Wireless LAN Adapter USER’S GUIDE 1.0 2008/05/08

Wireless LAN Adapter USER’S GUIDE 1.0 2008/05/08
Wireless LAN Adapter
USER’S GUIDE
VERSION 1.0
2008/05/08
© All rights reserved.
All trade names are registered trademarks of respective manufacturers listed.
This manual may not be copied in any media or form without the written consent of original maker.
Information To User ..................................................…….. I
1.
Introduction .........................................................…… 1
2. Wireless LAN Basics ................................................……. 3
3. IP ADDRESS ..........................................................……. 4
4. Install Driver/Utility ...............................................……. 5
4.1 Windows XP/2K.................................................... 5
4.2 Windows Vista...................................................... 6
5. Wireless Network Configuration ....................................... 7
5.1 Utility Icon ........................................................ 7
5.2 Client Mode (Default Setting)................................... 7
6. Technical Specifications ............................................... 11
7. Troubleshooting ......................................................... 12
8. Glossary ................................................................... 13
INFORMATION TO USER
Federal Communication Commission Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits
for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential installation.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there
is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular
installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by
one of the following measures:
* Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
* Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
* Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from
that to which the receiver is connected.
* Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is
subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause
harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
FCC Caution: Any changes or modifications not expressly approved
by the party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to
operate this equipment.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement:
* This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set
forth for an uncontrolled environment. This equipment should be
installed and operated with minimum distance 20cm between the
radiator & your body.
* This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction
with any other antenna or transmitter.
i
REGULATORY INFORMATION
WLAN Adapter must be installed and used in strict
accordance with the instructions. This device complies with the
following radio frequency and safety standards.
USA - Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC Rules. Operation is
subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference.
2. This device must accept any interference that may cause undesired
operation.
Europe - R&TTE Directive
This device complies with the specifications listed below
• ETS 300-826 General EMC requirements for Radio equipment.
• ETS 300-328 Technical requirements for Radio equipment.
• EN60950 Safety Requirements for Radio equipment
The channel identifiers, channel center frequencies, and
regulatory domains of each 22-MHz-wide channel are shown in
following Table.
Channel
Center
Identifier
Frequency
(MHZ)
Regulatory Domains
Japan
ETSI
North
America
Israel
France
Mexico
1
2412
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
2
2417
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
3
2422
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
4
2427
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
5
2432
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
6
2437
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
7
2442
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
8
2447
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
9
2452
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
10
2457
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
11
2462
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
12
2467
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
13
2472
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
14
2484
ˇ
ii
Thank you for your purchase of the WLAN Adapter. Featuring wireless
technology, this wireless networking solution has been designed
for both large and small businesses, and it is scalable so that you can easily
add more users and new network features depending on your business scale.
FEATURES
Support Microsoft 2000, XP, x64 and Vista.
Operating distance of up to 300 meters in free space.
300/270/240/180/120/90/60/54/48/36/30/24/22/18/12/11/6/5.5/2/1 Mbps
selectable Data Rate.
64/128-bit WEP , WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), WPA2
2.400GHz ~ 2.484GHz unlicensed ISM Frequency Band.
Modulation Method :
IEEE 802.11b : DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).
IEEE 802.11g / 802.11n : OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing). Easy operation and setting up.
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Windows System : 2000, XP, x64, Vista.
PCs must have a device driver installed. It allows you to communicate
with WLAN Adaptor.
1
BEFORE YOU START
1. Confirm Box Contents
◆Wireless LAN Adapter
◆ Quick Start Guide
◆ Driver CD
CONNECTING YOUR WLAN ADAPTER TO PC
Quick Start Guide
Connect your WLAN adaptor to your PC.
Install driver.
GETTING TO KNOW WIRELESS LAN ADAPTER
LED
LED turns on when WLAN link to WLAN adaptor or AP.
LED is blinking when WLAN Adapter is active.
2
Wireless LAN network defined by IEEE 802.11b/g standard committee
could be configured as :
Ad Hoc wireless LAN.
Infrastructure wireless LAN.
Ad Hoc network is a group of PCs installed with wireless LAN cards, this
group of PCs is called a BSS (Basic Service Set). PCs in this group can use
their wireless LAN cards to communicate with each other, but can not
connect to the Internet.
