Eaton UPS Handbook
EMEA version
UPS Handbook
1
Welcome to the Eaton UPS Handbook
This comprehensive guide includes all the information
that resellers need to help them understand and sell the
industry-leading power protection solutions from Eaton®.
You’ll find a wealth of useful resources, all designed to
help you develop the best solution for your customers.
This handbook includes information about power
problems, factors affecting battery life, an overview of
various UPS topologies in addition to plug and receptacle
charts.
Eaton is a global leader in power protection, distribution
and management solutions. Eaton offers a comprehensive range of products and services designed to serve
the power system needs of the industrial, institutional,
government, utility, commercial, residential, IT and
mission-critical OEM markets globally. Eaton’s portfolio
includes uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), surge
protective devices, power distribution units (ePDUs),
remote monitoring, meters, software, connectivity, enclosures and services.
Whether you’re supplying power protection for small,
medium or large data centers, health care facilities, or
other environments in which ensuring uptime and
safeguarding data are critical, the UPS Handbook is your
one-stop source for essential information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction 2
Everything you need to know about electricity
The basics of voltage, amperes and frequency 3
Worldwide voltage 4
Single-phase power 6
Three-phase power 7
Everything you need to know about UPS
Why a UPS? 8
Nine power problem overview 9
UPS topologies 10
UPS form factors 11
Input plugs and output receptacles 12
UPS battery overview 13
Factors affecting battery life 15
UPS software overview 16
Service overview 17
Get to know Eaton power quality products
Eaton product overview 19
Eaton technologies 21
How to sell UPSs successfully
Top 10 UPS design considerations 23
Decentralised or centralised UPS? 26
Critical questions to ask prospective UPS customers 28
FAQs, glossary & acronyms
Frequently asked questions 29
Glossary of power terms 31
Commonly-used acronyms 35
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UPS Handbook
Handbook, EMEA version
Everything you need to know about electricity
The basics of voltage,
amperes and frequency
Three of the most common terms used
when talking about electricity and electrical
products are voltage, amperes and
frequency.
Put simply, a volt (V) is the measure of the
“pressure” with which electricity moves
through a wire or circuit, while an ampere
(A), or amp for short, is a measure of the
“volume”. Volts and amps are often
compared to water in a hose, with volts
representing the amount of pressure and
amps the volume of water.
When you turn on a hose without a nozzle
at the end, there is a lot of water (amps) but
not much pressure (volts). By placing your
thumb over the end of the hose, you reduce
the volume and increase the pressure, so
the water squirts further.
In terms of electricity, the number of amps
is a measure of how many electrons are
flowing in the wire, while the voltage level
tells us how hard those electrons are being
pushed. In the same way as a fire hose
operating at the same pressure as a garden
hose delivers a larger volume of water, a
wire carrying a higher voltage needs to have
a larger diameter for an equivalent voltage.
Frequency (Hz) is a measure of how many
times a second the electrical signal oscillates. The frequency of household voltages
varies according to geographical location; in
industrial voltages it can be customised to
meet specific site requirements.
Making sure that the volts, amps and
frequency of connected equipment are
compatible with the electrical supply can be
compared to filling up a car with the correct
type of fuel.
3
Worldwide voltage map
Single-phase voltages
110-127V; 60Hz (also 208V; 60Hz)
110-127V; 60Hz
100V
220/230V; 50Hz
240V; 50Hz
Country
Single phase Three-Phase Frequency (Hz)
voltage (V) voltage (V)
Canada
Afghanistan
220380
50
Albania
230400
50
Chad
220380
50
Algeria
230400
50
Chile 220
50
Angola
220380
50
China
220380
50
Argentina
220380
50
Colombia
110440
60
Armenia
230380
50
Congo
220400
50
Australia
240415
50
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
(formerly Zaire)
220
380
50
Austria
230400
50
Costa Rica
120
415
60
Azerbaijan
220380
50
Croatia
230240
50
Bahrain
230400
50
Cyprus
240400
50
Bangladesh
220380
50
Czech Republic 230
400
50
Belarus
220380
50
Denmark 230
400
50
Belgium
230400
50
Djibouti
220400
50
Benin
220380
50
Dominica
230380
50
Bolivia
110-115/220400
50
Dominican Republic
110
60
50
Ecuador
120190
60
Bosnia-Herzegovina220
400
120208/240/600
Central African Republic220
380
380
415
60
50
Botswana
220400
50
Egypt
220380
50
Brazil
110-127220/380
60
El Salvador
115
60
220
60
England
240400
50
Brunei
240415
50
Estonia
230400
50
Bulgaria
230400
50
Ethiopia
220380
50
Burkina Faso
220
380
50
Faroe Islands
230
400
50
Burma (Myanmar)
230
400
50
Falkland Islands
240
415
50
Burundi
220380
50
Finland
230400
50
Cambodia
230400
50
France
230400
50
Cameroon
220380
50
Gabon
220380
50
Gambia
230400
50
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UPS Handbook
Handbook, EMEA version
400
Everything you need to know about electricity
Country
Single phase Three-Phase Frequency (Hz)
voltage (V) voltage (V)
Gaza
230400
50
Georgia
220380
50
Germany
220-230400
50
Ghana
230400
50
Greece
220-230400
50
Guadeloupe
220400
50
Guatemala
120208
60
Guinea
220208
50
Guinea-Bissau 220380
50
Guyana
120-240-
50-60
Haiti
110-
50-60
Honduras
110-
60
Hong Kong
220
50
Hungary
230400
50
Iceland
230400
50
India
230400
50
Indonesia
220400
50
Iraq
230400
50
Ireland
230400
50
Israel
230400
50
Italy
220-230400
50
Ivory Coast
220
50
Jamaica
110-
Japan
100200
50&60
Jordan
230400
50
Kazakhstan
220380
50
Kenya
240415
50
Korea, South
220
Kuwait
240415
50
Kyrgyzstan
220380
50
Laos
230400
50
Latvia
220400
50
Lebanon
110-220400
50
Lesotho
240380
50
Liberia
120208
60
Libya
127-230220/400
50
Liechtenstein
230
50
Lithuania
220400
50
Luxembourg
220-230400
50
Macedonia
230400
50
Madagascar
220380
50
Malawi
230400
50
Malaysia
240415
50
Mali
220380
50
Malta
240400
50
Martinique
220380
60
Mauritania
220220
50
Mauritius
230400
50
Mexico
127220/480
50
Moldova
220380
50
Monaco
230400
50
Mongolia
220400
50
Morocco
220380
50
Mozambique
220380
50
Namibia
220-250380
50
Nauru
240415
50
Nepal
230400
50
Netherland Antilles
120-127/220 220/380
Netherlands
220-230400
380
380
380
400
50
50&60
50/60
New Zealand
230
Nicaragua
120208
415
60
Niger
220380
50
Nigeria
240400
50
Northern Ireland
240
50
Norway
230400
50
Oman
240415
50
Pakistan
230400
50
Panama
110-120-
60
Paraguay
220380
Peru
110/220220
Philippines
220380
60
Poland
230400
50
Portugal
220400
50
Puerto Rico
120
60
Qatar
240415
50
Réunion Island
230
50
Romania
230400
50
Russia
220400
50
Rwanda
230400
Saudi Arabia
127/220
Scotland
220400
50
Senegal
230400
50
Serbia
230400
50
Seychelles
240240
50
Singapore
230400
50
Slovakia
230400
50
Slovenia
230400
50
Somalia
110/220380
50
South Africa
220-250
50
Spain
220-230400
50
Sri Lanka
230
50
Sudan
230400
50
Surinam
115400
60
Swaziland
230220
50
Sweden
220-230400
50
Switzerland
230400
50
Taiwan
110-
60
Tajikistan
220380
50
Tanzania
230400
50
Thailand
220/230380
50
Togo
220380
50
Tonga
240415
60
Tunisia
230400
50
Turkey
230400
50
Turkmenistan
220380
50
Uganda
240415
50
Ukraine
220380
50
United Arab Emirates
220/230
415
50
United Kingdom
240
415
50
United States
120
208/480
60
Uruguay
220220
50
Uzbekistan
220380
50
Venezuela
120240
60
Vietnam
120/220380
50
Wales
220400
50
Yemen
220400
50
Zambia
220400
50
Zimbabwe
220415
50
400
208
400
380
400
400
50
50
50/60
50
50/60
50
5
Single-phase power
In electrical engineering, single-phase electric
power refers to the distribution of alternating
current electric power using a system in which
all the voltages of the supply vary in unison.
Single-phase distribution is used when loads are
mostly lighting and heating, with few large
electric motors. Single-phase electricity is what you have in your
house. In general, household electrical supply is a
single-phase, 220-230 volt AC supply. If you were
to take an oscilloscope and measure the power
from a normal wall socket in your house, the power
would be seen as a sine wave, with an effective
root mean square (RMS) voltage of 230 volts and
an oscillation rate of 50 cycles per second, or 50
Hz. Power that oscillates in this way is generally
referred to as alternating current, or AC.
The alternative to AC is DC, or direct current, such
as that produced by batteries. AC has at least three
advantages over DC in an electrical distribution
grid:
1. Large electricity generators generate AC
naturally, so conversion to DC requires an extra
step.
2. Electrical transformers, which the power distribution grid depends on, need an alternating current
in order to operate.
3. Converting AC to DC is easy, whereas converting
DC to AC is expensive. This makes AC a better
choice.
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UPS Handbook
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Everything you need to know about electricity
Three-phase power
As well being the most efficient way to distribute
power over long distances, three-phase power also
enables industrial equipment to operate more
efficiently. Three-phase power is characterised by
three single-phase waves that are offset in their
phase angle by 120 degrees, or one third of the
sine wave period (see Figure 1 below).
Three-phase voltage can be measured from each
phase to neutral or from one phase to any other.
The voltage relation between phase to neutral and
phase to phase is a factor of square root of three
(e.g. 230 V versus 400 V).
