Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28

Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28
Reducing Power Consumption and
Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
WP-01148-2.0
White Paper
Lower power consumption and higher bandwidth are now the two dominant
requirements in designing next-generation high-end applications. The global trend
across multiple markets is for higher bandwidth in the same footprint at the same or
lower power and cost. The Internet is going mobile and video is driving bandwidth
requirements at a growth rate of 50% year on year. The march to 40G and 100G
systems (with 400G on the horizon) is underway to support this ever-growing
bandwidth demand. Fierce competition is driving down prices. Space constraints
abound, and cooling solutions often dominate the power budget, sometimes up to
twice the power consumption of the electronics. The next generation of 28-nm highend Altera® FPGAs addresses these challenges through leading-edge technological
innovation, integration, and reduced power consumption.
Introduction
Designing next-generation FPGAs to address the current trend of higher bandwidth
and lower power is becoming much more challenging. Many factors must be carefully
considered when planning a new FPGA family to ensure the new devices can address
the power and performance requirements of the targeted applications in various
market segments. These factors include selecting the right process technology,
designing the right architecture, applying the right software power optimization, and
enabling easier and power-efficient system-level design.
Altera took a holistic approach in designing Stratix® V FPGAs to deliver the lowest
power and highest bandwidth FPGAs in the industry. Key innovations were
introduced at various levels to optimize the Stratix V FPGAs’ power and performance
for designers looking to build a higher bandwidth design while reducing thermal
power consumption (Figure 1).
101 Innovation Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
www.altera.com
March 2012
System
Software
FPGA
Process
Bandwidth
Power
Figure 1. Altera’s Holistic Approach to Reduce Power and Increase Bandwidth
© 2012 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS,
QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as trademarks or service marks are the property
of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make
changes to any products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the
application or use of any information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera.
Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published information
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Page 2
Power Consumption in High-End FPGA Designs
Power Consumption in High-End FPGA Designs
There are three components to power consumption: static, dynamic, and I/O power.
Static Power
Static power is the power consumed by the FPGA when no signals are toggling. Both
digital and analog logic consume static power. The sources of static leakage current in
28-nm transistors are shown in Figure 2 and Table 1.
Figure 2. Sources of Transistor Leakage
VDD
IG
Ground
R
n+
n+
Isub
IREV
IGIDL
Table 1. Main Sources of Transistor Leakage
Main Sources of Leakage
Impact
Subthreshold leakage (Isub)
Dominant
Mitigation Techniques
■
Lower voltage
■
Higher voltage threshold
■
Longer gate length
■
Dopant profile optimization
Gate direct-tunneling leakage (IG)
Dominant
High-k metal gate (HKMG)
Gate-induced gate leakage (IGIDL)
Small
Dopant profile optimization
Negligible
Dopant profile optimization
Reverse-biased junction leakage current (IREV)
Dynamic Power
Dynamic power is the additional power consumed through the operation of the
device caused by signals toggling and capacitive loads charging and discharging. As
shown in Figure 3, the main variables affecting dynamic power are capacitance
charging, the supply voltage, and the clock frequency. Dynamic power decreases with
Moore’s law by taking advantage of process shrinks to reduce capacitance and
voltage. The challenge is that as geometries shrink with each process shrink, the
maximum clock frequency increases. While the power reduction declines for an
equivalent circuit from process node to process node, the FPGA capacity doubles and
the maximum clock frequency increases.
Figure 3. Variables Affecting Dynamic Power
1
2
P dynamic = --- CV + Q ShortCircuit V f ⋅ activity
2
Capacitance charging
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Short circuit charge
during switching
Percent of circuit that
switches each cycle
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Power Consumption in High-End FPGA Designs
Page 3
I/O Power
I/O power includes the power consumption consumed by I/O blocks, including
general-purpose I/Os and high-speed serial transceivers. The main factors impacting
general-purpose I/O power consumption are shown in Figure 4 and summarized in
Table 2.
Figure 4. Factors Impacting General-Purpose I/O Power
Table 2. Main Factors Impacting General-Purpose I/O Power
Main Factors Impacting I/O Power
Mitigation Techniques
Termination resistors (on-chip series termination (RS OCT)
and on-chip parallel termination (RT OCT))
Dynamic on-chip termination
(DOCT)
Output buffer drive strength
Programmable drive strength
Output buffer slew rate
Programmable slew rate
I/O standard (single ended, voltage referenced, or differential) Support for multiple I/O standards
Voltage supply
Support for various voltage rails
Capacitive load (charging/discharging)
Interface dependent
The main factors impacting the power consumption of high-speed serial transceivers
include:
■
Data rates (Gbps)
■
Pre-emphasis and equalization settings
■
Interface load (chip-to-chip or chip-to-backplane)
■
Transceiver circuit design
Figure 5 shows the breakdown of total power across various high-end FPGA
customer designs. Dynamic and I/O power dominate the FPGA’s total power
consumption. Because high-end FPGA designs tend to push the envelope in terms of
bandwidth and performance, they use more logic running at a higher clock fMAX. With
I/Os toggling at higher data rates and logic toggling at faster frequencies, the
charging and discharging of loads on and off chip becomes the main consumer of
FPGA power. To effectively reduce total FPGA power, both static and dynamic power
must be addressed while ensuring the FPGA’s performance still meets design
requirements.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 4
Choosing the Right Process Technology
Normalized Power (%)
Figure 5. Total Power Breakdown Across Various High-End FPGA Customer Designs
Dynamic + I/O Power
Static Power
Choosing the Right Process Technology
Migrating to a smaller process technology node has always provided higher
integration, lower power, and greater performance than the previous node, and 28 nm
is no exception. The 28-nm process delivers clear performance benefits, but to realize
the full potential of these benefits, the proper “flavor” of the 28-nm process must be
selected. Altera chose TSMC’s 28-nm High-Performance (28HP) HKMG process and
leveraged its seventeen-year-long relationship with TSMC to optimize the process for
low power on Stratix V FPGAs. This 28HP process also allows Stratix V FPGAs to
provide 28-Gbps power-efficient transceivers for ultra-high bandwidth applications.
