The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works Technical Brief

The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works Technical Brief
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope:
How it Works
Technical Brief
In new designs, the level of integration among processors,
sensors, and communications has increased, blurring the
traditional lines between analog, digital, RF and power system
design. Wireless technology is transforming the way engineers
need to innovate, design, debug and troubleshoot. Prior to
the invention of the mixed domain oscilloscope there was no
single instrument optimized for these types of measurements.
This technology brief explains how a mixed domain
oscilloscope (MDO) combines the technology of a
state-of-the-art mixed signal oscilloscope with spectrum
analyzer hardware and software to provide a complete set
of capabilities for measuring your highly-integrated designs.
Technical Brief
Figure 1. MDO4000C and MDO3000 Series Mixed Domain Oscilloscopes.
What is an MDO?
Before describing the technology inside, it helps to understand
what makes an MDO an MDO. Traditionally, three different
instruments were needed to make analog, digital and RF
The oscilloscope, for making time-correlated
measurements on analog signals in the time domain
The logic analyzer, for making time-correlated
measurements on digital signals in the time domain.
A mixed signal oscilloscope (MSO) is an oscilloscope
with additional digital channels
The spectrum analyzer, for making measurements on
RF signals in the frequency domain
The mixed domain oscilloscope (MDO) is the first tool to
integrate a mixed signal oscilloscope (which includes logic
and protocol analysis capabilities) and a modern spectrum
analyzer. Shown in Figure 1, they are optimized for making
measurements on analog, digital, and RF signals with a full
complement of input channels:
2 or 4 analog time-domain channels with 100 MHz,
200 MHz, 350 MHz, 500 MHz or 1 GHz of bandwidth,
with serial bus decode and triggering capability
16 digital time-domain channels with timing resolution down
to 60.6 ps, with serial bus decode and triggering capability
1 spectrum analyzer channel with up to a 6 GHz input
frequency range
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
MDO4000C option SA3 or SA6
Typical Oscilloscope
Typical Spectrum Analyzer
Input Frequency Range
9 kHz to 3 GHz or 6 GHz
DC to 3.5 GHz
9 kHz to 3 GHz
Spurious Response
-65 dBc typical
-45 dBc nominal
-60 dBc typical
Residual Response
-85 dBm with exceptions at -78 dBm
-70 dBm
-90 dBm
Displayed Average Noise
-148 dBm/Hz typical (5 MHz - 400 MHz)
-149 dBm/Hz typical (400 MHz - 3 GHz)
-150 dBm/Hz typical (10 MHz - 1.5 GHz)
-147 dBm/Hz typical (1.5 GHz - 2.2 GHz)
-143 dBm/Hz typical (2.2 GHz - 3 GHz)
1. Tektronix DPO7354, measured on typical production unit, not warranted performance
2. Agilent CXA, performance as specified in Agilent CXA Spectrum Analyzer datasheet, July, 2013, © Agilent Technologies, Inc.
3. DANL is not meaningful on an oscilloscope without Vector Signal Analysis software that allows for frequency, span, and resolution bandwidth control.
Table 1. Typical spectrum analyzer specifications.
What an MDO is Not – It’s Not Simply
an Oscilloscope with FFT
Most oscilloscopes have the capability of calculating and
displaying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the acquired time
domain signal. However, an MDO has major advantages when
compared against a typical oscilloscope with FFT capability:
Superior capability and fidelity for frequency domain
Independent acquisition systems enable optimal views in
both the time and frequency domains
Spectrum measurement capabilities
Superior Capability and Fidelity for Frequency
Domain Measurements
The integrated spectrum analyzer in an MDO delivers superior
fidelity relative to a scope with FFT. Some key specifications
are compared in Table 1 and the technology used to get
these results is described in the section below, “How an MDO
Achieves its RF Performance”.
