Integrating Network Management For Cloud Computing Services

Integrating Network Management For Cloud Computing Services
Integrating Network Management For
Cloud Computing Services
Peng Sun
A Dissertation
Presented to the Faculty
of Princeton University
in Candidacy for the Degree
of Doctor of Philosophy
Recommended for Acceptance
by the Department of
Computer Science
Adviser: Professor Jennifer Rexford
June 2015
c Copyright by Peng Sun, 2015.
All rights reserved.
Abstract
Cloud computing is known to lower costs of corporate IT. Thus enterprises are eager
to move IT applications into public or private cloud. Because of this trend, networks
connecting enterprises and cloud providers now play a critical role in delivering highquality cloud applications.
Simply buying better devices is not viable for improving network quality, due to
high capital costs. A more attractive approach is to better utilize network resources
with proper network management. However, there are two problems with current
network management: separately managing network components along the end-toend path, and heavily relying on vendor-specific interfaces with devices.
This dissertation takes a practical approach driven by operational experiences of
cloud services to tackle the two problems. With knowledge of real-world challenges,
we have designed proper abstractions for low-level device interactions, and have built
efficient and scalable systems to integrate the management of various network components. With commercial deployment, our operational experiences feed back into
revision of the abstraction and system design.
In this dissertation, we make three major contributions. We first propose to
consolidate the traffic and infrastructure management in datacenters. Our system,
called Statesman, simplifies management solutions by providing a uniform abstraction
to interact with various aspects of devices. Statesman then allows multiple solutions
to run together, resolves their conflicts, and prevents network-wide failures caused
by their collective actions. Statesman has been operational worldwide in Microsoft’s
public cloud offering since October 2013.
The second contribution consists of joining end hosts with networks for cooperative
traffic management. Our Hone system brings in the fine-grained knowledge of cloud
applications in the hosts, and offers an expressive programming framework with a
iii
uniform view of both host and network data. Hone has been integrated into Verizon
Business Cloud.
The final contribution consists of bridging enterprises and Internet service
providers (ISPs) for fine-grained control of inbound traffic from cloud applications.
Our Sprite system enables enterprises to directly decide how traffic enters the enterprise networks via which ISPs, offering expressive interface and scalable execution.
In collaboration with Princeton’s Office of Information Technology, Sprite was tested
with campus-network data and live Internet experiments.
iv
Acknowledgments
I am very grateful to have had Jennifer Rexford as my advisor through the ups and
downs in my PhD journey. Jen has been a great advisor on computer-networking
research. Her solid expertise and sharp intellect have guided me through the challenges of research, e.g., brainstorming new ideas, clarifying research problems, delving
into technical solutions, improving paper writing, making engaging presentation, etc.
Also being a mentor for me, Jen encouraged me to explore different career paths, and
help me discover and start the best one for my career development. Thanks to her
best imaginable supports, I spent significant portion of my time on industrial research
projects seeking both academic and production impacts, and I built my confidence
and passion in practically applying technologies from cutting-edge research. I have always been inspired by her thoughtfulness, humility, and kindness to everyone around
her, which make her my role model for years to come. My five years at Princeton were
one of the best times in my life because of the fortune of working with and learning
from Jen.
I am also very fortunate to have worked with Lihua Yuan and Dave Maltz. As
mentors of my two-year internship in Microsoft Azure, they put enormous trust on
me to drive a complete roadmap of applying my research: from architecting solutions, securing resources from the management layer, to developing and delivering
the product. Their rigorous attitude and expert skills in solving practical problems
set a great example for my career.
I would like to thank David Walker, Nick Feamster, Margaret Martonosi, and Kai
Li for serving on my thesis committee, and giving me valuable feedback on my works.
I also want to thank my colleagues for the papers we co-authored: Ming Zhang,
Ratul Mahajan, Ahsan Arefin, David Walker, Minlan Yu, Michael Freedman, and
Laurent Vanbever. The major chapters of this dissertation would not be possible
without their invaluable helps and contributions. Our collaboration has been a truly
v
inspiring and rewarding experience. I also would like to thank Chuanxiong Guo,
Guohan Lu, Randy Kern, Albert Greenberg, Walter Willinger, and many others for
their valuable feedback to my research.
My research at Princeton was supported by the National Science Foundation [34,
52], Intel [33], DARPA [35], and the Office of Naval Research [101]. My research at
Microsoft was supported by Microsoft Azure and Microsoft Research. Many thanks
to them for making my works possible.
My Princeton experience would have been incomplete without my friends. I benefited a lot from the candid conversations and the fun social activities with the members
of our Cabernet group. Minlan Yu, Eric Keller, and Rob Harrison helped me boot the
graduate student career in my first year on both research and life. In the same class
with me, Srinivas Narayana gave me kindhearted supports in many joys and struggles
that we shared in the graduate school. I would also like to thank Xin Jin, Naga Katta,
Nanxi Kang, Mojgan Ghasemi, Arpit Gupta, Theophilus Benson, Laurent Vanbever,
and Joshua Reich for the fun discussions on my work and life in Princeton.
I also want to thank my friends in the rest of the Computer Science Department
for making me feel like home: Jude Nelson, Matt Zoufly, Jeff Terrace, Wyatt Lloyd,
David Shue, Erik Nordstrom, Xiaozhou Li, Tianqiang Liu, Yiming Liu, Jingwan Lu,
Xiaobai Chen, Tianlong Wang, Sapan Bhatia, Andy Bavier, Christopher Tengi, Yida
Wang, Cole Schlesinger, Christopher Monsanto, and many others. I also owe a special
thank you to Melissa Lawson, our retired graduate coordinator, for her kind helps
on making my extended internship possible. I thank Brian Kernighan for helping me
improve the communication and teaching skills.
I also thank my friends in other departments in Princeton (Zhuo Zhang, Zhikai Xu,
Shaowei Ke, Xiaochen Feng, Haoshu Tian, Liechao Huang, Pingmei Xu), in Microsoft
(George Chen, Huoping Chen, Murat Acikgoz, Kamil Cudnik, Jiaxin Cao, Shikhar
vi
Suri, Dong Xiang, Chao Zhang, Varugis Kurien, Hongqiang Liu, Yibo Zhu), and too
many others to mention for making my life in Princeton and Seattle much more fun.
I thank my parents, Shufang Ma and Shusen Sun, for their enduring love and
belief, without which I would not have finished the journey.
Above all, I want to thank my fiancée, Jiaxuan Li, for her love and unwavering
faith in me. It is the happiness and optimism from her that drives me through the
five years of PhD. I dedicate this dissertation to her.
vii
To my fiancée and my parents.
viii
Contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiii
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiv
1 Introduction
1
1.1
Problems of Current Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.2
Research Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.3
Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.3.1
Safe Datacenter Traffic/Infrastructure Management . . . . . .
9
1.3.2
End-host/Network Cooperative Traffic Management . . . . . .
10
1.3.3
Direct Control of Entrant ISP for Enterprise Traffic . . . . . .
10
2 Statesman: Integrating Network Infrastructure Management
12
2.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2.2
Network State Abstraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
2.2.1
Three Views of Network State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
2.2.2
Dependency Model of State Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
2.2.3
Application Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
2.3
System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.4
Managing Network State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
ix
2.4.1
The State Dependency Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.4.2
Using and Extending the Dependency Model . . . . . . . . . .
25
Checking Network State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.5.1
Resolving Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.5.2
Choosing and Checking Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
2.5.3
Partitioning by Impact Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
System Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
2.6.1
Globally Available and Distributed Storage Service . . . . . .
32
2.6.2
Stateless Update on Heterogeneous Devices . . . . . . . . . . .
34
2.6.3
Network Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
2.6.4
Read-Write APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
Operational Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
2.7.1
Deployment in Microsoft Azure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
2.7.2
Maintaining Network-wide Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
2.7.3
Resolving Conflicts of Management Solutions
. . . . . . . . .
41
2.7.4
Handling Operational Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
2.8
System Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
2.9
Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
2.10 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
3 Hone: Combining End Host and Network for Traffic Management
51
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
3.2
Hone Programming Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
3.2.1
Measurement: Query on Global Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
3.2.2
Analysis: Data-Parallel Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
3.2.3
Control: Uniform and Dynamic Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
3.2.4
All Three Stages Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
Efficient and Scalable Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
3.3
x
3.3.1
Distributed Directory Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
3.3.2
Lazily Materialized Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
3.3.3
Host-Controller Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
3.3.4
Hierarchical Data Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
3.4.1
Performance of Host-Based Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
3.4.2
Performance of Management Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
3.4.3
Effects of Lazy Materialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
3.4.4
Evaluation of Scalability in Hone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
3.5.1
Elephant Flow Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
3.5.2
Distributed Rate Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
3.6
Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
3.7
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
3.4
3.5
4 Sprite: Bridging Enterprise and ISP for Inbound Traffic Control
86
4.1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
4.2
Inbound TE Using Source NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
4.3
Scalable Sprite Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
4.3.1
Data Plane: Edge Switches Near Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
4.3.2
Control Plane: Local Agents Near Switches
. . . . . . . . . .
93
Dynamic Policy Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
4.4.1
High-level Traffic Engineering Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
4.4.2
Computing Network Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
4.5.1
Design for Fault Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
4.5.2
How Components Communicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
4.5.3
Routing Control for Returning Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.4
4.5
xi
4.5.4
4.6
BGP Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.6.1
Princeton Campus Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.6.2
Multi-ISP Deployment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.6.3
Inbound-ISP Performance Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.6.4
Effects of Dynamic Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.7
Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4.8
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5 Conclusion
109
5.1
Summary of Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.2
Open Issues and Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.3
5.2.1
Combining Statesman and Hone in Datacenters . . . . . . . . 111
5.2.2
Supporting Transactional Semantics in Statesman . . . . . . . 112
5.2.3
Hone for Multi-tenant Cloud Environment . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Bibliography
114
xii
List of Tables
2.1
Input and Output of Each Component in Statesman . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.2
Examples of Network State Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.3
Read-Write APIs of Statesman
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
3.1
Global Tables Supported in Hone Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
3.2
Measurement Query Language Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
3.3
Control Policy in Hone Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
3.4
Average CPU and Memory Usage of Execution . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
3.5
Average CPU/Memory Usage with Hierarchical Aggregation . . . . .
80
3.6
Hone-based Traffic Management Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
4.1
Syntax of High-level Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
4.2
Total Inbound Volume Distribution among ISPs . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
xiii
List of Figures
1.1
End-to-end Structure of Cloud-based Software Services . . . . . . . .
2
1.2
Practical and Iterative Research Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.3
Scope of Integration for Projects in the Dissertation . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.1
Example of Conflicts between Management Solutions . . . . . . . . .
14
2.2
Example of Safety Violation by Collective Actions . . . . . . . . . . .
15
2.3
Statesman Architecture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
2.4
Network State Dependency Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.5
Flow of The Checker’s Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
2.6
Statesman System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
2.7
Network Topology for The Scenario in §2.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
2.8
Device Upgrade Process while Statesman Maintains Safety . . . . . .
40
2.9
WAN Topology for The Scenario in §2.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
2.10 Conflict-Free TE and Device Upgrade with Statesman . . . . . . . . .
43
2.11 Time Series of Firmware Upgrade at Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
2.12 External-Force Failure in Device Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
2.13 End-to-end Latency Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
2.14 Network State Scale & Checker Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
2.15 Read-write Micro-benchmark Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
3.1
54
Overview of the Hone System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiv
3.2
Three Stages of Traffic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
3.3
Partitioned Execution Plan of Elephant-Flow Solution . . . . . . . . .
68
3.4
Aggregation Tree: 8 Hosts with Branching of 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
3.5
Overhead of Collecting Connection Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
3.6
Latency of One Round of Execution of Management Solutions . . . .
75
3.7
Breakdown of Execution Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
3.8
Effects of Lazy Materialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
3.9
Buffering Delay of Merging Data from Hosts on Controller . . . . . .
78
3.10 End-to-end Execution Latency with Hierarchical Aggregation . . . . .
79
3.11 Time Series of Application Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
4.1
Example of How Sprite Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
4.2
Three Levels of Abstraction in Sprite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
4.3
Sprite System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
4.4
Workflow of Network Policy Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
4.5
Network Policy Adaptation for Dynamic Perf-driven Balancing . . . .
97
4.6
System Architecture of Sprite Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
4.7
Stacked Chart of Inbound and Outbound Traffic Volume . . . . . . . 103
4.8
Stacked Chart of Inbound Traffic via Three ISPs . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.9
Setup of the Multihomed Testbed on AWS VPC . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.10 Histogram of Video Quality via Two ISPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.11 Time Series of Average Per-User Throughput of YouTube . . . . . . . 107
xv
Chapter 1
Introduction
Cloud computing is reshaping the Information Technology (IT) industry. It offers
utility computing by delivering the applications as services over the Internet and providing these services with well-organized hardware and software in datacenters. The
utility computing model eliminates the large capital barrier of purchasing hardware
for enterprises, and it also lowers the IT operational costs by allowing enterprises to
pay for what they actually use. These benefits motivate an ongoing effort of enterprises to move their IT applications into the public cloud and/or build their private
cloud [1, 15, 23].
The delivery of the promise of cloud computing depends on the quality of the
end-to-end network. As shown in Figure 1.1, the Internet now plays a critical role
in carrying the traffic of IT applications between enterprises and datacenters of public/private cloud providers. The performance of cloud-based IT applications depends
on not only the application software in the cloud, but also the reliability, efficiency,
and performance of the networks in the middle.
Improving the network quality could be achieved by deploying more network devices with higher bandwidth. However, this brute-force approach no longer works
due to the high capital costs and the rapidly growing traffic demands [7]. A more
1
Internet
ISP
ISP
ISP
…
ISP
ISP
Applica'on Rou'ng OS Hardware Servers
Network Devices
ISP
…
ISP
Enterprise
Network
Datacenter of Public/Private Cloud Provider
Figure 1.1: End-to-end Structure of Cloud-based Software Services
attractive approach is to build proper network management solutions to better utilize the existing network resources. Yet the current practice of network management
has two main problems which have become the main bottlenecks in adopting cloud
computing. The two problems of network management solutions are:
• Disjoint management of the end-to-end components:
Providing an efficient network involves multiple components on the end-to-end
path: from the network stack of the datacenter servers’ operating systems, the
hardware configuration and the routing control of network devices in datacenters,
the traffic exchange of Internet service providers (ISPs), to the setup of enterprise
networks. Each component can affect the quality of the networks. Yet these components (e.g., servers, network device hardware, and traffic routing) are managed
separately with different systems, since traditionally these components are spread
across multiple places. In the cloud era, these components become much more
2
concentrated in the datacenters than before, and the lack of integration among
management systems limits the quality improvement of the networks.
• Low-level interfaces for interacting with network devices:
Network devices are heterogeneous with different models from various vendors of
varying ages. Interacting with the devices is complicated since the configuration
APIs with devices are usually low-level and vendor-specific. Human network operators have to heavily use these low-level APIs in day-to-day operations, and it
has been an error-prone process to configure the devices to run the right protocols
with the right parameters using the right APIs. Using these APIs also tightly
binds the solutions to specific device features by vendors, making it difficult to
adapt the solutions to evolving business objectives. In datacenters, the heavy reliance on low-level device interfaces becomes one of the major sources of failures
in network operations, especially when the datacenter network is growing in scale
and adopting more commodity hardware from multiple vendors [8, 27, 28].
The programmability of management solutions has received much attention in the
research community [64]. The concept of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) aims
at providing a better way to program traffic management solutions. The literature on
SDN, especially the ones surrounding the OpenFlow technology [45, 74, 97], promise
to automate managing the traffic routing in networks with high-level programming
paradigms [66, 67, 99, 128]. With existing literature focusing on programming traffic
management on network devices, two other problems are much less explored beyond
just traffic management: disjoint management of network components (e.g., server,
device hardware), and low-level device interaction limiting a broader scope of network
management (e.g., infrastructure management).
This dissertation focuses on solving these two problems. Rather than proposing
clean-slate solutions, the dissertation takes a practical approach driven by operational
experiences of cloud services. We identify the real-world opportunities and challenges
3
of integrating the management of different network components on the end-to-end
path, and then propose proper abstractions to unify and hide the low-level component
interactions. Guided by the abstractions, we design and build systems of integrated
management platforms for cloud providers and enterprises that are simple to use, and
safe, efficient, and scalable in day-to-day operations [120, 123]. Having deployed the
systems in major cloud providers [17, 26], we leverage the operational experiences as
feedback to revisit the abstraction and system design.
We first elaborate the problems of network management with examples of management solutions in §1.1. We then discuss the research approach of this dissertation
in §1.2, and summarize the major contributions of this dissertation in §1.3.
1.1
Problems of Current Network Management
Current practices of network management have two main problems: 1) disjoint management of the network components, and 2) heavy reliance on the low-level interfaces
with devices. These problems become more severe in the era of cloud computing, and
have become the main limiting factors in building more reliable and more efficient
network management solutions.
Considering the first problem, many components are involved in the end-to-end
path of cloud applications. Applications are running on the servers in datacenters, and
the servers send traffic to other servers or the outside via datacenter networks. A series
of ISPs deliver the application traffic to the enterprise networks, which finally deliver
it to the users. Traditionally, these components are managed as three separate areas:
1) Application and server provisioning for placing the applications and controlling
the servers’ operating environments, 2) network infrastructure for configuring and
operating the device hardware from power control to topology setup, and 3) traffic
engineering for routing the application traffic through the network infrastructure.
4
The status quo results from the traditional division of labor among the entities
of the Internet business in the pre-cloud-computing era. In the past, the entity who
hosts applications has the majority of traffic going directly to users; not among the
application instances inside. Thus it focuses on server provisioning with lower stakes
in network operations. In contrast, the ISPs focus on the networks, separating infrastructure management and traffic engineering because the two run at vastly different
paces (e.g., infrastructure changes over years while traffic changes in minutes).
The emergence of the cloud breaks the balance. The datacenters of cloud providers
see a new majority of traffic coming from the server-to-server communication internally among application instances [41, 83], because more applications are built with
multi-tier architecture as distributed systems [43, 57]. This new traffic pattern motivates big changes of datacenter network architecture with intensive usage of commodity devices [38, 73, 76, 77, 87, 104]. The architectural change significantly increases
the quantity and the evolution speed of network infrastructure in datacenters. As interest in application provisioning, infrastructure management, and traffic engineering
concentrates on the cloud providers, the current separation of management systems
becomes a bottleneck in improving the performance of applications.
Additionally, the cloud-based applications have highly asymmetric traffic patterns
to the enterprises [7]. For instance, our measurements at Princeton University show
that the campus receives an average of eight times more traffic than it sends. Enterprises would like to control the incoming traffic, but they lack direct control because
the function of traffic engineering mainly belongs to the ISPs [51].
In fact, there exists a great opportunity to consolidate disjoint management systems, especially within the scope of cloud providers. For instance, Google [82] and
Microsoft [81] have both built traffic management systems on their wide area networks
that combine the knowledge and functions of servers and networks. The systems collect application traffic demands directly from servers, and combine them with the
5
network statistics to compute a solution to scheduling the traffic. The systems then
enforce the solution with both the rate limiting on servers and the routing control
in networks. These integrated systems have significantly improved the bandwidth
utilization levels of the wide area networks of Google and Microsoft.
Besides the separation problem, network management is also limited by the lowlevel interfaces with heterogeneous devices. Each device vendor develops their own
interfaces with their network devices. As device hardware grows more specialized
when vendors differentiate themselves, interfaces become tightly bound with specific
vendors and specific hardware features. As specialized devices are heavily used, the
network operators have to rely on low-level vendor APIs to configure and run the
networks. This makes network operation heavily dependent on the experiences and
manual control of the network operators.
Use of low-level device interfaces by network operators becomes a barrier to automating management of datacenter networks of cloud providers. Because of the
architectural changes, the number of network devices is much larger in datacenters
of cloud providers than in traditional networks. The management process has to be
automated with software, rather than by manual configurations to be scalable and
sustainable for future growth. Also, datacenters of cloud providers use large amounts
of commodity devices, rather than specialized hardware from specific vendors, to
save the purchase and operational costs for the economy of scale. The difference in
interfaces among vendors and models of hardware actually becomes an obstacle in
developing network management solutions for cloud services.
