Linear inductive displacement sensors (LVDT) "induSENSOR"

Linear inductive displacement sensors (LVDT) "induSENSOR"
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induSENSOR // Linear inductive displacement sensors
2
Inductive displacement and position sensors
Model
induSENSOR
Page
LVDT gauges
4-5
LVDT displacement sensors
6-7
Controller for LVDT sensors / gauges
8-9
LDR displacement sensors
10 - 11
Controller for LDR sensors
12 - 13
LVP displacement sensors
14 - 15
VIP displacement sensors
16 - 17
EDS long-stroke sensors
18 - 19
LVP displacement sensors for specific applications
20 - 21
Customer specific modifications
24 - 27
Customer specific development
28 - 31
Measuring principles
32 - 33
Application examples
34 - 35
3
Inductive displacement sensors with more precision
Electromagnetic displacement sensors from Micro-Epsilon are used extensively in applications
for automated processes, quality assurance, test rigs, hydraulics, pneumatic cylinders, and automotive engineering. The advantages of these displacement sensors are well known and highly
valued, and include ruggedness, reliability under harsh conditions, high signal quality and good
temperature stability. The electromagnetic sensors of the induSENSOR series are based on the
well-proven inductive and eddy current principle. They are used successfully both in single and
high volume OEM applications.
LVDT
Gauges
Measurement principle
LVDT
Displacement
Sensors
LDR Sensors
LVP
VIP