Large input frequency range. While oscilloscopes are
available with bandwidths that can measure signals higher
than 2 GHz, they are generally expensive and are not
optimized for the sensitivity of RF analysis. The integrated
spectrum analyzer in the MDO provides the performance
required for typical RF signals without requiring the other
analog channels to equal that performance. In addition,
the spectrum analyzer input is specified differently from an
oscilloscope input channel. While an oscilloscope’s analog
input rolls off to -3 dB at its bandwidth rating, the spectrum
analyzer input on the MDO has a flat response to its rated
frequency of 3 or 6 GHz.
Superior fidelity. Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
indicates the ability for a spectrum analyzer to detect and
measure small signals in the presence of large signals. The
spurious response is a result of interactions between the
user’s signal and the measuring instrument. They are difficult
to “work around,” since their frequency and amplitude change
with the changing input signal. Residual spurs are caused by
signals generated within the measurement instrument leaking
into the signal path. They are easier to identify, since they are
generally static, but can be mistaken for spurs in the user’s
signal. Because of their general purpose nature, oscilloscopes
typically exhibit poorer SFDR than a spectrum analyzer.
Low noise performance is important for measuring low level
signals, and out-of-band emissions for transmitters.
Technical Brief
enables quick
and easy
value entry.
Dedicated front panel
buttons enable quick access
to the most commonly
performed tasks.
Figure 2. MDO4000 Series user controls for frequency domain display.
Independent Hardware and User Interface
Optimized for Frequency Domain
When using an FFT on a typical oscilloscope for making
frequency domain measurements, the user interface is often
the same one used for time domain measurements, or layered
in menus under the FFT function. This makes it difficult to
make typical spectrum analyzer adjustments, such as center
frequency, span, and RBW. Furthermore, With a regular scope
FFT, a single acquisition system is driven by a single set of
acquisition parameters (time/div, record length, and sample
rate) to acquire all data shown in all views. What this means
is that the vast majority of the time you can optimize the
acquisition system to show the desired time domain view
or the desired frequency domain view but virtually never both
at the same time.
By contrast, the MDO features two acquisition systems;
one for the analog and digital channels and another for the
spectrum analyzer. These independent acquisition systems
enable the user to obtain optimal views in both domains.
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
The MDO provides dedicated front panel buttons (Figure 2) for
the most commonly performed spectrum analysis functions
rather than the traditional FFT controls that are buried multiple
layers deep in a menu structure. The numeric keypad allows
easy entry of precise values.
The MDO spectrum analyzer display (Figure 3) will look
familiar and intuitive to spectrum analyzer users, with labeling
of amplitude grid lines as well as start and stop frequencies,
peak markers, and readouts of critical frequency domain
parameters, including reference level, vertical scale, center
frequency, span, and resolution bandwidth (RBW).
Figure 3. MDO3000 spectrum analyzer display elements.
Key Spectrum Measurement Facilities
Many of the measurement features available on a stand-alone
spectrum analyzer are also available on the spectrum analyzer
in an MDO. As noted above and shown in Figure 3, automatic
markers can continuously track up to 11 frequencies with the
highest amplitude. A number of automatic RF measurements
are available including channel power, adjacent channel
power ratio (ACPR), and Occupied Bandwidth measurements.
Figure 4 shows an example of a channel power measurement.
Figure 4. Channel power measurement on an MDO3000.
The MDO features a spectrogram function that provides
valuable insight into RF signals that are changing in frequency.
The spectrogram display is illustrated in Figure 5. Notice
how clearly the frequency hopping nature of the signal is
communicated, even though no single spectrum trace shows
all of the hop frequencies.
Figure 5. Spectrogram on an MDO3000.
Technical Brief
Time Domain Traces
RF Time Domain Trace
Spectrum Time Indicator
Peak Markers
Spectrum Trace
Frequency Domain Settings
Trigger Settings
Figure 6. MDO4000 Series display elements.