The exceptional performance of the 28HP process is driven not only by the
introduction of HKMG, but also by the second generation of advanced strain
technology, including embedded silicon germanium (SiGe) in source-drain regions of
transistors for faster circuit designs. Altera produces tensile strain in NMOS
transistors through a cap layer, and compressive strain for PMOS transistors through
embedded SiGe in the source and drain (see Figure 6). These strained silicon
techniques increase electron and hole mobility by up to 30% and the resulting
transistor performance by up to 40%. Because better performance at the same level of
leakage is achieved with strained silicon, part of this performance gain is traded for
reduced leakage, leading to a superior process that has faster performance and lower
leakage compared to other 28-nm process options without strained silicon. No other
28-nm process flavor has this potent combination of HKMG and advanced strain
available for maximum performance characteristics of devices manufactured on that
process.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Choosing the Right Process Technology
Page 5
Figure 6. Strained Silicon Techniques on 28HP Process Enable Higher Performance Transistors
NMOS
PMOS
Altera took full advantage of the various 28HP process capabilities to reduce power
and increase performance. Table 3 summarizes the various process innovations and
techniques leveraged by Altera on the 28HP process to reduce static power by 25%
versus the standard 28HP process from TSMC.
Table 3. Process Techniques on 28HP to Reduce Power and Increase Performance
Process Techniques on 28HP
Lower Power
Custom low-leakage transistors (1)
✔
Custom low bulk leakage (Ibulk) (1)
✔
Longer channel length transistors
✔
HKMG
✔
Higher Performance
✔
✔
SiGe strain (PMOS)
✔
Si3N4 strain (NMOS)
Lower capacitance
✔
Lower voltage (0.85 V)
✔
✔
Note:
(1) Exclusively available and used by Altera only.
Specifically, Altera worked closely with TSMC to develop custom low-leakage
transistors and used them across various Stratix V functional blocks to lower power
where high performance is not required. In addition, Altera customized the 28HP
process to enable Programmable Power Technology, a key innovation used to reduce
static power. Programmable Power Technology enables Altera’s Quartus® II
development software to adjust the voltage threshold of a transistor by applying a
back-bias voltage, which causes leakage to increase. Altera optimized the 28HP
process to reduce the leakage resulting from back-bias voltage, and by doing so,
Altera ensured Stratix V FPGA designers get maximum static power savings
throughout their designs.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 6
FPGA Architectural Innovations
In addition, Altera leveraged the lower voltage offered by the 28HP process to
significantly reduce power without impacting performance. Figure 7 shows the static
power and dynamic power savings achieved by Stratix V FPGAs on a 0.85-V supply
(on most devices) compared to a 1.0-V supply. Static power is proportional to Vcc3,
and by reducing voltage from 1.0 V to 0.85 V, the static power is reduced by 39%. On
the other hand, dynamic power is proportional to Vcc2, and a voltage reduction from
1.0 V to 0.85 V leads to a 28% power reduction.
Figure 7. Static and Dynamic Power Comparison for Same Architecture on Same Process at
0.85 V and 1.0 V
100
Normalized Power
90
80
70
1.0-V FPGA Architecture
0.85-V Strax V FPGAs
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Dynamic Power
Stac Power
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Altera has been leading the industry in introducing architectural innovations,
enabling designers to lower power and increase bandwidth in their system designs.
The most recent four generations of Stratix series FPGAs show a clear trend of lower
power and higher bandwidth with every process node shrink. As shown in Figure 8,
Stratix V FPGAs enable designers to achieve 5X higher bandwidth at 80% lower total
power compared to Stratix II FPGAs.
1200
20%
1000
0%
800
-20%
600
-40%
400
-60%
200
-80%
Power Reducon (%)
I/O Bandwidth (Gbps)
Figure 8. Power and Bandwidth Trends in Stratix Series FPGAs
-100%
0
2004
2006
I/O Bandwidth
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
2008
2011
Total Power Reducon
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 7
Stratix V FPGAs are based on the high-performance architecture of Stratix IV FPGAs
and deliver key architectural innovations to enable designers to achieve higher
bandwidth and lower power through an unprecedented level of system integration
and ultimate flexibility. These innovations include the introduction of the Embedded
HardCopy® Blocks, 28G transceivers, and partial reconfiguration. Stratix V FPGAs
continue to leverage the highly successful Programmable Power Technology used in
Stratix III and Stratix IV FPGAs.
Embedded HardCopy Block and Hard IP Blocks
The Embedded HardCopy Blocks, shown in Figure 9, are customizable hard IP blocks
that utilize Altera’s unique HardCopy ASIC capabilities. This innovation
substantially increases FPGA capabilities by dramatically increasing density per area
and offers up to 14 million ASIC gates or up to 1.19M logic elements (LEs) while
increasing performance and lowering power.
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Hard PCS
Hard PCS
LC PLLs
Clock Network
Fractional PLLs
Customizable Embedded HardCopy Block
Variable Precision DSP Blocks
M20K Internal Memory Blocks
Core Logic Fabric
Figure 9. Customizable Embedded HardCopy Block
Transceiver PMA
Transceiver PMA
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
Hard PCS
Transceiver PMA
PCI Express Gen1/Gen2/Gen3
or
Other Variants or Custom Solutions
The Embedded HardCopy Blocks are used to harden standard or logic-intensive
functions such as interface protocols, application-specific functions, and proprietary
custom IP. This innovation creates a new class of application-targeted Stratix V FPGAs
optimized for bandwidth-centric applications and protocols such as PCI Express®
(PCIe®) Gen1/Gen2/Gen3 and data-intensive applications for 40G, 100G, and
beyond.