LDR

EDS
Controller
Measuring range

integrated

external



up to 5mm



up to 20mm



up to 50mm
up to 100mm


up to 200mm








up to 300mm

up to 400mm

up to 630mm

sleeve

plunger
gauge




pipe
Max. ambient temperature
Max. ambient pressure
up to 85°C


up to 150°C

Option up to 200°C

≤100bar



4 .. 20mA













0.5 ... 4.5VDC
0/2 ... 10VDC


≤450bar
Output signal


up to 150mm
Target
EDS Sensors

LVP
LVDT
VIP Sensors
Gauges with external controller
induSENSOR LVDT
- Proven LVDT technology
- Measuring ranges ±1 … ±10mm
- Excellent price/performance ratio,
especially for high volume applications
- Sensor diameter ø8mm
- Version with pneumatic push
Probe tips
thickness, depth, height). These new gauges
are available in two basic versions: feather or
pneumatic. The entire housing has a diameter
of 8mm. All gauges include a cable that extends axially from the housing. Due to its special design, this series offers a very attractive
price/performance ratio, especially for high
volumes.
Article
DT A-
5-
G8-
3-
CA-
V
Gauging sensor option:
pneumatic push
Connection (axial):
CA integral cable (3m)
Linearity: 3 (±0.3%)
Function: gauging sensor
Measuring range ± mm
Excitation AC
Principle: differential transformator (LVDT)
ø4.5
Option: type 13
M2.5
M2.5
5
ø10
10
Option: type 11
M2.5
2 5
Standard: type 2
5
LVDT gauging sensors DTA-xG8 are primarily
used for the measurement and inspection of
work-piece geometry (length, width, diameter,
6
4
ø4.5
45°
5
Model
Measuring range
DTA-1G8
DTA-3G8
DTA-5G8
DTA-10G8
DTA-1G8-V
DTA-3G8-V
DTA-5G8-V
DTA-10G8-V
±1mm
±3mm
±5mm
±10mm
±1mm
±3mm
±5mm
±10mm
0.45µm
0.75µm
1.5µm
53 mV/mm/V
44 mV/mm/V
Linearity
0.3 % FSO
Repeatability
0.15µm
0.45µm
0.75µm
1.5µm
Temperature stability
0.15µm
250ppm/°C
Temperature range
-20…+80 °C (without bellows) / 0…+80 °C (with bellows)
Diameter
8h9mm
Sensor material
stainless steel / FPM
Connection / pin connector
open ends
Protection class sensor
IP65 (with bellows) / IP54 (without bellows)
Cable output
axial
Sensor cable length
3m
Life cycle MTBF
5 million cycles
Sensitivity
133 mV/mm/V
85 mV/mm/V
53 mV/mm/V
44 mV/mm/V
Electronics
133 mV/mm/V
85 mV/mm/V
MSC710 (page 8 - 9)
FSO = Full Scale Output
DTA-xG8-3-CA
A
Cable diameter ca. 3.1mm
6
8 h9
B
Cable length 3m (open ends)
crimp WS 3.25mm
Model
A (zero position)
B
83mm
64.3mm
68.3mm
DTA-1G8-3-CA
DTA-3G8-3-CA
89mm
DTA-5G8-3-CA
118mm
89.5mm
DTA-10G8-3-CA
155mm
121.7mm
DTA-xG8-3-CA-V
A
for pneumatic connection 3x0.5mm
B
8 h9
Cable diameter ca. 3.1mm
Cable length 3m (open ends)
5
Model
A (zero position)
B
DTA-1G8-3-CA-V
95mm
76.3mm
DTA-3G8-3-CA-V
103mm
82.3mm
DTA-5G8-3-CA-V
134mm
105.3mm
DTA-10G8-3-CA-V
170.8mm
137.3mm
6
Displacement sensors with external electronics
induSENSOR LVDT
- Proven LVDT technology
- Measuring ranges ±1 … ±25mm
-E
xtremely accurate also under
difficult ambient conditions
- Long-term stability
- Wear-free
LVDT displacement sensors have a plunger
which moves freely in the sensor housing.
The plunger is joined to the object by a thread
to transfer the movement of the measurement object. The measurement process in
the sensor takes place without contact and
is therefore wear-free. The displacement sensors are mainly used to measure and monitor
movements, displacements, positions, strokes, deflections, dislocations, etc. in vehicles,
machines and systems.
The high sensor resolution is limited only by
the noise in the sensor electronics. A further
advantage of the symmetrically constructed
sensors in the LVDT series is the zeropoint
stability of the systems. The sensors are supplied with an excitation frequency of 1 to 5 kHz
depending on the measurement range and an
excitation amplitude of 2.5 to 5Veff. Matched
sensor electronics are available in this respect. With appropriate setting possibilities for
the excitation frequency and amplitude, the
sensors can also be operated with alternative
electronics.
Article
DT A-
10-
D-
3-
CA-
W
Options:
W welded/sealed housing (water proof up to 5bars)
P pressure resistant housing (up to 100bar)
F pressure resistant mounting flange O-ring seal
Hhigh temperature sensor up to 200°C with integral teflon cable
(only for connection types -CA/-CR)
Connection axial
CA integrial cable (3m)
SA plug connection
Linearity: 5
(±0.5%)
3 (±0.3%)
Function: displacement sensor
Measuring range ± mm
Excitation AC
Principle: differential transformator (LVDT)
Connection radial
CR integral cable (3m)
SR plug connection
1,5 (±0.15%)
7
Model
DTA-1D-
Connection
CA
Measuring range
Linearity
DTA-3D-
SA
CA
DTA-5D-
SA
CA
DTA-10D-
SA
CA
DTA-15D-
SA
CA
CR
DTA-25D-
SA
SR
CA
CR
SA
±1mm
±3mm
±5mm
±10mm
±15mm
±25mm
standard ≤0.5%
-
-
-
-
-
300 µm
standard ≤0.3%
6µm
18µm
30µm
60µm
90µm
150µm
optional ≤0.15%
3µm
9µm
15µm
30µm
45µm
Excitation frequency
5kHz
Excitation amplitude
-
2kHz
1kHz
5Veff
Sensitivity
133mV/Vmm
85mV/Vmm
SR
2.5Veff
53mV/Vmm
44mV/Vmm
Temperature range
45mV/Vmm
33mV/Vmm
-20°C...80°C
Storage temperature
-40°C ... +80°C / +120°C
zero ±50ppm/°C
Temperature stability
sensitivity ±100ppm/°C
Housing
stainless steel including magnetic shielding
Minimum cable bending radius
20mm
Outer diameter cable
~4.6mm
Protection class
IP 67
40g, 1000 shocks / axis
Shock
100g, 3 shocks / direction
Vibration
10Hz ... 58Hz ±1.5mm / 58Hz ... 500Hz ±20g
Electronics
MSC710 (page 8 - 9)
FSO = Full Scale Output
Sensor types with measuring range up to ±10mm (inner diameter ø2.7mm)
9
10
l
L
Ø10
Ø10
l
10
M2
Ø2
L
Ø2
13
M2
Type-CA with integral cable
Type-SA with axial plug connection
L
9.5
17
15
Sensor types with measuring range ±15mm and ±25mm (inner diameter ø4.8 mm)
L
Basic model