Major cloud providers have already started to reduce their reliance on vendorspecific APIs, and use commodity device features to build their management solutions
with the help of server-based software [68, 107, 132]. For example, load balancing used
to be carried out by specialized devices. However, configuring and maintaining the
hardware load balancers is costly, and is the major source of operation failures. In6
Iden5fy Opportunity of Integra5on Simple and high-­‐level programming abstrac5on Deployment in real world Efficient and scalable system for execu5on Figure 1.2: Practical and Iterative Research Approach
stead, Microsoft and Amazon [2] build software-based load balancing systems. These
systems use the basic features of network devices (e.g., ECMP), and run software on
a group of servers to distribute the traffic among application instances. Such systems
greatly improve the stability of the cloud services by reducing operational failures.
1.2
Research Approach
Instead of designing clean-slate solutions, we take a practical approach driven by
operational experience in cloud computing services. Figure 1.2 outlines the iteration
cycle of our approach.
The first step is to identify real-world management scenarios where an integrated
management system could benefit. We work closely with major cloud providers and
enterprises to find problems that they encounter in the network operations. We
then examine these problems, and understand how we can improve the operations by
rethinking the division of labor.
Upon finding an opportunity for improvement, we start the iteration of designing
and building a network management platform for integration. The design starts with
high-level abstraction to unify the differences among the network components or the
management entities, and hide the low-level interactions with device hardware. The
7
design of abstraction aims at a simple-to-use programming interface to build network
management solutions which can utilize the benefits from the integration.
Based on the design of the programming abstraction, we then design the system
part and build the management platform to execute the solutions across the newly
consolidated network components. The goals of our systems are safety, efficiency,
and scalability in the operations of datacenter networks in the cloud providers and
enterprise networks of the cloud-service users.
In the process of building our management platforms, we actively seek deployment in commercial environments. Collaborating with several cloud providers and
enterprises, we run the platforms to accumulate operational experiences. These experiences and the real-world constraints of deployment are fed back to the design of
abstraction and systems to make our platforms more practical.
This research approach represents our careful balance between the advancement
of research frontier in the area of network management and the engineering efforts in
impacting the commercial operations of the cloud computing services.
1.3
Contributions
In this dissertation, we have designed and built three integrated management platforms to consolidate three areas along the end-to-end path of cloud services. Figure 1.3
shows which network components each platform has consolidated. Our works simplify and improve the traffic and infrastructure management in datacenters of cloud
providers, and provide enterprises with more direct control over incoming traffic from
cloud services. We make three major contributions as illustrated below.
8
Statesman Hone Other ISPs
Sprite Datacenters
ISP
ISP
Enterprises
Applica*on Rou*ng OS Hardware Servers
Network Devices
Figure 1.3: Scope of Integration for Projects in the Dissertation
1.3.1
Safe Datacenter Traffic/Infrastructure Management
The cloud providers run many automated solutions simultaneously for traffic and
infrastructure management in datacenters. Individually complicated to build and
operate, these solutions can have conflicts which inadvertently affect the operations
of each other, and they can collectively cause unintentional network-wide failures.
We propose a system called Statesman to consolidate the operations of traffic and
infrastructure management solutions, and offer a common layer of interacting with
network devices to resolve conflicts and maintain network-wide safety invariants (e.g.,
maintaining the network connectivity). The core feature of Statesman is the loosely
coupled model of running multiple management solutions with the abstraction of
network state. Network state captures various aspects of the network, such as which
links are alive and how devices are forwarding traffic. Statesman offers three distinct
views of the network state as a pipeline to build and run management solutions.
Working together with Microsoft, we have deployed the Statesman system in the
datacenters of the Azure public cloud service worldwide. Operational since October
9
2013, Statesman becomes the fundamental layer for Microsoft Azure networking. The
work is published in ACM SIGCOMM 2014 [120].
1.3.2
End-host/Network Cooperative Traffic Management
The providers of cloud services and cloud-based applications carefully manage their
traffic through the underlying networks for various performance objectives. These
traffic management solutions are confined in the scope of network devices. In addition to the limited CPU and memory resources, network devices cannot provide
knowledge in layers higher than the network layer, limiting the solutions’ insights
into the application-traffic behaviors.
We propose to join the end hosts with the network devices, so we can utilize the
rich application-traffic statistics in the end hosts to build better traffic management
solutions. Our system, named Hone, abstracts the diverse collection of statistics on
both end hosts and network devices into a uniform view of data. We then design a
framework based on functional reactive programming [61, 103] to simplify programming management solutions with the uniform data model. Hone has been adopted
by Overture Networks to use in the Verizon Business Cloud service. With the hostside data from Hone, the customers of Verizion Business Cloud enjoy better quality
of their connections with the datacenters of Verizon for the improved performance
of cloud-based applications. Our work on Hone is published in Springer Journal of
Network and Systems Management [122, 123].
1.3.3
Direct Control of Entrant ISP for Enterprise Traffic
With the rise of cloud computing services, enterprise networks receive much more
traffic than they send. Although enterprise networks typically connect with multiple
upstream ISPs, they have very limited control over which of their ISPs to carry the
incoming traffic for each cloud application. The limit of control comes from the
10
functionalities divided between the enterprises and the ISPs in routing the traffic,
i.e., the path that the traffic takes is mainly decided by the ISPs.
We propose to bridge the boundary between enterprises and their upstream ISPs
to exert direct and fine-grained control over the entrant ISP for incoming traffic. In
our proposed system called Sprite, we design three levels of abstraction to simplify
the expression of traffic engineering objectives with the highest level of abstraction,
and dynamically translate the objectives into lower levels of abstraction for efficient
and scalable execution. In collaboration with the Office of Information Technology
of Princeton University, we have tested Sprite with the traffic data collected on the
campus network and with live Internet experiments on the PEERING testbed [115,
125]. The work is published in ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on SDN Research
2015 [121].
Chapters 2, 3, and 4 describe Statesman, Hone, and Sprite in detail respectively.
Chapter 5 presents open issues and future works, and concludes the dissertation.
11
Chapter 2
Statesman: Integrating Network
Infrastructure Management
2.1
Introduction
Today’s cloud-based applications (e.g., search, social networking, and online storage)
depend on large datacenter networks. Keeping these networks running smoothly is
difficult, due to the sheer number of network devices, and the dynamic nature of
the environment. At any given moment, multiple network devices may experience
component failures, may be brought down for planned maintenance or saving energy,
may be upgraded with new firmware, or may be reconfigured to adapt to prevailing
traffic demand. In response, the cloud providers have developed an array of automated systems for managing the traffic (e.g., traffic engineering [81, 82], server load
balancing [68, 107], and network virtualization [89]) and the infrastructure (e.g., hardware power control for failure mitigation or energy saving [78, 132], device firmware
upgrade, and device configuration management [48, 49]).
Each management solution is highly sophisticated in its own right, usually requiring several years to design, develop, and deploy. It typically takes the form of
12
a “control loop” that measures the current state of the network, performs computation, and then reconfigures the network. For example, a traffic engineering (TE)
solution measures the current traffic demand and network topology, solves an optimization problem, and then changes the routing configuration to match demand.
These solutions are complicated because they must work correctly even in the presence of failures, variable delays in communicating with a distributed set of devices,
and frequent changes in network conditions.
Designing and running a single network management solution is challenging.
Large datacenter networks must simultaneously run multiple management
solutions—created by different teams, each reading and writing some part of the
network state. For instance, both a TE solution and a solution to mitigate link
failures need to run continuously to, respectively, adjust the routing configuration
continuously and detect and resolve failures quickly.
These management solutions can conflict with each other, even if they interact
with the network at different levels, such as establishing network paths, assigning IP
addresses to interfaces, or installing firmware on devices. One solution can inadvertently affect the operation of another. As an example in Figure 2.1, suppose the TE
solution wants to create a tunnel through the switch B, while the firmware-upgrade
solution wants to upgrade B. Depending on which action happens first, either the
TE solution fails to create the tunnel (because B is already down), or the alreadyestablished tunnel ultimately drops traffic during the firmware upgrade.
Running multiple management solutions also raises the risk of network-wide failures because their complex interactions make it hard to reason about their combined
effect. Figure 2.2 shows an example where one management solution wants to shut
down switch AggB to upgrade its firmware, while another wants to shut down switch
AggA to mitigate packet corruption. While each solution acting alone is fine, their
joint actions would disconnect the top-of-rack (ToR) switches. To prevent such disas13
Switch
A
TE solution allocates
traffic on the path
Switch D
through Switch B
Traffic lost at
B
Switch
B
Switch
C
Switch-firmwareupgrade solution
schedules switch B
for upgrading
Figure 2.1: Example of Conflicts between Management Solutions
ters, it is imperative to ensure that the collective actions of the management solutions
do not violate certain network-wide invariants, which specify basic safety and performance requirements for the network. For instance, a pod of servers must not be
disconnected from the rest of datacenter, and there must be some minimum bandwidth between each pair of pods.
The cloud providers could conceivably circumvent the problems that stem from
running multiple solutions by developing a single management solution that performs
all functions, e.g., combining TE, firmware upgrade, and failure mitigation. However,
this monolithic solution would be highly complex, and worse, it would need to be
extended repeatedly as new needs arise. Thus, the cloud providers need a way to
keep the management solutions separate.
Another option is to have explicit coordination among the management solutions.
Corybantic [98] is one recent proposal that follows this approach. While coordination
may be useful for some management solutions, using it to solve the problem of multisolution coexistence imposes high overhead on each solution, requiring each solution
to understand the intended network changes of all others. To make matters worse,
every time a solution is changed or a new one is developed, the cloud providers would
need to test again, and potentially retrofit some existing solutions, in order to ensure
that all of them continue to coexist safely.
14
Core
Routers
Agg A
Pod
Agg B
ToRs
Failure-mitigation
solution tries to shut
down flaky Agg A,
assuming Agg B is up.
Switch-firmwareupgrade solution
assumes Agg A is up,
and schedules Agg B
for upgrading.
Connectivity
of ToRs is
lost
Figure 2.2: Example of Safety Violation by Collective Actions
We argue that network management solutions should be built and run in a loosely
coupled manner, without explicit or implicit dependencies on each other, and conflict
resolution and invariant enforcement should be handled by a separate management
system. This architecture would simplify development of management solution, and
its simplicity would boost network stability and predictability. It may forgo some
performance gains possible through tight coupling and joint optimization. However,
as noted above, such coupling greatly increases the complexity of management solution. Furthermore, since management solutions may have competing objectives,
a management system to resolve conflicts and maintain invariants would be needed
anyway. We thus believe that loose coupling of management solutions is a worthwhile
tradeoff in exchange for significant reduction in complexity.
We propose Statesman, a network-state management service that supports multiple loosely-coupled management solutions in large datacenter networks. Each solution
operates by reading and writing some part of the network state at its own pace, and
Statesman functions as the conflict resolver and the invariant guardian. Our design
introduces two main ideas that simplify the design and operation of network management solutions:
15
• Three views of network state (observed, proposed, target): In order to
prevent conflicts and invariant violations, management solutions cannot change
the state of the network directly. Instead, each solution applies its own logic to
the network’s observed state to generate a proposed state that may change one or
more state variables of the network. Statesman merges all proposed states into
one target state. In the merging process, it examines all proposed states to resolve
conflicts and ensures that the target state satisfies an extensible set of networkwide invariants. Our design is inspired by version control systems like Git. Each
solution corresponds to a different Git user and (i) the observed state corresponds
to the code each user “pulls”, (ii) the proposed state corresponds to the code the
user wants to “push”, and (iii) the target state corresponds to the merged code
that is ultimately stored back in the shared repository.
• Dependency model of state variables: Prior works on abstracting network
state model the state as independent variable-value pairs [90, 91]. However, this
model does not contain enough semantic knowledge about how various state variables relate to each other, which hinders detecting conflicts and invariant violations.
For example, a tunnel cannot carry traffic if the path includes an administratively
down device. To ensure safe merging of proposed states, Statesman uses a dependency model to capture the domain-specific dependencies among state variables.
Statesman has been deployed and operational in ten datacenters of Microsoft
Azure cloud service since October 2013. It currently manages over 1.5 million state
variables from links and devices across the globe. We have also deployed two management solutions—device firmware upgrade and link failure mitigation, while a third
one—inter-datacenter TE—is undergoing pre-deployment testing. The diverse functionalities of these solutions showcase how Statesman can safely support multiple
management solutions, without them hurting each other or the network. We also
show that these benefits come with reasonably low overhead. For instance, the la16
tency for conflict resolution and invariant checking is under 10 seconds even in the
largest datacenter network with 394K state variables. We believe that our experience with Statesman can inform the design of future management systems for cloud
providers.
2.2
Network State Abstraction
In this section, we provide more details on the abstraction of network state underlying
Statesman, and how management solutions use the abstraction.
2.2.1
Three Views of Network State
Although management solutions have different functionalities, they typically follow a
control loop of reading some aspects of the network state, running some computation
on the state, and accordingly changing the network. One could imagine that each
management solution reads and writes states to the network devices directly.
However, direct interaction between the devices and the management solutions is
undesirable for two reasons. First, it cannot ensure that individual solution or their
collective actions will not violate network-wide invariants. Second, reliably reading
and writing network state is difficult because of response-time variances and device
failures. When a command to a device takes a long time to execute, the management
solution has to decide when to retry, how many times, and when to give up. When a
command fails, the management solution has to parse the error code and decide how
to react.
Given the issues above, Statesman abstracts the network state as multiple variablevalue pairs. Furthermore, it maintains three different types of views of network state.
Two of these are observed state (OS) and target state (TS). The OS is (a latest view
of) the actual state of the network, which Statesman keeps up-to-date. Management
17
solutions read the OS to learn about current network state. The TS is the desired state
of the network, and Statesman is responsible for updating the network to match the
TS. Any success or failure of updating the network towards the TS will be (eventually)
reflected into the OS, from where the management solutions will learn about the
prevailing network conditions.
The OS and TS views are not sufficient for resolving conflicts and enforcing safety
invariants. If management solutions directly write to the TS, the examples in Figure 2.1 and 2.2 can still happen. We thus introduce the third type of view called
proposed state (PS) that captures the state desired by management solutions. Each
solution writes its own PS.
Statesman examines the various PSes and detects conflicts among them and with
the TS. It also validates them against a set of network-wide invariants. The invariants capture the basic safety and performance requirements for the network (e.g., the
network should be physically connected and each pair of server pods should be able
to survive a single-device failure). The invariants are independent of which management solutions are running. Only non-conflicting and invariant-compliant PSes are
accepted and merged into the TS.
2.2.2
Dependency Model of State Variables
Management solutions read and write different state variables of the network, e.g.,
hardware power, device configuration, traffic routing, and multi-device tunneling.
Statesman thus provides the state variables at multiple levels of granularity for the
needs of management solutions (more details in §2.4 with examples in Table 2.2).
However the state variables are not independent. The “writability” of one state
variable can depend on the values of other state variables. For example, when a
link interface is configured to use the traditional control-plane protocol (e.g., BGP or
OSPF), OpenFlow rules cannot be installed on that interface. In another example,
18
when the firmware of a device is being upgraded, its configuration cannot be changed
and tunnels cannot be established through it. Thus, when proposing new values of
state variables, conflicts can arise because a state variable in one solution’s PS may
become unchangeable due to some dependent state variables in another solution’s PS.
Requiring management solutions to understand the complex cross-variable dependency will go against our goal of running them in a loosely coupled manner. For
instance, it will be difficult for a TE solution to have to consider how one specific
device configuration affects its operation. Therefore, Statesman does not treat the
network state as a collection of independent variables but includes a model of dependencies among the state variables. These dependencies are used when checking for
conflicts and invariant violations. Based on the dependency model, Statesman also
exposes the “controllability” of each state variable as an additional logical variable.
Thus, a management solution can read just the state variables of interest and their
controllability variables to decide whether it is able to propose new values for those
variables of interest. For example, a TE solution can read the “path” variable (i.e., a
tunnel through multiple devices) and determine whether it is currently controllable.
This is computed by Statesman based on various hardware and routing configurations of the devices along the path; the TE solution does not need to reason about
the related hardware and routing configurations itself.
2.2.3
Application Workflow
In the observed-proposed-target pipeline, the workflow of management solutions is
simple. Each solution reads the OS, runs its computational logic, and writes a newly
generated PS. Statesman generates the new TS after resolving conflicts and invariant
violations in the PSes and merging the accepted ones.
In this model, some proposals may be rejected. Handling this rejection does not
impose extra overhead on management solutions; even if the interaction with network
19
devices was not mediated by Statesman, management solutions have to be prepared
to be unable to update the network to the desired state (e.g., due to failures during
the update process). When Statesman rejects a proposal, the proposer gets detailed
feedback on the reason for rejection (§2.5), at which point it can propose a new PS
in an informed manner.
Per our desire for loose coupling, management solutions make proposals independently. It is thus possible that PSes of two solutions frequently conflict or we do
not compute a target state that satisfies all management solutions (even though such
a state may exist). In our operational experience with Statesman, such cases are
not common. Thus, we believe that the simplicity of loose coupling outweighs the
complexity of tight coupling. In cases where coordination among two management
solutions is highly beneficial, it may be done out of band such that the solutions make
proposals after consulting each other. In this way, most management solutions and
the Statesman system as a whole stay simple, and the complexity cost of coordination
is borne only in parties that benefit the most from the coordination.
2.3
System Overview
Figure 2.3 shows the architecture of Statesman. It has four components: storage
service, checker, monitor, and updater. We outline the role of each below, and the
following sections present more details.
Storage service is at the center of the system. It persistently stores the state
variables of OS, PS, and TS and offers a highly-available, read-write interface for
other components and management solutions. It also handles all data availability and
consistency issues, which allows all other components to be completely stateless—
in each round of their operations, they just read the latest values of the needed
20
Device Upgrade Solu4on …
Link Failure Mi4ga4on Solu4on Observed State Checker
Dependency Model Proposed State Monitor Invariant Invariant Invariant Target State Storage Service Updater Statesman Figure 2.3: Statesman Architecture Overview
state variables. This stateless mode of operation simplifies the design of the other
components.
The checker, monitor, and updater independently interact with the storage service,
and the latter two also interact with the network devices. Table 2.1 summarizes the
input and output of each component.
Checker plays a pivotal role of generating the TS. After reading the OS, PSes,
and TS from the storage service, the checker first examines whether the PSes are still
applicable with respect to the latest OS (e.g., the proposed change may have already
been made or cannot be made at all due to a failure). It then detects conflicts
among PSes with the state dependency model and resolves them with one of two
configurable mechanisms: last-writer-wins or priority-based locking. After merging
the valid and non-conflicting PSes into the TS, the checker examines the TS for the
21
Component
Input
Output
Monitor
Device/link statistics
OS
Checker
OS
PSes
TS
TS
Updater
OS
TS
Device update commands
Table 2.1: Input and Output of Each Component in Statesman
operator-specified safety invariants. It writes the TS to the storage service only if
the TS complies with the invariants. It also writes the acceptance or rejection results
of the PSes to the storage service, so management solutions can learn about the
outcomes and react accordingly.
Monitor periodically collects the statistics from the devices and links, transforms
them into values of OS variables, and writes the new values to the storage service. In
addition to simplifying other components and management solutions to learn about
current network state, the monitor also shields them from the heterogeneity among
devices. Based on the device vendor and the supported technologies, it uses the
corresponding protocol (e.g., SNMP or OpenFlow) to collect the network statistics,
and it translates protocol-specific data to protocol-agnostic state variables. Other
components and management solutions use these abstract variables without worrying
about the specifics of the underlying infrastructure.
Updater reads the OS and TS and translates their difference into update commands that are then sent to the devices. The updater is memoryless—it applies the
latest difference between the OS and TS without regard to what happened in the past.
Like the monitor, the updater handles how to update heterogeneous devices with a
command template pool, and allows other components and management solutions to
work with device- and protocol-agnostic state variables.