Ad Hoc Wireless Network
Infrastructure Wireless Network
The most obvious difference between Infrastructure wireless network
and Ad Hoc wireless network is that the PCs in Infrastructure wireless
network can access the resource in the Internet through Access Point.
Depending on your requirement, you can easily set up your PC’s
network to be a “Ad Hoc” or “Infrastructure” wireless network. Generally
speaking, if in your network, there is an Access Point in it, we recommend
you to set your network as an “Infrastructure”, so it can connect to
the Internet.
3
To use the WLAN Adapter with a computing device, the WLAN Adapter must be
equipped with a proper Interface. All drivers and supporting software for the
WLAN Adapter must be installed and configured first.
Ask your system administrator for the following information, which
you may need to provide during driver installation :
Your Wireless Client
Name. Your Wireless
SSID.
Your computer’s unique client name and workgroup
name. For your network account, your user name and
password.
Your IP address, gateway address, and subnet mask if you’re
not using a DHCP client.
Any computer on a network is identified by a unique network
address. There are two methods to assign a network address to a
computer on a TCP/IP network :
Static IP addressing.
Dynamic IP addressing (DHCP Client).
In network with static IP addressing, the network administrator
manually assigns an IP address to each computer. Once a static IP
address is assigned, a computer uses the same IP address every time
it reboots and logs on to the network. You may manually change the IP
address in the
Network Properties dialog box. Network using static IP address is
easy to set up and do not require additional network management
software.
In network with dynamic IP addressing, a DHCP server in the
network dynamically assigns IP addresses to all clients every time
they log on to the network. Network using dynamic IP address
requires setting up and running a DHCP Server.
4
▓ Windows XP/2K
The installation & driver CD will automatically activate the autorun installation
program after you insert the disk into your CD drive.
Step 1 :
Insert the installation CD into your
CD-ROM. Installation program will
prompt language setup.
Choose the Setup Language you
would like to use and click Next
button.
Step 2 :
Welcome Installation dialog
prompt shown.
Click Next to continue.
Click Cancel to close installation.
Installing and configuring wlan
utility.
5
Installing drivers.
Step 3 :
Click Finish to complete
installation.
▓
Windows Vista
Just insert device into proper interface. Vista will install driver automatically.
CD also contains the latest driver from chipset vendor.
6
WLAN adapter uses its own management software. All functions
controlled by users are provided by this application. When you insert the
WLAN Adapter into your laptop or desktop, a icon should appear in the
Windows System Tray automatically.
5.1 Utility Icon
▓
Client mode utility running but no WLAN Adapter plugged
▓
Client mode utility running and WLAN Adapter scan available network.
▓
Client mode utility running and WLAN Adapter can not scan any AP
▓
AP mode utility running.
5.2 Client Mode (Default Setting)
5.2.1 Wireless Device Control
▓ Show Tray Icon – Show icon or not show icon in systray.
▓ Radio Off – Stop wireless signal.
▓ Disable Adapter – Stop wireless device.
▓ Windows Zero Config – Use windows default utility to configure
Adapter.
7
5.2.1 GENERAL SETTING
Once device is set, double
click on that icon and the
configuration window will pop
up as shown. It shows the
current connected network.
The signal strength and link
quality are displayed also.
The bar graph displays the
quality and strength of the link
between the node and its Access Point. Link Quality is a
measurement of receiving and transmitting performances over the
radio.
Network Address displays current MAC Address, IP Address,
Subnet. and Gateway.
Click Renew IP button to refresh IP address leased from wireless
AP.
5.2.2 PROFILE SETTING
In profile tab, you can
Add, Remove, Edit,
Duplicate and Set Default to
manipulate profile content
manually. Strongly
recommend to use profile
after you do Available
Network.
8
5.2.3 AVAILABLE NETWOEK SETTING
Click Available Network
tab and it will show all
available networks that radio
can reaches. Select proper
SSID & BSSID you want to
connect.
Click Refresh button to
force and rescan available
networks currently.
Select one of SSIDs, and click Add to Profile to create profile that
can be configured more
wireless parameters.