Connection
Length of housing L
Length of plunger l 1)
DTA-1D-
DTA-3D-
DTA-5D-
DTA-10D-
CA
SA
CA
SA
CA
SA
CA
SA
40mm
57mm
57mm
73mm
73mm
87mm
87mm
19mm
29mm
L
Type - SA
with axial plug connection
40mm
Housing diameter
1)
9
L
Type - SR
with radial plug connection
Type - CR
with integral cable (radial)
Type - CA
with integral cable
30mm
DTA-15DCA
CR
SA
35mm
~63
Female connector 90°
dimensions apply
for all models
Ø14
Ø14
20.5
11.4
~36
~40
CR
SA
143.5mm
62mm
20mm
30
26.5
CA
51mm
Plunger in zero position (±10% of measuring range ±1 mm)
dimensions apply
for all models
SR
106.5mm
10mm
Female connector 90°
DTA-25DSR
Sensor controller for LVDT series
induSENSOR LVDT
- Excellent linearity and resolution
- Zero and gain adjustable coarse/fine
-E
xcitation frequency 1 ... 10kHz
(selectable)
- Compact and robust EMI-proofed
housing
The MSC710 is a single-channel miniature
sensor controller for the operation of inductive displacement sensors based on the LVDT
principle (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Its compact, but rugged design, makes
it suitable for both industrial and laboratory
applications.
LVDT-sensor
Plunger
Primary coil
Supply
Magnetic core
Signal
Secondary coil
Easily accessible and simple to operate, by
using DIP-switches. The electronic unit can be
matched to a wide range of sensors.
Terminal block
40
Mounting hole Ø4.2
R3
prim+
4 3 2
ON
R1
J1
Frequ. J4
Cable sleeve
Housing dimensions 52 x 50 x 35mm
1
J2
R2
1
ON
ON
2
1
J5
limit
2
1
Test J3
prim-
mid2
mid1
X1Shield
4 3 2
U
X3 Shield
J7
J6
Gain
IU
sec-
1
X4
sec+
power
Output
Pgnd
Ognd
X5
38
8
DIP-switches:
frequency
phase
sensor voltage
test
1
ON
Potentiometer:
zero
gain
offset
9
Model
MSC710-U
MSC710-I
Power supply
18 ... 30 VDC (18 ... 45mA)
Protection
Reverse polarity protection, overvoltage protection
Sensor principle
for LVDT sensors
150 ... 400mV
Sensor excitation
Input impedance
Range
1/2/5kHz (selectable by DIP-switches)
sensor
10kOhm
gain
-20 ...+350% (trimpot)
zero
Output signal
Noise
±50% (trimpot)
2 ... 10 VDC (Ra >1kOhm)
4 ... 20mA (load <500Ohm)
< 1.5mVeff*
< 3µAeff*
< 15mVss
< 30µAss
Linearity
<0.02% FSO
Frequency response
300Hz (-3dB)
Temperature range
Temperature stability
Protection class
Weight
Housing material
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Vibration
Shock
FSO = Full Scale Output
* RMS AC-Measuring, Frequency 3 Hz ... 300 Hz
storage
operating
-40°C ... +85°C
0°C ... +70°C
±100ppm / °C
IP 65
80g
ABS-plastic
EN 61326-1:2006 (spurious emission)
EN 61326-2-3:2006 (immunity to interference)
EN 60068-2-64 (noise)
EN 60068-2-29 (continous shock)
10
Linear displacement sensors
induSENSOR LDR
- No wear and no maintenance
- Excellent temperature stability
- Operating temperature range up 160°C
- Compact design - short installed length
- Small sensor diameter
- High measurement signal quality
The specific sensor configuration of the linear displacement sensors in the LDR series is
characterised by a short, compact design
with small diameter. Three connections are
required as an interface to the sensor. The
compact design and the small sensor diameter facilitate the installation of the measurement systems in locations where space is
restricted.
Fields of use and applications
The inexpensive LDR sensors are also particularly suitable for large-scale installation under restricted spatial conditions and in industrial environments with a high measuring rate.
11
Model
LDR-10-
Connection
LDR-25-
SA
CA
Measuring range
LDR-50-
SA
CA
10mm
SA
CA
25mm
Measuring principle
50mm
LDR - sensor
typ. ≤0.30% FSO
typ. ≤0.35% FSO
typ. ≤0.7% FSO
≤0.030mm
≤0.088mm
≤0.35mm
Linearity
max. ±0.50% FSO
Excitation frequency
16kHz
12kHz
8kHz
Excitation amplitude
1Veff
1Veff
2.6Veff
21mV/Vmm
5.5mV/Vmm
Sensitivity
51mV/Vmm
Temperature range
Temperature stability
SA
storage: -40°C ... +80°C / operation: -15°C ... +80°C
CA
storage: -40°C ... +160°C / operation: -40°C ... +160°C
zero
±30ppm / °C
±40ppm / °C
sensitivity
±100ppm / °C
±150ppm / °C
Housing (material)
ferromagnetic stainless steel
Weight sensor (without plunger)
9g
24g
Weight plunger
14g
1.5g
Sensor cable - minimum bending radius fixed / moved
8 / 15mm
10 / 30mm
8 / 15mm
3.1mm
1.8mm
3.1mm
Outer cable diameter
28g
23g
2.2g
Protection class
10 / 30mm
8 / 15mm
10 / 30mm
1.8mm
3.1mm
1.8mm
IP 67
40g, 3000 shocks / axis
Shock
100g radial, 300g axial
Vibration
5Hz ... 44Hz ±2.5mm / 44Hz ... 500Hz ±20g
Electric connection
SA
3-pin connector (accessory cable, article 0157047/047, 3 or 5m)
CA
integral axial cable (shielded), 2m
Electronics
MSC7210 (page 12 - 13)
FSO = Full Scale Output SA = connector axial CA = cable axial
7
LDR-x-SA
A
25*
Model
M2
Ø3
Plunger
3-Pin connector
LDR-10-SA
Ø8
M5x0.5
10
A
47mm
LDR-25-SA
73mm
LDR-50-SA
127mm
* Plunger at start of measuring range
A
6
25*
Model
Plunger
ca. 24
LDR-10-CA
M2
Ø3
10
Ø8
LDR-x-CA
30
Shrink hose
* Plunger at start of measuring range
45
6
37g
3.5g
A
41mm
LDR-25-CA
67mm
LDR-50-CA
121mm
Sensor controller for LDR series
MSC7210
- Rugged die-cast housing
- For all sensors in the LDR series
- Adjustable excitation frequency
4 ... 33kHz
- Zero point and gain can be adjusted
- High resolution and linearity
14
Ø16
13
30
89
81.5
Mounting holes
62.5
The MSC7210 is a single-channel electronic
unit for the operation of inductive displacement transducers according to the LDR principle. The zero point and gain can be set over
a wide range using trimming potentiometers.
Due to the small size, the electronic unit is versatile in mounting.
70
12
Ø4.5
Cable fitting
13
Model
MSC7210-U
Power supply
18 ... 30VDC
Protection
polarity reversal and overvoltage protection
