]

Append DHP marker segment

Encode_frame

No

Differential frame

?

Yes

[Upsample reference components and

append EXP marker segment]

Generate differential components

Encode_differential_frame

Reconstruct differential components

Reconstruct components

Reconstruct components using matching decoder process

Yes More frames

?

No

Append EOI marker

Done

TISO1700-93/d108

**Figure J.1 – Hierarchical control procedure for encoding an image**

Figure J.1 [D108] = 18 cm = 704 %

In Figure J.1 procedures in brackets shall be performed whenever the particular hierarchical encoding sequence being followed requires them.

**138 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

In the hierarchical mode the define-hierarchical-progression (DHP) marker segment shall be placed in the compressed image data before the first start-of-frame. The DHP segment is used to signal the size of the image components of the completed image. The syntax of the DHP segment is specified in Annex B.

The first frame for each component or group of components in a hierarchical process shall be encoded by a non-differential frame. Differential frames shall then be used to encode the two’s complement differences between source input components (possibly downsampled) and the reference components (possibly upsampled). The reference components are reconstructed components created by previous frames in the hierarchical process. For either differential or non-differential frames, reconstructions of the components shall be generated if needed as reference components for a subsequent frame in the hierarchical process.

Resolution changes may occur between hierarchical frames in a hierarchical process. These changes occur if downsampling filters are used to reduce the spatial resolution of some or all of the components of the source image. When the resolution of a reference component does not match the resolution of the component input to a differential frame, an upsampling filter shall be used to increase the spatial resolution of the reference component. The EXP marker segment shall be added to the compressed image data before the start-of-frame whenever upsampling of a reference component is required. No more than one EXP marker segment shall precede a given frame.

Any of the marker segments allowed before a start-of-frame for the encoding process selected may be used before either non-differential or differential frames.

For 16-bit input precision (lossless encoder), the differential components which are input to a differential frame are calculated modulo 2

16

. The reconstructed components calculated from the reconstructed differential components are also calculated modulo 2

16

.

If a hierarchical encoding process uses a DCT encoding process for the first frame, all frames in the hierarchical process except for the final frame for each component shall use the DCT encoding processes defined in either Annex F or Annex

G, or the modified DCT encoding processes defined in this annex. The final frame may use a modified lossless process defined in this annex.

If a hierarchical encoding process uses a lossless encoding process for the first frame, all frames in the hierarchical process shall use a lossless encoding process defined in Annex H, or a modified lossless process defined in this annex.

**J.1.1.1**

**Downsampling filter**

The downsampled components are generated using a downsampling filter that is not specified in this Specification. This filter should, however, be consistent with the upsampling filter. An example of a downsampling filter is provided in K.5.

**J.1.1.2**

**Upsampling filter**

The upsampling filter increases the spatial resolution by a factor of two horizontally, vertically, or both. Bi-linear interpolation is used for the upsampling filter, as illustrated in Figure J.2.

a x b a x b

TISO1710-93/d109

**Figure J.2 – Diagram of sample positions for upsampling rules**

Figure J.2 [D109] = 4 cm = 156 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 139**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The rule for calculating the interpolated value is:

P x

=

(Ra

+

Rb) / 2 where Ra and Rb are sample values from adjacent positions a and b of the lower resolution image and Px is the interpolated value. The division indicates truncation, not rounding. The left-most column of the upsampled image matches the left-most column of the lower resolution image. The top line of the upsampled image matches the top line of the lower resolution image. The right column and the bottom line of the lower resolution image are replicated to provide the values required for the right column edge and bottom line interpolations. The upsampling process always doubles the line length or the number of lines.

If both horizontal and vertical expansions are signalled, they are done in sequence – first the horizontal expansion and then the vertical.

**J.1.2**

**Control procedure for encoding a differential frame**

The control procedures in Annex E for frames, scans, restart intervals, and MCU also apply to the encoding of differential frames, and the scans, restart intervals, and MCU from which the differential frame is constructed. The differential frames differ from the frames of Annexes F, G, and H only at the coding model level.

**J.1.3**

**Encoder coding models for differential frames**

The coding models defined in Annexes F, G, and H are modified to allow them to be used for coding of two’s complement differences.

**J.1.3.1**

**Modifications to encoder DCT encoding models for differential frames**

Two modifications are made to the DCT coding models to allow them to be used in differential frames. First, the FDCT of the differential input is calculated without the level shift. Second, the DC coefficient of the DCT is coded directly – without prediction.

**J.1.3.2**

**Modifications to lossless encoding models for differential frames**

One modification is made to the lossless coding models. The difference is coded directly – without prediction. The prediction selection parameter in the scan header shall be set to zero. The point transform which may be applied to the differential inputs is defined in Annex A.

**J.1.4**

**Modifications to the entropy encoders for differential frames**

The coding of two’s complement differences requires one extra bit of precision for the Huffman coding of AC coefficients.

The extension to Tables F.1 and F.7 is given in Table J.2.

**Table J.2 – Modifications to table of AC coefficient amplitude ranges**

SSSS

15

AC coefficients

–32 767..–16 384, 16 384..32 767

The arithmetic coding models are already defined for the precision needed in differential frames.

**140 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**J.2**

**Hierarchical decoding**

**J.2.1**

**Hierarchical control procedure for decoding an image**

The control structure for decoding an image using the hierarchical mode is given in Figure J.3.

Decode_image

SOI marker

?

Yes

No

Interpret markers Error

EOI marker

?

No

Yes

Hierarchical

?

No

Yes

Done

Non-Hierarchical mode

No

Differential frame

?

Yes

Decode_frame

[Upsample reference components]

Decode_differential_frame

Reconstruct_components

TISO1720-93/d110

**Figure J.3 – Hierarchical control procedure for decoding an image**

Figure J.3 [D110] = 18 cm = 704 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 141**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The Interpret markers procedure shall decode the markers which may precede the SOF marker, continuing this decoding until either a SOF or EOI marker is found. If the DHP marker is encountered before the first frame, a flag is set which selects the hierarchical decoder at the “hierarchical?” decision point. In addition to the DHP marker (which shall precede any SOF) and the EXP marker (which shall precede any differential SOF requiring resolution changes in the reference components), any other markers which may precede a SOF shall be interpreted to the extent required for decoding of the compressed image data.

If a differential SOF marker is found, the differential frame path is followed. If the EXP was encountered in the Interpret markers procedure, the reference components for the frame shall be upsampled as required by the parameters in the EXP segment. The upsampling procedure described in J.1.1.2 shall be followed.

The Decode_differential_frame procedure generates a set of differential components. These differential components shall be added, modulo 2

16

, to the upsampled reference components in the Reconstruct_components procedure. This creates a new set of reference components which shall be used when required in subsequent frames of the hierarchical process.

**J.2.2**

**Control procedure for decoding a differential frame**

The control procedures in Annex E for frames, scans, restart intervals, and MCU also apply to the decoding of differential frames and the scans, restart intervals, and MCU from which the differential frame is constructed. The differential frame differs from the frames of Annexes F, G, and H only at the decoder coding model level.

**J.2.3**

**Decoder coding models for differential frames**

The decoding models described in Annexes F, G, and H are modified to allow them to be used for decoding of two’s complement differential components.

**J.2.3.1**

**Modifications to the differential frame decoder DCT coding model**

Two modifications are made to the decoder DCT coding models to allow them to code differential frames. First, the IDCT of the differential output is calculated without the level shift. Second, the DC coefficient of the DCT is decoded directly – without prediction.

**J.2.3.2**

**Modifications to the differential frame decoder lossless coding model**

One modification is made to the lossless decoder coding model. The difference is decoded directly – without prediction. If the point transformation parameter in the scan header is not zero, the point transform, defined in Annex A, shall be applied to the differential output.

**J.2.4**

**Modifications to the entropy decoders for differential frames**

The decoding of two’s complement differences requires one extra bit of precision in the Huffman code table. This is described in J.1.4. The arithmetic coding models are already defined for the precision needed in differential frames.

**142 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex K**

**Examples and guidelines**

(This annex does not form an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

This annex provides examples of various tables, procedures, and other guidelines.

**K.1**

**Quantization tables for luminance and chrominance components**

Two examples of quantization tables are given in Tables K.1 and K.2. These are based on psychovisual thresholding and are derived empirically using luminance and chrominance and 2:1 horizontal subsampling. These tables are provided as examples only and are not necessarily suitable for any particular application. These quantization values have been used with good results on 8-bit per sample luminance and chrominance images of the format illustrated in Figure 13. Note that these quantization values are appropriate for the DCT normalization defined in A.3.3.

If these quantization values are divided by 2, the resulting reconstructed image is usually nearly indistinguishable from the source image.

**Table K.1 – Luminance quantization table**

16

12

14

14

18

24

49

72

11

12

13

17

22

35

64

92

10

14

16

22

37

55

78

95

16

19

24

29

56

64

87

98

1 24

1 26

1 40

1 51

1 68

1 81

103

112

1 40

1 58

1 57

1 87

109

104

121

100

1 51

1 60

1 69

1 80

103

113

120

103

1 61

1 55

1 56

1 62

1 77

1 92

101

1 99

47

99

99

99

17

18

24

99

**Table K.2 – Chrominance quantization table**

66

99

99

99

18

21

26

99

99

99

99

99

24

26

56

99

99

99

99

99

47

66

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

99

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 143**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.2**

**A procedure for generating the lists which specify a Huffman code table**

A Huffman table is generated from a collection of statistics in two steps. The first step is the generation of the list of lengths and values which are in accord with the rules for generating the Huffman code tables. The second step is the generation of the Huffman code table from the list of lengths and values.