In this page, you can edit
your profile name,
configure wireless security
like WEP, WPA, WPA2,
802.1x …etc. After
finishing setup, click OK
button to save
configuration
5.2.4 Status
Status page tab, shows all
wireless, networking and
device driver version in
details.
9
5.2.5 Statistics
Statistics page tab will show
real-time TX/RX relative
counters to check or
evaluate the
wireless performance.
Click Reset button to set
counter to
zero.
5.2.6 Wi-Fi Protected Setup
An easy and secure setup
solution for Wi-Fi network.
you can choose PIN Code or
Push Button method to
connect to an AP.
10
Product Name
Wireless LAN 11n USB Adapter
Chipset
Realtek RTL8192+RTL8256
Standard
IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n
Frequency Band
2.4GHz ~ 2.484GHz unlicensed ISM band
IEEE 802.11b : DSSS
Spread Spectrum
IEEE 802.11g : OFDM
IEEE 802.11n : OFDM
Modulation
BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
IEEE 802.11b : 1, 2, 5.5, 11Mbps
Data Rate
IEEE 802.11g : 6, 11, 12, 18, 22, 24, 30, 36, 48, 54 , 60, 90Mbps
IEEE 802.11n : 120, 180, 240, 270 and Maximum of 300Mbps
Operation Mode
Ad hoc, Infrastructure
Transmitter Power
17(±2) dBm @11b,14(±2) dBm @11g,13(±2) dBm @11n
Operating at
Receive Sensitivity
11Mbps: < –80 dBm @8% FER,
54 Mbps: < –68 dBm @8% FER
HT20(2RX/4RX) MCS=0 < -84dBm
MCS=15 < -69dBm
HT40(2RX/4RX) MCS=0 < -84dBm
MCS=15 < -69dBm
Operating Range
Indoor up to 100m
Outdoor up to 280m
Security
64-bit , 128-bit WEP, WPA / WPA2 (TKIP/AES)
LED
power
Operating System
2000, XP, x64, Vista
Operating
Temperature
0 ~ 55 Celsius degree
Storage Temperature
-20 ~ 70 Celsius degree
Humidity
5 ~ 90% (non-condensing)
Size
90 (L) x 26 (W) x 10.95 (H) mm
11
Symptom :
The LED is off.
Remedy :
Make sure the PC Card is inserted properly. Otherwise contact your vendor.
Symptom :
The LED is always on not blinking.
Remedy :
Make sure that you have installed the driver from attached CD. Otherwise
contact your vendor.
Symptom :
The LED is blinking but the PC Card icon does not appear in your icon tray.
Remedy :
Make sure that you have installed the Utility from the attached CD.
Symptom :
The PC Card is linking, but can’t share files with others.
Remedy :
Make sure the file and printer sharing function is enabled. You can
enable the function by checking the icon of My Computer -> Control
Panel -> Network -> file and printer sharing -> I want to be able to give
others to access to my files.
Symptom :
Slow or poor performance under AP mode
Remedy :
Try to select another channel for the communicating group or move your
device closer to the Access Point.
12
IEEE 802.11 Standard
The IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standards subcommittee, which is formulating
a standard for the industry.
Access Point
An internetworking device that seamlessly connects wired and wireless
networks together.
Ad Hoc
An Ad Hoc wireless LAN is a group of computers, each with a WLAN
adapter, connected as an independent wireless LAN. Ad Hoc wireless LAN
is applicable at a departmental scale for a branch or SOHO operation.
BSSID
A specific Ad Hoc LAN is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). Computers in a
BSS must be configured with the same BSSID.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - a method in which IP addresses are
assigned by server dynamically to clients on the network. DHCP is used for
Dynamic IP Addressing and requires a dedicated DHCP server on the
network.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
This is the method the wireless cards use to transmit data over the frequency
spectrum. The other method is frequency hopping. Direct sequence
spreads the data over one frequency range (channel) while frequency
hopping jumps from one narrow frequency band to another many
times per second.
ESSID
An Infrastructure configuration could also support roaming capability for
mobile workers. More than one BSS can be configured as an Extended
Service Set (ESS). Users within an ESS could roam freely between BSSs
while served as a continuous connection to the network wireless stations
and Access Points within an ESS must be configured with the same ESSID
and the same radio channel.