Conversely, single-phase power is distributed
through household outlets to power everyday equipment such as laptops, lighting and televisions. As
shown in Figure 2, if you were to look at the
voltage coming from a single-phase outlet on an
oscilloscope, you would see a single wave. This is
because single-phase power is obtained by simply
using
one phase
of a 270˚
three-phase
system. Its RMS
90˚
180˚
360˚
voltage is 230V and it oscillates at 50 Hz (or 50
times a second).
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
Figure 1. Three-phase power
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
270˚
360˚
Figure 2. Single-phase power
90˚
180˚
7
Everything you need to know about UPSs
Why use a UPS?
In general, a UPS protects IT equipment and other electrical loads from problems that plague our
electrical supply. A UPS performs the following three basic functions:
1. It prevents hardware damage typically caused by surges and spikes. Many UPS models continually
condition incoming power as well.
2. It prevents data loss and corruption. Without a UPS, data stored on devices that are subjected to a
hard system shutdown may become corrupted or even lost completely. In conjunction with power
management software, a UPS can facilitate a graceful system shutdown.
3. It provides availability for networks and other applications while preventing downtime. UPSs can also
be paired with generators in order to give the generators sufficient time to power up in the event of a
power cut.
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UPS Handbook
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Nine power problems
And how a UPS helps solve them
Eaton UPSs address all of the nine common power protection problems described below. They are designed
to meet the power protection, distribution and management needs of offices, computer networks, data
centres as well as in the telecommunications, healthcare and industrial markets.
For small office/home office (SOHO) applications, Eaton offers low-cost solutions such as the Ellipse and
Eaton 5110 UPS for the protection of general desktop systems. For safeguarding mission-critical systems like
network servers and power-hungry blade servers, Eaton’s offering includes line-interactive and online UPSs
such as the Eaton 5125, 9130, Evolution, EX, MX, MX Frame, 9155, 9355, 9390, 9395 and Blade UPS.
3
4
Power surge
(spike)
Undervoltage
(brownout)
5
Overvoltage
6
Electrical
line noise
7
Frequency
variation
8
9
Switching
transient
Harmonic
distortion
A total loss of utility power
Can be caused by a number of events:
lightning strikes, downed power lines,
grid over-demands, accidents and natural
disasters.
Short-term low voltage
Triggered by the startup of large loads, utility
switching, utility equipment failure, lightning, and
power service being insufficient to meet demand.
In addition to causing equipment crashes, power
sags can also damage hardware.
Short-term high voltage above
110per cent of nominal
Can be caused by a lightning strike and
can send line voltages to levels in excess
of 6,000 volts. A spike almost always
results in data loss or hardware damage.
Reduced line voltage for periods Can be caused by an intentional utility voltage
ranging from a few minutes to a reduction to conserve power during peak
demand periods or other heavy loads that
few days
exceed supply capacity.
Increased line voltage for
periods ranging from a few
minutes to a few days
Triggered by a rapid reduction in power
loads, heavy equipment being turned off, or
by utility switching. Can result in damage to
hardware.
High frequency waveform
caused by EMI interference
Can be caused by either RFI or EMI
interference generated by transmitters,
welding devices, SCR driven printers,
lightning, etc.
A change in frequency stability
Resulting from generator or small
co-generation sites being loaded
and unloaded. Frequency variation
can cause erratic operation, data
loss, system crashes and equipment
damage.
Solution
Single- and three-phase Series 9 UPS
2
Power sag
Cause*
Single-phase Series 5 UPS
1
Power failure
Definition*
Single-phase Series 3 UPS
Power problem Instantaneous and under-voltage Normal duration is shorter than a
spike and generally falls in the range
(notch)
of nanoseconds.
Distortion of the normal line
Switch mode power supplies, variable
waveform, generally transmitted speed motors and drives, copiers
by nonlinear loads
and fax machines are examples
of non-linear loads. Can cause
communication errors, overheating
and hardware damage.
*Reference IEEE E-050R & old FIPS PUB 94
9
UPS topologies
Which one best fits your customers’ needs?
The different UPS topologies provide varying degrees of protection. There are several factors that determine
which one will best fit your customers’ needs, including the level of reliability and availability they require,
the type of equipment being protected and the application or environment in question. While the three
most common topologies outlined below all meet the input voltage requirements for IT equipment, there
are key differences in how they work as well as in the frequency and duration of demands on the battery.
Passive standby topology (off-line) is used for protecting
PCs against power failure, power sag and power surge. In
normal mode, the UPS supplies power to the application
directly from the mains, filtered but without active conversion.
The battery is charged from the mains. In the event of a
power cut or fluctuation, the UPS delivers stable power from
the battery. This topology is low cost and provides sufficient
protection for office environments. Passive standby topology
is not suitable in cases where the power supply is of low
quality (for example, on industrial sites) or subject to frequent
disruptions.
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
AC to DC
Rectifier
AC to DC
Rectifier Buck Boost
DC to AC
Inverter
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Battery
Line interactive topology is used for protecting enterprise
network and IT applications against power failure, power
sag, power surge, undervoltage and overvoltage. In normal
mode, the device is controlled by a microprocessor that
monitors the quality of the supply and reacts to fluctuations.
A voltage compensation circuit is enabled to boost or reduce
the supply voltage in order to compensate for fluctuations.
The main advantage of line-interactive topology is that it
enables compensation for under- and overvoltage without
using the batteries.
ACBuck
to DCBoost
Rectifier
Buck Boost
Battery
AC to DC
Rectifier
AC to DC
Rectifier
Internal Static Bypass
Battery
AC to DC
Rectifier
AC to DC
Rectifier
Battery power
UPS Handbook
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DC to AC
Inverter
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Battery
Normal operation
eaton corporation
DC to AC
Inverter
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Internal Static Bypass
Battery
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Internal Static Bypass
Inverter
Double-conversion topology (on-line) is a basis for UPSs
designed for continuous power protection of critical
equipment against all nine of the common power problems
described on page 9. It ensures a consistent quality of power
supply regardless of disturbances in the incoming mains. The
output voltage is entirely regenerated by a sequence of AC to
DC conversion followed by DC to AC conversion in order to
create power supply without any electrical interference.
Double-conversion UPSs can be used with any type of
equipment as there are no transients when changing over to
battery power.
10
DC to AC
Inverter
Everything you need to know about UPSs
UPS form factors
Because UPSs are used for many different applications - ranging from desktop systems to large data centres - they come
in a wide variety of form factors.
1. Desktop and tower UPS
1
2
a. The Eaton Ellipse fits easily
on top of or under a desk
b. The Eaton 9130 tower UPS fits under
a desk or in a network cabinet
2. Wallmount UPS
The Eaton 5115 rackmount UPS includes
hardware for mounting it on a wall
a
b
3. Rackmount UPS
3
4
The Eaton 9130 rackmount UPS occupies
only 2U of rack space (fits both 2-post and
4-post racks)
4. Two-in-one rackmount/tower UPS
The Eaton 5130 UPS can be mounted in
a rack or installed as a tower model
5. Scalable UPS
a. The Eaton BladeUPS is a scalable,
redundant rackmount UPS
b. Eaton MX Frame
5
6
a
6. Large tower UPS
The Eaton 9390 and 9395 UPSs are
designed to be a central backup for
multiple loads, for example in data centres.
b
11
Input plugs and
output receptacles
When your customer receives a UPS, they should be able to plug it in right away. If a customer receives a UPS
and can’t plug it into the wall socket, or can’t plug their equipment into the UPS, you’ve got a problem.
For reference we have included the following chart to help you visually confirm input and output plug/receptacle
options.
Input plug and output receptacle chart
IEC-320-C13 (female)
12
IEC-320-C19 (female)
IEC-320-C20 (male)
FRBS
IEC-309, 16A
IEC-309, 32A
Schuko
Terminal block (Hardwired)
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IEC-320-C14 (male)
UPS Handbook
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Everything you need to know about UPSs
UPS battery overview
It’s a well-known fact that the battery is the most vulnerable part of a UPS. In fact, battery failure is a
leading cause of load loss. Understanding how to properly maintain and manage UPS batteries can not only
extend battery service life, but can also help prevent costly downtime.
Valve
Positive Flag
Terminal
Extruded Intercell
Welded Connection,
Low Resistance
Current Path
Cover/Lid
Strap Joining
Negative
Plates in
Parallel
Negative
Pasted Plate
Lead Alloy
Grid
VRLA batteries are sealed, usually within
polypropylene plastic, the advantage being
that there is no liquid sloshing around that
might leak or drip.
Polypropylene
Container/Jar
Separator
The most common type of battery used in UPSs is the valve-regulated lead acid
(VRLA) battery, also known as a sealed or maintenance-free battery.
The most common type of battery used in
UPSs is valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA)
batteries, also known as sealed or
maintenance free. VRLA batteries are
sealed, usually within polypropylene plastic,
which offers the advantage of not containing
any sloshing liquid that might leak or drip.
Because water cannot be added to VRLA
batteries, recombination of water is critical
to their life and health, and any factor that
increases the rate of evaporation or water
loss — such as temperature or heat from
the charging current — reduces the life of
the battery.
Frequently asked
questions:
1. What is the “end of useful life”?
The IEEE defines end of useful life for a UPS
battery as being the point when it can no
longer supply 80 per cent of its rated
capacity in ampere-hours. When your battery
reaches 80 per cent of its rated capacity, the
ageing process accelerates and the battery
should be replaced.
2. Is there any difference between the
batteries used by smaller UPSs, from 250
VA to 3 kVA, and the ones used by larger
UPSs?
While basic battery technology, and the risks
to battery life, remains the same regardless
of UPS size, there are some inherent
differences between large and small
applications. First, smaller UPSs typically
have only one VRLA battery that supports
the load and needs maintenance. As
systems get larger, increasing battery
capacity to support the load gets more
complicated. Larger systems may require
multiple strings of batteries, introducing
complexity to battery maintenance and
support. Individual batteries must be
monitored to prevent a single bad battery
from taking down an entire string, thereby
putting the load at risk. Also, as systems get
larger, wet-cell batteries become much more
common.
3. My UPS has been in storage for over a
year. Are the batteries still good?