Sensor principle
LDR sensor
1000 ... 2600mV
Sensor excitation
4 bis 33kHz (16 steps selectable via DIPswitch)
Range
gain
-20 ... +270% FSO (trimpot)
zero
±70% FSO (trimpot)
Output signal
Noise
Linearity
2 ... 10VDC
4 ... 20mA
< 1.5mVeff*
< 3µAeff*
< 15mVss
<30 µAss
< ± 0.02% FSO
Frequency response
Temperature range
MSC7210-I
300Hz
storage
operating
Temperature stability
Housing material
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Protection class
-40°C ... +85°C
0°C ... +70°C
±100ppm / °C
zinc die cast
EN 61326-1:2006 (spurious emission)
EN 61326-2-3:2006 (immunity to interference)
IP 65
test signal: half sine wave
peak acceleration 15g
Shock
shock duration 6ms
test axes x, y, z
No. of impacts per axis: 1000
test signal: sine - sweep
Vibration
frequency: 20 ... 500Hz
test axes x, y, z
No. of frequency cycles per axis: 10
Sensor connection
plugable screw clamp 4-pin
Signal/supply connection
plugable screw clamp 5-pin
FSO = Full Scale Output
* RMS AC measurement, frequency 3Hz ... 300Hz
Sensors with measuring plunger and integrated electronics
induSENSOR LVP
- No wear and no maintenance
- Linearity 0.25% FSO
- Integrated microelectronics
- Compact design - short installed length
- Shielded against EMI
- For use in difficult ambient conditions
The displacement sensors of the LVP series
use a plunger for measurement. They are
equipped with integrated electronics.
An important advantage of the LVP measuring technique lies in the short length of the
installed sensor. This difference in lengths becomes clear in a direct comparison with an
LVDT sensor.
reduced installation room
14
The LVP displacement sensors are ideally suited for tiny installation rooms. With protection
class IP67, the sensors can even be used in
harsh industrial environments.
Comparison of the length of LVDT and LVP series
with identical measuring ranges
15
Model
Measuring range
Linearity
LVP-50
LVP-100
LVP-200
50mm
100mm
200mm
standard ≤0.5% FSO
0.25mm
0.5mm
1.0mm
option ≤0.25% FSO
0.125mm
0.25mm
-
<0.03% FSO
0.015mm
0.03mm
0.06mm
Resolution
Temperature range
-40°C ... +85°C
zero
Temperature stability
±50ppm / °C
sensitivity
±150ppm / °C
Frequency response (-3dB)
300Hz
Output
4 ... 20mA
Output load
500Ω
Power supply
18 ... 30VDC
Current consumption
max. 40mA
Protection class
IP 67
EN 61326-1:2006 (spurious emission)
EN 61326-2-3:2006 (immunity to interference)
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Shock 1)
40g, 3000 shocks / axis; 100g radial, 300g axial
Vibration
5Hz ... 44Hz ± 2.5mm; 44Hz ... 500Hz ±20g
FSO = Full Scale Output
1)
Half sinusoid 6ms
LVP series housing version -GA- (option)
LVP series housing version -ZAM12 x 0.5
A
radial 7-pin connector
A
SW 32
25*
13.9
axial 7-pin
connector
25*
C
40
12
Sensor rod
* Measuring plunger start position Iout = 4mA
Article
LVP- 50-
ZA- 2,5- SR7-
I
Electrical output
SA7= connector, axial (housing version GA)
SR7= connector, radial (housing version ZA)
Linearity: 5
= 0.5% FSO
2.5 = 0.25% FSO
ZA= housing, cylindical (standard)
GA= housing, threaded (option)
Measuring range in mm
D
Ø12
M 18x1.5
13.9
Ø8
B
D
Ø8
Ø30.5
B
C
Measuring plunger
40
Sensor rod
12
Measuring plunger
* Measuring plunger start position Iout = 4mA
Measuring range
A
B
C
D
50
77
M2
10
4
100
138
M3
12
4
200
261
M3
12
4
All data in mm
16
Displacement sensors with measuring ring & integral electronics
induSENSOR VIP
- No wear and no maintenance
- Linearity 0.25% FSO
- Integrated microelectronics
- Short and compact design
- Rugged encapsulated sensor
construction
- For use in difficult ambient conditions
- Lateral measurement possible
VIP sensors operate with a contactless moving ring. There is no mechanical contact
between the measuring element (ring) and
the sensor rod. The sensor therefore operates
without any wear.
Contactless
moving ring
Parallel mounting
The optimum ratio of measurement range to
installed length of the sensor reduces the installation space needed for the VIP series.
The parallel connection of the measurement
object and measuring ring facilitates completely new construction and installation options.
Whereas with conventional sensors with an
axial measurement path, the length of the
plunger must be added to the actual housing
length, with the VIP series only the housing
length has to be considered during the design.
With protection class IP67, the sensors can
even be used in harsh industrial environments.
Sensor rod
Target movement
VIP
(fixed)
Measuring ring movement
17
Model
Measuring range
Linearity
VIP-50
VIP-100
VIP-150
50mm
100mm
150mm
standard ≤0.5% FSO
0.25mm
0.5mm
0.75mm
option ≤0.25% FSO
0.125mm
0.25mm
-
<0.03% FSO
0.015mm
0.03mm
0.045mm
Resolution
Temperature range
-40°C ... +85°C
Temperature stability
zero
± 50ppm / °C
sensitivity
±150ppm / °C
Frequency response (-3 dB)
300Hz
Output
4 - 20mA
Output load
500Ω
Power supply
18 - 30VDC
Current consumption
max. 40mA
Protection class
IP 67
EN 61326-1:2006 (spurious emission)
EN 61326-2-3:2006 (immunity to interference)
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
40g, 3000 shocks / axis
Shock 1)
100g radial, 300g axial
Vibration
5Hz ... 44Hz ± 2.5mm; 44Hz ... 500Hz ±20g
FSO= Full Scale Output
1)
Half sinusoid 6ms
VIP series housing version -GA- (option)
VIP series housing version -ZADimensions in mm, not to scale
A
B
A
radial 7-pin connector
Measuring range
C
12
50-
ZA- 2,5- SR7-
40
Electrical output
SA7= connector, axial (housing version GA)
SR7= connector, radial (housing version ZA)
ZA= housing, cylindical (standard)
GA= housing, threaded (option)
Measuring range in mm
12
Measuring ring
end position Iout=20mA