MDO4000 Series
Enables Synchronization
of Analog, Digital
and RF
With option SA3 or SA6, the
MDO4000C Series includes
additional hardware, not included
in the MDO3000, that provides
system-level insight not available
on any other instrument:
The ability to simultaneously see timecorrelated time domain waveforms
and frequency spectrums
The ability to see RF amplitude,
phase or frequency versus time,
synchronized with time domain
The analog, digital and spectrum
analyzer input channels on an MDO4000
Series are all time-correlated. This allows
the MDO4000 Series to show the timing
relationships between, say, the serial
data command to an RF transmitter and
the resultant RF burst. A power supply
voltage dip during a device state change
can be analyzed and correlated to the
impact on the RF signal.
Figure 6 shows an example of an
MDO4000C multi-domain screen and
how time-correlated information is
presented for analysis.
1.Time Domain Traces: “Regular”
analog oscilloscope traces.
2.RF Time Domain Trace: A
specialized time domain trace,
derived from the spectrum analyzer
input, which allows the user to view
the amplitude, phase, or frequency
of the RF signal as a function of time.
They are time correlated with the
other analog and digital channels and
represent a continuous time domain
data stream. The orange trace “f”
shows the Frequency versus Time of
the RF signal,
quickly revealing its frequency
hopping nature.
3.Spectrum Time Indicator: An
indication of the location, in time,
of the data that is being used to
generate the spectrum display.
It is represented by the orange
bar, seen at the bottom of the
time domain window. The spectrum
trace is derived from a time sampled
acquisition correlated with the
other analog and digital channels.
The Wave Inspector® knobs control
the position of Spectrum Time.
4.Peak Markers: Automatic frequency
and amplitude readouts for peaks.
5.Spectrum Trace: The spectrum
analyzer trace.
6.Frequency Domain Settings:
Readouts of critical frequency domain
parameters, including Reference
Level, Center Frequency, Span, and
RBW settings.
7.Trigger Settings: Readouts of
trigger parameters. Because of
the integration of the spectrum
analyzer into the time domain-based
acquisition system in the
MDO4000 Series, the acquisition
process can be triggered. The
MDO4000 Series is able to edge
trigger on the overall power level on
the spectrum analyzer input. With
the MDO4TRIG option, the spectrum
analyzer input can be used as a
trigger source for trigger types such
as pulse width and runt.
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
RF Downconverter
Envelope Bandwidth
Swept Tuned
a) Swept Tuned Spectrum Analyzer (SA)
RF Downconverter
IF Filter
Acquisition Bandwidth
Post Capture Processing
b) Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA)
Figure 7. Overview of Spectrum Analyzer Architectures: (a) Swept Tuned Spectrum Analyzer; (b) Vector Signal Analyzer.
How an MDO Works
In order to provide the capabilities and especially the RF
measurement performance described above, an MDO has
a unique architecture that may be unfamiliar to users of
traditional spectrum analyzers or oscilloscopes.
A simplified block diagram of a traditional swept spectrum
analyzer is shown in Figure 7(a). The swept tuned,
superheterodyne spectrum analyzer (SA) is the traditional
architecture that enabled engineers to make frequency
domain measurements several decades ago. Current
generation SAs include digital elements such as ADCs,
DSPs, and microprocessors. However, the basic swept
approach remains largely the same. The SA makes power
vs. frequency measurements by downconverting the signal
of interest and sweeping it through the passband of a
resolution bandwidth (RBW) filter. The RBW filter is followed
by a detector that calculates the amplitude at each frequency
point in the selected span. While this method can provide
high dynamic range, its disadvantage is that it can only
calculate the amplitude data for one frequency point at a
time. Consequently, measurements are only valid for relatively
stable, narrowband, unchanging input signals.
A Vector Signal Analyzer, VSA, architecture is shown in
Figure 7(b). The VSA represents a more modern spectrum
analyzer architecture in which the local oscillator is stepped,
rather than swept. The resultant signal is filtered and then
digitized. This results in a band-limited time domain signal
that can be converted from the time domain to the frequency
domain through the use of a DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform).