The first step, the topic of this section, is needed only for custom Huffman table generation and is done only in the encoder. In this step the statistics are used to create a table associating each value to be coded with the size (in bits) of the corresponding Huffman code. This table is sorted by code size.

A procedure for creating a Huffman table for a set of up to 256 symbols is shown in Figure K.1. Three vectors are defined for this procedure:

FREQ(V)

CODESIZE(V)

OTHERS(V)

Frequency of occurrence of symbol V

Code size of symbol V

Index to next symbol in chain of all symbols in current branch of code tree where V goes from 0 to 256.

Before starting the procedure, the values of FREQ are collected for V

=

0 to 255 and the FREQ value for V

=

256 is set to

1 to reserve one code point. FREQ values for unused symbols are defined to be zero. In addition, the entries in

CODESIZE are all set to 0, and the indices in OTHERS are set to –1, the value which terminates a chain of indices.

Reserving one code point guarantees that no code word can ever be all “1” bits.

The search for the entry with the least value of FREQ(V) selects the largest value of V with the least value of FREQ(V) greater than zero.

The procedure “Find V1 for least value of FREQ(V1) > 0” always selects the value with the largest value of V1 when more than one V1 with the same frequency occurs. The reserved code point is then guaranteed to be in the longest code word category.

**144 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Code_size

Done

Find V1 for least value of

FREQ(V1) > 0

Find V2 for next least value

of FREQ(V2) > 0

No V2 exists

?

Yes

FREQ(V1) =

FREQ(V1) +

FREQ(V2)

FREQ(V2) = 0

V1 = OTHERS(V1)

CODESIZE(V1) =

CODESIZE(V1) + 1

No

OTHERS(V1) = –1

?

Yes

OTHERS(V1) = V2

V2 = OTHERS(V2)

CODESIZE(V2) =

CODESIZE(V2) + 1

No

OTHERS(V2) = –1

?

Yes

TISO1730-93/d111

**Figure K.1 – Procedure to find Huffman code sizes**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure K.1 [D111] = 21 cm = 821 % (PAGE PLEINE)

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 145**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Once the code lengths for each symbol have been obtained, the number of codes of each length is obtained using the procedure in Figure K.2. The count for each size is contained in the list, BITS. The counts in BITS are zero at the start of the procedure. The procedure assumes that the probabilities are large enough that code lengths greater than 32 bits never occur. Note that until the final Adjust_BITS procedure is complete, BITS may have more than the 16 entries required in the table specification (see Annex C).

Count_BITS

I = 0

CODESIZE(I) = 0

?

Yes

No BITS(CODESIZE(I)) =

BITS(CODESIZE(I)) + 1

I = I + 1

No

I = 257

Yes

Adjust_BITS

Done

TISO1740-93/d112

**Figure K.2 – Procedure to find the number of codes of each size**

Figure K.2 [D112] = 16 cm = 625 %

**146 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Figure K.3 gives the procedure for adjusting the BITS list so that no code is longer than 16 bits. Since symbols are paired for the longest Huffman code, the symbols are removed from this length category two at a time. The prefix for the pair

(which is one bit shorter) is allocated to one of the pair; then (skipping the BITS entry for that prefix length) a code word from the next shortest non-zero BITS entry is converted into a prefix for two code words one bit longer. After the BITS list is reduced to a maximum code length of 16 bits, the last step removes the reserved code point from the code length count.

Adjust_BITS

I = 32

No

J = I – 1

Yes BITS(I) > 0

?

No

J = J – 1

BITS(J) > 0

?

Yes

BITS(I) = BITS(I) – 2

BITS(I – 1) = BITS(I – 1) + 1

BITS(J + 1) = BITS(J + 1) + 2

BITS(J) = BITS (J) – 1

I = I – 1

I = 16

?

Yes

No

I = I – 1

BITS(I) = 0

?

No

BITS(I) = BITS(I) – 1

Yes

Done

TISO1750-93/d113

**Figure K.3 – Procedure for limiting code lengths to 16 bits**

Figure K.3 [D113] = 20 cm = 782 %

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 147**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

The input values are sorted according to code size as shown in Figure K.4. HUFFVAL is the list containing the input values associated with each code word, in order of increasing code length.

At this point, the list of code lengths (BITS) and the list of values (HUFFVAL) can be used to generate the code tables.

These procedures are described in Annex C.

Sort_input

I = 1

K = 0

J = 0

CODESIZE(J) = I

?

Yes

No

HUFFVAL(K) = J

K = K + 1

J = J + 1

No

J > 255

?

Yes

I = I + 1

No

I > 32

?

Yes

Done

TISO1760-93/d114

**Figure K.4 – Sorting of input values according to code size**

Figure K.4 [D114] = 20.5 cm = 801 %

**K.3**

**Typical Huffman tables for 8-bit precision luminance and chrominance**

Huffman table-specification syntax is specified in B.2.4.2.

**148 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.3.1**

**Typical Huffman tables for the DC coefficient differences**

Tables K.3 and K.4 give Huffman tables for the DC coefficient differences which have been developed from the average statistics of a large set of video images with 8-bit precision. Table K.3 is appropriate for luminance components and Table

K.4 is appropriate for chrominance components. Although there are no default tables, these tables may prove to be useful for many applications.

**Table K.3 – Table for luminance DC coefficient differences**

Category

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 9

10

11

Code length

4

5

3

3

6

3

3

2

3

7

8

9

Code word

00 0

010

011

100

101

110

1110

11110

111110

1111110

11111110

111111110

**Table K.4 – Table for chrominance DC coefficient differences**

Category

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

11

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

Code length

1 6

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

11

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 5

Code word

00 0

01

10

110

1110

11110

111110

1111110

11111110

111111110

1111111110

11111111110

**K.3.2**

**Typical Huffman tables for the AC coefficients**

Tables K.5 and K.6 give Huffman tables for the AC coefficients which have been developed from the average statistics of a large set of images with 8-bit precision. Table K.5 is appropriate for luminance components and Table K.6 is appropriate for chrominance components. Although there are no default tables, these tables may prove to be useful for many applications.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 149**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.5 – Table for luminance AC coefficients (sheet 1 of 4)**

Run/Size

1/A

2/1

2/2

2/3

2/4

2/5

2/6

2/7

1/4

1/5

1/6

1/7

1/8

1/9

0/6

0/7

0/8

0/9

0/A

1/1

1/2

1/3

0/0 (EOB)

0/1

0/2

0/3

0/4

0/5

3/4

3/5

3/6

3/7

3/8

3/9

3/A

2/8

2/9

2/A

3/1

3/2

3/3

16

16

16

16

1 5

1 8

10

12

16

16

16

1 9

11

16

16

16

1 4

1 5

1 7

1 7

1 8

10

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 4

1 2

1 2

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 6

1 9

12

16

16

16

Code length Code word

1010

00

01

100

1011

11010

1111000

11111000

1111110110

1111111110000010

1111111110000011

1100

11011

1111001

111110110

11111110110

1111111110000100

1111111110000101

1111111110000110

1111111110000111

1111111110001000

11100

11111001

1111110111

111111110100

1111111110001001

1111111110001010

1111111110001011

1111111110001100

1111111110001101

1111111110001110

111010

111110111

111111110101

1111111110001111

1111111110010000

1111111110010001

1111111110010010

1111111110010011

1111111110010100

1111111110010101

**150 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

6/3

6/4

6/5

6/6

6/7

6/8

5/5

5/6

5/7

5/8

5/9

5/A

6/1

6/2

4/9

4/A

5/1

5/2

5/3

5/4

4/1

4/2

4/3

4/4

4/5

4/6

4/7

4/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

7/A

8/1

8/2

6/9

6/A

7/1

7/2

7/3

7/4

7/5

7/6

Run/Size

**Table K.5 (sheet 2 of 4)**

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 7

12

16

16

16

16

16

11

16

16

16

16

1 7

16

16

16

16

16

1 6

10

16

16

1 9

15

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 8

12

16

Code length Code word

111011

1111111000

1111111110010110

1111111110010111

1111111110011000

1111111110011001

1111111110011010

1111111110011011

1111111110011100

1111111110011101

1111010

11111110111

1111111110011110

1111111110011111

1111111110100000

1111111110100001

1111111110100010

1111111110100011

1111111110100100

1111111110100101

1111011

111111110110

1111111110100110

1111111110100111

1111111110101000

1111111110101001

1111111110101010

1111111110101011

1111111110101100

1111111110101101

11111010

111111110111

1111111110101110

1111111110101111

1111111110110000

1111111110110001

1111111110110010

1111111110110011

1111111110110100

1111111110110101

111111000

111111111000000

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 151**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

A/5

A/6

A/7

A/8

A/9

A/A

9/7

9/8

9/9

9/A

A/1

A/2

A/3

A/4

9/1

9/2

9/3

9/4

9/5

9/6

8/3

8/4

8/5

8/6

8/7

8/8

8/9

8/A

B/9

B/A

C/1

C/2

C/3

C/4

B/1

B/2

B/3

B/4

B/5

B/6

B/7

B/8

Run/Size

**Table K.5 (sheet 3 of 4)**

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

10

16

16

16

10

16

16

16

16

Code length Code word

1111111110110110

1111111110110111

1111111110111000

1111111110111001

1111111110111010

1111111110111011

1111111110111100

1111111110111101

111111001

1111111110111110

1111111110111111

1111111111000000

1111111111000001

1111111111000010

1111111111000011

1111111111000100

1111111111000101

1111111111000110

111111010

1111111111000111

1111111111001000

1111111111001001

1111111111001010

1111111111001011

1111111111001100

1111111111001101

1111111111001110

1111111111001111

1111111001

1111111111010000

1111111111010001

1111111111010010

1111111111010011

1111111111010100

1111111111010101

1111111111010110

1111111111010111

1111111111011000

1111111010

1111111111011001

1111111111011010

1111111111011011

**152 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**Table K.5 (sheet 4 of 4)**

Run/Size

F/1

F/2

F/3

F/4

F/5

F/6

F/7

F/8

F/9

F/A

D/8

D/9

D/A

E/1

E/2

E/3

E/4

E/5

E/6

E/7

E/8

E/9

E/A

F/0 (ZRL)