As batteries sit unused, with no charging
regimen, their life will decrease. Due to the
self-discharge characteristics of lead acid
batteries, it is imperative that they be
charged after every six to 10 months of
storage. Otherwise, permanent loss of
capacity will occur between 18 and 30
months. To prolong shelf life without
charging, store batteries at 10°C (50°F) or
less.
13
4. What is the difference between hotswappable and user-replaceable
batteries?
7. What is the average lifespan of UPS
batteries?
The standard lifespan for VRLA batteries is
three to five years. However, expected life
can vary greatly due to environmental
conditions, number of discharge cycles, and
adequate maintenance. Have a regular
schedule of battery maintenance and
monitoring to ensure you know when your
batteries are reaching their end of useful
life. The typical life of an Eaton UPS with
ABM® technology is 50 per cent longer
than standard models.
Hot-swappable batteries can be changed
out while the UPS is running. Userreplaceable batteries are usually found in
smaller UPSs and require no special tools
or training to replace.
8. How can you be sure UPS batteries
are in good condition and ensure they
have maximum holdover in the event of a
power failure? What preventive
maintenance procedures should be done
and how often?
UPS models like the Eaton 9130 feature hot-swappable
batteries for maximum uptime.
5. How is battery runtime affected if I
reduce the load on the UPS?
The battery runtime will increase if the load
is reduced. As a general rule, if you reduce
the load by half, you triple the runtime.
6. If I add more batteries to a UPS can I
add more load?
Adding more batteries to a UPS can
increase the battery runtime to support the
load. However, adding more batteries to the
UPS does not increase its capacity. Ensure
that your UPS has sufficient capacity to
support your load, then add batteries to fit
your runtime needs.
The batteries used in the UPS and
associated battery modules and cabinets
are sealed, valve-regulated lead acid battery
often referred to as maintenance-free
batteries. While this type of battery is
sealed and you do not need to check the
fluid level in the battery, they do require
some attention to ensure proper operation.
Eaton´s ABM technology extends the life of
valve-regulated lead acid batteries by
applying sophisticated logic to the charging
regime. ABM also provides an additional
feature for monitoring battery condition and
advance warning about the end of battery
life upon detection of a weak battery.
9. How long does it take for the UPS
batteries to recharge?
On average, it takes 10 times the discharge
time for the UPS batteries to recover. (A
30-minute battery discharge requires about
300 minutes to recharge.) After each power
outage, the recharge process begins
immediately. It is important to note that the
load is fully protected while the batteries
are recharging. However, if the batteries are
needed during the recharge time, the
holdover time available will be less than it
would have been if the batteries were fully
charged.
10. What are the risks associated with a
lack of battery maintenance?
The primary risks of improperly maintained
batteries are load loss, fire, property
damage and personal injury.
Adding extended battery modules increases runtime but
does not increase the power rating or capacity of the UPS
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11. What is thermal runaway?
Thermal runaway occurs when the heat
generated in a lead acid cell exceeds its
ability to dissipate that heat, which can lead
to an explosion, especially in sealed cells.
The heat generated in the cell may occur
without any warning signs and may be
caused by overcharging, excessive
charging, internal physical damage, internal
short circuit or a hot environment.
12. Why do batteries fail?
Batteries can fail for a multitude of reasons,
but common reasons are:
• high or uneven temperatures
• inaccurate float charge voltage
• loose inter-cell links or connections
• loss of electrolyte due to drying out or damage to the case
• lack of maintenance, ageing
13. How is battery performance generally
measured?
Batteries are generally rated for 100+
discharges and recharges, but many
batteries show a marked decline in charging
capacity after as few as 10 discharges. The
lower the charge the battery can accept,
the less runtime it can deliver. Look for
batteries with a high-rate design that
sustains stable performance for a long
service term.
Everything you need to know about UPSs
Factors affecting battery life
All UPS batteries have a limited service life, regardless of how or where the UPS is deployed.
While determining battery life can be tricky, there are four primary factors that affect a battery’s overall lifespan.
1. Ambient temperature
Because the rated capacity of a battery is based on an
ambient temperature of 25°C, any variation from this can
affect performance and reduce battery life. For every 8.3°C
average annual temperature above 25°C, the life of the
battery is reduced by 50 per cent.
2. Battery chemistry
UPS batteries are electro-chemical devices whose ability to
store and deliver power slowly decreases over time. Even if
all guidelines for storage, maintenance and usage are
followed, batteries will still require replacement after a certain
period of time.
3. Cycling
After a UPS operates on battery power during a power failure,
the battery is recharged for future use, which is called the
discharge cycle. At installation, the battery is at 100 per cent
of its rated capacity, but each discharge and subsequent
recharge slightly reduces the relative capacity of the battery.
Once the chemistry is depleted, the cells fail and the battery
must be replaced.
4. Maintenance
For larger UPS models, service and maintenance of batteries
are critical to the reliability of the UPS. Periodic preventive
maintenance not only extends battery string life by preventing
loose connections and removing corrosion, but can help
identify ailing batteries before they fail. Even though sealed
batteries are sometimes referred to as maintenance free, they
still require scheduled service - maintenance free refers only
to the fact that they do not require replacement of fluid.
5. Battery service life
Most UPS batteries on the market today are constantly
“trickle-charged”- a process that degrades the battery’s
internal chemical composition and reduces potential battery
service life by as much as 50 per cent. In contrast, Eaton's
ABM technology uses sophisticated sensing circuitry and an
innovative three-stage charging technique that extends the
useful service life of UPS batteries while optimising the
battery recharge time. ABM technology also provides up to 60
days’ notice of the end of useful battery service life to allow
you ample time to hot swap batteries without ever having to
shut down connected equipment.
15
UPS software overview
Operating a UPS without power management software is like driving in the rain without windscreen wipers — you may
be protected from the downpour, but your visibility only lasts for so long.
While a UPS protects the attached load during a power outage, power management software is required to ensure that all
work in progress is saved and that operating systems are gracefully shut down if the power outage exceeds the battery
runtime of the UPS.
Eaton’s Intelligent Power ® Manager facilitates easy and
versatile remote monitoring and management of multiple
devices, keeping you informed about power and environmental conditions.
In addition to facilitating automatic, orderly shutdown
of all connected devices during an extended outage,
power management software delivers a broad
spectrum of other advantages. The perfect
complement to any UPS solution, management
software keeps a constant watch over network health
through its monitoring and management capabilities.
Most power management software is shipped with the
UPS and is usually available as a free download online
as well. Power event notifications are available as
audible alarms, pop-up alerts on a monitor, e-mails to
predefined recipients based on the condition, text
messages, and triggers for a multitude of network and
building management systems to initiate the orderly
shutdown of equipment.
Some software offerings are capable of delivering a
global view across the network — often from any PC
with an internet browser. Software can also provide a
complete log of events and UPS utility data, which is
invaluable when debugging a power anomaly. Many
power management products have the ability to
centralise alarms, organise data by customised views
and maintain event logs for preventive maintenance of
the entire installed equipment base.
The more robust and versatile software offerings are
compatible with devices that support a network
interface, including all manufacturers’ UPSs,
environmental sensors, ePDUs and other devices.
Furthermore, power management software enables
load segment control for UPS models that support this
feature.
To view an online demonstration of Eaton’s power management software
capabilities, please visit www.eaton.com/intelligentpowermanager.
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Because power protection and management are just
as vital for virtual machines as they are for physical
servers, new software technologies have been
specifically designed to provide monitoring and
management capabilities in virtualised environments.
Shutdown software is now compatible with VMware’s
ESXi and vSphere and Microsoft’s Hyper-V, enabling
graceful shutdown of multiple virtual machines.
Everything you need to know about UPSs
Service overview
One of the best ways to protect your customers’ investment is by including
a service contract with your UPS sales. Scheduled preventive maintenance can
help detect a wide range of problems before they become serious and
costly issues.
In fact, research indicates that regular preventive maintenance is crucial in
order to achieve maximum performance from equipment. Studies show that
routine preventive maintenance can significantly reduce the likelihood that a
UPS will succumb to downtime. The 2007 Study of Root Causes of Load
Losses compiled by Eaton revealed that customers who did not take
advantage of preventive maintenance visits were almost twice more likely to
experience a UPS failure than those who had completed the one
recommended preventive maintenance visit per year.
UPSs are complex devices that perform several critical power conditioning and
backup supply functions, and are subject to failure. Without proper
maintenance, all UPSs will eventually fail over their useful life since critical
components like batteries and capacitors will wear out from normal use. A
properly planned maintenance contract delivered by trained and experienced
personnel can greatly minimise the risk of failure.
Types of UPS service
There are several different UPS service delivery methods, each designed to
meet the varying needs of your customers. These include:
• Depot exchange repair or replace. The customer contacts the UPS service
provider and ships the UPS to a repair facility. The service provider returns
the repaired unit or a refurbished unit.
• Advance swap depot exchange. The customer contacts the UPS service
provider, who ships a refurbished unit to them; the original UPS unit is
returned to a repair facility.
Smaller UPS models are usually sent to a repair facility
• On-site repair. The customer contacts the UPS service provider and a
factory-trained field technician diagnoses and repairs electrical or batteryrelated problems on site.
Smaller UPS products up to 3000 kVA are repared at a depot, while products
over 3000 VA are normally serviced on-site as they are either hardwired
(cannot be unplugged) or too heavy to ship.
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Types of service contracts
A variety of different UPS service options are available, all designed to help save customers’ time and
money by minimising business disruption and downtime costs. These service options are also designed to
improve return on investment by extending the lifespan of critical power equipment.
• Service contracts usually combine parts and labour coverage (electronics, batteries or both), at least one
or more UPS preventive maintenance inspections annually, and a combination of coverage hours and
arrival response time. Plans can be tailored to meet almost any need. Special features such as remote
monitoring, battery replacement insurance and spare part kits may also be added.
• An extended warranty (or basic warranty) may also be purchased for many UPS products. A warranty
commonly covers specified parts and labour such as electronic components for a fixed period of time. It
will not include 24/7 coverage or arrival response times, nor will it include preventive maintenance,
although extra services can be purchased in addition to a warranty extension. The more services added to
a warranty, the closer it becomes to a support agreement.