I
Linearity: 5
= 0.5% FSO
2.5 = 0.25% FSO
Ø12x1
Sensor rod
Measuring ring
start position Iout =4mA
Article
VIP-
Ø12
Ø8
Ø12x1
SW 32
40
M 18x1.5
Ø 30.5
Ø 30.5
C
13.9
Measuring range
B
13.9
axial 7-pin connector
Ø8
Dimensions in mm, not to scale
Sensor rod
Measuring ring
start position Iout =4mA
Measuring range
A
B
C
50
105
24
11.5
100
175
27
22
150
242
30
33
Measuring ring
end position Iout=20mA
18
Long-stroke sensors for hydraulics & pneumatics
induSENSOR EDS
- Measurement ranges 75 ... 630mm
- Linearity ±0.3% FSO
- Integrated microelectronics
- High pressure resistance
- Oil resistant and maintenance-free
- Short offset ranges
The sensor elements of the EDS series are
protected by a pressure resistant stainless
steel housing. The sensor electronics and signal conditioning are completely integrated in
a sensor flange.
As a target an aluminium sleeve is used which
is integrated into the piston rod and is passed
without making contact and wearfree over the
sensor rod. Integration in a hydraulic cylinder
Due to the use of the eddy current principle,
no permanent magnets need to be mounted
inside the cylinder.
Typical applications
Long-stroke sensors in the EDS series are
designed for industrial use in hydraulic and
pneumatic cylinders for the displacement and
position measurement of pistons or valves,
e.g. for the measurement of
ƒƒdisplacement, distance, position, gap
ƒƒdeflection
ƒƒmovement, stroke
ƒƒfilling level, immersion depth, spring travel
Due to the rugged design of the long-stroke sensors of the EDS series, these sensor
systems have proven themselves, not only
through the integration in hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, but especially under harsh
industrial conditions.
EDS series: integration in a hydraulic cylinder
19
Model
EDS-75
Connection
Measuring range
EDS-100
EDS-160
EDS-200
EDS-250
EDS-300
EDS-500
EDS-630
S
S, F
S, F
S
S, F
S, F
S, F
S
S, F
75mm
100mm
160mm
200mm
250mm
300mm
400mm
500mm
630mm
0.75mm
0.9mm
1.2mm
1.5mm
1.89mm
0.125mm
0.15mm
0.2mm
0.25mm
0.315mm
Linearity
≤0.3% FSO
0.23mm
0.3mm
0.48mm
0.6mm
Resolution
0.05% FSO
0.038mm
0.05mm
0.08mm
0.1mm
Temperature range
-40°C ... +85°C
Temperature stability
±200ppm / °C
Frequency response (-3 dB)
150Hz
Output
4 - 20mA
Output load
500Ω
Power supply
18 - 30VDC
Current consumption
Connector
max. 40mA
model S
7-pin connector (sensor cable as an option) options radial or axial output
model F
5-pin radial bayonet-connector with mating plug
Pressure resistance
450bar (sensor rod, flange)
Protection class
IP 67
Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC)
EN 61326-1:2006 (spurious emission)
EN 61326-2-3:2006 (immunity to interference)
Shock 1)
40g, 3000 shocks / axis
100g radial, 300g axial
Vibration
5Hz ... 44Hz ±2.5mm
44Hz ... 500Hz ±23g
Material
V4A-Steel 1.4571
ModelModel
S
S
1)
Half sinusoid 6 ms
L
a
36.5
56
L
35
a
Ø80
Connector
Connector
radial radial
Ø42
76
d
d
D
l
76
Ø21f7
l
D
Ø30
32.5
Ø21f7
32.5
Sensor Sensor
rod
rod
Ø80
56
35
Alu tubeAlu tube
Ø30
Ø34
axial connector
Ø34
36.5
ModelModel
F
F
8 (16 EDS-400/EDS-630)
8 (16 EDS-400/EDS-630)
Ø42
FSO = Full Scale Output
axial connector
EDS-400
6 mounting
6 mounting
holes ø9mm
holes ø9mm
on pitchoncircle
pitchø63mm
circle ø63mm
Article
EDS- 300-
S-
SA7-
I
Electrical output
SR = connector, radial (model F)
SA7 = connector, axial (model S)
Models: S = compact design with alu cap
F = flange housing with mounting holes
Measuring range in mm
Sensor rod
Alu tube
Offset
Meas.
range
L
D
l
d
a
75
110
10
110
16
15
100
140
10
140
16
20
160
200
10
200
16
20
200
240
10
240
16
20
250
290
10
290
16
20
300
340
10
340
16
400
450
12
500
550
12
630
680
12
450 (S)
460 (F)
18 (S)
690 (F)
18 (S)
550
680 (S)
20
26 (F)
25
26 (F)
25
18
25
Displacement sensors with external electronics
induSENSOR LVP
The LVP-3, LVP-14 and LVP-25 sensors
are modified versions of the standard
LVP sensors.
They are designed for specific application
areas, and operated with external
electronics in contrast to the standard
LVP series.
Valve stroke sensor in stainless steel housing
Future generations of engines will be able to dispense with mechanical camshafts. The displacement of the electromechanically or electrohydraulically driven inlet and outlet valves of internal
combustion engines is acquired by the displacement sensor of the product line LVP-14-F-5-CR
and fed into the control circuit. In this way a variable inlet and outlet control of the valves can
be realised. Ultimately, the fuel consumption is reduced, emission values are improved and the
engine power characteristic is matched to the individual driving situation.
Article
2616078
Measuring range
14mm
Target (optional)
article 0482273
0.5% FSO (0.07mm)
Housing
stainless steel
Temperature stability sensor
±100pmm / °C
Protection class sensor
Controller
Article
Power supply
Output
Resolution
Frequency response
Dimensions
Ø12.8
Ø27
-30°C ... +150°C
8
IP 67
MSC739VS-U
.3
Ø3
4111009
20
Temperature range sensor
10
Linearity
18
LVP-14-F-5-CR
27
Ø13
Model
6
20
+10...16VDC
Ø7
1...9VDC
0,02% FSO
20kHz (-3dB)
150 x 64 x 54mm
Plastic
extension
Sensor
aluminium target
(fixed at the valve)
FSO = Full Scale Output
Combustion engine valve
21
Sensor for needle stroke movements
The compact displacement sensor LVP-3- Z13-5-CA is suitable for acquiring small measurement
ranges with high accuracy. The large free hole for the passage of the core also facilitates large
excessive strokes. The measurement object, realised as a simple aluminium ring, is mounted on
the rod, plunger, pin, needle or other similar part to be measured. In a typical application the displacement sensor LVP-3-Z13-5-CA is used in automatic glue application guns. The continuously