22
Path/Traffic Setup Path
Dependency
Rou&ng Control Link Interface Config Device Configura&on Link Power Link
Opera&ng System Setup Power Device
Figure 2.4: Network State Dependency Model
2.4
Managing Network State
We now describe the various aspects of Statesman in more details, starting with the
network-state data model. We use the examples in Table 2.2 to illustrate how we
build the state dependency model, and how to use and extend the model.
2.4.1
The State Dependency Model
Managing a datacenter network involves multiple levels of control. To perform the
final function of carrying traffic, the network needs to be properly powered and configured. Statesman aims to support operations in the complete process of bringing
up a large datacenter network from scratch to normal operations. In order to capture the relationship among the state variables at different levels of the management
process, we use the state dependency model of Figure 2.4. We use the process of
bootstrapping a datacenter network as an example to explain this model.
23
At the bottom of the dependency model is the power state of network devices.
With the power cable properly plugged in and electricity properly distributed to
the devices, we then need to control which operating system (i.e., firmware) runs.
Running a functioning firmware on a device is the prerequisite for managing device
configuration, e.g., use device vendor’s API to configure the management interface,
boot up compatible OpenFlow agent, etc.
With device configuration states ready, we are able to control the link interfaces
on the device now. The fundamental state variable of a link is its being up or down.
The configuration of a link interface follows when the link is ready to be up. There
are various link-interface configuration states, such as IP assignment, VLAN setup,
ECMP-group assignment, etc. Consider an example of control plane setup where a
link interface can be configured to use the OpenFlow protocol or traditional protocols
like BGP. For the chosen option, we need to set it up: either an OpenFlow agent needs
to boot and take control of the link, or the BGP session needs to start with proper
policies. These control plane states of the link determine whether and how the device’s
routing can be controlled.
We can manage the routing states of the devices when all the dependent states are
correct. We represent the routing state in a data structure of the flow-link pairs, which
is agnostic to the supported routing protocols. For example, the routing states can
map to the routing rules in OpenFlow or the prefix-route announcement or withdrawal
in BGP. When management solutions change the value of the routing state variable,
Statesman (specifically the updater) automatically translates the value to appropriate
control-plane commands.
One level higher is the path state which controls tunnels through multiple devices.
Creating a tunnel and assigning traffic along the path depend on all devices on the
path having their routing states ready to manage. Again, Statesman is responsible
24
Entity
Level in dependency
Example state variables
Permission
Path
Path/traffic setup
Devices on path
MPLS or VLAN configuration
ReadWrite
ReadWrite
Link interface configuration
IP assignment
Control plane setup
ReadWrite
ReadWrite
Link power
Interface admin status
Interface oper status
ReadWrite
ReadOnly
N/A (counters)
Traffic load
Packet drop rate
ReadOnly
ReadOnly
Routing control
Flow-link routing rules
Link weight allocation
ReadWrite
ReadWrite
Device configuration
Management interface setup
OpenFlow agent status
ReadWrite
ReadWrite
Operating system
setup
Firmware version
Boot image
ReadWrite
ReadWrite
Power
Admin power status
Power unit reachability
ReadWrite
ReadOnly
N/A (counters)
CPU utilization
Memory utilization
ReadOnly
ReadOnly
Link
Device
Table 2.2: Examples of Network State Variables
for translating the path’s states into the routing states of all devices on the path, and
the management solution only needs to read or write the path states.
2.4.2
Using and Extending the Dependency Model
For simplicity, management solutions should not be required to understand all the
state variables and their complex dependencies. They should be able to simply work
with the subset of variables that they need to manage based on their goals. For
instance, a firmware-upgrade solution should be able to focus on only the DeviceFirmwareVersion variable. However, this variable depends on lower-level variables,
such as device power state whose impact cannot be completely ignored; firmware
cannot be upgraded if the device is down.
25
We find that it suffices to represent the impact of these dependencies by using a logical variable that we call controllability and expose it to management solutions. This
boolean-valued variable denotes whether the parent state variable is currently controllable, and its value is computed by Statesman based on lower-level dependencies.
For instance, DeviceFirmwareVersion is controllable only if the values of variables
such as device power and admin states are appropriate. Now the firmware-upgrade
solution can simply work with DeviceFirmwareVersion and DeviceFirmwareVersionIsControllable variables to finish its job.
To give another concrete example, the variable DeviceConfigIsControllable tells
whether management solutions can change various state variables of device configuration, such as the management interface setup. The value of DeviceConfigIsControllable is calculated based on whether the device is powered up, whether the device can
be reachable via SSH/Telnet from the management network (indicating the firmware
is functioning), and whether the device is healthy according to the health criterion
(e.g., CPU/memory utilizations are not continuously 100% for certain amount of
time). Similarly, links have LinkAdminPowerIsControllable calculated with the DeviceConfigIsControllable of the two devices on the link’s ends.
Exposing just the controllability variables makes the dependency model extensible.
The functions calculating the controllability are implemented in the storage service
of Statesman. When a new state variable is added to Statesman, we just need to
place it in the dependency model, i.e., find what state variables will be dependent on
the new one. Then we modify the controllability functions of the corresponding state
variables to consider the impact of the new variable. For management solutions that
are not interested in the new variable, no modifications are necessary.
26
2.5
Checking Network State
The checker plays a pivotal role in Statesman. It needs to resolve conflicts among
management solutions and enforce network-wide invariants. Its design also faces scalability challenges when handling large networks. We first explain the state checking
process and then describe techniques for boosting scalability of the checker. Figure 2.5
outlines the checker’s operation.
2.5.1
Resolving Conflicts
Multiple types of conflicts can occur in the network state due to the dynamic nature
of datacenter networks and uncoordinated management solutions:
• TS–OS: The TS can conflict with the latest OS when changes in the network
render some state variables uncontrollable, although they have new values in the
TS. For instance, if the OpenFlow agent on a device crashes, which is reflected as
DeviceAgentBootStatus=Down in the OS, any routing changes in the TS cannot be
applied.
• PS–OS: When the checker examines a PS, the OS may have changed from the time
that the PS was generated, and some variables in the PS may not be controllable
anymore. For example, a PS could contain the new value of a LinkEndAddress
variable, but when the checker reads the PS, the link may have been shut down
for maintenance.
• PS–TS: The TS is essentially the accumulation of all accepted PSes in the past.
A PS can conflict with the TS due to an accepted PS from another management
solution. For example, assume that a firmware-upgrade solution wants to upgrade
a device and proposes to bring it down; its PS is accepted and merged into the TS.
Now, when a TE solution proposes to change the device’s routing state, it conflicts
with the TS even though the device is online (i.e., no conflict with the OS).
27
Read OS, TS. Resolve TS-­‐OS conflicts. Read next PS. Resolve PS-­‐OS conflicts. Resolve PS-­‐TS conflicts. Examine TS+PS for invariants. TS=TS+PS if pass. Write new TS back. Figure 2.5: Flow of The Checker’s Operation
The first two types of conflicts are because of the changing OS, which makes some
variables in the PS or TS uncontrollable. To detect these conflicts, the checker reads
the controllability values from the OS, which are calculated by the storage service
based on the dependency model when relevant variable values are updated. It then
locates the uncontrollable variables in the PS or TS. To resolve TS–OS conflicts, we
introduce a flag called SkipUpdate for each variable in the TS. If set, the updater will
bypass the network update of the state variable, thus temporarily ignoring the target
value to resolve the conflict. The checker will clear the flag once the state variable is
controllable again.
For uncontrollable state variables in a PS, the checker removes them from the PS,
i.e., rejecting the part of PS that is inapplicable on the current network. The choice
of partial rejection is a tradeoff between the progress of management solutions and
the potential side-effects of accepting a partial PS. An asynchrony is normal between
the OS views of the management solution and the checker. By rejecting the whole
PS due to a small fraction of conflicting variables, Statesman will be too conservative
and will hinder the progress of management solution. We thus allow partial rejection.
We have not yet observed any negative consequences in our deployment from this
choice. In the future, we will extend the PS data structure such that solutions can
group variables. When a variable in a group is uncontrollable, the entire group is
rejected, but other groups can still be accepted.
28
For PS–TS conflicts, which are caused by the conflicting proposals, Statesman
supports an extensible set of conflict resolution mechanisms. It currently offers two
mechanisms. The basic one is last-writer-wins, in which the checker favors the value
of state variable from the newer PS. The more advanced mechanism is priority-based
locking. Statesman provides two levels of priorities of locks for each device and
link. Management solutions can acquire a low-priority or a high-priority lock before
proposing a PS. In the presence of a lock, management solutions other than the lock
holder cannot change the state variables of the device or link. However, the highpriority lock can override the low-priority one. The choice of the conflict resolution
mechanism is not system-wide and can be configured at the level of individual devices
and links.
Although simple, these two conflict resolution strategies have proved sufficient for
the management solutions that we have built and deployed thus far. In fact, we find
from our traces that last-writer-wins is good enough most of the time since it is rare
for two management solutions to compete for the same state variable head-to-head.
For our intra-datacenter infrastructure, we configure the checker with the last-writerwins resolution; for our inter-datacenter network, we have enabled the priority-based
locking. If needed, additional resolution strategies (e.g., based on access control) can
be easily added to Statesman.
2.5.2
Choosing and Checking Invariants
Network-wide invariants are intended to ensure the infrastructure’s operational stability in the face of development bugs or undesired effects of collective actions of
the management solutions. They should capture minimum safety and performance
requirements, independent of which management solutions are currently running.
Choosing invariants: The choice must balance two criterion. Firstly, the invariant should suffice to safeguard the basic operations of the network. As long as it
29
is not violated, most services using the network would continue to function normally.
Second, the invariant should not be so stringent that it interferes with the management solutions. For instance, an invariant that require all devices up is likely too
strict and interferes with a firmware-upgrade solution.
Following the criterion above, we currently use two invariants in the checker. Both
are solution-agnostic and relate to the topological properties of the network. The first
invariant considers network connectivity. It requires that every pair of ToR devices in
the same datacenter are (topologically) connected and that every ToR is connected to
the border routers of its datacenter network (for WAN connectivity). Here, we ignore
the routing configurations on the devices (which could result in two ToRs not being
able to communicate) because management solutions can intentionally partition a
network at the routing level for multi-tenant isolation.
The second invariant considers network capacity. We define the capacity between
two ToRs in the same datacenter as maximum possible traffic flow between them
based on the network topology. The invariant is that the capacity between p% of
ToR pairs should be at least t% of their baseline, when all links are functional. The
values of p and t should be based on level of capacity redundancy in the network,
tolerance of the hosted services to reduced capacity, and implications of blocking a
management solution that violates the invariant. We currently use p = 99 and t = 50,
i.e., 99% of the ToR pairs must have at least 50% of the baseline capacity.
Although Statesman currently maintains only two invariants, the set of invariants
is extensible. The invariant checking is implemented as a boolean function over a
graph data structure that has the network topology and all state variables. It is
straightforward to add more invariants by implementing new functions with the same
interface. For example, some networks may add an invariant that requires the absence
of loops and black holes, which can be checked using the routing states of the devices.
30
Checking invariants: When checking whether the TS obeys the invariants, the
checker first creates a base network graph using variable values from the OS. Then,
it translates the difference between a variable’s observed and target values into an
operation on the network graph, e.g., bringing a device offline, changing the routing
state to the target value, etc. Finally, the invariant checking functions are run with
the new network graph.
The invariant checking is invoked in two places. The first is when the checker
reads the TS from the storage service. The TS was compliant when written but can
be in violation when read due to changes in the network (i.e., the TS–OS conflict).
While running the invariant checking as described above, the checker clears or sets
the SkipUpdate flags in the TS respective of its compliance status.
The second place is when the checker tries to merge a PS into the TS after conflict
resolution. The checker analyzes TS+PS, as if the PS was merged into the TS. If
TS+PS passes the check, the PS is accepted and merged into the TS. Otherwise, the
PS is rejected.
The acceptance or rejection (and reasons) for each PS is recorded by the checker
into the storage service. We categorize the rejection reasons into three groups: state
variable became uncontrollable; invariant was violated; and TS was unreachable. The
reasons are encoded as machine-readable status code as values of a special state variable called ProposalStatus for each PS. Management solutions use the same interface
as for reading the OS to read their PSes’ statuses. They can then react appropriately
(e.g., generate a new PS that resolves the conflicts with the latest OS).
2.5.3
Partitioning by Impact Group
The checker needs to read all the state variables in the OS and TS to examine conflicts
and invariants every round of operation. The sheer number of state variables in the
datacenters and the WAN poses a scalability threat.
31
To help scale, we observe that the impact of state changes for a given device or link
is limited. For instance, changes to an aggregation router in one datacenter do not
affect the connectivity and capacity of ToRs in another datacenter. Similarly, changes
to border routers in a datacenter do not impact the capacity and connectivity within
the datacenter, though they do impact other datacenters’ WAN reachability.
Based on this observation, we partition the checker’s responsibility into multiple
impact groups. We set up one impact group per datacenter and one additional group
with border routers of all datacenters and the WAN links. These groups are independent with respect to the state checking process. In our deployment of Statesman, we
run one instance of checker per impact group, which has enabled the state checking
to scale (§2.8).
2.6
System Design and Implementation
We now describe in more details the design and implementation of Statesman. We
start with the storage service, followed by the updater and monitor; we skip the
checker as it was covered in details in §2.5. Figure 2.6 provides a closer look at
various components in a Statesman deployment. Our implementation of Statesman
has roughly 50 thousand lines of C# and C++ code, plus a number of internal
libraries. At its core, it is a highly-available RESTful web service with persistent
storage. Below, we also describe Statesman’s read-write APIs.
2.6.1
Globally Available and Distributed Storage Service
The storage service needs to persistently and consistently store the network states.
We thus use a Paxos-based distributed file system. However, two challenges prevent
us from using a single big Paxos ring to maintain all the states for all our datacenters.
The first is datacenter reachability. Due to WAN failures, one datacenter may lose
32
Link'Failure''
MiJgaJon'
SoluJon'
Device'Firmware'
Upgrade'
SoluJon'
Checker
Read
OS,
PS,
TS
Read OS
Write PS
Merge'OS,'
PS'to'TS'
Dependency''
Graph'
Examine'
Invariant'
Invariant'
Invariant'
Invariant'
Write TS
Proxy'
Other DCs
R
W
Service'Frontend'/'Paxos'Backend'
Write OS
Translate'
to'OS'
SNMP'
Collector'
Storage Service
Monitor
OpenFlow'
Collector'
…
Read OS, TS
DeviceGspecific'
Command'Pool'
Updater
Diff'OSGTS'
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Command'
Statesman in
one datacenter
Zoom in
Figure 2.6: Statesman System Design
connectivity to all others, or two datacenters may not be able to reach each other.
To protect Statesman from such failures, the storage instances need to be located in
multiple datacenters.
A second challenge stems from the volume of state data. In datacenters, there
are hundreds of thousands of devices and links, each with dozens of state variables.
33
It results in millions of state variables (§2.8). Manipulating all variables in a single
Paxos ring would impose a heavy message-exchange load on the file system to reach
consensus over the data value. This impact worsens if the exchange happens over the
WAN (as storage instances are located in multiple datacenters for reliability). WAN
latencies will hurt the scalability and performance of Statesman.
Therefore, we break a big Paxos ring into independent smaller rings for each
datacenter. One Paxos ring of storage instances is located in each datacenter, and it
only stores the state data of the devices and links in that datacenter. In this way,
Statesman reduces the scale of state storage to individual datacenters, and it lowers
the impact of Paxos consensus by limiting message exchanges inside the datacenter.
Although the underlying storage is partitioned and distributed, we still want to
provide a uniform and highly available interface for the management solutions and
other Statesman components. These users of the storage service should not be required to understand where and how various state variables are stored.
We thus deploy a globally available proxy layer that provides uniform access to
the network states. Users read or write network states of any datacenter from any
proxy without knowing the exact locations of the storage service. Inside the proxy,
we maintain an in-memory hash table of the device and link names to corresponding
datacenters for distributing the requests across the storage-service instances. The
proxy instances sit behind a load balancer, which enables high availability and flexible
capacity.
2.6.2
Stateless Update on Heterogeneous Devices
Network update is a challenging problem itself [81, 93, 127]. In the context of managing a large network, it becomes even more challenging for three reasons. First,
the update process is device- and protocol-specific. Although OpenFlow provides a
standard interface for changing the forwarding behaviors of devices, there is no stan34
dard interface today for management-related tasks such as changing the device power,
firmware, or interface configuration. Second, because of scale and dynamism, network
failures during updates are inevitable. Finally, the device’s response can be slow and
dominate the solution’s control loop. Two aspects of the design of the Statesman
updater help to address these challenges.
Command template pool for heterogeneous devices: The changes from
management solutions (i.e., PSes) are device-agnostic network states. The updater
translates the difference between a state variable’s OS and TS values into devicespecific commands. This translation is done using a pool of command templates
that contains templates for each update action on each device model with supported
control-plane protocol (e.g., OpenFlow or vendor-specific API). When the updater
carries out an update action, it looks up the template from the pool based on the
desired action and device details.
For instance, suppose we want to change the value of a device’s DeviceRoutingState. If the device is an OpenFlow-enabled model, the updater looks up this
model’s OpenFlow command template to translate the routing state change into the
insertion or deletion of OpenFlow rules, and issues rule update commands to the
OpenFlow agent on the device. Alternatively, if the device is running a traditional
routing protocol like BGP, the updater looks up the BGP command template to
translate the routing state change into the BGP-route announcement or withdrawal.
Stateless and automatic failure handling: With all network states persistently stored by the storage service, the updater can be stateless and simply read the
new values of OS and TS every round. This mode of operation makes the updater
robust to failures in the network or in the updater itself. It can handle failures with
an implicit and automatic retry. When any failure happens in one run of update, the
state changes resulted by the failure reflect as a changed OS in the storage service.
In the next run, the updater picks up the new OS which already includes the failure’s
35
impact, and it calculates new commands based on the new OS-TS difference. In this
manner, the updater always brings the latest OS towards the TS, no matter what
failures have happened in the process.
Being stateless also means that we can run as many updater instances as needed
to scale, as long as we are able to coherently partition the work among them. In our
current deployment, we run one instance per state variable per device model. In this
way, each updater instance is specialized for one task.
2.6.3
Network Monitors
The monitors collect the network states with various protocols from the devices, including SNMP and OpenFlow. The monitors then translate the protocol-specific data
into the value of corresponding state variables, and write them into the storage service
as the OS. We split the monitoring responsibility across many monitor instances, so
each instance covers roughly 1,000 devices.
Currently the monitors run periodically to collect all devices’ power states,
firmware versions, configurations, and various counters (and routing states for a
subset of devices). For links, our monitors cover the link power, configuration, and
counters like the packet drop rate and the traffic load.
2.6.4
Read-Write APIs
The storage service is implemented as a HTTP web service with RESTful APIs. The
management solutions, monitors, updaters, and checkers use the APIs to read or
write NetworkState objects from the storage service. A NetworkState object consists
of the entity name (i.e., the device, link, or path name), the state variable name, the
variable value, and the last-update timestamp. The read-write APIs of Statesman
are shown in Table 2.3.
36
GET
NetworkState/Read?Datacenter={dc}&Pool={p}
&Freshness={c}&Entity={e}&Attribute={a}
POST
NetworkState/Write?Pool={p}
(Body is list of NetworkState objects in JSON)
(a) HTTP Request
Datacenter dc
Pool
p
Freshness
c
Entity
e
Attribute
a
Datacenter name
OS, PS, or TS
Up-to-date or bounded-stale
Entity name (i.e., device, link, or path)
State variable name
(b) Parameters
Table 2.3: Read-Write APIs of Statesman
There is a freshness parameter in the read API because Statesman offers different freshness modes for reading the network states. The up-to-date mode is for
management solutions who are strict with the state staleness. For instance, the linkfailure-mitigation solution needs to detect link failures as soon as possible when the
failures happen. Statesman also offers 5-minute bounded-staleness mode by reading
from caches [124]. Many management solutions do not need the most up-to-date
network states and can safely tolerate some staleness in state data. For instance,
the firmware-upgrade solution needs to upgrade the devices within hours; it does not
matter if the value of DeviceFirmwareVersion is slightly stale. By allowing such management solutions to read from caches, we boost the read throughput of Statesman.