• Time and Material (T&M) service is a pay-as-you-go approach in which the service provider carries out a
repair only when something breaks. T&M can be done either via depot repair or on site, depending on the
UPS. This method may not be the best solution for some customers, since it is often expensive, and
there is the uncertainty of not knowing when a field technician will arrive. Because support agreement
(contract) customers always take priority, for non-contract customers T&M response times may be as
long as several days, depending on the product and location.
Larger UPS models require on-site preventive maintenance visits for optimal performance
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Some UPS companies, such as Eaton, provide remote
monitoring services
Get to know Eaton power quality products
Eaton product overview
Eaton’s power quality portfolio encompasses a comprehensive offering of power management solutions from a single-source
provider. This includes UPSs, surge protective devices, power distribution units (ePDUs), remote monitoring, meters,
software, connectivity, enclosures and services. Our power quality portfolio is designed to fulfill specific customer
requirements, complement a new or pre-existing solution, and to deliver a comprehensive solution. With all our products,
Eaton strives for continued success in leveraging technical innovation to develop next-generation solutions. The products and
services listed below represent a sample of our comprehensive set of solutions. To view the complete offering or to request
a product catalogue, please visit www.eaton.com/powerquality.
Surge suppressors
Eaton’s Protection Box surge suppressors offer the best
price/performance ratio for SOHO users looking for a convenient way to combine multiple receptacles and excellent
surge suppression capabilities.
PC/workstation and home A/V UPS
Power range: 500 VA–1500 VA
These Eaton UPSs provide the perfect level of protection for
small office/home office (SOHO) applications. These essential, cost-effective products prevent damage such as data
loss, file corruption, flickering lights, hardware damage and
equipment shutoff, and they are most commonly used to
protect single workstations, telephone systems and point-ofsale (POS) equipment.
Eaton Ellipse MAX, 600–1500 VA
­­The Eaton Ellipse MAX UPS provides cost-effective, lineinteractive backup power and voltage regulation. With its
compact form factor, the Ellipse MAX can be utilised as a
standalone tower or under a computer monitor. This UPS is
also equipped with local outlets.
Eaton EX RT, 5–11 kVA, rackmount/tower
Ideal for high-density server environments and demanding
industrial applications, the Eaton EX RT UPS is specifically
engineered to meet the high availability demands of customers with switches, IT systems, measuring instruments,
PLCs, industrial PCs and other sensitive electronic equipment.
Data centre and facility UPS
Power range: 10–1100 kVA
Featuring an array of inventive features, Eaton’s data centre
and facility UPS solutions incorporate the design elements
essential to protecting the most critical of applications.
These groundbreaking solutions address current and future
power protection requirements, featuring scalable architecture that grows with you to manage changing needs with
the highest levels of efficiency and reliability. And, with
Eaton’s Energy Saver System technology, an Eaton UPS can
run at 99 per cent efficiency, meaning that the total cost of
the UPS can usually be recovered in three to five years.
Eaton BladeUPS, 12–60 kW
Network and server UPS
Power range: 500 VA–18000 VA
Eaton offers an extensive and innovative line of network and
server UPS solutions to protect rack servers, data storage,
storage systems, VoIP equipment, network equipment and
other critical devices. Get industry-leading power protection
with the highest efficiency for increased energy savings in
optimised rack, tower and rack/tower form factors.
Eaton 9130, 700–6000 VA, rack and tower
The scalable and modular BladeUPS expands power protection up to 60 kW in a single 19-inch rack while reducing energy and cooling costs with its energy-efficient UPS design.
The BladeUPS packs 12 kW of power into only 6U of rack
space.
The 9130 delivers more real power with a 0.9 power factor
and offers a high efficiency mode, performing at a remarkable 95 per cent efficiency or higher. This UPS delivers superior power protection for IT and networking environments as
well as medical and manufacturing systems.
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Eaton 9390, 40–160 kVA
Eaton enclosures
The 9390 UPS provides a high-end power quality solution for data
centres, banks and other critical computing applications.
Eaton 9395, 225-1100 kVA
Designed specifically for IT applications, this 42U modern enclosure offers strength, stability and a vendor-neutral environment to
house any IT equipment. The enclosure is complemented with a
range of cable management, cooling and power distribution
accessories to enable you to tailor your enclosures to your specific application.
Software and connectivity
Eaton’s Intelligent® Power Software Suite delivers the ability to
manage all your power devices over your network or via the
internet. With both supervisory and protection capability, our
software allows you to monitor your power devices and even
gracefully shut operating systems and computers down in the
event of an extended power outage.
Eaton’s connectivity products are accessory hardware options
that link UPS products with external monitoring system devices.
Our connectivity products provide communication
compatibility through the internet, serial, ModBus or SNMP.
The Eaton 9395 UPS combines technical innovation with a rich
feature set to provide best-in-class power protection with high
energy density for large data centres, healthcare applications and
other critical systems.
Power distribution
Eaton’s power distribution solutions are designed to help you
save money, prevent downtime and use energy more efficiently.
Our comprehensive portfolio includes enclosures as well as standard and custom ePDUs (enclosure power distribution units) that
are based on different technologies including Basic, Metered,
Monitored, Advanced Monitored, Inline Monitored and Managed.
ePDU
Eaton services
Eaton provides an extensive technical support network to cover
the power protection needs of our customers. We offer a number
of distinct service packages to match different types of maintenance needs and budgets. Whichever package you choose, you
can rest assured that it will deliver power security and reliability
to keep your core business running. For more information, please
contact your local Eaton service organisation or authorised service partner.
Eaton offers power quality services for its UPS products as well
as for related equipment such as power distribution units
(ePDUs) and batteries. Eaton also services products from legacy
brands including Fiskars, Powerware, Exide Electronics, Best
Power and MGE Office Protection Systems.
From basic, efficient power distribution to intelligent power management capabilities, Eaton ePDU products are designed to
meet the demands of every data centre.
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Get to know Eaton power quality products
Eaton technologies
Eaton has been developing its innovative technical solutions in the power protection field since receiving its first
patent in 1962. As a technology leader, Eaton continues to meet its customers’ rapidly changing needs with
advanced patented technologies.
Transformer-free technology
The transformer-free technology used in Eaton UPSs brings improved performance and value. This is
achieved with small and lightweight filter inductors, high-performance IGBTs in both the inverter and
rectifier, and an advanced control algorithm. A transformer-free UPS typically weighs 50 per cent less than
legacy UPS topology designs and occupies just 60 per cent of the footprint. Low input THD (<4.5per cent
at full load) and high input power factor (>0.99) are supported down to nearly 10per cent load without the
need for an additional input filter. In addition, full load efficiency can reach 94.5per cent and above.
Energy Saver System (ESS)
Eaton’s innovative ESS technology enables the UPS to reach an industry-leading efficiency
level of 99 per cent by allowing the UPS to safely provide mains current directly to a load
when the input is within acceptable voltage and frequency limits. ESS’s fast detection
algorithms continuously monitor incoming power quality. If the predefined limits are
exceeded, ESS immediately engages the UPS power converters, allowing transition to full
voltage and frequency independent (VFI) double-conversion mode in less than two
milliseconds. ESS is available in Eaton 9395 and Eaton 9390 UPSs.
Variable Module Management System (VMMS)
UPS systems are rarely loaded at full capacity; lighter loads are the rule rather than the
exception. At loads less than 40 per cent of the full load rating, UPS efficiency decreases,
thus increasing the system´s overall energy consumption. The solution is Eaton’s VMMS
technology (implemented in the Eaton 9395 UPS), which allows the UPS to achieve higher
efficiency for lighter loads. With VMMS, the UPS can decide which of the power modules are
in idle mode. This way, the remaining power modules drive the load with higher efficiency.
When the load increases again and more power modules are needed, the system
immediately shifts the load into additional modules. VMMS adapts both to a single UPS
consisting of multiple power modules and multiple UPS parallel systems.
VMMS
Parallel Eaton 9395 – 825 kVA modular
UPS and VMMS
UPS1 UPS2 UPS3
L
O
A
D
Full system efficiency is
automatically optimised according to the load level
Variable Module Management System (VMMS) technology maximises
efficiencies at lighter loads without compromising reliability.
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Hot Sync® technology
Patented Hot Sync® parallel load-sharing technology guarantees maximum system availability by eliminating
the risk of single point of failure. Hot Sync is based on a parallel configuration in which two or more units
share the same load. If one unit fails, the other units take over its tasks, isolates the damaged unit and
continues to supply electricity without interruption. The technology is unique because it enables the UPS units
to operate completely independently; no communication wiring between units is required to transmit systemlevel information for output phase adjusting. The technology is available for all three-phase UPSs.
Patented Hot Sync technology provides highest availability
for load.
ABM technology
Eaton has created ABM technology to extend the life of valve regulated lead acid batteries by applying
sophisticated logic to the charging regime. Using the traditional trickle-charge method, batteries become
subject to electrode corrosion and electrolyte dry-out, especially in standby service use due to continuous float
charging. ABM essentially enables a more intelligent charging routine by preventing unnecessary charging,
thus significantly reducing wear and tear. ABM provides an additional feature for monitoring battery condition
and advance warning about the end of battery life upon detection of a weak battery. It also optimises the
recharge time, which is advantageous when there may be consecutive power outages within a short period.
ABM has been used for over 15 years in our UPSs ranging from 1 to 160 kVA and is now incorporated into in
UPSs up to 1100 kVA.
ABM technology significantly increases battery service life.
Easy Capacity Test
With Easy Capacity Test, Eaton’s UPSs (Eaton 9390 and Eaton 9395) are able to test their entire power train
under a full load stress without an external load being connected. Because UPS uses its rectifiers and
inverters as internal load banks and draws only minimal power (five per cent) from the mains supply, the
energy consumption of the UPS testing is significantly reduced.
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How to sell UPSs successfully
Top 10 UPS design considerations
The following 10 factors outline the key design considerations to take into account when analysing your customers’
needs and presenting the most appropriate Eaton solution. By properly assessing the information they provide, you
can help them to make important trade-off decisions during the selection and purchase process.