measuring sensor monitors the switching point, also for wear of the needle seating. Additionally,
the continuous measurement offers the option of checking the needle for the correct stroke position. The small, compact sensor is easy to integrate even in tight installation spaces.
LVP-3-Z13-CA
Article
2617014
Measuring range
3mm
Target (included)
ø3 x 30 long with thread M3 and alu sleeve ø4 x 3.3
typ. 0.3% FSO (9µm)
Ø5
Linearity
Ø3
Model
Ø13
3-pin cable ø1.8
stainless steel
Temperature stability sensor
±100pmm / °C
13
Temperature range sensor
-40°C ...+150°C
*Midrange 12mA
Protection class sensor
Electronics
Ø4
Housing
5*
IP 67
series MSC7210 (page 12 - 13)
FSO = Full Scale Output
Sensor for the acquisition of displacement on rotating shafts
Analog sensors from the series LVP offer a significant improvement to monitor the clamping
position of tools. The sensor is integrated into the chuck and directly measures the clamping
stroke of the drawbar. It can be universally used with the most varied types of tool due to an
extremely compact design. The sensor supplies an analog signal according to the stroke motion
of the drawbar when clamping the tool. Consequently, continuous monitoring is possible without
the switching point having to be laboriously set mechanically. The miniaturised sensor electronic
unit is supplied with 24 VDC and can either be accommodated at the point of measurement or
in the control cabinet.
Cable
Model
LVP-25-Z20-5-CA-AC
Article
2617008
Resolution
Linearity
article 0482218 for shaft diameter 8mm
article 0482219 for shaft diameter 10mm
0.01mm
150Hz (-3dB)
Housing
stainless steel
Temperature range
-40° C ...+150° C
IP 67
Medium
air, oil
Electronics
Sensor
<±0.01% FSO / °C
Protection class sensor
FSO = Full Scale Output
38
typical ≤1% FSO (0.25mm)
Dynamics
Temperature stability sensor
Ø18
Target (included)
Ø13
4
25mm
Ø20
Measuring range
5.8
Rotating shaft
series MSC7210 (page 12 - 13)
Target sleeve Ø11.5 mm
Pull rod material
31CrMoV9V, no. 1.8519.05
Accessories
VIP, LVP, LDR, EDS, LVDT series
General accessories
2960031
MC25D
digital micrometer calibration fixture
2420062
PS2020
power supply on DIN rail,
input 100 - 240VAC, output 24VDC / 2.5A
2984026certificate function and linearity inspection certificate incl.
protocol with listed measurement data of the linearity inspection
and documentation
Accessories VIP and LVP series
Plunger
0800114 LVP-50
plunger
0800115LVP-100 plunger
0800116LVP-200 plunger
Linearity inspection certificate
2
Mounting block VIP and LVP series
Ø1
VIP/LVP/EDS 7-pin connection cable, 5m
VIP/LVP/EDS 7-pin connection cable, 5m
for voltage output 1 - 5V
VIP-/LVP-/EDS-7-pin connection cable, 5m
with 90° cable connector
mounting set for VIP series
with 3 mounting blocks and 2 adapting rings
mounting block VIP/LVP series
28
Connection cable
0157043 C703-5 2902084
C703-5/U
0157050
C703/90-5
2962001
MBS 12/8
0487087
MBS 12/8
4 mounting holes
for screws
M4 DIN 912
7.5
22
32.5
AccessoriesLDR series
Connection cable
0157047
C7210-5/3
sensor cable, 5m, with cable connector
0157048
C7210/90-5/3 sensor cable, 5m, with 90° cable connector
Supply cable
2901087
PC710-6/4
supply/output cable, 6m
Plunger
0800136LDR-10
0800137LDR-25
0800138LDR-50
plunger
plunger
plunger
AccessoriesEDS series
Service
2985001Function and linearity inspection for EDS series incl. pressure
inspection and documentation without recalibration
Connection cable
0157043
C703-5 2902084
C703-5/U
0157050
C703/90-5
2901143
C705-5 2901160
C705-15
VIP/LVP/EDS 7-pin connection cable for S series, 5m
VIP/LVP/EDS 7-pin connection cable for S series, 5m
for voltage output 1 - 5V
VIP/LVP/EDS 7-pin connection cable for S series, 5m
with 90° cable connector
VIP-/LVP-/EDS -pin connection cable for F series, 5m
VIP-/LVP-/EDS -pin connection cable for F series, 15m
45
23
AccessoriesLVDT series
Sensor cable
2902004
C701-3
2902013
C701-6
2902009
C701/90-3
2966002
MSC710 2981010
sensor cable 3m, with connector
and tin-plated free ends
sensor cable, 6m, with connector
and tin-plated free ends
sensor cable, 3m, with 90° connector
and tin-plated free ends
connector set for supply/output cable
connector mounting and calibration of MSC710
Connection cable
2901087
PC710-6/4
supply/output cable, 6 m
.2
SW
3x
2.5
90
°
Flange DTA-F10
Ø25
M3
Ø3
0
0.
Ø1
8.0
Plunger
0800001DTA-1D plunger
0800002DTA-3D plunger
0800003DTA-5D plunger
0800004DTA-10D plunger
0800005DTA-15D plunger
0800006DTA-25D plunger
Flange
0483090.01 DTA-F10mounting flange, slotted for
DTA-1D, DTA-3D, DTA-5D, DTA-10D
0483083.02 DTA-F20
mounting flange, slotted
for DTA-15D, DTA-25D
Probe tips
0459002
0459001
0459003
0459004
type 2
type 2 hard metall
type 11
type 13
R9
Flange DTA-F20
°
90
3x
Option: type 11 Option: type 13
5
2 5
5
6
ø4.5
M2.5
M2.5
M2.5
ø10
10
Standard probe tip: type 2
ø4.5
45°
.0
Ø20
R15
10,0
SW
3
8
Ø3
M4
.3
Ø4
24
Customer specific modifications
Micro-Epsilon also develops sensors for special requirements that are not met by the standard
models, the inductive sensors from the standard range can be suitably modified. A commercial
implementation can already be achieved with medium-sized quantities (depending on the type
and number of changes). The standard induSENSOR models form the basis for the modifications.
Environmental conditions
Depending on the location, environment, and application,
different circumstances occur that require adapted sensors:
ƒƒ Ambient temperature
ƒƒ Pressure
ƒƒ Interference fields
ƒƒ Dirt, dust, and moisture
ƒƒ Vibration, shock
ƒƒ Seawater, IP69K