At the same time, solutions that cannot tolerate staleness can use the up-to-date
freshness mode.
2.7
Operational Experiences
In this section, we present our experiences of running Statesman in Microsoft Azure.
Statesman is now deployed in ten datacenters. We have built two production and
one pilot-stage management solutions on top of Statesman. We first describe the
37
deployment, and then use three representative scenarios to illustrate how Statesman
facilitates the operations of management solutions.
2.7.1
Deployment in Microsoft Azure
Statesman currently manages ten geographically distributed datacenters of Microsoft
Azure, covering all the devices and links in those datacenters and the WAN connecting the datacenters. The three management solutions that we have built leverage
Statesman to manage different aspects (e.g., devices, links, and traffic flows) of our
datacenter network.
• Device upgrade: When a new version of firmware is released by a device vendor,
this solution automatically schedules all the devices from the vendor to upgrade
by proposing a new value of DeviceFirmwareVersion. In the upgrade process, the
checker of Statesman ensures that the datacenter network continues to meet the
network-wide invariants.
• Failure mitigation: This solution periodically reads the Frame-Check-Sequence
(FCS) error rates on all links. When detecting persistently high FCS error rates
on certain links, it changes the LinkAdminPower state to shut down those faulty
links to mitigate the impact of the failures [132]. The solution also initiates an
out-of-band repair process for those links, e.g., by creating a repair ticket for the
on-site team.
• Inter-datacenter traffic engineering (TE): As described in SWAN [81], Statesman collects the bandwidth demands from the bandwidth brokers sitting with the
hosted services. In addition, the monitor of Statesman collects all the forwarding
states, such as tunnel status and flow matching rules. Given this information, this
solution computes and proposes new forwarding states, which are then pushed to
all the relevant devices by the Statesman updater.
38
…
1
CORE
AGG
1
ToR
1
…
…
4
…
n
Pod 1
1
1
…
…
4
4
…
n
Pod 4
1
1
…
…
4
n
Pod 10
Link with FCS error
Figure 2.7: Network Topology for The Scenario in §2.7.2
The first two solutions have been fully tested and deployed, while the third one is in
pilot stage and undergoing testing.
We state two issues of how management solutions interact with Statesman. First,
they should understand that it takes time for Statesman to read and write a large
amount of network states in large networks. Thus, their control loops should operate
at the time scale of minutes, not seconds. Second, the management solutions should
understand that their PSes may be rejected due to failures, conflicts, or invariant
violations. Thus, they need to run iteratively to adapt to the latest OS and the
acceptance or rejection of their previous PSes.
2.7.2
Maintaining Network-wide Invariants
We use a production trace to illustrate how Statesman helps two management solutions (device-upgrade and failure-mitigation) safely coexist in intra-datacenter networks, while Statesman maintains the capacity invariant—99% of the ToR pairs in
the datacenter should have at least 50% of their baseline capacity.
Figure 2.7 shows the topology for the scenario. It is a portion of one datacenter
with 10 pods, where each pod has 4 Agg routers and a number of ToRs. The deviceupgrade solution wants to upgrade all the 40 Agg routers in a short amount of time.
39
ToR−Pair Index
91
82
73
64
55
46
37
28
19
A
10
1
0
100% Capacity 75% Capacity 50% Capacity
D
F
E
C
B
100
200
300
Time Series in Minutes
400
Figure 2.8: Device Upgrade Process while Statesman Maintains Safety
Specifically, it will upgrade the pods one by one. Within each pod, it will attempt
to upgrade multiple Agg routers in parallel by continuing to write a PS for one Agg
upgrade until it gets rejected by Statesman.
In Figure 2.8, we pick one ToR from each pod, and organize the 10 ToRs from the
10 pods into 90 ToR pairs (10×9, excluding the originating ToR itself). On the Y-axis,
we put the 9 ToR pairs originating from the same ToR/pod together. Essentially,
Figure 2.8 shows how the network capacity between each ToR pair changes over time.
Boxes A, B, and C illustrate how the network capacity temporarily drops when the
device-upgrade solution upgrades the Agg routers in Pod 1, 2, and 3 sequentially.
To meet the 50%-capacity invariant, the device-upgrade solution can simultaneously
upgrade up to 2 out of 4 Agg routers, leaving at least 2 Agg routers alive for traffic.
During the upgrade, the failure-mitigation solution discovers persistently high
FCS error rate on link ToR1 -Agg1 in Pod4 . As a result, it shuts down this link at
time D. Since one ToR-Agg link is down, the capacity of all Pod4 -related ToR pairs
40
drops to 75%, which originate from Pod4 (index # 28–36) or end at Pod4 (index
# 3, 12, 21, 40, 49, 58, 67, 76, & 85). When the device-upgrade solution starts
to work on Pod4 , Statesman can only allow it to upgrade one Agg at a time to
maintain the 50%-capacity invariant. Thus, as shown in box E, the device-upgrade
solution automatically slows down when upgrading Pod4 . Its actual upgrade steps are
Agg1 -Agg2 -together, then Agg3 , and finally Agg4 . Note that Agg1 and Agg2 can be
upgraded in parallel, because link ToR1 -Agg1 is already down and hence upgrading
Agg1 does not further reduce the ToR-pair capacity. The device-upgrade solution
resumes normal speed when it upgrades Pod5 in box F.
2.7.3
Resolving Conflicts of Management Solutions
The inter-datacenter TE solution is responsible for allocating inter-datacenter traffic
along different WAN paths. Figure 2.9 shows the pilot WAN topology used in this
experiment. This WAN inter-connects four datacenters in a full mesh, and each
datacenter has two border routers. The device-upgrade solution is also running on
the WAN.
One recurring scenario is that we need to upgrade all the border routers while
inter-datacenter traffic is on. This can lead to a conflict between the two management
solutions: the device-upgrade solution wants to reboot a router for firmware upgrade,
while the TE solution wants the router to carry traffic. Without Statesman, the
operators of the two management solutions have to manually coordinate, e.g., setting
up a maintenance window. During this window, the operators must carefully watch
the upgrade process for any unexpected events.
With Statesman, the whole process becomes much simpler. When there is no
upgrade, the TE solution acquires the low-priority lock over each router, and changes
the forwarding states as needed. When the device-upgrade solution wants to upgrade
a router, it first acquires the high-priority lock over that router. Soon after, the TE
41
BR = Border Router
DC 2
BR 3
BR 4
BR 1
BR 8
DC 1
DC 4
BR 2
BR 7
BR 6
BR 5
DC 3
Figure 2.9: WAN Topology for The Scenario in §2.7.3
solution realizes that it cannot acquire a low-priority lock over the router, and it
starts to shift traffic away from that router. Meanwhile, the device-upgrade solution
keeps reading the traffic load of the locked router until the load drops to zero. At
this moment, it kicks off the upgrade by writing a PS with a new value of DeviceFirmwareVersion. Once the upgrade is done, the device-upgrade solution releases the
high-priority lock of the router, and proceeds to the next candidate.
We collected the traffic load data during one upgrade event in off-peak hours.
Since the load patterns of different routers are similar, we only illustrate the upgrade
process of BorderRouter1 (BR1 ). Figure 2.10 shows the time series of the link load
(note that both solutions run every 5 minutes). The Y-axis shows the 24 links (12
physical links × 2 directions) indexed by the originating router of each link. At time
B, the TE solution fails to acquire the low-priority lock over BR1 , since the highpriority lock of BR1 was acquired by the device-upgrade solution at time A. So the
TE solution moves traffic away from BR1 . At time C, the load drops to zero on all the
links originating from BR1 (index # 1, 2, & 3) and ending at BR1 (index # 7, 16, &
22). As expected, this increases the loads on the other links. After the device-upgrade
42
Empty (0%)
24
A
Low (1~40%)
Medium (40%~80%)
BC
D
High (80%~100%)
E
Link Index
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
0
10
20
30
Time Series in Minutes
40
50
Figure 2.10: Conflict-Free TE and Device Upgrade with Statesman
solution finishes upgrading BR1 and releases the high-priority lock at time D, the TE
solution successfully acquires the low-priority lock again at time E, and then moves
traffic back to BR1 .
In this example, neither management solutions needs to be aware of the other
since conflict resolution and necessary coordination are automatically enabled by
Statesman. We use locking as the conflict resolution strategy in the inter-datacenter
case. So the TE solution can move tunnels away from devices being upgraded before
the upgrade process starts, rather than after (which would be the case with the
conflict resolution based on last-writer-wins). In the intra-datacenter case, we do not
use tunnel-based TE, and neighboring routers can immediately reroute traffic when
a device is brought down for upgrade without warning.
2.7.4
Handling Operational Failures
In Statesman, a management solution outputs a PS instead of directly interacting
with the network devices. Once the PS is accepted into the TS, Statesman takes
43
100
Percentage
80
A: Straggler
B: Unstable after upgrade
C: External-force failure
C
B
60
40
A
20
0
0
Devices Running
with Latest Firmware
20
40
60
80
100
120
Time in Hours
Figure 2.11: Time Series of Firmware Upgrade at Scale
the responsibility of (eventually) moving the network state to the TS. This simplifies
failure handling in the management solution.
In this example, we show how the device-upgrade solution rolls out a new firmware
to roughly 250 devices in several datacenters in two stages. In the first stage, 25% of
the devices are upgraded to test the new firmware. Once we are confident with the
new firmware, the remaining 75% of the devices are upgraded in the second stage.
Figure 2.11 illustrates the upgrade process, where the percentage of devices with new
firmware gradually grows to 100% in about 100 hours. Here, the device-upgrade
solution runs conservatively and upgrades one device at a time.
During this process, Statesman automatically overcomes a variety of failures,
which are highlighted in Figure 2.11. In box A, there is a straggling device which
takes 4 hours to upgrade; note the flat line in the figure. During the 4 hours, Statesman repeatedly tries to upgrade until it succeeds. This straggling happens because
the device has a full memory and cannot download the new firmware image. After
some of the device memory is freed up, the upgrade proceeds. In box B, a few devices
44
Solution
proposes v2.0
New observed
state value
Firmware v2.0
Firmware v1.0
Taken out
of service
Factory Default
Unreachable
0
Updater
picks up
1
Updater
picks up
again
Back online
2
3
4
5
Time in Hours
Figure 2.12: External-Force Failure in Device Upgrade
become unstable after the upgrade, e.g., frequently flipping between on and off. This
appears as a stair-shape line in Figure 2.11. Statesman automatically retries until
the devices are stable with the new firmware.
Box C shows a failure case which involves human interventions. After a device is
upgraded, the operators take it out of service, and manually reset it to the factorydefault firmware before returning it to production. This action causes the time-series
line to slightly drop in Box C, and we zoom in the process in Figure 2.12. Once the
device is back to production, Statesman finds that the observed DeviceFirmwareVersion of one device is the factory-default one. Since the firmware of the device has been
set to a new value in the TS, Statesman automatically redoes the firmware upgrade
without any involvement from the device-upgrade solution.
2.8
System Evaluation
In this section, we quantify the latency and coverage of Statesman as well as the
performance of checking, reading and writing network states.
45
Milliseconds
10000
Solution Latency
Checker Latency
Updater Latency
Idling Time
Total
1000
100
10
1
Figure 2.13: End-to-end Latency Breakdown
End-to-end latency: Figure 2.13 shows Statesman’s end-to-end latency measured by running the failure-mitigation solution on a subset of our datacenter network.
We manually introduce packet drops on a link, and let the failure-mitigation solution discover the problem and then shut down the link. The end-to-end latency is
measured from when the solution reads the high packet drop rate of the link to when
the faulty link is actually deactivated in the network. We break down the end-to-end
latency into four portions:
• Solution latency: from when the solution reads the high packet drop rate to when
it writes a PS for shutting down the faulty link.
• Checker latency: from when the checker reads the PS to when it finishes checking
and writes a new TS.
• Updater latency: from when the updater reads the new TS to when it finishes
shutting down the faulty link.
• Idling time: cumulative time when no one is running. It exists because the solution,
checker and updater run asynchronously (every 5 seconds in this experiment).
46
Number
400K
300K
Total number of state variables
Number of writable variables
200K
100K
Seconds
0
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
DC 1 DC 2 DC 3 DC 4 DC 5 DC 6 DC 7 DC 8 DC 9 DC 10
50th Percentile
90th Percentile
99th Percentile
DC 1 DC 2 DC 3 DC 4 DC 5 DC 6 DC 7 DC 8 DC 9 DC 10
Figure 2.14: Network State Scale & Checker Performance
Figure 2.13 shows that the solution and checker latencies are negligibly small,
accounting for only 0.13% and 0.28% of the end-to-end latency on average. The main
bottleneck is the time for the updater to apply the link-shutdown commands to the
device, which accounts for 57.7% of the end-to-end latency on average.
Coverage: Figure 2.14 shows the deployment scale and the checker latency across
the ten datacenters where Statesman is deployed. The number of state variables in
each datacenter indicates its size. The largest datacenter (datacenter4 ) has 394K
variables and 7 out of 10 datacenters have over 100K variables. The total number
of variables managed by Statesman is currently 1.5 million and it continues to grow
as Statesman expands to more datacenters. Since only 23.4% of the variables are
writable on average, the size of TS is correspondingly smaller than the OS.
Checker latency: Figure 2.14 also shows that one round of checking takes 0.5
to 7.6 seconds in most datacenters. In the most complex datacenter (datacenter3 ),
the 99th-percentile of checking latency is 11.2 seconds.
47
Milliseconds
50th 90th 99th Percentile
1000
100
10
1
20K
40K
60K
80K
100K
20K
40K
60K
80K
100K
Seconds
Number of State Variables per Batch Read
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Number of State Variables per Batch Write
Figure 2.15: Read-write Micro-benchmark Performance
Read-write performance: We stress-test the read-write performance of Statesman by randomly reading and writing varying numbers of state variables. Figure 2.15
shows that the 99th-percentile latency of reading 20K to 100K variables always stays
under a second. Since the solutions rarely read more than 100K variables at a time,
Statesman’s read speed is fast enough. Figure 2.15 also shows that the write latency
of Statesman grows linearly with the number of variables, and the 99th-percentile
latency of writing 100K variables is under 7 seconds. Since our largest datacenter has
fewer than 100K variables in the TS, it takes less than 10 seconds to write the entire
TS. In practice, the state-variable writers (i.e., management solutions, monitors, and
checkers) rarely write more than 10K variables at a time. Hence, the write latency is
usually around 500ms in our normal operations.
48
2.9
Related Work
Statesman descends from a long line of prior works on software-defined networking [44, 46, 64, 74, 75, 97]. These works enable centralized control of traffic flow
by directly manipulating the forwarding states of devices. In contrast, Statesman
supports a wider range of network management functions (e.g., device upgrade, link
failure mitigation, elastic scaling, etc.).
Similar to Statesman, Onix [90, 91] and Hercules [88] provide a shared networkstate platform for all management solutions. But these systems neither resolve conflicts among management solutions, in particular those caused by state variable dependency, nor enforce network-wide invariants.
Pyretic [99], PANE [66], and Maple [128] are recent proposals on making multiple
management solutions coexist. Their target is again limited to traffic management
solutions. Their composition strategies are specific to such solutions, and are not
generalized for the broader class of management solutions that we target. Mesos [79]
schedules competing management solutions using the cluster-resource abstraction,
which is quite different from our network-state abstraction (e.g., no cross-variable
dependency).
Corybantic [98] proposes a different way of resolving conflicts by letting each
management solution evaluate others’ proposals. As noted previously, such tight
coordination, while sometimes beneficial, imposes enormous complexity on the design
and testing of the management solutions.
Another approach of hosting multiple management solutions is to partition the
network into multiple isolated virtual slices as described Kopone, et al. [89] and
Sherwood, et al. [117]. Compared to the virtual topology model, our network-state
model is more fine-grained and flexible. It allows multiple management solutions to
manage different levels of states (e.g., power, configuration, and routing) on the same
device.
49
There are also earlier works on invariant verification [85, 86, 95] for the network’s
forwarding state. In the future, we may incorporate some of these invariant checking
algorithms into Statesman.
2.10
Conclusion
In this chapter, we propose the Statesman system. Statesman builds a common platform to run multiple loosely-coupled network management solutions, while preserving
network safety and performance. It safely composes uncoordinated and sometimes
conflicting management solutions using three distinct views of network state, inspired
by version control systems, and a model of dependencies among different parts of network state. Statesman is currently running in ten Microsoft Azure datacenters, along
with three diverse applications.
50
Chapter 3
Hone: Combining End Host and
Network for Traffic Management
3.1
Introduction
The cloud providers run a wide variety of applications that generate large amount of
traffic. These applications have a complex relationship with the underlying datacenter
network, including varying traffic patterns [83], suboptimal TCP parameters [134],
traffic bursts that temporarily congest network links (i.e., TCP incast) [131], and
elephant flows that overload certain links [39]. To optimize application performance,
cloud providers build various traffic management solutions, such as performance monitoring, server load balancing [107], rate limiting [114], and traffic engineering [81, 82].
However, today’s traffic-management solutions are constrained by an artificial division between the end hosts and the network. Most existing solutions only rely
on network devices. Without access to the application and transport layers, network devices cannot easily associate traffic statistics with applications. For instance,
it is difficult to infer the root causes of application performance problems or infer
the backlog of application traffic in the sender’s socket buffer, when just analyzing
51
network-level statistics. Furthermore, traffic management solutions are limited by the
CPU and memory resources of network devices.
Compared to network devices, end hosts have better visibility into application
behavior, greater computational resources, and more flexibility in adopting new functionality. Increasingly, datacenter traffic management capitalizes on the opportunity
to move functionality from network devices to end hosts [59, 80, 84, 109, 116, 118,
130, 134, 137]. However, in these works, the hosts are just used as software network
devices. The unique advantages of end hosts in traffic management are not fully
harnessed.
In order to realize these advantages, the scope of traffic management should expand further, into the host network stack, to measure and analyze fine-grained traffic
information. The host network stack can provide detailed data about how applications interact with the underlying network, while remaining application-agnostic.
By combining host and network data, traffic management solutions can understand
the applications better in order to improve application performance and efficiency of
network resource usage.
Bringing the host network stack into traffic management, we face multiple challenges: First, today’s end hosts have numerous interfaces for performing networkrelated functions. Cloud providers use heterogeneous tools to collect TCP logs and
kernel network statistics from end hosts (e.g., Windows ETW [31] and Web10G [29])
and they have multiple tools for controlling network behavior (e.g., Linux tc [13],
iptables [18], and Open vSwitch [22]). To simplify traffic management, we need to
provide a uniform interface for cloud providers to collect measurement data from end
hosts and network devices.
Furthermore, cloud providers do not settle on a fixed set of data to measure in
advance. Multiple traffic management solutions need to run at the same time, and
they need to measure different data from the hosts and devices. Additionally, new
52
solutions will adopt new measurement data as the application mix and the network
design evolve. However, the overhead of measuring all data blindly is prohibitive,
especially when the detailed statistics of host network stacks are included in traffic management. Thus, we need a flexible way to selectively collect measurements,
tailored to the demands of the management solutions.
A final challenge is the efficiency and scalability of traffic management. Although
end hosts provide us with detailed statistics, the sheer volume of data poses a scalability challenge for the real-time analysis of the measured data. At the same time,
the computational resources of hosts provide an opportunity to execute the analysis
logic locally on the same hosts that collect the measurements. To utilize the hosts’
resources, the analysis logic of management solutions should be partitioned into two
parts: one that runs locally with monitoring on the hosts, and the other that runs on
a controller with a global view of all the hosts and network devices.