1. Power environment: single-phase and three-phase
Understanding your customer’s existing power infrastructure
is a crucial step in the qualification and sales process. While
many consultants typically focus on larger, three-phase power
systems, the majority of IT managers are primarily deal with
single-phase equipment, often at the rack level.
Many existing computer rooms and small to mid-sized data
centres have single-phase loads at the rack level. However
ground-up designs are increasingly moving three-phase
power to the point of utilisation in order to gain efficiencies
and reduce costs, creating great opportunity for three-phase
solutions in new construction.
2. Installation environment
It is imperative that you understand how a prospective UPS
will be deployed. Since most environments support several
different solutions, you may need to help the customer
evaluate the available options. Be prepared to offer value
propositions, feature comparisons and pricing for multiple
solutions.
Studies have shown that customers generally choose the
higher-value option when given a choice. If you fail to offer
multiple options, you leave an opening for the competition to
gain the customer’s trust by offering a different solution that
may be presented as a more cost-effective option. Don’t
leave that opening.
3. Power load
The VA or watt rating of the customer’s power load is one of
the most important factors in identifying the right UPS for
their overall solution.
After identifying the power environment (if the UPS needs to
be single-phase or three-phase), the size of the UPS further
narrows down the selection. Although many customers have
this information readily available, you should be prepared to
assist them in estimating the power requirements of their
equipment. Be sure to take into account future growth in the
customer’s power load; especially in single-phase deployments, it often makes sense to select a UPS that exceeds
the customer’s current power requirements in order to offer
greater runtimes and allow for future growth.
4. Availability
This is where you need to determine the customer’s true
runtime requirements. While runtime may seem like a simple
thing to quantify, understanding the facts behind the
numbers can contribute to the development of an end-to-end
solution.
Generally, the amount of runtime required can significantly
affect the cost of a solution; however, many Eaton solutions
are actually more cost effective in extended runtime applications. Be sure to find out how much runtime a customer
needs and why. Evaluate multiple solutions when making
recommendations on what will be most beneficial for the end
user.
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23
5. Scalability
It’s always important to consider your customer’s future
expansion needs when evaluating a solution. Eaton’s
scalable UPS solutions provide a competitive advantage by
offering customers a cost-effective way to increase
capacity. Virtually all Eaton UPSs with a 6 kVA or greater
power rating offer some form of scalability, whether it be
through a simple firmware upgrade, the addition of
modular hardware components or the paralleling of
multiple UPSs.
For the cost-conscious or budget-constrained customer, a
UPS with inherent scalability often proves to be the best
value in the long run, allowing the customer to increase
capacity without having to purchase additional hardware. A
simple kVA upgrade is all that’s needed to enable a UPS
with inherent scalability to operate at full capacity.
Customers who have internal IT or facilities staff and who
service their own equipment may prefer to add capacity by
purchasing additional modules that can be added in an
expandable chassis or rack as their power load increases.
While modular solutions - including multiple, paralleled
systems - are often a more affordable option initially, they
can be a more expensive solution in the long term due to
additional hardware and installation costs. Depending on
the customer’s specific needs, a larger, centralised,
modular system might ultimately be the most cost-effective solution.
6. Power distribution
It is imperative that you understand your customer’s
power distribution scheme. Keep in mind that Eaton’s
ePDUs and rack power modules, can be used with any
UPS product.
Just as software, communications and metering can often
sell hardware, a well-conceived power distribution and
metering scheme can directly address a customer’s needs
and ultimately, sell the solution. In some instances, data
centre managers want to more effectively monitor departmental usage of resources in order to better allocate
overheads for the organisation. In deploying metering at
the rack level, one Eaton customer was able to track each
department’s demand and allocate expenses based on
meter readings. Combined with using the most efficient
servers available, the ability to analyse peak hours of
usage for computing processes enables an IT manager to
further increase efficiency.
7. Manageability
Eaton’s manageability software and accessories very often
help to sell our hardware and can be the key to closing the
sale. Eaton’s manageability tools should be introduced at
every available opportunity in order to offer the customer a
complete solution and help lower the total cost of ownership.
As an example, one customer had expressed a need for
15 minutes of runtime in order to reach a remote facility
he managed approximately 10 minutes away. Based on the
salesperson’s ability to ascertain the real need, a network
interface card for the rack-based UPS was recommended,
along with remote management software that would
enable the UPS to gracefully shut down applications in the
event of an extended outage. ePDUs were also employed
to deliver multiple levels of monitoring and control.
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The customer was so pleased with the ability to remotely
monitor his UPSs and reboot his servers - which eliminated his need to drive to the facility in the event of a
power disturbance - that he purchased all the hardware he
needed to obtain that functionality. By understanding his
communication and control needs, Eaton was able to
provide a complete solution.
8. Operation and maintenance
While many customers value the ability to service their
own equipment, the vast majority of IT and facility
management professionals prefer the peace of mind that
comes with full factory support through on-site service.
Understanding a customer’s availability requirements and
technical proficiency - along with his or her tolerance for
risk - can further help reduce the number of viable product
options as part of a consultative selling process. In
addition, considering the product’s up-front costs in combination with Eaton’s service level agreements is an integral
component of any sales process.
While some IT professionals value the ability to independently swap modules or replace batteries within their
products, others prefer a hands-off approach to power in
their data centre. In addition, the type of installation
(decentralised or centralised large UPS) may also influence
the customer’s service preference.
For those who want some level of service autonomy,
small single-phase or rack-based equipment with userserviceable batteries and modules may be the ideal
solution. Customers with smaller budgets and higher kVA
ratings may prefer a low-cost, centralised, end-of-row
solution supported by on-site factory support. Anticipating
a customer’s budget and support needs leads you in the
right direction during a consultative selling approach.
How to sell UPSs successfully
9. Budget
10. Expanding the opportunity
Most customers indicate that redundancy, scalability, modularity
and serviceability are all critical components in deciding which
UPS to purchase. In turn, the majority of salespeople consider
these factors to be critical components of their proposal.
However, without first considering the customer’s budget,
important tradeoff decisions cannot be considered and the
proposal may be placed in a poor competitive position.
Our broad portfolio of products and capabilities - including singleand three-phase UPSs, power distribution products, connectivity
and manageability tools, and world-class service and support enables Eaton to fulfill all our customer’s power quality needs.
Since the customer will be focused on numerous features, it is
important for the salesperson to ask probing questions that
comprehensively evaluate each item and consider its importance
relative to its impact on the budget. By proposing multiple
options and ranking the importance of each feature as part of a
consultative approach, you build trust with the prospect by
helping to determine the optimal solution from a value perspective.
Another important budgetary factor that is often overlooked, is
identifying the key decision maker within the company. Although
a facilities professional or data centre manager may be a strong
influence, identifying the decision maker can often make or
break the deal. By ascertaining who will ultimately approve or
allocate funds for the project, a salesperson gains the opportunity to ask additional questions. The ability to talk directly to the
decision maker provides a chance to address his or her needs
and capitalise on the opportunity to learn their main concerns
and tailor a proposal that addresses those concerns. Failure to
do so is a common cause of missed sales opportunities.
By always taking into account a customer’s budget, you cover all
bases and prevent the competition from offering a lower-cost
alternative.
Other UPS design considerations
The following design guidelines should be reviewed and followed
prior to ordering the appropriate UPS solution.
1. Check to see if there is an adequate electrical supply near
the UPS
Compare UPS fuse ratings (amps) and breaker types, and
whether any electrical work may be needed (i.e. cabling to the
UPS terminal block input). The site may have its own electrical
contractors.
2. Find out the dimensions of the UPS and include any
battery cabinets
Make sure that the installation site has enough space available.
3. Ensure that the UPS can be placed in its final position
Will the UPS components fit through doors? Are there any
stairs? Please consult Eaton’s web site for detailed UPS
dimensions and specifications: www.eaton.com/powerquality.
4. Verify that the floor is strong enough to support the UPS
and battery cabinets
The UPS and its battery cabinets can be heavy, so make sure
the floor can support the weight of the equipment.
5. Confirm that the UPS will have adequate ventilation
Eaton UPS models use internal fans for cooling. The UPS should
not be installed in a sealed container or small, sealed room.
6. Assess the need for hardwired connections
Hardwired outputs are generally useful if you want the UPS
output to be distributed via electrical panels. Using an electrical
distribution panel allows for flexibility with receptacles types.
When qualifying an opportunity, be sure to speak with all
decision makers within the account, including the facility
procurement manager and the IT procurement manager. Working
with both contacts will help you to identify all potential opportunities to introduce Eaton power quality solutions.
As a global provider of power quality infrastructure products and
services that provide an industry-leading balance of reliability,
energy efficiency and value, Eaton is uniquely positioned to help
customers around the globe manage all elements of their power
systems. By focusing on only one product or business segment,
you miss the opportunity to offer the customer a complete
solution and grow Eaton’s market share.
7. Installing small UPS models behind larger UPS models
If you are installing a smaller UPS behind a larger UPS, you must
consider the total potential power of the smaller UPS as well as
other loads that will be powered by the larger UPS. For example,
if you are plugging a 1500 VA UPS into a 10,000 VA UPS, you
must consider the 1500 VA load of the smaller UPS rather than
just the load that is plugged into it. In addition, the larger UPS
must be at least five times larger than the smaller UPS. This
design guideline must be followed due to charging capacity that
may be required by the smaller UPS, any anomalies associated
with the building’s power supply, and to avoid overheating or
potential overloading of the larger UPS, which may result in
failure of the all UPS units in the string.
8. Using a UPS and a generator together
A UPS provides backup power and actively conditions and
regulates voltage. Similar to a UPS, a generator provides backup
power. However, auxiliary generators typically take 10-15
seconds to start up, depending upon generator type. For longterm backup servers and IT equipment, this is not an optimal
situation, so during this time the UPS kicks in. Basically, the UPS
bridges the power gap between loss of power and when the
generator comes online.
When designing your UPS solution, it is important to keep power
ratings in mind; you cannot size a generator in a 1:1 match to the
UPS and expect successful results. There are two reasons for
this: firstly, UPSs aren’t 100 per cent efficient and secondly,
generators need to account for step loads. In addition to
accounting for step load, very small generators don’t often
provide enough kinetic energy to provide a smooth transition.