Embedded HardCopy Blocks enable customers to double FPGA capacity and
integrate more functionality on a single chip without the penalty of increased power
and costs. If the density of the design is doubled on an FPGA with no Embedded
HardCopy Block (Figure 10), then a designer must use a larger FPGA, which not only
increases costs but also consumes twice the static power.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 8
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Figure 10. Doubling the Density on an FPGA with No Hard IP Increases Static Power and Costs
+
FPGA
(no Embedded
HardCopy Block)
=
Relative Static Power
FPGA
(no Embedded
HardCopy Block)
2X Static Power
2X
Density
FPGA
(no Embedded HardCopy Block)
Due to the Embedded HardCopy Blocks in Stratix V FPGAs (Figure 11), designers can
double or triple the size of their design on the same FPGA with minimal impact—only
35%— to static power. The Embedded HardCopy Blocks provide a capacity up to
1.19M LEs and provide a power saving of 65% compared to soft logic implementation.
+
=
Stratix V
FPGA
Relative Static Power
Stratix V
FPGA
Embedded
HardCopy Block
Figure 11. Doubling the Density on a Stratix V FPGA Using an Embedded HardCopy Block Has
Minimal Impact on Power and Cost
+35% Static Power
2X
Density
Stratix V FPGAs
In addition to the Embedded HardCopy Block, Stratix V FPGAs offer a myriad of
hard IP blocks (shown in Figure 12) including:
■
Enhanced hard PCS in every transceiver hardens specific digital functionality for a
number of key protocols used in backplane, line card, and chip-to-chip
applications (Table 4).
■
New high-performance, high-precision variable digital signal processing (DSP)
blocks enable 1,840 GMACS of DSP performance and 1 TFLOPS of singleprecision floating-point operations
■
New 20-Kb internal memory block to enable higher performance, up to 600 MHz,
in various memory modes, with built-in error correction code (ECC) protection
■
Enhanced distributed memory logic array blocks (MLABs) with additional built-in
registers to deliver higher performance, up to 600 MHz, for optimized
implementation of wide shallow FIFO buffers
■
New fractional phase-locked loop (PLL) enables designers to synthesize and
generate precise frequencies on-chip, eliminating the need for external VCXO and
crystal oscillators on board
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 9
Figure 12. Hard IP Blocks in Stratix V FPGAs
800-MHz DDR3 DIMM
Enhanced ALM and Routing
New Variable-Precision DSP Blocks
600-MHz Memory Blocks
PCIe Gen1/Gen2/Gen3 Hard IP
10GbE Hard PCS
Embedded HardCopy Block
New Fractional PLL Integrates VCXO
and XO
14.1-Gbps/28-Gbps Serial
Transceivers
Table 4. Hard IP in the PCS per Transceiver Channel
IP
Features
Interlaken
Gearbox, block sync, 64B/67B, frame sync, scrambler/descrambler,
CRC-32, asynchronous buffer/deskew
10G (10GBase-R)
Gearbox, block sync, scrambler/descrambler, 64B/66B, rate matcher
PCIe Gen1/Gen2/Gen3
Word aligner, lane sync state machine, deskew, rate matcher, 8B/10B,
gearbox, 128B/130B, PIPE-8/16/32
Serial RapidIO® 2.0
Word aligner, lane sync state machine, deskew, rate matcher, 8B/10B
CPRI/OBSAI
Word aligner, bit slip (determinist latency), 8B/10B
Custom/proprietary
Select components from hard IP blocks to customize PCS layer
By taking advantage of the abundant hard IP blocks in Stratix V FPGAs, designers can
significantly reduce power consumption and cost in their designs while still meeting
the high bandwidth requirements of the targeted applications. Compared to soft logic
implementations, designs implemented using hard IP consume 65% lower power and
achieve 2X higher performance with guaranteed timing closure.
In addition, hard IP blocks enable designers to use smaller density FPGAs and reduce
cost and power. Table 5 shows the LE savings achieved by designers when using
Stratix V hard IP. A study of a real design requiring 24 channels of Interlaken and two
PCIe Gen3 x8 cores shows that a 425K-LE Stratix V FPGA is equivalent in density to a
740K-LE FPGA. This is because the 24 hardened Interlaken PCS provide a savings of
55K LEs, and the two PCIe Gen3 x8 hard IP save ~260K LEs and associated memories,
for a total savings of 315K LEs. This LE savings allows customers to implement their
application on a smaller FPGA, thereby reducing power and cost.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 10
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Table 5. LE Savings When Using Stratix V Hard IP
Estimated Logic Utilization
Using Soft IP (LEs)
Estimated Logic Utilization
Using Stratix V Hard IP (LEs)
PCIe Gen1/Gen2/Gen3
130K
0
x24 Interlaken PCS
55K
0
10G Ethernet PCS
5K
0
High-Speed Protocol IP
High-Bandwidth, Power-Efficient Transceivers
Another key innovation introduced by Altera on 28-nm is the power-efficient 28-Gbps
high-speed serial transceivers shown in Figure 13. These 28-Gbps transceivers are
designed for chip-to-chip and chip-to-module applications and targeted to address
the trend in the wireline market to move to 28-Gbps in optical module interfaces.
Figure 13. 28-Gbps Tx and Rx Architecture in Stratix V FPGAs
reverse loopback
DRV
128 b
SER
128:1
MUX
LB
bypass select
14 GHz
20-28G
serial loopback
DLB
reverse loopback
2:128
nT
DFE
CDR
DES
ER
EQZ
20-28G
128 b
odd/even
14 GHz
serial loopback
Optical modules are used in communication and computer systems to convert
electrical signals received to optical signals and then to drive them to optical fiber
channels. Similarly, they convert the optical signals to electrical signals and drive
them to electrical copper channels. The evolution of the optical module focuses on
increasing data rates, lowering power, and reducing form factor by removing
components off the module. These challenges get pushed off to silicon and system
design.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 11
Today, 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) networks are implemented with electrical
interfaces utilizing a 10-lane by 10- or 11-Gbps signaling rate. Given the characteristics
of the optical solutions being developed by various industry bodies, the current drive
is for a narrower electrical interface with four lanes in each direction. To address this
trend, 28-Gbps signaling protocols for chip-to-chip and chip-to-module applications
are being created, an example being Common Electrical I/O 28 Gbps (CEI-28G). This
protocol will enable smaller and more cost-effective optical modules (such as CFP2)
with lower power dissipation for multiple 100-Gbps applications on a single line card.