Ethernet
Ethernet is a 10/100Mbps network that runs over dedicated home/office
wiring. Users must be wired to the network at all times to gain access.
Gateway
A gateway is a hardware and software device that connects two dissimilar
13
systems, such as a LAN and a mainframe. In Internet terminology, a gateway
is another name for a router. Generally a gateway is used as a funnel
for all traffic to the Internet.
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Infrastructure
An integrated wireless and wired LAN is called an Infrastructure
configuration. Infrastructure is applicable to enterprise scale for wireless
access to central database, or wireless application for mobile workers.
ISM Band
The FCC and their counterparts outside of the U.S. have set aside bandwidth
for unlicensed use in the so-called ISM (Industrial, Scientific and
Medical) band. Spectrum in the vicinity of 2.4 GHz, in particular, is being
made available worldwide. This presents a truly revolutionary opportunity
to place convenient high-speed wireless capabilities in the hands of users
around the globe.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is a group of computers, each equipped with the appropriate network
adapter card connected by cable/air, that share applications, data,
and peripherals. All connections are made via cable or wireless media,
but a LAN does not use telephone services. It typically spans a single
building or campus.
Network
A network is a system of computers that is connected. Data, files, and
messages can be transmitted over this network. Networks may be local or
wide area networks.
Protocol
A protocol is a standardized set of rules that specify how a conversation
is to take place, including the format, timing, sequencing and/ or error
checking.
SSID
A Network ID unique to a network. Only clients and Access Points that
share the same SSID are able to communicate with each other. This string
is case-sensitive.
Static IP Addressing
A method of assigning IP addresses to clients on the network. In networks
with Static IP address, the network administrator manually assigns an IP
address to each computer. Once a Static IP address is assigned, a computer
14
uses the same IP address every time it reboots and logs on to the
network, unless it is manually changed.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, pronounced tee-kip, is part of the
IEEE 802.11i encryption standard for wireless LANs. TKIP is the next
generation of WEP, the Wired Equivalency Protocol, which is used to
secure 802.11 wireless LANs. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing, a
message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism, thus fixing the
flaws of WEP.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
TCP/IP is the protocol suite developed by the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA). It is widely used in corporate Internet works,
because of its superior design for WANs. TCP governs how packet is
sequenced for transmission the network. The term “TCP/IP” is often
used generically to refer to the entire suite of related protocols.
Transmit / Receive
The wireless throughput in Bytes per second averaged over two seconds.
Wi-Fi Alliance
The Wi-Fi Alliance is a nonprofit international association formed in 1999
to certify interoperability of wireless Local Area Network products based
on IEEE 802.11 specification. The goal of the Wi-Fi Alliance’s members is
to enhance the user experience through product interoperability. The
organization is formerly known as WECA.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
The Wi-Fi Alliance put together WPA as a data encryption method for
802.11 wireless LANs. WPA is an industry-supported, pre-standard version
of 802.11i utilizing the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP),
which fixes the problems of WEP, including using dynamic keys.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A WAN consists of multiple LANs that are tied together via telephone
services and / or fiber optic cabling. WANs may span a city, a state, a
country, or even the world.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
Now widely recognized as flawed, WEP was a data encryption method
used to protect the transmission between 802.11 wireless clients and
APs. However, it used the same key among all communicating devices.
WEP’s problems are well-known, including an insufficient key length and
no automated method for distributing the keys. WEP can be easily
15
cracked in a couple of hours with off-the-shelf tools.
Wireless LAN (WLAN)
A wireless LAN does not use cable to transmit signals, but rather uses
radio or infrared to transmit packets through the air. Radio Frequency
(RF) and infrared are the commonly used types of wireless transmission.
Most wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology. It offers limited
bandwidth, usually under 11Mbps, and users share the bandwidth with
other devices in the spectrum; however, users can operate a spread
spectrum device without licensing from the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC).
Fragment Threshold
The proposed protocol uses the frame fragmentation mechanism defined in
IEEE 802.11 to achieve parallel transmissions. A large data frame is
fragmented into several fragments each of size equal to fragment threshold.
By tuning the fragment threshold value, we can get varying fragment sizes.