C/A

D/1

D/2

D/3

D/4

D/5

D/6

D/7

C/5

C/6

C/7

C/8

C/9

16

16

11

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

11

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

Code length Code word

1111111111011100

1111111111011101

1111111111011110

1111111111011111

1111111111100000

1111111111100001

11111111000

1111111111100010

1111111111100011

1111111111100100

1111111111100101

1111111111100110

1111111111100111

1111111111101000

1111111111101001

1111111111101010

1111111111101011

1111111111101100

1111111111101101

1111111111101110

1111111111101111

1111111111110000

1111111111110001

1111111111110010

1111111111110011

1111111111110100

11111111001

1111111111110101

1111111111110110

1111111111110111

1111111111111000

1111111111111001

1111111111111010

1111111111111011

1111111111111100

1111111111111101

1111111111111110

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 153**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.6 – Table for chrominance AC coefficients (sheet 1 of 4)**

Run/Size

2/2

2/3

2/4

2/5

2/6

2/7

1/4

1/5

1/6

1/7

1/8

1/9

1/A

2/1

0/8

0/9

0/A

1/1

1/2

1/3

0/0 (EOB)

0/1

0/2

0/3

0/4

0/5

0/6

0/7

3/6

3/7

3/8

3/9

3/A

4/1

2/8

2/9

2/A

3/1

3/2

3/3

3/4

3/5

15

16

16

1 8

10

12

16

16

1 5

1 9

11

12

16

16

1 4

1 6

1 8

1 9

10

12

1 4

1 5

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 2

1 2

1 3

16

16

1 6

16

16

16

10

12

16

16

16

16

1 5

1 8

Code length Code word

00

01

100

1010

11000

11001

111000

1111000

111110100

1111110110

111111110100

1011

111001

11110110

111110101

11111110110

111111110101

1111111110001000

1111111110001001

1111111110001010

1111111110001011

11010

11110111

1111110111

111111110110

111111111000010

1111111110001100

1111111110001101

1111111110001110

1111111110001111

1111111110010000

11011

11111000

1111111000

111111110111

1111111110010001

1111111110010010

1111111110010011

1111111110010100

1111111110010101

1111111110010110

111010

**154 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

6/4

6/5

6/6

6/7

6/8

6/9

5/6

5/7

5/8

5/9

5/A

6/1

6/2

6/3

4/A

5/1

5/2

5/3

5/4

5/5

4/2

4/3

4/4

4/5

4/6

4/7

4/8

4/9

7/8

7/9

7/A

8/1

8/2

8/3

6/A

7/1

7/2

7/3

7/4

7/5

7/6

7/7

Run/Size

**Table K.6 (sheet 2 of 4)**

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 7

11

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 6

10

16

16

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

1 8

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 7

11

16

16

Code length Code word

111110110

1111111110010111

1111111110011000

1111111110011001

1111111110011010

1111111110011011

1111111110011100

1111111110011101

1111111110011110

111011

1111111001

1111111110011111

1111111110100000

1111111110100001

1111111110100010

1111111110100011

1111111110100100

1111111110100101

1111111110100110

1111001

11111110111

1111111110100111

1111111110101000

1111111110101001

1111111110101010

1111111110101011

1111111110101100

1111111110101101

1111111110101110

1111010

11111111000

1111111110101111

1111111110110000

1111111110110001

1111111110110010

1111111110110011

1111111110110100

1111111110110101

1111111110110110

11111001

1111111110110111

1111111110111000

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 155**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

A/6

A/7

A/8

A/9

A/A

B/1

9/8

9/9

9/A

A/1

A/2

A/3

A/4

A/5

9/2

9/3

9/4

9/5

9/6

9/7

8/4

8/5

8/6

8/7

8/8

8/9

8/A

9/1

B/A

C/1

C/2

C/3

C/4

C/5

B/2

B/3

B/4

B/5

B/6

B/7

B/8

B/9

Run/Size

**Table K.6 (sheet 3 of 4)**

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

1 9

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

Code length Code word

1111111110111001

1111111110111010

1111111110111011

1111111110111100

1111111110111101

1111111110111110

1111111110111111

111110111

1111111111000000

1111111111000001

1111111111000010

1111111111000011

1111111111000100

1111111111000101

1111111111000110

1111111111000111

1111111111001000

111111000

1111111111001001

1111111111001010

1111111111001011

1111111111001100

1111111111001101

1111111111001110

1111111111001111

1111111111010000

1111111111010001

111111001

1111111111010010

1111111111010011

1111111111010100

1111111111010101

1111111111010110

1111111111010111

1111111111011000

1111111111011001

1111111111011010

111111010

1111111111011011

1111111111011100

1111111111011101

1111111111011110

**156 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

Run/Size

F/3

F/4

F/5

F/6

F/7

F/8

F/9

F/A

D/A

E/1

E/2

E/3

E/4

E/5

E/6

E/7

E/8

E/9

E/A

F/0 (ZRL)

F/1

F/2

D/2

D/3

D/4

D/5

D/6

D/7

D/8

D/9

C/6

C/7

C/8

C/9

C/A

D/1

**Table K.6 (sheet 4 of 4)**

16

16

10

15

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

14

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

11

16

16

16

Code length Code word

1111111111011111

1111111111100000

1111111111100001

1111111111100010

1111111111100011

11111111001

1111111111100100

1111111111100101

1111111111100110

1111111111100111

1111111111101000

1111111111101001

1111111111101010

1111111111101011

1111111111101100

11111111100000

1111111111101101

1111111111101110

1111111111101111

1111111111110000

1111111111110001

1111111111110010

1111111111110011

1111111111110100

1111111111110101

1111111010

111111111000011

1111111111110110

1111111111110111

1111111111111000

1111111111111001

1111111111111010

1111111111111011

1111111111111100

1111111111111101

1111111111111110

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 157**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.3.3**

**Huffman table-specification examples**

**K.3.3.1 Specification of typical tables for DC difference coding**

A set of typical tables for DC component coding is given in K.3.1. The specification of these tables is as follows:

For Table K.3 (for luminance DC coefficients), the 16 bytes which specify the list of code lengths for the table are

X’00 01 05 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00’

The set of values following this list is

X’00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B’

For Table K.4 (for chrominance DC coefficients), the 16 bytes which specify the list of code lengths for the table are

X’00 03 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00’

The set of values following this list is

X’00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B’

**K.3.3.2 Specification of typical tables for AC coefficient coding**

A set of typical tables for AC component coding is given in K.3.2. The specification of these tables is as follows:

For Table K.5 (for luminance AC coefficients), the 16 bytes which specify the list of code lengths for the table are

X’00 02 01 03 03 02 04 03 05 05 04 04 00 00 01 7D’

The set of values which follows this list is

X’01 02

X’ 22 71

03

14

00

32

04

81

11

91

05

A1

12

08

21

23

31

42

41

B1

06

C1

13

15

51

52

61

D1

07

F0

X’ 24

X’ 29

33

2A

X’ 4A 53

X’ 6A 73

62

34

54

74

72

35

55

75

82

36

56

76

09

37

57

77

0A

38

58

78

16

39

59

79

17

3A

5A

7A

18

43

63

83

19

44

64

84

1A

45

65

85

25

46

66

86

26

47

67

87

27

48

68

88

28

49

69

89

X’ 8A 92

X’ A8 A9

X’ C6 C7

X’ E3 E4

X’ F9 FA’

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7

AA B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA C2 C3 C4 C5

C8 C9 CA D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA E1 E2

E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

**158 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

For Table K.6 (for chrominance AC coefficients), the 16 bytes which specify the list of code lengths for the table are

X’00 02 01 02 04 04 03 04 07 05 04 04 00 01 02 77’

The set of values which follows this list is:

X’00 01 02 03 11 04 05 21 31 06 12 41 51 07 61 71

X’ 13

X' 15

X' 27

22

62

28

32

72

29

81

D1

2A

08

0A

35

14

16

36

42

24

37

91

34

38

A1

E1

39

B1

25

3A

C1

F1

43

09

17

44

23

18

45

33

19

46

52

1A

47

F0

26

48

X' 49

X' 69

4A

6A

X' 88 89

X' A6 A7

X' C4 C5

X' E2 E3

X' F9 FA’

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 63 64 65 66 67 68

73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 82 83 84 85 86 87

8A 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A A2 A3 A4 A5

A8 A9 AA B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA C2 C3

C6 C7 C8 C9 CA D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA

E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

**K.4**

**Additional information on arithmetic coding**

**K.4.1**

**Test sequence for a small data set for the arithmetic coder**

The following 256-bit test sequence (in hexadecimal form) is structured to test many of the encoder and decoder paths:

X’00020051 000000C0 0352872A AAAAAAAA 82C02000 FCD79EF6 74EAABF7 697EE74C’

Tables K.7 and K.8 provide a symbol-by-symbol list of the arithmetic encoder and decoder operation. In these tables the event count, EC, is listed first, followed by the value of Qe used in encoding and decoding that event. The decision D to be encoded (and decoded) is listed next. The column labeled MPS contains the sense of the MPS, and if it is followed by a CE (in the “CX” column), the conditional MPS/LPS exchange occurs when encoding and decoding the decision (see

Figures D.3, D.4 and D.17). The contents of the A and C registers are the values before the event is encoded and decoded.