In this chapter, we present a scalable and programmable platform for joint HOstNEtwork (Hone) traffic management. As shown in Figure 3.1, the architecture includes a logically centralized controller, Hone agents running on each host, and a
module interacting with network devices, following the recent trend of Software Defined Networking (SDN). Hone performs monitoring and analysis on streams of measurement data in a fashion of functional reactive programming (FRP) [61, 67, 103].
A management solution can easily define the measurement of various data on hosts
and network with minimum collection overhead. The data-analysis logic can be divided into local parts that execute together with measurement on hosts, and global
parts running on the controller. To be more specific, two key technical contributions
underlie Hone:
Lazy measurement of various data on hosts and network: Hone first
abstracts the heterogeneous data on hosts and network devices into a uniform representation of database-like tables. Using our query language on top of the uniform
53
Legend:
Programmer’s
work
HONE
Component
Controller
Management
Solution
HONE Runtime System
Hosts
APP
HONE
Agent
Network
Server OS
Figure 3.1: Overview of the Hone System
interface, network operators can easily specify what data to measure from various
sources. Collecting many statistics for many connections at arbitrary time granularity would be too expensive to support directly. Instead, Hone enables lazy materialization of the measurement data, i.e., the controller and the host agents analyze the
queries to collect only the necessary statistics for multiple management solutions at
the appropriate frequencies.
Partitioning of analysis logic for local execution on hosts: We have designed a set of data-parallel FRP operators for programming the data-analysis logic.
With these operators, programmers can easily link the measurement queries with the
analysis logic in a streaming fashion. Our design of the operators further enables partitioning of the analysis logic between the host agents and the controller. To further
boost scalability, we have also designed operators for programmers to hierarchically
aggregate/process analysis results among multiple hosts.
Hone combines and extends techniques in FRP and distributed systems in a unique
way to offer a programmable and scalable platform for joint host-network traffic management in SDN. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our design, we have built a pro54
totype of Hone. Our prototype host agent collects socket activities by intercepting
Linux system calls, and measures TCP statistics with Web10G [96, 29]. Our controller interacts with network devices using OpenFlow [97]. The micro-benchmark
experiments show that Hone can measure and calculate an application’s throughput,
and aggregate the results across 128 EC2 machines within a 90th -percentile latency
of 58ms.
To further demonstrate the power of the Hone programming framework, we build
a collection of canonical management solutions, such as flow scheduling [39, 55],
distributed rate limiting [110, 114], network diagnosis [134], etc. These examples
demonstrate the expressiveness of our language, as well as the scalability of our data
collection and analysis techniques.
Hone focuses on different contexts and problems than prior works in streaming
database [42, 54] and MapReduce [57, 58, 108]. Compared to streaming databases
which operate on existing data, Hone focuses on how to lazily monitor a minimum
necessary set of statistics on hosts, and dynamically generate streams of measurement
data for later analysis. MapReduce’s key-value programming model fits well with
naturally parallelizable data with multiple keys, and it uses data shuffling by keys
for reduce operations. In contrast, Hone focuses on the measurement data which are
inherently associated with the end hosts that collected them. Hone partitions and
places the analysis logic together with monitoring to consume data locally and reduce
data-transmission overhead.
3.2
Hone Programming Framework
Hone’s programming framework is designed to enable a wide range of traffic management solutions. Traffic management is usually oriented around a three-stage “control
55
Measurement
Analysis
Control
Server Load Balancing
Measure servers’
utilization and request
incoming rates
Compute total request
rate and a target
distribution of requests
Reconfigure load
balancing policies to
enforce the target
Elephant Flow Scheduling
Measure sockets’
backlog traffic
demand
Detect elephant flows.
Compute routes for
them
Install routing rules
in network
Figure 3.2: Three Stages of Traffic Management
loop” of measurement, data analysis, and control. Figure 3.2 presents two representative management solutions that serve as running examples throughout the chapter:
Server load balancing: The first management solution distributes incoming
requests across multiple servers. After measuring the request rate and the workload
(e.g., CPU, memory, and bandwidth usage) at each host, the management solution
estimates the total request rate, computes a new target division of requests over the
hosts, and configures network devices accordingly.
Elephant flow scheduling: The second management solution is inspired by how
Hedera [39] and Mahout [55] schedule large flows. After measuring the backlog in
the socket buffer for each TCP connection, the management solution identifies the
elephant flows and directs them over paths that minimize network congestion.
3.2.1
Measurement: Query on Global Tables
Hone’s data model unifies the representation of statistics across a range of formats,
locations, types of devices, and modes of access. The Hone controller offers a simple
abstraction of a central set of database tables. Programmers can launch sophisticated
queries, and rely on Hone to distribute the monitoring to the devices, materialize the
necessary tables, transform the data to fit the schema, perform local computations
56
Table Name
Row for each
Columns
Connections
Connection
App, TCP/UDP five-tuple, TCP-stack statistics.
Applications
Process
Host ID, PID, app’s name, CPU/memory usage.
Machines
Host
Host ID, total CPU usage, total memory usage, IP.
Links
Link
IDs/ports of two ends, capacity.
SwitchStats
Switch interface
Switch ID, port, timestamp, per-port counters.
Table 3.1: Global Tables Supported in Hone Prototype
and data reduction, and aggregate the data. The data model reduces a complex and
error-prone distributed programming solution to a set of simple, tabular queries that
can usually be crafted in just tens of lines of code.
The Hone data model is organized around the protocol layers and the available
data sources. Table 3.1 shows the tables that our current prototype supports. On
the hosts, Hone collects socket logs and TCP connection statistics, in order to capture the relationship between applications and the network stack while remaining
application-agnostic. On the network devices, Hone collects the topology, the routing configurations, and per-port counters using OpenFlow. However, we can easily
extend our prototype to support more interfaces (e.g., NetFlow, SNMP) by adding
new tables, along with implementations for collecting the data.
Hone offers programmers a familiar, SQL-like query language for collecting the
data, as summarized in Table 3.2 1 . The query language gives programmers a way to
state declaratively what data to measure, rather than how. More sophisticated analysis, transformation, filtering, and aggregation of the data take place in the analysis
phase. To illustrate how to create a management solution on Hone, consider the three
example queries needed for elephant-flow scheduling:
Backlog in socket buffer: This query generates the data for computing the
backlog in the socket buffers:
1
In the syntax, the star operator (*) glues together the various query components.
57
def ElephantQuery ():
return (
Select ([ SrcIp , DstIp , SrcPort , DstPort , BytesWritten , BytesSent ]) *
From ( Connections ) *
Every ( Seconds 1) )
The query produces a stream of tables, with one table every second. In each table,
each row corresponds to a single connection and contains the endpoint IP addresses
and port numbers, as well as the amount of data written into the socket buffer and sent
into the network. Later, the analysis phase can use the per-connection BytesWritten
and BytesSent to compute the backlog in the socket buffer to detect elephant flows.
Active links and their capacities: This query generates a stream of tables
with all unidirectional links in the network:
def LinkQuery ():
return (
Select ([ BeginDevice , EndDevice , Capacity ]) *
From ( Links ) *
Every ( Seconds 1) )
Connection-level traffic by host pair: This query collects the data for computing the traffic matrix:
def Traf fi cM atr ix Qu er y ():
return (
Select ([ SrcIp , DstIp , BytesSent , Timestamp ]) *
From ( Connections ) *
Groupby ([ SrcIp , DstIp ]) *
Every ( Seconds 1) )
The query uses the Groupby operator to convert each table (at each second) into a
list of tables, each containing information about all connections for a single pair of
end-points. Later, the analysis phase can sum the BytesSent across all connections
58
Query
:= Select(Stats) *
From(Table) *
Where(Criteria) *
Groupby(Stat) *
Every(Interval)
Table
:=
Stats
:= Columns of Table
Interval
:= Integer in Seconds or Milliseconds
Criteria
:=
Sign
:= > | < | ≥ | ≤ | = | =
6
Connections | Applications
| Machines | Links | SwitchStats
Stat Sign value
Table 3.2: Measurement Query Language Syntax
in each table in the list, and compute the difference from one time period to the next
to produce the traffic matrix.
Together, these queries provide the information needed for the elephant-flow solution. They also illustrate the variety of different statistics that Hone can collect from
both hosts and network devices—all within a simple, unified programming framework. Under the hood, the Hone controller analyzes these queries to merge overlapping parts. Then the host agents or the network module will lazily collect only the
queried statistics at appropriate frequencies to minimize the measurement overhead.
3.2.2
Analysis: Data-Parallel Operators
Hone enables programmers to analyze data across multiple hosts, without worrying
about the low-level details of communicating with the hosts or tracking their failures.
Hone’s FRP-based data-parallel operators allow programmers to say what analysis to
perform, rather than how. Programmers can associate their own functions with the
operators to apply these functions across sets of hosts, as if the streams of tabular
measurement data were all available at the controller. Yet, Hone gives the programmers a way to express whether their functions can be (safely) applied in parallel across
59
data from different hosts, to enable the runtime system to reduce the bandwidth and
processing load on the controller by executing these functions at the hosts. Hone’s
data-parallel operators include the following:
• MapSet(f ): Apply function f to every element of a stream in the set of streams,
producing a new set of streams.
• FilterSet(f ): Create a new set of streams that omits stream elements e for which
f (e) is false.
• ReduceSet(f ,i): “Fold” function f across each element for each stream in the
set, using i as an initializer. In other words, generate a new set of streams where
f (. . . f (f (i, e1 ), e2 ) . . . , en ) is the nth element of each stream when e1 , e2 , ..., en were
the first n elements of the original stream.
• MergeHosts(): Merge a set of streams on the hosts into one single global stream.
(Currently in Hone, the collection of network devices already generate a single
global stream of measurement data, given that our prototype integrates with one
SDN controller to access data from network devices.)
MapSet, FilterSet, and ReduceSet are parallel operators. Using them indicates
that the analysis functions associated with the operators can run in a distributed fashion. It offers Hone knowledge of how to partition the analysis logic into the local part
that can run in parallel on each host and the global part that sits on the controller.
Hone also enables analysis on a single global stream with corresponding operators,
such as MapStream, FilterStream, and ReduceStream. To combine queries and analysis into a single program, the programmer simply associates his functions with the
operators, and “pipes” the result from one query or operation to the next (using the
>> operator).
Consider again the elephant-flow scheduling solution, which has three main parts
in the analysis stage:
60
Identifying elephant flows: Following the approach suggested by Curtis et
al. [55], the function IsElephant defines elephant flows as the connections with a
socket backlog (i.e., the difference between bytes bw written by the application and
the bytes bs acknowledged by the recipient) in excess of 100KB:
def IsElephant ( row ):
[ sip , dip , sp , dp , bw , bs ] = row
return ( bw - bs > 100)
def DetectElephant ( table ):
return ( FilterList ( IsElephant , table ))
EStream = ElephantQuery () >>
MapSet ( DetectElephant ) >>
MergeHosts ()
DetectElephant uses FilterList (the same as filter in Python) to apply IsElephant to select only the rows of the connection table that satisfy this condition.
Finally, DetectElephant is applied to the outputs of ElephantQuery, and the results
are merged across all hosts to produce a single stream EStream of elephant flows at
the controller.
Computing the traffic matrix: The next analysis part computes the traffic matrix, starting from aggregating the per-connection traffic volumes by sourcedestination pair, and then computing the difference across consecutive time intervals:
TMStream = T ra ff icM at ri xQ ue ry () >>
MapSet ( MapList ( SumBytesSent ) >>
ReduceSet ( CalcThroughput , {}) >>
MergeHosts () >>
MapStream ( AggTM )
The query produces a stream of lists of tables, where each table contains the perconnection traffic volumes for a single source-destination pair at a point in time.
61
MapList (i.e., the built-in map in Python) allows us to apply a custom function
SumBytesSent that aggregates the traffic volumes across connections in the same
table, and MapSet applies this function over time. The result is a stream of tables,
which each contains the cumulative traffic volumes for every source-destination pair
at a point in time. Next, the ReduceSet applies a custom function CalcThroughput
to compute the differences in the total bytes sent from one time to the next. The last
two lines of the analysis merge the streams from different hosts and apply a custom
function AggTM to create a global traffic matrix for each time period at the controller.
Constructing the topology: The last part of our analysis builds a network
topology from the link tables produced by LinkQuery, which is abstracted as a single
data stream collected from the network:
TopoStream = LinkQuery () >>
MapStream ( BuildTopo )
The auxiliary BuildTopo function (not shown) converts a single table of links into a
graph data structure useful for computing paths between two hosts. The MapStream
operator applies BuildTopo to the stream of link tables to generate a stream of graph
data structures.
3.2.3
Control: Uniform and Dynamic Policy
In controlling end hosts and network devices, the cloud providers have to use various
interfaces. For example, network operators use tc, iptables, or Open vSwitch on
hosts to manage traffic, and they use SNMP or OpenFlow to manage the network
devices. For the purpose of managing traffic, these different control interfaces can
be unified because they share the same pattern of generating control policies: for
a group of connections satisfying predicate, define what actions to take. Therefore,
Hone offers cloud providers a uniform way of specifying control policies as predicate
62
Policy
:=
[Rule]+
Rule
:=
if Predicate then Action
Predicate
:=
Field = value | Predicate and Predicate
| Predicate or Predicate
Field
:=
AppName | SrcHost | DstHost | Headers
Headers
:=
SrcIP | DstIP | SrcPort | DstPort | · · ·
Action
:=
rate-limit value | forward-on-path path
Table 3.3: Control Policy in Hone Prototype
+ action clauses, and Hone takes care of choosing the right control implementations,
e.g., we implement rate limiting using tc and iptables in the host agent.
The predicate can be network identifiers (e.g., IP addresses, port numbers, etc.).
But this would force the programmer to map his higher-level policies into lower-level
identifiers, and identify changes in which connections satisfy the higher-level policies.
Instead, we allow programmers to identify connections of interest based on higherlevel attributes, and Hone automatically tracks which traffic satisfies these attributes
as connections come and go. Our predicates are more general than network-based
rule-matching mechanisms in the sense that we can match connections by applications
with the help of hosts. Table 3.3 shows the syntax of control policies, each of which
our current prototype supports.
Continuing the elephant-flow solution, we define a function Schedule that takes
inputs of the detected elephant flows, the network topology, and the current traffic
matrix. It assigns a routing path for each elephant flow with a greedy Global First
Fit [39] strategy, and creates a Hone policy for forwarding the flow along the picked
path. Other non-elephant flows are randomly assigned to an available path. The
outputs of policies by Schedule will be piped into RegisterPolicy to register them
with Hone for execution.
def Schedule ( elephant , topo , traffic ):
routes = F i n d R o u t e s F o r H o s t P a i r ( topo )
63
policies = []
for four_tuples in elephant :
path = G r e e d i l y F i n d A v a i l a b l e P a t h ( four_tuples , routes , traffic )
predicate = four_tuples
action = forward - on - path path
policies . append ([ predicate , action ])
return policies
3.2.4
All Three Stages Together
Combining the measurement, analysis, and control phases, the complete program
merges the data streams, feeds the data to the Schedule function, and registers the
output of policies. With this concrete example of an elephant-flow detection and
scheduling solution, we have demonstrated the simple and straightforward way of
designing traffic management solutions in Hone programming framework.
def E l e p h a n t F l o w D e t e c t i o n S c h e d u l i n g ():
MergeStreams ([ EStream , TopoStream , TMStream ]) >>
MapStream ( Schedule ) >>
RegisterPolicy ()
3.3
Efficient and Scalable Execution
Monitoring and controlling many connections of applications on many hosts could
easily overwhelm a centralized controller. Hone overcomes the scalability challenge
in four ways. First, a distributed directory service dynamically tracks the mapping
of management solutions to hosts, applications, and connections. Second, the Hone
agents lazily materialize virtual tables based on the current queries. Third, the controller automatically partitions each management solution into global and local portions, and distributes the local part over the host agents. Fourth, the hosts automat64
ically form a tree to aggregate measurement data based on user-defined aggregation
functions to limit the bandwidth and computational overhead on the controller.
3.3.1
Distributed Directory Service
Hone determines which hosts should run each management solution, based on which
applications and connections match the queries and control policies. Hone has a directory service that tracks changes in the active hosts, applications, and connections.
To ensure scalability, the directory has a two-tiered structure where the first tier
(tracking the relatively stable set of active hosts and applications) runs on the controller, and the second tier (tracking the large and dynamic collection of connections)
runs locally on each host. This allows the controller to decide which hosts to inform
about a query or control policy, while relying on each local agent to determine which
connections to monitor or control.
Tracking hosts and applications: Rather than build the first tier of the directory service as a special-purpose component, we leverage the Hone programming
framework to run a standing query:
def DirectoryService ():
( Select ([ HostID , App ]) *
From ( Applications ) *
Every ( Seconds 1) ) >>
ReduceSet ( GetChangeOfAppAndHealth ,[]) >>
MergeHosts () >>
MapStream ( NotifyRuntime )
This query returns the set of active hosts and their applications. GetChangeOfAppAndHealth identifies changes in the set of applications running on each host, and
the results are aggregated at the controller. The controller uses its connectivity to
each host agent as the host’s health state, and the host agent uses ps to find active
applications.
65
Tracking connections: To track the active connections, each host runs a Linux
kernel module we build that intercepts the socket system calls (i.e., connect, accept,
send, receive, and close). Using the kernel module, the Hone agent associates each
application with the TCP/UDP connections it opens in an event-driven fashion. This
avoids the inevitable delay of poll-based alternatives, such as lsof and /proc.
3.3.2
Lazily Materialized Tables
Hone gives programmers the abstraction of access to diverse statistics at any time
granularity. To minimize measurement overhead, Hone lazily materializes the statistics tables by measuring only certain statistics, for certain connections, at certain
times, as needed to satisfy the queries. The Hone controller analyzes the queries
from the management solutions, and identifies what queries should run on hosts or
network devices. For queries to run on hosts, the host agents merge the collection of
overlapping statistics to share among management solutions. The agents collect only
the statistics as specified in the queries with appropriate measurement techniques,
instead of measuring all statistics in the virtual tables. The network module also
merges the collection of shared statistics among queries, and collects the requested
statistics from network devices using OpenFlow.
Returning to the elephant-flow solution, the controller analyzes the ElephantQuery
and decides to run the query on the hosts. Since the query does not constrain the
set of hosts and applications, the controller instructs all local agents to run the
query. Each Hone agent periodically measures the values of SrcIP, DstIP, SrcPort,
DstPort, and BytesSent from the network stack (via Web10G [29]), and collects the
BytesWritten from the kernel module discussed earlier in §3.3.1. Similarly, Hone
queries the network devices for the LinkQuery data; in our prototype, we interact
with network devices using the OpenFlow protocol. Hone does not collect or record
66
any unnecessary data. Lazy materialization supports a simple and uniform data
model while keeping measurement overhead low.
3.3.3
Host-Controller Partitioning
In addition to selectively collecting traffic statistics, the hosts can significantly reduce
the resulting data volume by filtering or aggregating the data. For example, the hosts
could identify connections with a small congestion window, sum throughputs over all
connections, or find the top k flows by traffic volume.
However, parallelizing an arbitrary controller program would be difficult. Instead,
Hone provides a MergeHosts operator that explicitly divides a management solution
into its local and global parts. Analysis functions before MergeHosts run locally on
each host, whereas functions after MergeHosts run on the controller. Hone hides
the details of distributing the computation, communicating with hosts and network
devices, and merging the results. Having an explicit MergeHosts operator obviates
the need for complex code analysis for automatic parallelization.
Hone coordinates the parallel execution of management solutions across a large
group of hosts2 . We first carry out industry-standard clock synchronization with
NTP [30] on all hosts and the controller. Then the Hone runtime stamps each management solution with its creation time tc . The host agent dynamically adjusts when
to start executing the solution to time tc + nT + , where n is an integer, is set
to 10ms, and T is the period of the management solution (as specified by the Every
statement). Furthermore, the host agent labels the local execution results with a
logical sequence number (i.e., n), in order to tolerate the clock drifts among hosts.