As a rule of thumb, for 20 kVA and above the capacity of the
auxiliary generators should be one-and-a-half times the size of
the output rating of the UPS in kW, while for 20 kVA and below
the capacity should be twice that of the UPS output rating in
kW. It is also important to note that the capacity of gas-powered
generators should be slightly larger still.
9. Verify that the final UPS solution meets local building
codes
The facility manager is often the best contact when seeking to
understand local building codes.
25
Decentralised or centralised UPS?
Is a single, larger UPS better? Or is it better to have multiple, smaller UPSs? Tha answer depends on a number of
factors. In a decentralised (also known as distributed) UPS configuration, multiple UPSs support a handful of devices
or perhaps only a single piece of equipment. Decentralised UPSs typically use plug and play connections and are
usually less than, or equal to, 6 kVA. In a centralised UPS configuration, a larger UPS supports multiple devices. A
centralised UPS is typically hardwired into an electrical panelboard. The following tables illustrate a number of factors
that should be considered when making a decision between a decentralised UPS and a centralised UPS.
Decentralised UPS
26
Advantages
Disadvantages
No rewiring required. Existing wall sockets can be used.
If the building is supported by a generator, smaller
standby and line-interactive UPSs may not be able to
function while the generator is running.
Provides room for future capacity growth and avoids being
locked into a specific UPS.
Time and effort is required to monitor multiple UPS
units, to keep up with replacing batteries and maintaining the individual units.
Existing smaller UPS units need not be discarded. (However, most manufacturers offer a trade-in scheme.)
A decentralised design doesn’t offer the opportunity
to simply shut down a single UPS with emergency
power off. Also, it may not offer redundancy and other
capabilities provided by a larger, centralised UPS.
Power conditioning is implemented at the point of use,
which mitigates any electrical disturbances that may be
coupled into the distribution wiring of centralised system.
Adding redundancy, extended runtime or maintenance
bypass functionality to multiple UPSs can be costly.
Provides flexibility in terms of power protection and functionality. For example, extended runtime can be configured
for specific applications, eliminating the need to add additional battery modules for less critical equipment.
Multiple audible alarms/alerts may be irritating.
eaton corporation
UPS Handbook, EMEA version
How to sell UPSs successfully
Centralised UPS
Advantages
Disadvantages
Typically, the sales and service life of the UPS is longer.
A single UPS can mean a single point of failure. However you can overcome this concern with a N+1 or N+X
UPS for redundancy.
A single UPS is easier to monitor, service and maintain
than lots of smaller UPSs.
The single UPS may not be in close physical proximity
to the equipment that it will protect. It is very likely
that not all the equipment will be fed by a single electrical distribution panel.
A larger UPS will be three-phase, which usually means
more efficient operation and lower operating costs.
A centralised solution requires more space for a large
UPS, which may not be available.
A centralised UPS is often housed away from busy
areas. As a result, it is less easily disrupted, accidentally
damaged or maliciously interfered with.
Generally requires a trained service technician or electrician to install, service and maintain, which means
additional costs.
A centralised UPS can be located in an area where
cooling is more tightly controlled. Remember, heat is
the enemy of the batteries inside a UPS.
Installation and wiring costs may be higher.
Though a technician may need to replace the batteries,
you only have to worry about a single UPS. A distributed UPS configuration may result in various models that
require different batteries. Consider the time it takes to
replace the batteries for between five and 20 UPSs.
Combining the configurations
It is important to keep in mind that decentralised and centralised power protection deployment strategies are not
necessarily mutually exclusive. The two strategies can be used in combination to provide redundancy for missioncritical applications. For example, an entire facility may be protected by a large, centralised UPS, but a specific
department such as a 24/7 call centre may also employ UPSs to provide redundant protection and possibly extend
runtime for equipment.
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How to sell UPSs successfully
Critical questions to ask
prospective customers
By asking your prospective customers the following questions, you can familiarise yourself with their needs and expectations and, in doing so, provide even
better customer service.
Applications
1. What would happen if the power went out at your facility right now?
2.Have you thought about the impact of damaged or corrupted data?
3.If you have a converged data-voice network, have you protected all critical
switches?
4.If you have virtualised your servers, have you considered the impact on your
UPS equipment?
5.How much energy do your UPS units consume? How efficient are they?
6.How often do you refresh and maintain your IT hardware (including servers)?
What about your UPS equipment?
UPS-specific questions
1. What size UPS do you need (kVA or amperage)?
2.What voltage is currently available at the site?
3.What voltage do you need?
4.What runtime do you want?
5.Are there any clearances or size constraints we should know about?
6.What are the bypass requirements?
7. What type of input and output connections are required?
8.Is there a generator on site?
9.Does the UPS need to be scalable?
10.Do you need redundancy?
Accessories
1. How is power fed from the UPS to the equipment?
2.Do you need enclosures, communications, seismic mounting, floor stands
or rail kits?
3. Do you need a maintenance bypass switch?
Software
1. Does the software you use require orderly, scheduled shutdown?
2.Do you want to remotely monitor the UPS?
3.Would you like to remotely notify users of UPS events?
Service
1. Do you need immediate service centre response?
2.What kind of parts and labour coverage do you need?
3.Do you want any type of preventive maintenance?
4. When did you last check the batteries in your existing UPS units?
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UPS Handbook, EMEA version
FAQs, glossary & acronyms
Frequently asked questions
We have compiled the following set of questions based on our
extensive experience in dealing with both resellers and end users.
For frequently asked questions about UPS batteries, please check
the UPS battery overview section on page 14.
1. What’s the difference between a surge protector and a
UPS?
A surge protector provides just that - surge protection. - In addition
to surge protection, a UPS continually regulates incoming voltage
and provides battery backup in the event of a power failure. You’ll
often see surge protectors plugged into a UPS for added surge
protection and in order to provide additional output receptacles.
2. How much UPS capacity should I use?
To allow for future expansion, we recommend that you install a
UPS at approximately 75 per cent capacity. In addition, the
batteries degrade over time; by oversizing, you can allow for this.
The online Eaton UPS sizing tool (www.eaton.com/powerquality)
includes a “capacity used” column.
3. How much UPS battery runtime do I need?
During an outage, you need enough battery runtime to gracefully
shut down systems or switch to backup generators. You may add
an optional external battery module (EBM) to increase runtime.
4. How is battery runtime impacted if I reduce the load on the
UPS?
There can be a significant increase in runtime. Generally speaking,
a UPS that provides five minutes at full load will provide 15
minutes at half load.
5. My business is too small for protective measures. Do I really
need a UPS?
Power problems are not restricted to larger organisations. Your
PCs, servers and network are just as critical to your business as a
data centre is to a large enterprise. Downtime is costly in terms of
hardware and potential loss of goodwill, reputation and sales. You
must also consider the inevitable delays that occur when
rebooting locked-up equipment, restoring damaged files and
re-running processes that were interrupted. A sound power
protection strategy provides cost-effective insurance.
6. Why is power quality such a problem today?
Today’s high-tech IT equipment and control units are much more
sensitive to electrical disturbances and are more important to the
critical functions of many businesses than in the past. As a result,
power quality problems are more frequent and more costly than
ever before.
7. Are power quality problems always noticeable?
No. In many cases, disturbances can cause imperceptible damage
to circuits and other components, a major cause of premature
equipment failure and problems like computer lockups. Many
power quality problems go unresolved, resulting in lost revenue
and data.
8. How is reliability measured?
Power reliability is usually stated as the percentage of time for
which the power is available. For example, if the power grid
system provides “three nines” of reliability, the power is available
for 99.9 per cent of the time. Because those 8.8 hours of
downtime translate into significant expense, IT and telephone
network services require at least five nines of reliability.
Reliability average
Non-availability per year
99 per cent
88 hours
99.9 per cent
8.8 hours
99.99 per cent
53 minutes
99.999 per cent
5.3 minutes
99.9999 per cent
32 seconds
99.99999 per cent+
3.2 seconds
9. How are phone systems and IT equipment affected by
inconsistent power?
Fluctuating power is a waste of valuable time and money. If
customers expose their telephone systems (and any other
electronic equipment) to inconsistent utility power, they are
vulnerable to hardware and software damage, data corruption and
communication breakdown. The time and cost of replacing
equipment, as well as the business lost during breakdown and
replacement, can greatly affect a company’s bottom line.
10. We have a generator - do we still need a UPS?
Many customers do not realise that a generator will not protect
their equipment against power problems. You need a UPS to
guarantee that the equipment stays running until the generator
kicks in, which often requires several minutes. In addition, UPSs
also improve the quality of the power produced by generators.
11. How much UPS capacity do I need?
Determine the total load (in watts) of the equipment you want to
protect. Add 10-20 per cent to allow for future growth and decide
the minimum amount of runtime you need. Use the online sizer at
www.eaton.com/powerquality to identify the right solution for your
application.
12. I already have surge protection. Why do I need a UPS?
Surge protection will not keep your business and phones
operational during a blackout. In addition, surge protectors do
nothing to improve the quality of power feeding your sensitive and
expensive IT & telecom equipment. Eaton UPSs provide reliable,
clean power to your equipment at all times. Over time, poor
quality power will degrade your equipment.
13. What happens if the UPS is overloaded? For example, if the
protected equipment and/or load draws more current than the
UPS can provide.
The UPS transfers the load to bypass (for a few minutes) until the
overload condition is reversed. If the overload condition continues,
the UPS automatically shuts down.
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14. What causes a UPS to become overloaded?
There are two possible answers: (1) the UPS was undersized
(e.g. the load was rated at 1200 VA but a 1000 VA UPS was
provided), or (2) the customer plugged more equipment into the
UPS than it was designed to handle.
15. What’s the difference between VA and watts?
In order to correctly size a UPS, it is important to understand the
relationship between watts and VA. However, we must first think
about power terminology. Real power (measured in watts) is the
proportion of power flow that results in the consumption of
energy. The energy consumed is related to the resistance in an
electrical circuit. An example of consumed energy is the filament
in a light bulb.