The determination of an efficient fragment threshold is an important issue in
this scheme. If the fragment threshold is small, the overlap part of the master
and parallel transmissions is large. This means the spatial reuse ratio of
parallel transmissions is high. In contrast, with a large fragment threshold, the
overlap is small and the spatial reuse ratio is low. However high fragment
threshold leads to low fragment overhead. Hence there is a trade-off between
spatial re-use and fragment overhead.
Fragment threshold is the maximum packet size used for fragmentation.
Packets larger than the size programmed in this field will be fragmented If you
find that your corrupted packets or asymmetric packet reception (all send
packets, for example). You may want to try lowering your fragmentation
threshold. This will cause packets to be broken into smaller fragments. These
small fragments, if corrupted, can be resent faster than a larger fragment.
Fragmentation increases overhead, so you'll want to keep this value as close
to the maximum value as possible.
RTS (Request To Send) Threshold
The RTS threshold is the packet size at which packet transmission is governed
by the RTS/CTS transaction. The IEEE 802.11-1997 standard allows for short
packets to be transmitted without RTS/CTS transactions. Each station can
have a different RTS threshold. RTS/CTS is used when the data packet size
exceeds the defined RTS threshold. With the CSMA/CA transmission
16
mechanism, the transmitting station sends out an RTS packet to the receiving
station, and waits for the receiving station to send back a CTS (Clear to Send)
packet before sending the actual packet data. This setting is useful for
networks with many clients. With many clients, and a high network load, there
will be many more collisions. By lowering the RTS threshold, there may be
fewer collisions, and performance should improve. Basically, with a faster RTS
threshold, the system can recover from problems faster. RTS packets
consume valuable bandwidth, however, so setting this value too low will limit
performance.
Beacon Interval
In addition to data frames that carry information from higher layers, 802.11
includes management and control frames that support data transfer. The
beacon frame, which is a type of management frame, provides the "heartbeat"
of a wireless LAN, enabling stations to establish and maintain communications
in an orderly fashion. Beacon Interval represents the amount of time between
beacon transmissions. Before a station enters power save mode, the station
needs the beacon interval to know when to wake up to receive the beacon
(and learn whether there are buffered frames at the access point).
Preamble Type
There are two preamble types defined in IEEE 802.11 specification. A long
preamble basically gives the decoder more time to process the preamble. All
802.11 devices support a long preamble. The short preamble is designed to
improve efficiency (for example, for VoIP systems). The difference between the
two is in the Synchronization field. The long preamble is 128 bits, and the
short is 56 bits.
WPA2
It is the second generation of WPA. WPA2 is based on the final IEEE 802.11i
amendment to the 802.11 standard.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, pronounced tee-kip, is part of the IEEE
802.11i encryption standard for wireless LANs. TKIP is the next generation of
WEP, the Wired Equivalency Protocol, which is used to secure 802.11 wireless
LANs. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing, a message integrity check and a
re-keying mechanism, thus fixing the flaws of WEP.
17
802.1x Authentication
802.1x is a framework for authenticated MAC-level access control, defines
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) over LANs (WAPOL). The standard
encapsulates and leverages much of EAP, which was defined for dial-up
authentication with Point-to-Point Protocol in RFC 2284.
Beyond encapsulating EAP packets, the 802.1x standard also defines EAPOL
messages that convey the shared key information critical for wireless security.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Security issues are a major concern for wireless LANs, AES is the U.S.
government’s next-generation cryptography algorithm, which will replace DES
and 3DES.
18
One Year Limited Warranty
This device is guaranteed against manufacturing defects for one full year
from the original date of purchase.
This warranty is valid at the time of purchase and is non-transferable.
This warranty must be presented to the service facility before any repair
can be made.
Sales slip or other authentic evidence is required to validate warranty.
Damage caused by accident, misuse, abuse, improper storage, and/or
uncertified repairs is not covered by this warranty.
All mail or transportation costs including insurance are at the expense
of the owner.
Do not send any product to service center for warranty without a RMA
(Return Merchandise Authorization) and proof of purchase. Ensure a
trackable method of delivery is used (keep tracking number).
Warranty is valid only in the country of purchase.
We assumes no liability that may result directly or indirectly from the use
or misuse of these products.
IMPORTANT
" This warranty will be voided if the device is tampered with, improperly
serviced, or the security seals are broken or removed"
19
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