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Stratix V Device Handbook
Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
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2015.12.21
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
Contents
Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Stratix V Devices............. 1-1
LAB ............................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
MLAB ................................................................................................................................................1-2
Local and Direct Link Interconnects ............................................................................................1-3
Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects ....................................................... 1-4
LAB Control Signals........................................................................................................................ 1-5
ALM Resources ............................................................................................................................... 1-6
ALM Output .................................................................................................................................... 1-7
ALM Operating Modes .............................................................................................................................. 1-8
Normal Mode .................................................................................................................................. 1-8
Extended LUT Mode .................................................................................................................... 1-10
Arithmetic Mode ...........................................................................................................................1-11
Shared Arithmetic Mode ............................................................................................................. 1-12
LAB Power Management Techniques ................................................................................................... 1-14
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................1-14
Embedded Memory Blocks in Stratix V Devices................................................ 2-1
Types of Embedded Memory..................................................................................................................... 2-1
Embedded Memory Capacity in Stratix V Devices.....................................................................2-2
Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices.............................................................. 2-2
Guideline: Consider the Memory Block Selection...................................................................... 2-2
Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution.................................................................. 2-3
Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior................................................................. 2-3
Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization............................................ 2-7
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption.................................................. 2-7
Embedded Memory Features..................................................................................................................... 2-7
Embedded Memory Configurations............................................................................................. 2-9
Mixed-Width Port Configurations................................................................................................2-9
Embedded Memory Modes...................................................................................................................... 2-10
Embedded Memory Clocking Modes..................................................................................................... 2-12
Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode.................................................................................. 2-12
Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes.................................................................................. 2-13
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write....................................................................... 2-13
Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes....................................................................... 2-14
Parity Bit in Memory Blocks.................................................................................................................... 2-14
Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks............................................................................................ 2-14
Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks....................................................................................2-14
Data Byte Output........................................................................................................................... 2-15
RAM Blocks Operations............................................................................................................... 2-16
Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support.................................................................................................. 2-16
Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support....................................................................................2-16
Memory Blocks Asynchronous Clear..................................................................................................... 2-18
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
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Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support.................................................................................. 2-19
Error Correction Code Truth Table............................................................................................2-19
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................2-20
Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Stratix V Devices.......................................... 3-1
Features......................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Supported Operational Modes in Stratix V Devices............................................................................... 3-2
Resources.......................................................................................................................................................3-4
Design Considerations................................................................................................................................ 3-5
Operational Modes.......................................................................................................................... 3-5
Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder...............................................................................................3-5
Accumulator..................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Chainout Adder................................................................................................................................3-6
Block Architecture....................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Input Register Bank......................................................................................................................... 3-8
Pre-Adder........................................................................................................................................3-10
Internal Coefficient........................................................................................................................3-10
Multipliers.......................................................................................................................................3-11
Accumulator and Chainout Adder..............................................................................................3-11
Systolic Registers............................................................................................................................ 3-12
Output Register Bank.................................................................................................................... 3-12
Operational Mode Descriptions.............................................................................................................. 3-12
Independent Multiplier Mode..................................................................................................... 3-12
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode.................................................................................... 3-17
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode........................................................................................................3-21
Sum of Square Mode..................................................................................................................... 3-24
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode........................................................3-25
Systolic FIR Mode.......................................................................................................................... 3-26
Variable Precision DSP Block Control Signals.......................................................................... 3-27
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................3-28
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices.................................................. 4-1
Clock Networks............................................................................................................................................ 4-1
Clock Resources in Stratix V Devices............................................................................................4-1
Types of Clock Networks................................................................................................................ 4-2
Clock Sources Per Quadrant........................................................................................................ 4-10
Types of Clock Regions.................................................................................................................4-11
Clock Network Sources.................................................................................................................4-12
Clock Output Connections...........................................................................................................4-14
Clock Control Block...................................................................................................................... 4-14
Clock Power Down........................................................................................................................ 4-17
Clock Enable Signals......................................................................................................................4-17
Stratix V PLLs.............................................................................................................................................4-19
PLL Physical Counters in Stratix V Devices.............................................................................. 4-20
PLL Locations in Stratix V Devices............................................................................................. 4-20
PLL Migration Guidelines ........................................................................................................... 4-26
Fractional PLL Architecture......................................................................................................... 4-27
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
PLL Cascading................................................................................................................................ 4-28
PLL External Clock I/O Pins........................................................................................................ 4-28
PLL Control Signals.......................................................................................................................4-29
Clock Feedback Modes..................................................................................................................4-30
Clock Multiplication and Division.............................................................................................. 4-38
Programmable Phase Shift............................................................................................................4-39
Programmable Duty Cycle........................................................................................................... 4-39
Clock Switchover........................................................................................................................... 4-39
PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift........................................................................ 4-44
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................4-44
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices........................................................................5-1
I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices.............................................................................................5-2
I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices.................................................................................5-2
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Stratix V Devices..................................................................... 5-3
MultiVolt I/O Interface in Stratix V Devices............................................................................... 5-6
I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices........................................................................................... 5-6
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards............................. 5-6
Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group................................................. 5-7
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing........................5-8
Guideline: Use PLL Integer Mode for LVDS Applications........................................................5-8
I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices...................................................................................................................5-9
I/O Banks Groups in Stratix V Devices.................................................................................................. 5-10
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V E Devices............................................................................... 5-10
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices............................................................................5-11
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices............................................................................ 5-14
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GT Devices............................................................................5-15
I/O Element Structure in Stratix V Devices........................................................................................... 5-15
I/O Buffer and Registers in Stratix V Devices............................................................................5-16
External Memory Interfaces......................................................................................................... 5-17
High-Speed Differential I/O with DPA Support....................................................................... 5-17
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices................................................................................ 5-18
Programmable Current Strength.................................................................................................5-20
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control.................................................................................5-20
Programmable IOE Delay.............................................................................................................5-21
Programmable Output Buffer Delay........................................................................................... 5-21
Programmable Pre-Emphasis...................................................................................................... 5-22
Programmable Differential Output Voltage.............................................................................. 5-23
Open-Drain Output.......................................................................................................................5-23
Bus-Hold Circuitry........................................................................................................................ 5-24
Pull-up Resistor..............................................................................................................................5-24
On-Chip I/O Termination in Stratix V Devices....................................................................................5-24
RS OCT without Calibration in Stratix V Devices.................................................................... 5-25
RS OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices.......................................................................... 5-27
RT OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices..........................................................................5-29
Dynamic OCT in Stratix V Devices............................................................................................ 5-31
LVDS Input RD OCT in Stratix V Devices.................................................................................5-32
OCT Calibration Block in Stratix V Devices..............................................................................5-33
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
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OCT Calibration in Power-Up Mode......................................................................................... 5-35
OCT Calibration in User Mode................................................................................................... 5-36
I/O Termination Schemes for Stratix V Devices................................................................................... 5-39
Single-ended I/O Termination.....................................................................................................5-40
Differential I/O Termination....................................................................................................... 5-42
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................5-48
High-Speed Differential I/O Interfaces and DPA in Stratix V Devices.............6-1
Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries in Stratix V Devices......................................................................... 6-2
SERDES and DPA Bank Locations in Stratix V Devices............................................................ 6-2
LVDS SERDES Circuitry.................................................................................................................6-2
SERDES I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices.................................................................6-3
True LVDS Buffers in Stratix V Devices.......................................................................................6-5
Emulated LVDS Buffers in Stratix V Devices.............................................................................. 6-7
High-Speed I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices......................................................................6-8
PLLs and Clocking for Stratix V Devices......................................................................................6-8
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode.....................................................................................6-9
Pin Placement Guidelines for DPA Differential Channels...................................................... 6-13
Differential Transmitter in Stratix V Devices........................................................................................ 6-20
Transmitter Blocks.........................................................................................................................6-20
Transmitter Clocking.................................................................................................................... 6-20
Serializer Bypass for DDR and SDR Operations....................................................................... 6-21
Programmable Differential Output Voltage.............................................................................. 6-22
Programmable Pre-Emphasis...................................................................................................... 6-23
Differential Receiver in Stratix V Devices.............................................................................................. 6-24
Receiver Blocks in Stratix V Devices...........................................................................................6-24
Receiver Modes in Stratix V Devices...........................................................................................6-28
Receiver Clocking for Stratix V Devices..................................................................................... 6-30
Differential I/O Termination for Stratix V Devices.................................................................. 6-31
Source-Synchronous Timing Budget...................................................................................................... 6-32
Differential Data Orientation.......................................................................................................6-32
Differential I/O Bit Position......................................................................................................... 6-32
Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew..................................................................................... 6-34
Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode.............................................................................. 6-34
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................6-37
External Memory Interfaces in Stratix V Devices.............................................. 7-1
External Memory Performance..................................................................................................................7-2
Memory Interface Pin Support in Stratix V Devices.............................................................................. 7-2
Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins.................................................................................................... 7-3
DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Stratix V Devices........................................................................... 7-4
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V E..................................................................................................... 7-5
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GX................................................................................................. 7-6
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GS.................................................................................................. 7-8
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GT..................................................................................................7-9
External Memory Interface Features in Stratix V Devices..................................................................... 7-9
UniPHY IP........................................................................................................................................ 7-9
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
External Memory Interface Datapath......................................................................................... 7-10
DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry............................................................................................................7-11
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks............................................................................................... 7-19
DQS Logic Block............................................................................................................................ 7-19
Leveling Circuitry.......................................................................................................................... 7-22
Dynamic OCT Control................................................................................................................. 7-23
IOE Registers.................................................................................................................................. 7-24
Delay Chains...................................................................................................................................7-26
I/O and DQS Configuration Blocks............................................................................................ 7-28
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................7-29
Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Stratix V
Devices............................................................................................................. 8-1
Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol.....................................................................8-1
MSEL Pin Settings........................................................................................................................................8-2
Configuration Sequence..............................................................................................................................8-4
Power Up...........................................................................................................................................8-5
Reset................................................................................................................................................... 8-5
Configuration................................................................................................................................... 8-6
Configuration Error Handling....................................................................................................... 8-6
Initialization......................................................................................................................................8-6
User Mode.........................................................................................................................................8-6
Configuration Timing Waveforms............................................................................................................8-7
FPP Configuration Timing............................................................................................................. 8-7
AS Configuration Timing............................................................................................................... 8-9
PS Configuration Timing..............................................................................................................8-10
Device Configuration Pins....................................................................................................................... 8-10
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins...................................................... 8-12
Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software.................................................... 8-13
Fast Passive Parallel Configuration......................................................................................................... 8-14
Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration.................................................................... 8-14
Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration.....................................................................8-15
Transmitting Configuration Data............................................................................................... 8-17
Active Serial Configuration...................................................................................................................... 8-18
DATA Clock (DCLK)....................................................................................................................8-18
Active Serial Single-Device Configuration.................................................................................8-19
Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration..................................................................................8-20
Estimating the Active Serial Configuration Time..................................................................... 8-22
Using EPCS and EPCQ Devices.............................................................................................................. 8-22
Controlling EPCS and EPCQ Devices........................................................................................ 8-22
Trace Length and Loading Guideline..........................................................................................8-22
Programming EPCS and EPCQ Devices.................................................................................... 8-23
Passive Serial Configuration.....................................................................................................................8-28
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host..................................... 8-28
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable.................... 8-29
Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration................................................................................ 8-30
JTAG Configuration..................................................................................................................................8-33
JTAG Single-Device Configuration.............................................................................................8-34
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JTAG Multi-Device Configuration............................................................................................. 8-36
CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction...................................................................................................8-37
Configuration Data Compression........................................................................................................... 8-37
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation.................................................................8-37
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation................................................................... 8-37
Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration................................................................ 8-38
Remote System Upgrades......................................................................................................................... 8-38
Configuration Images....................................................................................................................8-39
Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode.............................................................8-40
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry..............................................................................................8-40
Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry............................................................................. 8-41
Remote System Upgrade Registers.............................................................................................. 8-41
Remote System Upgrade State Machine.....................................................................................8-43
User Watchdog Timer...................................................................................................................8-43
Design Security...........................................................................................................................................8-44
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core................................................................................................... 8-45
JTAG Secure Mode........................................................................................................................ 8-45
Security Key Types.........................................................................................................................8-45
Security Modes............................................................................................................................... 8-46
Design Security Implementation Steps.......................................................................................8-47
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................8-47
SEU Mitigation for Stratix V Devices................................................................. 9-1
Error Detection Features.............................................................................................................................9-1
Configuration Error Detection.................................................................................................................. 9-1
User Mode Error Detection........................................................................................................................9-2
Internal Scrubbing....................................................................................................................................... 9-2
Specifications................................................................................................................................................ 9-2
Minimum EMR Update Interval................................................................................................... 9-3
Error Detection Frequency............................................................................................................. 9-3
CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device.................................................................................... 9-4
Using Error Detection Features in User Mode........................................................................................9-5
Enabling Error Detection and Internal Scrubbing...................................................................... 9-5
CRC_ERROR Pin.............................................................................................................................9-6
Error Detection Registers................................................................................................................9-6
Error Detection Process.................................................................................................................. 9-9
Testing the Error Detection Block...............................................................................................9-10
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................9-11
JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Stratix V Devices......................................... 10-1
BST Operation Control ............................................................................................................................10-1
IDCODE .........................................................................................................................................10-1
Supported JTAG Instruction .......................................................................................................10-3
JTAG Secure Mode ....................................................................................................................... 10-7
JTAG Private Instruction .............................................................................................................10-7
I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation ............................................................................................................10-7
Performing BST .........................................................................................................................................10-8
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Stratix V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry .................................................................... 10-8
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing.....................................................................10-9
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register .............................................................................................10-9
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Stratix V Device I/O Pin................................................................ 10-10
IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register........................................................................................... 10-12
Document Revision History...................................................................................................................10-14
Power Management in Stratix V Devices..........................................................11-1
Power Consumption..................................................................................................................................11-1
Dynamic Power Equation.............................................................................................................11-2
Programmable Power Technology.......................................................................................................... 11-2
Temperature Sensing Diode.....................................................................................................................11-3
Internal Temperature Sensing Diode..........................................................................................11-3
External Temperature Sensing Diode......................................................................................... 11-4
Hot-Socketing Feature.............................................................................................................................. 11-5
Hot-Socketing Implementation............................................................................................................... 11-6
Power-Up Sequence.................................................................................................................................. 11-7
Power-On Reset Circuitry........................................................................................................................ 11-8
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry............................... 11-10
Document Revision History...................................................................................................................11-10
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1
Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules
in Stratix V Devices
2015.12.21
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This chapter describes the features of the logic array block (LAB) in the Stratix® V core fabric.
The LAB is composed of basic building blocks known as adaptive logic modules (ALMs) that you can
configure to implement logic functions, arithmetic functions, and register functions.
You can use half of the available LABs in the Stratix V devices as a memory LAB (MLAB).
The Quartus® Prime software and other supported third-party synthesis tools, in conjunction with
parameterized functions such as the library of parameterized modules (LPM), automatically choose the
appropriate mode for common functions such as counters, adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions.
This chapter contains the following sections:
• LAB
• ALM Operating Modes
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
LAB
The LABs are configurable logic blocks that consist of a group of logic resources. Each LAB contains
dedicated logic for driving control signals to its ALMs.
MLAB is a superset of the LAB and includes all the LAB features.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MLAB
Figure 1-1: LAB Structure and Interconnects Overview in Stratix V Devices
This figure shows an overview of the Stratix V LAB and MLAB structure with the LAB interconnects.
C4
C14
Row Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
R24
R3/R6
ALMs
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Local
Interconnect
LAB
MLAB
Local Interconnect is Driven
from Either Side by Columns and LABs,
and from Above by Rows
Column Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
MLAB
Each MLAB supports a maximum of 640 bits of simple dual-port SRAM.
You can configure each ALM in an MLAB as either a 64 × 1 or a 32 × 2 block, resulting in a configuration
of either a 64 × 10 or a 32 × 20 simple dual-port SRAM block.
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Local and Direct Link Interconnects
1-3
Figure 1-2: LAB and MLAB Structure for Stratix V Devices
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LAB Control Block
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LAB Control Block
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-64 x 1
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
MLAB
LAB
Local and Direct Link Interconnects
Each LAB can drive 30 ALMs through fast-local and direct-link interconnects. Ten ALMs are in any given
LAB and ten ALMs are in each of the adjacent LABs.
The local interconnect can drive ALMs in the same LAB using column and row interconnects and ALM
outputs in the same LAB.
Neighboring LABs, MLABs, M20K blocks, or digital signal processing (DSP) blocks from the left or right
can also drive the LAB’s local interconnect using the direct link connection.
The direct link connection feature minimizes the use of row and column interconnects, providing higher
performance and flexibility.
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Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects
Figure 1-3: LAB Fast Local and Direct Link Interconnects for Stratix V Devices
Direct-Link Interconnect from the
Right LAB, MLAB/M20K Memory
Block, DSP Block, or IOE Output
Direct-Link Interconnect from the
Left LAB, MLAB/M20K Memory
Block, DSP Block, or IOE Output
ALMs
ALMs
Direct-Link
Interconnect
to Left
Direct-Link
Interconnect
to Right
Local
Interconnect
MLAB
LAB
Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects
There are two dedicated paths between ALMs—carry chain and shared arithmetic chain. Stratix V devices
include an enhanced interconnect structure in LABs for routing shared arithmetic chains and carry chains
for efficient arithmetic functions. These ALM-to-ALM connections bypass the local interconnect. The
Quartus Prime Compiler automatically takes advantage of these resources to improve utilization and
performance.
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LAB Control Signals
1-5
Figure 1-4: Shared Arithmetic Chain and Carry Chain Interconnects
Local Interconnect
Routing among ALMs
in the LAB
ALM 1
ALM 2
Local
Interconnect
ALM 3
Carry Chain and Shared
Arithmetic Chain
Routing to Adjacent ALM
ALM 4
ALM 5
ALM 6
ALM 7
ALM 8
ALM 9
ALM 10
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving the control signals to its ALMs, and has two unique clock
sources and three clock enable signals.
The LAB control block generates up to three clocks using the two clock sources and three clock enable
signals. Each clock and the clock enable signals are linked.
De-asserting the clock enable signal turns off the corresponding LAB-wide clock.
The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnects generate the LAB-wide control signals. The
MultiTrack interconnect’s inherent low skew allows clock and control signal distribution in addition to
data. The MultiTrack interconnect consists of continuous, performance-optimized routing lines of
different lengths and speeds used for inter- and intra-design block connectivity.
Clear and Preset Logic Control
LAB-wide signals control the logic for the register’s clear signal. The ALM directly supports an asynchro‐
nous clear function. You can achieve the register preset through the NOT-gate push-back logic option in
the Quartus Prime software. Each LAB supports up to two clears.
Stratix V devices provide a device-wide reset pin (DEV_CLRn) that resets all the registers in the device. An
option set before compilation in the Quartus Prime software controls this pin. This device-wide reset
overrides all other control signals.
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ALM Resources
Figure 1-5: LAB-Wide Control Signals for Stratix V Devices
This figure shows the clock sources and clock enable signals in a LAB.
There are two unique
clock signals per LAB.
6
Dedicated Row
LAB Clocks
6
6
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
labclk0
labclk1
labclkena0
or asyncload
or labpreset
labclr1
syncload
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
labclr0
synclr
ALM Resources
Each ALM contains a variety of LUT-based resources that can be divided between two combinational
adaptive LUTs (ALUTs) and four registers.
With up to eight inputs for the two combinational ALUTs, one ALM can implement various combina‐
tions of two functions. This adaptability allows an ALM to be completely backward-compatible with fourinput LUT architectures. One ALM can also implement any function with up to six inputs and certain
seven-input functions.
One ALM contains four programmable registers. Each register has the following ports:
•
•
•
•
Data
Clock
Synchronous and asynchronous clear
Synchronous load
Global signals, general-purpose I/O (GPIO) pins, or any internal logic can drive the clock and clear
control signals of an ALM register.
GPIO pins or internal logic drives the clock enable signal.
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ALM Output
1-7
For combinational functions, the registers are bypassed and the output of the look-up table (LUT) drives
directly to the outputs of an ALM.
Note: The Quartus Prime software automatically configures the ALMs for optimized performance.
Figure 1-6: ALM High-Level Block Diagram for Stratix V Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
Combinational/
Memory ALUT0
dataf0
datae0
dataa
6-Input LUT
labclk
adder0
reg0
datab
reg1
datac
datad
datae1
To General or
Local Routing
adder1
6-Input LUT
reg2
dataf1
Combinational/
Memory ALUT1
shared_arith_out
carry_out
reg3
ALM Output
The general routing outputs in each ALM drive the local, row, and column routing resources. Two ALM
outputs can drive column, row, or direct link routing connections, and one of these ALM outputs can also
drive local interconnect resources.
The LUT, adder, or register output can drive the ALM outputs. The LUT or adder can drive one output
while the register drives another output.
Register packing improves device utilization by allowing unrelated register and combinational logic to be
packed into a single ALM. Another mechanism to improve fitting is to allow the register output to feed
back into the look-up table (LUT) of the same ALM so that the register is packed with its own fan-out
LUT. The ALM can also drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT or adder output.
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ALM Operating Modes
Figure 1-7: ALM Connection Details for Stratix V Devices
syncload
aclr[1:0]
clk[2:0] sclr
shared_arith_in
carry_in
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac0
GND
4-Input
LUT
3-Input
LUT
+
D
CLR
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
3
3-Input
LUT
D
4-Input
LUT
datac1
3-Input
LUT
CLR
3
D
+
3-Input
LUT
D
VCC
CLR
CLR
datae1
dataf1
shared_arith_out carry_out
ALM Operating Modes
The Stratix V ALM operates in any of the following modes:
•
•
•
•
Normal mode
Extended LUT mode
Arithmetic mode
Shared arithmetic mode
Normal Mode
Normal mode allows two functions to be implemented in one Stratix V ALM, or a single function of up to
six inputs.
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Normal Mode
1-9
Up to eight data inputs from the LAB local interconnect are inputs to the combinational logic.
The ALM can support certain combinations of completely independent functions and various combina‐
tions of functions that have common inputs.
Figure 1-8: ALM in Normal Mode
Combinations of functions with fewer inputs than those shown are also supported. For example,
combinations of functions with the following number of inputs are supported: 4 and 3, 3 and 3, 3 and 2,
and 5 and 2.
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
4-Input
LUT
combout0
datab
datad
datae1
dataf1
4-Input
LUT
combout1
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
5-Input
LUT
combout0
datad
datae1
dataf1
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
datad
datae1
dataf1
3-Input
LUT
5-Input
LUT
4-Input
LUT
dataf0
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
5-Input
LUT
combout0
5-Input
LUT
combout1
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
combout0
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
combout0
6-Input
LUT
combout1
datad
datae1
dataf1
combout1
combout0
combout1
datae1
dataf1
For the packing of 2 five-input functions into one ALM, the functions must have at least two common
inputs. The common inputs are dataa and datab. The combination of a four-input function with a fiveinput function requires one common input (either dataa or datab).
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Extended LUT Mode
In the case of implementing 2 six-input functions in one ALM, four inputs must be shared and the
combinational function must be the same. In a sparsely used device, functions that could be placed in one
ALM may be implemented in separate ALMs by the Quartus Prime software to achieve the best possible
performance. As a device begins to fill up, the Quartus Prime software automatically uses the full potential
of the Stratix V ALM. The Quartus Prime Compiler automatically searches for functions using common
inputs or completely independent functions to be placed in one ALM to make efficient use of device
resources. In addition, you can manually control resource use by setting location assignments.
You can implement any six-input function using inputs dataa, datab, datac, datad, and either datae0
and dataf0 or datae1 and dataf1. If you use datae0 and dataf0, the output is either driven to
register0, register0 is bypassed, or the output driven to register0 and register0 is bypassed, and
the data drives out to the interconnect using the top set of output drivers as shown in the following figure.
If you use datae1 and dataf1, the output either drives to register1 or bypasses register1, and drives
to the interconnect using the bottom set of output drivers. The Quartus Prime Compiler automatically
selects the inputs to the LUT. ALMs in normal mode support register packing.
Figure 1-9: Input Function in Normal Mode
If you use datae1 and dataf1 as inputs to a six-input function, datae0 and dataf0 are available for
register packing.
The dataf1 input is available for register packing only if the six-input function is unregistered.
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac
datad
6-Input
LUT
D
To General or
Local Routing
reg0
datae1
dataf1
These inputs are available
for register packing.
Q
D
labclk
Q
reg1
Extended LUT Mode
In this mode, if the 7-input function is unregistered, the unused eighth input is available for register
packing.
Functions that fit into the template, as shown in the following figure, often appear in designs as “if-else”
statements in Verilog HDL or VHDL code.
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Arithmetic Mode
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Figure 1-10: Template for Supported 7-Input Functions in Extended LUT Mode for Stratix V Devices
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
datad
dataf0
datae1
5-Input
LUT
combout0
5-Input
LUT
D
Q
To General or
Local Routing
reg0
dataf1
This input is available
for register packing.
Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in arithmetic mode uses two sets of two 4-input LUTs along with two dedicated full adders.
The dedicated adders allow the LUTs to perform pre-adder logic; therefore, each adder can add the output
of two 4-input functions.
The ALM supports simultaneous use of the adder’s carry output along with combinational logic outputs.
The adder output is ignored in this operation.
Using the adder with the combinational logic output provides resource savings of up to 50% for functions
that can use this mode.
Arithmetic mode also offers clock enable, counter enable, synchronous up and down control, add and
subtract control, synchronous clear, and synchronous load.
The LAB local interconnect data inputs generate the clock enable, counter enable, synchronous up/down,
and add/subtract control signals. These control signals are good candidates for the inputs that are shared
between the four LUTs in the ALM.
The synchronous clear and synchronous load options are LAB-wide signals that affect all registers in the
LAB. You can individually disable or enable these signals for each register. The Quartus Prime software
automatically places any registers that are not used by the counter into other LABs.
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Shared Arithmetic Mode
Figure 1-11: ALM in Arithmetic Mode for Stratix V Devices
datae0
dataf0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
dataf1
carry_in
adder0
4-Input
LUT
reg0
4-Input
LUT
adder1
4-Input
LUT
reg1
To General or
Local Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
carry_out
reg3
Carry Chain
The carry chain provides a fast carry function between the dedicated adders in arithmetic or shared
arithmetic mode.
The two-bit carry select feature in Stratix V devices halves the propagation delay of carry chains within
the ALM. Carry chains can begin in either the first ALM or the fifth ALM in a LAB. The final carry-out
signal is routed to an ALM, where it is fed to local, row, or column interconnects.
To avoid routing congestion in one small area of the device when a high fan-in arithmetic function is
implemented, the LAB can support carry chains that only use either the top half or bottom half of the LAB
before connecting to the next LAB. This leaves the other half of the ALMs in the LAB available for
implementing narrower fan-in functions in normal mode. Carry chains that use the top five ALMs in the
first LAB carry into the top half of the ALMs in the next LAB in the column. Carry chains that use the
bottom five ALMs in the first LAB carry into the bottom half of the ALMs in the next LAB within the
column. You can bypass the top-half of the LAB columns and bottom-half of the MLAB columns.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates carry chains longer than 20 ALMs (10 ALMs in arithmetic or shared
arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically. For enhanced fitting, a long carry chain runs
vertically, allowing fast horizontal connections to the TriMatrix memory and DSP blocks. A carry chain
can continue as far as a full column.
Shared Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in shared arithmetic mode can implement a 3-input add in the ALM.
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Shared Arithmetic Mode
1-13
This mode configures the ALM with four 4-input LUTs. Each LUT either computes the sum of three
inputs or the carry of three inputs. The output of the carry computation is fed to the next adder using a
dedicated connection called the shared arithmetic chain.
Figure 1-12: ALM in Shared Arithmetic Mode for Stratix V Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
labclk
4-Input
LUT
datae0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
reg0
4-Input
LUT
reg1
4-Input
LUT
To General or
Local Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
reg3
shared_arith_out
carry_out
Shared Arithmetic Chain
The shared arithmetic chain available in enhanced arithmetic mode allows the ALM to implement a
3-input adder. This significantly reduces the resources necessary to implement large adder trees or
correlator functions.
The shared arithmetic chain can begin in either the first or sixth ALM in a LAB.
Similar to carry chains, the top and bottom half of the shared arithmetic chains in alternate LAB columns
can be bypassed. This capability allows the shared arithmetic chain to cascade through half of the ALMs in
an LAB while leaving the other half available for narrower fan-in functionality. In every LAB, the column
is top-half bypassable; while in MLAB, columns are bottom-half bypassable.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates shared arithmetic chains longer than 20 ALMs (10 ALMs in
arithmetic or shared arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically. To enhance fitting, a long
shared arithmetic chain runs vertically, allowing fast horizontal connections to the TriMatrix memory and
DSP blocks. A shared arithmetic chain can continue as far as a full column.
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LAB Power Management Techniques
LAB Power Management Techniques
The following techniques are used to manage static and dynamic power consumption within the LAB:
• To save AC power, the Quartus Prime software forces all adder inputs low when the ALM adders are
not in use.
• Stratix V LABs operate in high-performance mode or low-power mode. The Quartus Prime software
automatically chooses the appropriate mode for the LAB, based on your design and to optimize speed
versus leakage trade-offs.
• Clocks represent a significant portion of dynamic power consumption because of their high switching
activity and long paths. The LAB clock that distributes a clock signal to registers within a LAB is a
significant contributor to overall clock power consumption. Each LAB’s clock and clock enable signals
are linked. For example, a combinational ALUT or register in a particular LAB using the labclk1
signal also uses the labclkena1 signal. To disable a LAB-wide clock power consumption without
disabling the entire clock tree, use the LAB-wide clock enable to gate the LAB-wide clock. The Quartus
Prime software automatically promotes register-level clock enable signals to the LAB-level. All
registers within the LAB that share a common clock and clock enable are controlled by a shared, gated
clock. To take advantage of these clock enables, use a clock-enable construct in your HDL code for the
registered logic.
Related Information
Power Optimization chapter, Quartus Prime Handbook
Provides more information about implementing static and dynamic power consumption within the LAB.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2014
2014.01.10
Added multiplexers for the bypass paths and register outputs in the
following diagrams:
• ALM High-Level Block Diagram for Stratix V Devices
• Input Function in Normal Mode
• Template for Supported 7-Input Functions in Extended LUT Mode
for Stratix V Devices
• ALM in Arithmetic Mode for Stratix V Devices
• ALM in Shared Arithmetic Mode for Stratix V Devices
May 2013
Altera Corporation
2013.05.06
•
•
•
•
Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
Updated the available LABs to use as a MLAB.
Removed register chain outputs information in ALM output section.
Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2012
2012.12.28
June 2012
1.4
• Updated Figure 1–5, Figure 1–6, and Figure 1–12.
• Removed register chain expression.
• Minor text edits.
November
2011
1.3
• Updated Figure 1–1, Figure 1–4, and Figure 1–6.
• Removed “Register Chain” section.
May 2011
1.2
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Updated Figure 1–6.
• Minor text edits.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
Reorganized content and updated template.
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The embedded memory blocks in the devices are flexible and designed to provide an optimal amount of
small- and large-sized memory arrays to fit your design requirements.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
Types of Embedded Memory
The Stratix V devices contain two types of memory blocks:
• 20 Kb M20K blocks—blocks of dedicated memory resources. The M20K blocks are ideal for larger
memory arrays while still providing a large number of independent ports.
• 640 bit memory logic array blocks (MLABs)—enhanced memory blocks that are configured from dualpurpose logic array blocks (LABs). The MLABs are ideal for wide and shallow memory arrays. The
MLABs are optimized for implementation of shift registers for digital signal processing (DSP) applica‐
tions, wide shallow FIFO buffers, and filter delay lines. Each MLAB is made up of ten adaptive logic
modules (ALMs). In the Stratix V devices, you can configure these ALMs as ten 32 x 2 blocks, giving
you one 32 x 20 simple dual-port SRAM block per MLAB. You can also configure these ALMs as ten
64 x 1 blocks, giving you one 64 x 10 simple dual-port SRAM block per MLAB.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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Embedded Memory Capacity in Stratix V Devices
Embedded Memory Capacity in Stratix V Devices
Table 2-1: Embedded Memory Capacity and Distribution in Stratix V Devices
Variant
Stratix V GX
Stratix V GT
Stratix V GS
Stratix V E
M20K
MLAB
Member
Code
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Total RAM Bit (Kb)
A3
957
19,140
6,415
4,009
23,149
A4
1,900
38,000
7,925
4,953
42,953
A5
2,304
46,080
9,250
5,781
51,861
A7
2,560
51,200
11,736
7,335
58,535
A9
2,640
52,800
15,850
9,906
62,706
AB
2,640
52,800
17,960
11,225
64,025
B5
2,100
42,000
9,250
5,781
47,781
B6
2,660
53,200
11,270
7,043
60,243
B9
2,640
52,800
15,850
9,906
62,706
BB
2,640
52,800
17,960
11,225
64,025
C5
2,304
46,080
8,020
5,012
51,092
C7
2,560
51,200
11,735
7,334
58,534
D3
688
13,760
4,450
2,781
16,541
D4
957
19,140
6,792
4,245
23,385
D5
2,014
40,280
8,630
5,393
45,673
D6
2,320
46,400
11,000
6,875
53,275
D8
2,567
51,340
13,120
8,200
59,540
E9
2,640
52,800
15,850
9,906
62,706
EB
2,640
52,800
17,960
11,225
64,025
Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Guideline: Consider the Memory Block Selection
The Quartus Prime software automatically partitions the user-defined memory into the memory blocks
based on your design's speed and size constraints. For example, the Quartus Prime software may spread
out the memory across multiple available memory blocks to increase the performance of the design.
To assign the memory to a specific block size manually, use the RAM IP core in the IP Catalog.
For the memory logic array blocks (MLAB), you can implement single-port SRAM through emulation
using the Quartus Prime software. Emulation results in minimal additional use of logic resources.
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Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution
2-3
Because of the dual-purpose architecture of the MLAB, only data input and output registers are available
in the block. The MLABs gain read address registers from the ALMs. However, the write address and read
data registers are internal to the MLABs.
Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution
In the true dual-port RAM mode, you can perform two write operations to the same memory location.
However, the memory blocks do not have internal conflict resolution circuitry. To avoid unknown data
being written to the address, implement external conflict resolution logic to the memory block.
Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior
Customize the read-during-write behavior of the memory blocks to suit your design requirements.
Figure 2-1: Read-During-Write Data Flow
This figure shows the difference between the two types of read-during-write operations available—same
port and mixed port.
Port A
data in
FPGA Device
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The same-port read-during-write mode applies to a single-port RAM or the same port of a true dual-port
RAM.
Table 2-2: Output Modes for Embedded Memory Blocks in Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This table lists the available output modes if you select the embedded memory blocks in the same-port readduring-write mode.
Output Mode
"new data"
Memory Type
M20K
The new data is available on the rising edge
of the same clock cycle on which the new
data is written.
MLAB
The RAM outputs "don't care" values for a
read-during-write operation.
(flow-through)
"don't care"
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Figure 2-2: Same-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows sample functional waveforms of same-port read-during-write behavior in the “new
data” mode.
clk_a
0A
address
0B
rden
wren
byteena
data_a
q_a (asynch)
11
B456
A123
A123
DDDD
C789
B456
C789
EEEE
DDDD
FFFF
EEEE
FFFF
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The mixed-port read-during-write mode applies to simple and true dual-port RAM modes where two
ports perform read and write operations on the same memory address using the same clock—one port
reading from the address, and the other port writing to it.
Table 2-3: Output Modes for RAM in Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
"new data"
Memory Type
MLAB
Description
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes
the MLAB registered output to reflect the “new data” on
the next rising edge after the data is written to the MLAB
memory.
This mode is available only if the output is registered.
"old data"
M20K, MLAB
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes
the RAM output to reflect the “old data” value at the
particular address.
For MLAB, this mode is available only if the output is
registered.
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
"don't care"
Memory Type
2-5
Description
M20K, MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value.
• For M20K memory, the Quartus Prime software does
not analyze the timing between write and read
operations.
• For MLAB, the Quartus Prime software analyzes the
timing between write and read operations by default.
To disable this behavior, turn on the Do not analyze
the timing between write and read operation.
Metastability issues are prevented by never writing
and reading at the same address at the same time
option.
"constrained don't care"
MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value. The
Quartus Prime software analyzes the timing between
write and read operations in the MLAB.
Figure 2-3: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “new
data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
A0
address_a
data_a
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
byteena_a
rden_b
address_b
q_b (registered)
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A0
XXXX
A1
AAAA
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Figure 2-4: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “old
data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
A0
address_a
data_a
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
byteena_a
rden_b
address_b
q_b (registered)
A0
XXXX
A1
A0 (old data)
AAAA
BBBB
A1 (old data) DDDD
EEEE
Figure 2-5: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Don’t Care or Constrained Don’t Care Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “don’t
care” or “constrained don’t care” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
byteena_a
A1
A0
AAAA
BBBB
CCCC
11
01
10
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
rden_b
address_b
q_b (asynch)
A1
A0
XXXX (unknown data)
In the dual-port RAM mode, the mixed-port read-during-write operation is supported if the input
registers have the same clock. The output value during the operation is “unknown.”
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) IP Core
User Guide
Provides more information about the RAM IP core that controls the read-during-write behavior.
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Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
2-7
Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
Consider the power up state of the different types of memory blocks if you are designing logic that
evaluates the initial power-up values, as listed in the following table.