With 28-Gbps transceivers, designers can reach higher bandwidth and lower power
simultaneously. Figure 14 shows two implementations of 100GbE interfaces to optical
modules. In the first implementation, 10 channels, each running at 11.3 Gbps,
interface with an 100G (CFP) optical module and consume 1.58 W. In the second
implementation, four channels, each running at 28-Gbps, interface with nextgeneration 100G (CFP2) optical modules, consuming half the power at 0.8 W.
Figure 14. Increase Bandwidth and Cut Power by Half Using 28-Gbps Transceivers
10 x 11.3-Gbps
Transceivers
CFP
1.58 W
4 x 28G
Transceivers
CFP2
0.8 W
In addition to 28-Gbps transceivers, Stratix V FPGAs integrate power-efficient
transceivers with data rates ranging from 600 Mbps (or 150 Mbps with oversampling)
to 14.1 Gbps with best-in-class signal integrity and lowest jitter. Stratix V GX FPGAs
offer up to 66 identical power-efficient 14.1-Gbps transceivers that provide up to 44
independent data rates through independent clock sources.
The 28-Gbps and 14.1-Gbps transceivers in Stratix V FPGAs are power efficient across
all supported data rates. Altera took every effort to ensure that transceivers in
Stratix V FPGAs deliver the required high bandwidth or data rate at the lowest power.
Specifically, Altera introduced transceiver power supply banking (see Figure 15) in
Stratix V FPGAs, where the transceivers are powered with one of the following power
supply voltage options depending on the transceiver usage in various applications:
■
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Low power (0.85 V) configuration—Used for data rates of ≤ 6.5 Gbps in short
reach, chip-to-chip, and chip-to-module applications with basic equalization
techniques, such as transmit pre-emphasis/de-emphasis and continuous time
linear equalizer (CLTE).
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 12
FPGA Architectural Innovations
■
High performance (1.0 V) configuration—Used for noisy and lossy channels, such
as long-reach and backplane applications at data rates of >6.5 Gbps. It includes
more advanced equalization circuit blocks, such as decision feedback equalization
(DFE) and automatic dispersion compensation engine (ADCE), in addition to basic
linear equalization circuits.
■
Off (0 V)—Used to power down unused transceivers to save power.
Figure 15. Three Power Supply Voltage Options for Stratix V Transceivers
1.0 V
0.85 V
Off
Transceiver
PMA
In addition to transceiver power-supply banking, Altera leveraged various design
techniques to ensure Stratix V transceivers are power efficient. These techniques
include the use of ultra-low jitter LC-PLL technology supporting low power at the
highest data rates in addition to transistor body biasing to reduce static power, and
clock gating to minimize dynamic power. As a result, Stratix V transceivers deliver
best-in-class signal integrity performance at the lowest power. Figure 16 shows the
transceiver power per channel (blue bars) and the transceiver power per gigabit (red
line) for varying data rates on Stratix V FPGAs.
25
200
20
150
15
100
10
50
5
0
0
3
5
6
8
10
11
14.1
Power per Gbps (mW)
PMA Power (mW)
Figure 16. Stratix V Transceiver Power per Channel and per Gbps
250
28
Data Rate (Gbps)
At 28-Gbps, the PMA power per transceiver channel is 200 mW or 7 mW per Gbps. By
going to higher data rates, designers can reduce their system power significantly. For
example, to build a 10G interface, designers can choose one of the following:
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 13
■
Four XAUI channels—Each running at 3.125 Gbps, consuming 240 mW
■
One 10G channel—Running at 10.3125 Gbps, consuming 145 mW, or 40% lower
power
Easy-To-Use, Fine-Grained Partial Reconfiguration
Partial reconfiguration is the ability to reconfigure part of the FPGA while the rest of
the device continues to work. One major benefit designers can derive from this feature
is reduced device density, which leads to lower power and lower cost. As shown in
Figure 17, partial reconfiguration enables the use of a smaller FPGA by removing the
need to implement functions that do not operate simultaneously in the FPGA. Using
smaller devices or a reduced number of devices improves system cost and lowers
power consumption. Important applications for this technology include
reconfigurable communication systems and high-performance computing platforms.
Figure 17. Partial Reconfiguration Enables the Use of Smaller FPGA for Lower Cost and Power
A1
B1
A2
B2
FPGA
Smaller FPGA Using
Partial Reconfiguration
A2
B2
A1
B1
Smaller FPGA
Another benefit designers get by using partial reconfiguration is the capability to
change the power profile of a design partition depending on the application usage.
When a design partition is in an idle state, a designer can partially reconfigure the
FPGA to reprogram the idle partition and put it in low-power mode.
Altera has introduced easy-to-use partial reconfiguration in Stratix V FPGAs to allow
designers to easily change the core and transceiver functionality on the fly while other
portions of the design are still running. Having this level of flexibility is imperative
for high-bandwidth applications that support multistandard client interfaces from
600 Mbps to 14.1 Gbps. Such applications require service providers to make updates
or adjust functionality of the FPGA on the fly without disrupting services to other
clients. This significantly reduces system down time.
Traditionally, partial reconfiguration capabilities required much longer engineering
cycles and greater design-flow complexity, which meant that designers had to know
all of the intricate FPGA architecture details. Altera has simplified the partial
reconfiguration process with a new, state-of-the-art, reconfigurable fabric in Stratix V
FPGAs and a design based on the proven incremental compile design and
LogicLock™ flows in Quartus II software. By leveraging partial reconfiguration in
Stratix V FPGAs, customers can reduce the size of their FPGA or the number of
FPGAs on their board, thus saving cost, board space, and reducing power.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 14
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Programmable Power Technology
One of the biggest technological leaps to control power on FPGAs is the use of
Programmable Power Technology. This technology is a key differentiator for
Stratix III, Stratix IV, and Stratix V FPGAs compared to competing devices.