Technical Brief
Digital DownConversion
Figure 8. Simplified MDO block diagram.
The resultant frequency domain information is then used to
draw a small portion of the spectrum on the display around
the frequency of the local oscillator. Then the local oscillator is
stepped to the next higher frequency and the process repeats
until the full spectrum has been drawn. Stepped analyzers are
better than swept analyzers for working with time varying RF,
but only when the span of interest is within the step width,
which is usually quite narrow (10 MHz to 25 MHz).
The simplified block diagram of an MDO is shown in
Figure 8. The highlighted blocks are only included in the
MDO4000 Series and the other blocks are common to both
the MDO4000 and the MDO3000 Series. This is essentially
the same architecture used by modern vector signal analyzers.
The main differences between an MDO and typical VSA are,
the MDO has:
A much higher ADC sample rate which leads to
exceptionally wide capture bandwidths
A small number of fixed downconversion ranges
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
9 kHz to 3.75 GHz
2.75 to 4.5 GHz
3.5 to 6.0 GHz
1 GHz
2 GHz
3 GHz
4 GHz
5 GHz
6 GHz
Figure 9. MDO4000C block downconverter frequency ranges.
At the core of the MDO is the same Tektronix-proprietary A/D
converter used in most Tektronix oscilloscopes. This 8-bit A/D
converter samples at 10 GS/s and has an input bandwidth
in excess of 5 GHz. On the MDO4000C, in order to extend
the input frequency response in the 6 GHz MDO models, a
downconverter is used before the A/D. Figure 9 shows the
ranges of the MDO4000C downconverter.
In all MDOs, dither is added to the signal to improve SFDR.
After data is acquired to memory, a combination of hardware
and software techniques are used to perform a digital
downconversion (DDC) to greatly enhance signal fidelity.
This process achieves three things:
The digital signal processors in the MDO perform an FFT to
convert the RF time domain data to frequency domain data,
in the form of a spectrum. The entire spectrum is multiplied by
calibration factors to adjust the flatness and phase.
User selectable detection methods are used to determine how
to decimate the 1000-2,000,000 point FFT output to a 1,000
pixel wide display. Positive peak, negative peak, average, and
sample detectors are available.
Finally, the resulting spectrum is then log-scaled for display.
The data record is converted to a complex I (in-phase) and
Q (quadrature) data format
The center frequency is moved to DC, to allow the IQ
sample rate to be reduced to half rate
The data is filtered and decimated to a sample rate
sufficient to cover the span
Technical Brief
How an MDO Achieves its
RF Performance
A Dedicated, Integrated Spectrum Analyzer
Provides Better Fidelity
Because the spectrum analyzer is dedicated to RF
measurements, the design of the signal path is optimized for
improved spectral fidelity.
The BNC is replaced by a higher fidelity N connector and
better interconnect to the circuit board.
Unlike a typical oscilloscope input, the spectrum analyzer
input does not need to pass DC signals, nor does it need to
provide offset capabilities. This allows the use of attenuator
and amplifier components that are optimized for use in
spectral applications.
Significantly improved shielding is provided, as shown in
Figure 10.
Processing Gain Provides Improved Sensitivity
There might appear to be an inconsistency between the use of
an 8-bit A/D converter and the desire to view signal details that
can be more than 100 dB below full scale. This inconsistency
stems from the formula that relates A/D resolution to Signal to
Noise Ratio (SNR):
SNR = 6.02N + 1.76 dB
Figure 10. MDO4000C analog board with shields removed clearly shows the
RF signal path.
Where fs is the sample rate and RBW is the resolution
bandwidth of the DFT. As an example, for a 10 MHz span and
an RBW of 10 kHz, given the MDO4000 Series sample rate
on the spectrum analyzer channel of 10 GS/s, process gain
improves the SNR by roughly 57 dB, to about 107 dB.