Table 2-4: Initial Power-Up Values of Embedded Memory Blocks
Memory Type
Output Registers
Power Up Value
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Read memory contents
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Zero (cleared)
MLAB
M20K
By default, the Quartus Prime software initializes the RAM cells in Stratix V devices to zero unless you
specify a .mif.
All memory blocks support initialization with a .mif. You can create .mif files in the Quartus Prime
software and specify their use with the RAM IP core when you instantiate a memory in your design. Even
if a memory is pre-initialized (for example, using a .mif), it still powers up with its output cleared.
Related Information
• Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) IP Core
User Guide
Provides more information about .mif files.
• Quartus II Handbook
Provides more information about .mif files.
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption
Reduce AC power consumption in your design by controlling the clocking of each memory block:
• Use the read-enable signal to ensure that read operations occur only when necessary. If your design
does not require read-during-write, you can reduce your power consumption by de-asserting the readenable signal during write operations, or during the period when no memory operations occur.
• Use the Quartus Prime software to automatically place any unused memory blocks in low-power mode
to reduce static power.
Embedded Memory Features
Table 2-5: Memory Features in Stratix V Devices
This table summarizes the features supported by the embedded memory blocks.
Features
Maximum operating frequency
Capacity per block (including parity bits)
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M20K
MLAB
600 MHz
600 MHz
20,480
640
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Embedded Memory Features
Features
M20K
MLAB
Parity bits
Supported
Supported
Byte enable
Supported
Supported
Packed mode
Supported
—
Address clock enable
Supported
Supported
Simple dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
True dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
FIFO buffer mixed width
Supported
—
Memory Initialization File (.mif)
Supported
Supported
Mixed-clock mode
Supported
Supported
Fully synchronous memory
Supported
Supported
—
Only for flow-through read
memory operations.
Asynchronous memory
Power-up state
Output ports are
cleared.
• Registered output ports—
Cleared.
• Unregistered output ports—
Read memory contents.
Asynchronous clears
Output registers and
output latches
Output registers and output
latches
Write/read operation triggering
Rising clock edges
Rising clock edges
Same-port read-during-write
Output ports set to
"new data".
Output ports set to "don't care".
Mixed-port read-during-write
Output ports set to
"old data" or "don't
care".
Output ports set to "old data", "new
data", "don't care", or "constrained
don't care".
ECC support
Soft IP support using
the Quartus Prime
software.
Soft IP support using the Quartus
Prime software.
Built-in support in
x32-wide simple dualport mode.
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) IP Core
User Guide
Provides more information about the embedded memory features.
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Embedded Memory Configurations
Embedded Memory Configurations
Table 2-6: Supported Embedded Memory Block Configurations for Stratix V Devices
This table lists the maximum configurations supported for the embedded memory blocks. The information is
applicable only to the single-port RAM and ROM modes.
Memory Block
MLAB
M20K
Depth (bits)
Programmable Width
32
x16, x18, or x20
64
x8, x9, x10
512
x40, x32
1K
x20, x16
2K
x10, x8
4K
x5, x4
8K
x2
16K
x1
Mixed-Width Port Configurations
The mixed-width port configuration is supported in the simple dual-port RAM and true dual-port RAM
memory modes.
Note: MLABs do not support mixed-width port configurations.
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) IP Core
User Guide
Provides more information about dual-port mixed width support.
M20K Blocks Mixed-Width Configurations
The following table lists the mixed-width configurations of the M20K blocks in the simple dual-port RAM
mode.
Table 2-7: M20K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port RAM Mode)
Write Port
Read Port
16K x 1
8K x 2
4K x 4
4K x 5
2K x 8
2K x 10
1K x 16
1K x 20
512 x 3
2
512 x 40
16K x 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
8K x 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
2K x 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
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Write Port
Read Port
16K x 1
8K x 2
4K x 4
4K x 5
2K x 8
2K x 10
1K x 16
1K x 20
512 x 3
2
512 x 40
1K x 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K x 20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
512 x 32
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
512 x 40
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
The following table lists the mixed-width configurations of the M20K blocks in true dual-port mode.
Table 2-8: M20K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (True Dual-Port Mode)
Port A
Port B
16K x 1
8K x 2
4K x 4
4K x 5
2K x 8
2K x 10
1K x 16
1K x 20
16K x 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
8K x 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
2K x 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
1K x 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K x 20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Embedded Memory Modes
Caution: To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any of the
memory block input registers during read or write operations. This is applicable if you use the
memory blocks in single-port RAM, simple dual-port RAM, true dual-port RAM, or ROM
mode.
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Table 2-9: Memory Modes Supported in the Embedded Memory Blocks
This table lists and describes the memory modes that are supported in the Stratix V embedded memory blocks.
Memory Mode
Single-port RAM
M20K
Support
MLAB
Support
Yes
Yes
Description
You can perform only one read or one write operation at a
time.
Use the read enable port to control the RAM output ports
behavior during a write operation:
• To retain the previous values that are held during the most
recent active read enable—create a read-enable port and
perform the write operation with the read enable port
deasserted.
• To show the new data being written, the old data at that
address, or a "Don't Care" value when read-during-write
occurs at the same address location—do not create a readenable signal, or activate the read enable during a write
operation.
Simple dual-port
RAM
Yes
Yes
You can simultaneously perform one read and one write
operations to different locations where the write operation
happens on port A and the read operation happens on port B.
True dual-port
RAM
Yes
—
You can perform any combination of two port operations: two
reads, two writes, or one read and one write at two different
clock frequencies.
Shift-register
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as a shift-register block to save
logic cells and routing resources.
This is useful in DSP applications that require local data storage
such as finite impulse response (FIR) filters, pseudo-random
number generators, multi-channel filtering, and auto- and
cross- correlation functions. Traditionally, the local data
storage is implemented with standard flip-flops that exhaust
many logic cells for large shift registers.
The input data width (w), the length of the taps (m), and the
number of taps (n) determine the size of a shift register
(w × m × n). You can cascade memory blocks to implement
larger shift registers.
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Embedded Memory Clocking Modes
Memory Mode
ROM
M20K
Support
MLAB
Support
Yes
Yes
Description
You can use the memory blocks as ROM.
• Initialize the ROM contents of the memory blocks using
a .mif or .hex.
• The address lines of the ROM are registered on M20K
blocks but can be unregistered on MLABs.
• The outputs can be registered or unregistered.
• The output registers can be asynchronously cleared.
• The ROM read operation is identical to the read operation
in the single-port RAM configuration.
FIFO
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as FIFO buffers. Use the
SCFIFO and DCFIFO IP cores to implement single- and dualclock asynchronous FIFO buffers in your design.
For designs with many small and shallow FIFO buffers, the
MLABs are ideal for the FIFO mode. However, the MLABs do
not support mixed-width FIFO mode.
Related Information
• Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM: 2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) IP Core
User Guide
Provides more information memory modes.
• RAM-Based Shift Register (ALTSHIFT_TAPS) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about implementing the shift register mode.
• SCFIFO and DCFIFO IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about implementing FIFO buffers.
Embedded Memory Clocking Modes
This section describes the clocking modes for the Stratix V memory blocks.
Caution: To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any of the
memory block input registers during read or write operations.
Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode
Table 2-10: Memory Blocks Clocking Modes Supported for Each Memory Mode
Memory Mode
Clocking Mode
Single-Port
Simple DualPort
True DualPort
ROM
FIFO
Single clock mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Read/write clock mode
—
Yes
—
—
Yes
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Single Clock Mode
Memory Mode
Clocking Mode
Single-Port
Simple DualPort
True DualPort
ROM
FIFO
Input/output clock mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Independent clock mode
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
Note: The clock enable signals are not supported for write address, byte enable, and data input registers
on MLAB blocks.
Single Clock Mode
In the single clock mode, a single clock, together with a clock enable, controls all registers of the memory
block.
Read/Write Clock Mode
In the read/write clock mode, a separate clock is available for each read and write port. A read clock
controls the data-output, read-address, and read-enable registers. A write clock controls the data-input,
write-address, write-enable, and byte enable registers.
Input/Output Clock Mode
In input/output clock mode, a separate clock is available for each input and output port. An input clock
controls all registers related to the data input to the memory block including data, address, byte enables,
read enables, and write enables. An output clock controls the data output registers.
Independent Clock Mode
In the independent clock mode, a separate clock is available for each port (A and B). Clock A controls all
registers on the port A side; clock B controls all registers on the port B side.
Note: You can create independent clock enable for different input and output registers to control the shut
down of a particular register for power saving purposes. From the parameter editor, click More
Options (beside the clock enable option) to set the available independent clock enable that you
prefer.
Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes
In all clocking modes, asynchronous clears are available only for output latches and output registers. For
the independent clock mode, this is applicable on both ports.
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write
If you perform a simultaneous read/write to the same address location using the read/write clock mode,
the output read data is unknown. If you require the output read data to be a known value, use single-clock
or input/output clock mode and select the appropriate read-during-write behavior in the IP Catalog.
Note: MLAB memory blocks only support simultaneous read/write operations when operating in single
clock mode.
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Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes
Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes
Independent clock enables are supported in the following clocking modes:
• Read/write clock mode—supported for both the read and write clocks.
• Independent clock mode—supported for the registers of both ports.
To save power, you can control the shut down of a particular register using the clock enables.
Related Information
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption on page 2-7
Parity Bit in Memory Blocks
Table 2-11: Parity Bit Support for the Embedded Memory Blocks
This table describes the parity bit support for the memory blocks.
M20K
MLAB
• The parity bit is the fifth bit associated with each • The parity bit is the ninth bit associated with
4 data bits in data widths of 5, 10, 20, and 40
each byte.
(bits 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, and 39).
• The ninth bit can store a parity bit or serve as an
• In non-parity data widths, the parity bits are
additional bit.
skipped during read or write operations.
• Parity function is not performed on the parity
• Parity function is not performed on the parity
bit.
bit.
Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks
The embedded memory blocks support byte enable controls:
• The byte enable controls mask the input data so that only specific bytes of data are written. The
unwritten bytes retain the values written previously.
• The write enable (wren) signal, together with the byte enable (byteena) signal, control the write
operations on the RAM blocks. By default, the byteena signal is high (enabled) and only the wren
signal controls the writing.
• The byte enable registers do not have a clear port.
• If you are using parity bits, on the M20K blocks, the byte enable function controls 8 data bits and 2
parity bits; on the MLABs, the byte enable function controls all 10 bits in the widest mode.
• The LSB of the byteena signal corresponds to the LSB of the data bus.
• The byte enables are active high.
Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks
Table 2-12: byteena Controls in x20 Data Width
byteena[1:0]
11 (default)
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Data Bits Written
[19:10]
[9:0]
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Data Byte Output
byteena[1:0]
2-15
Data Bits Written
10
[19:10]
—
01
—
[9:0]
Table 2-13: byteena Controls in x40 Data Width
byteena[3:0]
Data Bits Written
1111 (default)
[39:30]
[29:20]
[19:10]
[9:0]
1000
[39:30]
—
—
—
0100
—
[29:20]
—
—
0010
—
—
[19:10]
—
0001
—
—
—
[9:0]
Note: If you use the ECC feature on the M20K blocks, you cannot use the byte enable feature.
Data Byte Output
In M20K blocks or MLABs, when you de-assert a byte-enable bit during a write cycle, the corresponding
data byte output appears as either a “don't care” value or the current data at that location. You can control
the output value for the masked byte in the M20K blocks or MLABs by using the Quartus Prime software.
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RAM Blocks Operations
RAM Blocks Operations
Figure 2-6: Byte Enable Functional Waveform
This figure shows how the wren and byteena signals control the operations of the RAM blocks.
inclock
wren
address
data
byteena
contents at a0
an
a0
a1
XXXXXXXX
XXXX
a2
1000
0100
0010
XXXXXXXX
0001
1111
XXXX
FFCDFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a3
a0
ABFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a2
a4
ABCDEF12
FFFFFFFF
contents at a1
a3
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a4
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
FFFFFFFF
don’t care: q (asynch)
doutn
ABXXXXXX
XXCDXXXX
XXXXEFXX
XXXXXX12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
current data: q (asynch)
doutn
ABFFFFFF
FFCDFFFF
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support
The M20K memory blocks support packed mode.
The packed mode feature packs two independent single-port RAM blocks into one memory block. The
Quartus Prime software automatically implements packed mode where appropriate by placing the
physical RAM block in true dual-port mode and using the MSB of the address to distinguish between the
two logical RAM blocks. The size of each independent single-port RAM must not exceed half of the target
block size.
Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support
The embedded memory blocks support address clock enable, which holds the previous address value for
as long as the signal is enabled (addressstall = 1). When the memory blocks are configured in dualport mode, each port has its own independent address clock enable. The default value for the address
clock enable signal is low (disabled).
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2-17
Figure 2-7: Address Clock Enable
This figure shows an address clock enable block diagram. The address clock enable is referred to by the
port name addressstall.
address[0]
1
0
address[0]
register
address[N]
1
0
address[N]
register
address[0]
address[N]
addressstall
clock
Figure 2-8: Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the read cycle.
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
an
q (synch) doutn-1
q (asynch)
doutn
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a1
a0
doutn
dout0
dout0
a4
dout4
dout1
dout1
a5
dout4
dout5
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Memory Blocks Asynchronous Clear
Figure 2-9: Address Clock Enable During the Write Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the write cycle.
inclock
wraddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
data
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
contents at a1
an
a1
a0
a5
00
XX
XX
01
02
contents at a2
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a4
a4
04
XX
contents at a5
03
XX
05
Memory Blocks Asynchronous Clear
The M20K memory blocks support asynchronous clear on output latches and output registers. If your
RAM does not use output registers, clear the RAM outputs using the output latch asynchronous clear.
The clear is an asynchronous signal and it is generated at any time. The internal logic extends the clear
pulse until the next rising edge of the output clock. When the clear is asserted, the outputs are cleared and
stay cleared until the next read cycle.
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Figure 2-10: Output Latch Clear in Stratix V Devices
clk
rden
aclr
clr at
latch
D 0
out
D 2
D 1
Memory Blocks Error Correction Code Support
ECC allows you to detect and correct data errors at the output of the memory. ECC can perform singleerror correction, double-adjacent-error correction, and triple-adjacent-error detection in a 32-bit word.
However, ECC cannot detect four or more errors.
The M20K blocks have built-in support for ECC when in x32-wide simple dual-port mode:
• The M20K runs slower than non-ECC simple-dual port mode when ECC is engaged. However, you
can enable optional ECC pipeline registers before the output decoder to achieve the same performance
as non-ECC simple-dual port mode at the expense of one cycle of latency.
• The M20K ECC status is communicated with two ECC status flag signals—e (error) and ue
(uncorrectable error). The status flags are part of the regular output from the memory block. When
ECC is engaged, you cannot access two of the parity bits because the ECC status flag replaces them.
Error Correction Code Truth Table
Table 2-14: ECC Status Flags Truth Table
Status
e (error)
ue (uncorrectable error)
eccstatus[1]
eccstatus[0]
0
0
No error.
0
1
Illegal.
1
0
A correctable error occurred and the
error has been corrected at the
outputs; however, the memory array
has not been updated.
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Document Revision History
e (error)
ue (uncorrectable error)
eccstatus[1]
eccstatus[0]
1
1
Status
An uncorrectable error occurred and
uncorrectable data appears at the
outputs.
If you engage ECC:
• You cannot use the byte enable feature.
• Read-during-write old data mode is not supported.
Figure 2-11: ECC Block Diagram for M20K Memory
Status Flag
Generation
2
40
8
32
Input
Register
32
ECC
Encoder
8
40
Memory
Array
40
Optional
Pipeline
Register
40
ECC
Decoder
40
Output
Register
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Reword Total RAM bits in Memory Features in Stratix V Devices
table to Capacity per Block.
June 2014
2014.06.30
Removed the term "one-hot" fashion for byte enables operation. The
term one-hot indicates that only one bit can be active at a time.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
2-21
Changes
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Corrected the description about the "don't care" output mode for
RAM in mixed-port read-during-write.
• Reorganized the structure of the supported memory configurations
topics (single-port and mixed-width dual-port) to improve clarity
about maximum data widths supported for each configuration.
• Added a description to the table listing the maximum embedded
memory configurations to clarify that the information applies only to
the single port or ROM mode.
• Removed the topic about mixed-width configurations for MLABs and
added a note to clarify that MLABs do not support mixed-width
configuration.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Updated memory capacity information for accuracy (kilobits instead
of megabits).
• Moved information about supported memory block configurations
into its own table.
• Removed some information that is available in the Internal Memory
(RAM and ROM) User Guide.
June 2012
1.4
Updated Table 2–1 and Table 2–2.
November
2011
1.3
• Updated Table 2–1 and Table 2–2.
• Updated “Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode” section.
May 2011
1.2
•
•
•
•
•
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
Updated Table 2–1, Table 2–2, and Table 2–5.
Updated Figure 2–1 and Figure 2–8.
Updated “Read-During-Write Behavior” section.
Minor text edits.
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Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Stratix V
Devices
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This chapter describes how the variable-precision digital signal processing (DSP) blocks in Stratix V
devices are optimized to support higher bit precision in high-performance DSP applications.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
Features
Each Stratix V variable precision DSP block spans one logic array block (LAB) row height.
The Stratix V variable precision DSP blocks offer the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High-performance, power-optimized, and fully registered multiplication operations
9-bit, 18-bit, 27-bit, and 36-bit word lengths
18 x 25 complex multiplications for FFTs
Floating-point arithmetic formats
Built-in addition, subtraction, and 64-bit accumulation unit to combine multiplication results
Cascading 18-bit and 27-bit input bus to form the tap-delay line for filtering applications
Cascading 64-bit output bus to propagate output results from one block to the next block without
external logic support
• Hard pre-adder supported in 18-bit and 27-bit mode for symmetric filters
• Supports 18-bit and 27-bit with internal coefficient register bank for filter implementation
• 18-bit and 27-bit systolic finite impulse response (FIR) filters with distributed output adder
Related Information
Stratix V Device Overview
Provides more information about the number of multipliers in each Stratix V device.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Supported Operational Modes in Stratix V Devices
Supported Operational Modes in Stratix V Devices
Table 3-1: Variable Precision DSP Blocks Operational Modes for Stratix V Devices
Variable Precision
DSP Block
Resources
1 variable
precision DSP
block
(1)
Operational
Mode
Supported
Instance
Pre-adder
Support
Coefficient
Support
Input
Cascade
Support
Chainout Support
Independen
t9x9
multiplicati
on
3
No
No
No
No
Independen
t 16 x 16
multiplicati
on
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Independen
t 18 x 18
partial
multiplicati
on (32-bit)
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Independen
t 18 x 18
multiplicati
on
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Independen
t 27 x 27
multiplicati
on
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Independen
t 36 x 18
multiplicati
on
1
No
Yes
No
Yes
Two 18 x 18
multiplier
adder
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Two 16 x 16
multiplier
adder
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Sum of 2
square
1
Yes(1)
No
No
Yes
18 x 18
multiplicati
on summed
with 36-bit
input
1
No
No
No
Yes
The pre-adder feature for this mode is automatically enabled.
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Supported Operational Modes in Stratix V Devices
Variable Precision
DSP Block
Resources
Operational
Mode
Supported
Instance
Pre-adder
Support
Coefficient
Support
Input
Cascade
Support
Chainout Support
Independen
t 18 x 18
multiplicati
on
3
No
No
No
No
Independen
t 36 x 36
multiplicati
on
1
No
No
No
No
Complex
18 x 18
multiplicati
on
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Four 18 x 18
multiplier
adder
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Two 27 x 27
multiplier
adder
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Two 18 x 36
multiplier
adder
1
No
Yes
No
No
3 variable
precision DSP
blocks
Complex
18 x 25
multiplicati
on
1
Yes(1)
No
No
No
4 variable
precision DSP
blocks
Complex
27 x 27
multiplicati
on
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
2 variable
precision DSP
blocks
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Resources
Resources
Table 3-2: Number of Multipliers in Stratix V Devices
The table lists the variable-precision DSP resources by bit precision for each Stratix V device.
Variant
Member Variable
Code
precisio
n
DSP
Block
Stratix V GX
Stratix V GT
Stratix V GS
Stratix V E
Altera Corporation
Independent Input and Output
18 x 18
Multiplications Operator
9x9
16 x 16
18 x 18
27 x 27
36 x 18
Multipli
er
Multipli
er
Multipli Multiplier Multiplier
er with
32-bit
Resoluti
on
18 x 18
Multipli
Multiplier
er Adder Summed with
Mode
36-bit Input
A3
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
A4
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
A5
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
A7
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
A9
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
AB
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
B5
399
1,197
798
798
399
399
798
399
B6
399
1,197
798
798
399
399
798
399
B9
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
BB
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
C5
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
C7
256
768
512
512
256
256
512
256
D3
600
1,800
1,200
1,200
600
600
1,200
600
D4
1,044
3,132
2,088
2,088
1,044
1,044
2,088
1,044
D5
1,590
4,770
3,180
3,180
1,590
1,590
3,180
1,590
D6
1,775
5,325
3,550
3,550
1,775
1,775
3,550
1,775
D8
1,963
5,889
3,926
3,926
1,963
1,963
3,926
1,963
E9
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
EB
352
1,056
704
704
352
352
704
352
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Design Considerations
3-5
Design Considerations
You should consider the following elements in your design:
•
•
•
•
Operational modes
Internal coefficient and pre-adder
Accumulator
Chainout adder
Operational Modes
The Quartus Prime software includes IP cores that you can use to control the operation mode of the
multipliers. After entering the parameter settings with the IP Catalog, the Quartus Prime software
automatically configures the variable precision DSP block.
Altera provides two methods for implementing various modes of the Stratix V variable precision DSP
block in a design—using the Quartus Prime DSP IP cores and HDL inferring.
The following Quartus Prime IP cores are supported for the Stratix V variable precision DSP blocks
implementation:
•
•
•
•
LPM_MULT
ALTERA_MULT_ADD
ALTMULT_COMPLEX
ALTMEMMULT
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Altera IP Cores
Integer Arithmetic IP Cores User Guide
Floating-Point IP Cores User Guide
Quartus II Software Help
Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder
Mode
Stratix V
18-bit
The coefficient feature must be enabled when the pre-adder feature is enabled.
27-bit
The coefficient feature and pre-adder feature can be used independently.
With pre-adder enabled:
• If the multiplicand input comes from dynamic input due to input limitations—the
input data width is restricted to 22 bits.
• If the multiplicand input comes from the internal coefficients—the data width of
the multiplicand is 27 bits.
Note: When you enable the pre-adder feature, all input data must have the same clock setting.
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Accumulator
Accumulator
The accumulator feature is applicable to the following modes:
•
•
•
•
•
One sum of two 18 x 18 multipliers
27 x 27 independent multiplier
36 x 18 independent multiplier
18 x 18 multiplication summed with 36-bit input mode
Sum of square mode
Chainout Adder
You can use the output chaining path to add results from other DSP blocks.
Block Architecture
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block consists of the following elements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Input register bank
Pre-adder
Internal coefficient
Multipliers
Accumulator and chainout adder
Systolic registers
Output register bank
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Block Architecture
3-7
Figure 3-1: Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture in 18 x 18 Mode for Stratix V Devices
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin [17..0]
chainin[63..0]
ACLR[1..0]
ACCUMULATE
LOADCONST
NEGATE
SUB
dataa_0[17..0]
18
+/-
18
Systolic
Registers
x
+/-
Input Register Bank
COEFSELA[2..0]
Internal
Coefficient
Multiplier
+/-
Pre-Adder
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[17..0]
18
+
Chainout adder/
accumulator
x
+/-
18
+/-
Output Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
Constant
Systolic
Register
Multplier
Pre-Adder
64
Result[65..0]
Adder
COEFSELB[2..0]
Internal
Coefficient
chainout[63..0]
scanout[17..0]
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Input Register Bank
Figure 3-2: Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture in 27 x 27 Mode for Stratix V Devices
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin [26..0]
chainin[63..0]
ACLR[1..0]
ACCUMULATE
LOADCONST
NEGATE
datac_0[24..0]
27
25
COEFSELA[2..0]
+/x
+/Internal
Coefficient
+
Chainout adder/
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[26..0]
27
Input Register Bank
datab_0[26..0]
Constant
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
64
Result[65..0]
scanout[26..0]
chainout[63..0]
Input Register Bank
The input register bank consists of data, dynamic control signals, and two sets of delay registers.
All the registers in the DSP blocks are positive-edge triggered and cleared on power up. Each multiplier
operand can feed an input register or a multiplier directly, bypassing the input registers.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the input registers within the variable
precision DSP block:
• CLK[2..0]
• ENA[2..0]
• ACLR[0]
In 18 x 18 mode, you can use the delay registers to balance the latency requirements when you use both
the input cascade and chainout features.
One feature of the input register bank is to support a tap delay line; therefore, you can drive the top leg of
the multiplier input (B) from general routing or from the cascade chain, as shown in the following figures.
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block supports 18-bit and 27-bit input cascading.
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Input Register Bank
3-9
Figure 3-3: Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in 18 x 18 Mode for Stratix V Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[17..0]
ACLR[0]
datab_0[17..0]
dataa_0[17..0]
Delay registers
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[17..0]
Delay registers
scanout[17..0]
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Pre-Adder
Figure 3-4: Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in 27x 27 Mode for Stratix V Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[26..0]
ACLR[0]
datab_0[26..0]
dataa_0[26..0]
datac_0[24..0]
scanout[26..0]
Pre-Adder
Stratix V Devices
The pre-adder supports both addition and subtraction, which you must choose during compilation time.
Each variable precision DSP block has two 18-bit pre-adders. You can configure these pre-adders in the
following configurations:
• Two independent 18-bit adders for 18-bit applications
• One 26-bit adder for 27-bit applications
Internal Coefficient
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block has the flexibility of selecting the multiplicand from either the
dynamic input or the internal coefficient.
The internal coefficient can support up to eight constant coefficients for the multiplicands in 18-bit and
27-bit modes. When you enable the internal coefficient feature, COEFSELA/COEFSELB are used to control
the selection of the coefficient multiplexer.
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Multipliers
3-11
Multipliers
A single variable precision DSP block can perform many multiplications in parallel, depending on the
data width of the multiplier.
There are two multipliers (upper multiplier and bottom multiplier) per variable precision DSP block. You
can configure these two multipliers in several operational modes:
• One 27 x 27 multiplier
• Two 18 x 18 multipliers
• Three 9 x 9 multipliers
Related Information
Operational Mode Descriptions on page 3-12
Provides more information about the operational modes of the multipliers.
Accumulator and Chainout Adder
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block supports a 64-bit accumulator and a 64-bit adder.
For Stratix V devices, you can use the 64-bit adder as full adder.
The following signals can dynamically control the function of the accumulator:
• NEGATE
• LOADCONST
• ACCUMULATE
Table 3-3: Accumulator Functions and Dynamic Control Signals for 64-Bit Accumulator in Stratix V Devices
Function
Description
NEGATE
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
Zeroing
Disables the
accumulator.
0
0
0
Preload
Loads an initial value
to the accumulator.
Only one bit of the
64-bit preload value
can be “1”. It can be
used as rounding the
DSP result to any
position of the 64-bit
result.
0
1
0
Accumulation
Adds the current
result to the previous
accumulate result.
0
0
1
Decimation
This function takes
the current result,
converts it into two’s
complement, and
adds it to the
previous result.
1
0
1
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Systolic Registers
Systolic Registers
There are two systolic registers per variable precision DSP block. If the variable precision DSP block is not
configured in systolic FIR mode, both systolic registers are bypassed.
The first systolic register has two 18-bit registers that are used to register the upper multiplier’s two 18-bit
inputs. You must clock these registers with the same clock source as the output register bank.
The second set of systolic registers are used to delay the chainout output to the next variable precision
DSP block.
Output Register Bank
The positive edge of the clock signal triggers the 64-bit bypassable output register bank and is cleared after
power up.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the output register per variable precision DSP
block:
• CLK[2..0]
• ENA[2..0]
• ACLR[1]
Operational Mode Descriptions
This section describes how you can configure an Stratix V variable precision DSP block to efficiently
support the following operational modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Independent Multiplier Mode
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
Sum of Square Mode
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
Systolic FIR Mode
Independent Multiplier Mode
In independent input and output multiplier mode, the variable precision DSP blocks perform individual
multiplication operations for general purpose multipliers.
You can configure each variable precision DSP block multiplier for 9-, 16-, 18-, 27-Bit, or 36 x 18
multiplication.
For some operational modes, the unused inputs require zero padding.
Table 3-4: Variable Precision DSP Block Independent Multiplier Mode Configurations
Altera Corporation
Configuration
Multipliers per block
9x9
3
16 x 16
2
18 x 18 (partial)
2
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9 x 9 Independent Multiplier
Configuration
Multipliers per block
18 x 18
1
27 x 27
1
36 x 18
1
3-13
9 x 9 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-5: Three 9 x 9 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Stratix V
Devices
Three pairs of data are packed into the ax and ay ports; result contains three 18-bit products.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
Input Register Bank
27
ax[x2, x1, x0]
x
Output Register Bank
27
ay[y2, y1, y0]
54
Result[53..0]
(p2, p1, p0)
18 x 18 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-6: One 18 x 18 Independent Multiplier Mode with One Variable Precision DSP Block for Stratix
V Devices
datab_0[17..0]
18
18
x
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
Input Register Bank
Multiplier
36
result[35..0]
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18 x 18 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-7: Three 18 x 18 Independent Multiplier Mode with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for
Stratix V Devices
Multiplier
dataa_0[17..0]
18
x
datab_2[17..0]
dataa_2[17..0]
Multiplier
18
36
Output Register Bank
18
Input Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
18
result_0[35..0]
result_2[17..0]
x
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
x
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_2[17..0]
18
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[17..0]
18
18
Multiplier
18
Output Register Bank
datab_2[17..0]
36
result_2[35..18]
result_1[35..0]
x
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
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16 x 16 Independent Multiplier or 18 x 18 Independent Partial Multiplier
16 x 16 Independent Multiplier or 18 x 18 Independent Partial Multiplier
Figure 3-8: Two 16 x 16 Independent Multiplier Mode or Two 18 x 18 Independent Partial Multiplier
Mode for Stratix V Devices
In this figure, the inputs for 16-bit independent multiplier mode are data[15..0]. The unused input bits
require padding with zero.
For two independent 18 x 18 partial multiplier mode, only 32-bit LSB result for each multiplication
operation is routed to the output.
Multiplier
datab_0[ ]
x
result_0[ ]
Output Register Bank
datab_1[ ]
Input Register Bank
dataa_0[ ]
Multiplier
x
result_1[ ]
dataa_1[ ]
Variable Precision DSP Block
27 x 27 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-9: One 27 x 27 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Stratix V
Devices
In this mode, the result can be up to 64 bits when combined with a chainout adder or accumulator.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
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x
Output Register Bank
27
dataa_a0[26..0]
Input Register Bank
27
dataa_b0[26..0]
54
Result[53..0]
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36 x 18 Independent Multiplier
36 x 18 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-10: One 36 x 18 Independent Multiplier Mode for Stratix V Devices
Multiplier
x
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
18
+
Multiplier
datab_0[17..0]
dataa_0[35..18]
18
18
Output Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
54
result[53..0]
x
Variable Precision DSP Block
36-Bit Independent Multiplier
You can efficiently construct an individual 36-bit multiplier with two adjacent variable precision DSP
blocks. The 36 x 36 multiplication consists of four 18 x 18 multipliers, as shown in Figure 3-11.
The 36-bit multiplier is useful for applications requiring more than 18-bit precision; for example, for the
mantissa multiplication portion of very high precision fixed-point arithmetic applications.
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Independent Complex Multiplier Mode
3-17
Figure 3-11: 36-Bit Independent Multiplier Mode with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V
Devices
Multiplier
datab_0[17..0]
dataa_0[35..18]
Adder
x
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
18
+
Multiplier
18
Output Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
18
result[17..0]
x
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
datab_0[35..18]
dataa_0[35..18]
x
18
18
Adder
+
Multiplier
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
Input Register Bank
datab_0[35..18]
18
54
result[71..18]
xx
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block provides the means for a complex multiplication.
Figure 3-12: Sample of Complex Multiplication Equation
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18 x 18 Complex Multiplier
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block can support the following:
• one 18 x 18 complex multiplier
• one 18 x 25 complex multiplier
• one 27 x 27 complex multiplier
18 x 18 Complex Multiplier
For 18 x 18 complex multiplication mode, you require two variable precision DSP blocks to perform this
multiplication.
You can implement the imaginary part [(a × d) + (b × c)] in the first variable precision DSP block, and
you can implement the real part [(a × c) – (b × d)] in the second variable precision DSP block.
Figure 3-13: 18 x 18 Complex Multiplier with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V Devices
Multiplier
x
18
+
Multiplier
Output Register Bank
18
37
Output Register Bank
d
a
Adder
18
Input Register Bank
c
b
37
Imaginary part
(ad + bc)
x
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
b
c
a
18
Adder
x
18
18
Input Register Bank
d
Multiplier
x
Real part
(ac - bd )
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
18 x 25 Complex Multiplier
Stratix V devices support an individual 18 x 25 complex multiplication mode.
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27 x 27 Complex Multiplier
3-19
A 27 x 27 multiplier allows you to implement an individual 18 x 25 complex multiplication mode with
three variable precision DSP blocks only. The pre-adder feature is automatically enabled for you to
implement an individual 18 x 25 complex multiplication mode efficiently.
You can implement an 18 x 25 complex multiplication with three variable precision DSP blocks, as shown
in Figure 3-14
Figure 3-14: 18 x 25 Complex Multiplication Equation
Figure 3-15: 18 x 25 Complex Multiplier with Three Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V Devices
Multiplier
d[17..0]
25
Pre-adder &
Coefficient Select
a[24..0]
x
25
Input Register Bank
b[24..0]
x
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
x
+
Output Register Bank
b[24..0]
18
Pre-adder &
Coefficient Select
c[17..0]
Input Register Bank
d[17..0]
44
Output Register Bank
Chainout
Adder
18
44
[(c + d) b + (a - b) d]
25
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
Multiplier
a[24..0]
18
Pre-adder &
Coefficient Select
c[17..0]
Chainout
Adder
18
Input Register Bank
d[17..0]
x
+
[(c - d) a + (a - b) d]
25
Variable Precision DSP Block 3
27 x 27 Complex Multiplier
Stratix V devices support an individual 27 x 27 complex multiplication mode. You require four variable
precision DSP blocks to implement an individual 27 x 27 complex multiplication mode.
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27 x 27 Complex Multiplier
You can implement the imaginary part [(a x d) + (b x c)] in the first and second variable precision DSP
blocks, and you can implement the real part [(a x c) - (b x d)] in the third and fourth variable precision
DSP blocks.
You can achieve the difference of two 27 x 27 multiplications by enabling the NEGATE control signal in the
fourth variable precision DSP block.
Figure 3-16: 27 x 27 Complex Multiplier with Four Variable Precision Blocks for Stratix V Devices
Multiplier
a[26..0]
27
27
Input Register Bank
d[26..0]
x
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
b[26..0]
27
Chainout
Adder
Input Register Bank
c[26..0]
x
+
Output Register Bank
Multiplier
27
55
[(a × d) + (b × c)]
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
Multiplier
a[26..0]
27
Input Register Bank
c[26..0]
27
x
Variable Precision DSP Block 3
27
Input Register Bank
b[26..0]
27
Chainout
Adder
x
+
Output Register Bank
Multiplier
d[26..0]
55
[(a × c) - (b × d)]
Variable Precision DSP Block 4
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Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
3-21
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
Table 3-5: Variable Precision DSP Block Multiplier Adder Sum Mode Configurations for Stratix V Devices
Mode
Configuration
Number of DSP Blocks Required
16 x 16
1
18 x 18
1
27 x 27
2
18 x 36
2
18 x 18
2
Two-multiplier Adder Sum
Four-multiplier Adder Sum
One Sum of Two 18 x 18 Multipliers or Two 16 x 16 Multipliers
Figure 3-17: One Sum of Two 18 x 18 Multipliers or Two 16 x 16 Multipliers with One Variable Precision
DSP Block for Stratix V Devices
In this figure, for 18-bit multiplier adder sum mode, the input data width is 18 bits and the output data
width is 37 bits.
For 16-bit multiplier adder sum mode, the input data width is 16 bits and the unused input bit requires
padding with zeroes. The output data width is 33 bits.
SUB
Multiplier
datab_0[ ]
x
+/Multiplier
Output Register Bank
datab_1[ ]
Input Register Bank
dataa_0[ ]
Result[]
x
dataa_1[ ]
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One Sum of Two 27 x 27 Multipliers
One Sum of Two 27 x 27 Multipliers
Figure 3-18: One Sum of Two 27 x 27 Multipliers with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V
Devices
datab_0[26..0]
dataa_0[26..0]
27
27
Input Register Bank
Multiplier
x
Chainout[53..0]
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
dataa_1[26..0]
27
27
x
Chainout adder
+/-
+
Output Register Bank
datab_1[26..0]
Input Register Bank
Multiplier
55
Result[54..0]
NEGATE
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
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One Sum of Two 36 x 18 Multipliers
3-23
One Sum of Two 36 x 18 Multipliers
Figure 3-19: One Sum of Two 36 x 18 Multipliers with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V
Devices
Multiplier
dataa_0[17..0]
datab_0[17..0]
dataa_0[35..18]
18
18
18
Input Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
x
18
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[17..0]
18
Chainout
Adder
18
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[35..18]
18
x
Output Register Bank
Input Register Bank
+
+/-
55
result[54..0]
18
NEGATE
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
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One Sum of Four 18 x 18 Multipliers
One Sum of Four 18 x 18 Multipliers
Figure 3-20: One Sum of Four 18 x 18 Multipliers with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Stratix V
Devices
SUB
Multiplier
18
datab_0[17..0]
x
18
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
+/Multiplier
datab_1[17..0]
x
18
Adder
dataa_1[17..0]
Variable Precision DSP Block 1
SUB
Multiplier
18
datab_2[17..0]
x
Chainout adder
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_2[17..0]
+/Multiplier
+/-
+
Output Register Bank
18
38
result[37..0]
datab_3[17..0]
x
18
dataa_3[17..0]
Adder
NEGATE
Variable Precision DSP Block 2
Sum of Square Mode
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block can implement one sum of square mode.