Reactive power (measured in VAR or volt-amps reactive) is the
proportion of power flow resulting from stored energy. Stored
energy is related to the presence of inductance and/or
capacitance in an electrical circuit. An example of stored energy
is a charged flash bulb in a camera.
Apparent power (measured in VA or volt-amps) is a mathematical
combination of real power and reactive power. The geometric
relationship between apparent power, reactive power and real
power is illustrated in the power triangle below:
Apparent Power (VA)
Reactive
Power
VAR
18. What is the difference between a centralised and a
decentralised UPS solution?
In a centralised configuration, a larger UPS supports multiple
loads from a single point. Centralised UPSs are often hardwired
into an electrical panelboard. A decentralised configuration
allows multiple UPSs to protect a handful of devices.
Decentralised UPSs generally utilise plugs and receptacles for
the input and output connections.
19. Why is power management software important?
Although UPSs are typically rugged and reliable, they do require
ongoing monitoring and support. Power management software
continuously monitors and diagnoses the state of the grid,
batteries and power sources, together with the condition of the
UPS’ internal electronics. Eaton UPS software and connectivity
cards enable remote monitoring and management capability,
including graceful shutdown and load segment control.
20. Will my current UPS software monitor my new Eaton
UPS?
Most UPS and power management software support SNMP
with the RFC-1628 MIB, which is available for many Eaton UPSs
through an optional network card. Some more advanced
monitoring systems such as OpenView, Tivoli and Nagios allow
importing SNMP MIBs; this would allow you to use Eaton
proprietary, which provide more information and a greater level
of detail. On the other hand, Eaton network cards have a built-in
web interface for viewing data and controlling the UPS as well
as email capability for generating alarm without any additional
software.
21. What is the difference between single-phase and threephase power?
Real Power (Watts)
Mathematically, real power (watts) is related to apparent power
(VA) using a numerical ratio referred to as the power factor (PF),
which is expressed in decimal format and always carries a value
between 0 and 1.0. For many newer types of IT equipment, such
as computer servers, the typical PF is 0.9 or greater. For legacy
personal computers (PCs), this value can be 0.60 –0.75.
The missing quantity can be calculated using one of the
following formulas:
Watts = VA * Power Factor or VA = Watts / Power Factor
Since many types of equipment are rated in watts, it is
important to consider the PF when sizing a UPS. If you do not
take PF into account, you may undersize your UPS. As an
example, a piece of equipment that is rated at 525 watts and
which has a power factor of 0.7 results in a 750 VA load.
750 VA = 525 Watts / 0.7 PF
Sizing the UPS to operate at 75 per cent capacity results in a
UPS with a 1000 VA rating (750 VA / 0.75 = 1000 VA).
The AC electric power sent out from a power station is
commonly three-phase. Single-phase power can be drawn from
a connection across one of these lines and a neutral line.
Virtually all PCs and small electronic devices use single-phase
power. Higher power industrial motors or large air-conditioning
systems often use three-phase power.
22. My data centre only went down for a couple of minutes.
What’s the big deal?
If the servers in a data centre are without power for a few
minutes or even seconds it may actually mean hours or even
days of downtime. A sudden uncontrolled power off is very likely
to cause database and file system corruption. Starting up many
services takes a long time because they have to repair their data
and some may need to be restored from backup media. Some
operating systems may have to be reinstalled completely. Many
systems have to wait for other servers to boot up first so that
they can get access to the many services required for their
operation.
16. How do you convert watts to VA?
Divide watts by the power factor, for example
1000W/0,7 p.f=1429 VA
17. How do you convert amps to VA?
Multiply amps by voltage. 10A x 230V = 2300 VA
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23. Where can I get technical help?
Please visit www.eaton.com/powerquality
FAQs, glossary & acronyms
Glossary of power terms
This glossary includes the most common terms used when talking about UPSs and other power distribution products.
Alternating Current (AC)
An electric current that reverses its direction at regularly
recurring intervals, as opposed to direct current, which is
constant. Usually in a sine wave pattern, for optimal
transmission of energy.
Communication Bay
A communication bay or option slot on a UPS enables you to add
various connectivity cards for Web, SNMP, Modbus or relay
connectivity interface capabilities.
Ampere (A or Amp)
The unit of measure for the rate of flow of electricity, analogous
to gallons per minute.
Apparent Power
Applied voltage multiplied by current in an AC circuit - this value
does not take the power factor into account. Unit is volt
amperes (VA).
Arc
Sparking that results when undesirable current flows between
two points of differing potential; this may be due to leakage
through the intermediate insulation or a leakage path due to
contamination.
Audible Noise
A measure of the noise emanating from a device at audible
frequencies.
Backup Time
The amount of time the battery in a UPS is designed to support
the load.
Balanced Load
AC power system using more than two wires, where the
current and voltage are of equal value in each energised
conductor.
Battery String
A group of batteries connected together in a series.
Blackout
A zero-voltage condition lasting for more than two cycles. Also
known as a power outage or failure.
BTU – British Thermal Unit
BTUs are used to measure heat dissipation.
Brownout
A steady state of low voltage, but not zero voltage.
Capacitor
An electronic component that can store an electrical charge on
conductive plates.
Cloud Computing
Internet (cloud)-based development and use of computer
technology. This is a new supplement, consumption and
delivery model for IT services, and it typically involves the
provision of dynamically scalable, and often virtualised
resources as a service over the internet.
Common Mode Noise
An undesirable voltage that appears between the power
conductors and ground.
Commercial Power
The power supplied by local utility companies. The quality of
commercial power can vary drastically depending on location,
weather and other factors.
Eaton 9130 equipped with a communication bay.
Converter
A device that delivers DC power when energised by a DC
source. It is also a section of a switching power supply that
performs the actual power conversion and final rectification.
Crest Factor
Usually refers to current. It is the mathematical relationship
between RMS current and peak current. A normal resistive load
will have a crest factor of 1.4142, which is the normal
relationship between peak and RMS current. A typical PC will
have a crest factor of 3.
Critical Equipment
Equipment such as computers, communications systems or
electronic process controls, whose continuous availability is
imperative.
Delta Connection
A circuit formed by connecting three electrical devices in series
to form a closed loop; most often used in three-phase
connections.
Derating
A reduction of some operating parameters to compensate for a
change in one or more other parameters. In power systems, the
output power rating is generally reduced at elevated
temperatures.
Direct Current (DC)
An electric current in which the flow of electrons is in one
direction, such as the power supplied by a battery.
DC Distribution (DCD)
A module in a DC power system that distributes DC power to
the loads. It also provides protection for the load cables.
DC Power System
An AC to DC power supply with integrated control and
monitoring, and standby batteries designed to supply no-break
DC power (usually 24 V or 48 V) to telecommunications and IT
network equipment.
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Double Conversion
A UPS design in which the primary power path consists of a
rectifier and inverter. Double-conversion isolates the output
power from all input anomalies such as low voltage surges
and frequency variations.
Downtime
The time during which a functional unit cannot be used
because of a fault within the functional unit or within the
environment.
High Voltage Spike
Rapid voltage peak up to 6,000 volts.
Hot Swappable
The ability to change a module without taking the critical load
off the UPS. See also User Replaceable.
The batteries on this Eaton 9130 UPS are hot swappable.
Dry Contact
Dry contact refers to a contact of a relay which does not
make or break a current.
Efficiency
The ratio of output power to input power. It is generally
measured at full-load and nominal line conditions. If power
efficiency of a device is 90per cent, you get back ninety watts
for every hundred you put in. The rest is mainly dissipated as
heat from the filtration process.
Electrical Line Noise
Radio frequency interference (RFI), electromagnetic
interference (EMI) and other voltage or frequency
disturbances.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electrical interference that can cause equipment to work
improperly. EMI can be separated into conducted EMI
(interference conducted through cables out of the UPS) and
radiated EMI (interference conducted through the air).
ePDU
A power distribution unit that mounts to rack enclosures and
distributes power to connected devices via a wide variety of
output receptacles.
Flooded Battery
A form of battery where the plates are completely immersed
in a liquid electrolyte.
Frequency
The number of complete cycles of AC voltage which occurs
during one second (Hz). In EMEA region, electrical current is
supplied mainly at 50 Hz, or 50 cycles per second.
Ground
A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental,
by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to the
earth, or to some conducting body of relatively large extent
that serves in place of the earth.
Earth ground symbol
Harmonics
A sinusoidal component of an AC voltage that a multiple of
the fundamental waveform frequency. Certain harmonic
patterns may cause equipment problems.
IGBT
Insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal
power semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and
fast switching. It switches electrical power in many modern
applications such as electric cars, trains and UPSs.
Impedance
The total opposition to alternating current flow in an electrical
circuit.
Input Voltage Range
The voltage range within which a UPS operates in “normal”
mode and without requiring battery power.
Inrush Current
The maximum, instantaneous input current drawn by an
electrical device when first turned on. Some electrical devices
draw several times their normal full-load current when first
energised.
Inverter
UPS assembly that converts internal DC power to output AC
power to run the user’s equipment. When the inverter is
supporting 100per cent of the load at all times, as with an
online UPS, there is no break from utility power to battery
power.
Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
One thousand volt-amperes. Common measurement of
equipment capacity. An approximation of available power in an
AC system that does not take the power factor into account.
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object possesses because of its motion.
Linear Load
AC electrical loads where the voltage and current waveforms
are sinusoidal. The current at any time is proportional to the
voltage.
Line Conditioner
A device intended to improve the quality of the power that is
delivered to electrical load equipment. A line conditioner is
generally designed to improve power quality (e.g. proper
voltage level, noise suppression, transient impulse protection,
etc.).
Harmonic Distortion
Regularly appearing distortion of the sine wave whose
frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency.
Converts the normal sine wave into a complex waveform.
Line Interactive
An offline UPS topology in which the system interacts with
the utility line in order to regulate the power to the load.
Provides better protection than a standby system but is not as
fully prepared against irregularities as a full double-conversion
system.
Hertz (Hz)
A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
Load
The equipment connected to and protected by a UPS.
High Efficiency Mode
A mode of UPS operation that cuts energy usage and
operating costs.
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FAQs, glossary & acronyms
Load Segment
UPS configuration with separate receptacle groups, enabling
scheduled shutdowns and maximum backup power time for
critical devices.