ST is the number of X’FF’ bytes stacked in the encoder waiting for a resolution of the carry-over. Note that the A register is always greater than X’7FFF’. (The starting value has an implied value of X’10000’.)

In the encoder test, the code bytes (B) are listed if they were completed during the coding of the preceding event. If additional bytes follow, they were also completed during the coding of the preceding event. If a byte is listed in the

Bx column, the preceding byte in column B was modified by a carry-over.

In the decoder the code bytes are listed if they were placed in the code register just prior to the event EC.

For this file the coded bit count is 240, including the overhead to flush the final data from the C register. When the marker X’FFD9’ is appended, a total of 256 bits are output. The actual compressed data sequence for the encoder is (in hexadecimal form)

X’655B5144 F7969D51 7855BFFF 00FC5184 C7CEF939 00287D46 708ECBC0 F6FFD900’

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 159**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 1 of 7)**

EC

26

27

28

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

22

15

16

17

32

33

34

35

36

29

30

31

12

13

14

1 7

1 8

1 9

10

11

1 4

1 5

1 6

1 1

1 2

1 3

D

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CX

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

D1B9

80B0

D1EE

C06C

AEEA

9D68

8BE6

F4C8

E7D9

DAEA

CDFB

C10C

CEF0

B9D8

A8C0

8E17

E6DC

CF8E

BA70

9FC7

851E

D4EA

0000

A5E3

B43A

8EB4

D25C

C148

B034

9F20

8E0C

F9F0

F1E5

E9DA

E1CF

D9C4

Qe

(hexadecimal)

0CEF

0CEF

0CEF

0CEF

1518

1518

080B

17B9

1182

1182

1182

1182

1182

0CEF

1AA9

1AA9

174E

174E

1AA9

1AA9

1AA9

174E

1114

1114

1114

080B

080B

080B

080B

080B

5A1D

5A1D

2586

2586

1114

1114

C

(hexadecimal)

00025E30

00327DE0

0064FBC0

0064FBC0

0064FBC0

0064FBC0

0064FBC0

00C9F780

00C9F780

00C9F780

00C9F780

00C9F780

000AB9D0

000AB9D0

00000000

00000000

0000978C

0000978C

00012F18

00012F18

00012F18

00012F18

00012F18

00025E30

00025E30

00025E30

00025E30

00025E30

005AF480

005AF480

00B5E900

00B5E900

00050A00

00050A00

00050A00

000A1400

CT ST Bx

1 2

1 6

1 6

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 3

1 3

1 3

1 3

1 2

1 8

1 4

1 3

1 2

1 7

1 7

1 7

1 6

1 3

1 3

1 2

1 8

1 8

1 8

1 9

1 9

1 9

1 8

1 8

10

1 9

1 9

11

11

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

65

5B

**160 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 2 of 7)**

EC

37

38

63

64

65

58

59

60

61

62

55

56

57

52

53

54

69

70

71

66

67

68

72

73

47

48

49

50

51

44

45

46

39

40

41

42

43

D

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CX A

(hexadecimal)

BD9C

A64E

8370

E3A8

D43D

C4D2

B567

A5FC

F6B0

A120

8677

D79C

C04E

A900

91B2

F4C8

E0A4

CC80

B85C

A438

9014

F7E0

8CE0

A120

8F00

EF64

DB40

C71C

B2F8

9ED4

8AB0

ED18

DB7C

C9E0

B844

A6A8

950C

Qe

(hexadecimal)

174E

174E

1424

1AA9

1AA9

174E

174E

174E

174E

1424

119C

0F6B

0F6B

0F6B

0F6B

0F6B

1424

1424

1424

1424

1424

119C

1424

1AA9

174E

1424

1424

1424

1424

1424

1424

119C

119C

119C

119C

119C

119C

C

(hexadecimal)

000A1400

000A1400

00285000

0050A000

0050A000

0050A000

0050A000

0050A000

00036910

00225CE0

00225CE0

0044B9C0

0044B9C0

0044B9C0

0044B9C0

00897380

000A1400

00142800

00142800

00142800

00142800

00142800

00142800

00285000

00285000

00285000

00285000

00285000

00285000

00897380

00897380

00897380

00897380

00897380

0112E700

001E6A20

00F716E0

CT

1 6

1 6

3

3

2

4

3

7

4

3

3

3

3

4

3

3

2

2

1

6

3

2

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

4

1 6

1 5

5

5

5

ST

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bx B

51

44

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 161**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 3 of 7)**

EC

1 96

1 97

1 98

1 99

100

101

102

103

1 90

1 91

1 92

1 93

1 94

1 95

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

1 82

1 83

1 84

1 85

1 86

1 87

1 88

1 89

1 74

1 75

1 76

1 77

1 78

1 79

1 80

1 81

D

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CX A

(hexadecimal)

E768

B951

B85C

85A8

CAD0

8E93

F0F4

AF96

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

9458

D57C

B066

8B50

CC74

F6F8

9458

A668

8677

D548

B032

9458

D57C

B066

9458

D57C

Qe

(hexadecimal)

415E

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

2E17

2E17

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

299A

2516

2516

2516

1EDF

2516

299A

32B4

1AA9

2516

2516

299A

2516

2516

299A

2516

C

(hexadecimal)

00098730

00098730

002849A8

002849A8

00A27270

00A27270

00031318

00031318

000702A0

000E7E46

001D92B4

003B9E6E

0077D304

00F01F0E

00F716E0

00041570

00041570

00128230

00250460

00250460

00963EC0

012C7D80

0004B798

00096F30

00096F30

00096F30

0012DE60

009C5FA8

0274C628

0004C398

01E0D444

0002218E

0004D944

000A2B8E

0014ED44

002A538E

00553D44

CT ST Bx

4

3

6

5

2

8

8

7

4

2

2

6

6

4

4

3

6

5

1

8

7

3

1

7

6

7

8

7

7

5

3

2

8

6

3

8

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

F7

96

9D

51

78

**162 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 4 of 7)**

EC

133

134

135

136

137

138

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

111

112

113

114

115

116

MPS CX

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

D

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

A

(hexadecimal)

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

CAD0

8E93

F0F4

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

9388

C1A8

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

Qe

(hexadecimal)

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

32B4

2E17

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

C

(hexadecimal)

007F738E

00FF7D44

01FF738E

03FF7D44

0007738E

000F7D44

001F738E

003EE71C

007DCE38

00FB9C70

00FB9C70

03F0BFE0

03F0BFE0

000448D8

00AAF38E

01567D44

0005738E

000B7D44

0017738E

002F7D44

005F738E

00BF7D44

017F738E

02FF7D44

0007738E

000F7D44

001F738E

003F7D44

0009F0DC

00145ABE

0028B57C

00516AF8

00A2D5F0

00A2D5F0

00A2D5F0

0145ABE0

CT ST Bx

1

1

7

4

3

3

7

6

1

8

5

4

3

2

2

2

3

2

1

6

5

4

7

6

5

2

1

4

3

8

7

6

5

2

1

8

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

55

BF

FF00FC

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 163**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 5 of 7)**

EC

169

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

163

164

165

166

167

168

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

D

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

MPS

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CX

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

9458

A668

CAD0

F0F4

82BC

8C72

9628

F0F4

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

F20C

970A

8D76

AA44

B3EA

970A

8D76

E150

C092

9B7C

ECCC

CDED

AF0E

902F

E2A0

D548

9391

B85C

85A8

A5E8

EFA2

C608

9C6E

E5A8

Qe

(hexadecimal)

299A

32B4

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

4B85

504F

5522

504F

4B85

504F

5522

59EB

2516

2516

1EDF

1EDF

1EDF

1EDF

1AA9

2516

2E17

32B4

32B4

2E17

299A

299A

299A

2516

C

(hexadecimal)

00315FA8

00C72998

031E7530

000C0F0C

00197D44

0033738E

0066E71C

019D041C

033B6764

000747CE

000F25C4

001EC48E

003E1F44

00F87D10

0145ABE0

00084568

00084568

00108AD0

002115A0

002115A0

002115A0

00422B40

00422B40

00422B40

00845680

00845680

00845680

00845680

0108AD00

000BA7B8

01F2472E

03E48E5C

00018D60

00031AC0

0007064A

000E0C94

00383250

CT ST Bx

6

5

8

7

3

4

2

1

7

6

5

5

3

1

5

3

7

6

2

1

8

3

2

3

3

7

4

4

3

5

5

4

7

6

1

7

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

51

84

C7

CE

F9

**164 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 6 of 7)**

EC

206

207

208

209

210

211

212

213

200

201

202

203

204

205

214

215

216

217

218

219

220

192

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

D

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

MPS

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CX

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

82BC

F20C

A687

B604

DF96

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

AA32

8C72

81DA

A09E

AA32

C7F2

82BC

8C72

B3D6

B3D6

B3D6

B3D6

BD68

DA32

970A

A09E

Qe

(hexadecimal)

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

4639

4B85

4B85

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

4639

4B85

504F

4B85

4639

415E

4639

415E

59EB

59EB

59EB

5522

504F

4B85

504F

4B85

C

(hexadecimal)

0050EC94

0003B250

0003B250

000764A0

000EC940

001ECEF0

003E16E6

007CC3F4

00FA00EE

01F49804

0001A90E

0003E844

0008498E

00112944

0071736A

00E39AAA

0007E92A

000FD254

001FA4A8

003F4950

007FAFFA

00FFED6A

01FFDAD4

04007D9A

0000FB34

0002597E

0004B2FC

000965F8

0013D918

00282B36

0022CB8E

00462D44

008CD38E

0119A71C

00034E38

00069C70

00069C70

CT ST Bx

39

7

6

1

8

5

4

3

2

7

6

5

2

8

8

7

7

1

8

4

3

2

5

4

7

6

3

2

1

8

5

4

3

8

7

2

1

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

38

00

28

7D

46

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 165**

D

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

EC

243

244

245

246

247

248

249

250

235

236

237

238

239

240

241

242

251

252

253

254

255

256

Flush:

229

230

231

232

233

234

221

222

223

224

225

226

227

228

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

MPS

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

CX

CE

CE

CE

CE

**Table K.7 – Encoder test sequence (sheet 7 of 7)**

A

(hexadecimal)

A4AC

DA9C

CAD0

F0F4

AF96

DC70

A033

F0F4

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

9388

CAD0

8E93

AF96

82BC

F20C

A687

B604

8C72

81DA

9388

CAD0

8E93

A4AC

DA9C

CAD0

8E93

A4AC

DD78

A13B

F0F4

82BC

8C72

82BC

Qe

(hexadecimal)

375E

32B4

3C3D

415E

415E

3C3D

3C3D

415E

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

415E

4639

4B85

4B85

4639

4B85

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

375E

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

375E

3C3D

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

4639

C

(hexadecimal)

0006504E

000CA09C

00194138

00328270

00328270

00328270

00CB8D10

00CB8D10

01971A20

032E3440

000B70A0

002FFCCC

002FFCCC

005FF998

005FF998

01817638

00069C70

001BF510

001BF510

0037EA20

006FD440

01C1F0A0

01C1F0A0

0003E140

00113A38

00113A38

00467CD8

008E58DC

011D2ABE

023AEBA4

01817638

0303C8E0

000F2380

000F2380

001E4700

003D6D96

007ADB2C

CT ST Bx

4

4

5

5

2

2

1

7

5

3

3

6

5

8

7

5

5

4

7

6

2

1

7

3

2

1

6

6

4

1

1

8

5

4

7

5

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

70

8E

CB

C0

F6

FFD9

**166 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

EC

27

28

29

24

25

26

19

20

21

22

23

16

17

18

13

14

15

1 8

1 9

10

11

12

1 5

1 6

1 7

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

33

34

35

36

37

30

31

32

38

39

40

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 1 of 7)**

D

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

MPS CX

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

80B0

D1EE

C06C

AEEA

9D68

8BE6

F4C8

E7D9

DAEA

CDFB

C10C

CEF0

B9D8

A8C0

9F20

8E0C

F9F0

F1E5

E9DA

E1CF

D9C4

D1B9

0000

A5E3

B43A

8EB4

D25C

C148

B034

8E17

E6DC

CF8E

BA70

9FC7

851E

D4EA

BD9C

A64E

8F00

EF64

Qe

(hexadecimal)

0CEF

0CEF

0CEF

1518

1518

1AA9

17B9

1182

1182

1182

1182

1182

0CEF

0CEF

1114

1114

080B

080B

080B

080B

080B

080B

5A1D

5A1D

2586

2586

1114

1114

1114

1AA9

174E

174E

1AA9

1AA9

1AA9

174E

174E

174E

174E

1424

C

(hexadecimal)

2FC88000

5F910000

5F910000

5F910000

5F910000

5F910000

BF228800

BF228800

BF228800

BF228800

BF228800

B0588000

B0588000

5CC40000

655B0000

655B0000

332AA200

332AA200

66554400

66554400

66554400

66554400

66554400

CCAA8800

CCAA8800

CCAA8800

CCAA8800

CCAA8800

CCAA8800

5CC40000

B989EE00

B989EE00

0A4F7000

0A4F7000

0A4F7000

149EE000

149EE000

149EE000

149EE000

293DC000

CT

3

3

0

7

7

7

0

7

0

0

7

1

0

0

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

5

6

6

6

0

0

7

7

4

3

4

4

3

0

7

7

3

3

2

B

65 5B

51

44

F7

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 167**

EC

67

68

69

64

65

66

59

60

61

62

63

56

57

58

53

54

55

48

49

50

51

52

45

46

47

41

42

43

44

73

74

75

76

77

70

71

72

78

79

80

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 2 of 7)**

D

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

MPS CX

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

A

(hexadecimal)

91B2

F4C8

E0A4

CC80

B85C

A438

B567

A5FC

F6B0

A120

8677

D79C

C04E

A900

C9E0

B844

A6A8

950C

8370

E3A8

D43D

C4D2

DB40

C71C

B2F8

9ED4

8AB0

ED18

DB7C

9014

F7E0

8CE0

A120

8677

D548

B032

9458

D57C

B066

9458

Qe

(hexadecimal)

174E

1424

1424

1424

1424

1424

0F6B

0F6B

1424

1AA9

1AA9

174E

174E

174E

119C

119C

119C

119C

119C

0F6B

0F6B

0F6B

1424

1424

1424

1424

1424

119C

119C

1424

119C

1424

1AA9

1AA9

2516

2516

299A

2516

2516

299A

C

(hexadecimal)

A4F70000

A4F70000

E6696000

1EEB0000

1EEB0000

3DD60000

3DD60000

3DD60000

3DD60000

7BAD3A00

7BAD3A00

7BAD3A00

7BAD3A00

7BAD3A00

293DC000

293DC000

293DC000

293DC000

293DC000

527B8000

527B8000

527B8000

527B8000

527B8000

527B8000

527B8000

A4F70000

A4F70000

A4F70000

7BAD3A00

F75A7400

88B3A000

7FBD0000

7FBD0000

9F7A8800

9F7A8800

517A2000

A2F44000

A2F44000

5E910000

CT

7

7

7

0

7

7

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

5

5

0

0

3

7

6

3

2

2

0

B

96

9D

51

**168 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

EC

103

104

105

106

107

108

1 95

1 96

1 97

1 98

1 99

100

101

102

1 89

1 90

1 91

1 92

1 93

1 94

1 81

1 82

1 83

1 84

1 85

1 86

1 87

1 88

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 3 of 7)**

D

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

MPS CX

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

F0F4

AF96

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

9458

A668

E768

B951

B85C

85A8

CAD0

8E93

D57C

9458

D57C

B066

8B50

CC74

F6F8

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

Qe

(hexadecimal)

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

415E

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

299A

32B4

2E17

2E17

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

2516

299A

2516

2516

2516

1EDF

2516

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

C

(hexadecimal)

AF95F800

AF95F800

82BBF000

8C71E000

82BBC000

8C718000

82BB0000

8C71FE00

82BBFC00

8C71F800

82BBF000

8C71E000

82BBC000

8C718000

BD22F000

32F3C000

65E78000

65E78000

65E78000

CBCF0000

F1D00000

7FB95400

53ED5000

A7DAA000

A7DAA000

72828000

72828000

7E3B7E00

7E3B7E00

82BB0000

8C71F800

82BBF000

8C71E000

82BBC000

8C718000

82BB0000

8C700000

82B80000

8C6AA200

82AD4400

CT

3

2

1

6

5

4

1

0

3

2

7

5

5

4

1

7

7

3

3

6

4

1

4

3

0

7

5

4

4

3

2

5

4

1

0

7

6

0

7

6

B

78

55

BF

FF 00

FC

51

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 169**

EC

144

145

146

147

148

149

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 4 of 7)**

D

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

MPS CX

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

CAD0

8E93

F0F4

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

9388

C1A8

9391

B85C

85A8

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

A5E8

EFA2

C608

9C6E

E5A8

C092

9B7C

ECCC

CDED

AF0E

902F

Qe

(hexadecimal)

32B4

32B4

2E17

2E17

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

4639

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

2E17

299A

299A

299A

2516

2516

2516

1EDF

1EDF

1EDF

1EDF

C

(hexadecimal)

86331C00

86331C00

CF747000

3FBCE000

0673C000

0CE78000

19CF0000

339F9C00

339F9C00

339F9C00

673F3800

673F3800

0714E000

0714E000

8C548800

82811000

8BFC2000

81D04000

8A9A8000

7F0D0000

85150800

74021000

6EFE2000

47D44000

16A28000

2D450000

5A8A0000

B5140000

B5140000

0E29C000

1C538000

1C538000

1C538000

38A70000

38A70000

38A70000

714E0000

714E0000

714E0000

714E0000

CT

6

4

4

7

7

6

1

0

3

2

7

6

6

4

1

0

0

4

3

6

5

2

1

0

7

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

1

0

3

2

2

0

0

0

B

84

C7

CE

**170 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

EC

184

185

186

187

188

189

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

175

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

190

191

192

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

200

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 5 of 7)**

D

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

MPS CX

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

F20C

970A

8D76

AA44

B3EA

970A

8D76

E150

B3D6

B3D6

B3D6

B3D6

BD68

DA32

8C72

9628

F0F4

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

E2A0

D548

9458

A668

CAD0

F0F4

82BC

970A

A09E

AA32

8C72

81DA

A09E

AA32

C7F2

82BC

8C72

82BC

Qe

(hexadecimal)

59EB

59EB

59EB

5522

504F

4B85

4B85

504F

5522

504F

4B85

504F

5522

59EB

415E

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

1AA9

2516

299A

32B4

3C3D

415E

4639

504F

4B85

4639

4B85

504F

4B85

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

C

(hexadecimal)