Figure 3-21: One Sum of Square Mode Equation
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18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
You can feed the four 18-bit inputs into the pre-adder block to convert b and d input as two’s complement
numbers to perform subtraction, if required.
You can feed each 18-bit pre-adder block output into both multiplicand and multiplier inputs of an
18 x 18 multiplier to generate a square result.
Figure 3-22: One Sum of Square Mode in a Variable Precision DSP Block for Stratix V Devices
SUB
Pre-Adder
Multiplier
18
d[17..0]
+/-
18
c[17..0]
x
18
a[17..0]
18
+/Pre-Adder
Multiplier
+/-
x
Output Register Bank
b[17..0]
Input Register Bank
Adder
37
result[36..0]
Variable Precision DSP Block
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
Stratix V variable precision DSP blocks support one 18 x 18 multiplication summed to a 36-bit input.
Use the upper multiplier to provide the input for an 18 x 18 multiplication, while the bottom multiplier is
bypassed.
The data1[17..0] and data1[35..18] signals are concatenated to produce a 36-bit input.
Figure 3-23: One 18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode for Stratix V Devices
SUB
Multiplier
datab_0[17..0]
18
data_1[17..0]
data_1[35..18]
18
37
Result[36..0]
18
Variable Precision DSP Block
Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Stratix V Devices
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+/-
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
Input Register Bank
x
18
Adder
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Systolic FIR Mode
Systolic FIR Mode
Stratix V variable precision DSP blocks support the following systolic FIR structures:
• 18-bit
• 27-bit
In systolic FIR mode, the input of the multiplier can come from three different sets of sources:
• Two dynamic inputs
• One dynamic input and one coefficient input
• One coefficient input and one pre-adder output
18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 18-bit systolic FIR mode, the adders are configured as dual 44-bit adders, thereby giving 8 bits of
overhead when using an 18-bit operation (36-bit products). This allows a total of 256 multiplier products.
Figure 3-24: 18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode with Two Dynamic Inputs for Stratix V Devices
chainin[43..0]
44
COEFSELA[2..0]
datab_1[17..0]
dataa_1[17..0]
COEFSELB[2..0]
+/-
18
Systolic
Registers
x
+/-
3
18
18
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
+
Chainout adder/
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[17..0]
18
Input Register Bank
datab_0[17..0]
Systolic
Register
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
x
+/-
44
Result[43..0]
3
Internal
Coefficient
18-bit Systolic FIR
44
chainout[43..0]
27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 27-bit systolic FIR mode, the chainout adder or accumulator is configured for a 64-bit operation,
providing 10 bits of overhead when using a 27-bit data (54-bit products). This allows a total of 1,024
multiplier products.
The 27-bit systolic FIR mode allows the implementation of one stage systolic filter per DSP block.
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Variable Precision DSP Block Control Signals
Figure 3-25: 27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode for Stratix V Devices
chainin[63..0]
64
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
datac_0[24..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
+/-
27
25
3
x
27
+
Internal
Coefficient
Chainout adder or
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_0[26..0]
Input Register Bank
datab_0[26..0]
27
64
chainout[63..0]
27-bit Systolic FIR
Variable Precision DSP Block Control Signals
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block has a total of 14 dynamic control signal inputs. The variable
precision DSP block dynamic signals are user-configurable and can be set to toggle or not at run time.
The Stratix V variable precision DSP block supports 18-bit and 27-bit input cascading.
Table 3-6: Variable Precision DSP Block Dynamic Signals for Stratix V Devices
Signal Name
Function
Count
NEGATE
Control the operation of the decimation
1
LOADCONST
Preload an initial value to the accumulator
1
ACCUMULATE
Enable accumulation
1
SUB
This signal has two functions:
1
• Controls add or subtract of the two 18 x 18 multiplier
results
• Controls dynamic switch between 36 x 36 mode and
complex 18 x 18
COEFSELA
COEFSELB
CLK0
Controls the internal coefficient select multiplexer along
with select signals provided through the MSB of each 18-bit
data input
2
Variable precision DSP-block-wide clock signals
3
CLK1
CLK2
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Signal Name
ENA0
Function
Count
Variable precision DSP-block-wide clock enable signals
3
Variable precision DSP-block-wide asynchronous clear
signals
2
ENA1
ENA2
ACLR0
ACLR1
Total Count per DSP Block
14
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
July 2014
2014.07.22
Reinstated input register bank and systolic registers to the block architec‐
ture.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Updated the supported megafunctions from ALTMULT_ADD and
ALTMULT _ACCUM to ALTERA_MULT_ADD.
• Updated modes applicable to the accumulator
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
December
2012
2012.12.28
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
Added "Design Considerations"
Updated Figure 3-1 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-6 changed Mult_L to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-7 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-8 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-10 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-11 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-13 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-17 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-19 changed 54 to 55
Updated Figure 3-20 changed 19 to 18 and deleted Chainout [38..0]
Updated Figure 3-23 changed Mult_L to Multiplier
Updated Figure 3-24 changed Mult_L and Mult_H to Multiplier and
added 44
• Updated Figure 3-25 added 64
• Reorganized content and updated template.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
3-29
Changes
June 2012
1.4
•
•
•
•
November
2011
1.3
• Added Figure 3–21.
• Updated Figure 3–1, Figure 3–2, Figure 3–11, Figure 3–12, Figure 3–
14, Figure 3–16, Figure 3–17, Figure 3–18, Figure 3–19, Figure 3–20,
and Figure 3–21.
• Updated Table 3–1 and Table 3–5.
• Updated “Pre-Adder and Coefficient Select”, “Systolic Register”,
“Systolic FIR Mode”, and “Software Support” sections.
May 2011
1.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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Added Figure 3–2.
Updated Figure 3–7, Figure 3–16, and Figure 3–18.
Updated Table 3–1.
Updated “Chainout Adder and Accumulator” and “18 x 25 Complex
Multiplier” sections.
Updated chapter for Quartus II software 11.0 release.
Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
Updated Table 3–1, Table 3–2, and Table 3–5.
Added Table 3–3.
Updated all figures in the chapter.
Added Figure 3–3.
Updated “Software Support” section.
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Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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This chapter describes the advanced features of hierarchical clock networks and phase-locked loops
(PLLs) in Stratix V devices. The Quartus Prime software enables the PLLs and their features without
external devices.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
Clock Networks
The Stratix V devices contain the following clock networks that are organized into a hierarchical
structure:
• Global clock (GCLK) networks
• Regional clock (RCLK) networks
• Periphery clock (PCLK) networks
Clock Resources in Stratix V Devices
Table 4-1: Clock Resources in Stratix V Devices
Clock Resource
Device
Number of
Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
48 single-ended or
CLK[0..23][p,n] pins
24 differential
Clock input pins
All
GCLK networks
All
16
CLK[0..23][p,n] pins, PLL
clock outputs, and logic
array
RCLK networks
All
92
CLK[0..23][p,n] pins, PLL
clock outputs, and logic
array
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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9001:2008
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Types of Clock Networks
Device
Number of
Resources
Available
• Stratix V GS D3 and D4
• Stratix V GX A3 (with 24
transceivers)
210
• Stratix V GS D5
• Stratix V GX A3 (with 36
transceivers), A4, B5, and
A6
282
• Stratix V GS D6 and D8
• Stratix V GT C5 and C7
• Stratix V GX A5 and A7
306
• Stratix V E E9 and EB
• Stratix V GX A9, AB,
B9, and BB
342
Clock Resource
PCLK networks
Source of Clock Resource
DPA clock outputs, PLDtransceiver interface clocks,
I/O pins, and logic array
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin connection guidelines.
Related Information
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Types of Clock Networks
Global Clock Networks
Stratix V devices provide GCLKs that can drive throughout the device. The GCLKs serve as low-skew
clock sources for functional blocks, such as adaptive logic modules (ALMs), digital signal processing
(DSP), embedded memory, and PLLs. Stratix V I/O elements (IOEs) and internal logic can also drive
GCLKs to create internally-generated global clocks and other high fan-out control signals, such as
synchronous or asynchronous clear and clock enable signals.
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Regional Clock Networks
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Figure 4-1: GCLK Networks in Stratix V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
GCLK[12..15]
GCLK[0..3]
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
GCLK[8..11]
GCLK[4..7]
Regional Clock Networks
RCLK networks are only applicable to the quadrant they drive into. RCLK networks provide the lowest
clock insertion delay and skew for logic contained within a single device quadrant. The Stratix V IOEs and
internal logic within a given quadrant can also drive RCLKs to create internally generated regional clocks
and other high fan-out control signals.
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Periphery Clock Networks
Figure 4-2: RCLK Networks in Stratix V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
RCLK[0..9]
RCLK[10..19]
RCLK[40..45]
RCLK[46..51]
RCLK[64..70]
RCLK[71..77]
Q1 Q2
Q4 Q3
RCLK[85..91]
RCLK[78..84]
RCLK[58..63]
RCLK[52..57]
RCLK[30..39]
RCLK[20..29]
Periphery Clock Networks
Depending on the routing direction, Stratix V devices provide vertical PCLKs from the top and bottom
periphery, and horizontal PCLKs from the left and right periphery.
Clock outputs from the dynamic phase aligner (DPA) block, programmable logic device (PLD)transceiver interface clocks, I/O pins, and internal logic can drive the PCLK networks.
PCLKs have higher skew when compared with GCLK and RCLK networks. You can use PCLKs for
general purpose routing to drive signals into and out of the Stratix V device.
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Figure 4-3: PCLK Networks for Stratix V GS D5 Device, and Stratix V GX A3 (with 36 transceivers) and A4
Devices
Horizontal
PCLK[13..26]
Horizontal
PCLK[27..40]
Horizontal
PCLK[41..53]
Vertical
PCLK[27..53]
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Vertical PCLK[143..161]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[72..90]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..12]
Vertical PCLK[54..71]
Vertical
PCLK[0..26]
Vertical PCLK[162..179]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[117..142]
Horizontal
PCLK[92..101]
Horizontal
PCLK[78..91]
Horizontal
PCLK[64..77]
Horizontal
PCLK[54..63]
Vertical
PCLK[91..116]
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Periphery Clock Networks
Figure 4-4: PCLK Networks for Stratix V GX B5 and B6 Devices
Horizontal
PCLK[16..33]
Horizontal
PCLK[34..49]
Horizontal
PCLK[50..65]
Vertical
PCLK[21..41]
Altera Corporation
Vertical PCLK[116..128]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[63..75]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..15]
Vertical PCLK[42..62]
Vertical
PCLK[0..20]
Vertical PCLK[129..149]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[96..115]
Horizontal
PCLK[116..131]
Horizontal
PCLK[98..115]
Horizontal
PCLK[82..97]
Horizontal
PCLK[66..81]
Vertical
PCLK[76..95]
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Figure 4-5: PCLK Networks for Stratix V GT C5 and C7 Devices, and Stratix V GX A5 and A7 Devices
Horizontal
PCLK[17..32]
Horizontal
PCLK[33..48]
Horizontal
PCLK[49..65]
Vertical
PCLK[26..51]
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Vertical PCLK[139..156]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[69..86]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..16]
Vertical PCLK[52..68]
Vertical
PCLK[0..25]
Vertical PCLK[157..173]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[113..138]
Horizontal
PCLK[115..131]
Horizontal
PCLK[99..114]
Horizontal
PCLK[83..98]
Horizontal
PCLK[66..82]
Vertical
PCLK[87..112]
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Periphery Clock Networks
Figure 4-6: PCLK Networks for Stratix V GS D3 and D4 Devices, and Stratix V GX A3 (with 24
transceivers) Device
Horizontal
PCLK[3..14]
Horizontal
PCLK[15..24]
Horizontal
PCLK[25..29]
Vertical
PCLK[23..45]
Altera Corporation
Vertical PCLK[118..134]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[62..77]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..2]
Vertical PCLK[46..61]
Vertical
PCLK[0..22]
Vertical PCLK[135..149]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[98..117]
Horizontal
PCLK[57..59]
Horizontal
PCLK[45..56]
Horizontal
PCLK[35..44]
Horizontal
PCLK[30..34]
Vertical
PCLK[78..97]
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Figure 4-7: PCLK Networks for Stratix V GS D6 and D8 Devices
Horizontal
PCLK[18..35]
Horizontal
PCLK[36..53]
Horizontal
PCLK[54..71]
Vertical
PCLK[24..47]
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Vertical PCLK[121..138]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[65..82]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..17]
Vertical PCLK[48..64]
Vertical
PCLK[0..23]
Vertical PCLK[139..155]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[102..120]
Horizontal
PCLK[135..152]
Horizontal
PCLK[113..134]
Horizontal
PCLK[90..112]
Horizontal
PCLK[72..89]
Vertical
PCLK[83..101]
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Clock Sources Per Quadrant
Figure 4-8: PCLK Networks for Stratix V E E9 and EB Devices, and Stratix V GX A9, AB, BB, and B9
Devices
Horizontal
PCLK[21..42]
Horizontal
PCLK[43..64]
Horizontal
PCLK[65..83]
Vertical
PCLK[26..51]
Vertical PCLK[138..154]
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
Vertical PCLK[71..87]
Horizontal
PCLK[0..20]
Vertical PCLK[52..70]
Vertical
PCLK[0..25]
Vertical PCLK[155..173]
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Vertical
PCLK[113..137]
Horizontal
PCLK[146..167]
Horizontal
PCLK[125..146]
Horizontal
PCLK[103..124]
Horizontal
PCLK[84..102]
Vertical
PCLK[88..112]
Clock Sources Per Quadrant
The Stratix V devices provide 33 section clock (SCLK) networks in each spine clock per quadrant. The
SCLK networks can drive six row clocks in each logic array block (LAB) row, nine column I/O clocks, and
two core reference clocks. The SCLKs are the clock resources to the core functional blocks, PLLs, and I/O
interfaces of the device.
A spine clock is another layer of routing between the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks before each
clock is connected to the clock routing for each LAB row. The settings for spine clocks are transparent.
The Quartus Prime software automatically routes the spine clock based on the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK
networks.
The following figure shows SCLKs driven by the GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, or the PLL feedback clock
networks in each spine clock per quadrant. The GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, and PLL feedback clocks share the
same routing to the SCLKs. To ensure successful design fitting in the Quartus Prime software, the total
number of clock resources must not exceed the SCLK limits in each region.
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Types of Clock Regions
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Figure 4-9: Hierarchical Clock Networks in Each Spine Clock Per Quadrant
Clock output from the PLL
that drives into the SCLKs.
GCLK
PLL Feedback Clock
There are up to 88 PCLKs that can
drive the SCLKs in each spine clock
in the largest device.
PCLK
RCLK
16
5
88
23
SCLK
33
There are up to 23 RCLKs that can
drive the SCLKs in each spine clock in
the largest device.
9
Column I/O clock: clock that drives
the column I/O core registers and I/O interfaces.
2
Core reference clock: clock that feeds
into the PLL as the PLL reference clock.
6
Row clock: clock source to the LAB,
memory blocks, and row I/O interfaces
in the core row.
Types of Clock Regions
This section describes the types of clock regions in Stratix V devices.
Entire Device Clock Region
To form the entire device clock region, a source drives a signal in a GCLK network that can be routed
through the entire device. The source is not necessarily a clock signal. This clock region has the maximum
insertion delay when compared with other clock regions, but allows the signal to reach every destination
in the device. It is a good option for routing global reset and clear signals or routing clocks throughout the
device.
Regional Clock Region
To form a regional clock region, a source drives a signal in a RCLK network that you can route
throughout one quadrant of the device. This clock region provides the lowest skew in a quadrant. It is a
good option if all the destinations are in a single quadrant.
Dual-Regional Clock Region
To form a dual-regional clock region, a single source (a clock pin or PLL output) generates a dual-regional
clock by driving two RCLK networks (one from each quadrant). This technique allows destinations across
two adjacent device quadrants to use the same low-skew clock. The routing of this signal on an entire side
has approximately the same delay as a RCLK region. Internal logic can also drive a dual-regional clock
network.
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Clock Network Sources
Figure 4-10: Dual-Regional Clock Region for Stratix V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Clock pins or PLL outputs can
drive half of the device to create
dual-regional clocking regions
for improved interface timing.
Clock Network Sources
In Stratix V devices, clock input pins, PLL outputs, high-speed serial interface (HSSI) outputs, DPA
outputs, and internal logic can drive the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks.
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
You can use the dedicated clock input pins (CLK[0..23][p,n]) for high fan-out control signals, such as
asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables, for protocol signals through the GCLK or RCLK
networks.
CLK pins can be either differential clocks or single-ended clocks. When you use the CLK pins as singleended clock inputs, only the CLK<#>p pins have dedicated connections to the PLL. The CLK<#>n pins drive
the PLLs over global or regional clock networks and do not have dedicated routing paths to the PLLs.
Driving a PLL over a global or regional clock can lead to higher jitter at the PLL input, and the PLL will
not be able to fully compensate for the global or regional clock. Altera recommends using the CLK<#>p
pins for optimal performance when you use single-ended clock inputs to drive the PLLs.
Internal Logic
You can drive each GCLK, RCLK, and horizontal PCLK network using LAB-routing and row clock to
enable internal logic to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal.
Note: Internally-generated GCLKs, RCLKs, or PCLKs cannot drive the Stratix V PLLs. The input clock to
the PLL has to come from dedicated clock input pins, PLL-fed GCLKs, or PLL-fed RCLKs.
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DPA Outputs
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DPA Outputs
Every DPA generates one PCLK to the core.
Related Information
High-Speed I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices on page 6-8
Provides more information about DPA and HSSI outputs.
HSSI Outputs
Every three HSSI outputs generate a group of six PCLKs to the core.
Related Information
High-Speed I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices on page 6-8
Provides more information about DPA and HSSI outputs.
PLL Clock Outputs
The Stratix V PLL clock outputs can drive both GCLK and RCLK networks.
Clock Input Pin Connections to GCLK and RCLK Networks
Table 4-2: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the GCLK Networks for Stratix V Devices
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n Pins)
GCLK[0,1,2,3]
CLK[0,1,2,3,20,21,22,23]
GCLK[4,5,6,7]
CLK[4,5,6,7]
GCLK[8,9,10,11]
CLK[8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15]
GCLK[12,13,14,15]
CLK[16,17,18,19]
Table 4-3: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the RCLK Networks for Stratix V Devices
A given clock input pin can drive two adjacent RCLK networks to create a dual-regional clock network.
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n Pins)
RCLK[58,59,60,61,62,63,64,68,85,89]
CLK[0]
RCLK[58,59,60,61,62,63,65,69,86,90]
CLK[1]
RCLK[58,59,60,61,62,63,66,70,87,91]
CLK[2]
RCLK[58,59,60,61,62,63,67,88]
CLK[3]
RCLK[20,24,28,30,34,38]
CLK[4]
RCLK[21,25,29,31,35,39]
CLK[5]
RCLK[22,26,32,36]
CLK[6]
RCLK[23,27,33,37]
CLK[7]
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,71,75,78,82]
CLK[8]
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,72,76,79,83]
CLK[9]
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,73,77,80,84]
CLK[10]
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Clock Output Connections
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n Pins)
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,74,81]
CLK[11]
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,71,75,78,82]
CLK[12]
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,72,76,79,83]
CLK[13]
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,73,77,80,84]
CLK[14]
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,74,81]
CLK[15]
RCLK[0,4,8,10,14,18]
CLK[16]
RCLK[1,5,9,11,15,19]
CLK[17]
RCLK[2,6,12,16]
CLK[18]
RCLK[3,7,13,17]
CLK[19]
RCLK[40,41,42,43,44,45,64,68,85,89]
CLK[20]
RCLK[40,41,42,43,44,45,65,69,86,90]
CLK[21]
RCLK[40,41,42,43,44,45,66,70,87,91]
CLK[22]
RCLK[40,41,42,43,44,45,67,88]
CLK[23]
Clock Output Connections
For Stratix V PLL connectivity to GCLK and RCLK networks, refer to the PLL connectivity to GCLK and
RCLK networks spreadsheet.
Related Information
PLL Connectivity to GCLK and RCLK Networks for Stratix V Devices
Clock Control Block
Every GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK network has its own clock control block. The control block provides the
following features:
• Clock source selection (dynamic selection available only for GCLKs)
• Global clock multiplexing
• Clock power down (static or dynamic clock enable or disable available only for GCLKs and RCLKs)
Pin Mapping in Stratix V Devices
Table 4-4: Mapping Between the Input Clock Pins, PLL Counter Outputs, and Clock Control Block Inputs
Clock
Fed by
inclk[0] and inclk[1]
Any of the four dedicated clock pins on the same side of the Stratix V
device.
inclk[2]
PLL counters C0 and C2 from the two center PLLs on the same side of the
Stratix V devices.
inclk[3]
PLL counters C1 and C3 from the two center PLLs on the same side of the
Stratix V devices.
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GCLK Control Block
4-15
Note: You cannot use corner PLLs for dynamic clock control selection.
GCLK Control Block
You can select the clock source for the GCLK select block either statically or dynamically using internal
logic to drive the multiplexer-select inputs.
When selecting the clock source dynamically, you can select either PLL outputs (such as C0 or C1), or a
combination of clock pins or PLL outputs.
Figure 4-11: GCLK Control Block for Stratix V Devices
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated clock
input when used as a single-ended
PLL clock input. The CLKn pin can
drive the PLL using the GCLK.
CLKp
Pins
PLL Counter
Outputs
When the device is in user mode,
you can dynamically control the
clock select signals through internal
logic.
2
2
CLKSELECT[1..0]
2
CLKn
Pin
Internal
Logic
Static Clock
Select
This multiplexer
supports user-controllable
dynamic switching
Enable/
Disable
GCLK
Internal
Logic
When the device is in user mode, you can only
set the clock select signals through a
configuration file (SRAM object file [.sof] or
programmer object file [.pof]) because the
signals cannot be controlled dynamically.
RCLK Control Block
You can only control the clock source selection for the RCLK select block statically using configuration bit
settings in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by the Quartus Prime software.
Figure 4-12: RCLK Control Block for Stratix V Devices
CLKp CLKn
Pin Pin
PLL Counter
Outputs
2
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select
Enable/
Disable
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated
clock input when used as a
single-ended PLL clock input. The
CLKn pin can drive the PLL using
the RCLK.
When the device is in user mode,
you can only set the clock select
signals through a configuration file
(.sof or .pof); they cannot be
controlled dynamically.
Internal
Logic
RCLK
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PCLK Control Block
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK and RCLK network multiplexers
through the Quartus Prime software using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
Note: When selecting the clock source dynamically using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core, choose the inputs
using the CLKSELECT[0..1] signal. The inputs from the clock pins feed the inclk[0..1] ports of
the multiplexer, and the PLL outputs feed the inclk[2..3] ports.
Related Information
Clock Control Block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
PCLK Control Block
To drive the HSSI horizontal PCLK control block, select the HSSI output or internal logic .
To drive the DPA horizontal PCLK, select the DPA clock output or internal logic. You can only use the
DPA clock output to generate the vertical PCLK to the core.
Figure 4-13: Horizontal PCLK Control Block for Stratix V Devices
HSSI Output or
DPA Clock Output
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select
Horizontal PCLK
External PLL Clock Output Control Block
You can enable or disable the dedicated external clock output pins using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
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Clock Power Down
4-17
Figure 4-14: External PLL Output Clock Control Block for Stratix V Devices
PLL Counter
Outputs
18
Static Clock Select
Enable/
Disable
The clock control block feeds to a multiplexer within IOE
the FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin’s IOE. The
Internal
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin is a dual-purpose pin.
Logic
Therefore, this multiplexer selects either an internal
signal or the output of the clock control block.
Internal
Logic
When the device is in user mode, you
can only set the clock select signals
through a configuration file (.sof or
.pof); they cannot be controlled
dynamically.
Static Clock
Select
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin
Related Information
Clock Control Block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
Clock Power Down
You can power down the GCLK and RCLK clock networks using both static and dynamic approaches.
When a clock network is powered down, all the logic fed by the clock network is in off-state, reducing the
overall power consumption of the device. The unused GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks are automati‐
cally powered down through configuration bit settings in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by
the Quartus Prime software.
The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows the internal logic to control power-up or power-down
synchronously on the GCLK and RCLK networks, including dual-regional clock regions. This feature is
independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network.
Note: You cannot dynamically enable or disable GCLK or RCLK networks that drive PLLs.
Clock Enable Signals
You cannot use the clock enable and disable circuit of the clock control block if the GCLK or RCLK
output drives the input of a PLL.
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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Clock Enable Signals
Figure 4-15: clkena Implementation with Clock Enable and Disable Circuit
This figure shows the implementation of the clock enable and disable circuit of the clock control block.
The R1 and R2 bypass paths are
not available for the PLL external
clock outputs.
clkena
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
D
Q
D
R1
Q
R2
GCLK/
RCLK/
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT
The select line is statically
controlled by a bit setting in
the .sof or .pof.
The clkena signals are supported at the clock network level instead of at the PLL output counter level.
This allows you to gate off the clock even when you are not using a PLL. You can also use the clkena
signals to control the dedicated external clocks from the PLLs.
Figure 4-16: Example of clkena Signals
This figure shows a waveform example for a clock output enable. The clkena signal is synchronous to the
falling edge of the clock output.
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
Use the clkena signals to
enable or disable the GCLK
and RCLK networks or the
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pins.
clkena
AND Gate Output
with R2 Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as
Falling Edge of Input Clock)
AND Gate Output
with R2 Not Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as Double
Register with Input Clock)
Stratix V devices have an additional metastability register that aids in asynchronous enable and disable of
the GCLK and RCLK networks. You can optionally bypass this register in the Quartus Prime software.
The PLL can remain locked, independent of the clkena signals, because the loop-related counters are not
affected. This feature is useful for applications that require a low-power or sleep mode. The clkena signal
can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant of frequency overshoot during resynchroniza‐
tion.
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Stratix V PLLs
4-19
Stratix V PLLs
PLLs provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management, external system clock
management, and high-speed I/O interfaces.
The Stratix V device family contains fractional PLLs that can function as fractional PLLs or integer PLLs.
The output counters in Stratix V devices are dedicated to each fractional PLL that support integer or
fractional frequency synthesis.
Two adjacent PLLs share 18 C output counters. Any number of C counters can be assigned to each PLL, as
long as the total number used by the two PLLs is 18 or less.
The Stratix V devices offer up to 32 fractional PLLs in the larger densities. All Stratix V fractional PLLs
have the same core analog structure and features support.
Table 4-5: PLL Features in Stratix V Devices
Feature
Integer PLL
Yes
Fractional PLL
Yes
C output counters
18
M, N, C counter sizes
Dedicated external clock outputs
4 single-ended or 2 single-ended and 1 differential
4 single-ended or 4 differential
External feedback input pin
Single-ended or differential
Yes (2)
Source synchronous compensation
Yes
Direct compensation
Yes
Normal compensation
Yes
Zero-delay buffer compensation
Yes
External feedback compensation
Yes
LVDS compensation
Yes
Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output drives
the DPA clock
Yes
Phase shift resolution
(3)
1 to 512
Dedicated clock input pins
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
(2)
Support
78.125 ps (3)
Programmable duty cycle
Yes
Power down mode
Yes
Provided input clock jitter is within input jitter tolerance specifications.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the VCO period divided by eight. For degree increments, the
Stratix V device can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least 45°. Smaller degree increments are
possible depending on the frequency and divide parameters.
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PLL Physical Counters in Stratix V Devices
PLL Physical Counters in Stratix V Devices
The physical counters for the fractional PLLs are arranged in the following sequences:
• Up-to-down
• Down-to-up
Figure 4-17: PLL Physical Counters Orientation for Stratix V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Physical Counter C0
PLL0
Physical Counter C17
Physical Counter C1
Physical Counter C8
Physical Counter C9
PLL1
Physical Counter C16
Physical Counter C9
Physical Counter
C0 to C17
(Up-to-Down
Dequence)
Physical Counter C8
Physical Counter
C17 to C0
(Down-to-Up
Sequence)
PLL0
PLL1
Physical Counter C16
Physical Counter C1
Physical Counter C17
Physical Counter C0
PLL Locations in Stratix V Devices
Stratix V devices provide PLLs for the transceiver channels. These PLLs are located in a strip, where the
strip refers to an area in the FPGA.
The total number of PLLs in the Stratix V devices includes the PLLs in the PLL strip. However, the
transceivers can only use the PLLs located in the strip.
The following figures show the physical locations of the fractional PLLs. Every index represents one
fractional PLL in the device. The physical locations of the fractional PLLs correspond to the coordinates in
the Quartus II Chip Planner.
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4-21
Figure 4-18: PLL Locations for Stratix V GS D5 Device, and Stratix V GX A3 (with 36 transceivers) and A4
Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[20..23][p,n]
Pins
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y91
4
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X92_Y96
FRACTIONALPLL_X92_Y87
4
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y77
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y68
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y55
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y46
PLL Strip
4
4
CLK0, CLK1, CLK22, and
CLK23 clock pins feed into
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL _X0_Y46
and fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL _X0_Y55.
2
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y31
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y22
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
CLK8, CLK9, CLK14, and
CLK15 clock pins feed into
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y46
and fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y55.
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X92_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X92_Y2
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y91
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y77
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y68
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y55
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y46
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y31
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y22
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X202_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p,n]
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PLL Locations in Stratix V Devices
Figure 4-19: PLL Locations for Stratix V GX B5 and B6 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[20..23][p,n]
Pins
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y109
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y100
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y85
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y76
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y63
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y54
FRACTIONALPLL_X90_Y123
FRACTIONALPLL_X90_Y114
CLK8, CLK9, CLK14, and CLK15 clock
pins feed into fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y54 and
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y63.
2
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y39
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y30
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y14
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y5
4
CLK0, CLK1, CLK22, and
CLK23 clock pins feed into
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y54
and fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y63.
FRACTIONALPLL_X90_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X90_Y2
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Altera Corporation
4 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
PLL Strip
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y109
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y100
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y85
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y76
2
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y63
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y54
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y39
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y30
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y14
FRACTIONALPLL_X197_Y5
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p.n]
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4-23
Figure 4-20: PLL Locations for Stratix V GT C5 and C7 Devices, and Stratix V GX A5 and A7 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
CLK[20..23][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y122
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y113
4
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y118
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y109
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
PLL Strip
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y91
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y75
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y66
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y53
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y44
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y29
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y20
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
4
4
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y2
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y122
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y113
4
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y91
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y75
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y53
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y44
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y29
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y20
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p,n]
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PLL Locations in Stratix V Devices
Figure 4-21: PLL Locations for Stratix V GS D3 and D4 Devices, and Stratix V GX A3 (with 24
transceivers) Device
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[20..23][p,n]
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y81
4
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X86_Y77
FRACTIONALPLL_X86_Y68
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y72
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y81
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y72
PLL Strip
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y55
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y46
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y55
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y46
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y33
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y33
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y24
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y24
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X86_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X86_Y2
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Altera Corporation
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X185_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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4-25
Figure 4-22: PLL Locations for Stratix V GS D6 and D8 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
CLK[20..23][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y145
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y136
4
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X96_Y141
FRACTIONALPLL_X96_Y132
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
4
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y145
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y136
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y112
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y103
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y112
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y103
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y87
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y78
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y87
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y78
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y65
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y56
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y65
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y56
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y41
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y32
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y41
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y32
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X96_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X96_Y2
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
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4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p,n]
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PLL Migration Guidelines
Figure 4-23: PLL Locations for Stratix V E E9 and EB Devices, and Stratix V GX A9, AB, B9, and BB
Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[20..23][p,n]
Pins
CLK[16..19][p,n]
Pins
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y170
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y161
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y108
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y99
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y86
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y77
4 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X104_Y166
FRACTIONALPLL_X104_Y157
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y133
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y124
CLK[12..15][p,n]
Pins
4
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL _X0_Y124,
FRACTIONALPLL _X0_Y133,
FRACTIONALPLL _X225_Y124, and
FRACTIONALPLL _X225_Y133 are not
available for Stratix V E E9 and EB devices,
and Stratix V GX A9 and AB devices.
2
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y61
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y52
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y38
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y29
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y133
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y124
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y108
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y99
2
CLK8, CLK9, CLK14, and
CLK15 clock pins feed into
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y77
and fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y86.
CLK0, CLK1, CLK22, and
CLK23 clock pins feed into
fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y77
and fractional PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y86.
FRACTIONALPLL_X104_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X104_Y2
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..7][p,n]
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y170
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y161
2
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y86
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y77
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y61
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y52
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y38
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y29
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Related Information
PLL Migration Guidelines on page 4-26
Provides more information about PLL migration between Stratix V GX A5, A7, A9, AB, B9, BB, D6, and
D8 devices.
PLL Migration Guidelines
If you plan to migrate your design between Stratix V GX A5, A7, A9, AB, B9, BB, D6, and D8 devices with
48 transceiver channels, and your design requires a PLL to drive the HSSI and clock network (GCLK or
RCLK) simultaneously, use the 2 middle PLLs on the left or right side of the device.
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Fractional PLL Architecture
4-27
Table 4-6: Location of Middle PLLs for PLL Migration
Variant
Middle PLL Location
Member Code
A5
A7
Left Side
Right Side
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y53,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y53,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y77,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y86
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y77,
FRACTIONALPLL_X225_Y86
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y65,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y78
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y65,
FRACTIONALPLL_X208_Y78
A9
AB
Stratix V GX
B9
BB
D6
D8
Related Information
PLL Locations in Stratix V Devices on page 4-20
Provides more information about CLKIN pin connectivity to the middle PLLs.
Fractional PLL Architecture
Figure 4-24: Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Stratix V Devices
To DPA Block
Lock
Circuit
pfdena
Dedicated
Clock Inputs
4
GCLK/RCLK
inclk0
Clock
inclk1 Switchover
Block
÷N
PFD
locked
CP
LF
VCO
8
÷2
÷2, ÷4
÷C0
8
÷C1
8
÷C2
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
VCO Post Divider
÷C3
Cascade Input
from Adjacent PLL
÷C17
Dedicated refclk
Delta Sigma
Modulator
÷M
Direct Compensation Mode
ZDB, External Feedback Modes
LVDS Compensation Mode
Source Synchronous, Normal Modes
Casade Output
to Adjacent PLL
GCLKs
RCLKs
PLL Output Multiplexer
For single-ended clock inputs, only the CLK<#>p pin
has a dedicated connection to the PLL. If you use the
CLK<#>n pin, a global or regional clock is used.
External Clock Outputs
Only C0, C2, C15, and C17
TX Serial Clock
can drive the TX serial clock
and C1, C3, C14, and C16
TX Load Enable
can drive the TX load enable.
This FBOUT port is fed by
FBOUT
the M counter in the PLLs.
External Memory
Interface DLL
PMA Clocks
FBIN
DIFFIOCLK Network
GCLK/RCLK Network
Fractional PLL Usage
You can configure the fractional PLL to function either in the integer or in the enhanced fractional mode.
One fractional PLL can use up to 18 output counters and all external clock outputs. Two adjacent
fractional PLLs share the 18 output counters.
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PLL Cascading
Fractional PLLs can be used as follows:
• Reduce the number of required oscillators on the board
• Reduce the clock pins used in the FPGA by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies from a single
reference clock source
• Compensate clock network delay
• Zero delay buffering
• Transmit clocking for transceivers
PLL Cascading
Stratix V devices support two types of PLL cascading.
PLL-to-PLL Cascading
This cascading mode synthesizes a more precise output frequency than a single PLL in integer mode.
Cascading two PLLs in integer mode expands the effective range of the pre-scale counter, N and the
multiply counter, M.
Stratix V devices use two types of input clock sources.
• The adjpllin input clock source is used for inter-cascading between fracturable fractional PLLs.
• The cclk input clock source is used for intra-cascading within fracturable fractional PLLs.
Altera recommends using a low bandwidth setting for the source (upstream) PLL and a high bandwidth
setting for destination (downstream) PLL.
Counter-Output-to-Counter-Output Cascading
This cascading mode synthesizes a lower frequency output than a single post-scale counter, C. Cascading
two C counters expands the effective range of C counters.
PLL External Clock I/O Pins
Two adjacent corner and center fractional PLLs share four dual-purpose clock I/O pins, organized as one
of the following combinations:
• Four single-ended clock outputs
• Two single-ended outputs and one differential clock output
• Four single-ended clock outputs and two single-ended feedback inputs in the I/O driver feedback for
zero delay buffer (ZDB) mode support
• Two single-ended clock outputs and two single-ended feedback inputs for single-ended external
feedback (EFB) mode support
• One differential clock output and one differential feedback input for differential EFB support (only
one of the two adjacent fractional PLLs can support differential EFB at one time while the other
fractional PLL can be used for general-purpose clocking)
Note: All left and right fractional PLLs in Stratix V devices do not support external clock outputs.