Where N is the number of bits of resolution. For an 8-bit A/D
converter, the noise floor is, at best, about 50 dB below full
scale. This would seem to eliminate any possibility of viewing
signals below this level.
It is interesting to note that with an A/D sampling at 20 MS/s,
which is typical for an entry level spectrum analyzer, it would
require at least 12.5 bits of resolution to achieve this same
SNR performance. The high sampling rate of the MDO is a
critical factor in achieving its sensitivity.
However, it is important to note that the noise predicted by
this equation is broadband and typically spread uniformly
across the bandwidth of the A/D converter. By using a
combination of DDC and DFT to reduce the bandwidth of
the data that is actually processed and displayed, the noise
floor is lowered, allowing visibility of small signals. This effect
is called Process Gain, and it improves the signal to noise
ratio as follows:
One should also note the role of RBW in the process gain
equation. Recall that the Displayed Average Noise Level
(DANL) specification for a spectrum analyzer is given in units
of dBm/Hz. This is because the system noise is broadband
and the level of noise seen at a particular setting is determined
by the RBW setting. This phenomenon is demonstrated on a
typical spectrum analyzer when the noise floor is reduced by
10 dB for every 10X reduction in the RBW.
Process Gain = 10log10
2 * RBW
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
Figure 11. Noise power and trace of 1 GHz channel at 10 MHz RBW.
Figure 12. Noise power and trace of 1 GHz channel at 10 kHz RBW.
As an example, the noise floor across the 1 GHz span in
Figure 11 at a 10 MHz RBW is approximately -85 dBm. In
Figure 12, we now reduce the RBW in the same span 3 orders
of magnitude to 10 kHz RBW. While the noise power across
the span remains constant (now -65.37 dBm), the noise floor
across the 1 GHz span is now down at -115 dBm for a 30 dB
improvement to the noise floor.
In an A/D converter, Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) errors
show up as spurs in the frequency domain. Lower resolution
A/D converters generally have higher DNL errors, resulting in
a correspondingly lower SFDR.
Another important point in understanding noise performance is
that, in a typical spectrum analyzer (using a 14 or 16-bit A/D),
the downconverter noise output is well above the A/D noise
floor. In an MDO, the noise level of the downconverter is below
the noise level of the A/D. The net result is that processing
gain allows the DANL specification for an MDO to be very
similar to a typical spectrum analyzer.
Dither Provides Improved SFDR
There also appears to be an inconsistency between the use
of an 8-bit A/D and the desire for high Spurious Free Dynamic
Range (SFDR) needed for spectral measurements.
In a typical A/D converter, the DNL errors are not uniformly
distributed but, rather, affect only a subset of the A/D codes.
Because of this, dither can be used to significantly reduce
DNL errors and improve SFDR. Dither is a random signal
that is added to the input signal to smear its energy across
multiple A/D codes, effectively averaging the individual DNL
errors across all the codes. The result of adding dither is that
the spurs, caused by DNL errors, are pushed closer to the
noise floor.
In the MDO, dither is added above the cutoff of the 3.75 GHz
IF filter, but below the 5 GHz Nyquist frequency for the A/D.
The added dither signal is outside the span of interest and is
filtered out during the downconversion process.
On a typical oscilloscope, adding dither would be
unacceptable. Although it improves performance in the
frequency domain, it would show up as noise in the time
Technical Brief
Exceptionally Wide Capture
The spectrum analyzer was first developed in an era when
frequency domain analysis was done on RF signals that were
stable over time and had simple narrowband modulation
schemes, like AM or FM. Signals used in today’s digital
communications, however, vary significantly with time,
using sophisticated digital modulation schemes and, often,
transmission techniques that involve bursts of RF. These
modulation schemes can be very wide bandwidth as well.
The MDO is unique is in its extremely wide acquisition
bandwidth. Typical stepped spectrum analyzers have capture
bandwidths of around 10 MHz. Thanks to their architecture
MDOs provide a minimum of 1 GHz of capture bandwidth.