The controller buffers and merges the data bearing the same sequence number into a
2
The Hone controller ships the source code of the local portion of management solutions to the
host agent. Since Hone programs are written in Python, the agent can execute them with its local
Python interpreter, and thus avoids the difficulties of making the programs compatible with diverse
environments on the hosts.
67
Hosts’ Execution Plans
Measure
MapSet
ReduceSet
SumBytesSent()
CalcThroughput()
MergeHosts
MergeHosts
Estream
TMStream
TopoStream
MapSet
DetectElephant()
MergeStreams
MapStream
MapStream
AggTM()
BuildTopo()
ToController
ToController
MapStream
Schedule()
RegisterPolicy
Network
Measure
Controller Execution Plan
Figure 3.3: Partitioned Execution Plan of Elephant-Flow Solution
single collection, releasing data to the global portion of management solution when
either receiving from all expected hosts or timing out after T .
Using our elephant-flow-scheduling solution, Figure 3.3 shows the partitioned execution plan of the management program. Recall that we merge EStream, TMStream,
and TopoStream to construct the program. The measurement queries are interpreted
as parallel Measure operations on the host agents, and the query of switch statistics
from the network module. Hone executes the EStream and TMStream parts on each
host in parallel (to detect elephant flows and calculate throughputs, respectively),
and streams these local results to the controller (i.e., ToController ). The merged
local results of TMStream pass through a throughput aggregation function (AggTM ),
and finally merge together with the flow-detection data and the topology data from
TopoStream to feed the Schedule function.
3.3.4
Hierarchical Data Aggregation
Rather than transmit (filtered and aggregated) data directly to the controller, the
hosts construct a hierarchy to combine the results using user-specified functions.
68
Hone automatically constructs a k-ary tree rooted at the controller3 and applies a
TreeMerge operator at each level. All hosts running the solution are leaves of the
tree. For each group of b hosts, Hone chooses one to act as their parent in the tree.
These parents are grouped again to recursively build the tree towards the controller.
User-defined functions associated with TreeMerge are applied to all non-leaf nodes of
the tree to aggregate data from their children. Hone is unique among research efforts
on tree-based aggregation [126, 133], since prior works focus on aggregating data with
a priori knowledge of the data structure, and don’t allow users to specify their own
aggregation functions.
Many aggregation functions used in traffic management are both commutative
and associative; such functions can be applied hierarchically without compromising
correctness. For example, determining the top k values for heavy-hitter analysis is
amenable to either direct processing across all data or to breaking the data into subsets
for intermediate analysis and combining the results downstream. Calculating the total
throughput of connections across all hosts can also be calculated in a distributed
manner, as the arithmetic sum is also a commutative and associative function.
Making the user-defined aggregation functions to be both associative and commutative ensures that Hone can apply them correctly in a hierarchical manner. Using
TreeMerge, Hone assumes that the associated functions have the required properties,
avoiding the semantics analysis. TreeMerge is similar to MergeHosts in the sense
that they both combine local data streams from multiple hosts into one data stream
on the controller, and intermediate hosts similarly buffer data until they receive data
from all their children or a timeout occurs. But with TreeMerge, Hone also applies
a user-defined aggregation function, while MergeHosts simply merges all hosts’ data
at the controller without intermediate reduction.
3
The runtime uses information from the directory service to discover and organize hosts.
69
Controller
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
Branching = 2
Total Hosts = 8
H1
H5
H1
Level 0 H1
H3
H2
H3
H5
H4
H5
H7
H6
H7
H8
Figure 3.4: Aggregation Tree: 8 Hosts with Branching of 2
The algorithm of constructing the aggregation tree is an interesting extensible part
of Hone. We can group hosts based on their network locality, or we can dynamically
monitor the resource usage on hosts to pick the one with most available resource
to act as the intermediate aggregator. In our prototype, we leave those interesting
algorithms to future works, but offer a basic one of incrementally building the tree
by when hosts join the Hone system. Subject to the branching factor b, the newly
joined leaf greedily finds a node in one level up with less than b children, and links
with the node if found. If not found, the leaf promotes itself to one level up, and
repeats the search. When the new node reaches the highest level and still cannot
find a place, the controller node moves up one level, which increases the height of the
aggregation tree. Figure 3.4 illustrates an aggregation tree under the basic algorithm
when 8 hosts have joined and b is 2.
3.4
Performance Evaluation
In this section, we present micro-benchmarks on our Hone prototype to evaluate
measurement overhead, the execution latency of management solutions, and the scalability; §3.5 will demonstrate the expressiveness and ease-of-use of Hone using several
canonical traffic management solutions.
70
We implement the Hone prototype in combination of Python and C. The Hone
controller provides the programming framework and runtime system, which partitions the management solutions, instructs the host agents for local execution, forms
the aggregation hierarchy, and merges the data from hosts for the global portion of
program execution. The host agent schedules the installed management solutions to
run periodically, executes the local part of the program, and streams the serialized
data to the controller or intermediate aggregators. We implement the network part
of the prototype as a custom module in Floodlight [9] to query switch statistics and
install routing rules.
Our evaluation of the prototype focuses on the following questions about our
design decisions in §3.2 and §3.3.
1. How efficient is the host-based measurement in Hone?
2. How efficiently does Hone execute entire management solutions?
3. How much overhead does lazy materialization save?
4. How effectively does the controller merge data from multiple end hosts using the
hierarchical aggregation?
We run the Hone prototype and carry out the experiments on Amazon EC2. All
instances have 30GB memory and 8 virtual cores of 3.25 Compute Units each4 .
3.4.1
Performance of Host-Based Measurement
The Hone host agent collects TCP connection statistics using the Web10G [29] kernel
module. We evaluate the measurement overhead in terms of time, CPU, and memory
usage as we vary the number of connections running on the host. To isolate the
measurement overhead, we run a simple management solution that queries a few
randomly-chosen statistics of all connections running on the host every one second
4
One EC2 Compute Unit provides the equivalent CPU capacity of a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron
or Xeon processor.
71
1000
Time (ms)
800
Measure statistics of the connections
Organize measurement results for analysis phase
Identify connections to measure
600
400
200
0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
Number of connections to measure
Figure 3.5: Overhead of Collecting Connection Statistics
(we choose the four tuples, bytes of sent data, and the congestion window size). Our
experiment consists of three EC2 instances: one for the controller, and two running
the Hone agent.
To collect the statistics, the host agent must first identify what connections to
measure. Then the agent queries the kernel via Web10G to retrieve the statistics.
Finally, the agent organizes the statistics in the schema specified by the query and
feeds the result to the management program. In Figure 3.5, we break down the latency
in each portion. For each fixed number of connections, we run the management
solution for five minutes (i.e., about 300 iterations), and plot the average and standard
deviation of time spent in each portion.
Figure 3.5 shows that the agent performs well, measuring 5000 connections in an
average of 532.6ms. The Web10G measurement takes the biggest portion–432.1ms,
and the latency is linear in the number of active connections. The time spent in
identifying connections to measure is relatively flat, since the agent tracks the relevant
72
connections in an event-driven fashion via the kernel module of intercepting socket
calls. The time spent in organizing the statistics rises slowly as the agent must go
through more connections to format the results into the query’s schema. The results
set lower limit for the periods of management solutions that need measurement of
different numbers of connections. The CPU and memory usage of the agent remain
stable throughout the experiments, requiring an average of 4.55% CPU of one core
and 1.08% memory of the EC2 instance.
3.4.2
Performance of Management Solutions
Next, we evaluate the end-to-end performance of several management solutions. To
be more specific, we evaluate the latency of finishing one round of a solution: from the
agent scheduling a solution to run, measuring the corresponding statistics, finishing
the local analysis, sending the results to the controller, the controller receiving the
data, till the controller finishing the remaining parts of the management program.
We run three different kinds of management solutions which have a mix of leverages
of hosts, network devices, and the controller in Hone, in order to show the flexibility of Hone adapting to different traffic management solutions. All experiments in
this subsection run on an 8-host-10-switch fat-tree topology [38]. The switches are
emulated by running Open vSwitch on an EC2 instance.
• Task1 calculates the throughputs of all iperf connections on each host, sums
them up, and aggregates the global iperf throughput at the controller. This
solution performs most of the analysis at the host agents, leaving very few work
for the controller. Every host launches 100 iperf connections to another randomly
chosen host.
• Task2 queries the topology and statistics from the network, and uses the perport counters on the network devices to calculate the current link utilization. This
solution uses the network module in Hone a lot to measure data, and runs com73
putation work on the controller. Task2 is performed under the same setting of
running iperf as Task1.
• Task3 collects measurement data from the hosts to detect connections with a
small congestion window (i.e., which perform badly). It also queries the network to
determine the forwarding path for each host pair. The solution then diagnoses the
shared links among those problematic flows as possible causes of the bad network
performance. Task3 is a joint host-network job, which runs its computation across
hosts, network, and the controller. Task3 is still under the same setting, but we
manually add rules on two links to drop 50% of packets for all flows traversing the
links, emulating a lossy network.
Figure 3.6 illustrates the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the latency
for finishing one round of execution, as we run 300 iterations for each solution. We
further break down the latency into three parts: the execution time on the agent or
the network, the data-transmission time from the host agent or network module to the
controller, and the execution time on the controller. In Figure 3.7, we plot the average
latency and standard deviation for each part of the three solutions. Task1 finishes one
round with a 90th-percentile latency of 27.8ms, in which the agent takes an average
of 17.8ms for measurement and throughput calculation, the data transmission from 8
hosts to the controller takes another 7.7ms, and the controller takes the rest. Having
a different pattern with Task1, Task2 ’s 140.0ms 90th-percentile latency is consisted
of 87.5ms of querying the network devices via Floodlight and 8.9ms of computation
on the controller (the transmission time is near zero since Floodlight is running on
the controller machine). Task3 ’s latency increases as it combines the data from both
hosts and the network, and its CDF also has two stairs due to different responsiveness
of the host agents and the network module.
Table 3.4 summarizes the average CPU and memory usage on the host agent and
the controller when running the solution. The CPU percentage is for one core of
74
Cumulative distribution function
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
Task1: sum throughputs of application
Task2: calculate network utilization
Task3: diagnose network for bottlenecks
0.1
0
20
40
80
160
320
640
Time (ms)
Figure 3.6: Latency of One Round of Execution of Management Solutions
CPU Agent
Memory Agent
CPU Controller
Memory Controller
Task1
3.71%
0.94%
0.67%
0.10%
Task2
N/A
N/A
0.76%
1.13%
Task3
7.84%
1.64%
1.03%
0.11%
Table 3.4: Average CPU and Memory Usage of Execution
8 cores of our testbed machines. The results show that Hone’s resource usage are
bound to the running management solutions: Tasks3 is the most complex one with
flow detection/rate calculation on the hosts, and having the controller join host and
network data.
3.4.3
Effects of Lazy Materialization
Hone lazily materializes the contents of the statistics tables. We evaluate how much
overhead the feature can save for measurement efficiency in Hone.
We set up two applications (A and B ) with one thousand active connections
each on a host. We run multiple management solutions with different queries over
75
7
10
Agent/Network Execution
Data Transmission
Controller Execution
6
Time (microsecond)
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
Task1
Task2
Task3
Figure 3.7: Breakdown of Execution Latency
the statistics to evaluate the measurement overhead in terms of latency. Figure 3.8
illustrates the average and standard deviation of the latencies for different queries.
The first program queries all 122 TCP-stack statistics available in Web10G of all two
thousands connections, and all applications’ CPU and memory usage. The following
ones query various statistics of Connections or Applications tables with details
shown on Figure 3.8.
The lazy materialization of the tables lowers the measurement overhead by either
measuring a subset of tables (Query1 vs. others), rows (number of connections in
Query1 vs. Query2 and Query3 ), and columns (number of statistics in Query2
vs. Query3 ). The high overhead of Query4 is due to the implementation of CPU
measurement, which is, for each process, one of the ten worker threads on the agent
keeps running for 50ms to get a valid CPU usage.
76
Latency of one measurement round (ms)
1200
Query1: All 2k conns. All 122 stats.
CPU and memory of all ~120 apps.
Query2: App A’s 1k conns. 7 stats.
Query3: App A’s 1k conns. All 122 stats
Query4: CPU of all ~120 apps.
Query5: Memory of all ~120 apps.
Query6: App A’s CPU and memory.
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Query1
Query2
Query3
Query4
Query5
Query6
Figure 3.8: Effects of Lazy Materialization
3.4.4
Evaluation of Scalability in Hone
We will evaluate the scalability of Hone from two perspectives. First, when Hone
controller partitions the management program into local and global parts of execution,
the controller will handle the details of merging the local results processed in the same
time period from multiple hosts, before releasing the merged result to the global part
of execution. Although the host clocks are synchronized via NTP as mentioned in
§3.3.3, the clocks still drift slightly over time. resulting in a buffering delay at the
controller. Now we will evaluate how well the buffering works in terms of the time
difference between when the controller receives the first piece of data and when the
controller receives all the data bearing the same sequence number.
To focus on the merging performance, we use the Task1 in §3.4.2. All hosts will
directly send their local results to the controller without any hierarchical aggregation.
Each run of the experiment lasts 7 minutes, containing about 400 iterations. We
repeat the experiment, varying the number of hosts from 16 to 128.
77
Cumulative distribution function
1
0.8
Number of Hosts: 16
Number of Hosts: 32
Number of Hosts: 64
Number of Hosts: 128
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.5
2
Time (ms)
8
32
Figure 3.9: Buffering Delay of Merging Data from Hosts on Controller
Figure 3.9 shows the CDFs of the latencies for these experiments. The 90thpercentile of the controller’s buffering delay is 4.3ms, 14.2ms, 9.9ms, and 10.7ms for
16, 32, 64, and 128 hosts respectively. The results show that the synchronization
mechanism on host agents work well in coordinating their local execution of a management solution, and the controller’s buffering delay is not a problem in supporting
traffic management solutions whose execution periods are typically in seconds.
After evaluating how the controller merges distributed collection of data, we would
evaluate another important feature of Hone for scalability–the hierarchical aggregation among the hosts. We continue using the same management solution of summing the application’s throughputs across hosts. However, we switch to using the
TreeMerge operator to apply the aggregation function. In this way, the solution will
be executed by Hone through a k -ary tree consisted of the hosts.
78
Number
of Hosts
CPU Memory
Agent
Agent
CPU
Controller
Memory
Controller
16
4.19%
0.96%
1.09%
0.05%
32
4.93%
0.96%
1.27%
0.05%
64
5.26%
0.97%
1.31%
0.06%
128
4.80%
0.97%
2.36%
0.07%
Table 3.5: Average CPU/Memory Usage with Hierarchical Aggregation
In this experiment, we fix the branching factor k of the hierarchy to 4. We
repeat the experiment with 16, 32, 64, and 128 hosts, in which case the height of
the aggregation tree is 2, 3, 3, and 4 respectively. Figure 3.10 shows the CDFs of
the latencies of one round of execution, which captures the time difference from the
earliest agent starting its local part to the controller finishing the global part. The
90th-percentile execution latency increases from 32.2ms, 30.5ms, 37.1ms, to 58.1ms.
Table 3.5 shows the average CPU and memory usage on the controller and the host
agent. The host agent’s CPU and memory usage come from the agent that multiplexes
as local-data generator and the intermediate aggregators in all levels of the k -ary
tree. It shows the maximum overhead that the host agent incurs when running in a
hierarchy.
From the results above, we can conclude that Hone’s own operations pose little
overhead to the execution of management solutions. The performance of management
solutions running in Hone will be mainly bound by their own program complexities,
and the amount of data they need to process or transmit.
3.5
Case Studies
We have shown the micro-benchmark evaluation of Hone to demonstrate its efficiency
and scalability. Now we will illustrate the expressiveness and ease-of-use of Hone by
showing how we build a diversity of traffic management solutions in data centers.
79
Cumulative distribution function
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Number of Hosts: 16
Number of Hosts: 32
Number of Hosts: 64
Number of Hosts: 128
0.2
0
20
25
32
40
Time (ms)
51
64
Figure 3.10: End-to-end Execution Latency with Hierarchical Aggregation
Table 3.6 lists all the management solutions that we have built, ranging from conventional management operations in data centers (e.g., calculating link utilizations)
to recent proposals (e.g., network performance diagnosis [134]). Those conventional
traffic management solutions can actually serve as basic building blocks for more complex management solutions. The network operators can compose the code of those
Hone programs to construct their own. Hone is an open-source project, and code for
the management programs are also available at http://hone.cs.princeton.edu/
examples.
In the following subsections, we pick two management solutions as case studies to
illustrate more details, and evaluate the Hone-based solutions.
80
Management Task
Lines of Code
Summing application’s throughputs
70
Monitoring CPU and memory usage
24
Collecting connection TCP statistics
19
Calculating traffic matrix
85
Calculating link utilizations
48
Discovering network topology
51
Network performance diagnosis
56
Hone’s directory service
31
Elephant flow scheduling
140
Distributed rate limiting
74
Table 3.6: Hone-based Traffic Management Solutions
3.5.1
Elephant Flow Scheduling
In data centers, it is important to detect elephant flows with high traffic demands
and properly route them to minimize network congestion. With Hone, we can easily
build such a management solution to schedule the elephant flows. This example takes
the scheduling strategies and the elephant-flow detection threshold from Hedera [39]
and Mahout [55]. We implement Hedera’s Global-first-fit routing strategy with 140
lines of code in Hone. The code of the management solution has been already shown
in previous sections as an example.
We deploy Hone on EC2 instances to emulate a datacenter network with a 8-host10-switch fat-tree topology (the switches are instances running Open vSwitch). We
repeat an all-to-all data shuffle of 500MB (i.e., a 28GB shuffle) for 10 times. The
Hone-based solution finishes the data shuffle with an average of 82.7s, compared to
103.1s of using ECMP. The improvement over shuffle time is consistent with Hedera’s
result.
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3.5.2
Distributed Rate Limiting
Distributed rate limiting in datacenters is used to control the aggregate network
bandwidth used by an application, which runs on multiple hosts. It can help the
application’s owner to control the total cost under a pay-as-you-go billing model.
Prior works [110, 114] proposed mechanisms to make distributed rate limiters
collaborate as a single, aggregate global limiter inside the network. Hone enables
distributed rate limiting from the host side, which would introduce less overhead
as the hosts have more computational power than the network devices, and better
visibility into the traffic demand of applications.
In Hone, the network operators do not need to worry about the complexity of
collecting throughputs from multiple hosts in a synchronized way. Instead, they
just need to write a simple program that sums up throughputs of an application’s
connections on each host, aggregates the throughputs across hosts, and then calculates
their rate-limiting policies accordingly. The code written in Hone are shown below:
def D i s t r i b u t e d R a t e L i m i t i n g ():
( Select ([ App , SrcIp , DstIp ,
BytesSent , Timestamp ]) *
From ( Connections ) *
Where ( App == X ) *
Every ( Seconds 1) ) >>
ReduceSet ( CalculateThroughput , {}) >>
MapSet ( LocalAgg ) >>
ReduceSet ( MovingAverage , initValue ) >>
MergeHosts () >>
MapStream ( G e n e r a t e R a t e L i m i t P o l i c y ) >>
RegisterPolicy ()
We run the solution to limit the aggregate throughput of application X to
100Mbps. The application X is set to send traffic on each host for 80 seconds with
a default rate of 50Mbps. We launch X on 5 hosts, one by one every 10 seconds.
82
140
Aggregate
Host 1
Host 2
Host 3
Host 4
Host 5
120
Rate (Mbps)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 10
30
50
70
90
110
Time (second)
130
150
Figure 3.11: Time Series of Application Throughput
Figure 3.11 shows the time series of the aggregate and individual traffic rates of
X. The management solution succeeds in limiting the total rate of X running on a
distributed set of hosts to 100Mbps. Note that it takes one round of execution for the
management solution to discover new traffic and update the rate-limiting policies.
That is why there are several 1-second spikes when X starts on new hosts.