The following figure shows that any of the output counters (C[0..17]) or the M counter on the PLLs can
feed the dedicated external clock outputs. Therefore, one counter or frequency can drive all output pins
available from a given PLL.
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Figure 4-25: Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Pins Associated with PLL for Stratix V Devices
Fractional PLL0
VCO 0
Fractional PLL1
VCO 1
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
M0
M1
EXTCLKOUT[0]
fbin0
20
mux
EXTCLKOUT[3..0]
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT0/ FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTp/
FPLL_<#>_FB0
EXTCLKOUT[1]
I/O / FPLL_<#>CLKOUT1/
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTn
EXTCLKOUT[2]
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT2 /
FPLL<#>_FBp / FPLL_<#>_FB1
4
fbin1
EXTCLKOUT[3]
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT3 /
FPLL_<#>_FBn
You can feed these clock output pins using any one
of the C[17..0] or M counters. When not used as
external clock outputs, these clock output pins can
be used as regular user I/Os.
The FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT0, FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT1,
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT2, and FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT3
pins are single-ended clock output pins.
The FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTp and
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTn pins are differential output
pins while the FPLL_<#>_FBp and FPLL_<#>_FBn
pins are differential feedback input pins to support
differential EFB only in VCO 1.
The FPLL_<#>_FB0 and
FPLL_<#>_FB1 pins are single-ended
feedback input pins.
Each pin of a single-ended output pair can be either in-phase or 180° out-of-phase. To implement the
180° out-of-phase pin in a pin pair, the Quartus Prime software places a NOT gate in the design into the
IOE.
The clock output pin pairs support the following I/O standards:
•
•
•
•
Same I/O standard for the pin pairs
LVDS
Differential high-speed transceiver logic (HSTL)
Differential SSTL
Stratix V PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK or RCLK network. You can also
use the external clock output pins as user I/O pins if you do not require external PLL clocking.
Related Information
• I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices on page 5-2
Provides more information about I/O standards supported by the PLL clock input and output pins.
• Zero-Delay Buffer Mode on page 4-33
• External Feedback Mode on page 4-35
PLL Control Signals
You can use the areset signal to control PLL operation and resynchronization, and use the locked signal
to observe the status of the PLL.
areset
The areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device input pins or internal
logic can drive these input signals.
When areset is driven high, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and placing the PLL out-oflock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When areset is driven low again, the PLL resynch‐
ronizes to its input as it re-locks.
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locked
You must assert the areset signal every time the PLL loses lock to guarantee the correct phase relation‐
ship between the PLL input and output clocks. You can set up the PLL to automatically reset (self-reset)
after a loss-of-lock condition using the Quartus Prime IP Catalog.
You must include the areset signal if either of the following conditions is true:
• PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in the design
• Phase relationships between the PLL input and output clocks must be maintained after a loss-of-lock
condition
Note: If the input clock to the PLL is not toggling or is unstable after power up, assert the areset signal
after the input clock is stable and within specifications.
locked
The locked signal output of the PLL indicates the following conditions:
• The PLL has locked onto the reference clock.
• The PLL clock outputs are operating at the desired phase and frequency set in the IP Catalog.
The lock detection circuit provides a signal to the core logic. The signal indicates when the feedback clock
has locked onto the reference clock both in phase and frequency.
Clock Feedback Modes
This section describes the following clock feedback modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source synchronous
LVDS compensation
Direct
Normal compensation
ZDB
EFB
Each mode allows clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle.
The input and output delays are fully compensated by a PLL only when using the dedicated clock input
pins associated with a given PLL as the clock source.
The input and output delays may not be fully compensated in the Quartus Prime software for the
following conditions:
• When a GCLK or RCLK network drives the PLL
• When the PLL is driven by a dedicated clock pin that is not associated with the PLL
For example, when you configure a PLL in ZDB mode, the PLL input is driven by an associated dedicated
clock input pin. In this configuration, a fully compensated clock path results in zero delay between the
clock input and one of the clock outputs from the PLL. However, if the PLL input is fed by a nondedicated input (using the GCLK network), the output clock may not be perfectly aligned with the input
clock.
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Source Synchronous Mode
If the data and clock arrive at the same time on the input pins, the same phase relationship is maintained
at the clock and data ports of any IOE input register. Data and clock signals at the IOE experience similar
buffer delays as long as you use the same I/O standard.
Altera recommends source synchronous mode for source synchronous data transfers.
Figure 4-26: Example of Phase Relationship Between Clock and Data in Source Synchronous Mode
Data Pin
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
Data at the Register
Clock at the Register
The source synchronous mode compensates for the delay of the clock network used and any difference in
the delay between the following two paths:
• Data pin to the IOE register input
• Clock input pin to the PLL phase frequency detector (PFD) input
The Stratix V PLL can compensate multiple pad-to-input-register paths, such as a data bus when it is set
to use source synchronous compensation mode.
LVDS Compensation Mode
The purpose of LVDS compensation mode is to maintain the same data and clock timing relationship
seen at the pins of the internal serializer/deserializer (SERDES) capture register, except that the clock is
inverted (180° phase shift). Thus, LVDS compensation mode ideally compensates for the delay of the
LVDS clock network, including the difference in delay between the following two paths:
• Data pin-to-SERDES capture register
• Clock input pin-to-SERDES capture register
The output counter must provide the 180° phase shift.
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Direct Mode
Figure 4-27: Example of Phase Relationship Between the Clock and Data in LVDS Compensation Mode
Data Pin
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
Data at the Register
Clock at the Register
Direct Mode
In direct mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This mode provides better jitter
performance because the clock feedback into the PFD passes through less circuitry. Both the PLL internaland external-clock outputs are phase-shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
Figure 4-28: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Direct Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the
Input Pin
The PLL clock outputs lag
the PLL input clocks
depending on routing
delays.
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
External PLL
Clock Outputs
Normal Compensation Mode
An internal clock in normal compensation mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. The external
clock output pin has a phase delay relative to the clock input pin if connected in this mode. The Quartus
Prime TimeQuest Timing Analyzer reports any phase difference between the two. In normal compensa‐
tion mode, the delay introduced by the GCLK or RCLK network is fully compensated.
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Figure 4-29: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Normal Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
The external clock output can
lead or lag the PLL internal
clock signals.
Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
In ZDB mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin for zero delay
through the device. This mode is supported only on the center and corner PLLs in Stratix V devices.
When using this mode, you must use the same I/O standard on the input clocks and clock outputs to
guarantee clock alignment at the input and output pins. You cannot use differential I/O standards on the
PLL clock input or output pins.
To ensure phase alignment between the clk pin and the external clock output (CLKOUT) pin in ZDB mode,
instantiate a bidirectional I/O pin in the design. The bidirectional I/O pin serves as the feedback path
connecting the fbout and fbin ports of the PLL. The bidirectional I/O pin must always be assigned a
single-ended I/O standard. The PLL uses this bidirectional I/O pin to mimic and compensate for the
output delay from the clock output port of the PLL to the external clock output pin.
Note: To avoid signal reflection when using ZDB mode, do not place board traces on the bidirectional
I/O pin.
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Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
Figure 4-30: ZDB Mode in Stratix V PLLs
inclk
÷N
inclk
÷N
PFD
PFD
CP/LF
CP/LF
VCO 0
VCO 1
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
Multiplexer
C10 20
4
C11
C12
C13
EXTCLKOUT[0]
fbout0
fbin0
Bidirectional
I/O Pin
EXTCLKOUT[1]
EXTCLKOUT[2]
fbout1
fbin1
C14
C15
Bidirectional
I/O Pin
C16
C17
M0
M1
EXTCLKOUT[3]
Figure 4-31: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in ZDB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
The internal PLL clock
output can lead or lag
the external PLL clock
outputs.
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
Related Information
PLL External Clock I/O Pins on page 4-28
Provides more information about PLL clock outputs.
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External Feedback Mode
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External Feedback Mode
In EFB mode, the output of the M counter (fbout) feeds back to the PLL fbin input (using a trace on the
board) and becomes part of the feedback loop.
One of the dual-purpose external clock outputs becomes the fbin input pin in this mode. The external
feedback input pin, fbin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin. Aligning these clocks allows you to
remove clock delay and skew between devices.
When using EFB mode, you must use the same I/O standard on the input clock, feedback input, and clock
outputs.
This mode is supported only on the center and corner fractional PLLs in Stratix V devices.
Figure 4-32: EFB Mode in Stratix V Devices
inclk
÷N
PFD
CP/LF
VCO 1
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
Multiplexer
C10 20
4
C11
C12
C13
EXTCLKOUT[0]
EXTCLKOUT[1]
fbout[p]
fbin0
fbout[n]
fbout0
External board connection for
one differential clock output
and one differential feedback
input for differential EFB
support.
External
Board Trace
fbin[p]
EXTCLKOUT[2]
fbin1
EXTCLKOUT[3]
fbin[n]
fbout1
C14
C15
C16
C17
M0
M1
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External board connection for two
single-ended clock outputs and two
single-ended feedback inputs for
single-ended EFB support.
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Multiple PLLs in Normal Mode and Source Synchronous Mode
Figure 4-33: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in EFB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the
Input Pin
The PLL clock outputs
can lead or lag the fbin
clock input.
PLL Clock at
the Register
Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
fbin Clock Input Pin
Related Information
PLL External Clock I/O Pins on page 4-28
Provides more information about PLL clock outputs.
Multiple PLLs in Normal Mode and Source Synchronous Mode
Normal and source synchronous compensation feedback mode require GCLK or RCLK feedback path to
achieve the required phase relationship. Source synchronous mode for LVDS compensation does not
require the GCLK or RCLK feedback path.
The GCLK or RCLK network feedback paths are fewer than the PLLs available on the device. You cannot
implement the compensation mode that requires GCLK or RCLK feedback path on all the PLLs available
on the device simultaneously.
Consider the following guidelines when implementing normal compensation or source synchronous
compensation mode on multiple PLLs for the device:
• You can implement normal compensation or source synchronous compensation mode on all the
center PLLs simultaneously.
• The Stratix V device has two middle PLLs on the left and right side of the device. All PLLs that reside
on each side of the device can be divided equally into 2 groups as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 4-34: Example of the PLL Grouping for Stratix V GX A5 and A7 Devices, and Stratix V GT C5 and
C7 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y122
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y113
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y91
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y118
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y109
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y75
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y122
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y113
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y100
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y91
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y75
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y66
Middle PLL
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y53
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y44
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y53
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y44
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y29
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y20
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y29
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y20
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y11
FRACTIONALPLL_X98_Y2
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y10
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y1
From the PLL grouping example, the PLLs can be divided into 4 different sections (upper left, lower left,
upper right, and lower right). The PLLs in each of these sections can be further divided into first and
second group. The first group consists of the 2 corner PLLs and one middle PLL located in each section.
The remaining PLLs in the same section are grouped into the second group. For each section, you can use
up to 3 PLLs to implement source synchronous or normal compensation mode in the following combina‐
tions:
• Any of the 3 PLLs in the first group
• Any of the 2 PLLs in the first group and 1 PLL in the second group
Table 4-7: Example of the PLL Grouping for Stratix V GX A5 and A7 Devices, and Stratix V GT C5 and C7
Devices
PLL Location
PLL Section
First Group
Second Group
Upper left
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y122,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y113,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y100, FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y91, FRACTIONALPLL_X0_
Y75
Lower left
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y53,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y10,
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y44, FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y29, FRACTIONALPLL_X0_
Y20
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Clock Multiplication and Division
PLL Location
PLL Section
First Group
Second Group
Upper right
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y122,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y113,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y66
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y100,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y91, FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y75
Lower right
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y53,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y10,
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y1
FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y44, FRACTIONALPLL_X210_Y29, FRACTIONALPLL_
X210_Y20
Clock Multiplication and Division
Each Stratix V PLL provides clock synthesis for PLL output ports using the M/(N × C) scaling factors. The
input clock is divided by a pre-scale factor, N, and is then multiplied by the M feedback factor. The control
loop drives the VCO to match fin × (M/N).
The Quartus Prime software automatically chooses the appropriate scaling factors according to the input
frequency, multiplication, and division values entered into the ALTERA_PLL IP core.
VCO Post Divider
A VCO post divider is inserted after the VCO. When you enable the VCO post divider, the VCO post
divider divides the VCO frequency by two. When the VCO post divider is bypassed, the VCO frequency
goes to the output port without being divided by two.
Post-Scale Counter, C
Each output port has a unique post-scale counter, C, that divides down the output from the VCO post
divider. For multiple PLL outputs with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the least common multiple
of the output frequencies that meets its frequency specifications. For example, if the output frequencies
required from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the Quartus Prime software sets the VCO to 660 MHz (the
least common multiple of 33 and 66 MHz within the VCO range). Then the post-scale counters, C, scale
down the VCO frequency for each output port.
Pre-Scale Counter, N and Multiply Counter, M
Each PLL has one pre-scale counter, N, and one multiply counter, M, with a range of 1 to 512 for both M
and N. The N counter does not use duty-cycle control because the only purpose of this counter is to
calculate frequency division. The post-scale counters have a 50% duty cycle setting. The high- and lowcount values for each counter range from 1 to 256. The sum of the high- and low-count values chosen for
a design selects the divide value for a given counter.
Delta-Sigma Modulator
The delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is used together with the M multiply counter to enable the PLL to
operate in fractional mode. The DSM dynamically changes the M counter divide value on a cycle to cycle
basis. The different M counter values allow the "average" M counter value to be a non-integer.
Fractional Mode
In fractional mode, the M counter divide value equals to the sum of the "clock high" count, "clock low"
count, and the fractional value. The fractional value is equal to K/2^X, where K is an integer between 0 and
(2^X – 1), and X = 8, 16, 24, or 32.
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Integer Mode
For PLL operating in integer mode, M is an integer value and DSM is disabled.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Programmable Phase Shift
The programmable phase shift feature allows the PLLs to generate output clocks with a fixed phase offset.
The VCO frequency of the PLL determines the precision of the phase shift. The minimum phase shift
increment is 1/8 of the VCO period. For example, if a PLL operates with a VCO frequency of 1000 MHz,
phase shift steps of 125 ps are possible.
The Quartus Prime software automatically adjusts the VCO frequency according to the user-specified
phase shift values entered into the IP core.
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable duty cycle. This
feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters.
The duty-cycle setting is achieved by a low and high time-count setting for the post-scale counters. To
determine the duty cycle choices, the Quartus Prime software uses the frequency input and the required
multiply or divide rate.
The post-scale counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision is defined as 50%
divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for
duty-cycle choices from 5% to 90%. If the PLL is in external feedback mode, set the duty cycle for the
counter driving the fbin pin to 50%.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the generation of precise
non-overlapping clocks.
Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input clocks. Use this feature
for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application where a system turns on the redundant clock
if the previous clock stops running. The design can perform clock switchover automatically when the
clock is no longer toggling or based on a user control signal, clkswitch.
The following clock switchover modes are supported in Stratix V PLLs:
• Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference clock. If the current
reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
• Manual clock switchover—Clock switchover is controlled using the clkswitch signal. When the
clkswitch signal goes from logic low to logic high, and stays high for at least three clock cycles, the
reference clock to the PLL is switched from inclk0 to inclk1, or vice-versa.
• Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic switchover and manual
clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes high, it overrides the automatic clock switchover
function. As long as the clkswitch signal is high, further switchover action is blocked.
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Automatic Switchover
Automatic Switchover
Stratix V PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
Figure 4-35: Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit Block Diagram
This figure shows a block diagram of the automatic switchover circuit built into the PLL.
clkbad[0]
clkbad[1]
activeclock
Clock
Sense
Switchover
State Machine
clksw
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
PFD
N Counter
Multiplexer
Out
clkswitch
refclk
fbclk
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically switches to the
backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source as the backup clock by connecting it to the
inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit sends out three status signals—clkbad[0], clkbad[1], and activeclock—
from the PLL to implement a custom switchover circuit in the logic array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals indicate the status of the two clock
inputs. When they are asserted, the clock sense block detects that the corresponding clock input has
stopped toggling. These two signals are not valid if the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1
is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1) is being selected as
the reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference between the two clock inputs is more than
20%, the activeclock signal is the only valid status signal.
Note: Glitches in the input clock may cause the frequency difference between the input clocks to be more
than 20%.
Use the switchover circuitry to automatically switch between inclk0 and inclk1 when the current
reference clock to the PLL stops toggling. You can switch back and forth between inclk0 and inclk1 any
number of times when one of the two clocks fails and the other clock is available.
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency as the reference
clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that controls the multiplexer select input.
In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference clock for the PLL.
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When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be satisfied:
• Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
• The period of the two clock inputs can differ by no more than 20%.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling, switchover is not
initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock inputs are not the same frequency, but
their period difference is within 20%, the clock sense block detects when a clock stops toggling. However,
the PLL may lose lock after the switchover is completed and needs time to relock.
Note: Altera recommends resetting the PLL using the areset signal to maintain the phase relationships
between the PLL input and output clocks when using clock switchover.
Figure 4-36: Automatic Switchover After Loss of Clock Detection
This figure shows an example waveform of the switchover feature in automatic switchover mode. In this
example, the inclk0 signal is stuck low. After the inclk0 signal is stuck at low for approximately two
clock cycles, the clock sense circuitry drives the clkbad[0] signal high. Since the reference clock signal is
not toggling, the switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the clkswitch signal to
switch to the backup clock, inclk1.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on
which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk1.
Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the clkswitch signal for user- or
system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for same-frequency switchover, or to switch
between inputs of different frequencies.
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control switchover using the
clkswitch signal. The automatic clock-sense circuitry cannot monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1)
frequencies with a frequency difference of more than 100% (2×).
This feature is useful when the clock sources originate from multiple cards on the backplane, requiring a
system-controlled switchover between the frequencies of operation.
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Manual Clock Switchover
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, C, and K counters so that the VCO operates
within the recommended operating frequency range. The ALTERA_PLL IP Catalog notifies you if a given
combination of inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies cannot meet this requirement.
Figure 4-37: Clock Switchover Using the clkswitch (Manual) Control
This figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the clkswitch signal. In this case, both
clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the reference clock; the clkswitch signal goes high,
which starts the switchover sequence. On the falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock,
muxout, is gated off to prevent clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock
multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The activeclock signal changes to
indicate the clock which is currently feeding the PLL.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
To initiate a manual clock switchover event,
both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when
the clkswitch signal goes high.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal mirrors the clkswitch
signal. Since both clocks are still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signal goes high.
Because the switchover circuit is positive-edge sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal does not
cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch signal goes high again, the
process repeats.
The clkswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to is available. If the
clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is available.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Manual Clock Switchover
In manual clock switchover mode, the clkswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or inclk1 is selected as
the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the clkswitch signal transitions from logic low to logic high,
and being held high for at least three inclk cycles.
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Guidelines
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You must bring the clkswitch signal back low again to perform another switchover event. If you do not
require another switchover event, you can leave the clkswitch signal in a logic high state after the initial
switch.
Pulsing the clkswitch signal high for at least three inclk cycles performs another switchover event.
If inclk0 and inclk1 are different frequencies and are always running, the clkswitchsignal minimum
high time must be greater than or equal to three of the slower frequency inclk0 and inclk1 cycles.
Figure 4-38: Manual Clock Switchover Circuitry in Stratix V PLLs
clkswitch
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
You can delay the clock switchover action by specifying the switchover delay in the ALTERA_PLL IP
core. When you specify the switchover delay, the clkswitch signal must be held high for at least three
inclk cycles plus the number of the delay cycles that has been specified to initiate a clock switchover.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Guidelines
When implementing clock switchover in Stratix V PLLs, use the following guidelines:
• Automatic clock switchover requires that the inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies be within 20% of each
other. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals to not function
properly.
• When using manual clock switchover, the difference between inclk0 and inclk1 can be more than
100% (2×). However, differences in frequency, phase, or both, of the two clock sources will likely cause
the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL ensures that you maintain the correct phase relationships
between the input and output clocks.
• Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to initiate the manual
clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clock switchover to not function
properly.
• Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift must use a lowbandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the low-bandwidth PLL reacts more slowly
than a high-bandwidth PLL. When switchover happens, a low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stopping
of the clock to the output more slowly than a high-bandwidth PLL. However, be aware that the lowbandwidth PLL also increases lock time.
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PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift
• After a switchover occurs, there may be a finite resynchronization period for the PLL to lock onto a
new clock. The time it takes for the PLL to relock depends on the PLL configuration.
• The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and the output clock from the PLL is
important in your design. Assert areset for at least 10 ns after performing a clock switchover. Wait for
the locked signal to go high and be stable before re-enabling the output clocks from the PLL.
• The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the current clock is lost and then increases as the VCO
locks on to the backup clock, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 4-39: VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Switchover Occurs
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
∆ F vco
PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift
For more information about PLL reconfiguration and dynamic phase shifting, refer to AN661.
Related Information
AN 661: Implementing Fractional PLL Reconfiguration with Altera PLL and Altera PLL Reconfig IP
Cores
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Removed Preliminary tags for clock resources, clock input pin
connections to GCLK and RCLK networks, and PLL features tables.
• Updated information on dual-regional clock region.
• Added label for PLL strip in PLL locations diagrams.
• Added descriptions for PLLs located in a strip.
• Updated VCO post-scale counter, K, to VCO post divider.
• Added information on PLL cascading.
• Added information on programmable phase shift.
• Updated automatic clock switchover mode requirement.
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Document Revision History
Date
May 2013
Version
2013.05.06
4-45
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
Updated PCLK clock sources per device quadrant.
Added PCLK networks resources and diagram for Stratix V E devices.
Updated PCLK clock sources in hierarchical clock networks in each
spine clock per quadrant diagram.
Added PCLK networks in clock network sources section.
Updated dedicated clock input pins in clock network sources section.
Added information on C output counters for PLLs.
Added power down mode in PLL features table.
Added information on PLL physical counters.
Updated the PLL locations index from CEN_X<#>_Y<#>, COR_X<#>_
Y<#>, and LR_X<#>_Y<#> to FRACTIONALPLL_X<#>_Y<#>.
Removed LVPECL I/O standard support for clock output pin pairs.
Updated PLL support for EFB mode.
Updated the scaling factors for PLL output ports.
Updated the fractional value for PLL in fractional mode.
Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
Reorganized content.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added note to indicate that the figures shown are the top view of the
silicon die.
• Added diagram for PLL physical counter orientation.
• Updated PLL locations diagrams.
• Removed information on pfdena PLL control signal.
• Removed information on PLL Compensation assignment in the
Quartus II software.
• Updated the fractional value for PLL in fractional mode.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
1.4
• Added Table 4–5 and Table 4–6.
• Added Figure 4–6, Figure 4–8, Figure 4–20, Figure 4–22, and Figure
4–33.
• Updated Table 4–1, Table 4–2, and Table 4–3.
• Updated Figure 4–3, Figure 4–5, Figure 4–17, Figure 4–18, Figure 4–
19, and Figure 4–21.
• Added “PLL Migration Guidelines”, “Implementing Multiple PLLs in
Normal Mode and Source Synchronous Mode”, “Clock Switchover”,
and “PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift” sections.
• Updated “Clock Networks in Stratix V Devices”, “Clock Network
Sources”, and “Clock Multiplication and Division” sections.
November
2011
1.3
Updated Figure 4–19 and Figure 4–28.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
May 2011
1.2
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Updated Table 4–1.
• Updated Figure 4–3, Figure 4–4, Figure 4–5, Figure 4–6, Figure 4–15,
Figure 4–17, Figure 4–18, Figure 4–20, Figure 4–25, and Figure 4–28.
• Updated “Zero-Delay Buffer Mode” and “External Feedback Mode”
sections.
• Added “PLL Clock Outputs” section.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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This chapter provides details about the features of the Stratix V I/O elements (IOEs) and how the IOEs
work in compliance with current and emerging I/O standards and requirements.
The Stratix V I/Os support the following features:
• True LVDS channels in all I/O banks support SGMII, SPI-4.2, and XSBI applications
• Hard dynamic phase alignment (DPA) and serializer/deserializer (SERDES) support in I/O banks on
all sides of the device with DPA
• Single-ended, non-voltage-referenced, and voltage-referenced I/O standards
• Low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), RSDS, mini-LVDS, HSTL, HSUL, and SSTL I/O standards
across all I/O banks
• Double data rate (DDR), single data rate (SDR), and half data rate input and output options
• Serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
• Deskew, read and write leveling, and clock-domain crossing functionality for high-performance
memory interface
• Programmable output current strength
• Programmable slew-rate
• Programmable bus-hold
• Programmable pull-up resistor
• Programmable pre-emphasis
• Programmable I/O delay
• Programmable voltage output differential (VOD)
• Open-drain output
• On-chip series termination (RS OCT) with and without calibration
• On-chip parallel termination (RT OCT)
• On-chip differential termination (RD OCT)
Note: The information in this chapter is applicable to all Stratix V variants, unless noted otherwise.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices
I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices
This section lists the I/O standards supported in the FPGA I/Os of Stratix V devices, the typical power
supply values for each I/O standard, and the MultiVolt I/O interface feature.
I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices
Stratix V devices support a wide range of industry I/O standards. These devices support VCCIO voltage
levels of 3.0, 2.5, 1.8, 1.5, 1.35, 1.25, and 1.2 V.
Table 5-1: Supported I/O Standards for Stratix V Devices
This table lists the I/O standards for Stratix V devices, as well as the typical applications they support.
I/O Standard
(4)
Typical Applications
Standard Support
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS(4)
General purpose
JESD8-B
2.5 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-5
1.8 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-7
1.5 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-11
1.2 V LVCMOS
General purpose
JESD8-12
SSTL-2 Class I
DDR SDRAM
JESD8-9B
SSTL-2 Class II
DDR SDRAM
JESD8-9B
SSTL-18 Class I
DDR2 SDRAM
JESD8-15
SSTL-18 Class II
DDR2 SDRAM
JESD8-15
SSTL-15 Class I
DDR3 SDRAM
—
SSTL-15 Class II
DDR3 SDRAM
—
1.8 V HSTL Class I
QDR II/RLDRAM II
JESD8-6
1.8 V HSTL Class II
QDR II/RLDRAM II
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class I
QDR II/QDR II+/
RLDRAM II
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class II
QDR II/QDR II+/
RLDRAM II
JESD8-6
1.2 V HSTL Class I
General purpose
JESD8-16A
1.2 V HSTL Class II
General purpose
JESD8-16A
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
DDR SDRAM
JESD8-9B
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
DDR SDRAM
JESD8-9B
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
DDR2 SDRAM
JESD8-15
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
DDR2 SDRAM
JESD8-15
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
DDR3 SDRAM
—
Supported using VCCIO at 3.0 V.
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I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Stratix V Devices
I/O Standard
Typical Applications
Standard Support
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
DDR3 SDRAM
—
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Clock interfaces
JESD8-6
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Clock interfaces
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Clock interfaces
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Clock interfaces
JESD8-6
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Clock interfaces
JESD8-16A
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Clock interfaces
JESD8-16A
LVDS
High-speed
communications
ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
RSDS
Flat panel display
—
Mini-LVDS
Flat panel display
—
LVPECL
Video graphics and
clock distribution
—
SSTL-15
DDR3 SDRAM
JESD79-3D
SSTL-135
DDR3L SDRAM
—
SSTL-125
DDR3U SDRAM
—
SSTL-12
RLDRAM 3
—
HSUL-12
LPDDR2 SDRAM
—
Differential SSTL-15
DDR3 SDRAM
JESD79-3D
Differential SSTL-135
DDR3L SDRAM
—
Differential SSTL-125
DDR3U SDRAM
—
Differential SSTL-12
RLDRAM 3
—
Differential HSUL-12
LPDDR2 SDRAM
—
5-3
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Stratix V Devices
Table 5-2: Stratix V I/O Standards Voltage Levels
This table lists the typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in Stratix V devices.
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V
LVCMOS
(5)
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
Input(5)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
3.0/2.5
3.0
3.0
—
—
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
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I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Stratix V Devices
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
(5)
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
Input(5)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
2.5 V LVCMOS
3.0/2.5
2.5
2.5
—
—
1.8 V LVCMOS
1.8/1.5
1.8
2.5
—
—
1.5 V LVCMOS
1.8/1.5
1.5
2.5
—
—
1.2 V LVCMOS
1.2
1.2
2.5
—
—
SSTL-2 Class I
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
1.25
1.25
SSTL-2 Class II
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
1.25
1.25
SSTL-18 Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
SSTL-18 Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
SSTL-15 Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
SSTL-15 Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.8 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
1.8 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
1.5 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.5 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.2 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.6
1.2 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.6
Differential SSTL-2 Class
I
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
1.25
Differential SSTL-2 Class
II
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
1.25
Differential SSTL-18
Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential SSTL-18
Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential SSTL-15
Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential SSTL-15
Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.8 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential 1.8 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
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VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
5-5
Input(5)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
Differential 1.5 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.5 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.2 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
0.6
Differential 1.2 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
0.6
LVDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
RSDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
Mini-LVDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
LVPECL (Differential
clock input only)
VCCPD
—
2.5
—
—
SSTL-15
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
SSTL-135
VCCPD
1.35
2.5
0.675
SSTL-125
VCCPD
1.25
2.5
0.625
SSTL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
HSUL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
Differential SSTL-15
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
Differential SSTL-135
VCCPD
1.35
2.5
—
Differential SSTL-125
VCCPD
1.25
2.5
—
Differential SSTL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
Differential HSUL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
Typically does not
require board
termination
Typically does not
require board
termination
The Stratix V I/O buffers support 3.3 V I/O standards. You can use them as transmitters or receivers in
your system. The output high voltage (VOH), output low voltage (VOL), input high voltage (VIH), and
input low voltage (VIL) levels meet the 3.3 V I/O standards specifications defined by EIA/JEDEC Standard
JESD8-B with margin when the Stratix V VCCIO voltage is powered by 3.0 V.
Related Information
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing on page 5-8
Provides more information about the 3.3 V LVTTL/LVCMOS I/O standard supported in Stratix V
devices.
(5)
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
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MultiVolt I/O Interface in Stratix V Devices
MultiVolt I/O Interface in Stratix V Devices
The MultiVolt I/O interface feature allows Stratix V devices in all packages to interface with systems of
different supply voltages.
You can connect the VCCIO pins to a 1.2, 1.25, 1.35, 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, or 3.0 V power supply, depending on the
output requirements. The output levels are compatible with systems of the same voltage as the power
supply. For example, when VCCIO pins are connected to a 1.5 V power supply, the output levels are
compatible with 1.5 V systems.
For LVDS applications:
• The LVDS I/O standard is not supported when VCCIO is 3.0 V.
• The LVDS input operations are supported when VCCIO is 1.2, 1.25, 1.35, 1.5, 1.8, or 2.5 V.
• The LVDS output operations are only supported when VCCIO is 2.5 V.
Table 5-3: MultiVolt I/O Support in Stratix V Devices
VCCIO (V)
VCCPD (V)
Input Signal (V)
Output Signal (V)
1.2
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.25
2.5
1.25
1.25
1.35
2.5
1.35
1.35
1.5
2.5
1.5, 1.8
1.5
1.8
2.5
1.5, 1.8
1.8
2.5
2.5
2.5, 3.0, 3.3
2.5
3.0
3.0
2.5, 3.0, 3.3
3.0, 3.3
The pin current may be slightly higher than the default value. Verify that the VOL maximum and VOH
minimum voltages of the driving device do not violate the applicable VIL maximum and VIH minimum
voltage specifications of the Stratix V device.
The VCCPD power pins must be connected to a 2.5 V or 3.0 V power supply. Using these power pins to
supply the pre-driver power to the output buffers increases the performance of the output pins.
Note: If the input signal is 3.0 V or 3.3 V, Altera recommends that you use an external clamping diode on
the I/O pins.
I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
Each I/O bank can simultaneously support multiple I/O standards. The following sections provide
guidelines for mixing non-voltage-referenced and voltage-referenced I/O standards in the devices.
(6)
Single-ended I/O standard at this voltage is not supported in the Stratix V devices. This information
highlights that multiple single-ended I/O standards are not compatible with VCCIO at this voltage.
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Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
Each Stratix V I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins and supports only one VCCIO of 1.2, 1.25, 1.35, 1.5, 1.8,
2.5, or 3.0 V. An I/O bank can simultaneously support any number of input signals with different I/O
standard assignments if the I/O standards support the VCCIO level and VCCPD requirement of the I/O
bank.
For output signals, a single I/O bank supports non-voltage-referenced output signals that drive at the
same voltage as VCCIO. Because an I/O bank can only have one VCCIO value, it can only drive out the value
for non-voltage-referenced signals.
For example, an I/O bank with a 2.5 V VCCIO setting can support 2.5 V standard inputs and outputs, and
3.0 V LVCMOS inputs only.
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
To accommodate voltage-referenced I/O standards:
• Each Stratix V I/O bank supports multiple dedicated VREF pins feeding a common VREF bus.
• Each bank can have only a single VCCIO voltage level and a single voltage reference (VREF) level.
An I/O bank featuring single-ended or differential standards can support different voltage-referenced
standards if all voltage-referenced standards use the same VREF setting.
For performance reasons, voltage-referenced input standards use their own VCCPD level as the power
source. This feature allows you to place voltage-referenced input signals in an I/O bank with a VCCIO of
2.5 V or below. For example, you can place HSTL-15 input pins in an I/O bank with 2.5 V VCCIO.
However, the voltage-referenced input with RT OCT enabled requires the VCCIO of the I/O bank to match
the voltage of the input standard. RT OCT cannot be supported for the HSTL-15 I/O standard when
VCCIO is 2.5 V.
Voltage-referenced bidirectional and output signals must be the same as the VCCIO voltage of the I/O
bank. For example, you can place only SSTL-2 output pins in an I/O bank with a 2.5 V VCCIO.
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage Referenced I/O Standards
An I/O bank can support voltage-referenced and non-voltage-referenced pins by applying each of the rule
sets individually.
Examples:
• An I/O bank can support SSTL-18 inputs and outputs, and 1.8 V inputs and outputs with a 1.8 V
VCCIO and a 0.9 V VREF.
• An I/O bank can support 1.5 V standards, 1.8 V inputs (but not outputs), and HSTL and 1.5 V HSTL
I/O standards with a 1.5 V VCCIO and 0.75 V VREF.
Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group
One VCCPD is shared in a group of I/O banks. If one I/O bank in a group uses 3.0 V VCCPD, other I/O
banks in the same group must also use 3.0 V VCCPD.
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing
The I/O banks with the same bank number form a group. For example, I/O banks 7A, 7B, 7C, and 7D
form a group and share the same VCCPD. This sharing is applicable to all I/O banks, with the following
exceptions:
• I/O banks 3A and 3B form a group with one VCCPD.
• I/O banks 3C, 3D, and 3E (if available) form another group with its own VCCPD.
If you are using an output or bidirectional pin with the 3.3 V LVTTL or 3.3 V LVCMOS I/O standard, you
must adhere to this restriction manually with location assignments.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V E Devices on page 5-10
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices on page 5-11
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices on page 5-14
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GT Devices on page 5-15
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing
To ensure device reliability and proper operation when you use the device for 3.3 V I/O interfacing, do
not violate the absolute maximum ratings of the device. For more information about absolute maximum
rating and maximum allowed overshoot during transitions, refer to the device datasheet.
Tip: Perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to make sure the overshoot and undershoot voltages are within
the specifications.
Transmitter Application
If you use the Stratix V device as a transmitter, use slow slew-rate and series termination to limit the
overshoot and undershoot at the I/O pins. Transmission line effects that cause large voltage deviations at
the receiver are associated with an impedance mismatch between the driver and the transmission lines. By
matching the impedance of the driver to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, you can
significantly reduce overshoot voltage. You can use a series termination resistor placed physically close to
the driver to match the total driver impedance to the transmission line impedance.
Receiver Application
If you use the Stratix V device as a receiver, use an off-chip clamping diode to limit the overshoot and
undershoot voltage at the I/O pins.
The 3.3 V I/O standard is supported using the bank supply voltage (VCCIO) at 3.0 V and a VCCPD voltage
of 3.0 V. In this method, the clamping diode can sufficiently clamp overshoot voltage to within the DC
and AC input voltage specifications. The clamped voltage is expressed as the sum of the VCCIO and the
diode forward voltage.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Guideline: Use PLL Integer Mode for LVDS Applications
For LVDS applications, you must use the phase-locked loops (PLLs) in integer PLL mode.
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Related Information
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
• High-Speed Differential I/O Interfaces and DPA in Stratix V Devices
Provides more information about LVDS usage.
I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices
All I/O banks in Stratix V devices contain true differential input and output buffers and dedicated
circuitry to support differential I/O standards:
•
•
•
•
The number of I/O banks in a particular device depends on the device density.
Each I/O bank supports a high-performance external memory interface.
The I/O pins are organized in pairs to support differential I/O standards.
Each I/O pin pair can support both differential input and output buffers.
Figure 5-1: I/0 Banks for Stratix V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Bank 8B
Bank 8C
Bank 8D
Bank 8E
Bank 7E
Bank 7D
Bank 7C
Bank 7B
Bank 7A
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 3C
Bank 3D
Bank 3E
Bank 4E
Bank 4D
Bank 4C
Bank 4B
Bank 4A
Transceiver Block
Transceiver Block
Bank 8A
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V E Devices on page 5-10
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices on page 5-11
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices on page 5-14
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GT Devices on page 5-15
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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I/O Banks Groups in Stratix V Devices
I/O Banks Groups in Stratix V Devices
The I/O pins in Stratix V devices are arranged in groups called modular I/O banks:
• Modular I/O banks have independent power supplies that allow each bank to support different I/O
standards.