BBF00000

2AD25000

55A4A000

3AA14000

75428000

19BB0000

33760000

CDD80000

8CE6FA00

65F7F400

1819E800

3033D000

6067A000

C0CF4000

E29DF200

D5379000

94164000

A5610000

C6B4E400

E0879000

61E32000

4AC04000

95808000

EE560000

7D800000

81FA0000

6DCC0000

62920000

2EFC0000

64448000

3B130000

76268C00

245B1800

48B63000

2E566000

5CACC000

B9598000

658B0000

52100000

0DF8E000

CT

4

3

2

7

6

5

3

2

5

4

0

0

7

6

4

3

2

7

6

2

1

5

6

4

3

7

4

2

0

4

3

6

5

2

1

0

7

1

0

7

B

F9

39

00

28

7D

46

70

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 171**

EC

224

225

226

227

228

229

216

217

218

219

220

221

222

223

208

209

210

211

212

213

214

215

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

230

231

232

233

234

235

236

237

238

239

240

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 6 of 7)**

D

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

MPS CX

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

CE

A

(hexadecimal)

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

9388

CAD0

8E93

A4AC

DA9C

CAD0

8E93

A4AC

DD78

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

82BC

F20C

A687

B604

DF96

82BC

8C72

82BC

A13B

F0F4

82BC

8C72

82BC

8C72

9628

B3D6

F8F0

C63C

9388

Qe

(hexadecimal)

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

375E

32B4

3C3D

3C3D

375E

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

4B85

4B85

4639

415E

4639

415E

4639

3C3D

415E

4639

415E

4639

415E

3C3D

375E

32B4

32B4

32B4

C

(hexadecimal)

0D8F9600

1B1F2C00

363E5800

6C7CB000

6C7CB000

6C7CB000

2EA2C000

2EA2C000

5D458000

BA8B0000

4A8F0000

4A8F0000

951E0000

9F400000

37E38000

37E38000

6FC70000

DF8E0000

82AC0000

8C520000

827C0000

8BF31C00

81BE3800

8A767000

7EC4E000

8483C000

72DF8000

6CB90000

434A0000

9F400000

E9080000

72E40000

6CC3EC00

435FD800

0DB9B000

1B736000

36E6C000

6DCD8000

6DCD8000

6DCD8000

CT

6

5

3

1

0

6

4

2

4

4

2

7

6

5

2

1

0

5

4

7

6

3

2

1

0

5

5

4

3

5

4

7

6

3

3

1

0

2

2

2

B

8E

CB

C0

F6

**172 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**Table K.8 – Decoder test sequence (sheet 7 of 7)**

EC D MPS CX

241

242

1

1

1

1

Marker detected: zero byte fed to decoder

243 1 1

244 0 1

245

246

247

248

249

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

Marker detected: zero byte fed to decoder

250 1 1

251 0 1

CE 252

253

254

0

1

1

1

1

1

255

256

0

0

1

1 CE

Qe

(hexadecimal)

3C3D

3C3D

375E

32B4

3C3D

415E

415E

3C3D

3C3D

415E

415E

4639

4B85

4B85

4639

4B85

A

(hexadecimal)

CAD0

8E93

F0F4

AF96

82BC

F20C

A687

B604

8C72

A4AC

DA9C

CAD0

F0F4

AF96

DC70

A033

C

(hexadecimal)

33E60000

33E60000

67CC0000

CF980000

9EC00000

40B40000

40B40000

81680000

81680000

75C80000

75C80000

0F200000

3C800000

3C800000

79000000

126A0000

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

CT

2

1

4

2

1

7

6

0

0

6

4

4

3

2

7

7

B

**K.5**

**Low-pass downsampling filters for hierarchical coding**

In this section simple examples are given of downsampling filters which are compatible with the upsampling filter defined in J.1.1.2.

Figure K.5 shows the weighting of neighbouring samples for simple one-dimensional horizontal and vertical low-pass filters. The output of the filter must be normalized by the sum of the neighbourhood weights.

1 2 1 1

2

1

TISO1770-93/d115

**Figure K.5 – Low-pass filter example**

Figure K.5 [D115] = 4 cm = 156 %

The centre sample in Figure K.5 should be aligned with the left column or top line of the high resolution image when calculating the left column or top line of the low resolution image. Sample values which are situated outside of the image boundary are replicated from the sample values at the boundary to provide missing edge values.

If the image being downsampled has an odd width or length, the odd dimension is increased by 1 by sample replication on the right edge or bottom line before downsampling.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 173**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.6**

**Domain of applicability of DCT and spatial coding techniques**

The DCT coder is intended for lossy coding in a range from quite visible loss to distortion well below the threshold for visibility. However in general, DCT-based processes cannot be used for true lossless coding.

The lossless coder is intended for completely lossless coding. The lossless coding process is significantly less effective than the DCT-based processes for distortions near and above the threshold of visibility.

The point transform of the input to the lossless coder permits a very restricted form of lossy coding with the “lossless” coder. (The coder is still lossless after the input point transform.) Since the DCT is intended for lossy coding, there may be some confusion about when this alternative lossy technique should be used.

Lossless coding with a point transformed input is intended for applications which cannot be addressed by DCT coding techniques. Among these are

– true lossless coding to a specified precision;

– lossy coding with precisely defined error bounds;

– hierarchical progression to a truly lossless final stage.

If lossless coding with a point transformed input is used in applications which can be met effectively by DCT coding, the results will be significantly less satisfactory. For example, distortion in the form of visible contours usually appears when precision of the luminance component is reduced to about six bits. For normal image data, this occurs at bit rates well above those for which the DCT gives outputs which are visually indistinguishable from the source.

**K.7**

**Domain of applicability of the progressive coding modes of operation**

Two very different progressive coding modes of operation have been defined, progressive coding of the DCT coefficients and hierarchical progression. Progressive coding of the DCT coefficients has two complementary procedures, spectral selection and successive approximation. Because of this diversity of choices, there may be some confusion as to which method of progression to use for a given application.

**K.7.1**

**Progressive coding of the DCT**

In progressive coding of the DCT coefficients two complementary procedures are defined for decomposing the 8

×

8 DCT coefficient array, spectral selection and successive approximation. Spectral selection partitions zig-zag array of DCT coefficients into “bands”, one band being coded in each scan. Successive approximation codes the coefficients with reduced precision in the first scan; in each subsequent scan the precision is increased by one bit.

A single forward DCT is calculated for these procedures. When all coefficients are coded to full precision, the DCT is the same as in the sequential mode. Therefore, like the sequential DCT coding, progressive coding of DCT coefficients is intended for applications which need very good compression for a given level of visual distortion.

The simplest progressive coding technique is spectral selection; indeed, because of this simplicity, some applications may choose – despite the limited progression that can be achieved – to use only spectral selection. Note, however, that the absence of high frequency bands typically leads – for a given bit rate – to a significantly lower image quality in the intermediate stages than can be achieved with the more general progressions. The net coding efficiency at the completion of the final stage is typically comparable to or slightly less than that achieved with the sequential DCT.

A much more flexible progressive system is attained at some increase in complexity when successive approximation is added to the spectral selection progression. For a given bit rate, this system typically provides significantly better image quality than spectral selection alone. The net coding efficiency at the completion of the final stage is typically comparable to or slightly better than that achieved with the sequential DCT.

**K.7.2**

**Hierarchical progression**

Hierarchical progression permits a sequence of outputs of increasing spatial resolution, and also allows refinement of image quality at a given spatial resolution. Both DCT and spatial versions of the hierarchical progression are allowed, and progressive coding of DCT coefficients may be used in a frame of the DCT hierarchical progression.

The DCT hierarchical progression is intended for applications which need very good compression for a given level of visual distortion; the spatial hierarchical progression is intended for applications which need a simple progression with a truly lossless final stage. Figure K.6 illustrates examples of these two basic hierarchical progressions.

**174 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

DCT path

DCT (dif)

DCT (dif)

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Lossless path

Predicted (dif)

Predicted (dif)

Lossless (dif)

+

Point transform

Predicted (dif)

Bounded error on reconstructed image

No error on reconstructed image

TISO1780-93/d116

**Figure K.6 – Sketch of the basic operations of the hierarchical mode**

Figure K.6 [D116] = 14 cm = 547 %

**K.7.2.1 DCT Hierarchical progression**

If a DCT hierarchical progression uses reduced spatial resolution, the early stages of the progression can have better image quality for a given bit rate than the early stages of non-hierarchical progressive coding of the DCT coefficients. However, at the point where the distortion between source and output becomes indistinguishable, the coding efficiency achieved with a DCT hierarchical progression is typically significantly lower than the coding efficiency achieved with a nonhierarchical progressive coding of the DCT coefficients.

While the hierarchical DCT progression is intended for lossy progressive coding, a final spatial differential coding stage can be used. When this final stage is used, the output can be almost lossless, limited only by the difference between the encoder and decoder IDCT implementations. Since IDCT implementations can differ significantly, truly lossless coding after a DCT hierarchical progression cannot be guaranteed. An important alternative, therefore, is to use the input point transform of the final lossless differential coding stage to reduce the precision of the differential input. This allows a bounding of the difference between source and output at a significantly lower cost in coded bits than coding of the full precision spatial difference would require.

**K.7.2.2 Spatial hierarchical progression**

If lossless progression is required, a very simple hierarchical progression may be used in which the spatial lossless coder with point transformed input is used as a first stage. This first stage is followed by one or more spatial differential coding stages. The first stage should be nearly lossless, such that the low order bits which are truncated by the point transform are essentially random – otherwise the compression efficiency will be degraded relative to non-progressive lossless coding.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 175**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.8**

**Suppression of block-to-block discontinuities in decoded images**

A simple technique is available for suppressing the block-to-block discontinuities which can occur in images compressed by DCT techniques.

The first few (five in this example) low frequency DCT coefficients are predicted from the nine DC values of the block and the eight nearest-neighbour blocks, and the predicted values are used to suppress blocking artifacts in smooth areas of the image.