Output Waveform (UPS)
The shape of the graph of alternating current on the output
side of a UPS. The highest quality of an output waveform
from a UPS is the sine wave. However, some UPSs provide
step wave or modified sine waves.
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
Sine Wave
Parallel Operation
The ability of UPSs to be connected so that the current from
corresponding90˚outputs
can270˚be combined
into a single load.
180˚
360˚
This Eaton 9130 UPS is equipped with two load segments,
each with three 5-15R
Maintenance Bypass
An external wiring path to which the load can be transferred
in order to upgrade or perform service on the UPS without
powering down the load.
Make Before Break
Operational sequence of a switch or relay where the new
connection is made prior to disconnecting the existing
connection, also known as soft-load-transfer switching.
Modbus
Modbus is a serial communications protocol which is now the
most commonly available means of connecting industrial
electronic devices. Modbus allows for communication
between many devices connected to the same network.
Network Transient Protector
UPS feature that isolates networks, modems and cables from
power threats including surges and spikes.
Noise
Disturbance that affects a signal; it can distort the information
carried by the signal. (2) Random variations of one or more
characteristics of any entity such as voltage, current or data.
Nominal Output Voltage
The intended, ideal voltage of any given output.
Non-linear Load
AC electrical loads where the current is not proportional to
the voltage. Non-linear loads often generate harmonics in the
current waveform, which leads to distortion of the voltage
waveform.
Peak Demand
The highest 15- or 30-minute demand recorded during a
12-month period.
Phase
Time relationship between current and voltage in AC circuits.
Plug and Play
An electrical device that does not require extensive setup to
operate.
Power Factor (PF)
The ratio of real power to apparent power. Watts divided by
VA. Most power supplies used in communication and
computer equipment have a power factor of 0.9. (PF = 0.9)
VA x PF = W
W/PF = VA
Power Sag
Low voltage.
Power Surge
High voltage.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
A circuit used in switching regulated power supplies where
the switching frequency is held constant and the width of the
power pulse is varied, controlling both lines and load changes
with minimal dissipation.
Rackmount
Ability to mount an electrical assembly into a standardised
rack.
Rack Unit (U)
A unit of height measurement in a rack enclosure. A U is
equivalent to 1.75 inches.
Offline
Any UPS that does not fit the definition of online. Lineinteractive and standby topologies are offline.
Ohm
The unit of measurement for electrical resistance or
opposition to current flow.
Online
A UPS that provides power to the load from its inverter 100
per cent of the time, regulating both voltage and frequency,
usually double-conversion topology.
Orderly Shutdown
The sequenced shutdown of units comprising a computer
system to prevent damage to the system and subsequent
corruption or loss of data.
The Eaton 5130 UPS occupies 2U of rack space and
the optional extended battery module also occupies 2U.
33
Rail Kit
A set of metal brackets that allow you install a UPS or
extended battery module in a 2- or 4-post rack.
Thermal Regulation
Monitoring the temperature of the batteries to assure proper
charging.
Three Phase
Power supplied through at least three wires, each carrying
power from a common generator but offset in its cycle from
the other two. Used for heavy-duty applications.
Topology (UPS)
The core technology of a UPS. Typically, a UPS is either
standby, line interactive or online though other hybrid
technologies have been introduced.
Four-post rail kit
Rectifier
UPS component that converts incoming AC power to DC
power for feeding the inverter and for charging the battery.
Rectifier Magazine (RM)
A module in the DC power system used to connect the
rectifiers in the power system.
Redundancy
The ability to connect units in parallel so that if one fails the
other(s) will provide continual power to the load. This mode
is used in systems where power failure cannot be tolerated.
Relay Communication
Communication between a UPS and a computer through the
opening and closing of solid-state relays that are predefined
to indicate UPS status.
RS-232
The standard for serial interfaces (serial refers to the eight bits
of each character successively sent down one wire)
traditionally used by computers, modems and printers.
Largely superseded by USB.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
The amount by which the circuit voltage deviates from a
perfect sine wave. When viewed on a meter, a poor voltage
THD is most often manifested in a flat topped waveform that
comes from the inability of a power source to respond to the
demands of highly non-linear loads.
Transfer Time
The length of time it takes a UPS to transfer to battery power.
Typically measured in milliseconds (ms).
Transient
A temporary and brief change in a given parameter. Typically
associated with input voltage or output loading parameters.
Unbalanced Load
An AC power system using more that two wires, where the
current is not equal in the current-carrying wires due to an
uneven loading of the phases.
Uninterruptible Power System (UPS)
An electrical system designed to provide instant, transientfree back up power during power failure or fault. Some UPSs
also filter and/or regulate utility power (line conditioning).
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
The current communication standard used in computers to
connect a wide variety of peripherals. It has widely replaced
traditional serial and parallel connections.
Sine Wave
Mathematical function that plots three qualities of an
electrical signal over time: amplitude, frequency and phase.
Clean, uninterrupted power is represented by a sine wave.
User Replaceable
Capable of being replaced by an end user. Connected
equipment may need to be shut down first. See also Hot
Swappable.
Single Phase
Power system with one primary waveform. Lower-capacity
distribution of power using only one portion of a power
source that is three-phase, such as that supplied by most
household mains electrical supplies. Used for heating and
lighting, no large motors or other heavy-drain devices.
Virtualisation
The creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of
something, such as an operating system, server, storage
device or network resource. Operating system Virtualisation is
the use of software to allow a piece of hardware to run
multiple operating system images at the same time.
Sliding Demand
Calculating average demand by averaging the average
demand over several successive time intervals, advancing one
interval at a time.
Volt/Voltage (V)
Electrical pressure that pushes current through a circuit. High
voltage in a computer circuit is represented by 1; low (or zero)
voltage is represented by 0.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol is a User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)-based network protocol. It is used mostly in
network management systems to monitor network-attached
devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention.
Volt Amps (VA)
The voltage applied to a given piece of equipment, multiplied
by the current it draws. Not to be confused with Watts, which
are similar but represent the actual power drawn by the
equipment, and can be somewhat lower than the VA rating.
Standby
UPS type that “stands by,” waiting for a power problem from
the utility company and rapidly switching to UPS battery
power to protect equipment against power failures, sags and
surges.
Watts (W)
The measure of real power. It is the rate of doing electrical
work. W/PF = VA.
Step Load
An instantaneous change in the loading conditions presented
to the output of a UPS.
Switching Frequency
The rate at which the source voltage is switched in a
switching regulator or chopped in a DC to DC converter.
System i Server
One of a family of general-purpose systems that supports
IBM i5/OS and Operating System 400 and which provides
application portability across all models.
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eaton corporation
UPS Handbook, EMEA version
Wye Connection
A connection of three components made in such a manner
that one end of each component is connected. Generally
used to connect devices to a three-phase power system.
FAQs, glossary & acronyms
Common UPS
and electrical acronyms
AAmpere
ABM
Advanced Battery Management
AC
Alternating Current
AH
Ampere Hour
BBM
Break-Before-Make (Bypass Switch)
BDM
Bypass Distribution Module
BTU
British Thermal Unit
CI
Converger Infra-structure
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CRAC
Computer Room Air Conditioning
CRAH Computer Room Air Handler
DC
Direct Current
DNS
Domain Name System
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
DVV or Data, Voice, Video
DV2
EAA
Energy Advantage Architecture
EBC
Extended Battery Cabinet
EBM
Extended Battery Module
EMEA Europe, Middle East, Africa
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF
Electromagnetic Force
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EMS
Energy Management System
EOSL
End of Service Life
ePDU Enclosure Power Distribution Unit
ESS
Energy Saver System
FMC
Fixed/Mobile Convergence
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
GFCI
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter
GUI
Graphical User Interface
HPC
High Performance Computer
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol
HV
High Voltage
HVAC
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
HWHardwired
HzHertz
IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
IEEE
Institute of Electrical And Electronics Engineers
IGBT
Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistor
IP
Internet Protocol
ISP
Internet Service Provider
ISO
International Standards Organization
ITIC
Information Technology Industry Council
kAIC
Kilo Ampere Interrupting Capacity
kVA
Kilovolt ampere
KVM
Keyboard, Video, Monitor
LAN
Local Area Network
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LV
Low Voltage
MBB
Make-Before-Break (bypass switch)
MIB
Management Information Base
MOV
Metal Oxide Varistor
MSP
Managed Service Platform
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
MTTR
Mean Time To Repair
NIC
Network Interface Card
PABX
Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PBX
Private Branch Exchange
PC
Personal Computer
PDM
Power Distribution Module
PDU
Power Distribution Unit
PF
Power Factor
PFC
Power Factor Correction
PMDC Portable Modular Data centre
PoE
Power over Ethernet
PSAP
Public Safety Answering Point
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
PUE
Power Usage Efficiencies
RAM
Random Access Memory
REPO Remote Emergency Power-off
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
RM
Rackmount or Retcifier Magazine
RMA
Return Material Authorization
RoHS
Restriction of Hazardous Substances
ROO
Remote On/Off
RPO
Remote Power Off
RPM
Rack Power Module
SAN
Storage Area Network
SCR
Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
SLA
Service Level Agreement
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOA
Service-Oriented Architecture
SPD
Surge Protection Device
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDM
Time-division Multiplexing
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
T&M
Time and Material
TVSS
Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor
UC
Unified Communications
UPS
Uninterruptible Power System (or Supply)
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VVolt
VA
Volt Ampere
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VGA
Video Graphics Array
VM
Virtual Machine
VMMS Variable Module Management System
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
VPN
Virtual Private Network
VRLA
Valve Regulated Lead Acid
WWatt
WAN
Wide Area Network
XML
Extensible Markup Language
Eaton acronyms
35
www.eaton.com/powerquality
Eaton, Powerware, ABM, BladeUPS, ePDU, HotSync,
Intelligent Power are trade names, trademarks, and/or
service marks of Eaton Corporation or its subsidiaries
and affiliates. © 2010 Eaton Corporation.
All Rights Reserved.
December 2010 - 00BROC1018174 revA
eaton.com/powerquality
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