 

Basic types
Five basic types are available. Measuring ranges and target
versions can be combined, based on these technologies.
Technology
 VIP
 EDS
 LVP
 LDR
 LVDT
Measuring range
to 200mm
to 800 mm
to 200 mm
to 150 mm
to ±100mm
Target
ring
pipe
plunger / probe tip
plunger / probe tip
plunger / probe tip
induSENSOR
25
Measuring range / sensor geometry
The installation environments often require an adjustment of the sensor
geometry, of the measuring range, and of the protection class. These adjustments include changes to the measuring range, sensor length and
width, pressure resistance, target shape, flange and material.
Electronics
The electronics is used for control purposes and for processing the signals
from the inductive sensors.
Depending on the requirements, the electronics can be integrated in the
sensor or remote. The range of functions of the electronics are specifically
defined, and range from simple signal output to complex arithmetic.
Possible electronics concepts
ƒƒIntegrated electronics
ƒƒExternal electronics
Type of connection and cables
The type of connection and cable can be defined
depending on the requirements.
ƒƒConnector for plugs ƒƒIntegrated cable with plug
ƒƒIntegrated cable with open ends
Output signal
Depending on the type of integration, one or more output signal types are
required. Many types of output are available in combination with the electronics used.
Output signals
ƒƒCurrent
ƒƒVoltage
ƒƒSwitching outputs
ƒƒOthers on request
26
Examples of customer specific modifications
induSENSOR
EDS-260-Z-LA-I -3L
Eddy current long-stroke sensor
33
PVC-Litze
Ø48f7
Baureihe Z
12
Measuring range 260mm
Nonlinearity <±0.3%
Power supply
18 ... 30Vdc
Output 4 ... 20mA
Temperature range -40 ... +85°C
Special sealing flange
EDS-200-F2-CA10-I-METSO
Eddy current long-stroke sensor
Measuring range 200mm
Output
4 ... 20mA
Integrated cable
10m
Special sealing flange
DTA-1D-CA-U
Miniature sensor with axial cable output
Measuring range
Outer diameter
Sensor cable
±1mm
10mm
length 850mm
27
DTA-6D-20 (07)
Inductive LVDT diplacement sensor
Measuring range ±2 ... ±8mm
Connection140mm flat cable and IDC (insulation
displacement connectors) RM 2.54
DTA-15D-5-CA(03)
Pressure-tight LVDT sensor with welded flange
Measuring range ±16mm
Pressure resistancepressed, up to 350bar (2min.)
with mounting flange
Connectionflat cable axial connector,
approx. 140mm long with plug
EDS-330-F-SRB-I(06)
Eddy current long-stroke sensor
Measuring range Output
Power supply Flange housing 330mm
4 - 20mA
18 - 30Vdc
150mm diameter
28
Customer specific sensor development
induSENSOR
For exceptional applications with large quantities, Micro-Epsilon develops sensors that are precisely tailored to customer requirements. The geometry, electronics and packaging are customised to suit the requirements concerned. Thanks to the high production capacity at Micro-Epsilon, large quantities can be made cost-effectively.
Areas of application
Customized OEM displacement sensors are often developed for areas
of applications where the highest standards apply, such as:
ƒƒ Applications with high atmospheric pressure
ƒƒ Environments with high temperatures
ƒƒ Vacuum
ƒƒ Explosive hazard environments
ƒƒ Contaminated installation and measurement rooms
29
Realised OEM examples
143
150
10
16
190
DRA-25D-20-SR-02 / ILU-50-0-10-SR
Inductive differential inductor (plunger)
LDR-85-BUE
Wear-free inductive displacement sensor
KRS 719-400
Miniaturised LVDT displacement sensor
ƒƒLoading and unbalance detection in
washing machines
ƒƒInstallation integrated into damper or external
ƒƒMeasuring range 50mm
ƒƒExternal electronics
ƒƒPosition measurement of valves
ƒƒMeasuring range 85mm
ƒƒIntegrated electronics
ƒƒFor use in textile machines
ƒƒExternal electronics
ƒƒMeasuring range 2mm
ƒƒShielded sensor
25
18
20
46
DTA-1D-20-DDV.02
LVDT displacement sensor with coated coil
ƒƒDetection of the shaft position
with hermetically sealed pumps
ƒƒMeasuring range 6mm
ƒƒATEX / FM certification
ƒƒSubminiature design 20x25mm
ƒƒInterfaces 0.5 - 4.5V, PWM (10bit), UART
ƒƒResolution 11bit
ƒƒMeasurement of a hydraulic valve position
ƒƒExternal electronics
ƒƒMeasuring range 2mm
ƒƒDipped paint seal
250
ISC7001
Subminiature sensor controller
56
DTA-3D-5-CR5-G-HP
Inductive displacement sensor
90
8
KTL gauging sensors
Calibration of robots
ƒƒSpeed measurement
ƒƒSwitching output
EDS-28-G-CA-U
Rugged inductive miniature sensor with
in the cable integrated electronics
EDS/GPS-180-ZA-I(02)
Eddy current long-stroke sensors
with integrated electronics
ƒƒMiniature actor for formula 1
ƒƒMeasuring range 28mm
ƒƒPressure resistance up to 350bar
ƒƒMeasuring the piston position in the
glass production
ƒƒMeasuring range 180mm
ƒƒHigh shock- and vibration-resistance
30
Customer specific sensor development
Micro-Epsilon has all the required resources
available to supply solutions starting from the
idea through to large-scale production, all
from one source - and at competitive prices.
A cohesive process as a better path to large-scale production. Together with a team of
engineers and customer support staff, performance specifications are converted into
concepts and designs according to customized requirements. All project participants are
integrated into the process. Together with us,
you can speed up your development process,
prototype building and large-scale production. In achieving this, the complete material
logistics is included in the process from an
early stage. A total of over 2,000 man-years
of engineering experience and more than 300
staff are available to you.
At Micro-Epsilon‘s head office, development
projects are initiated and major projects
co-ordinated. The development and marketing of specific sensors for OEM customers in
large quantities takes place in direct contact
with the development and product specialists.
For the large-scale production of the electronics, modern and automated production systems for screen and silk-screen printing are
available with vision systems, automatic SMD
assembly up to BF 0402, reflow soldering in
computer controlled convection ovens, CFCfree washing in multi-compartment washing
systems, automatic die bonding and laser
trimming.
induSENSOR
31
With production capacities of more than one million sensors p.a. and by utilising internal
company resources, the sensors are very economical. The production equipment available
includes the following:
ƒƒCNC lathes and milling machines
ƒƒFully automatic four-spindle winding machine
ƒƒArc welding equipment for welding the coil wires
ƒƒVarnish dip system for protecting the coil
ƒƒAutomatic inspection system for testing the coil parameters
ƒƒLaser welding and marking systems
All production systems are supplied in ergonomic and assembly-friendly packaging units.
In this respect environmentally friendly and
economical reusable packaging is used.
Within the scope of Total Quality Management
a 100% check is integrated for numerous
measurement and inspection processes.
32
Technology and measuring principle
induSENSOR
LVDT gauges and LVDT displacement sensors
LVDT displacement sensors and gauges (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) are constructed with a primary and two secondary coils, which are arranged symmetrically to the primary
winding. As a measurement object, a rod shaped magnetic core can be moved within the differential transformer. An electronic oscillator supplies the primary coil with an alternating current of
constant frequency. The excitation is an alternating voltage with an amplitude of a few volts and
a frequency between 1 and 10 kHz.
Depending on the core position alternating voltages are induced in the two secondary windings.
If the core is located in its “zero position“, the coupling of the primary to both secondary coils is
equally large. Movement of the core within the magnetic field of the coil causes a higher voltage
in one secondary coil and a lower voltage in the second coil. The difference between the two
secondary voltages is proportional to the core displacement. Due to the differential design of the
sensor, the LVDT series has an output signal which is very stable.
Signal LVDT
+ Signal
- Displacement
100 %
100 %
+ Displacement
- Signal
Linear measuring range
Gauging sensor
Secondary coils
Probe
Slide bearings
Probe tip
Magnetic core
Primary coil
Spring
Displacement sensor
Secondary coils
Plunger
Magnetic core
Plunger
Primary coil
Core extension
LDR displacement sensors
The inductive sensors in the LDR series are constructed as half-bridge systems with centre tap.
An unguided plunger moves in the interior of the sensor coil, which consists of symmetrically