At span settings of 1 GHz and below, there is no requirement
to “sweep” the display. The MDO has a minimum capture
bandwidth of 1 GHz at all center frequencies and as much as
3.75 GHz in some cases. Rather than sweeping or stepping
across the frequency range of interest, the RF signal path
feeds the high sample rate A/D. The resultant time domain
record is stored in memory and the spectrum is generated
from a single acquisition whose timespan is defined by the
Figure 13. An MDO can capture a signal in both the 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz ISM bands
RBW setting. This not only provides wide capture bandwidth,
but also saves time compared to a traditional swept analyzer
or narrow-band FFT analyzer, which can take a significant
amount of time (the sweep time) to capture the range of
frequencies associated with a wide span.
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
Amplitude (A) vs. Time
SQRT(I 2 + Q 2)
I Data
Phase (Φ) vs. Time
Trigger data point = 0°
Q Data
RF Time
Domain Data
Magnitude vs. Time
Frequency (f) vs. Time
( Phase n+1 – Phase n )
(360 x 1/SR r)
Figure 14. Generating RF Time Domain Data.
RF Domain Triggering on the
MDO4000 Series
The oscilloscope-based acquisition system in the MDO4000
Series also provides an inherently triggered acquisition system.
Data is acquired in a single contiguous time-domain record.
This record is then digitally downconverted to the desired span
and then run through a DFT to convert it to the frequency
domain. As a result, the entire set of frequency domain data
displayed for a single acquisition is time consistent – it comes
from the same triggered data record.
Generating RF Time Domain Data in
the MDO4000 Series
On the MDO4000 Series, the I and Q data from digital
downconversion are also used to generate RF Time Domain
traces. After digital downconversion, the IQ data is a Cartesian
representation of the RF signal. As such, the IQ data can be
transformed into amplitude, phase, and frequency information
as shown in Figure 14.
Figure 15. Processing I and Q data allow RF amplitude, phase, and frequency to be
plotted alongside analog and digital waveforms on an MDO4000 Series. In this example
an SPI packet activates a voltage-controlled oscillator. The RF amplitude (top, orange),
control signal (yellow), and bus activity (purple) are all clearly visible.
The resulting RF time domain data can be plotted, along with
other time domain traces, in the time domain graticule, as
shown in Figure 15. All time domain data, including the RF
traces, analog, digital, and spectrum analyzer channels are
time aligned in the graticule, allowing the user to evaluate
timing relationships between these various channels.
Technical Brief
Both the MDO3000 and MDO4000 Series provide the
convenience of having multiple instruments in one integrated
platform. The MDO4000 Series with its ability to show both the
time and frequency domains in a synchronized view, is great
for EMI troubleshooting and integrating wireless transceivers.
While using oscilloscope technology to build a high-fidelity
spectrum analyzer is a significant break from tradition, there
are techniques that allow it to be done effectively. These
techniques include:
The use of a dedicated spectrum analyzer input to
improve fidelity
The use of digital downconversion and DFT techniques
to leverage process gain for improved sensitivity
By using these techniques, MDOs achieve the fidelity needed
to make spectral measurements, while reaping the benefits
that an integrated oscilloscope provides. These benefits
Wide capture bandwidth of at least 1 GHz at any center
frequency and up to 3.75 GHz in specific instances.
Cost and space benefits of sharing a single chassis, display,
interfaces, power supplies, etc
Convenience of a single, integrated instrument
On the MDO4000 Series
- Time correlation with analog and digital channels
- The ability to view RF time domain data beyond the
typical zero span provided by a spectrum analyzer
The use of dither to improve SFDR
Improved shielding
For a more in-depth understanding of the capabilities
and architecture of the MDOs, especially the
MDO4000C Series, refer to “Fundamentals of the
MDO4000C Series Mixed Domain Oscilloscope”,
available at:
The Mixed Domain Oscilloscope: How it Works
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