Programmable Power Technology delivers the ability to lower static power
consumption without impacting the performance of the design.
Altera takes advantage of the fact that most circuits in a design have excess timing
slack and therefore do not require the highest performance logic everywhere.
Stratix V FPGAs, made up of logic array blocks (LABs), M20K memory, and DSP
blocks, leverage Programmable Power Technology to set the very few timing-critical
logic blocks, shown in yellow in Figure 18 to high-speed mode. Non-timing-critical
logic blocks are set to low-power mode (depicted in blue), thus resulting in a dramatic
decrease in leakage power for the low-power logic. In addition, Programmable Power
Technology puts unused logic, M20K memory, and DSP blocks into low-power mode,
which further decreases power.
Figure 18. Programmable Power Technology Enabled by Adjusting Back-Bias Voltage
High speed
Gnd
Source
Power
Gate
Channel
Channel
Drain
Substrate
Low power
Threshold voltage
High
High-speed
Speed Logic
logic
Low
Low-power
Power Logic
logic
At a very high level, Figure 18 shows how Quartus II software controls the transistors
to switch between high-performance and low-power modes. In any design, Quartus II
software automatically determines the timing slack available in each path of the
design to automatically set the transistors, and hence the logic blocks, to the
appropriate mode—high performance or low power—by adjusting the back bias
voltage of the transistor. For example, to set an n-MOS transistor in the core of
Stratix V FPGAs to:
■
Low-power mode—Quartus II software reduces the back bias voltage (making it
more negative), which increases the threshold voltage of transistors. This
reduction minimizes sub-threshold leakage currents and unwanted static power in
non-timing-critical circuit paths.
■
High-performance mode—Quartus II software increases the back bias voltage
(making it less negative), which reduces the threshold voltage of transistors for
faster switching. This performance increase is required on logic in the few timingcritical paths to help meet the design’s specified timing constraints and deliver
maximum performance.
By changing the electrical characteristics of the transistors, Programmable Power
Technology in Stratix V FPGAs enables an optimal combination of high-speed logic
and low-power logic to deliver the highest performance and lowest power.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 15
The ability to deliver the exact amount of high-speed logic required for a design to
reach its desired performance can be controlled with a high degree of precision. The
programmability between high-speed and low-power logic is controlled on a per-tile
basis (each tile contains two LABs, one DSP block, or one M20K memory block). Over
10,000 tiles on Stratix V FPGAs can be individually designated as high speed or low
power to get the lowest possible power for the design. Quartus II software
automatically optimizes the design by placing tiles into high-speed and low-power
modes, requiring no designer effort.
To measure the effectiveness of Programmable Power Technology on real-life designs,
Altera compiled 38 customer-design-based patterns twice in Quartus II software. In
the first compilation, Programmable Power Technology was turned off, and the static
power was estimated. In the second compilation, Programmable Power Technology
was enabled, and Quartus II software identified and set the logic required to be in
high-performance mode, and set the remaining logic in low-power mode. The static
power difference for each design is plotted in Figure 19. As can be seen, static power
savings varies by design and ranges from 18% to 38%, with an average of ~25%
savings. It is worthwhile to note that this 25% average static power savings is
achieved automatically by Quartus II software by leveraging Programmable Power
Technology, without any designer effort.
Figure 19. Range of Static Power Savings Achieved with Programmable Power Technology
35%
Stac Power Reducon (%)
30%
25%
20%
15%
Design 1
Design 2
Design 3
Design 4
Design 5
Design 6
Design 7
Design 8
Design 9
Design 10
Design 11
Design 12
Design 13
Design 14
Design 15
Design 16
Design 17
Design 18
Design 19
Design 20
Design 21
Design 22
Design 23
Design 24
Design 25
Design 26
Design 27
Design 28
Design 29
Design 30
Design 31
Design 32
Design 33
Design 34
Design 35
Design 36
Design 37
10%
Altera’s PowerPlay Early Power Estimator (EPE) can be effectively used to determine
the static power savings achieved by using Programmable Power Technology. In the
logic tab of the EPE spreadsheet, a designer can choose one of three settings
(Figure 20) to determine the number of high-speed tiles in the design:
■
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Typical Design setting—Assumes 0% of the tiles are in high-speed mode and is
ideal for designs with easy-to-meet timing requirements
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 16
FPGA Architectural Innovations
■
Typical High-Performance Design setting—Assumes 10% of the logic tiles are in
high-speed mode and is ideal for designs with harder-to-meet timing
requirements
■
Atypical High-Performance Design setting—Assumes 25% of the tiles are in highspeed mode and ideal for designs with hardest-to-meet timing requirements
Figure 20. High-Speed Tile Usage Setting in PowerPlay Early Power Estimator (EPE)
The percentages used across the three high-speed tile settings in the EPE are based on
a power benchmark using a large sample of customer designs. In this benchmark
(summarized in Table 6), 70% of the designs required the Typical High-Performance
Design setting to close timing, while 20% and 10% of the designs required the
Atypical High-Performance Design and Typical Design settings to close timing
respectively.
Table 6. % of High-Speed Logic Corresponding to High-Speed Tile Usage Settings in EPE
% of Logic Tiles in HighSpeed Mode
% of Designs with Timing
Constraints Addressed by
Setting
Typical
0%
10%
Typical High-Performance
10%
70%
Atypical High-Performance
25%
20%
High-Speed Tile Usage Setting
Without Programmable Power Technology, all logic tiles in FPGA are required to be in
high-speed mode because any logic tile can be in the critical timing path of designs.