3.6
Related Work
Recent projects have sought to incorporate end hosts into network management [59,
84]. But these solutions view the hosts only as software switches or as trusted execution environments for the network. Cooke et al. [53] use hosts to collect socket
activities for a better understanding of network. However, their solution cannot selectively collect statistics, and the statistics at the transport layer are not covered.
OpenTCP [71] dynamically adapts the configuration of TCP on the end hosts based
83
on traffic conditions. Lee et al. [92] propose joint optimization across the application
and network layers for better application throughput. In contrast, Hone supports
diverse traffic management solutions, and thus provides more measurement, data
analysis, and control functionalities across hosts and network devices.
There have also been industry efforts in simplifying cloud management, such as
various commercial tools from vendors [4, 24, 32]. They aim at enabling better visualization and infrastructure control at hosts and switches in the cloud. Hone is
complementary to these systems by focusing more on monitoring and analysis in traffic management solutions and providing programmable interfaces for these solutions.
Prior work also adopts the stream abstraction for network traffic analysis [42,
54]. But they mainly focus on extending the SQL language, while we use functional
language constructs to define traffic management mechanisms more easily. Further,
some of these works [42, 106] focus on a specific problem (e.g., intrusion detection)
when designing their programming language, while Hone aims for a more generic
programming interface for traffic management.
Finally, there are recent works proposing network programming languages [67,
99, 102, 116, 135, 136]. Their programming abstraction is the raw packets or traffic
counters on a single network device. Hone mainly moves the programmability to the
end hosts, provides an extensible platform for various types of measurement, and
spans both the hosts and the network devices.
3.7
Conclusion
Hone is a programmable and scalable platform for joint host-network traffic management. Hone expands the scope of traffic management to the host network stacks,
in order to harness the detailed network-related statistics and the computational resources on the hosts. We design an integrated data model for diverse fine-grained
84
measurement from hosts and network. The programming framework further offers
data-parallel streaming operators to define measurement and analysis logic of traffic
management solutions. The system can selectively measure the data as needed by the
management solutions, and it divides the analysis logic to execute locally on hosts in
real time. Thus the Hone system is efficient and scalable for traffic management with
integration of host stacks. Micro-benchmarks and experiments with real management
solutions demonstrate the performance and expressiveness of our system. We believe
that Hone can become an invaluable platform for the research community and cloud
providers.
85
Chapter 4
Sprite: Bridging Enterprise and
ISP for Inbound Traffic Control
4.1
Introduction
Many edge networks—like enterprises, university campuses, and broadband access
networks—connect to multiple Internet Service Providers (ISPs) for higher reliability,
better performance, and lower cost.
Over the past fifteen years, many research projects [36, 37, 72] and commercial
products [5, 6, 10, 14, 20, 25] have shown how multihomed networks can divide their
outbound traffic over multiple ISPs to optimize peformance, load, and cost. However, relatively few works have explored how to perform inbound traffic engineering
effectively.
Yet, inbound traffic engineering has never been more important due to the growing
role of modern applications like video streaming and cloud services. Video streaming
has highly asymmetric traffic demands, with the vast majority of the traffic entering the edge network and only small requests and acknowledgments traveling in the
other direction. For example, our measurements show that the Princeton University
86
campus receives an average of eight times more traffic than it sends. Receiving this
traffic via the right ISP is thus crucial for offering good performance at a reasonable
cost. Moreover, video traffic increasingly encounters bottlenecks in the middle of
the Internet [51], where some ISPs do not devote enough bandwidth for high-quality
video streaming, leading video services to decrease the video quality to reduce the
bandwidth requirements. Switching the traffic to a different incoming ISP along a
better end-to-end path could increase the video quality.
Many enterprises have outsourced key business applications to the cloud (e.g.,
Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, and Google App Engine). These enterprises
now receive much of their own business traffic over the Internet through their ISPs,
rather than purely internally. However, without more control over the flow of traffic, enterprises can experience bad end-to-end performance for these business-critical
applications. To ensure good performance, enterprises could connect to the cloud
provider over dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) [3, 16], rather than the public Internet, but at a much greater cost. In addition, enterprises often outsource
the hosting of their public websites to content distribution networks (e.g., Akamai,
CloudFlare, and Limelight Networks). As a result, these enterprises have even less
outbound traffic, relative to the volume of incoming traffic. Broadband providers face
similar challenges, where most traffic goes to their customers, and “apps” experience
poor performance when the traffic arrives over a bad end-to-end path.
Unfortunately, inbound traffic engineering (TE) is quite difficult. Indeed, Internet routing is destination-based. As such, the sending Autonomous System (AS)
decides where to forward traffic, based on the routes announced by its neighbors.
The receiving network has, at best, clumsy and indirect control by manipulating its
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) announcements. For example, the edge network
can perform AS-PATH prepending to make routes through one ISP look artificially
longer than another by adding fake hops. However, AS-PATH prepending is hard to
87
control—adding one extra (fake) hop to the path can dramatically change the division
of traffic, or have no effect at all [94]. Alternatively, the edge network can exert direct
control with selective prefix announcements to force all traffic to one group of users
to arrive via one ISP rather than another. Both techniques are coarse-grained and
do not allow an edge network to, for instance, receive all Netflix traffic via one ISP
and all Gmail traffic via another.
Edge networks need an inbound TE solution that offers: (i) direct control over
which traffic enters via each ISP; (ii) fine-grained control, by sender, receiver, applications or even individual connections; (iii) local control without requiring support
from the sending network or the rest of the Internet; (iv) BGP stability, so that it
should not adapt its BGP announcements to achieve its objectives; and (v) scalability, so that the system can handle fine-grained TE objectives over a large number of
connections and multiple border routers.
In this chapter, we introduce Sprite (Scalable PRogrammable Inbound Traffic Engineering), a software-defined TE solution. Sprite controls inbound traffic by dividing
the edge network’s public IP address space across the ISPs, and using source network
address translation (SNAT) to map each outbound connection to a specific inbound
ISP for the return traffic [36], as discussed in more detail in the next section. Given
the nature of Internet routing, an edge network cannot fully control the entire end-toend path—only which entry point receives the traffic. Still, this gives an edge network
enough control to balance load and optimize performance by selecting among a small
set of end-to-end paths for each connection.
The key contribution of Sprite is a scalable solution for realizing high-level TE
objectives, using software-defined networking (SDN):
• Scalable data plane through distributed SNAT: Sprite distributes the SNAT
functionality over many (possibly software) switches, close to the end hosts, rather
than implementing SNAT at a single proxy or border router.
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• Scalable control plane through local agents: A local agent at each switch
generates the SNAT rules himself, based on a network policy set by the controller,
rather than sending the first packet of each connection to the controller.
• Dynamic adaptation of network policy based on high-level objective:
The network administrator specifies a high-level traffic-engineering objective based
on names (rather than network identifiers) and performance metrics (rather than
routing decisions). The controller translates the high-level objective into network
policy, and dynamically adjusts the network policy based on measurements of performance metrics.
We present the design and implementation of our Sprite architecture, and evaluate
our system “in the wild” using an EC2-based testbed with the help of the PEERING
testbed [115, 125].
4.2
Inbound TE Using Source NAT
An edge network can directly control inbound traffic by combining two mechanisms:
Split the IP address block across ISPs: To control the flow of inbound traffic,
the edge network’s public address space is divided into separate prefixes, and Sprite
assigns each prefix to one upstream ISP, similar to the common practice of selective prefix announcements. In the example in Figure 4.1, an edge network with the
1.1.0.0/23 address and two ISPs could announce 1.1.0.0/24 via ISP 1 and 1.1.1.0/24
via ISP 2; for fault tolerance in the case of ISP disconnection, the edge network also
announces the supernet 1.1.0.0/23 via both ISPs.
Perform SNAT on outbound traffic: To associate a new connection with a
particular inbound ISP, the edge network maps the source IP address of outgoing
request traffic to an address in the appropriate prefix. In the example of Figure 4.1,
the edge network numbers its client machines using private addresses (e.g., in the
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Edge Network
10.1.1.2 Controller Agent 1.1.0.0/24 SNAT:1.1.0.3 ISP 1
YouTube
Internet
ISP 2
Agent SNAT:1.1.1.3 Salesforce
1.1.1.0/24 Figure 4.1: Example of How Sprite Works
10.0.0.0/8 address block), and maps outgoing connections to a source IP address in
either 1.1.0.0/24 (if the destination corresponds to a YouTube server) or 1.1.1.0/24
(if the destination corresponds to a Salesforce.com server).
While the outbound traffic might leave the edge network through either upstream
ISP, these two mechanisms ensure that the response traffic arrives via the selected
ISP. If the edge network runs any public services, those hosts should have public IP
addresses routable via either ISP.
Using SNAT for inbound traffic engineering is not a new idea. Previous work [36,
Sec IV.C] briefly discusses how to realize NAT-based inbound route control at a Web
proxy using iptables. The main challenges we address in this paper are (i) automatically translating fine-grained TE objectives to low-level rules and (ii) distributing
both the control-plane and data-plane functionality for better scalability.
4.3
Scalable Sprite Architecture
Sprite achieves scalability by distributing the data-plane rules (across switches near
the end hosts) and control-plane operations (across local agents on or near the
switches), as Figure 4.3 shows the architecture of Sprite. The network administrator
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Abstraction
C
o
G ntr
lo ol
ba p
l s lan
yn e
c
D
Lo ata
ca pl
l o an
nl e
y
Example
High-­‐level Objec.ve <CSDept, YouTube> èBestThroughput Network Policy <10.1.1.0/24:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.0.0/24 (ISP1) Flow Rule <10.1.1.2:60257,173.194.61.236:80> SNAT to 1.1.0.3 Figure 4.2: Three Levels of Abstraction in Sprite
conveys a high-level traffic-engineering objective to the controller, then the controller
generates a set of network policies to distribute to the local agents, and finally the
local agents install SNAT rules in the switch data plane, as summarized in Figure 4.2.
4.3.1
Data Plane: Edge Switches Near Hosts
SNAT gives edge networks direct, fine-grained control over inbound traffic, at the
expense of scalability. SNAT requires dynamically establishing a data-plane rule for
each connection. Performing SNAT at a single proxy or border router would require
data-plane state in proportion to the number of active connections, as well as controlplane operations on every connection set-up. The presence of multiple border routers
introduces further complexity, since traffic for the same connection may enter and
leave via different locations.
Instead, Sprite performs SNAT on a distributed collection of switches, near the
end hosts. These switches can also collect passive traffic measurements (e.g., byte and
packet counts per rule) that can help drive traffic-engineering decisions. These edge
switches could be virtual switches running on the end hosts, access switches connected
directly to a group of end hosts, or a gateway switch connecting a department to the
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Controller
High-level
Objective
Agent
Switch
loc
at
e
t
es
Agent
…
SNAT IP Pool …
SNAT
Flow
Rule
SNAT
Flow
Rule
SNAT
Flow
Rule
SNAT
Flow
SNAT Flow Rule
Rule
Control Data
Plane Plane
Network
Network
Network
Policy
Policy
Policy
SDN Control Al
nc
y
S
qu
Network
Network
Network
Policy
Policy
Policy
SNAT IP Allocator Re
Admin
Figure 4.3: Sprite System Components
rest of the enterprise network. Compared to the border routers, each switch handles
much fewer active connections and a much lower arrival rate of new connections,
enabling the use of commodity switches (with small rule tables) or software switches.
The edge switches also need to receive the return traffic destined to its associated
end hosts. Each edge switch maps outbound traffic from internal private addresses to
a small set of public IP addresses assigned by the controller to the local agent. As such,
the return traffic is easily routed to the right edge switch based on the destination IP
prefix. If the edge network runs a legacy routing protocol (e.g., OSPF or IS-IS), the
controller configures the injection of these prefixes into the routing protocol. If the
edge network consists of SDN switches, the controller can install coarse-grained rules
in the border router and interior switches to forward traffic to the right edge switch.
By carefully assigning contiguous prefixes to nearby edge switches, the controller
could further aggregate these prefixes in the rest of the edge network.
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4.3.2
Control Plane: Local Agents Near Switches
Rather than involving the controller in installing each SNAT rule, a local agent on (or
near) each switch performs this simple task. Based on a high-level traffic-engineering
objective, the controller computes a network policy that maps network identifiers (e.g.,
IP addresses and port ranges) to the appropriate inbound ISP. Then, the controller
subdivides the unique set of source IP addresses and port ranges across the local
agents, so each local agent can generate flow rules on its own as new connections
arrive. As a result, Sprite does not send any data packets to the controller, and
ensures that all traffic follows an efficient path between the end hosts and the border
routers. The local agent can also collect and aggregate measurement data from the
switch’s rule counter and via active probing, and share the results with the controller
to inform future decisions.
The network policy generated by the Sprite controller only specifies source and
destination IP prefixes, TCP/UDP port ranges, and which inbound ISP to use. Each
local agent uses the network policy to automatically create SNAT rules for each new
flow. Each edge switch has a default rule that sends all outbound traffic (i.e., packets
with an internal source IP address) to the associated local agent. Upon receiving the
packet, the local agent consults the current network policy to identify the suitable set
of public addresses and port numbers, selects a single unused address/port pair, and
installs the NAT rules for both directions of the traffic.
The controller needs to assign each local agent a sufficiently large pool of addresses
and port numbers. When new flow starts, the agent can immediately use one free
source IP from its own pool without requesting the controller and pausing the new
flow. Yet the limited public address space shall not be wasted. Thus, the allocation
algorithm of Sprite follows two rules: 1) the number of IPs and ports allocated for an
agent shall slightly exceed the actual number of connections traversing the agent; and
93
2) when network policy changes, we shall limit the changes of ownership of source
IPs to minimize the impact to ongoing connections.
The controller uses measurement data collected from the local agent to track
statistics on the number of simultaneously active connections. When running low on
available address/port pairs, the agent contacts the controller to request additional
identifiers, e.g., when the actual number of SNATed connections exceeds 90% of the
upper limit of currently allocated IPs and port ranges. Similarly, the controller can
reclaim unused ranges of addresses from one local agent and assign them to another
as needed. With reasonable “headroom” to over-allocate address/port pairs to each
agent, the controller can limit the churn in the assignments.
4.4
Dynamic Policy Adaptation
Sprite enables network administrators to express a wide range of TE objectives using
high-level names of remote services and groups of users, as well as performance metrics. The controller automatically translates the TE objective into a set of network
policies, and adapts in real time to traffic and performance measurements.
4.4.1
High-level Traffic Engineering Objectives
Rather than specifying TE objectives on IP addresses and port numbers, Sprite allows
administrators to use high-level names to identify services (e.g., YouTube) and groups
of users (e.g., CSDept). The administrators can let Sprite dynamically map the connections of the users/services onto the ISPs by providing an evaluation function. The
function takes many metrics (e.g., the ISP capacity, the connections’ performance,
etc.) as inputs, and returns a score for how the ISP behaves. For example,
USER(BioDept) AND SERVICE(Salesforce.com) →
DYNAMIC(LatencyCalculationFunction)
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OBJECTIVE
PREDICATE
ISP CHOICE
evaluation function
:= PREDICATE → ISP CHOICE
:= USER(user identifier )
| SERVICE(remote service name)
| PREDICATE AND/OR PREDICATE
:= DYNAMIC(evaluation function)
| STATIC([<ISP identifier, weight>, . . .])
:= User-defined function over ISP capacity,
connection statistics, and other metrics
Table 4.1: Syntax of High-level Objective
specifies that traffic from Salesforce.com to the Biology Department should use the
ISP that offers the lowest latency. Alternatively, the administrator can associate
connections with particular named users and services with a specific set of ISPs (with
weights that specify the portion of inbound traffic volume by ISP). For example,
SERVICE(YouTube) → STATIC([<ISP1,1.0>, <ISP2,4.0>, <ISP3,9.0>])
specified that YouTube traffic should enter via ISPs 1, 2, and 3 in a 1:4:9 ratio by
traffic volume. We summarize the syntax of the language in Table 4.1.
4.4.2
Computing Network Policy
Sprite collects performance metrics of the network policy and uses inputs from the
edge network itself to automatically adapt the set of network policies for a high-level
objective. Figure 4.4 illustrates the workflow of network policy adaptation.
Mapping names to identifiers: Sprite maintains two data sources to map the
high-level name of a service or a group of users to the corresponding IP addresses. For
users, Sprite combines the data from the device registry database of the edge network
(linking device MAC addresses to users) and the DHCP records to track the mappings
of <user ID, list of owned IPs>. The <user group, list of users> records are provided
by the network administrators manually. For external services, Sprite tracks the set
of IP addresses hosting them. Like NetAssay [60], Sprite combines three sources of
95
Controller
User ID
Database
Service
Mapping
High-­‐level Objec.ve Policy
Evaluation
Perf. Metrics Flow-­‐level Flow-­‐level Network Rules Rule Policy Figure 4.4: Workflow of Network Policy Adaptation
data to automatically map a service’s name to the prefixes it uses to send traffic: 1)
the DNS records obtained from the edge network; 2) the BGP announcements at the
border routers; and 3) traces coming from a few probe machines that emulate user
traffic to popular services. Although Sprite cannot guarantee 100% accuracy, it can
discover the prefixes for a majority of the service’s inbound volume in practice1 .
Satisfying the TE objective: The Sprite controller translates the high-level
objective into a set of clauses for the network policy, expressed as <user prefix: port
range, service prefix: port range> → inbound ISP. For each network policy, the Sprite
agent collects the performance metrics of each matching connection, from the counters
of SNAT rules in the data plane (e.g., throughput) to richer transport-layer statistics (e.g., round-trip time, size of socket buffer, TCP congestion window size) [123].
The controller collects these metrics periodically, and calculates the aggregate performance. Then the data are fed to the evaluation function provided by the administrators to score how each ISP behaves. If the scores of the ISPs are different enough,
the controller adapts the network policy by swapping some users from one inbound
ISP to another. Sprite always keeps at least one active user on an ISP so that it can
1
One reason is that the major contributors of inbound traffic (e.g., Netflix and YouTube) are
increasingly using their own content delivery networks (CDNs) [11, 19], rather than commercial
CDNs. These services’ own CDNs usually sit in their own ASes.
96
Objec&ve: Best avg. per-­‐user throughput for YouTube ISP1
T
ISP2
<10.1.0.0/23:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.0.0/24 (ISP1) Avg. throughput: 2Mbps
T+1
<10.1.2.0/23:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.1.0/24 (ISP2) Avg. throughput: 1Mbps
<10.1.0.0/23:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.0.0/24 (ISP1) <10.1.2.0/24:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.1.0/24 (ISP2) <10.1.3.0/24:*, 173.194.0.0/16:80> è1.1.0.0/24 (ISP1) Expect avg. throughput: 1.5Mbps
Expect avg. throughput: 1.5Mbps
Figure 4.5: Network Policy Adaptation for Dynamic Perf-driven Balancing
always know the actual performance of inbound traffic via an ISP through passive
measurement of real traffic.
We now illustrate the process through an example in Figure 4.5. Suppose the
objective is to achieve the maximum average throughput for YouTube clients. Users
in the edge network are in the 10.1.0.0/22 address block. The Sprite controller initially
splits the users into two groups (10.1.0.0/23, 10.1.2.0/23), and allocates their traffic
with YouTube to use one of the two ISPs. Figure 4.5 shows the network policies
generated in the iteration T. Carrying out the network policies, Sprite measures the
throughput of each SNATed connection with YouTube, and calculates the average
per-user throughput. The average inbound throughput via ISP2 is 1Mbps due to
high congestion, while that of ISP1 is 2Mbps. Thus the controller decides to adapt
the set of network policies to move some users from ISP2 to ISP1. In the iteration
T+1, the users in 10.1.2.0/23 are further split into two smaller groups: 10.1.2.0/24
and 10.1.3.0/24. While users in 10.1.2.0/24 stay with ISP2, users in 10.1.3.0/24 have
their new connections use ISP1 for their traffic from YouTube. The new set of network
policies should alleviate congestion on ISP2 and might increase congestion on ISP1,
leading to further adjustments in the future.