The prediction equations for the first five AC coefficients in the zig-zag sequence are obtained as follows:

**K.8.1**

**AC prediction**

The sample field in a 3 by 3 array of blocks (each block containing an 8

×

8 array of samples) is modeled by a two-dimensional second degree polynomial of the form:

P(x,y)

=

A1(x

2 y

2

)

+

A2(x

2 y)

+

A3(xy

2

)

+

A4(x

2

)

+

A5(xy)

+

A6(y

2

)

+

A7(x)

+

A8(y)

+

A9

The nine coefficients A1 through A9 are uniquely determined by imposing the constraint that the mean of P(x,y) over each of the nine blocks must yield the correct DC-values.

Applying the DCT to the quadratic field predicting the samples in the central block gives a prediction of the low frequency AC coefficients depicted in Figure K.7.

x x

DC x x x

TISO1790-93/d117

**Figure K.7 – DCT array positions of predicted AC coefficients**

Figure K.7 [D.117] = 8 cm = 313 %

The prediction equations derived in this manner are as follows:

For the two dimensional array of DC values shown

DC

1

DC

4

DC

7

DC

2

DC

5

DC

8

DC

3

DC

6

DC

9

The unquantized prediction equations are

AC

01

=

1,13885 (DC

4

– DC

6

)

AC

10

=

1,13885 (DC

2

– DC

8

)

AC

20

=

0,27881 (DC

2

+

DC

8

– 2

×

DC

5

)

AC

11

=

0,16213 ((DC

AC

02

=

0,27881 (DC

1

4

– DC

3

) – (DC

7

– DC

9

))

+

DC

6

– 2

×

DC

5

)

The scaling of the predicted AC coefficients is consistent with the DCT normalization defined in A.3.3.

**176 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**K.8.2**

**Quantized AC prediction**

The prediction equations can be mapped to a form which uses quantized values of the DC coefficients and which computes quantized AC coefficients using integer arithmetic. The quantized DC coefficients need to be scaled, however, such that the predicted coefficients have fractional bit precision.

First, the prediction equation coefficients are scaled by 32 and rounded to the nearest integer. Thus,

1,13885

×

32

=

36

0,27881

×

32

= 3

9

0,16213

×

32

= 3

5

The multiplicative factors are then scaled by the ratio of the DC and AC quantization factors and rounded appropriately.

The normalization defined for the DCT introduces another factor of 8 in the unquantized DC values. Therefore, in terms of the quantized DC values, the predicted quantized AC coefficients are given by the equations below. Note that if (for example) the DC values are scaled by a factor of 4, the AC predictions will have 2 fractional bits of precision relative to the quantized DCT coefficients.

QAC

01

=

( (R d

×

Q

QAC

10

=

( (R d

×

Q

01

)

+

(36

×

Q

00

×

(QDC

QAC

20

=

( (R d

×

Q

20

)

+

( 9

×

Q

00

×

(QDC

QAC

11

=

( (R d

×

Q

11

)

+

( 5

×

Q

00

×

((QDC

4

10

)

+

(36

×

Q

00

×

(QDC

2

– QDC

6

)))/(256

×

Q

01

)

– QDC

8

)))/(256

×

Q

10

)

2

+

QDC

8

– 2

×

QDC

5

)))/(256

×

Q

20

)

QAC

02

=

( (R d

×

Q

02

)

+

( 9

×

Q

1

– QDC

3

) – (QDC

7

– QDC

9

))))/(256

×

Q

11

)

00

×

(QDC

4

+

QDC

6

– 2

×

QDC

5

)))/(256

×

Q

02

) where QDC x

and QAC xy

are the quantized and scaled DC and AC coefficient values. The constant Rd is added to get a correct rounding in the division. Rd is 128 for positive numerators, and –128 for negative numerators.

Predicted values should not override coded values. Therefore, predicted values for coefficients which are already non-zero should be set to zero. Predictions should be clamped if they exceed a value which would be quantized to a non-zero value for the current precision in the successive approximation.

**K.9**

**Modification of dequantization to improve displayed image quality**

For a progression where the first stage successive approximation bit, Al, is set to 3, uniform quantization of the DCT gives the following quantization and dequantization levels for a sequence of successive approximation scans, as shown in

Figure K.8:

2

1

Al

3 r ¯ t r ¯ t r ¯ t

0

–8 –7 x

x ¯ r ¯ t r ¯ t

x ¯ r ¯ t

–6 –5 –4

x ¯ r ¯ t r r r t ¯ r ¯ x t ¯ r t ¯ r ¯ x

–3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2

Quantized DCT coefficient value

+3 +4 x t ¯ r ¯ x

t ¯ r t ¯ r t ¯ r

+5 +6 +7 +8

T0812990-93/d118

F i gu r e K .8 – I l l u st r at i on of t w o r econ st r u ct i on st r at egi es

Figure K.8 [D118] = 6 cm = 234 %

The column to the left labelled “Al” gives the bit position specified in the scan header. The quantized DCT coefficient magnitudes are therefore divided by 2

Al

during that scan.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 177**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

Referring to the final scan (Al

=

0), the points marked with “t” are the threshold values, while the points marked with “r” are the reconstruction values. The unquantized output is obtained by multiplying the horizontal scale in Figure K.8 by the quantization value.

The quantization interval for a coefficient value of zero is indicated by the depressed interval of the line. As the bit position Al is increased, a “fat zero” quantization interval develops around the zero DCT coefficient value. In the limit where the scaling factor is very large, the zero interval is twice as large as the rest of the quantization intervals.

Two different reconstruction strategies are shown. The points marked “r” are the reconstruction obtained using the normal rounding rules for the DCT for the complete full precision output. This rule seems to give better image quality when high bandwidth displays are used. The points marked “x” are an alternative reconstruction which tends to give better images on lower bandwidth displays. “x” and “r” are the same for slice 0. The system designer must determine which strategy is best for the display system being used.

**K.10**

**Example of point transform**

The difference between the arithmetic-shift-right by Pt and divide by 2

Pt

can be seen from the following:

After the level shift the DC has values from

+

127 to –128. Consider values near zero (after the level shift), and the case where Pt

=

1:

Before level shift

131

130

129

128

127

126

125

124

123

Before point transform

+

3

+

2

+

1

+

0

–1

–2

–3

–4

–5

After divide by 2

+

1

+

1

+

0

+

0

+

0

–1

–1

–2

–2

After shift-right-arithmetic 1

+

1

+

1

+

0

+

0

–1

–1

–2

–2

–3

The key difference is in the truncation of precision. The divide truncates the magnitude; the arithmetic shift truncates the

LSB. With a divide by 2 we would get non-uniform quantization of the DC values; therefore we use the shift-rightarithmetic operation.

For positive values, the divide by 2 and the shift-right-arithmetic by 1 operations are the same. Therefore, the shift-rightarithmetic by 1 operation effectively is a divide by 2 when the point transform is done before the level shift.

**178 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex L**

**Patents**

(This annex does not form an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

**L.1**

**Introductory remarks**

The user’s attention is called to the possibility that – for some of the coding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, and J

– compliance with this Specification may require use of an invention covered by patent rights.

By publication of this Specification, no position is taken with respect to the validity of this claim or of any patent rights in connection therewith. However, for each patent listed in this annex, the patent holder has filed with the Information

Technology Task Force (ITTF) and the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) a statement of willingness to grant a license under these rights on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions to applicants desiring to obtain such a license.

The criteria for including patents in this annex are: a) the patent has been identified by someone who is familiar with the technical fields relevant to this

Specification, and who believes use of the invention covered by the patent is *required* for implementation of one or more of the coding processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, or J; b) the patent-holder has written a letter to the ITTF and TSB, stating willingness to grant a license to an unlimited number of applicants throughout the world under reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of any unfair discrimination.

This list of patents shall be updated, if necessary, upon publication of any revisions to the Recommendation | International

Standard.

**L.2**

**List of patents**

The following patents may be required for implementation of any one of the processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, and J which uses arithmetic coding:

US 4,633,490, December 30, 1986, IBM, MITCHELL (J.L.) and GOERTZEL (G.): *Symmetrical Adaptive Data*

*Compression/Decompression System.*

US 4,652,856, February 4, 1986, IBM, MOHIUDDIN (K.M.) and RISSANEN (J.J.): *A Multiplication-free*

*Multi-Alphabet Arithmetic Code*.

US 4,369,463, January 18, 1983, IBM, ANASTASSIOU (D.) and MITCHELL (J.L.): *Grey Scale Image*

*Compression with Code Words a Function of Image History*.

US 4,749,983, June 7, 1988, IBM, LANGDON (G.): *Compression of Multilevel Signals*.

US 4,935,882, June 19, 1990, IBM, PENNEBAKER (W.B.) and MITCHELL (J.L.): *Probability Adaptation*

*for Arithmetic Coders*.

US 4,905,297, February 27, 1990, IBM, LANGDON (G.G.), Jr., MITCHELL (J.L.), PENNEBAKER (W.B.), and RISSANEN (J.J.): *Arithmetic Coding Encoder and Decoder System*.

US 4,973,961, November 27, 1990, AT&T, CHAMZAS (C.), DUTTWEILER (D.L.): *Method and Apparatus*

*for Carry-over Control in Arithmetic Entropy Coding*.

US 5,025,258, June 18, 1991, AT&T, DUTTWEILER (D.L): *Adaptive Probability Estimator for Entropy*

*Encoding/Decoding*.

US 5,099,440, March 24, 1992, IBM, PENNEBAKER (W.B.) and MITCHELL (J.L.): *Probability Adaptation*

*for Arithmetic Coders*.

Japanese Patent Application 2-46275, February 26, 1990, MEL ONO (F.), KIMURA (T.), YOSHIDA (M.), and

KINO (S.): *Coding System*.