This leads to an average static power increase of 25%, which can be calculated using
the two high-speed tile settings in the EPE as follows:
Static Power Using Atypical High-Performance Setting
% Static Power
= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- × 4
Increase Without PPT
Static Power Using Typical Setting
The difference is multiplied by four to account for 100% of the logic tiles in the FPGA.
Static Power Addressed on 28 nm
Altera relies on two innovative techniques to reduce static power: process
optimization and Programmable Power Technology. The process optimization,
discussed previously, delivers 25% lower static power compared to the standard 28HP
process. In addition, Programmable Power Technology delivers an additional 25%
average static power savings, for a total of 44% lower static power when compared to
devices manufactured on the standard 28HP process (Figure 21).
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
FPGA Architectural Innovations
Page 17
Figure 21. Stratix V FPGAs’ Static Power Reduction from Altera’s 28HP Process Optimization and
Programmable Power Technology
-44%
Relative Static Power
-25%
-25%
Stratix V
FPGAs
28HP
Process
Altera’s Customized
28HP Process
Programmable
Power Technology
Power Down of Unused Functional Blocks
To reduce power further, Altera enabled various functional blocks to be powered
down when not in use. The powering down of functional blocks in Stratix V FPGAs is
done in two ways:
■
Hard power down—Connects dedicated VCC balls to ground at the board level
when block is unused
■
Soft power down—Cuts off path from VCC to ground using the Configuration
RAM Assembler setting
Table 7 lists the Stratix V functional blocks that can be powered down when unused,
and their corresponding power-down modes. Quartus II software identifies the
unused functional blocks in the targeted FPGA and powers down these blocks
through assembler settings (soft power down) or VCC power ball connection
recommendations (hard power down).
Table 7. Power Down of Functional Blocks in Stratix V FPGAs
Power-Down Mode
Estimated Static Power when
Powered Down (W)
Transceiver PMA
Hard
0
Transceiver PCS
Hard
0
Embedded HardCopy Blocks
Hard
0
I/O banks
Hard
0
M20K memory blocks
Soft
0.0001
Fractional PLL
Soft
0.0001
Block
I/O Innovations Enabling Lower Power
Another area where Altera introduced innovations to reduce power is the general I/O
block. Stratix V FPGAs have many I/O features that enable designers to control the
power and performance. These features include:
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 18
FPGA Architectural Innovations
■
Support for a wide range of I/O standards—Depending on the application
requirements, a designer can select the optimal I/O standard to address the
required performance and power of the targeted applications. Table 8 lists the new
I/O standards supported by Stratix V FPGAs enabling designers to implement
lower power, higher performance memory interfaces.
Table 8. New I/O Standards Supported by Stratix V FPGAs
I/O Standard
Application Enabled
1.2-V SSTL
RLDRAM III
1.2-V HSUL
LPDDR2
1.25-V SSTL
DDR3U
1.35-V SSTL
DDR3L
■
Programmable I/O buffer drive strength—For various I/O standards, designers
can select from several levels of I/O buffer drive strength to match the needs of
their application.
■
Programmable slew rate control—The Fast Slew setting is used to achieve
maximum I/O performance, while slower slew rate settings are used to reduce
system noise and signal overshoot.
■
Variable output delay for dynamic trace compensation—Stratix V devices provide
four levels of output delay control. The delay chains built inside the output buffer
can independently control the rise and fall edge delay of the output buffer, so it
can be used to adjust the output buffer duty cycle, compensate channel-to-channel
skew, reduce SSO noise by deliberately introducing channel-to-channel skew, and
improve high-speed memory-interface timing margin. These delay elements can
be adjusted for the low-power or high-performance mode depending on the
external memory interface performance.
■
On-chip termination (OCT)—Stratix V FPGAs support RS OCT and RT OCT for
single-ended I/O standards and on-chip differential termination (RD OCT) for the
differential LVDS standard. OCT helps to prevent reflections and maintain signal
integrity; it also minimizes the need for external resistors, thereby saving board
space and reducing costs.
Altera was the first company in the industry to introduce dynamic OCT (DOCT) on
FPGAs to effectively reduce I/O power when interfacing an FPGA with external
memory interfaces. As seen in Figure 22, DOCT turns on and off the RS OCT and
RT OCT dynamically during data transfer. During the write cycle, RS OCT is turned on
and RT OCT is turned off to match the line impedance, while during the read cycle,
RS OCT is turned off and RT OCT is turned on as Stratix V FPGAs implement the farend termination of the bus. On a typical 72-bit DIMM, Stratix V FPGAs reduce I/O
static power by up to 65% (1.9 W) at 1067 Mbps when compared to a standard FPGA
using DDR2 without DOCT.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Software Power Optimization Innovations
Page 19
Figure 22. DOCT in Stratix V FPGAs
Rt
Reading
Rs
Writing
Rt
Rt
Memory Chip
Stratix V FPGA
Stratix V FPGA
Memory Chip
Software Power Optimization Innovations
In addition to process and architectural innovations, Altera has made many
investments in software power optimization in Quartus II software. Power-driven
compilation focuses on reducing the design’s total power consumption using powerdriven synthesis and power-driven place-and-route. This power-reduction method is
transparent to designers and enabled through simple compilation settings. The design
engineer simply sets the timing constraints as part of the design entry process and
synthesizes the design to meet performance. Quartus II software automatically selects
the required performance for each functional block as well as minimizes power
through power-aware placement, routing, and clocking (Figure 23).