• Each modular I/O bank can support multiple I/O standards that use the same VCCIO and VCCPD
voltages.
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V E Devices
Table 5-4: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V E Devices
Member Code
E9
Package
Bank
Total
EB
H40
F45
H40
F45
3A
36
36
36
36
3B
48
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
48
3D
48
48
48
48
3E
—
36
—
36
4A
24
24
24
24
4B
48
48
48
48
4C
48
48
48
48
4D
48
48
48
48
4E
—
36
—
36
7A
24
24
24
24
7B
48
48
48
48
7C
48
48
48
48
7D
48
48
48
48
7E
—
36
—
36
8A
36
36
36
36
8B
48
48
48
48
8C
48
48
48
48
8D
48
48
48
48
8E
—
36
—
36
696
840
696
840
Related Information
• I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices on page 5-9
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Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-7
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices
Table 5-5: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX A3 and A4 Devices
Member Code
A3
Package
Bank
EH29
HF35
KF35
KF40
HF35
KF35
KF40
3A
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
—
—
—
48
48
—
48
3D
24
24
24
48
24
24
48
4A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
4B
—
48
48
48
48
48
48
4C
—
—
—
48
48
—
48
4D
24
36
36
48
24
36
48
7A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
7B
—
48
48
48
48
48
48
7C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7D
36
36
36
48
36
36
48
8A
24
24
24
36
24
24
36
8B
—
—
—
48
—
—
48
8C
48
—
—
48
48
—
48
8D
24
36
36
48
24
36
48
360
432
432
696
552
432
696
Total
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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A4
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Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX Devices
Table 5-6: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX A5 and A7 Devices
Member Code
Package
Bank
Total
Altera Corporation
A5
A7
HF35
KF35
KF40
NF40
NF45
HF35
KF35
KF40
NF40
NF45
3A
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
48
—
48
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
3D
24
24
48
24
48
24
24
48
24
48
3E
—
—
—
—
36
—
—
—
—
36
4A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
4B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
4C
48
—
48
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
4D
24
36
48
24
48
24
36
48
24
48
4E
—
—
—
—
36
—
—
—
—
36
7A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
7B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7D
36
36
48
48
48
36
36
48
48
48
7E
—
—
—
—
36
—
—
—
—
36
8A
24
24
36
36
36
24
24
36
36
36
8B
—
—
48
—
48
—
—
48
—
48
8C
48
—
48
48
48
48
—
48
48
48
8D
24
36
48
48
48
24
36
48
48
48
8E
—
—
—
—
36
—
—
—
—
36
552
432
696
600
840
552
432
696
600
840
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5-13
Table 5-7: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GX A9, AB, B5, B6, B9, and BB Devices
Member Code
Package
Bank
A9
AB
B5
B6
B9
BB
KH40
NF45
KH40
NF45
RF40
RF43
RF40
RF43
RH43
RH43
3A
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
48
48
48
48
—
48
—
48
48
48
3D
48
48
48
48
—
36
—
36
36
36
3E
—
36
—
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
4A
24
24
24
24
48
48
48
48
48
48
4B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
4C
48
48
48
48
36
36
36
36
36
36
4D
48
48
48
48
—
—
—
—
—
—
4E
—
36
—
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
7A
24
24
24
24
48
48
48
48
48
48
7B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7C
48
48
48
48
36
36
36
36
36
36
7D
48
48
48
48
—
—
—
—
—
—
7E
—
36
—
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
8A
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
8B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
8C
48
48
48
48
—
48
—
48
48
48
8D
48
48
48
48
—
36
—
36
36
36
8E
—
36
—
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
696
840
696
840
432
600
432
600
600
600
Total
Related Information
• I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices on page 5-9
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-7
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices
Table 5-8: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GS Devices
Member Code
Package
Bank
Total
D3
D4
D5
D6
D8
EF29
HF35
EF29
HF35
KF40
HF35
KF40
KF40
NF45
KF40
NF45
3A
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
3B
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3C
—
—
—
—
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
3D
24
24
24
24
48
24
48
48
48
48
48
3E
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
36
—
36
4A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
4B
—
48
—
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
4C
—
—
—
—
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
4D
24
24
24
24
48
24
48
48
48
48
48
4E
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
36
—
36
7A
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
7B
—
24
—
24
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
7D
36
36
36
36
48
36
48
48
48
48
48
7E
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
36
—
36
8A
24
24
24
24
36
24
36
36
36
36
36
8B
—
—
—
—
48
—
48
48
48
48
48
8C
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
8D
24
24
24
24
48
24
48
48
48
48
48
8E
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
36
—
36
360
432
360
432
696
552
696
696
840
696
840
Related Information
• I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices on page 5-9
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-7
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
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5-15
Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GT Devices
Table 5-9: Modular I/O Banks for Stratix V GT Devices
Member Code
C5
C7
Package
KF40
KF40
3A
36
36
3B
48
48
3C
48
48
3D
24
24
3E
—
—
4A
24
24
4B
48
48
4C
48
48
4D
24
24
4E
—
—
7A
24
24
7B
48
48
7C
48
48
7D
48
48
7E
—
—
8A
36
36
8B
—
—
8C
48
48
8D
48
48
8E
—
—
600
600
Bank
Total
Related Information
• I/O Banks in Stratix V Devices on page 5-9
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-7
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
I/O Element Structure in Stratix V Devices
The I/O elements (IOEs) in Stratix V devices contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and I/O registers to
support a complete embedded bidirectional single data rate (SDR) or double data rate (DDR) transfer.
The IOEs are located in I/O blocks around the periphery of the Stratix V device.
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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I/O Buffer and Registers in Stratix V Devices
I/O Buffer and Registers in Stratix V Devices
I/O registers are composed of the input path for handling data from the pin to the core, the output path
for handling data from the core to the pin, and the output enable (OE) path for handling the OE signal to
the output buffer. These registers allow faster source-synchronous register-to-register transfers and
resynchronization.
Table 5-10: Input and Output Paths in Stratix V Devices
This table summarizes the input and output path in the Stratix V devices.
Input Path
Output Path
Consists of:
Consists of:
• DDR input registers
• Alignment and synchronization registers
• Half data rate blocks
• Output or OE registers
• Alignment registers
• Half data rate blocks
You can bypass each block in the input path. The
You can bypass each block of the output and OE
input path uses the deskew delay to adjust the input paths.
register clock delay across process, voltage, and
temperature (PVT) variations.
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External Memory Interfaces
5-17
Figure 5-2: IOE Structure for Stratix V Devices
This figure shows the Stratix V FPGA IOE structure. In the figure, one dynamic on-chip termination
(OCT) control is available for each DQ/DQS group.
From Core
DQS Logic Block
OE Register
D
OE
from
Core
2
Half Data
Rate Block
PRN
D6_OCT
D5_OCT
Dynamic OCT Control
Q
Alignment
Registers
OE Register
D5, D6
Delay
PRN
Q
D
V CCIO
Programmable
Pull-Up Resistor
Write
Data
from
Core
Output Register
Half Data
Rate Block
4
Programmable
Current
Strength and
Slew Rate
Control
Alignment
Registers
D
PRN
Q
D5, D6
Delay
Output Register
D
PRN
Bus-Hold
Circuit
D1
Delay
D3_1
Delay
To
Core
Same available settings in
the Quartus II software
Input Register
PRN
Q
D
Read
Data
to
Core
4
Half Data
Rate Block
Alignment and
Synchronization
Registers
Input Register
Input Register
PRN
D
DQS
CQn
On-Chip
Termination
Input Buffer
D3_0
Delay
To
Core
Output Buffer
Open Drain
D2 Delay
Q
clkout
From OCT
Calibration
Block
Q
D
PRN
Q
D4 Delay
clkin
Deskew Delay
External Memory Interfaces
In addition to the I/O registers in each IOE, Stratix V devices also have dedicated registers and phase-shift
circuitry on all I/O banks to interface with external memory. Stratix V devices support I/O standards such
as SSTL-12, SSTL-15, SSTL-125, SSTL-135, and HSUL-12.
High-Speed Differential I/O with DPA Support
To support high-speed differential I/O, Stratix V devices contain the following dedicated circuitries:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Differential I/O buffer
Transmitter serializer
Receiver deserializer
Data realignment
DPA
Synchronizer (FIFO buffer)
Phase-locked loops (PLLs)
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices
Table 5-11: Summary of Supported Stratix V Programmable IOE Features and Settings
Feature
Slew Rate Control(7)
(7)
(8)
Setting
• 0 (Slow)
• 1 (Fast).
Default is 1.
Assignment Name
Slew Rate
Supported I/O Standards
• 3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.3 LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL-15/
SSTL-12
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• Differential SSTL-2/
Differential SSTL-18/
Differential SSTL-15/
Differential SSTL-12
• Differential 1.2/1.5/ 1.8V
HSTL
Programmable Output Buffer • 0 ps (Default)
Delay
• 50 ps
• 100 ps
• 150 ps
Output Buffer • 3.3V LVTTL
Delay
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.3 LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL-15/
SSTL-135/SSTL-125/SSTL12
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
• Differential SSTL-2/
Differential SSTL-18/
Differential SSTL-15/
Differential SSTL-135/
Differential SSTL-125/
Differential SSTL-12
• Differential 1.2/1.5/ 1.8V
HSTL
• Differential HSUL-12
Open-Drain Output(8)
—
• On
• Off (default)
• 3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.3 LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-12/SSTL-18/
SSTL-15/SSTL-135/SSTL125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
Disabled if you use the RS OCT feature.
Open drain feature can be enabled using OPNDRN primitive.
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Feature
Setting
Assignment Name
5-19
Supported I/O Standards
Bus-Hold(9)
• On
• Off (default)
Enable BusHold
Circuitry
• 3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.3 LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-12/SSTL-18/
SSTL-15/SSTL-135/SSTL125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
Pull-up Resistor(10)
• On
• Off (default)
Weak Pull-Up
Resistor
• 3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.3 LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-12/SSTL-18/
SSTL-15/SSTL-135/SSTL125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
Pre-Emphasis
• 0 (disabled)
• 1 (enabled).
Default is 1.
Programmable
Pre-emphasis
• LVDS
• RSDS
• Mini-LVDS
Differential Output Voltage
• 0 (low)
• 1 (medium
low)
• 2 (medium
high)
• 3 (high).
Default is 1
Programmable
• LVDS
Differential
• RSDS
Output
• Mini-LVDS
Voltage (VOD)
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(9)
(10)
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Programmable Current Strength on page 5-20
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control on page 5-20
Programmable IOE Delay on page 5-21
Programmable Output Buffer Delay on page 5-21
Programmable Pre-Emphasis on page 5-22
Programmable Differential Output Voltage on page 5-23
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Disabled if you use the pull-up resistor feature.
Disabled if you use the bus-hold feature.
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Programmable Current Strength
Programmable Current Strength
You can use the programmable current strength to mitigate the effects of high signal attenuation that is
caused by a long transmission line or a legacy backplane.
Table 5-12: Programmable Current Strength Settings for Stratix V Devices
The output buffer for each Stratix V device I/O pin has a programmable current strength control for the I/O
standards listed in this table.
I/O Standard
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
(Default setting in bold)
3.3-V LVTTL
16, 12, 8, 4
3.3-V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
2.5-V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
1.8-V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.5-V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
1.2-V LVCMOS
8, 6, 4, 2
SSTL-2 Class I
12, 10, 8
SSTL-2 Class II
16
SSTL-18 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
SSTL-18 Class II
16, 8
SSTL-15 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
SSTL-15 Class II
16, 8
1.8-V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
1.8-V HSTL Class II
16
1.5-V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
1.5-V HSTL Class II
16
1.2-V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
1.2-V HSTL Class II
16
The 3.3 V LVTTL and 3.3 V LVCMOS I/O standards are supported using VCCIO and VCCPD at 3.0 V.
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best current
strength setting for your specific application.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control
Programmable output slew-rate is available for single-ended I/O standards and emulated LVDS output
standards.
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The programmable output slew-rate control in the output buffer of each regular- and dual-function I/O
pin allows you to configure the following:
• Fast slew-rate—provides high-speed transitions for high-performance systems. Fast slew rates improve
the available timing margin in memory-interface applications or when the output pin has highcapacitive loading.
• Slow slew-rate—reduces system noise and crosstalk but adds a nominal delay to the rising and falling
edges.
You can specify the slew-rate on a pin-by-pin basis because each I/O pin contains a slew-rate control.
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best slew rate
setting for your specific application.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Programmable IOE Delay
You can activate the programmable IOE delays to ensure zero hold times, minimize setup times, or
increase clock-to-output times. This feature helps read and write timing margins because it minimizes the
uncertainties between signals in the bus.
Each single-ended and differential I/O pin can have a different input delay from pin-to-input register or a
delay from output register-to-output pin values to ensure that the signals within a bus have the same delay
going into or out of the device.
For more information about the programmable IOE delay specifications, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Programmable Output Buffer Delay
The delay chains are built inside the single-ended output buffer. There are four levels of output buffer
delay settings. By default, there is no delay.
The delay chains can independently control the rising and falling edge delays of the output buffer,
allowing you to:
• Adjust the output-buffer duty cycle
• Compensate channel-to-channel skew
• Reduce simultaneous switching output (SSO) noise by deliberately introducing channel-to-channel
skew
• Improve high-speed memory-interface timing margins
For more information about the programmable output buffer delay specifications, refer to the device
datasheet.
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Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The VOD setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output current limit of a high-speed
transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast enough to reach the full VOD level
before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent jitter. With pre-emphasis, the output current is
boosted momentarily during switching to increase the output slew rate.
Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output signal, and thus
helps to compensate for the frequency-dependent attenuation along the transmission line. The overshoot
introduced by the extra current happens only during a change of state switching to increase the output
slew rate and does not ring, unlike the overshoot caused by signal reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis
required depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency component along the transmission line.
Figure 5-3: Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This figure shows the LVDS output with pre-emphasis.
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
VP
OUT
V OD
OUT
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Table 5-13: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This table lists the assignment name for programmable pre-emphasis and its possible values in the Quartus Prime
software Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
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Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to optimize the trace length
and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller
VOD swing reduces power consumption. You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by
changing the VOD settings in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Figure 5-4: Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VOD
Negative Channel (n)
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x VOD (single-ended)
VOD
p-n=0V
VOD
Table 5-14: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
This table lists the assignment name for programmable VOD and its possible values in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
0 (low), 1 (medium low), 2 (medium high), 3 (high).
Default is 1.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Open-Drain Output
The optional open-drain output for each I/O pin is equivalent to an open collector output. If it is
configured as an open drain, the logic value of the output is either high-Z or logic low.
You can attach several open-drain output to a wire. This connection type is like a logical OR function and
is commonly called an active-low wired-OR circuit. If at least one of the outputs is in logic 0 state (active),
the circuit sinks the current and brings the line to low voltage.
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Bus-Hold Circuitry
You can use open-drain output if you are connecting multiple devices to a bus. For example, you can use
the open-drain output for system-level control signals that can be asserted by any device or as an
interrupt.
You can enable the open-drain output assignment using one these methods:
• Design the tristate buffer using OPNDRN primitive.
• Turn on the Auto Open-Drain Pins option in the Quartus Prime software.
Although you can design open-drain output without enabling the option assignment, you will not be
using the open-drain output feature of the I/O buffer. The open-drain output feature in the I/O buffer
provides you the best propagation delay from OE to output.
Bus-Hold Circuitry
Each I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature that is active only after configuration. When the
device enters user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the value that is present on the pin by the end of
the configuration.
The bus-hold circuitry uses a resistor with a nominal resistance (RBH), approximately 7 kΩ, to weakly pull
the signal level to the last-driven state of the pin. The bus-hold circuitry holds this pin state until the next
input signal is present. Because of this, you do not require an external pull-up or pull-down resistor to
hold a signal level when the bus is tri-stated.
For each I/O pin, you can individually specify that the bus-hold circuitry pulls non-driven pins away from
the input threshold voltage—where noise can cause unintended high-frequency switching. To prevent
over-driving signals, the bus-hold circuitry drives the voltage level of the I/O pin lower than the VCCIO
level.
If you enable the bus-hold feature, you cannot use the programmable pull-up option. To configure the
I/O pin for differential signals, disable the bus-hold feature.
Pull-up Resistor
Each I/O pin provides an optional programmable pull-up resistor during user mode. The pull-up resistor,
typically 25 kΩ, weakly holds the I/O to the VCCIO level. If you enable this option, you cannot use the bushold feature.
The Stratix V device supports programmable pull-up resistors only on user I/O pins.
For dedicated configuration pins or JTAG pins with internal pull-up resistors, these resistor values are not
programmable. You can find more information related to the internal pull-up values for dedicated
configuration pins or JTAG pins in the Stratix V Pin Connection Guidelines.
On-Chip I/O Termination in Stratix V Devices
Dynamic RS and RT OCT provides I/O impedance matching and termination capabilities. OCT maintains
signal quality, saves board space, and reduces external component costs.
The Stratix V devices support OCT in all I/O banks.
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RS OCT without Calibration in Stratix V Devices
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Table 5-15: OCT Schemes Supported in Stratix V Devices
Direction
OCT Schemes
RS OCT with calibration
Output
RS OCT without calibration
RT OCT with calibration
Input
RD OCT (differential LVDS I/O standard only)
Bidirectional
Dynamic RS OCT and RT OCT
RS OCT without Calibration in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices support RS OCT for single-ended I/O standards. RS OCT without calibration is
supported on output only.
Table 5-16: Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT Without Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for uncalibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
25/50
2.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.8 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.2 V LVCMOS
25/50
SSTL-2 Class I
50
SSTL-2 Class II
25
SSTL-18 Class I
50
SSTL-18 Class II
25
SSTL-15 Class I
50
SSTL-15 Class II
25
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
25
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I/O Standard
Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
25
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
25
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
SSTL-15
25, 34, 40, 50
SSTL-135
34, 40
SSTL-125
34, 40
SSTL-12
40, 60, 240
HSUL-12
34.3, 40, 48, 60, 80
The following list specifies the default settings for RS OCT without calibration in the Quartus Prime
software:
• For all non-voltage-referenced, HSTL Class I, and SSTL Class I I/O standards—50 Ω.
• For HSTL Class II and SSTL Class II I/O standards—25 Ω.
Driver-impedance matching provides the I/O driver with controlled output impedance that closely
matches the impedance of the transmission line. As a result, you can significantly reduce signal reflections
on PCB traces.
If you select matching impedance, current strength is no longer selectable.
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RS OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices
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Figure 5-5: RS OCT Without Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors. Typical RS values are 25 Ω
and 50 Ω.
Receiving
Device
Driver
Series Termination
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
To use OCT for the SSTL Class I I/O standard, you must select the 50 Ω RS OCT setting, thus eliminating
the external 25 Ω RS (to match the 50 Ω transmission line). For the SSTL Class II I/O standard, you must
select the 25 Ω RS OCT setting (to match the 50 Ω transmission line and the near-end external 50 Ω
pull-up to VTT).
RS OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices support RS OCT with calibration in all banks.
Table 5-17: Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT With Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
2.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.8 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.2 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
SSTL-2 Class II
25
100
SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
SSTL-18 Class II
25
100
SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
25
100
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
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RS OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices
I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
25
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
100
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
SSTL-135
34, 40
240
SSTL-125
34, 40
240
SSTL-12
40, 60, 240
240
HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-135
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-125
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-12
40, 60, 240
240
Differential HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
SSTL-15
Differential SSTL-15
The RS OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the external reference
resistor connected to the RZQ pin and dynamically enables or disables the transistors until they match.
Calibration occurs at the end of device configuration. When the calibration circuit finds the correct
impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the characteristics of the drivers.
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RT OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices
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Figure 5-6: RS OCT with Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors.
Driver
Series Termination
Receiving
Device
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
RT OCT with Calibration in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices support RT OCT with calibration in all banks. RT OCT with calibration is available
only for configuration of input and bidirectional pins. Output pin configurations do not support RT OCT
with calibration. If you use RT OCT, the VCCIO of the bank must match the I/O standard of the pin where
you enable the RT OCT.
Table 5-18: Selectable I/O Standards for RT OCT With Calibration
This table lists the input termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Input)
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
SSTL-2 Class II
50
100
SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
SSTL-18 Class II
50
100
SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class II
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class II
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
50
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
50
100
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I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Input)
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
50
100
SSTL-15
20, 30, 40, 60,120
240
SSTL-135
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
SSTL-125
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
SSTL-12
60, 120
240
HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
Differential SSTL-15
20, 30, 40, 60,120
240
Differential SSTL-135
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-125
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-12
60, 120
240
Differential HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
The RT OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the external resistor
connected to the RZQ pin. The circuit dynamically enables or disables the transistors until the total
impedance of the I/O buffer matches the external resistor.
Calibration occurs at the end of the device configuration. When the calibration circuit finds the correct
impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the characteristics of the drivers.
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Figure 5-7: RT OCT with Calibration
FPGA OCT
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
Receiver
Dynamic OCT in Stratix V Devices
Dynamic OCT is useful for terminating a high-performance bidirectional path by optimizing the signal
integrity depending on the direction of the data. Dynamic OCT also helps save power because device
termination is internal—termination switches on only during input operation and thus draw less static
power.
Note: If you use the HSUL-12, SSTL-12, SSTL-15, SSTL-135, and SSTL-125 I/O standards with the DDR3
memory interface, Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board
space and cost. OCT reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Table 5-19: Dynamic OCT Based on Bidirectional I/O
Dynamic RT OCT or RS OCT is enabled or disabled based on whether the bidirectional I/O acts as a receiver or
driver.
Dynamic OCT
Dynamic RT OCT
Dynamic RS OCT
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
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Bidirectional I/O
State
Acts as a receiver
Enabled
Acts as a driver
Disabled
Acts as a receiver
Disabled
Acts as a driver
Enabled
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LVDS Input RD OCT in Stratix V Devices
Figure 5-8: Dynamic RT OCT in Stratix V Devices
V CCIO
V CCIO
Transmitter
Receiver
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
V CCIO
V CCIO
Receiver
Transmitter
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
LVDS Input RD OCT in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices support RD OCT in all I/O banks.
You can only use RD OCT if you set the VCCPD to 2.5 V.
Figure 5-9: Differential Input OCT
The Stratix V devices support OCT for differential LVDS input buffers with a nominal resistance value of
100 Ω, as shown in this figure.
Transmitter
Receiver
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
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OCT Calibration Block in Stratix V Devices
You can calibrate the OCT using any of the available four to eight OCT calibration blocks, depending on
the device density. Each calibration block contains one RZQ pin.
You can use RS and RT OCT in the same I/O bank for different I/O standards if the I/O standards use the
same VCCIO supply voltage. You cannot configure the RS OCT and the programmable current strength for
the same I/O buffer.
The OCT calibration process uses the RZQ pin that is available in every calibration block in a given I/O
bank for series- and parallel-calibrated termination:
• Connect the RZQ pin to GND through an external 100 Ω or 240 Ω resistor (depending on the RS or RT
OCT value).
• The RZQ pin shares the same VCCIO supply voltage with the I/O bank where the pin is located.
• The RZQ pin is a dual-purpose I/O pin and functions as a general purpose I/O pin if you do not use
the calibration circuit.
Stratix V devices support calibrated RS and calibrated RT OCT on all I/O pins except for dedicated
configuration pins.
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Calibration Block Locations in Stratix V Devices
Calibration Block Locations in Stratix V Devices
Figure 5-10: OCT Calibration Block and RZQ Pin Location
This figure shows the location of I/O banks with OCT calibration blocks and RZQ pins in the Stratix V
device. This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the
device package and illustrates the highest density device in the device family.
RZQ pin
Bank 8C
Bank 8D
Bank 8E
Bank 7E
Bank 7D
Bank 7C
Bank 7B
Bank 7A
Transceiver Block
Bank 8B
Transceiver Block
Bank 8A
RZQ pin
I/O bank with OCT calibration
block and RZQ pin
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 3C
Bank 3D
Bank 3E
Bank 4E
Bank 4D
RZQ pin
Bank 4C
Bank 4B
Bank 4A
RZQ pin
Sharing an OCT Calibration Block on Multiple I/O Banks
An OCT calibration block has the same VCCIO as the I/O bank that contains the block. All I/O banks with
the same VCCIO can share one OCT calibration block, even if that particular I/O bank has an OCT calibra‐
tion block.
I/O banks that do not have calibration blocks share the calibration blocks in the I/O banks that have
calibration blocks.
All I/O banks support OCT calibration with different VCCIO voltage standards, up to the number of
available OCT calibration blocks.
You can configure the I/O banks to receive calibration codes from any OCT calibration block with the
same VCCIO. If a group of I/O banks has the same VCCIO voltage, you can use one OCT calibration block
to calibrate the group of I/O banks placed around the periphery.
Related Information
• OCT Calibration Block Sharing Example on page 5-35
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• ALTOCT IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the OCT calibration block.
OCT Calibration Block Sharing Example
Figure 5-11: Example of Calibrating Multiple I/O Banks with One Shared OCT Calibration Block
As an example, this figure shows a group of I/O banks that has the same VCCIO voltage. The figure does
not show transceiver calibration blocks. This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that
corresponds to a reverse view of the device package and illustrates the highest density device in the device
family.
CB7
Bank 8C
Bank 8D
Bank 8E
Bank 7E
Bank 7D
Bank 7C
Bank 7B
Bank 7A
Transceiver Block
Bank 8B
Transceiver Block
Bank 8A
I/O bank with different V
I/O bank with the same V
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 3C
Bank 3D
Bank 3E
Bank 4E
Bank 4D
Bank 4C
Bank 4B
CCIO
CCIO
Bank 4A
Because banks 3B, 4C, and 7B have the same VCCIO as bank 7A, you can calibrate all four I/O banks (3B,
4C, 7A, and 7B) with the OCT calibration block (CB7) located in bank 7A.
To enable this calibration, serially shift out the RS OCT calibration codes from the OCT calibration block
in bank 7A to the I/O banks around the periphery.
Related Information
• Sharing an OCT Calibration Block on Multiple I/O Banks on page 5-34
• ALTOCT IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the OCT calibration block.
OCT Calibration in Power-Up Mode
In power-up mode, OCT calibration is automatically performed at power up. Calibration codes are shifted
to selected I/O buffers before transitioning to user mode.
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OCT Calibration in User Mode
OCT Calibration in User Mode
In user mode, the OCTUSRCLK, ENAOCT, nCLRUSR, and ENASER signals are used to calibrate and serially
transfer calibration codes from each OCT calibration block to any I/O.
Table 5-20: OCT Calibration Block Ports for User Control
This table lists the user-controlled calibration block signal names and their descriptions
Signal Name
Description
OCTUSRCLK
Clock for OCT block.
ENAOCT
Enable OCT Calibration (generated by user IP).
ENASER[7..0]
• ENOCT is 0—each signal enables the OCT
serializer for the corresponding OCT calibration
block.
• ENAOCT is 1—each signal enables OCT calibra‐
tion for the corresponding OCT calibration
block.
S2PENA_bank#
Serial-to-parallel load enable per I/O bank.
nCLRUSR
Clear user.
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Figure 5-12: Signals Used for User Mode Calibration
Bank 7A
Bank 7B
Bank 7C
Bank 7D
Bank 7E
Bank 8E
Bank 8D
Bank 8C
Bank 8B
Bank 8A
This figure shows the flow of the user signal.
CB7
CB8
CB6
ENAOCT, nCLRUSR,
S2PENA_6C
Transceiver Block
Transceiver Block
Stratix V
Core
S2PENA_4C
OCTUSRCLK,
ENASER[N]
CB5
Bank 4A
Bank 4B
Bank 4C
Bank 4D
Bank 4E
Bank 3E
Bank 3D
Bank 3C
CB4
Bank 3B
Bank 3A
CB3
When ENAOCT is 1, all OCT calibration blocks are in calibration mode. When ENAOCT is 0, all OCT calibra‐
tion blocks are in serial data transfer mode. The OCTUSRCLK clock frequency must be 20 MHz or less.
Note: You must generate all user signals on the rising edge of the OCTUSRCLK signal.
Figure 5-13: OCT User Mode Signal—Timing Waveform for One OCT Block
This figure shows the user mode signal-timing waveforms.
OCTUSRCLK
ENAOCT
Calibration Phase
nCLRUSR
ENASER0
1000 OCTUSRCLK Cycles
32
OCTUSRCLK
Cycles
ts2p
ts2p ≥ 25 ns
S2PENA_1A
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Example of Using Multiple OCT Calibration Blocks
OCT Calibration
To calibrate OCT block N (where N is a calibration block number), you must assert ENAOCT one cycle
before asserting ENASERN. You must also set nCLRUSR low for one OCTUSRCLK cycle before the ENASERN
signal is asserted. Assert the ENASERN signals for 1,000 OCTUSRCLK cycles to perform RS OCT and RT OCT
calibration. You can deassert ENAOCT one clock cycle after the last ENASER is deasserted.
Serial Data Transfer
After you complete calibration, you must serially shift out the 32 bit OCT calibration codes (16 bit RS
OCT and 16 bit RT OCT) from each OCT calibration block to the corresponding I/O buffers. Only one
OCT calibration block can send out the codes at any time by asserting only one ENASERN signal at a time.
After you deassert ENAOCT, wait at least one OCTUSRCLK cycle to enable any ENASERN signal to begin serial
transfer. To shift the 32 bit code from the OCT calibration block N, you must assert ENASERN for exactly
32 OCTUSRCLK cycles. Between two consecutive asserted ENASER signals, there must be at least one
OCTUSRCLK cycle gap, as shown in the preceding figure.
After calibrated codes are shifted in serially to each I/O bank, the calibrated codes must be converted from
serial to parallel format before being used in the I/O buffers. The preceding figure shows the S2PENA
signals that can be asserted at any time to update the calibration codes in each I/O bank. All I/O banks
that received the codes from the same OCT calibration block can have S2PENA asserted at the same time,
or at a different time, even while another OCT calibration block is calibrating and serially shifting codes.
The S2PENA signal is asserted one OCTUSRCLK cycle after ENASER is deasserted for at least 25 ns. You
cannot use I/Os for transmitting or receiving data when their S2PENA is asserted for parallel codes
transfer.
Example of Using Multiple OCT Calibration Blocks
Figure 5-14: OCT User-Mode Signal Timing Waveform for Two OCT Blocks
This figure shows a signal timing waveform for two OCT calibration blocks doing RS and RT calibration.
OCTUSRCLK
Calibration Phase
ENAOCT
nCLRUSR
1000
ENASER0
1000
ENASER1
OCTUSRCLK
CYCLES
OCTUSRCLK
32 OCTUSRCLK
CYCLES
32 OCTUSRCLK
CYCLES
CYCLES
ts2p
Asserted in Bank 1A
for calibration block 0
S2PENA_1A
Asserted in Bank 2A
for calibration block 1
S2PENA_2A
ts2p ≥ 25 ns
ts2p
Calibration blocks can start calibrating at different times by asserting the ENASER signals at different times.
ENAOCT must remain asserted while any calibration is ongoing. You must set nCLRUSR low for one
OCTUSRCLK cycle before each ENASERN signal is asserted. As shown in the preceding figure, when you set
nCLRUSR to 0 for the second time to initialize OCT calibration block 0, this does not affect OCT calibra‐
tion block 1, whose calibration is already in progress.
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5-39
I/O Termination Schemes for Stratix V Devices
Table 5-21: Termination Schemes for Different I/O Standards
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
3.3-V LVTTL/3.3-V LVCMOS
2.5-V LVCMOS
1.8-V LVCMOS
No external termination required
1.5-V LVCMOS
1.2-V LVCMOS
SSTL-2 Class I
SSTL-2 Class II
SSTL-18 Class I
SSTL-18 Class II
Single-Ended SSTL I/O Standard Termination
SSTL-15 Class I
SSTL-15 Class II
1.8-V HSTL Class I
1.8-V HSTL Class II
1.5-V HSTL Class I
1.5-V HSTL Class II
Single-Ended HSTL I/O Standard Termination
1.2-V HSTL Class I
1.2-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
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Single-ended I/O Termination
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class II
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class II
LVDS
RSDS
Mini-LVDS
LVPECL
LVDS I/O Standard Termination
RSDS/mini-LVDS I/O Standard Termination
Differential LVPECL I/O Standard Termination
SSTL-15 (11)
SSTL-135 (11)
SSTL-125 (11)
SSTL-12
HSUL-12
Differential SSTL-15 (11)
No external termination required
Differential SSTL-135 (11)
Differential SSTL-125 (11)
Differential SSTL-12
Differential HSUL-12
Single-ended I/O Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require an input VREF and a termination voltage (VTT). The reference
voltage of the receiving device tracks the termination voltage of the transmitting device.
The supported I/O standards such as SSTL-12, SSTL-125, SSTL-135, and SSTL-15 typically do not require
external board termination.
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT
reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Note: You cannot use RS and RT OCT simultaneously. For more information, refer to the related
information.
(11)
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT reduces
the number of external termination resistors used.
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Single-ended I/O Termination
Figure 5-15: SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of SSTL I/O termination on Stratix V devices. This is not applicable for
SSTL-12, SSTL-15, SSTL-125, and SSTL-135 I/O standards.
Termination
SSTL Class I
SSTL Class II
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
V REF
Transmitter
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
OCT Receive
100 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
Receiver
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
100 Ω
FPGA
I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
100 Ω
V REF
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Receiver
V REF
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Send Feedback
100 Ω
V CCIO
V CCIO
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
100 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
GND
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
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Differential I/O Termination
Figure 5-16: HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of HSTL I/O termination on the Stratix V devices. This is not applicable for
HSUL-12 I/O standard.
Termination
HSTL Class I
HSTL Class II
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
V TT
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
V CCIO
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
100 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
Series
OCT 50 Ω
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
FPGA
V REF
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
V REF
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
V REF
100 Ω
FPGA
Parallel OCT
50 Ω
100 Ω
OCT Receive
V CCIO
GND
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
Related Information
Dynamic OCT in Stratix V Devices on page 5-31
Differential I/O Termination
The I/O pins are organized in pairs to support differential I/O standards. Each I/O pin pair can support
differential input and output buffers.
The supported I/O standards such as Differential SSTL-12, Differential SSTL-15, Differential SSTL-125,
and Differential SSTL-135 typically do not require external board termination.
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT
reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
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Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL Termination
5-43
Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL Termination
Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL inputs use LVDS differential input buffers with RD support.
Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL outputs are not true differential outputs. These I/O standards use two
single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted.
Figure 5-17: Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential SSTL I/O termination on Stratix V devices. This is not
applicable for differential SSTL-12, differential SSTL-15, differential SSTL-125, differential SSTL-135, and
differential HSUL-12 I/O standards.
Termination
Differential SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL Class II
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
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GND
Receiver
Transmitter
GND
Receiver
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LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
Figure 5-18: Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential HSTL I/O standard termination on Stratix V devices. This is
not applicable for differential HSUL-12 I/O standard.
Termination
Differential HSTL Class I
Differential HSTL Class II
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
Transmitter
Receiver
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Transmitter
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
V TT
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
GND
100 Ω
Receiver
Transmitter
GND
Receiver
LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
All I/O banks have dedicated circuitry to support the true LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O standards by
using true LVDS output buffers without resistor networks.
In Stratix V devices, the LVDS I/O standard requires a 2.5 V VCCIO level. The LVDS input buffer requires
2.5 V VCCPD. The LVDS receiver requires a 100 Ω termination resistor between the two signals at the
input buffer. Stratix V devices provide an optional 100 Ω differential termination resistor in the device
using RD OCT if VCCPD is set to 2.5 V.
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5-45
Figure 5-19: LVDS I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the LVDS I/O standard termination. The on-chip differential resistor is available in all
I/O banks.
Termination
LVDS
Differential Outputs
Differential Inputs
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
100 Ω
50 Ω
Differential Outputs
OCT Receiver
(True LVDS
Output)
Differential Inputs
OCT
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
Emulated LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
The I/O banks also support emulated LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O standards.
Emulated LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS output buffers use two single-ended output buffers with an
external three-resistor network, and can be tri-stated.
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Emulated LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
Figure 5-20: Emulated LVDS, RSDS, or Mini-LVDS I/O Standard Termination
The output buffers, as shown in this figure, are available in all I/O banks. For LVDS output with a threeresistor network, RS is 120 Ω and RP is 170 Ω. For RSDS and Mini-LVDS output, RS and RP values are
pending characterization.
Termination
Emulated LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS
≤ 1 inch
50 Ω
RS
External
On-Board
Termination
(RSDS_E_3R)
100 Ω
RP
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Receiver
Transmitter
OCT
≤ 1 inch
50 Ω
RS
OCT
100 Ω
RP
(RSDS_E_3R)
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Receiver
Transmitter
Single-Ended Outputs
Differential Inputs
OCT
≤ 1 inch
OCT Receive
(Single-Ended
Output with
Three-Resistor
Network,
LVDS_E_3R)
50 Ω
RS
100 Ω
RP
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Transmitter
Receiver
To meet the RSDS or mini-LVDS specifications, you require a resistor network to attenuate the outputvoltage swing.
You can modify the three-resistor network values to reduce power or improve the noise margin. Choose
resistor values that satisfy the following equation.