97
4.5
Implementation
In this section, we describe the design and implementation of the Sprite system and
how we made it efficient and robust.
4.5.1
Design for Fault Tolerance
Sprite system centers on a distributed datastore (see Figure 4.62 ), which keeps all
the stateful information related to the high-level objective, the network policy, the
performance metrics of SNATed connections, and the status of SNAT IP allocation.
The controller and all the agents run independently in a stateless fashion. They
never directly communicate with each other, and just read or write data through the
distributed datastore.
Making the datastore the single stateful place in Sprite greatly improves the system’s robustness. Indeed, device failures are common since Sprite employs a distributed set of agents and commodity switches. In this architecture, any controller
or agent failure won’t affect the operations of other instances or the stability of the
whole system. Recovery from failures also becomes a simple task. We can start a
fresh instance of controller or agent to catch up states from the datastore to resume
the dropped operations. Taking switches offline for maintenance is also tolerable as
we can freeze the datastore correspondingly to stop the operation of affected agents.
The architecture also makes the Sprite system very flexible for different deployment environments. For instance, some enterprises may have standard imaging for
all machines, and wish to bundle the Sprite agent in the image to run directly on the
end host, while others can only place the agent side by side with the gateway routers.
The adopters of Sprite can plug in/out or re-implement their own controller or agent
2
Not shown in Figure 4.6, we use Floodlight controller as our SDN control module, and it only
communicates with the controller for insertion and deletion of routing rules.
98
Read/Sub
Controller Write/Pub
Request Queue
High-­‐level Objec.ve Perf. Metrics Network Policy SNAT IP Alloca.on Pub/Sub Channel Backend Distributed Datastore
Agent Agent Agent Figure 4.6: System Architecture of Sprite Implementation
to accommodate the deployment constraints, as long as maintaining the read/write
interface with the datastore.
The implementation of the distributed datastore depends on our data model. The
model of network policy involves the mapping of the four-tuple prefix/port wildcard
match and the inbound ISP. The SNAT IP allocation is the mapping among IP, ISP,
allocation state, and agent. Using multiple items as the keys, the row-oriented, multicolumn-index data structure of Cassandra is the best fit. Thus, we use Cassandra as
the datastore of Sprite.
4.5.2
How Components Communicate
The controller and agents of Sprite interact via the datastore in a pull-based fashion.
However, the pull-based approach slows Sprite in two places. Firstly, when the controller adapts the network policies, a pull-based agent may take up to its run period
to pick up the new set of network policies. This significantly drags the convergence
speed of carrying out the new policy throughout the edge network, thus slowing the
convergence of the policy adaptation. A second issue with the pull-based approach
happens in the allocation process of SNAT IPs. When agents request the allocation
of new source IPs and port ranges, new connections of users may be halted at the
99
agent. A long wait time would trigger the connection to drop, thus affecting the user’s
performance.
We need to add push-based communication method to balance the robustness and
performance of Sprite. Thus, we add two communication points in the datastore for
push-based signaling between controller and agents: a publish/subscribe channel and
a message queue, as shown in Figure 4.6. The signaling works as shown below:
• Network policy adaptation: When the controller writes new network policies
or new SNAT IP allocation into the datastore, the controller publishes notification
via the pub/sub channel. As all agents subscribe to the channel upon startup, the
notification triggers them to refresh the data from the datastore, thus catching up
with the new policy or allocation state quickly. Also, whenever a new controller
instance starts, it will publish notification upon finishing bootstrap, in case that
the old controller instance has failed after writing into the datastore, yet before
publishing the notification.
• SNAT IP allocation: The message queue keeps the agents’ allocation requests
at its tail, and the controller only removes the head once it successfully handles
the request and updates the datastore. In this way, the message queue guarantees
that each request is handled at least once. Thus users’ connections are less likely
to be stuck at the agents due to lack of source IPs. The effects of possibly handing
one request more than once are offset by the reclamation of the controller. This
mechanism also tolerates agent failures that a rebooted agent instance can read
the allocation results from the datastore without re-submitting a request.
4.5.3
Routing Control for Returning Packets
When we design to scale up the control plane of Sprite, we decide not to synchronize
the SNAT states of active connections. These states are kept only locally at each
agent/switch. As a result, the returning packets destined for the SNATed IP must
100
arrive at the agent which handles the translation in the first place, in order to reverse
the translation correctly.
Assuming an OpenFlow-enabled network in our implementation, Sprite installs
routing rules to direct the returning packets to the right agents, i.e., once a source
IP/port range is allocated to an agent, the controller installs OpenFlow rules to match
the source IP/port range along the switches from the border router to the agent.
Rather than simply installing one rule per allocated source IP in switches, we try
to consolidate the routing rules into matching a bigger prefix block to collapse many
rules into one. Our current algorithm works in this way: we construct the shortedpath tree rooted at the border router with all agents as the leaves. When allocating a
source IP to an agent, we pick the one that is bit-wise closest to the IPs allocated to
the agents having the longest shared paths. We leave the improvement of the current
algorithm to future efforts.
4.5.4
BGP Stability
Sprite splits the edge network’s address space to announce separately via different
ISPs. An alternative would be using the peering IPs with ISPs for SNAT. Compared to the alternative, our splitting technique risks inflating global routing tables.
However, we argue that the technique offers more benefits than drawbacks.
Our approach ensures global reachability, while benefiting from the robustness of
BGP. The separately announced IP blocks belong to the edge network. The neighboring ISPs must advertise them to further upstream ISPs, while the peering IPs are
typically private. The edge networks also enjoy the automatic failover brought by
BGP, since Sprite announces the supernet to all ISPs. In case of ISP-level disconnection, inbound traffic can move to other ISPs automatically, instead of being lost
if using the peering IPs.
101
Sprite can also have higher capacity for SNATing connections. For example,
the announcement of a /24 block gives Sprite an upper limit of about 14 million
connections (256 × (65535 − 10000)) to SNAT. Using the peering IPs only yields a
55-thousand capacity (65535 − 10000), which is way not enough for a large-size edge
network.
Finally, the splitting technique is already widely used in practice. Adopting this
approach in Sprite requires the least cooperation from the upstream ISPs, thus being
the most deployable option.
4.6
Evaluation
We collected traffic data from the campus network of Princeton University to understand the traffic patterns of multi-homed enterprise networks. We then evaluate
Sprite with a pilot deployment on an EC2-based testbed to demonstrate how Sprite
achieves TE objectives.
4.6.1
Princeton Campus Network Data
The campus network of Princeton University is a multihomed site with three upstream
ISPs (Cogent, Windstream, and Magpie). The ISPs are contracted to provide 3Gbps,
2Gbps, and 1Gbps respectively. In recent years, the campus network receives rapidly
growing inbound traffic mainly from video streaming services, and the university is
consolidating the departmental computation services into one university-wide service
hosted in a remote, newly built datacenter.
We want to study how the traffic pattern changes under the trends and how the
upstream ISPs are utilized for the inbound traffic. We have collected Netflow data
on the border router of the campus 3 . The Netflow data spreads two weeks long in
3
For privacy concern, we have anonymized the Netflow data at the time of collection. For every
IP address that belongs to Princeton University, we create a unique yet random map to an address
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Normalized Volume
5
Inbound
Outbound
4
3
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
Days
Figure 4.7: Stacked Chart of Inbound and Outbound Traffic Volume
Percentage
Windstream
Magpie
Cogent
32.2%
8.0%
59.8%
Table 4.2: Total Inbound Volume Distribution among ISPs
December 2014. Each Netflow record identifies a single connection with many traffic
statistics (e.g., number of packets/bytes). Matching with the physical configuration
of the border router, we can study which ISPs carries each connection.
Figure 4.7 is the stacked area chart showing the volume of inbound and outbound
traffic over time 4 . The inbound traffic is always dominant, averaging 89.7% of the
total volume. Further delving into the inbound traffic pattern, we show the stacked
chart of the inbound traffic carried by the three ISPs in Figure 4.8. We also aggregate
the total volume via each ISP of the collection window, and show the traffic proportion
in Table 4.2. The results show that the campus network currently uses ISP Cogent and
ISP Windstream as the main carriers, and splits the traffic roughly 2:1 regardless of
users or services. Remember that the contracted bandwidth of Cogent, Windstream,
and Magpie is 3:2:1. It means Windstream and Magpie are usually underutilized.
in the 10.0.0.0/8 block, and modify the Netflow records correspondingly. We leave non-Princeton
IP addresses intact.
4
We have normalized the traffic volume of the campus network for privacy concerns.
103
Normalized Inbound Volume
4
ISP Windstream
ISP Magpie
ISP Cogent
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
Days
Figure 4.8: Stacked Chart of Inbound Traffic via Three ISPs
4.6.2
Multi-ISP Deployment Setup
We build a testbed in AWS Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) to emulate an enterprise
network with multiple upstream ISPs, with the help of the PEERING testbed. The
PEERING testbed is a multi-university collaboration platform which allows us to
use each participating university as an ISP. Our VPC testbed connects with two
PEERING sites to emulate a two-ISP enterprise network.
Figure 4.9 shows the testbed setup. In the AWS VPC, we launch one machine
(i.e., an AWS EC2 instance) to function as the border router. The border-router
instance runs Quagga software router to establish BGP sessions with the PEERING
sites in Georgia Tech and Clemson University. For each PEERING site, we have one
/24 globally routable block to use.
Behind the border-router instance, we launch many EC2 instances to function as
the “user” machines. These user-machine instances connect with the border-router
instance via regular VPN tunnels to create a star topology. On each user-machine
instance, we run the Sprite agent and OpenVSwitch. The Sprite agents uses iptables
and OpenVSwitch to monitor and SNAT the connections. We will launch applications
(e.g., YouTube) from the user-machine instances to emulate the traffic.
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ISP A ISP B Mux A Mux B PEERING
Gatech
PEERING
Clemson
AWS VPC
Instance as
Border Router
Instance as Controller Instance as
End Host
User App. Agent …
User App. Agent Tunnel with
BGP session
Regular
Tunnel
Software
Switch
Figure 4.9: Setup of the Multihomed Testbed on AWS VPC
4.6.3
Inbound-ISP Performance Variance
ISPs perform differently when delivering the same service to the edge networks, e.g.,
YouTube and Netflix. The performance difference among ISPs can be caused by
various reasons [51]. An example is the recent dispute between Netflix/Cogent and
Verizon. The video quality of Netflix is bad when delivered by Verizon, due to the
limited capacity of the peering links between Verizon and Netflix. In contrast, Cogent
does not have the quality issue as its peering links have higher capacity.
Using Sprite, we can prove that different ISPs provide different quality towards
the same service by specifying an objective of equally splitting the users to use one of
the two ISPs. On all user machines, we launch YouTube for a 2-hour-long movie, and
we explicitly set the users to stream the movie from the same YouTube access point.
In the process, we measure the video quality of the video every 1 minute on every
machine. Figure 4.10 shows the histogram of all these quality measurement points
to examine the characteristics of the two ISPs for streaming YouTube. The Gatech
PEERING site consistently delivers video of higher quality than the Clemson site.
105
Percentage of
Quality Measurement Points
100
240p 360p 480p 720p 1080p
80
60
40
20
0
ISP Clemson
ISP Gatech
Figure 4.10: Histogram of Video Quality via Two ISPs
4.6.4
Effects of Dynamic Balancing
Sprite can dynamically move traffic among ISPs to achieve the TE objective specified
by the administrators. We provide an objective to achieve best average per-user
throughput for YouTube traffic, and evaluate how Sprite adapts the network policies
for such an objective. The objective is expressed as:
SERVICE(YouTube) → BEST(AvgIndividualThroughput)
The experiment runs on the VPC-based testbed. We launch YouTube on 10 user
machines. We want to examine how the traffic of users moves from one ISP to another
over the time, and whether Sprite can keep the average per-user throughput roughly
the same (within 5% margin) between the two ISPs. To evaluate how Sprite reacts, we
manually limit the capacity of the tunnel with the Gatech PEERING site to emulate
high congestion on the link. Figure 4.11 shows the time series of the average per-user
throughput of accessing YouTube on these two ISPs. The average throughput of two
ISPs are always kept in line.
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6500
Via ISP Gatech
Via ISP Clemson
Avg Per-User Throughput in Kbps
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Time in Hours
Figure 4.11: Time Series of Average Per-User Throughput of YouTube
4.7
Related Work
Many works have considered aspects of the problem we address, without providing a
complete solution for direct, fine-grained, incrementally-deployable inbound TE.
BGP-based approaches: Studying the impact of tuning BGP configuration to
an AS’s incoming traffic has a long and rich history spanning over a decade [47, 50,
63, 69, 111, 112, 113, 129], including numerous proprietary solutions [6, 12, 21]. All
these solutions suffer from at least three problems. First, they are non-deterministic.
They can only indirectly influence remote decisions but cannot control them, forcing
operators to rely on trial-and-error. Second, they are too coarse-grained as they only
work at the level of a destination IP prefix. Third, they often increase the amount
of Internet-wide resources (e.g., routing table size, convergence, churn) required to
route traffic, for the benefit of a single AS. In contrast, Sprite provides direct and
fine-grained control (at the level of a user or service) without increasing Internet
resources.
107
Clean-slate approaches: Given the inherent problems with BGP, many works
have looked at re-architecting the Internet to enable better control over the forwarding
paths. Those works can be classified as network-based [62, 65, 119], which modify the
way the routers select paths, and host-based approaches which do the opposite [40,
56, 100, 105]. While these solutions can offer a principled solution to the problem of
inbound traffic engineering, they all suffer from incremental deployment challenges.
In contrast, any individual AS can deploy Sprite on its own, right now, and reap the
benefits of fine-grained inbound traffic engineering.
4.8
Conclusion
In this chapter, we study how to control the inbound traffic of cloud services for the
edge networks with multiple upstream ISPs. Our proposal, called Sprite, enables edge
networks to have direct and fine-grained control of their inbound traffic with a scalable
system solely residing inside the edge networks. Sprite also provides simple and highlevel interfaces to easily express traffic engineering objectives, and Sprite dynamically
adapts the objectives into low-level policies to enforce throughout the edge networks.
We have tested Sprite with live Internet experiments on the PEERING testbed, and
we plan to conduct more extensive experiments with possible deployment on the
campus network of Princeton University.
108
Chapter 5
Conclusion
The ongoing trend of adopting cloud computing raises the requirements for the quality of the end-to-end networks. Building proper network management solutions is
the key factor in improving the efficiency and reliability of networks. This dissertation focuses on solving two main problems of current network management: 1)
The management systems of network components are disjoint, e.g., servers, routing
on network devices, device hardware configurations, etc. As the responsibilities of
managing various components fall on the shoulders of cloud service providers, the
separation becomes bottleneck in building better management solutions; 2) Network
management heavily relies on the vendor-specific interfaces with devices. It not only
binds management solutions to hardware features, but also becomes overcomplicated
as datacenters grow in scale with commodity devices from multiple vendors.
This dissertation takes a practical approach to carefully balance the research exploration in solving the two problems and the engineering efforts in impacting commercial
cloud services. Closely working with major cloud providers, we identify real-world opportunities for integrating different management components with proper high-level
abstraction. We then design and build safe, efficient, and scalable integrated management systems, deploying them in datacenters of cloud providers and enterprise
109
networks that use cloud-based applications. In this chapter, we first summarize the
contributions of this dissertation in §5.1. We then briefly discuss some open issues
and future directions on our works in §5.2, and conclude in §5.3.
5.1
Summary of Contributions
This dissertation identified three areas of network management in need of integrating
different components, and presented corresponding abstraction design and system
solutions.
We first built a management platform for cloud providers to consolidate traffic and
infrastructure management in datacenters. In this platform, named Statesman, we
designed a network-state abstraction to provide a uniform data model for interacting
with various aspects of network devices. Offering three distinct views of network state
as the workflow pipeline, Statesman could run many traffic and infrastructure management solutions simultaneously, resolving their conflicts and preventing networkwide failures in datacenters. We deployed Statesman in Microsoft Azure worldwide,
making it a foundation layer of Azure networking. We also published the work in
ACM SIGCOMM 2014.
Second, we identified the opportunity for bringing end hosts into datacenter traffic
management. Our solution, named Hone, integrated end hosts and network devices
with a uniform data model, and empowered traffic management solutions to utilize
the rich application-traffic statistics in the end hosts. Adopted by Verizon Business
Cloud, Hone improved the performance of cloud-based applications by improving the
quality of connections between customers and Verizon’s datacenters. The work was
published in Springer Journal of Network and Systems Management, volume 23, 2015.
Finally, we bridged edge networks and their upstream ISPs to provide the edge
networks with direct and fine-grained control of their inbound traffic from cloud appli110
cations. Our Sprite system provided simple and high-level interface to easily express
traffic engineering objectives, and Sprite executed the objectives with an efficient
and scalable system. We tested Sprite with live Internet experiments on the PEERING testbed, and the work was published in ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on SDN
Research 2015.
Collectively, the contributions in this dissertation provide system solutions for
managing networks along the end-to-end path of cloud computing services. These
works have explored how to integrate various disjoint management components to
simplify and enhance network management solutions.
5.2
Open Issues and Future Works
The works presented in this dissertation raised a number of open questions that
deserve future investigation.
5.2.1
Combining Statesman and Hone in Datacenters
Statesman consolidates traffic and infrastructure management on network devices,
and Hone joins end hosts with the routing control on network devices. We believe it
is a promising direction to integrate the measurement and control functions of end
hosts (as provided by Hone) into the framework of Statesman. In this way, servers and
network devices could be managed on a single platform by cloud providers. Yet there
are still several challenges: 1) how to adapt the network-state abstraction to capture
the rich data and functionalities of servers; 2) how to expand the dependency model
to correctly capture the relationship between server-side and network-side states; and
3) how to correctly capture the server availability requirements in the safety invariants
checked by Statesman. How to solve these challenges merits further investigation.
111
5.2.2
Supporting Transactional Semantics in Statesman
The current conflict-resolution mechanism in Statesman does not provide any guarantees as to how the proposed network changes from management solutions are accepted
or denied. One could imagine building transactional semantics on top of Statesman.
One possible direction to explore is to provide grouping semantics that some of the
proposed network changes are grouped together for being accepted or denied as a
whole. This could guarantee that Statesman either executes all grouped changes together or none at all. Another possible direction is to provide condition semantics that
specifies the conditions when a proposed change shall be accepted, e.g., a proposal of
moving traffic onto device A shall only be accepted if device A is healthy. We currently
do not support these advanced mechanisms in Statesman, because the current simple
mechanism is sufficient for our operational management solutions. Identifying what
transactional semantics are actually necessary and building them into Statesman is a
promising venue for future research.
5.2.3
Hone for Multi-tenant Cloud Environment
Hone collects the fine-grained traffic statistics from inside the end hosts, assuming
that the cloud providers have access to the hosts’ operating systems. In a multitenant public cloud, tenants may not want the cloud providers to access the guest
OS of the virtual machines. A viable alternative would be to collect measurement
data from the hypervisor and infer the transport-layer statistics of the applications
in the virtual machines. This direction is currently under exploration [70], and can
complement Hone to support more types of cloud environments.
112
5.3
Concluding Remarks
This dissertation has 1) presented a new datacenter network management platform
that simplifies both traffic and infrastructure management and allows many management solutions to run with no conflicts and network-wide failures; 2) designed and
built a traffic management system for cloud providers to utilize the measurement and
control functions of both end hosts and network devices; 3) developed a scalable system for edge networks to directly control which ISPs shall carry their inbound traffic
from cloud applications.
At a high level, the works presented in this dissertation are motivated by practical
challenges in network operation of cloud computing services, and we solved the challenges by leveraging evolving technology in our field (e.g., SDN) and knowledge from
other fields (e.g., software engineering, distributed storage system, etc.). We believe
that, in the networking research area, it will remain an effective research approach to
keep close with industry practices, identify and abstract their challenges as research
problems, and apply emerging technologies to solve the problems.
113
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