Figure 23. Quartus II Design Flow Including Automatic Power Optimization
Design
Design
entry
Entry
Timing
Timing
constraints
Constraints
Synthesis
Synthesis
Placeand
and
route
Place
Route
Timing,Area,
area,Power
power
Timing,
optimization
Optimization
PowerPlay
PowerPlay
powerAnalyzer
analyzer
Power
Power-optimized design ;
Various steps are taken by Quartus II software at different compilation stages to
minimize total power of designs. At the synthesis stage, Quartus II software extracts
clock-enable signals for clock gating, minimizes RAM blocks accessed, and
restructures logic to eliminate high-toggling nets. At the fitter stage, Quartus II
software localizes high-toggling nets to reduce dynamic power, optimizes logic
placement to reduce clock power, and implements power-efficient DSP and RAM
block configurations. Finally, at the assembler level, the Quartus II software programs
unused circuitry to minimize toggling or power down when possible. The resulting
design meets the designer’s timing requirements with the minimum power.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 20
Software Power Optimization Innovations
As shown in Table 9, the designer has the option to select different levels of power
optimization to meet the design constraints. Selecting the Extra Effort setting offers
the greatest power savings at the expense of longer compilation times. Results will
vary based on design and effort level selected. The goal of this feature is to reduce
power without designer intervention while having minimal impact on design
performance. In addition, the power optimization is guided by detailed models of the
circuitry and by advanced statistical techniques that estimate which signals are
toggling the most often. This information allows Altera to determine power-efficient
implementations without extra input from the designer (such as a time-consuming
simulation of the design to determine switching rates).
Table 9. Power Optimization Settings in Quartus II Software
Settings
Description
Off
No netlist, placement, or routing optimizations are performed to minimize
power.
Normal (default)
Low compute effort algorithms are applied to minimize power through netlist
optimizations as long as they are not expected to reduce design performance.
Extra Effort
High compute effort algorithms are applied to minimize power through netlist
optimizations. Maximum performance might be impacted.
Clock Gating Power Optimization
One integral part of Stratix V architecture is the capability to gate clocks to reduce
dynamic power by preventing unused logic from toggling. Early on, Altera realized
that clocks represent a significant portion of dynamic power consumption in designs
and invested to ensure the clock networks in Stratix series devices deliver the lowest
power through built-in gating capability and the highest performance through a
balanced low-skew clock network.
The clock network in Stratix V FPGAs can be gated or shut off at four levels as shown
in Figure 24. At each level, control logic disables the clock from toggling when
downstream registers are not used, and otherwise enables the clock. The control logic
can be static or dynamic:
■
Static clock gating—The clock is enabled or disabled using a configuration RAM
bit at programming time. The Quartus II software leverages static clock gating on
clocks that are either always used or never used in the design.
■
Dynamic clock gating—The clock is enabled or disabled using a signal generated
by designers or by the Quartus II software. Quartus II software synthesizes
designs and generates signals at various clock stages to dynamically shut off
clocks when the downstream logic does not need to toggle.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Software Power Optimization Innovations
Page 21
Figure 24. Stratix V Clock Gating at Four Levels
Pin
fPLL
Signal
Level 1/Global
CRAM
CRAM
Level 2/Quadrant
CRAM
Level 3/Row
Signal
CRAM
Level 4/Block1
Note:
(1) LAB, Memory, DSP, PMA, and PCS
Furthermore, the Quartus II placement algorithm automatically optimizes register
placement so that fewer portions of the clock network must be active to reach all the
registers in a clock domain, minimizing power. All portions of the clock tree not
needed to reach registers are shut off, that is, permanently gated. In addition, clockenable signals specified in the design or created by power-aware synthesis
automatically gate the lower levels of the clock tree whenever the enable signal is low,
saving additional power.
RAM Block Power Optimization
The memory blocks in FPGAs can represent a large contribution to core dynamic
power. Memory consumes approximately 20% of the core dynamic power in FPGA
designs. Memory blocks are unlike most other blocks in the device because most of
their power is tied to the clock rate, and are insensitive to the toggle rate on the data
and address lines. When a memory block is clocked, there is a sequence of timed
events that occur within the block to execute a read or write. The clock-controlled
circuitry consumes the same amount of power regardless of whether or not the
address or data has changed from one cycle to the next. Thus, the toggle rate of input
data and the address bus have no impact on memory power consumption.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 22
Software Power Optimization Innovations
The key to reducing memory power consumption is to reduce the number of memory
clocking events. The designer can achieve this through clock network-wide gating or
on a per-memory basis through use of the clock-enable signals on the memory ports.
As shown in Figure 25, the Quartus II software instantiates additional clock-enable
signals using read and write enables of the memory to shut down RAM operation and
save power. This optimization is done automatically by Quartus II software when
either the Normal or Extra Effort power optimization settings are selected.
Figure 25. Converting RAM Read/Write-Enable Signal to Clock-Enable Signal by Quartus II
Software
A further RAM power optimization is performed automatically by Quartus II
software when the Extra Effort power optimization setting is selected. Quartus II
software efficiently maps large (wide and deep) RAM structures to the physical-block
RAMs in Stratix FPGAs to significantly reduce power. Using a 2,048-words-deep by
40-bit-wide RAM as an example, the most straightforward method—four M20K RAM
blocks, each providing 2,048 words that are 10 bits wide—is shown on the left in
Figure 25. By accessing all four RAMs in parallel, a 40-bit wide word is accessed each
cycle. However, the implementation on the right in Figure 26 is more power-efficient.
In this case, the Quartus II software again uses four M20K RAM blocks, but each RAM
block stores 512 40-bit wide words. During each read/write cycle, a small circuit
implemented in soft logic looks at the top two address bits to determine which RAM
stores the desired word, and accesses the appropriate RAM. This greatly reduces
RAM power, since three of the four RAM blocks can now be clock gated on each cycle.
Figure 26. Converting RAM Read/Write Enable to Clock Enable by Quartus II Software
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Software Power Optimization Innovations
Page 23
Quartus II Power Optimization Advisor
The Quartus II software includes the Power Optimization Advisor, which provides
specific power optimization advice and recommendations based on the current
design project settings and assignments. The power advisor explains to designers the
power analysis best practices and gives designers power optimization suggestions so
that designers take full advantage of the silicon and the software features to reduce
power in their designs.