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LVPECL Termination
5-47
Figure 5-21: Resistor Network Calculation
Note: Altera recommends that you perform additional simulations with IBIS or SPICE models to validate
that the custom resistor values meet the RSDS or mini-LVDS I/O standard requirements.
For information about the data rates supported for external three-resistor network, refer to the device
datasheet.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• National Semiconductor (www.national.com)
For more information about the RSDS I/O standard, refer to the RSDS Specification on the National
Semiconductor web site.
LVPECL Termination
The Stratix V devices support the LVPECL I/O standard on input clock pins only:
• LVPECL input operation is supported using LVDS input buffers.
• LVPECL output operation is not supported.
Use AC coupling if the LVPECL common-mode voltage of the output buffer does not match the LVPECL
input common-mode voltage.
Note: Altera recommends that you use IBIS models to verify your LVPECL AC/DC-coupled termination.
Figure 5-22: LVPECL AC-Coupled Termination
The 50 Ω resistors used at the receiver end are external to the device.
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
0.1 µF
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V ICM
50 Ω
0.1 µF
Z 0 = 50 Ω
50 Ω
Support for DC-coupled LVPECL is available if the LVPECL output common mode voltage is within the
Stratix V LVPECL input buffer specification.
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Document Revision History
Figure 5-23: LVPECL DC-Coupled Termination
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December 2015
2015.12.21
• Added assignment name and supported I/O standards in Summary of
Supported Programmable IOE Features and Settings Table.
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Corrected truncated sentence in the note about the recommendation
to use dynamic OCT for several I/O standards with DDR3 external
memory interface.
• Clarified that dedicated configuration pins, clock pins and JTAG pins
do not support programmable pull-up resistor but these pins have
fixed value of internal pull-up resistors.
• Moved the Open-Drain Output, Bus-Hold Circuitry and Pull-up
Resistor sections to Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices.
• Update Open-Drain Output section with steps to enable open-drain
output in Assignment Editor.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Added footnote to clarify that some of the voltage levels listed in the
MultiVolt I/O support table are for showing that multiple singleended I/O standards are not compatible with certain VCCIO voltages.
• Added information to clarify that programmable output slew-rate is
available for single-ended and emulated LVDS I/O standards.
• Finalized calibrated RS and RT OCT values and updated the RT OCT
values for HSUL-12 and Differential HSUL-12 I/O standards.
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5-49
Date
Version
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated statements in several topics to clarify that each modular I/O
bank can support multiple I/O standards that use the same voltages.
• Updated the guideline topic about using the same VCCPD for I/O
banks in the same VCCPD group to improve clarity.
• Clarified that you can only use RD OCT if VCCPD is 2.5 V.
• Corrected the topic about LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS termination
to remove the requirement of 2.5 V VCCIO. Only VCCPD of 2.5 V is
required for using RD OCT.
• Removed all "preliminary" marks.
June 2013
2013.06.21
• Updated the topic about LVDS input RD OCT to remove the require‐
ment for setting the VCCIO to 2.5 V. RD OCT now requires only that
the VCCPD is 2.5 V.
• Updated the topic about LVPECL termination to improve clarity.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Removed all references to column and row I/Os. Stratix V devices
have I/O banks on the top and bottom only.
January 2013
2013.01.22
• Corrected the guideline about using the same VCCPD for all I/O banks
in a group.
• Removed references to LVDS single-ended output with single-resistor
network (LVDS_E_1R). The Stratix V devices do not support LVDS_
E_1R.
December 2012
2012.12.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Added table about the termination schemes for different I/O
standards.
• Updated the SSTL and HSTL I/O termination figures to add VREF
inputs for OCT in bidirectional pins.
• Added OCT diagram for LVDS single-ended output with singleresistor network (LVDS_E_1R).
• Removed the "Summary of OCT Assignments" table and merged the
information into the restructured OCT tables.
June 2012
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1.5
Changes
• Added "Summary of OCT Assignments" and "LVDS Channels"
sections.
• Updated Table 5-2, Table 5-3, Table 5-4, Table 5-5, and Table 5-8.
• Updated "Pull-Up Resistor", "Differential Output Voltage", and
"Programmable IOE Delay" sections.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
November 2011
1.4
• Updated Figure 5-2.
• Updated Table 5-3, Table 5-4, and Table 5-5.
May 2011
1.3
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Added Table 5-4, Table 5-5, Table 5-6, Table 5-7, and Table 5-8.
• Updated "Single-Ended I/O Standards Termination", "Differential I/O
Standards Termination", and "VCCPD Restriction" sections.
• Updated Table 5-3 and Table 5-11.
• Updated Figure 5-1, Figure 5-8, Figure 5-9, Figure 5-10, Figure 5-17,
Figure 5-20, and Figure 5-21.
• Minor text edits.
January 2011
1.2
Updated Table 5-2.
December 2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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The high-speed differential I/O interfaces and dynamic phase alignment (DPA) features in Stratix V
devices provide advantages over single-ended I/Os and contribute to the achievable overall system
bandwidth. Stratix V devices support low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), mini-LVDS, and reduced
swing differential signaling (RSDS) differential I/O standards.
The following figure shows the I/O bank support for high-speed differential I/O in the Stratix V devices.
Figure 6-1: I/O Bank Support for High-Speed Differential I/O
LVDS I/Os
I/Os with
Dedicated
SERDES Circuitry
LVDS Interface
with 'Use External PLL'
Option Enabled
LVDS Interface
with 'Use External PLL'
Option Disabled
Related Information
• I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices on page 5-2
Provides information about the supported differential I/O standards.
• Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
• I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
Provides information about the supported differential I/O standards.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
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of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
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Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries in Stratix V Devices
Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries in Stratix V Devices
The following dedicated circuitries are available in the Stratix V device family to support high-speed
differential I/O:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Differential I/O buffer
Transmitter serializer
Receiver deserializer
Data realignment (Bit-slip)
DPA
Synchronizer (FIFO buffer)
Phase-locked loops (PLLs)
SERDES and DPA Bank Locations in Stratix V Devices
The dedicated serializer/deserializer (SERDES) and DPA circuitry that supports high-speed differential
I/Os is located in the top and bottom banks of the Stratix V devices.
Figure 6-2: High-Speed Differential I/Os with DPA Locations in Stratix V Devices
Left Clock
Region
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with DPA and Soft-CDR
Right Clock
Region
FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
Fractional PLL
Transceiver Block
Left Clock
Region
Right Clock
Region
Related Information
PLLs and Clocking for Stratix V Devices on page 6-8
LVDS SERDES Circuitry
The Stratix V devices have built-in serializer/deserializer (SERDES) circuitry that supports high-speed
LVDS interfaces. You can configure the SERDES circuitry to support source-synchronous communica‐
tion protocols such as RapidIO®, XSBI, serial peripheral interface (SPI), and asynchronous protocols such
as Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) and SGMII.
The following figure shows a transmitter and receiver block diagram for the LVDS SERDES circuitry with
the interface signals of the transmitter and receiver data paths.
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SERDES I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices
Figure 6-3: LVDS SERDES
2
Serializer
tx_in
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
10
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
DIN
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
DIN
DOUT
Synchronizer
DOUT
Retimed
Data
Clock Mux
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
DIN
DPA_diffioclk
rx_out
tx_out
+
–
DOUT
DIN
LVDS_diffioclk
10 bits
maxiumum
data width
10
IOE
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
The preceding figure shows a shared PLL between the transmitter and receiver. If the transmitter and
receiver do not share the same PLL, you require two fractional PLLs. In single data rate (SDR) and double
data rate (DDR) modes, the data width is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
The ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver requires various clock and load enable signals from a fractional
PLL. The Quartus Prime software configures the PLL settings automatically. The software is also
responsible for generating the various clock and load enable signals based on the input reference clock
and selected data rate.
Note: For the maximum data rate supported by the Stratix V devices, refer to the device overview.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Overview
• LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides a list of the LVDS transmitter and receiver ports and settings using ALTLVDS.
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
SERDES I/O Standards Support in Stratix V Devices
The following tables list the I/O standards supported by the SERDES receiver and transmitter, and the
respective Quartus Prime software assignment values.
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The SERDES receiver and transmitter also support all differential HSTL, differential HSUL, and differen‐
tial SSTL I/O standards.
Table 6-1: SERDES Receiver I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
True LVDS
LVDS
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class II
Differential HSUL-12
Differential 1.2-V HSUL
Differential SSTL-12
Differential 1.2-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-125
Differential 1.25-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-135
Differential 1.35-V SSTL
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-15
Differential 1.5-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class II
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
Differential 2.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
Differential 2.5-V SSTL Class II
Table 6-2: SERDES Transmitter I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
True LVDS
LVDS
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.2-V HSTL Class II
Differential HSUL-12
Differential 1.2-V HSUL
Differential SSTL-12
Differential 1.2-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-125
Differential 1.25-V SSTL
Differential SSTL-135
Differential 1.35-V SSTL
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-15
Differential 1.5-V SSTL
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I/O Standard
6-5
Quartus Prime Software Assignment Value
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
Differential 1.5-V SSTL Class II
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.8-V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential 1.8-V SSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
Differential 2.5-V SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
Differential 2.5-V SSTL Class II
Emulated LVDS
LVDS_E_3R
mini-LVDS
mini-LVDS
Emulated mini-LVDS
mini-LVDS_E_3R
RSDS
RSDS
Emulated RSDS
RSDS_E_3R
True LVDS Buffers in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V device family supports LVDS on all I/O banks:
• All I/Os support true LVDS input buffers with RD OCT or true LVDS output buffers.
• Stratix V devices offer single-ended I/O reference clock support for the fractional PLL that drives the
SERDES.
The following tables list the number of true LVDS buffers supported in Stratix V devices with these
conditions:
• The LVDS channel count does not include dedicated clock pins.
• Dedicated SERDES and DPA is available for top and bottom banks only.
Table 6-3: LVDS Channels Supported in Stratix V E Devices
Member Code
Package
H40-H1517
E9 and EB
F45-F1932
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Side
TX
RX
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
105
105
Bottom
105
105
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Table 6-4: LVDS Channels Supported in Stratix V GX Devices
Member Code
Package
EH29-H780
HF35-F1152
A3
KF35-F1152
KF40-F1517
HF35-F1152
A4
KF35-F1152
KF40-F1517
HF35-F1152
KF35-F1152
A5 and A7
KF40-F1517
NF40-F1517
NF45-F1932
KH40-1517
A9 and AB
NF45-F1932
RF40-F1517
B5 and B6
RF43-F1760
Altera Corporation
Side
TX
RX
Top
51
51
Bottom
39
39
Top
57
57
Bottom
51
51
Top
54
54
Bottom
54
54
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
63
63
Bottom
75
75
Top
54
54
Bottom
54
54
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
63
63
Bottom
75
75
Top
54
54
Bottom
54
54
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
75
75
Bottom
75
75
Top
105
105
Bottom
105
105
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
105
105
Bottom
105
105
Top
54
54
Bottom
54
54
Top
75
75
Bottom
75
75
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Member Code
B9 and BB
Package
RH43-H1760
Side
TX
RX
Top
75
75
Bottom
75
75
Side
TX
RX
Top
51
51
Bottom
39
39
Top
57
57
Bottom
51
51
Top
51
51
Bottom
39
39
Top
57
57
Bottom
51
51
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
63
63
Bottom
75
75
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
87
87
Bottom
87
87
Top
105
105
Bottom
105
105
Side
TX
RX
Top
75
75
Bottom
75
75
6-7
Table 6-5: LVDS Channels Supported in Stratix V GS Devices
Member Code
Package
EH29-H780
D3
HF35-F1152
EH29-H780
D4
HF35-F1152
KF40-F1517
HF35-F1152
D5
KF40-F1517
KF40-F1517
D6 and D8
NF45-F1932
Table 6-6: LVDS Channels Supported in Stratix V GT Devices
Member Code
C5 and C7
Package
KF40-F1517
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Emulated LVDS Buffers in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V device family supports emulated LVDS on all I/O banks:
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High-Speed I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices
• You can use unutilized true LVDS input channels as emulated LVDS output buffers (eTX) for seriali‐
zation factors of 1 and 2.
• The emulated LVDS output buffers use two single-ended output buffers with an external resistor
network to support LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards.
• The emulated differential output buffers support tri-state capability.
High-Speed I/O Design Guidelines for Stratix V Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
PLLs and Clocking for Stratix V Devices
To generate the parallel clocks (rx_outclock and tx_outclock) and high-speed clocks (diffioclk), the
Stratix V devices provide fractional PLLs in the high-speed differential I/O receiver and transmitter
channels.
Related Information
• SERDES and DPA Bank Locations in Stratix V Devices on page 6-2
Provides information about the PLL locations available for each Stratix V device.
• Guideline: Use High-Speed Clock from PLL to Clock LVDS SERDES Only on page 6-8
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS
To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode. The center or corner PLLs can
drive the LVDS receiver and transmitter channels.
However, the clock tree network cannot cross over to different I/O regions. For example, the top left
corner PLL cannot cross over to drive the LVDS receiver and transmitter channels on the top right I/O
bank.
Related Information
Pin Placement Guidelines for DPA Differential Channels on page 6-13
Provides more information about the fractional PLL clocking restrictions.
Guideline: Use High-Speed Clock from PLL to Clock LVDS SERDES Only
The high-speed clock generated from the PLL is intended to clock the LVDS SERDES circuitry only. Do
not use the high-speed clock to drive other logic because the allowed frequency to drive the core logic is
restricted by the PLL FOUT specification.
For more information about the FOUT specification, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
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LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode
6-9
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode
The IP Catalog provides an option for implementing the LVDS interface with the Use External PLL
option. With this option enabled you can control the PLL settings, such as dynamically reconfiguring the
PLL to support different data rates, dynamic phase shift, and other settings. You must also instantiate the
an Altera_PLL IP core to generate the various clock and load enable signals.
If you enable the Use External PLL option with the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver, the following
signals are required from the Altera_PLL IP core:
•
•
•
•
Serial clock input to the SERDES of the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver
Load enable to the SERDES of the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver
Parallel clock used to clock the transmitter FPGA fabric logic and parallel clock used for the receiver
Asynchronous PLL reset port of the ALTLVDS receiver
Altera_PLL Signal Interface with ALTLVDS IP Core
Table 6-7: Signal Interface Between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP Cores
This table lists the signal interface between the output ports of the Altera_PLL IP core and the input ports of the
ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver. As an example, the table lists the serial clock output, load enable output, and
parallel clock output generated on ports outclk0, outclk1, and outclk2, along with the locked signal of the
Altera_PLL instance. You can choose any of the PLL output clock ports to generate the interface clocks.
From the Altera_PLL IP Core
Serial clock output (outclk0)
The serial clock output (outclk0) can
only drive tx_inclock on the
ALTLVDS transmitter, and rx_
inclock and rx_dpaclock on the
ALTLVDS receiver. This clock
cannot drive the core logic.
To the ALTLVDS
Transmitter
tx_inclock (serial clock
input to the transmitter)
To the ALTLVDS Receiver
rx_inclock (serial clock input)
rx_dpaclock
Load enable output (outclk1)
tx_enable (load enable to
rx_enable (load enable for the
Parallel clock output (outclk2)
Parallel clock used inside
the transmitter core logic
in the FPGA fabric
rx_syncclock (parallel clock input)
and parallel clock used inside the
receiver core logic in the FPGA fabric
the transmitter)
~(locked)
—
deserializer)
pll_areset (asynchronous PLL reset
port)
The pll_areset signal is automati‐
cally enabled for the LVDS receiver in
external PLL mode. This signal does
not exist for LVDS transmitter
instantiation when the external PLL
option is enabled.
Note: With soft SERDES, a different clocking requirement is needed.
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Altera_PLL Parameter Values for External PLL Mode
Related Information
LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
More information about the different clocking requirement for soft SERDES.
Altera_PLL Parameter Values for External PLL Mode
The following examples show the clocking requirements to generate output clocks for ALTLVDS_TX and
ALTLVDS_RX using the Altera_PLL IP core. The examples set the phase shift with the assumption that
the clock and data are edge aligned at the pins of the device.
Note: For other clock and data phase relationships, Altera recommends that you first instantiate your
ALTLVDS_RX and ALTLVDS_TX interface without using the external PLL mode option. Compile
the IP cores in the Quartus Prime software and take note of the frequency, phase shift, and duty
cycle settings for each clock output. Enter these settings in the Altera_PLL IP core parameter editor
and then connect the appropriate output to the ALTLVDS_RX and ALTLVDS_TX IP cores.
Table 6-8: Example: Generating Output Clocks Using an Altera_PLL IP Core (No DPA and Soft-CDR Mode)
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera_PLL parameter editor to generate three output
clocks using an Altera_PLL IP core if you are not using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Parameter
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
(Connects to the tx_inclock (Connects to the tx_enable
(Used as the core clock for
port of ALTLVDS_TX and the port of ALTLVDS_TX and the the parallel data registers for
rx_inclock port of
rx_enable port of ALTLVDS_
both transmitter and
ALTLVDS_RX)
RX)
receiver, and connects to the
rx_synclock port of
ALTLVDS_RX)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization factor data rate/serialization
factor
Phase shift
–180°
[(deserialization factor – 2)/ –180/serialization factor
deserialization factor] x 360°
(outclk0 phase shift
divided by the serializa‐
tion factor)
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization factor
50%
The calculations for phase shift, using the RSKM equation, assume that the input clock and serial data are
edge aligned. Introducing a phase shift of –180° to sampling clock (c0) ensures that the input data is
center-aligned with respect to the outclk0, as shown in the following figure.
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6-11
Figure 6-4: Phase Relationship for External PLL Interface Signals
inclk0
VCO clk
(internal PLL clk)
outclk0
(-180° phase shift)
outclk1
(288° phase shift)
outclk2
(-18° phase shift)
RX serial data
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
tx_outclk
TX serial data
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
Table 6-9: Example: Generating Output Clocks Using an Altera_PLL IP Core (With DPA and Soft-CDR Mode)
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera_PLL parameter editor to generate four output
clocks using an Altera_PLL IP core if you are using DPA and soft-CDR mode. The locked output port of
Altera_PLL must be inverted and connected to the pll_areset port of the ALTLVDS_RX IP core if you are using
DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Parameter
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
outclk3
(Connects to the tx_
inclock port of
ALTLVDS_TX and the
rx_inclock port of
ALTLVDS_RX)
(Connects to the tx_
enable port of
ALTLVDS_TX and the
rx_enable port of
ALTLVDS_RX)
(Used as the core clock
for the parallel data
registers for both
transmitter and
receiver, and connects
to the rx_synclock
port of ALTLVDS_RX)
(Connects to the rx_
dpaclock port of
ALTLVDS_RX)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization data rate/serialization data rate
factor
factor
Phase shift
–180°
[(deserialization
–180/serialization
–180°
factor - 2)/deserializa‐ factor
tion factor] x 360°
(outclk0 phase shift
divided by the seriali‐
zation factor)
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization
factor
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50%
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Connection between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS
Related Information
Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode on page 6-34
RSKM equation used for the phase shift calculations.
Connection between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS
Figure 6-5: LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL IP Core (Without DPA and Soft-CDR Mode)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP core if you are not using
DPA and soft-CDR mode.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
LVDS Transmitter
(ALTLVDS)
tx_in
tx_inclock
tx_enable
tx_coreclk
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Q
D
LVDS Receiver
(ALTLVDS)
rx_out
locked
Altera_PLL
inclk0
pll_areset
rx_inclock
rx_enable
rx_syncclock
pll_areset
Figure 6-6: LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL IP Core (With DPA)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP core if you are using DPA.
The locked output port must be inverted and connected to the pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
LVDS Transmitter
(ALTLVDS)
tx_in
tx_inclock
tx_enable
tx_coreclk
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Altera Corporation
Q
D
LVDS Receiver
(ALTLVDS)
rx_out
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
outclk3
locked
Altera_PLL
inclk0
pll_areset
rx_inclock
rx_dpaclock
rx_enable
rx_syncclock
pll_areset
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6-13
Figure 6-7: LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL IP Core (With Soft-CDR Mode)
This figure shows the connections between the Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP core if you are using softCDR mode. The locked output port must be inverted and connected to the pll_areset port.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
LVDS Transmitter
(ALTLVDS)
Q
tx_inclock
tx_in
tx_enable
tx_coreclk
LVDS Receiver
(ALTLVDS)
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Q
D
rx_out
rx_divfwdclk
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
outclk3
Altera_PLL
locked
inclk0
pll_areset
rx_inclock
rx_dpaclock
rx_enable
rx_syncclock
pll_areset
When generating the Altera_PLL IP core, the Left/Right PLL option is configured to set up the PLL in
LVDS mode. Instantiation of pll_areset is optional.
The rx_enable and rx_inclock input ports are not used and can be left unconnected.
Pin Placement Guidelines for DPA Differential Channels
DPA usage adds some constraints on the placement of high-speed differential channels. If DPA-enabled
or DPA-disabled differential channels(12) in the differential banks are used, you must adhere to the
differential pin placement guidelines to ensure the proper high-speed operation. The Quartus Prime
compiler automatically checks the design and issues an error message if the guidelines are not followed.
Note: The figures in this section show guidelines for using corner and center PLLs but do not necessarily
represent the exact locations of the high-speed LVDS I/O banks.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Guideline: Using DPA-Enabled Differential Channels
Each differential receiver in an I/O block has a dedicated DPA circuit to align the phase of the clock to the
data phase of its associated channel. If you enable a DPA channel in a bank, you can use both singleended I/Os and differential I/O standards in the bank.
(12)
DPA-enabled differential channels refer to DPA mode or soft-CDR mode while DPA disabled channels refer
to non-DPA mode.
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You can place double data rate I/O (DDIO) output pins within I/O modules that have the same pad group
number as a SERDES differential channel. However, you cannot place SDR I/O output pins within I/O
modules that have the same pad group number as a receiver SERDES differential channel. You must
implement the input register within the FPGA fabric logic.
The following figure illustrates the clock network for DPA and SERDES resources in Stratix V devices.
Figure 6-8: LVDS and DPA Clock Network
Left Corner PLLs
fPLL
Dedicated clock “stripes”
span the entire edge of the device
fPLL
Right Corner PLLs
Center PLLs
fPLL
Clock “stripes” are shared by
corner and center fPLLs
fPLL
fPLL
fPLL
LVDS_diffioclk (0)
LVDS_LOAD_EN(0)
LVDS_diffioclk (1)
LVDS_LOAD_EN(1)
DPA Clock Tree (8 VCO phase taps)
Interconnect between dedicated clock trees and SERDES TX & RX
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
R
X
T
X
IO BANK
If you use DPA-enabled channels in differential banks, adhere to the following guidelines.
Using Center and Corner PLLs
If two PLLs drive the DPA-enabled channels in a bank—the corner and center PLL drive one group each
—there must be at least one row (one differential channel) of separation between the two groups of DPAenabled channels, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 6-9: Center and Corner PLLs Driving DPA-enabled Differential I/Os in the Same Bank
Center
fPLL
TX & RX
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
TX & RX
TX & RX
Reference
DPA-enabled DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Right
Corner
fPLL
Center
fPLL
TX & RX
TX & RX
Reference
DPA-enabled DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
TX & RX Diff I/O TX & RX
DPA-enabled
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
TX & RX
Non
Reference
DPA-enabled
CLK DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Right
Corner
fPLL
Non
Reference
DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
One Unused
Channel for Buffer
Channels Driven
by Center fPLLs
Channels Driven
by Corner fPLLs
This separation prevents noise mixing because the two groups can operate at independent frequencies. No
separation is necessary if a single PLL is driving both the DPA-enabled channels and DPA-disabled
channels.
Using Both Center PLLs
You can use center PLLs to drive DPA-enabled channels simultaneously, if they drive these channels in
their adjacent banks only, as shown in the previous figure. The center PLLs cannot drive cross-banks
simultaneously. Refer to the following figures.
Figure 6-10: Center PLLs Driving DPA-enabled Differential I/Os
Center
PLL
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
DPA-enabled DPA-enabled DPA-enabled Reference
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
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PLL
Reference DPA-enabled DPA-enabled DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
CLK
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
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Figure 6-11: Invalid Placement of DPA-enabled Differential I/Os Driven by Both Center PLLs
Center
PLL
Center
PLL
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Reference DPA-enabled DPA-enabled DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
CLK
Diff I/O
DPA-enabled DPA-enabled DPA-enabled Reference
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
DPA-enabled
Diff I/O
Using Both Corner PLLs
You can use the left and right corner PLLs to drive DPA-enabled channels simultaneously, if they drive
the channels in their adjacent banks only. There must be at least one row of separation between the two
groups of DPA-enabled channels.
There are two PLL in each corner of the device. However, only one corner PLL can be use to drive DPAenabled channels in a quadrant.
Figure 6-12: Invalid Usage of Corner PLLs Driving DPA-enabled Differential I/Os
Unused PLLs
Left
Corner
fPLL
Left
Corner
fPLL
Non
Reference DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
Center
fPLL
Non
TX & RX
DPA-enabled Reference DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Left I/O Bank
Altera Corporation
Right
Corner
fPLL
Center
fPLL
TX & RX
TX & RX
TX & RX Unused
TX & RX
Non
DPA-enabled DPA-enabled DPA-enabled Diff I/O DPA-enabled Reference DPA-enabled
CLK
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Diff I/O
Right
Corner
fPLL
Non
Reference
DPA-enabled CLK
Diff I/O
Right I/O Bank
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DPA Restrictions
Because there is only a single DPA clock bus, a PLL drives a continuous series of DPA channels.
To prevent noise mixing, use one row of separation between two groups of DPA channels.
Guideline: Using DPA-Disabled Differential Channels
If you use DPA-disabled channels, adhere to the following guidelines.
DPA-Disabled Channel Driving Distance
Each PLL can drive all the DPA-disabled channels located in the entire bank.
Using Corner and Center PLLs
You can use a corner PLL to drive all transmitter channels and a center PLL to drive all DPA-disabled
receiver channels in the same I/O bank. You can drive a transmitter channel and a receiver channel in the
same LAB row by two different PLLs. A corner PLL and a center PLL can drive duplex channels in the
same I/O bank if the channels that are driven by each PLL are not interleaved. You do not require
separation between the group of channels that are driven by the corner and center, left and right PLLs.
Refer to the following figures.
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Figure 6-13: Corner and Center PLLs Driving DPA-Disabled Differential I/Os in the Same Bank
Unused
Center
PLL
Unused
Corner
PLL
Center
PLL
Corner
PLL
DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Reference
Reference
CLK
CLK
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Unused
Center
PLL
Unused
Corner
PLL
Center
PLL
Corner
PLL
Reference DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled Reference
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
CLK
CLK
Channels Driven
by Center fPLL
Altera Corporation
No Separation
Buffer Needed
Channels Driven
by Corner fPLL
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Guideline: Using DPA-Disabled Differential Channels
Figure 6-14: Invalid Placement of DPA-disabled Differential I/Os Due to Interleaving of Channels
Driven by the Corner and Center PLLs
Unused
Center
PLL
Unused
Corner
PLL
Center
PLL
Corner
PLL
Reference DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled DPA-disabled Reference
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
CLK
CLK
Using Both Corner PLLs
You can use both corner PLLs to drive DPA-disabled channels simultaneously. You can use a corner PLL
to drive all the transmitter channels and the other corner PLL to drive all the DPA-disabled receiver
channels in the same I/O bank. Both corner PLLs can drive duplex channels in the same I/O bank if the
channels that are driven by each PLL are not interleaved. You do not require separation between the
groups of channels that are driven by both corner PLLs.
Figure 6-15: Right Corner PLLs Driving LVDS Differential I/Os in the Same Bank
Corner
PLL
Reference
CLK
Diff TX
DPA-disabled
Diff RX
Diff TX
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Diff RX
Diff TX
DPA-disabled
Diff RX
Corner
PLL
Reference
CLK
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Differential Transmitter in Stratix V Devices
Differential Transmitter in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V transmitter contains dedicated circuitry to support high-speed differential signaling. The
differential transmitter buffers support the following features:
• LVDS signaling that can drive out LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS signals
• Programmable VOD and programmable pre-emphasis
Transmitter Blocks
The dedicated circuitry consists of a true differential buffer, a serializer, and fractional PLLs that you can
share between the transmitter and receiver. The serializer takes up to 10 bits wide parallel data from the
FPGA fabric, clocks it into the load registers, and serializes it using shift registers that are clocked by the
fractional PLL before sending the data to the differential buffer. The MSB of the parallel data is
transmitted first.
Note: To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
The following figure shows a block diagram of the transmitter. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width is
1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Figure 6-16: LVDS Transmitter
2
FPGA
Fabric
10 bits
maximum
data width
tx_in
Serializer
10
DIN
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
Fractional PLL
LVDS Clock Domain
tx_inclock
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Transmitter Clocking
The fractional PLL generates the load enable (LVDS_LOAD_EN) signal and the diffioclk signal (the clock
running at serial data rate) that clocks the load and shift registers. You can statically set the serialization
factor to x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 using the Quartus Prime software. The load enable signal is
derived from the serialization factor setting.
You can configure any Stratix V transmitter data channel to generate a source-synchronous transmitter
clock output. This flexibility allows the placement of the output clock near the data outputs to simplify
board layout and reduce clock-to-data skew.
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Different applications often require specific clock-to-data alignments or specific data-rate-to-clock-rate
factors. You can specify these settings statically in the Quartus Prime IP Catalog:
• The transmitter can output a clock signal at the same rate as the data—with a maximum output clock
frequency that each speed grade of the device supports.
• You can divide the output clock by a factor of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10, depending on the serialization factor.
• You can set the phase of the clock in relation to the data using internal PLL option of the ALTLVDS IP
core. The fractional PLLs provide additional support for other phase shifts in 45° increments.
The following figure shows the transmitter in clock output mode. In clock output mode, you can use an
LVDS channel as a clock output channel.
Figure 6-17: Transmitter in Clock Output Mode
Transmitter Circuit
Series
Parallel
FPGA
Fabric
Fractional
PLL
Txclkout+
Txclkout–
diffioclk
LVDS_LOAD_EN
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Serializer Bypass for DDR and SDR Operations
You can bypass the serializer to support DDR (x2) and SDR (x1) operations to achieve a serialization
factor of 2 and 1, respectively. The I/O element (IOE) contains two data output registers that can each
operate in either DDR or SDR mode.
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Programmable Differential Output Voltage
Figure 6-18: Serializer Bypass
This figure shows the serializer bypass path. In DDR mode, tx_inclock clocks the IOE register. In SDR
mode, data is passed directly through the IOE. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width to the IOE is 1
and 2 bits, respectively.
2
FPGA
Fabric
Serializer
tx_in
2
DIN
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
Fractional PLL
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to optimize the trace length
and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller
VOD swing reduces power consumption. You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by
changing the VOD settings in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Figure 6-19: Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VOD
Negative Channel (n)
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x VOD (single-ended)
VOD
p-n=0V
VOD
Table 6-10: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
This table lists the assignment name for programmable VOD and its possible values in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
To
Altera Corporation
Assignment
tx_out
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Programmable Pre-Emphasis
Field
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Assignment
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
0 (low), 1 (medium low), 2 (medium high), 3 (high).
Default is 1.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The VOD setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output current limit of a high-speed
transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast enough to reach the full VOD level
before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent jitter. With pre-emphasis, the output current is
boosted momentarily during switching to increase the output slew rate.
Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output signal, and thus
helps to compensate for the frequency-dependent attenuation along the transmission line. The overshoot
introduced by the extra current happens only during a change of state switching to increase the output
slew rate and does not ring, unlike the overshoot caused by signal reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis
required depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency component along the transmission line.
Figure 6-20: Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This figure shows the LVDS output with pre-emphasis.
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
VP
OUT
V OD
OUT
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Table 6-11: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This table lists the assignment name for programmable pre-emphasis and its possible values in the Quartus Prime
software Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Stratix V Devices on page 5-18
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Differential Receiver in Stratix V Devices
Differential Receiver in Stratix V Devices
The receiver has a differential buffer and fractional PLLs that you can share among the transmitter and
receiver, a DPA block, a synchronizer, a data realignment block, and a deserializer. The differential buffer
can receive LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS signal levels. You can statically set the I/O standard of the
receiver pins to LVDS, mini-LVDS, or RSDS in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Note: To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Receiver Blocks in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V differential receiver has the following hardware blocks:
•
•
•
•
DPA block
Synchronizer
Data realignment block (bit slip)
Deserializer
The following figure shows the hardware blocks of the receiver. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width
from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively. The deserializer includes shift registers and parallel load
registers, and sends a maximum of 10 bits to the internal logic.
Figure 6-21: Receiver Block Diagram
LVDS Receiver
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DOUT
Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
+
–
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
Data
DIN
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
DIN
Synchronizer
DPA_diffioclk
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
10
LVDS_diffioclk
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
DPA Block
The DPA block takes in high-speed serial data from the differential input buffer and selects one of the
eight phases that the fractional PLLs generate to sample the data. The DPA chooses a phase closest to the
phase of the serial data. The maximum phase offset between the received data and the selected phase is
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1/8 UI, which is the maximum quantization error of the DPA. The eight phases of the clock are equally
divided, offering a 45° resolution.
The following figure shows the possible phase relationships between the DPA clocks and the incoming
serial data.
Figure 6-22: DPA Clock Phase to Serial Data Timing Relationship
rx_in
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
Dn
0°
45°
90°
135°
180°
225°
270°
315°
T vco
0.125T vco
T VCO = PLL serial clock period
The DPA block continuously monitors the phase of the incoming serial data and selects a new clock phase
if it is required. You can prevent the DPA from selecting a new clock phase by asserting the optional
RX_DPLL_HOLD port, which is available for each channel.
DPA circuitry does not require a fixed training pattern to lock to the optimum phase out of the eight
phases. After reset or power up, the DPA circuitry requires transitions on the received data to lock to the
optimum phase. An optional output port, RX_DPA_LOCKED, is available to indicate an initial DPA lock
condition to the optimum phase after power up or reset. This signal is not deasserted if the DPA selects a
new phase out of the eight clock phases to sample the received data. Do not use the rx_dpa_locked signal
to determine a DPA loss-of-lock condition. Use data checkers such as a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) or
diagonal interleaved parity (DIP-4) to validate the data.
An independent reset port, RX_RESET, is available to reset the DPA circuitry. You must retrain the DPA
circuitry after reset.
Note: The DPA block is bypassed in non-DPA mode.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Synchronizer
The synchronizer is a 1 bit wide and 6 bit deep FIFO buffer that compensates for the phase difference
between DPA_diffioclk—the optimal clock that the DPA block selects—and the LVDS_diffioclk that
the fractional PLLs produce. The synchronizer can only compensate for phase differences, not frequency
differences, between the data and the receiver’s input reference clock.
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Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
An optional port, RX_FIFO_RESET, is available to the internal logic to reset the synchronizer. The
synchronizer is automatically reset when the DPA first locks to the incoming data. Altera recommends
using RX_FIFO_RESET to reset the synchronizer when the data checker indicates that the received data is
corrupted.
Note: The synchronizer circuit is bypassed in non-DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
Skew in the transmitted data along with skew added by the link causes channel-to-channel skew on the
received serial data streams. If you enable the DPA, the received data is captured with different clock
phases on each channel. This difference may cause misalignment of the received data from channel to
channel. To compensate for this channel-to-channel skew and establish the correct received word
boundary at each channel, each receiver channel has a dedicated data realignment circuit that realigns the
data by inserting bit latencies into the serial stream.
An optional RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN port controls the bit insertion of each receiver independently
controlled from the internal logic. The data slips one bit on the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
The requirements for the RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN signal include the following items:
•
•
•
•
The minimum pulse width is one period of the parallel clock in the logic array.
The minimum low time between pulses is one period of the parallel clock.
The signal is an edge-triggered signal.
The valid data is available two parallel clock cycles after the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
Figure 6-23: Data Realignment Timing
This figure shows receiver output (RX_OUT) after one bit slip pulse with the deserialization factor set to 4.
rx_inclock
rx_in
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
rx_outclock
rx_channel_data_align
rx_out
3210
321x
xx21
0321
The data realignment circuit can have up to 11 bit-times of insertion before a rollover occurs. The
programmable bit rollover point can be from 1 to 11 bit-times, independent of the deserialization factor.
Set the programmable bit rollover point equal to, or greater than, the deserialization factor—allowing
enough depth in the word alignment circuit to slip through a full word. You can set the value of the bit
rollover point using the IP Catalog. An optional status port, RX_CDA_MAX, is available to the FPGA fabric
from each channel to indicate the reaching of the preset rollover point.
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Figure 6-24: Receiver Data Realignment Rollover
This figure shows a preset value of four bit-times before rollover occurs. The rx_cda_max signal pulses for
one rx_outclock cycle to indicate that rollover has occurred.
rx_inclock
rx_channel_data_align
rx_outclock
rx_cda_max
Deserializer
You can statically set the deserialization factor to x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 by using the Quartus
Prime software. You can bypass the deserializer in the Quartus Prime IP Catalog to support DDR (x2) or
SDR (x1) operations, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-25: Deserializer Bypass
Bit Slip
DOUT
DIN
DOUT
DOUT
Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
+
–
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
Data
DIN
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
DIN
Synchronizer
DPA_diffioclk
Deserializer
10
FPGA
Fabric
LVDS Receiver
IOE
2
LVDS_diffioclk
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
Fractional PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
The IOE contains two data input registers that can operate in DDR or SDR mode. In DDR mode,
rx_inclock clocks the IOE register. In SDR mode, data is directly passed through the IOE. In SDR and
DDR modes, the data width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
You cannot use the DPA and data realignment circuit when you bypass the deserializer.