The following patent may be required for implementation of any one of the hierarchical processes specified in Annex H when used with a lossless final frame:

US 4,665,436, May 12, 1987, EI OSBORNE (J.A.) and SEIFFERT (C.): *Narrow Bandwidth Signal*

*Transmission*.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 179**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

No other patents required for implementation of any of the other processes specified in Annexes F, G, H, or J had been identified at the time of publication of this Specification.

**L.3**

**Contact addresses for patent information**

Director, Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (formerly CCITT)

International Telecommunication Union

Place des Nations

CH-1211 Genève 20, Switzerland

Tel. +41 (22) 730 5111

Fax: +41 (22) 730 5853

Information Technology Task Force

International Organization for Standardization

1, rue de Varembé

CH-1211 Genève 20, Switzerland

Tel: +41 (22) 734 0150

Fax: +41 (22) 733 3843

Program Manager, Licensing

Intellectual Property and Licensing Services

IBM Corporation

208 Harbor Drive

P.O. Box 10501

Stamford, Connecticut 08904-2501, USA

Tel: +1 (203) 973 7935

Fax: +1 (203) 973 7981 or +1 (203) 973 7982

Mitsubishi Electric Corp.

Intellectual Property License Department

1-2-3 Morunouchi, Chiyoda-ku

Tokyo 100, Japan

Tel: +81 (3) 3218 3465

Fax: +81 (3) 3215 3842

AT&T Intellectual Property Division Manager

Room 3A21

10 Independence Blvd.

Warren, NJ 07059, USA

Tel: +1 (908) 580 5392

Fax: +1 (908) 580 6355

Senior General Manager

Corporate Intellectual Property and Legal Headquarters

Canon Inc.

30-2 Shimomaruko 3-chome

Ohta-ku Tokyo 146 Japan

Tel: +81 (3) 3758 2111

Fax: +81 (3) 3756 0947

Chief Executive Officer

Electronic Imagery, Inc.

1100 Park Central Boulevard South

Suite 3400

Pompano Beach, FL 33064, USA

Tel: +1 (305) 968 7100

Fax: +1 (305) 968 7319

**180 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**Annex M**

**Bibliography**

(This annex does not form an integral part of this Recommendation | International Standard)

**M.1**

**General references**

LEGER (A.), OMACHI (T.), and WALLACE (G.K.): JPEG Still Picture Compression Algorithm, *Optical Engineering*,

Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 947-954, 1991.

RABBANI (M.) and JONES (P.): Digital Image Compression Techniques, *Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering*,

Vol. TT7, SPIE Press, 1991.

HUDSON (G.), YASUDA (H.) and SEBESTYEN (I.): The International Standardization of a Still Picture Compression

Technique, *Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference*, pp. 1016-1021, 1988.

LEGER (A.), MITCHELL (J.) and YAMAZAKI (Y.): Still Picture Compression Algorithm Evaluated for International

Standardization, *Proc. of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference*, pp. 1028-1032, 1988.

WALLACE (G.), VIVIAN (R.) and POULSEN (H.): Subjective Testing Results for Still Picture Compression Algorithms for International Standardization, *Proc. of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference*, pp. 1022-1027, 1988.

MITCHELL (J.L.) and PENNEBAKER (W.B.): Evolving JPEG Colour Data Compression Standard, *Standards for*

*Electronic Imaging Systems*, M. Nier, M.E. Courtot, Editors, SPIE, Vol. CR37, pp. 68-97, 1991.

WALLACE (G.K.): The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard, *Communications of the ACM*, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 31-

44, 1991.

NETRAVALI (A.N.) and HASKELL (B.G.): *Digital Pictures: Representation and Compression*, Plenum Press,

New York 1988.

PENNEBAKER (W.B.) and MITCHELL (J.L.): *JPEG: Still Image Data Compression Standard*, Van Nostrand

Reinhold, New York 1993.

**M.2**

**DCT references**

CHEN (W.), SMITH (C.H.) and FRALICK (S.C.): A Fast Computational Algorithm for the Discrete Cosine Transform,

*IEEE Trans. on Communications*, Vol. COM-25, pp. 1004-1009, 1977.

AHMED (N.), NATARAJAN (T.) and RAO (K.R.): Discrete Cosine Transform, *IEEE Trans. on Computers*, Vol. C-23, pp. 90-93, 1974.

NARASINHA (N.J.) and PETERSON (A.M.): On the Computation of the Discrete Cosine Transform, *IEEE Trans. on*

*Communications*, Vol. COM-26, No. 6, pp. 966-968, 1978.

DUHAMEL (P.) and GUILLEMOT (C.): Polynomial Transform Computation of the 2-D DCT, *Proc. IEEE ICASSP-90*, pp. 1515-1518, Albuquerque, New Mexico 1990.

FEIG (E.): A Fast Scaled DCT Algorithm, in *Image Processing Algorithms and Techniques*, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1244, K.S.

Pennington and R. J. Moorhead II, Editors, pp. 2-13, Santa Clara, California, 1990.

HOU (H.S.): A Fast Recursive Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Cosine Transform, *IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech and*

*Signal Processing*, Vol. ASSP-35, No. 10, pp. 1455-1461.

LEE (B.G.): A New Algorithm to Compute the Discrete Cosine Transform, *IEEE Trans. on Acoust., Speech and Signal*

*Processing*, Vol. ASSP-32, No. 6, pp. 1243-1245, 1984.

LINZER (E.N.) and FEIG (E.): New DCT and Scaled DCT Algorithms for Fused Multiply/Add Architectures, *Proc.*

*IEEE ICASSP-91*, pp. 2201-2204, Toronto, Canada, 1991.

VETTERLI (M.) and NUSSBAUMER (H.J.): Simple FFT and DCT Algorithms with Reduced Number of Operations,

*Signal Processing*, 1984.

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E) 181**

**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

VETTERLI (M.): Fast 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform, *Proc. IEEE ICASSP-85*, pp. 1538-1541, Tampa, Florida, 1985.

ARAI (Y.), AGUI (T.), and NAKAJIMA (M.): A Fast DCT-SQ Scheme for Images, *Trans. of IEICE*, Vol. E.71, No. 11, pp. 1095-1097, 1988.

SUEHIRO (N.) and HATORI (M.): Fast Algorithms for the DFT and other Sinusoidal Transforms, *IEEE Trans. on*

*Acoust., Speech and Signal Processing*, Vol ASSP-34, No. 3, pp. 642-644, 1986.

**M.3**

**Quantization and human visual model references**

CHEN (W.H.) and PRATT (W.K.): Scene adaptive coder, *IEEE Trans. on Communications*, Vol. COM-32, pp. 225-232,

1984.

GRANRATH (D.J.): The role of human visual models in image processing, *Proceedings of the IEEE*, Vol. 67, pp. 552-561, 1981.

LOHSCHELLER (H.): Vision adapted progressive image transmission, *Proceedings of EUSIPCO,* Vol. 83, pp. 191-194,

1983.

LOHSCHELLER (H.) and FRANKE (U.): Colour picture coding – Algorithm optimization and technical realization,

*Frequenze*, Vol. 41, pp. 291-299, 1987.

LOHSCHELLER (H.): A subjectively adapted image communication system, *IEEE Trans. on Communications*,

Vol. COM-32, pp. 1316-1322, 1984.

PETERSON (H.A.) *et al*: Quantization of colour image components in the DCT domain, *SPIE/IS&T 1991* *Symposium on*

*Electronic Imaging Science and Technology*, 1991.

**M.4**

**Arithmetic coding references**

LANGDON (G.): An Introduction to Arithmetic Coding, *IBM J. Res. Develop*., Vol. 28, pp. 135-149, 1984.

PENNEBAKER (W.B.), MITCHELL (J.L.), LANGDON (G.) Jr., and ARPS (R.B.): An Overview of the Basic Principles of the Q-Coder Binary Arithmetic Coder, *IBM J. Res. Develop*., Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 717-726, 1988.

MITCHELL (J.L.) and PENNEBAKER (W.B.): Optimal Hardware and Software Arithmetic Coding Procedures for the

Q-Coder Binary Arithmetic Coder, *IBM J. Res. Develop*., Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 727-736, 1988.

PENNEBAKER (W.B.) and MITCHELL (J.L.): Probability Estimation for the Q-Coder, *IBM J. Res. Develop*., Vol. 32,

No. 6, pp. 737-752, 1988.

MITCHELL (J.L.) and PENNEBAKER (W.B.): Software Implementations of the Q-Coder, *IBM J. Res. Develop*.,

Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 753-774, 1988.

ARPS (R.B.), TRUONG (T.K.), LU (D.J.), PASCO (R.C.) and FRIEDMAN (T.D.): A Multi-Purpose VLSI Chip for

Adaptive Data Compression of Bilevel Images, *IBM J. Res. Develop*., Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 775-795, 1988.

ONO (F.), YOSHIDA (M.), KIMURA (T.) and KINO (S.): Subtraction-type Arithmetic Coding with MPS/LPS

Conditional Exchange, *Annual Spring Conference of IECED*, Japan, D-288, 1990.

DUTTWEILER (D.) and CHAMZAS (C.): Probability Estimation in Arithmetic and Adaptive-Huffman Entropy Coders, submitted to *IEEE Trans. on Image Processing*.

JONES (C.B.): An Efficient Coding System for Long Source Sequences, *IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory*,Vol. IT-27, pp. 280-291, 1981.

LANGDON (G.): Method for Carry-over Control in a Fifo Arithmetic Code String, *IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin*,

Vol. 23, No.1, pp. 310-312, 1980.

**M.5**

**Huffman coding references**

HUFFMAN (D.A.): A Method for the Construction of Minimum Redundancy codes, *Proc. IRE*, Vol. 40, pp. 1098-1101,

1952.

**182 CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**

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