Power Optimization Benchmark Results
The power savings achieved through the power optimization algorithms in Quartus II
software will vary depending on the design. Figure 27 shows the power savings
achieved by Quartus II power optimization across 16 real designs in Stratix IV
EP4SGX230 FPGAs. Each pattern was compiled twice in Quartus II software version
10.0. In the first compilation, the power optimization was set to Off, while in the
second compilation, the power optimization setting was set to Extra Effort with
Feedback. Linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) are used as feedback (input) to
simulate these designs in Quartus II software. The patterns generated from each
compilation were measured on silicon and compared. As can be seen, Quartus II
power optimization delivers an average of 18% lower dynamic power.
Figure 27. Dynamic Power Savings Achieved by Quartus II Software on Stratix IV EP4SGX230
FPGA
Normalized Power (%)
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Strax IV Dynamic Power - No Power Opmizaon
Strax IV Dynamic Power - Power Opmizaon by Quartus II 10.0 Soware
To put the 18% power savings in perspective, Altera compiled the same 16 designs in
ISE 12.1 software using the same compilation flow and the same input and timing
constraints as used in Quartus II software. The patterns were measured on a Virtex-6
LX240T device. As shown in Figure 28, the average dynamic power savings from ISE
power optimization is not significant.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 24
Board-Level Optimizations
Figure 28. Dynamic Power Savings Achieved by ISE Software on Virtex-6 LX240T Device
160%
140%
Normalized Power (%)
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Virtex-6 Dynamic Power - No Power Opmizaon
Virtex-6 Dynamic Power - Power Opmized by ISE 12.1 Soware
Board-Level Optimizations
Stratix V FPGAs deliver many innovations to enable customers to simplify their board
design while lowering power and cost. These innovations include:
■
Fewer power-supply regulators—Stratix V architecture has been optimized to
maximize the sharing of voltage rails and to minimize the number of external
regulators required. Critical analog circuits such as PLLs and transceiver blocks
are powered using built-in internal voltage regulators to isolate these circuits from
external coupling noise for maximum performance. Effectively, for designs with
data rates of 6.5 Gbps or lower, Stratix V FPGAs require a total of three regulators.
For designs with data rates between 6.5 Gbps and 14.1 Gbps, Stratix V FPGAs
require a total of five regulators.
■
Switching regulators allowed on all power rails—In addition to linear regulators,
Stratix V FPGAs can be powered with low-noise switching regulators on all power
rails to achieve maximum power efficiency.
■
OCT—Stratix V FPGAs feature both on-chip RS OCT and RT OCT, enabling
designers to save cost and board space while achieving optimal signal integrity for
higher performance.
■
On-chip and on-package decoupling capacitors—Stratix V FPGAs feature
embedded on-package and on-die decoupling capacitors to provide highfrequency decoupling. These low-inductance capacitors suppress power noise for
excellent signal integrity performance. In addition, these decoupling capacitors
also reduce the number of external PCB decoupling capacitors, saving precious
board space, reducing cost, and greatly simplifying PCB design.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
Conclusion
Page 25
■
Reference clock oscillator integration—The precision frequency synthesis
capability of the fPLLs in Stratix V FPGAs can be used to replace reference clock
oscillators. For applications requiring several reference clock frequencies, the onboard clock oscillators used to generate these reference clock frequencies can be
replaced by a single clock oscillator and multiple on-chip fPLLs that synthesize the
required reference clock frequencies.
■
Voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) integration—Optical transport
network (OTN) multiplexing transponder (muxponder) applications generally
require expensive VCXOs that synthesize the various client frequencies from
information embedded in the aggregate data stream. The fPLLs in Stratix V FPGAs
are designed to replace these VCXOs, resulting in a cost-effective, highly
integrated solution.
Conclusion
Altera is addressing the requirements of next-generation applications pushing the
limit for higher bandwidth and lower power by introducing key innovations on
28-nm Stratix V FPGAs, including:
■
28HP process innovations
■
Programmable Power Technology
■
Lower voltage (0.85-V) architecture
■
High-bandwidth, power-efficient transceivers
■
Embedded HardCopy Blocks and extensive hardening of IP
■
Hard powering down of functional blocks
■
I/O innovations enabling power-efficient memory interfaces
■
Quartus II software power optimization
■
Logic and RAM clock gating
■
Fewer power regulators, switching regulators on all supplies
■
Board-level integration: oscillators, decoupling capacitors, OCT
■
Easy-to use partial reconfiguration
Altera’s comprehensive approach rewards Stratix V customers with many benefits
including higher performance and lower power FPGA, higher integration through
extensive hardening of IP, and ultimate flexibility through easy-to-use partial
reconfiguration. Stratix V FPGAs are the ideal devices for high-end applications
requiring high bandwidth and lower power.
March 2012
Altera Corporation
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
Page 26
Further Information
Further Information
■
Stratix V FPGA: Built for Bandwidth:
www.altera.com/stratix5
■
Stratix Series FPGA Low Power Consumption Features:
www.altera.com/products/devices/stratix-fpgas/about/low-powerconsumption/stx-power-about.html
■
Stratix V FPGA Family Overview:
www.altera.com/devices/fpga/stratix-fpgas/stratix-v/overview/stxvoverview.html
■
PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer:
www.altera.com/support/devices/estimator/pow-powerplay.jsp
■
Power Optimization chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook:
www.altera.com/literature/hb/qts/qts_qii52016.pdf
■
PowerPlay Power Analysis chapter in volume 3 of the Quartus II Handbook:
www.altera.com/literature/hb/qts/qts_qii53013.pdf
Acknowledgements
■
Frank Yazbeck, Senior Technical Marketing Staff, High-End FPGAs, Altera
Corporation
■
Ryan Kenny, Sr. Product Marketing Manager, High-End FPGAs, Altera
Corporation
Document Revision History
Table 10 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 10. Document Revision History
Date
Version
March 2012
2.0
November 2010
1.0
Changes
■
Removed Table 4
■
Minor text edits
Initial release.
Reducing Power Consumption and Increasing Bandwidth on 28-nm FPGAs
March 2012 Altera Corporation
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