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Receiver Modes in Stratix V Devices
Receiver Modes in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices support the following receiver modes:
• Non-DPA mode
• DPA mode
• Soft-CDR mode
Non-DPA Mode
The non-DPA mode disables the DPA and synchronizer blocks. Input serial data is registered at the rising
edge of the serial LVDS_diffioclk clock that is produced by the left and right PLLs.
You can select the rising edge option with the Quartus Prime IP Catalog. The LVDS_diffioclk clock that
is generated by the left and right PLLs clocks the data realignment and deserializer blocks.
The following figure shows the non-DPA datapath block diagram. In SDR and DDR modes, the data
width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Figure 6-26: Receiver Data Path in Non-DPA Mode
LVDS Receiver
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DOUT
Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
+
–
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
Retimed
Data
DIN
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
DIN
Synchronizer
DPA_diffioclk
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
10
LVDS_diffioclk
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
Note: All disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
DPA Mode
The DPA block chooses the best possible clock (DPA_diffioclk) from the eight fast clocks that the
fractional PLL sent. This serial DPA_diffioclk clock is used for writing the serial data into the synchron‐
izer. A serial LVDS_diffioclk clock is used for reading the serial data from the synchronizer. The same
LVDS_diffioclk clock is used in data realignment and deserializer blocks.
The following figure shows the DPA mode datapath. In the figure, all the receiver hardware blocks are
active.
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Soft-CDR Mode
Figure 6-27: Receiver Datapath in DPA Mode
In SDR and DDR modes, the data width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
Retimed
Data
DIN
DOUT
Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
DIN
Synchronizer
DPA_diffioclk
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
10
LVDS_diffioclk
10 bits
maximum
data width
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
rx_inclock
Note: All disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
Related Information
• Receiver Blocks in Stratix V Devices on page 6-24
Lists and describes the receiver hardware blocks.
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Soft-CDR Mode
The Stratix V LVDS channel offers the soft-CDR mode to support the GbE and SGMII protocols. A
receiver PLL uses the local clock source for reference.
The following figure shows the soft-CDR mode datapath. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width from
the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
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Receiver Clocking for Stratix V Devices
Figure 6-28: Receiver Datapath in Soft-CDR Mode
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
10
Deserializer
Bit Slip
Synchronizer
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DIN
DOUT
Retimed
Data
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
Clock Mux
rx_divfwdclk
rx_outclock
DIN
DPA Clock
diffioclk
2
rx_in
DPA Circuitry
DIN
DOUT
DPA_diffioclk
rx_out
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
2
LVDS_diffioclk
10 bits
Maximum
Data Width
3
(DPA_LOAD_EN,
DPA_diffioclk, rx_divfwdclk)
3
DPA Clock Domain
LVDS Clock Domain
8 Serial LVDS
Clock Phases
(rx_outclock)
Fractional PLL
rx_inclock
Note: All disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
In soft-CDR mode, the synchronizer block is inactive. The DPA circuitry selects an optimal DPA clock
phase to sample the data. Use the selected DPA clock for bit-slip operation and deserialization. The DPA
block also forwards the selected DPA clock, divided by the deserialization factor called rx_divfwdclk, to
the FPGA fabric, along with the deserialized data. This clock signal is put on the periphery clock (PCLK)
network.
If you use the soft-CDR mode, do not assert the rx_reset port after the DPA has trained. The DPA
continuously chooses new phase taps from the PLL to track parts per million (PPM) differences between
the reference clock and incoming data.
You can use every LVDS channel in soft-CDR mode and drive the FPGA fabric using the PCLK network
in the Stratix V device family. The rx_dpa_locked signal is not valid in soft-CDR mode because the DPA
continuously changes its phase to track PPM differences between the upstream transmitter and the local
receiver input reference clocks. The parallel clock, rx_outclock, generated by the left and right PLLs, is
also forwarded to the FPGA fabric.
Related Information
• Periphery Clock Networks on page 4-4
Provides more information about PCLK networks.
• Clock Networks and PLLs in Stratix V Devices
Provides more information about PCLK networks.
Receiver Clocking for Stratix V Devices
The fractional PLL receives the external clock input and generates different phases of the same clock. The
DPA block automatically chooses one of the clocks from the fractional PLL and aligns the incoming data
on each channel.
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The synchronizer circuit is a 1 bit wide by 6 bit deep FIFO buffer that compensates for any phase
difference between the DPA clock and the data realignment block. If necessary, the user-controlled data
realignment circuitry inserts a single bit of latency in the serial bit stream to align to the word boundary.
The deserializer includes shift registers and parallel load registers, and sends a maximum of 10 bits to the
internal logic.
The physical medium connecting the transmitter and receiver LVDS channels may introduce skew
between the serial data and the source-synchronous clock. The instantaneous skew between each LVDS
channel and the clock also varies with the jitter on the data and clock signals as seen by the receiver. The
three different modes—non-DPA, DPA, and soft-CDR—provide different options to overcome skew
between the source synchronous clock (non-DPA, DPA) /reference clock (soft-CDR) and the serial data.
Non-DPA mode allows you to statically select the optimal phase between the source synchronous clock
and the received serial data to compensate skew. In DPA mode, the DPA circuitry automatically chooses
the best phase to compensate for the skew between the source synchronous clock and the received serial
data. Soft-CDR mode provides opportunities for synchronous and asynchronous applications for chip-tochip and short reach board-to-board applications for SGMII protocols.
Note: Only the non-DPA mode requires manual skew adjustment.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 6-8
Differential I/O Termination for Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V devices provide a 100 Ω, on-chip differential termination option on each differential
receiver channel for LVDS standards. On-chip termination saves board space by eliminating the need to
add external resistors on the board. You can enable on-chip termination in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
All I/O pins and dedicated clock input pins support on-chip differential termination, RD OCT.
Figure 6-29: On-Chip Differential I/O Termination
Differential Receiver
with On-Chip 100 Ω
Termination
LVDS
Transmitter
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RD
Z 0 = 50 Ω
Table 6-12: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—On-Chip Differential Termination
This table lists the assignment name for on-chip differential termination in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
rx_in
Assignment name
Input Termination
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Source-Synchronous Timing Budget
Field
Assignment
Value
Differential
Source-Synchronous Timing Budget
The topics in this section describe the timing budget, waveforms, and specifications for source-synchro‐
nous signaling in the Stratix V device family.
The LVDS I/O standard enables high-speed transmission of data, resulting in better overall system
performance. To take advantage of fast system performance, you must analyze the timing for these highspeed signals. Timing analysis for the differential block is different from traditional synchronous timing
analysis techniques.
The basis of the source synchronous timing analysis is the skew between the data and the clock signals
instead of the clock-to-output setup times. High-speed differential data transmission requires the use of
timing parameters provided by IC vendors and is strongly influenced by board skew, cable skew, and
clock jitter.
This section defines the source-synchronous differential data orientation timing parameters, the timing
budget definitions for the Stratix V device family, and how to use these timing parameters to determine
the maximum performance of a design.
Differential Data Orientation
There is a set relationship between an external clock and the incoming data. For operations at 1 Gbps and
a serialization factor of 10, the external clock is multiplied by 10. You can set phase-alignment in the PLL
to coincide with the sampling window of each data bit. The data is sampled on the falling edge of the
multiplied clock.
Figure 6-30: Bit Orientation in the Quartus Prime Software
This figure shows the data bit orientation of the x10 mode.
incloc k/outcloc k
data in
MSB
9
10 LVDS Bits
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LSB
0
Differential I/O Bit Position
Data synchronization is necessary for successful data transmission at high frequencies.
The following figure shows the data bit orientation for a channel operation and is based on the following
conditions:
• The serialization factor is equal to the clock multiplication factor.
• The phase alignment uses edge alignment.
• The operation is implemented in hard SERDES.
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Differential Bit Naming Conventions
Figure 6-31: Bit-Order and Word Boundary for One Differential Channel
Transmitter Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
tx_outclock
tx_out
X
X
X
Previous Cycle
X X X X
7 6
MSB
X
Current Cycle
5 4 3
2
1
0
LSB
X
Next Cycle
X X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Receiver Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
rx_inclock
rx_in
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
rx_outclock
rx_out [7..0]
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXX7654
3210XXXX
Note: These waveforms are only functional waveforms and do not convey timing information
For other serialization factors, use the Quartus Prime software tools to find the bit position within the
word.
Differential Bit Naming Conventions
The following table lists the conventions for differential bit naming for 18 differential channels. The MSB
and LSB positions increase with the number of channels used in a system.
Table 6-13: Differential Bit Naming
This table lists the conventions for differential bit naming for 18 differential channels. The MSB and LSB positions
increase with the number of channels used in a system.
Receiver Channel Data Number
Internal 8-Bit Parallel Data
MSB Position
LSB Position
1
7
0
2
15
8
3
23
16
4
31
24
5
39
32
6
47
40
7
55
48
8
63
56
9
71
64
10
79
72
11
87
80
12
95
88
13
103
96
14
111
104
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Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew
Receiver Channel Data Number
Internal 8-Bit Parallel Data
MSB Position
LSB Position
15
119
112
16
127
120
17
135
128
18
143
136
Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew
The receiver skew margin calculation uses the transmitter channel-to-channel skew (TCCS)—an
important parameter based on the Stratix V transmitter in a source-synchronous differential interface:
• TCCS is the difference between the fastest and slowest data output transitions, including the TCO
variation and clock skew.
• For LVDS transmitters, the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer provides the TCCS value in the TCCS report
(report_TCCS) in the Quartus Prime compilation report, which shows TCCS values for serial output
ports.
• You can also get the TCCS value from the device datasheet.
Note: For the Stratix V devices, perform PCB trace compensation to adjust the trace length of each LVDS
channel to improve channel-to-channel skew when interfacing with non-DPA receivers at data rate
above 840 Mbps.
The Quartus Prime software Fitter Report panel reports the amount of delay you must add to each trace
for the Stratix V device. You can use the recommended trace delay numbers published under the LVDS
Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew Compensation panel and manually compensate the skew on the PCB
board trace to reduce channel-to-channel skew, thus meeting the timing budget between LVDS channels.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
• LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about the LVDS Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew Compensation report
panel.
Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode
Different modes of LVDS receivers use different specifications, which can help in deciding the ability to
sample the received serial data correctly:
• In DPA mode, use DPA jitter tolerance instead of the receiver skew margin (RSKM).
• In non-DPA mode, use RSKM, TCCS, and sampling window (SW) specifications for high-speed
source-synchronous differential signals in the receiver data path.
The following equation expresses the relationship between RSKM, TCCS, and SW.
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Figure 6-32: RSKM Equation
Conventions used for the equation:
• RSKM—the timing margin between the receiver’s clock input and the data input sampling window.
• Time unit interval (TUI)—time period of the serial data.
• SW—the period of time that the input data must be stable to ensure that data is successfully sampled
by the LVDS receiver. The SW is a device property and varies with device speed grade.
• TCCS—the timing difference between the fastest and the slowest output edges, including tCO variation
and clock skew, across channels driven by the same PLL. The clock is included in the TCCS measure‐
ment.
You must calculate the RSKM value to decide whether the LVDS receiver can sample the data properly or
not, given the data rate and device. A positive RSKM value indicates that the LVDS receiver can sample
the data properly, whereas a negative RSKM indicates that it cannot sample the data properly.
The following figure shows the relationship between the RSKM, TCCS, and the SW of the receiver.
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Receiver Skew Margin for Non-DPA Mode
Figure 6-33: Differential High-Speed Timing Diagram and Timing Budget for Non-DPA Mode
Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal
Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
TCCS
RSKM
SW
tSW (min)
Bit n
Timing Budget
Internal
Clock
Falling Edge
RSKM
tSW (max)
Bit n
TUI
External
Clock
Clock Placement
Internal
Clock
Synchronization
Transmitter
Output Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
2
Receiver
Input Data
SW
For LVDS receivers, the Quartus Prime software provides an RSKM report showing the SW, TUI, and
RSKM values for non-DPA LVDS mode:
• You can generate the RSKM report by executing the report_RSKM command in the TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer. You can find the RSKM report in the Quartus Prime compilation report in the
TimeQuest Timing Analyzer section.
• To obtain the RSKM value, assign the input delay to the LVDS receiver through the constraints menu
of the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The input delay is determined according to the data arrival time at
the LVDS receiver port, with respect to the reference clock.
• If you set the input delay in the settings parameters for the Set Input Delay option, set the clock name
to the clock that reference the source synchronous clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
• If you do not set any input delay in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, the receiver channel-to-channel
skew defaults to zero.
• You can also directly set the input delay in a Synopsys Design Constraint file (.sdc) using the
set_input_delay command.
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Example 6-1: RSKM Calculation Example
This example shows the RSKM calculation for Stratix V devices at 1 Gbps data rate with a 200 ps
board channel-to-channel skew.
•
•
•
•
•
TCCS = 100 ps (pending characterization)
SW = 300 ps (pending characterizatoin
TUI = 1000 ps
Total RCCS = TCCS + Board channel-to-channel skew = 100 ps + 200 ps = 300 ps
RSKM = (TUI – SW – RCCS) / 2 = (1000 ps – 300 ps – 300 ps) / 2 = 200 ps
Because the RSKM is greater than 0 ps, the receiver non-DPA mode will work correctly.
Related Information
• LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about the RSKM equation and calculation.
• Quartus II TimeQuest Timing Analyzer chapter, Quartus II Development Software Handbook
Provides more information about .sdc commands and the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
Assigning Input Delay to LVDS Receiver Using TimeQuest Timing Analyzer
To obtain the RSKM value, assign an appropriate input delay to the LVDS receiver from the TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer constraints menu.
1. On the menu in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, select Constraints > Set Input Delay.
2. In the Set Input Delay window, select the desired clock using the pull-down menu. The clock name
must reference the source synchronous clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
3. Click the Browse button (next to the Targets field).
4. In the Name Finder window, click List to view a list of all available ports. Select the LVDS receiver
serial input ports according to the input delay you set, and click OK.
5. In the Set Input Delay window, set the appropriate values in the Input delay options and Delay value
fields.
6. Click Run to incorporate these values in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
7. Repeat from step 1 to assign the appropriate delay for all the LVDS receiver input ports. If you have
already assigned Input Delay and you need to add more delay to that input port, turn on the Add
Delay option.
Document Revision History
Date
December
2015
Version
2015.12.21
Changes
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Changed figure title "Corner PLLs Driving DPA-enabled Differential
I/Os" to "Invalid Usage of Corner PLLs Driving DPA-enabled
Differential I/Os".
• Added LVDS and DPA Clock Network figure in Guideline: Using
DPA-Enabled Differential Channels.
• Updated all figures in Guideline: Using DPA-Enabled Differential
Channels.
• Updated guidelines for using both corner PLLs in Stratix V Devices.
• Updated figures in Guideline: Using DPA-Disabled LVDS Differen‐
tial Channels.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Removed statement on explanation related to rx_synclock for figure
"LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL Megafunction (With Soft-CDR
Mode)".
• Updated figure LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL Megafunction
(With Soft-CDR Mode) and figure Receiver Datapath in Soft-CDR
Mode.
• Added a note to leave rx_enable and rx_inclock to be unconnected
for figure LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL Megafunction (With
Soft-CDR Mode).
• Updated timing diagram for Phase Relationship for External PLL
Interface Signals to reflect the correct phase shift and frequency for
outclk2.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the statement about setting the phase of the clock in relation
to data in the topic about transmitter clocking.
• Updated the figure that shows the phase relationship for the external
PLL interface signals.
• Clarified that "one row of separation" between two groups of DPAenabled channels means a separation of one differential channel.
• Clarified that "internal PLL option" refers to the option in the
ALTLVDS megafunction.
• Updated the topic about emulated LVDS buffers to clarify that you
can use unutilized true LVDS input channels (instead "buffers") as
emulated LVDS output buffers.
June 2013
2013.06.21
Updated the figure about data realignment timing to correct the data
pattern after a bit slip.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
6-39
Changes
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Removed all references to column and row I/Os. Stratix V devices
have I/O banks on the top and bottom only.
• Changed the color of the transceiver blocks in the high-speed
differential I/O location diagram for clarity.
• Updated the pin placement guidelines section to add figures and new
topic about using DPA-disabled differential channels.
• Added a topic about emulated LVDS buffers.
• Edited the topic about true LVDS buffers.
• Added a topic that lists the SERDES I/O standards support and the
respective Quartus II assignment values.
• Corrected the outclk2 waveform in Figure 6-4 to show -18° phase
shift (as labeled).
• Clarified that the programmable VOD assignment value of "0" is also
applicable for mini-LVDS.
• Updated the data realignment timing figure to improve clarity.
• Updated the receiver data realignment rollover figure to improve
clarity.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Added Altera_PLL settings for external PLL usage in DPA and nonDPA modes.
• Moved the PLL and clocking section into design guideline topics.
• Updated external PLL clocking examples without DPA and soft-CDR.
Altera_PLL now supports entering negative phase shift.
• Added external PLL clocking example and settings for DPA and softCDR mode.
• Updated the LVDS channel tables to list the number of channels per
side for each device package instead of just for the largest package.
• Removed the “LVDS Direct Loopback Mode” section.
June 2012
1.4
•
•
•
•
November
2011
1.3
• Updated Table 6–2.
• Updated Example 6–1.
• Updated “LVDS Direct Loopback Mode” and “LVDS Interface with
the Use External PLL Option Enabled” sections.
Added Table 6–2.
Updated Table 6–1, Table 6–3, Table 6–4, and Table 6–5.
Updated Figure 6–21.
Updated “Non-DPA Mode”, “Soft-CDR Mode”, and “PLLs and
Stratix V Clocking” sections.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
May 2011
1.2
Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
Added Table 6–2 and Table 6–3.
Updated Table 6–1.
Updated Figure 6–2 and Figure 6–23.
Updated “Locations of the I/O Banks”, “Programmable PreEmphasis”, “Differential Receiver”, “Fractional PLLs and Stratix V
Clocking”, and “DPA-Enabled Channels, DPA-Disabled Channels,
and Single-Ended I/Os” sections.
• Minor text edits.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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•
•
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External Memory Interfaces in Stratix V Devices
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The Stratix V devices provide an efficient architecture that allows you to fit wide external memory
interfaces to support a high level of system bandwidth within the small modular I/O bank structure. The
I/Os are designed to provide high-performance support for existing and emerging external memory
standards.
Table 7-1: Supported External Memory Standards in Stratix V Devices
Memory Standard
Soft Memory Controller
DDR3 SDRAM
Half rate and quarter rate
DDR2 SDRAM
Full rate and half rate
RLDRAM 3
Half rate and quarter rate
RLDRAM II
Full rate and half rate
QDR II+ SRAM
Full rate and half rate
QDR II SRAM
Full rate and half rate
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
• External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
For the latest information and to estimate the external memory system performance specification, use
Altera's External Memory Interface Spec Estimator tool.
• External Memory Interfaces Handbook Volume 1, 2, and 3.
Provides more information about the memory types supported, board design guidelines, timing
analysis, simulation, and debugging information.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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External Memory Performance
External Memory Performance
Table 7-2: External Memory Interface Performance in Stratix V Devices
Interface
Voltage (V)
Soft Controller (MHz)
1.5
933
1.35
800
DDR2 SDRAM
1.8
400
RLDRAM 3
1.2
800
1.8
533
1.5
533
1.8
550
1.5
550
1.8
350
1.5
350
DDR3 SDRAM
RLDRAM II
QDR II+ SRAM
QDR II SRAM
Related Information
External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
For the latest information and to estimate the external memory system performance specification, use
Altera's External Memory Interface Spec Estimator tool.
Memory Interface Pin Support in Stratix V Devices
In the Stratix V devices, the memory interface circuitry is available in every I/O bank that does not
support transceivers. The devices offer differential input buffers for differential read-data strobe and clock
operations.
Stratix V devices also provide an independent DQS logic block for each CQn pin for complementary
read-data strobe and clock operations
The memory clock pins are generated with double data rate input/output (DDRIO) registers.
Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides more information about which pins to use for memory clock pins and pin location
requirements.
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Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins
7-3
Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins
The following list provides guidelines on using the DQ/DQS pins:
•
•
•
•
The devices support DQ and DQS signals with DQ bus modes of x4, x8/x9, x16/x18, or x32/x36.
You can use the DQSn or CQn pins that are not used for clocking as DQ pins.
If you do not use the DQ/DQS pins for memory interfacing, you can use these pins as user I/Os.
Some pins have multiple functions such as RZQ or DQ. If you need extra RZQ pins, you can use the
DQ/DQNs pins in some of the x4 groups as RZQ pins instead.
• You cannot use a x4 DQ/DQS group for memory interfaces if any of its members are used as RZQ pins
for OCT calibration.
• There is no restriction on using x8/x9, x16/x18, or x32/x36 DQ/DQS groups that include the x4 groups
whose pins are used as RZQ pins because there are enough extra pins that you can use as DQS pins.
Note: For the x8, x16/x18, or x32/x36 DQ/DQS groups whose members are used as RZQ pins, Altera
recommends that you assign the DQ and DQS pins manually. Otherwise, the Quartus Prime
software might not be able to place the DQ and DQS pins, resulting in a “no-fit” error.
DQ pins can be bidirectional signals, as in DDR3 and DDR2 SDRAM, and RLDRAM II common I/O
interfaces, or unidirectional signals, as in QDR II+ and QDR II SRAM, and RLDRAM II separate I/O
devices. Connect the unidirectional read-data signals to Stratix V DQ pins and the unidirectional writedata signals to a different DQ/DQS group than the read DQ/DQS group. You must assign the write clocks
to the DQS/DQSn pins associated to this write DQ/DQS group. Do not use the CQ/CQn pin-pair for
write clocks.
Note: Using a DQ/DQS group for the write-data signals minimizes output skew, allows access to the
write-leveling circuitry (for DDR3 SDRAM interfaces), and allows vertical migration. These pins
also have access to deskewing circuitry (using programmable delay chains) that can compensate for
delay mismatch between signals on the bus.
Reading the Pin Table
For the maximum number of DQ pins and the exact number per group for a particular Stratix V device,
refer to the pin table in the Stratix V page of the Altera website. In the pin tables, the DQS and DQSn pins
denote the differential data strobe/clock pin pairs, while the CQ and CQn pins denote the complementary
echo clock signals. The pin table lists the parity, DM, BWSn, NWSn, ECC, and QVLD pins as DQ pins.
In the Stratix V pin tables, DQSn and CQn pins are marked separately. Each CQn pin connects to a DQS
logic block and the phase-shifted CQn signals go to the negative half cycle input registers in the DQ IOE
registers.
The DQS and DQSn pins are listed respectively in the Stratix V pin tables as DQSXY and DQSnXY. X
indicates the DQ/DQS grouping number and Y indicates whether the group is located on the top (T),
bottom (B), left (L), or right (R) side of the device. The DQ/DQS pin numbering is based on the x4 mode.
The corresponding DQ pins are marked as DQXY, where X indicates which DQS group the pins belong to
and Y indicates whether the group is located on the top (T) or bottom (B) side of the device.
For example, DQS1T indicates a DQS pin located on the top side of the device. The DQ pins belonging to
that group are shown as DQ1T in the pin table.
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Figure 7-1: DQS Pins in Stratix V I/O Banks
This figure shows the DQ/DQS groups numbering in a die-top view of the device where the numbering
scheme starts from the top-left corner of the device going clockwise.
DQS1T
DQS66T
DLL_TL
DLL_TR
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
7E
7D
7C
7B
7A
Stratix V Device
3A
3B
3C
3D
4E
4D
4C
4B
4A
DLL_BL
DLL_BR
DQS62B
DQS1B
DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Stratix V Devices
The following table list the pin support per DQ/DQS bus mode, including the DQS/CQ and DQSn/CQn
pins. The maximum number of data pins per group listed in the table may vary according to the following
conditions:
• Single-ended DQS signaling—the maximum number of DQ pins includes parity, data mask, and
QVLD pins connected to the DQS bus network.
• Differential or complementary DQS signaling—the maximum number of data pins per group
decreases by one. This number may vary per DQ/DQS group in a particular device. Check the pin table
for the exact number per group.
• DDR3 and DDR2 interfaces—the maximum number of pins is further reduced for an interface larger
than x8 because you require one DQS pin for each x8/x9 group to form the x16/x18 and x32/x36
groups.
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Table 7-3: DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Stratix V Devices
Parity or
Data
Mask
Mode
(Option
DQSn
CQn
al)
Support Support
QVLD
Data Pins per
Group
(13)
(Option
al)
Typical
Maximu
m
Notes
x4
Yes
—
—
—
4
5
If you do not use differential DQS
and the group does not have
additional signals, the data mask
(DM) pin is supported.
x8/x9
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
8 or 9
11
Two x4 DQ/DQS groups are
stitched to create a x8/x9 group, so
there are a total of 12 pins in this
group.
x16/x18
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
16 or 18
23
Four x4 DQ/DQS groups are
stitched to create a x16/x18 group;
so there are a total of 24 pins in
this group.
x32/x36
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
32 or 36
47
Eight x4 DQ/DQS groups are
stitched to create a x32/x36 group,
so there are a total of 48 pins in
this group.
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V E
Table 7-4: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Stratix V E Devices
Some of the x4 groups are using RZQ pins. If you use the Stratix V calibrated OCT feature, you cannot use these
groups.
Member
Code
Package
1517-pin FineLine BGA
E9
1932-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
EB
1932-pin FineLine BGA
(13)
Side
x4
x8/x9
x16/x18
x32/x36
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
The QVLD pin is not used in the UniPHY IP core.
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DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GX
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GX
Table 7-5: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Stratix V GX Devices
Some of the x4 groups are using RZQ pins. If you use the Stratix V calibrated OCT feature, you cannot use these
groups.
Member
Code
Package
780-pin FineLine BGA
A3
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 24
transceivers)
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
1517-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 24
transceivers)
A4
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
1517-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 24
transceivers)
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
A5
1517-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
1517-pin FineLine BGA (with 48
transceivers)
1932-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
x4
x8/x9
x16/x18
x32/x36
Top
34
13
8
2
Bottom
26
17
6
1
Top
42
21
10
3
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
36
18
8
2
Bottom
36
18
8
2
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
42
21
10
3
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
36
18
8
2
Bottom
36
18
8
2
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
42
21
10
3
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
36
18
8
2
Bottom
36
18
8
2
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
50
25
12
5
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
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Member
Code
Package
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 24
transceivers)
1152-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
A7
1517-pin FineLine BGA (with 36
transceivers)
1517-pin FineLine BGA (with 48
transceivers)
1932-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
A9
1932-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
AB
1932-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
B5
1760-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
B6
1760-pin FineLine BGA
B9
1760-pin FineLine BGA
BB
1760-pin FineLine BGA
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Side
x4
x8/x9
x16/x18
x32/x36
Top
42
21
10
3
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
36
18
8
2
Bottom
36
18
8
2
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
50
25
12
5
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
Top
36
18
8
3
Bottom
36
18
8
3
Top
50
25
11
4
Bottom
50
25
11
4
Top
36
18
8
3
Bottom
36
18
8
3
Top
50
25
11
4
Bottom
50
25
11
4
Top
50
25
11
3
Bottom
50
25
11
3
Top
50
25
11
3
Bottom
50
25
11
3
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DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GS
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GS
Table 7-6: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Stratix V GS Devices
Some of the x4 groups are using RZQ pins. If you use the Stratix V calibrated OCT feature, you cannot use these
groups.
Member
Code
Package
780-pin FineLine BGA
D3
1152-pin FineLine BGA
780-pin FineLine BGA
D4
1152-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA
D5
1517-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
D6
1932-pin FineLine BGA
1517-pin FineLine BGA
D8
1932-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
x4
x8/x9
x16/x18
x32/x36
Top
34
13
8
2
Bottom
26
17
6
1
Top
38
19
9
2
Bottom
34
17
8
2
Top
34
13
8
2
Bottom
26
17
6
1
Top
38
19
9
2
Bottom
34
17
8
2
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
42
21
10
3
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
Top
58
29
14
6
Bottom
58
29
14
6
Top
70
35
16
6
Bottom
70
35
16
6
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DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GT
DQ/DQS Groups in Stratix V GT
Table 7-7: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Stratix V GT Devices
Some of the x4 groups are using RZQ pins. If you use the Stratix V calibrated OCT feature, you cannot use these
groups.
Member
Code
Package
C5
1517-pin FineLine BGA
C7
1517-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x4
x8/x9
x16/x18
x32/x36
Top
50
25
12
5
Bottom
50
25
12
4
Top
50
25
12
5
Bottom
50
25
12
4
External Memory Interface Features in Stratix V Devices
The Stratix V I/O elements (IOE) provide built-in functionality required for a rapid and robust
implementation of external memory interfacing.
The following device features are available for external memory interfaces:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DQS phase-shift circuitry
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) networks
DQS logic block
Dynamic on-chip termination (OCT) control
IOE registers
Delay chains
Delay-locked loops (DLLs)
Read- and write-leveling support
Trace mismatch compensation
Read FIFO blocks
Slew rate adjustment
Programmable drive strength
UniPHY IP
The high-performance memory interface solution includes the self-calibrating UniPHY IP that is
optimized to take advantage of the Stratix V I/O structure and the Quartus Prime software TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer. The UniPHY IP helps set up the physical interface (PHY) best suited for your system.
This provides the total solution for the highest reliable frequency of operation across process, voltage, and
temperature (PVT) variations.
The UniPHY IP instantiates a PLL to generate related clocks for the memory interface. The UniPHY IP
can also dynamically choose the number of delay chains that are required for the system. The amount of
delay is equal to the sum of the intrinsic delay of the delay element and the product of the number of delay
steps and the value of the delay steps.
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External Memory Interface Datapath
The UniPHY IP and the Altera memory controller IP core can run at half or quarter of the I/O interface
frequency of the memory devices, allowing better timing management in high-speed memory interfaces.
The Stratix V devices contain built-in circuitry in the IOE to convert data from full rate (the I/O
frequency) to half rate (the controller frequency) and vice versa.
Related Information
Functional Description - UniPHY, External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 3
Provides more information about UniPHY IP.
External Memory Interface Datapath
The following figure shows an overview of the memory interface datapath that uses the Stratix V I/O
elements. In the figure, the DQ/DQS read and write signals may be bidirectional or unidirectional,
depending on the memory standard. If the signal is bidirectional, it is active during read and write
operations. You can bypass each register block.
Figure 7-2: External Memory Interface Datapath Overview for Stratix V Devices
Memory
FPGA
DQS Enable
Control
Circuit
Postamble Enable
Postamble Clock
DLL
DQS Logic
Block
4n
2n
DQS
Enable
Circuit
DDR Input
Registers
Read FIFO
4n
Clock
Management
and Reset
4
DQ Write Clock
Half-Rate Clock
Alignment Clock
DQS Write Clock
Half Data
Rate
Output
Registers
2n
Half Data
Rate
Output
Registers
2
2n
Alignment
Registers
Alignment
Registers
2
DDR Output
and Output
Enable
Registers
DDR Output
and Output
Enable
Registers
DQS (Read)
n
n
DQ (Read)
DQ (Write)
DQS (Write)
Note: There are slight block differences for different memory interface standards. The shaded blocks are part of the I/O elements.
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DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
7-11
DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
The Stratix V phase-shift circuitry provides phase shift to the DQS/CQ and CQn pins on read transac‐
tions if the DQS/CQ and CQn pins are acting as input clocks or strobes to the FPGA. The DQS phaseshift circuitry consists of DLLs that are shared between multiple DQS pins and the phase-offset module to
further fine-tune the DQS phase shift for different sides of the device.
The following figures show how the DQS phase-shift circuitry is connected to the DQS/CQ and CQn pins
in the Stratix V variants.
Figure 7-3: DQS/CQ and CQn Pins and DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry in Stratix V E Devices
DQS/CQ
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
CQn
Pin
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DLL
Reference
Clock
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
Δt
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
Δt
Δt
Δt
Δt
CQn
Pin
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CQn
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
Δt
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DQS/CQ
Pin
DQS/CQ
Pin
CQn
Pin
DQS/CQ
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DLL
Reference
Clock
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Delay-Locked Loop
Figure 7-4: DQS/CQ and CQn Pins and DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry in Stratix V GX, GS, and GT Devices
DQS/CQ
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
CQn
Pin
DQS/CQ
Pin
CQn
Pin
Δt
Δt
DQS Logic
Blocks
Δt
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DLL
Reference
Clock
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
Transceiver
to IOE
Transceiver
to IOE
DLL
Reference
Clock
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
Δt
Δt
Δt
Δt
CQn
Pin
DQS/CQ
Pin
CQn
Pin
DQS/CQ
Pin
DQS
Phase-Shift
Circuitry
DLL
Reference
Clock
The DQS phase-shift circuitry is connected to the DQS logic blocks that control each DQS/CQ or CQn
pin. DQS logic blocks allow the DQS delay settings to be updated concurrently at every DQS/CQ or CQn
pin.
Delay-Locked Loop
The DQS phase-shift circuitry uses a delay-locked loop (DLL) to dynamically control the clock delay
required by the DQS/CQ and CQn pin.
The DLL uses a frequency reference to dynamically generate control signals for the delay chains in each of
the DQS/CQ and CQn pins, allowing the delay to compensate for process, voltage, and temperature
(PVT) variations. The DQS delay settings are gray-coded to reduce jitter if the DLL updates the settings.
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DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V Devices
7-13
There are a maximum of four DLLs, located in each corner of the Stratix V devices. You can clock each
DLL using different frequencies. Each DLL can have two outputs with different phase offsets, which
allows one Stratix V device to have eight different DLL phase shift settings.
You can have two different interfaces with the same frequency sharing a DLL, where the DLL controls the
DQS delay settings for both interfaces.
Each I/O bank is accessible by two DLLs, giving more flexibility to create multiple frequencies and
multiple-type interfaces. Each bank can use settings from one or both adjacent DLLs. For example, DQS1T
can get its phase-shift settings from DLL_TR, while DQS2T can get its phase-shift settings from DLL_TL.
The reference clock for each DLL may come from the PLL output clocks or clock input pins.
Note: If you have a dedicated PLL that only generates the DLL input reference clock, set the PLL mode to
No Compensation to achieve better performance (or the Quartus Prime software automatically
changes it). Because the PLL does not use any other outputs, it does not have to compensate for any
clock paths.
DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V Devices
Table 7-8: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V E E9 and EB, and Stratix V GX A9, AB, B9, and BB Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X104_
Y166
COR_X0_Y170
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
COR_X0_Y161
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
—
CEN_X104_
Y157
DLL_TR
DLL_BR
CEN_X104_
Y166
COR_X225_
Y170
CEN_X104_
Y157
COR_X225_
Y161
CEN_X104_Y11 COR_X225_Y10
CEN_X104_Y2
DLL_BL
COR_X225_Y1
CEN_X104_Y11
COR_X0_Y10
CLK0P
CLK4P
CEN_X104_Y2
COR_X0_Y1
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
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DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V Devices
Table 7-9: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V GX A3 (with 36 Transceivers) and A4, and Stratix V GS D5
Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
DLL_TR
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X92_Y96
COR_X0_Y100
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
CEN_X92_Y87
COR_X0_Y91
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
—
CEN_X92_Y96
COR_X202_
Y100
CEN_X92_Y87
COR_X202_Y91
DLL_BR
DLL_BL
CEN_X92_Y11
COR_X202_Y10
CEN_X92_Y2
COR_X202_Y1
—
CEN_X92_Y11
COR_X0_Y10
CLK0P
CLK4P
CEN_X92_Y1
COR_X0_Y1
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
Table 7-10: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V GX B5 and B6 Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
Altera Corporation
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X90_Y123
LR_X0_Y109
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
CEN_X90_Y114
LR_X0_Y100
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
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DLL
DLL_TR
PLL
Center
CLKIN
Corner
CEN_X90_Y123 LR_X197_Y109
Left
Center
Right
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
—
CEN_X90_Y114 LR_X197_Y100
DLL_BR
DLL_BL
7-15
CEN_X90_Y11
LR_X197_Y14
CEN_X90_Y2
LR_X197_Y5
—
CEN_X90_Y11
LR_X0_Y14
CLK0P
CLK4P
CEN_X90_Y2
LR_X0_Y5
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
Table 7-11: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V GX A5 and A7, and Stratix V GT C5 and C7 Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
DLL_TR
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X98_Y118
COR_X0_Y122
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
CEN_X98_Y109
COR_X0_Y113
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
CEN_X98_Y118
CEN_X98_Y109
COR_X210_
Y122
COR_X210_
Y113
DLL_BR
CEN_X98_Y11
COR_X210_Y10
CEN_X98_Y2
COR_X210_Y1
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DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V Devices
DLL
DLL_BL
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X98_Y11
COR_X0_Y10
CLK0P
CLK4P
—
CEN_X98_Y2
COR_X0_Y1
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
Table 7-12: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V GX A3 (with 24 Transceivers), and Stratix V GS D3 and
D4 Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
DLL_TR
DLL_BR
DLL_BL
Altera Corporation
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X84_Y77
COR_X0_Y81
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
CEN_X84_Y68
COR_X0_Y72
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
—
CEN_X84_Y77
COR_X185_Y81
CEN_X84_Y68
COR_X185_Y72
CEN_X84_Y11
COR_X185_Y10
CEN_X84_Y2
COR_X185_Y1
—
CEN_X84_Y11
COR_X0_Y10
CLK0P
CLK4P
CEN_X84_Y2
COR_X0_Y1
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
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Table 7-13: DLL Reference Clock Input for Stratix V GS D6 and D8 Devices
DLL
DLL_TL
DLL_TR
PLL
CLKIN
Center
Corner
Left
Center
Right
CEN_X96_Y141
COR_X0_Y145
CLK20P
CLK16P
—
CEN_X96_Y132
COR_X0_Y136
CLK21P
CLK17P
CLK22P
CLK18P
CLK23P
CLK19P
—
CLK16P
CLK12P
CLK17P
CLK13P
CLK18P
CLK14P
CLK19P
CLK15P
CLK4P
CLK8P
CLK5P
CLK9P
CLK6P
CLK10P
CLK7P
CLK11P
—
CEN_X96_Y141
CEN_X96_Y132
COR_X208_
Y145
COR_X208_
Y136
DLL_BR
DLL_BL
CEN_X96_Y11
COR_X208_Y10
CEN_X96_Y2
COR_X208_Y1
—
CEN_X96_Y11
COR_X0_Y10
CLK0P
CLK4P
CEN_X96_Y2
COR_X0_Y1
CLK1P
CLK5P
CLK2P
CLK6P
CLK3P
CLK7P
DQS Phase-Shift
The DLL can shift the incoming DQS signals by 0°, 45°, 90°, or 135°. The shifted DQS signal is then used
as the clock for the DQ IOE input registers.