constructed winding compartments. The plunger is joined to the moving measurement object
via a thread. Due to the movement of the plunger within the coil, an electrical signal is produced
which is proportional to the displacement covered. The specific sensor configuration facilitates
a short, compact design with a small diameter. Three connections are required as an interface
to the sensor.
Block diagram LDR series
Measuring range
Target
Plunger
Amplifier
>>
Ue
Ua / I a
33
Measuring principle VIP and LVP series
LVP displacement sensors
With LVP displacement sensors, a core of a soft magnetic material is used as the target, which
is movable within the measuring coil without any physical contact. The measuring coil itself is
mounted, hermetically sealed, in an enclosure of ferromagnetic, stainless steel.
The core is firmly connected to a plunger, the length of which corresponds to the measuring
range. The core length, however, does not exceed 20% of the measuring range. The mechanical
connection of the LVP sensors is equivalent to that of the well-known LVDT Sensor. In direct comparison with LVDT position sensors, LVP sensors exhibit an improved ratio of measuring range to
overall length. The installation space required can thus be reduced up by 100%.
LVP series
Coil
Housing
Measuring range
Controller
electronics
Target (core)
Output
VIP
VIP displacement sensors
Displacement transducers in the VIP series operate similar to conventional potentiometers, but
without any sliding contact and are consequently wear-free. The measurement coil is wound as
a single layer on a tube and is hermetically sealed in a stainless steel housing.
An aluminium ring which can be moved along the housing without making contact is used as
the target. Exact guidance is not necessary for the ring. Radial vibrations and tilting of the measurement object, have no influence on the measurement result and the sensor life. The signal
conditioning is directly integrated into the displacement transducer.
Measuring range
Coil
Controller
electronics
Target (ring)
Output
EDS long-stroke sensors
The measurement principle of the EDS series is based on eddy current effect. An aluminium
(ferrous) sleeve which can be moved along the housing without making contact is used as the
target. If both coils are supplied with an alternating current, then two orthogonal magnetic fields
are produced in the sleeve. The measurement coil, wound in one layer, produces a field which
has a magnetic coupling with the target.
The displacement sensor uses a ferrous target sleeve of soft magnetic material, a measurement coil and a compensation coil. The coils are mounted inside a pressurised stainless steel
housing. The eddy currents then arising in the target form a magnetic field which influences the
measurement coil impedance. This changes linearly with the target position. The magnetic field
of the compensation coil has in contrast no coupling with the target and the impedance of the
compensation coil is largely independent of the target position.
The electronic circuit generates a signal from the ratio of the impedance of the measurement
coil and the compensation coil and converts the sleeve position into a linear electrical output
signal of 4 - 20mA. In achieving this, the temperature effects and the temperature gradient are
essentially eliminated.
Block diagram EDS series
Target (pipe)
Sensor rod
Coil
Integral
controller
Housing
34
Typical applications
induSENSOR
Sensors are the eyes and ears of a technical system. The values or states you acquire are
processed in the controller or evaluated and appropriate further steps initiated. With the aid of
sensors the measurement object is deflected, moved, set, guided, bent, panned, positioned,
tilted, displaced or centred. The following overview shows a small extract of the possibilities
for the application of the product group induSENSOR. With inductive sensors in applications,
process times are shortened, operational readiness is extended, operational safety is increased,
production yield is improved, setting up times are shortened and there is a gain in convenience.
- Construction
- Automotive
- Facility management
- Household appliances
- Hydraulics
- Measurement systems
- Medical engineering
- Production plants
- Process technology
- Inspection and testing systems
- Quality control
Quality control and dimensional inspection
Inductive gauging sensors measure the geometry of work-pieces in quality assurance and
production. The dimensions for inspection are
acquired in appropriate inspection rigs and
documented.Gauging sensors and other sensors are employed for the calibration of the robot axes and for the determination of the gripping span. Furthermore, with vision4A image
processing systems the position of the handling object in space is acquired.The deflection
of the probe tip in 3D coordinate machines is
compensated using inductive sensors from
Micro-Epsilon.
Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders
Railway engineering
When taking a bend, the coach body on the vehicle is then tilted towards the inside of the bend
with the aid of hydraulic cylinders. This tilt is acquired with sensors in the EDS series.
Automobile construction
Deflection of hydraulic suspension in commercial vehicles, position of convertible top cylinders
as well as pedal and clutch displacements are typical applications..
Heavy industry
The EDS series is used for the crusher gap control on rock crushers.
Aerospace
In the dynamic control and navigation of aircraft various sensors in the LVDT series are employed as key elements. Typical applications are in navigation, cockpit simulators, the mechanical
turbine control, antenna positioning, flaps control, rudder trimming, pedal positioning and in the
undercarriage.
- Machine tools
35
Inspection and testing systems
In inspection and testing systems inductive
sensors acquire deflection, oscillation and vibration of the measurement positions.
In particular, the sensors of the VIP series are
suitable for the measurement range from 50
to 200mm. The requirements with regard to
a small installation volume, wide useful measurement range and insensitivity to measurement object lateral variations are optimally
fulfilled by sensors in the VIP series.
Construction
Inductive sensors from Micro-Epsilon are used
for continuous measurements in civil engineering. The sensors acquire the movement of
bridge elements or the walls of buildings with
the change of seasons and during renewal.
Machine tools, production automation,
Measurement with respect to rotating
shafts
To monitor the clamping position of tools a
sensor in the VIP series is integrated into the
chuck and directly measures the clamping
stroke of the drawbar. It can be universally
used with the most varied types of tool due to
an extremely compact sensor design.
In automatic screwdrivers inductive sensors
from Micro-Epsilon continuously measure the
penetration depth from 0 to 70 mm, thus monitoring screw joints with different depths on
the same station.
Hydraulic valve
With the classical LVDT sensors and innovative sensors in the VIP series, Micro- Epsilon offers a wide selection of systems for the measurement of the piston position on hydraulic
and solenoid valves. The sensors in the VIP
series are particularly characterized by the
small installation space and the high cut-off
frequency.
Dosing valve
In automatic dosing valves inductive sensors
monitor the position of the dosing needle and
ensure uniform dosing quality.
Process valve
To control and block the flow of gases and
liquids the spindle drives of process valves
are fitted with Micro-Epsilon displacement
sensors.
Production plants
In automated production plant, inductive sensors from Micro-Epsilon monitor the production tolerance of the products while the process
is running. Other fields of application lie in the
continuous acquisition of flap positions and
slide settings.
Modifications reserved / Y9766177-A011125GKE
High performance sensors made by Micro-Epsilon
Sensors and systems for displacement
and position
Sensors and measurement devices for
non-contact temperature measurement
2D/3D profile sensors (laser scanner)
Optical micrometers, fiber
optic sensors and fiber optics
Color recognition sensors, LED analyzers
and color online spectrometer
Measurement and inspection systems
MICRO-EPSILON USA
8120 Brownleigh Dr. · Raleigh, NC 27617 / USA
Phone +1/919/787-9707 · Fax +1/919/787-9706
[email protected] · www.micro-epsilon.com
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