All DQS/CQ/CQn pins referenced to the same DLL, can have their input signal phase shifted by a
different degree amount but all must be referenced at one particular frequency. For example, you can have
a 90° phase shift on DQS1T and a 45° phase shift on DQS2T, referenced from a 300-MHz clock. However,
not all phase-shift combinations are supported. The phase shifts on the DQS pins referenced by the same
DLL must all be a multiple of 45° (up to 135°).
The 7-bit DQS delay settings from the DLL vary with PVT to implement the phase-shift delay. For
example, with a 0° shift, the DQS/CQ signal bypasses both the DLL and DQS logic blocks. The Quartus
Prime software automatically sets the DQ input delay chains, so that the skew between the DQ and
DQS/CQ pins at the DQ IOE registers is negligible if a 0° shift is implemented. You can feed the DQS
delay settings to the DQS logic block and logic array.
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DQS Phase-Shift
The shifted DQS/CQ signal goes to the DQS bus to clock the IOE input registers of the DQ pins. The
signal can also go into the logic array for resynchronization if you are not using IOE resynchronization
registers.
Figure 7-5: Simplified Diagram of the DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
This figure shows a simple block diagram of the DLL. All features of the DQS phase-shift circuitry are
accessible from the UniPHY IP core in the Quartus Prime software.
addnsub
Phase offset settings
from the logic array
(offset[6:0])
7
DLL
Input Reference
Clock
offsetdelayctrlin[6:0]
aload
Phase
Comparator
upndninclkena
7
offsetdelayctrlout[6:0]
offsetdelayctrlin[6:0]
7
Delay Chains
delayctrlout[6:0]
7
7
Phase offset
settings to DQS pins
(offsetctrlout[6:0])
addnsub
Phase offset settings
from the logic array ( offset [6:0] )
Up/Down
Counter
This clock can
come from a PLL
output clock or an
input clock pin
7
(dll_offset_ctrl_a)
offsetdelayctrlout[6:0]
upndnin
clk
Phase
Offset
Control
A
dqsupdate
Phase
Offset
Control
B
7
Phase offset
settings can only
go to the DQS
logic blocks
Phase offset
settings to DQS pin
(offsetctrlout[6:0])
(dll_offset_ctrl_b)
DQS Delay
Settings
DQS delay settings can go to the
logic array and DQS logic block
The input reference clock goes into the DLL to a chain of up to eight delay elements. The phase
comparator compares the signal coming out of the end of the delay chain block to the input reference
clock. The phase comparator then issues the upndn signal to the Gray-code counter. This signal
increments or decrements a 7-bit delay setting (DQS delay settings) that increases or decreases the delay
through the delay element chain to bring the input reference clock and the signals coming out of the delay
element chain in phase.
Note: In the Quartus Prime assignment, the phase offset control block ‘A’ is designated as
DLLOFFSETCTRL_CoordinateX_CoordinateY_N1 and phase offset control block ‘B’ is designated as
DLLOFFSETCTRL_CoordinateX_CoordinateY_N2.
The DLL can be reset from either the logic array or a user I/O pin (if 2,560 or 512 clock cycles applies).
Each time the DLL is reset, you must wait for 2,560 (low-jitter mode) or 512 clock cycles for the DLL to
lock before you can capture the data properly.
You can still use DQS phase-shift circuitry for memory interfaces running on frequencies below the
minimum DLL input frequency, which is 300 MHz. The frequency of the clock feeding the DLL should be
doubled when the interface frequency is between 150 MHz and 299 MHz or multiplied by four when the
interface frequency is between 75 MHz and 149 MHz. Because of the changes on the DLL input clock
frequency, the DQS delay chain can only shift up to 67.5° for the interface frequency between 150 MHz
and 299 MHz and 33.75° for the interface frequency between 75 MHz and 149 MHz. Depending on your
design, while the DQS signal might not shift exactly to the middle of the DQ valid window, the IOE is still
able to capture the data accurately in low-frequency applications, where a large amount of timing margin
is available.
For the frequency range of each DLL frequency mode, refer to the device datasheet.
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Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks
The PHYCLK network is a dedicated high-speed, low-skew balanced clock tree designed for a highperformance external memory interface.
The top and bottom sides of the Stratix V devices three PHYCLK networks each. Each PHYCLK network
spans across one I/O bank and is driven by one of the left, right, or center PLLs located at that device side.
The following figure shows the PHYCLK networks available in the Stratix V devices.
Figure 7-6: PHYCLK Networks in Stratix V Devices
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Left
PLL
Center
PLL
I/O Bank 7
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Transceiver Banks
Transceiver Banks
PHYCLK Networks
FPGA Device
PHYCLK Networks
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
Center
PLL
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
The PHYCLK network can be used to drive I/O sub-banks in each I/O bank. Each I/O sub-bank can be
driven by only one PHYCLK network—all I/O pins in an I/O sub-bank are driven by the same PHYCLK
network. The UniPHY IP for Stratix V devices uses the PHYCLK network to improve external memory
interface performance.
DQS Logic Block
Each DQS/CQ and CQn pin is connected to a separate DQS logic block, which consists of the DQS delay
chains, update enable circuitry, and DQS postamble circuitry.
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Update Enable Circuitry
The following figure shows the DQS logic block.
Figure 7-7: DQS Logic Block in Stratix V Devices
DQS Del ay Chain
DQS Enable
00
01
10
11
dqsin
DQS/CQ or
CQn Pin
D Q
dqsin
The dqsenable
signal can also
come from the
FPGA fabric
<use_alternate_input_for
first_stage_delay_control>
dqsenable
0
1
dqsenableout
D Q
zerophaseclk
Postamble clock
0
1
D Q
D Q
leveling clk
<bypass_output_register>
Read-leveled
postamble clock
0
1
<delay_dqs_enable_by_half_cycle>
0
1
enaphasetransferreg
dqsenablein
D Q
phasectrlin[1..0]
PRE
DQS Postamble Circuit
Postamble
Enable
dqsbusout
7
7
0
1
7
offsetctrlin [6..0] 7
1
D Q
Phase offset
0
settings from the
DQS phase-shift
<dqs_offsetctrl_enable>
circuitry
7
0
1
7
<dqs_ctrl_latches_enable>
D
Q
7
dqsupdateen
Update
Enable
Circuitry
7
DQS del ay
settings from the
DQS phase-shift
circuitry
delayctrlin [6..0]
Input Reference
Clock
This clock can come from a PLL
output clock or an input clock pin
Update Enable Circuitry
The update enable circuitry enables the registers to allow enough time for the DQS delay settings to travel
from the DQS phase-shift circuitry or core logic to all the DQS logic blocks before the next change.
Both the DQS delay settings and the phase-offset settings pass through a register before going into the
DQS delay chains. The registers are controlled by the update enable circuitry to allow enough time for any
changes in the DQS delay setting bits to arrive at all the delay elements, which allows them to be adjusted
at the same time.
The circuitry uses the input reference clock or a user clock from the core to generate the update enable
output. The UniPHY intellectual property (IP) uses this circuit by default.
Figure 7-8: DQS Update Enable Waveform
This figure shows an example waveform of the update enable circuitry output.
DLL Counter Update
(Every 8 cycles)
DLL Counter Update
(Every 8 cycles)
System Clock
DQS Delay Settings
Updated every 8 cycles
7 bit
Update Enable
Circuitry Output
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DQS Delay Chain
DQS delay chains consist of a set of variable delay elements to allow the input DQS/CQ and CQn signals
to be shifted by the amount specified by the DQS phase-shift circuitry or the logic array.
There are four delay elements in the DQS delay chain that have the same characteristics:
• Delay elements in the DQS logic block
• Delay elements in the DLL
The first delay chain closest to the DQS/CQ pin is shifted either by the DQS delay settings or by the sum
of the DQS delay setting and the phase-offset setting. The DQS delay settings can come from the DQS
phase-shift circuitry on either end of the I/O banks or from the logic array.
The number of delay chains required is transparent because the UniPHY IP automatically sets it when
you choose the operating frequency.
In Stratix V devices, if you do not use the DLL to control the DQS delay chains, you can input your own
gray-coded 7 bit settings using the delayctrlin[6..0] signals available in the UniPHY IP. These settings
control 1, 2, 3, or all 4 delay elements in the DQS delay chains. The UniPHY IP core can also dynamically
choose the number of DQS delay chains required for the system. The amount of delay is equal to the sum
of the intrinsic delay of the delay element and the product of the number of delay steps and the value of
the delay steps. You can also bypass the DQS delay chain to achieve a 0° phase shift.
Related Information
• ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about programming the delay chains.
• Delay Chains on page 7-26
DQS Postamble Circuitry
There are preamble and postamble specifications for both read and write operations in DDR3 and DDR2
SDRAM. The DQS postamble circuitry ensures that data is not lost if there is noise on the DQS line
during the end of a read operation that occurs while DQS is in a postamble state.
The Stratix V devices contain dedicated postamble registers that you can control to ground the shifted
DQS signal that is used to clock the DQ input registers at the end of a read operation. This function
ensures that any glitches on the DQS input signal during the end of a read operation and occurring while
DQS is in a postamble state do not affect the DQ IOE registers.
• For preamble state, the DQS is low, just after a high-impedance state.
• For postamble state, the DQS is low, just before it returns to a high-impedance state.
For external memory interfaces that use a bidirectional read strobe (DDR3 and DDR2 SDRAM), the DQS
signal is low before going to or coming from a high-impedance state.
Half Data Rate Block
The Stratix V devices contain a half data rate (HDR) block in the postamble enable circuitry.
The HDR block is clocked by the half-rate resynchronization clock, which is the output of the I/O clock
divider circuit. There is an AND gate after the postamble register outputs to avoid postamble glitches
from a previous read burst on a non-consecutive read burst. This scheme allows half-a-clock cycle latency
for dqsenable assertion and zero latency for dqsenable deassertion.
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Leveling Circuitry
Using the HDR block as the first stage capture register in the postamble enable circuitry block is optional.
Altera recommends using these registers if the controller is running at half the frequency of the I/Os.
Figure 7-9: Avoiding Glitch on a Non-Consecutive Read Burst Waveform
This figure shows how to avoid postamble glitches using the HDR block.
Postamble glitch
Postamble
Preamble
DQS
Postamble Enable
dqsenable
Delayed by
1/2T logic
Leveling Circuitry
DDR3 SDRAM unbuffered modules use a fly-by clock distribution topology for better signal integrity.
This means that the CK/CK# signals arrive at each DDR3 SDRAM device in the module at different times.
The difference in arrival time between the first DDR3 SDRAM device and the last device on the module
can be as long as 1.6 ns.
The following figure shows the clock topology in DDR3 SDRAM unbuffered modules.
Figure 7-10: DDR3 SDRAM Unbuffered Module Clock Topology
DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ CK/CK# DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ
DQS/DQ
FPGA
Because the data and read strobe signals are still point-to-point, take special care to ensure that the timing
relationship between the CK/CK# and DQS signals (tDQSS, tDSS, and tDSH) during a write is met at every
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device on the modules. In a similar way, read data coming back into the FPGA from the memory is also
staggered.
The Stratix V devices have leveling circuitry to address these two situations. There is one leveling circuit
per I/O sub-bank (for example, I/O sub-bank 1A, 1B, and 1C each has one leveling circuitry). These delay
chains are PVT-compensated by the same DQS delay settings as the DLL and DQS delay chains.
The DLL uses eight delay chain taps, such that each delay chain tap generates a 45° delay. The generated
clock phases are distributed to every DQS logic block that is available in the I/O sub-bank. The delay
chain taps then feed a multiplexer controlled by the UniPHY IP core to select which clock phases are to be
used for that x4 or x 8 DQS group. Each group can use a different tap output from the read-leveling and
write-leveling delay chains to compensate for the different CK/CK# delay going into each device on the
module.
Figure 7-11: Write-Leveling Delay Chains and Multiplexers
There is one leveling delay chain per I/O sub-bank (for example, I/O sub-banks 1A, 1B, and 1C). You can
only have one memory interface in each I/O sub-bank when you use the leveling delay chain.
Write clk
(-900)
Write-Leveled DQS Clock
Write-Leveled DQ Clock
The –90° write clock of the UniPHY IP feeds the write-leveling circuitry to produce the clock to generate
the DQS and DQ signals. During initialization, the UniPHY IP picks the correct write-leveled clock for
the DQS and DQ clocks for each DQ/DQS group after sweeping all the available clocks in the write
calibration process. The DQ clock output is –90° phase-shifted compared to the DQS clock output.
The UniPHY IP dynamically calibrates the alignment for read and write leveling during the initialization
process.
Related Information
• Functional Description - UniPHY
Provides more information about the UniPHY IP.
• DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 SDRAM Board Design Guidelines chapter. External Memory Interface
Volume 2
Provides layout guidelines for DDR3 SDRAM interface.
Dynamic OCT Control
The dynamic OCT control block includes all the registers that are required to dynamically turn the onchip parallel termination (RT OCT) on during a read and turn RT OCT off during a write.
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IOE Registers
Figure 7-12: Dynamic OCT Control Block for Stratix V Devices
OCT Control Path
OCT Control
2
DFF
DFF
OCT Enable
OCT Half-Rate Clock
HDR Block
Write Clock
Resynchronization
Registers
The write clock comes from either the PLL or the writeleveling delay chain.
Related Information
• Dynamic OCT in Stratix V Devices on page 5-31
Provides more information about dynamic OCT control.
• On-Chip I/O Termination in Stratix V Devices on page 5-24
Provide more information for on-chip termination in Stratix V devices.
IOE Registers
The IOE registers are expanded to allow source-synchronous systems to have faster register-to-FIFO
transfers and resynchronization. All top, bottom, and right IOEs have the same capability.
Input Registers
The input path consists of the DDR input registers and the read FIFO block. You can bypass each block of
the input path.
There are three registers in the DDR input registers block. Two registers capture data on the positive and
negative edges of the clock while the third register aligns the captured data. You can choose to use the
same clock for the positive and negative edge registers or two complementary clocks (DQS/CQ for the
positive-edge register and DQSn/CQn for the negative-edge register). The third register that aligns the
captured data uses the same clock as the positive edge registers.
The read FIFO block resynchronizes the data to the system clock domain and lowers the data rate to half
rate.
The following figure shows the registers available in the Stratix V input path. For DDR3 and DDR2
SDRAM interfaces, the DQS and DQSn signals must be inverted. If you use Altera’s memory interface IPs,
the DQS and DQSn signals are automatically inverted.
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Output Registers
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Figure 7-13: IOE Input Registers for Stratix V Devices
Double Data Rate Input Registers
DQ
D
DFF
Input Reg A I
D
Q neg_reg_out
D
The input
clock can be
from the DQS
logic block or
from a global
clock line.
Differential
Input
Buffer
DQS/CQ
DQSn
datain [0]
Q
D
Q
datain [1]
This half-rate read
clock comes from a
PLL through the
clock network
DFF
Input Reg C I
wrclk
CQn
To core
Read FIFO
Q
DFF
Input Reg B I
dataout[3..0]
rdclk
Half-rate clock
0
1
This input clock comes
from the CQn logic block.
Output Registers
The Stratix V output and output-enable path is divided into the HDR block, alignment registers, and
output and output-enable registers. The device can bypass each block of the output and output-enable
path.
The output path is designed to route combinatorial or registered single data rate (SDR) outputs and fullrate or half-rate DDR outputs from the FPGA core. Half-rate data is converted to full-rate with the HDR
block, clocked by the half-rate clock from the PLL.
The resynchronization registers are also clocked by the same 0° system clock, except in the DDR3
SDRAM interface. In DDR3 SDRAM interfaces, the leveling registers are clocked by the write-leveling
clock.
The output-enable path has a structure similar to the output path—ensuring that the output-enable path
goes through the same delay and latency as the output path.
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Delay Chains
Figure 7-14: IOE Output and Output-Enable Path Registers
The following figure shows the registers available in the output and output-enable paths. You can bypass
each register block of the output and output-enable paths.
Used in DDR3 SDRAM interfaces
for write-leveling purposes
Data coming from the FPGA core are at half the
frequency of the memory interface clock frequency in
half-rate mode
From Core
Half Data Rate to
Single Data Rate
Output-Enable
Registers
D Q
DFF
From Core
0
1
D
Q
DFF
D Q
D Q
DFF
DFF
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Alignment Registers
D Q
0
1
dataout
DFF
DFF
<add_output_cycle_delay>
D Q
DFF
enaphasetransferreg
D Q
Double Data Rate
Output-Enable Registers
OE Reg A OE
1
0
enaoutputcycledelay[2..0]
OR2
D Q
DFF
From Core
(wdata2)
Half Data Rate to
Single Data Rate
Output Registers
D Q
DFF
From Core
(wdata0)
0
1
D
Q
DFF
D Q
D Q
DFF
From Core
(wdata1)
D Q
DFF
DFF
Alignment Registers
D Q
0
1
<add_output_cycle_delay>
0
1
D
DFF
Q
D Q
D Q
DFF
DFF
dataout
DFF
Half-Rate Clock
From the PLL
Alignment Clock
From write-leveling delay chains
<add_output_cycle_delay>
D Q
DFF
DFF
0
1
TRI
DQ or DQS
OE Reg A O
enaoutputcycledelay[2..0]
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
D Q
0
1
dataout
DFF
D Q
DFF
enaphasetransferreg
D Q
OE Reg B OE
Double Data Rate
Output Registers
enaphasetransferreg
DFF
From Core
(wdata3)
D Q
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
OE Reg B O
enaoutputcycledelay[2..0]
The write clock can come from either the
PLL or from the write-leveling delay chain.
The DQ write clock and DQS write clock
have a 90° offset between them
Write Clock
Delay Chains
The Stratix V devices contain run-time adjustable delay chains in the I/O blocks and the DQS logic
blocks. You can control the delay chain setting through the I/O or the DQS configuration block output.
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Figure 7-15: Delay Chain
delayctrlin [7..0]
Δt
datain
dataout
Every I/O block contains two delay chains between the following elements:
•
•
•
•
The output registers and output buffer (in series)
The input buffer and input register
The output enable and output buffer
The R T OCT enable-control register and output buffer
Figure 7-16: Delay Chains in an I/O Block
rtena
oe
octdelaysetting1
D5 OCT
delay chain
D5 Ouput
Enable
delay chain
octdelaysetting2
D6 OCT
delay chain
D6 Ouput
Enable
delay chain
DQ
outputdelaysetting1
outputdelaysetting2
D6 Delay
delay chain
D1 Delay
delay chain
D1 Rise/Fall
Balancing
delay chain
D2 Delay
delay chain
D5 Delay
delay chain
0
1
D3 Delay
delay chain
padtoinputregisterdelaysetting
padtoinputregisterrisefalldelaysetting[5..0]
Each DQS logic block contains a delay chain after the dqsbusout output and another delay chain before
the dqsenable input.
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I/O and DQS Configuration Blocks
Figure 7-17: Delay Chains in the DQS Input Path
DQS
Enable
dqsin
DQS
DQS delay
chain
T7
delay
chain
dqsenable
dqsbusout
T11
delay
chain
DQS
Enable
Control
Related Information
• ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about programming the delay chains.
• DQS Delay Chain on page 7-21
I/O and DQS Configuration Blocks
The I/O and DQS configuration blocks are shift registers that you can use to dynamically change the
settings of various device configuration bits.
• The shift registers power-up low.
• Every I/O pin contains one I/O configuration register.
• Every DQS pin contains one DQS configuration block in addition to the I/O configuration register.
Figure 7-18: Configuration Block (I/O and DQS)
This figure shows the I/O configuration block and the DQS configuration block circuitry.
MSB
datain
update
ena
rankselectread
rankselectwrite
bit2
bit1
bit0
dataout
clk
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Related Information
ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about programming the delay chains.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Updated DDR3 1.35 V (DDR3L) performance from 933 MHz to 800
MHz.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the figure that shows the delay chains in the Stratix V I/O
block.
• Added related information link to ALTDQ_DQS2 Megafunction
User Guide for more information about using the delay chains.
• Added link to Altera's External Memory Spec Estimator tool to the
topic listing the external memory interface performance.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Added related information link to DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM Board
Design Guidelines.
• Performed some minor text edits to improve accuracy.
December
2012
2012.11.28
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
External Memory Interfaces in Stratix V Devices
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Reorganized content and updated template.
Added RLDRAM 3 support.
Added performance information for external memory interfaces.
Separated the DQ/DQS groups tables into separate topics for each
device variant for easy reference.
Moved the PHYCLK networks pin placement guideline to the
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter of the External Memory
Interface Handbook.
Removed guidelines on DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM DIMM interfaces.
Refer to the relevant sections in the External Memory Interface
Handbook for the information.
Corrected “Gray-code” to “Binary-Code” in the “Phase Offset
Control” section.
Removed the topic about phase offset control.
Removed the topics about I/O and DQS configuration block bit
sequence. Refer to the relevant sections in the ALTDQ_DQS2
Megafunction User Guide.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
June 2012
1.4
•
•
•
•
Added Table 7–6, Table 7–8, and Table 7–9.
Updated Table 7–2, Table 7–3, and Table 7–7.
Updated Figure 7–18.
Updated the “PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks” section.
November
2011
1.3
•
•
•
•
•
Added “PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks” section.
Updated “Delay-Locked Loop” section.
Updated Figure 7–3, Figure 7–5, and Figure 7–7.
Updated Table 7–2, Table 7–3, Table 7–4, Table 7–5, and Table 7–6.
Minor text edits.
May 2011
1.2
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Updated Figure 7–4, Figure 7–6, Figure 7–13, Figure 7–14, and Figure
7–17.
• Updated Table 7–2, Table 7–7, and Table 7–8.
• Minor text edits.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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Configuration, Design Security, and Remote
System Upgrades in Stratix V Devices
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This chapter describes the configuration schemes, design security, and remote system upgrade that are
supported by the Stratix V devices.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
• Stratix V Device Overview
Provides more information about configuration features supported for each configuration scheme.
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the estimated uncompressed .rbf file sizes, FPP DCLK-to-DATA[]
ratio, and timing parameters.
• Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Altera FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
• Design Planning for Partial Reconfiguration
Provides more information about partial reconfiguration.
Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol
Table 8-1: Configuration Modes and Features of Stratix V Devices
Stratix V devices support 1.8 V, 2.5 V, and 3.0 V programming voltages and several configuration modes.
Mode
AS through the
EPCS and EPCQ
serial configura‐
tion device
(14)
Data
Width
Max
Clock
Rate
(MHz)
1 bit, 4
bits
100
Max Data Decompression Design
Partial
Remote System
Rate
Security Reconfiguration
Update
(14)
(Mbps)
—
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
Partial reconfiguration is an advanced feature of the device family. If you are interested in using partial
reconfiguration, contact Altera for support.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MSEL Pin Settings
Mode
PS through
CPLD or
external
microcontroller
FPP
CvP (PCIe)
JTAG
Data
Width
Max
Clock
Rate
(MHz)
Max Data Decompression Design
Partial
Remote System
Rate
Security Reconfiguration
Update
(14)
(Mbps)
1 bit
125
125
Yes
Yes
—
8 bits
125
—
Yes
Yes
—
16 bits
125
—
Yes
Yes
Yes(15)
32 bits
100
—
Yes
Yes
—
x1, x2,
x4, and
x8 lanes
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
1 bit
33
33
—
—
—
—
—
Parallel flash loader
Instead of using an external flash or ROM, you can configure the Stratix V devices through PCIe using
CvP. The CvP mode offers the fastest configuration rate and flexibility with the easy-to-use PCIe hard IP
block interface. The Stratix V CvP implementation conforms to the PCIe 100 ms power-up-to-active time
requirement.
Related Information
Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Altera FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
MSEL Pin Settings
To select a configuration scheme, hardwire the MSEL pins to VCCPGM or GND without pull-up or
pull-down resistors.
Note: Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins directly to VCCPGM or GND. Driving the MSEL pins
from a microprocessor or another controlling device may not guarantee the VIL or VIH of the MSEL
pins. The VIL or VIH of the MSEL pins must be maintained throughout configuration stages.
(14)
(15)
Partial reconfiguration is an advanced feature of the device family. If you are interested in using partial
reconfiguration, contact Altera for support.
Supported at a maximum clock rate of 62.5 MHz.
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MSEL Pin Settings
8-3
Table 8-2: MSEL Pin Settings for Each Configuration Scheme of Stratix V Devices
Configuration Scheme
Compression
Feature
Design
Security
Feature
VCCPGM (V)
Disabled
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Enabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Enabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Enabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Enabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Enabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Enabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
PS
Enabled/
Disabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
AS (x1 and x4)
Enabled/
Disabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0
Disabled
Disabled
—
FPP x8
FPP x16
FPP x32
JTAG-based
configuration
Power-On
Reset (POR)
Delay
Valid MSEL[4..0]
Fast
10100
Standard
11000
Fast
10101
Standard
11001
Fast
10110
Standard
11010
Fast
00000
Standard
00100
Fast
00001
Standard
00101
Fast
00010
Standard
00110
Fast
01000
Standard
01100
Fast
01001
Standard
01101
Fast
01010
Standard
01110
Fast
10000
Standard
10001
Fast
10010
Standard
10011
—
Use any valid MSEL
pin settings above
Note: You must also select the configuration scheme in the Configuration page of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software. Based on your selection, the option bit in the
programming file is set accordingly.
Related Information
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about JTAG pins voltage-level connection.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about JTAG pins voltage-level connection.
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Configuration Sequence
Configuration Sequence
Describes the configuration sequence and each configuration stage.
Figure 8-1: Configuration Sequence for Stratix V Devices
Power Up
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
driven low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Clears configuration RAM bits
Power supplies including V
CCPD and V CCPGM reach
recommended operating voltage
Reset
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
remain low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Samples MSEL pins
nSTATUS and nCONFIG released high
CONF_DONE pulled low
Configuration Error Handling
• nSTATUS pulled low
• CONF_DONE remains low
• Restarts configuration if option
enabled
Configuration
Writes configuration data to
FPGA
CONF_DONE released high
Initialization
• Initializes internal logic and
registers
• Enables I/O buffers
INIT_DONE released high
(if option enabled)
User Mode
Executes your design
You can initiate reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low to at least the minimum tCFG low-pulse
width except for configuration using the partial reconfiguration operation. When this pin is pulled low,
the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are pulled low and all I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up.
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Power Up
8-5
Power Up
Power up all the power supplies that are monitored by the POR circuitry. All power supplies, including
VCCPGM and VCCPD, must ramp up from 0 V to the recommended operating voltage level within the
ramp-up time specification. Otherwise, hold the nCONFIG pin low until all the power supplies reach the
recommended voltage level.
VCCPGM Pin
The configuration input buffers do not have to share power lines with the regular I/O buffers in Stratix V
devices.
The operating voltage for the configuration input pin is independent of the I/O banks power supply,
VCCIO, during configuration. Therefore, Stratix V devices do not require configuration voltage constraints
on VCCIO.
VCCPD Pin
Use the VCCPD pin, a dedicated programming power supply, to power the I/O pre-drivers and JTAG I/O
pins (TCK, TMS, TDI, TRST, and TDO).
If VCCIO of the bank is set to 2.5 V or lower, VCCPD must be powered up at 2.5 V. If VCCIO is set greater
than 2.5 V, VCCPD must be greater than VCCIO. For example, when VCCIO is set to 3.0 V, VCCPD must be
set at 3.0 V.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the ramp-up time specifications.
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about configuration pin connections.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about configuration pin connections.
• Device Configuration Pins on page 8-10
Provides more information about configuration pins.
• I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Stratix V Devices on page 5-3
Provides more information about typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in Stratix V
devices.
• I/O Features in Stratix V Devices
Provides more information about typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in Stratix V
devices.
Reset
POR delay is the time frame between the time when all the power supplies monitored by the POR
circuitry reach the recommended operating voltage and when nSTATUS is released high and the Stratix V
device is ready to begin configuration.
Set the POR delay using the MSEL pins.
The user I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up until the device is configured.
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Configuration
Related Information
• MSEL Pin Settings on page 8-2
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the POR delay specification.
Configuration
For more information about the DATA[] pins for each configuration scheme, refer to the appropriate
configuration scheme.
Configuration Error Handling
To restart configuration automatically, turn on the Auto-restart configuration after error option in the
General page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
If you do not turn on this option, you can monitor the nSTATUS pin to detect errors. To restart configura‐
tion, pull the nCONFIG pin low for at least the duration of tCFG.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about tSTATUS and tCFG timing parameters.
Initialization
The initialization clock source is from the internal oscillator, CLKUSR pin, or DCLK pin. By default, the
internal oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If you use the internal oscillator, the Stratix V
device will be provided with enough clock cycles for proper initialization.
Note: If you use the optional CLKUSR pin as the initialization clock source and the nCONFIG pin is pulled
low to restart configuration during device initialization, ensure that the CLKUSR or DCLK pin
continues toggling until the nSTATUS pin goes low and then goes high again.
The CLKUSR pin provides you with the flexibility to synchronize initialization of multiple devices or to
delay initialization. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin during initialization does not affect configura‐
tion. After the CONF_DONE pin goes high, the CLKUSR or DCLK pin is enabled after the time specified by
tCD2CU. When this time period elapses, Stratix V devices require a minimum number of clock cycles as
specified by Tinit to initialize properly and enter user mode as specified by the tCD2UMC parameter.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about tCD2CU, tinit, and tCD2UMC timing parameters, and initialization clock
source.
User Mode
You can enable the optional INIT_DONE pin to monitor the initialization stage. After the INIT_DONE pin is
pulled high, initialization completes and your design starts executing. The user I/O pins will then function
as specified by your design.
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Configuration Timing Waveforms
Configuration Timing Waveforms
FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 8-2: FPP Configuration Timing Waveform when DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is 1
tCFG
tCF2ST1
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
tSTATUS
tST2CK
tCH tCL
(3)
DCLK
DATA[15..0] (4)
(5)
tCLK
tDH
Word 0 Word 1 Word 2 Word 3
Word n-2 Word n-1
tDSU
User I/O
High-Z
User Mode
User Mode
INIT_DONE (6)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) For FPP x16, use DATA[15..0]. For FPP x8, use DATA[7..0]. DATA[15..5] are available as a user I/O pin after configuration. The state of this
pin depends on the dual-purpose pin settings.
(5) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high when the FPGA
receives all the configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and
enter user mode.
(6) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
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FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 8-3: FPP Configuration Timing Waveform when DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is >1
tCFG
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
tCF2CK
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
DCLK (4)
tSTATUS
tST2CK
tCH
1
2
r
1
tCL
(6)
2
r
(5)
1
r
1
(3)
2
tCLK
DATA[15..0] (6)
tDSU
User I/O
Word 0
Word 1
tDH
tDH
Word 3
User Mode
Word (n-1)
User Mode
High-Z
INIT_DONE (7)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time as specified by the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) “r” denotes the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio. For the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio based on the decompression and the design security feature enable settings, refer to the DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio
table.
(5) If needed, pause DCLK by holding it low. When DCLK restarts, the external host must provide data on the DATA[15..0] pins prior to sending the first DCLK rising edge.
(6) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high after the FPGA device receives all the configuration data successfully.
After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(7) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the FPP timing parameters.
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AS Configuration Timing
AS Configuration Timing
Figure 8-4: AS Configuration Timing Waveform
t
CF2ST1
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCSO
DCLK
t
CO
AS_DATA0/ASDO
t
DH
Read Address
t
SU
AS_DATA1 (1)
bit 0
bit 1
bit (n - 2)
bit (n - 1)
t
CD2UM
(2)
INIT_DONE (3)
User I/O
User Mode
Notes:
(1) If you are using AS x4 mode, this signal represents the AS_DATA[3..0] and EPCQ sends in 4-bits of data for each DCLK cycle.
(2) The initialization clock can be from the internal oscillator or CLKUSR pin.
(3) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the AS timing parameters.
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PS Configuration Timing
PS Configuration Timing
Figure 8-5: PS Configuration Timing Waveform
tCFG
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
tCF2CK
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
tSTATUS
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
DCLK
tST2CK
DATA0
User I/O
(4)
t CLK
tCH tCL
(3)
tDH
Bit 0
Bit 1
tDSU
Bit 2
Bit 3
Bit (n-1)
High-Z
User Mode
INIT_DONE (5)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high after the FPGA receives all
the configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(5) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about PS timing parameters.
Device Configuration Pins
Configuration Pins Summary
The following table lists the Stratix V configuration pins and their power supply.
Note: The TDI, TMS, TCK, TDO, and TRST pins are powered by VCCPD of the bank in which the pin resides.
Note: The CLKUSR, DEV_OE, DEV_CLRn, DATA[31..1], and DATA0 pins are powered by VCCPGM during
configuration and by VCCIO of the bank in which the pin resides if you use it as a user I/O pin.
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Device Configuration Pins
8-11
Table 8-3: Configuration Pin Summary for Stratix V Devices
Configuration Pin
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
TDI
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TMS
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TCK
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TDO
JTAG
Output
—
VCCPD
TRST
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
All
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Optional,
all
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
FPP and
PS
Input
—
VCCPGM
AS
Output
—
VCCPGM
Optional,
all
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Optional,
all
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Optional,
all
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
All
schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
All
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
FPP
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
CLKUSR
CRC_ERROR
CONF_DONE
DCLK
DEV_OE
DEV_CLRn
INIT_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
nCONFIG
DATA[31..1]
(16)
Configuration
Scheme
This pin is powered by VCCPGM during configuration and powered by VCCIO of the bank in which the
pin resides when you use this pin as a user I/O pin.
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I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
Configuration Pin
Configuration
Scheme
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
FPP and
PS
Bidirectional
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
AS
Output
—
VCCPGM
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
AS_DATA[3..1]
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
Partial
Input
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
CvP
(PCIe)
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (16)
DATA0
nCSO
nIO_PULLUP
PR_REQUEST
PR_READY
PR_ERROR
PR_DONE
CvP_CONFDONE
Output
Related Information
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about each configuration pin.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about each configuration pin.
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
In configuration mode, the output drive strength is set as listed in the table below. Dual-function pin
output drive strength is programmable if it is used as a regular I/O pin.
Table 8-4: I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
Configuration Pin
Type
I/O Standard
Drive Strength (mA)
nSTATUS
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
4
CONF_DONE
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
4
CvP_CONFDONE
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
4
DCLK
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
12
TDO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
12
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Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software
Configuration Pin
Type
I/O Standard
Drive Strength (mA)
AS_DATA0/ASDO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
AS_DATA1
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
AS_DATA2
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
AS_DATA3
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
INIT_DONE
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
8
CRC_ERROR
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
8
nCSO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
8-13
Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software
The following table lists the dual-purpose configuration pins available in the Device and Pin Options
dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Table 8-5: Configuration Pin Options
Configuration Pin
Category Page
Option
CLKUSR
General
Enable user-supplied start-up clock
(CLKUSR)
DEV_CLRn
General
Enable device-wide reset
(DEV_CLRn)
DEV_OE
General
Enable device-wide output enable
(DEV_OE)
INIT_DONE
General
Enable INIT_DONE output
nCEO
General
Enable nCEO pin
Enable Error Detection CRC_ERROR
pin
CRC_ERROR
Error Detection CRC
Enable open drain on CRC_ERROR
pin
Enable internal scrubbing
PR_REQUEST
PR_READY
PR_ERROR
General
Enable PR pin
PR_DONE
Related Information
Reviewing Printed Circuit Board Schematics with the Quartus II Software
Provides more information about the device and pin options dialog box setting.
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Fast Passive Parallel Configuration
Fast Passive Parallel Configuration
The FPP configuration scheme uses an external host, such as a microprocessor, MAX® II device, or
MAX V device. This scheme is the fastest method to configure Stratix V devices. The FPP configuration
scheme supports 8-, 16-, and 32-bits data width.
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an external storage such as
flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the configuration process resides in the external host.
You can store the configuration data in Raw Binary File (.rbf), Hexadecimal (Intel-Format) File (.hex), or
Tabular Text File (.ttf) formats.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data from the flash
memory device and configure the Stratix V device.
Note: Two DCLK falling edges are required after the CONF_DONE pin goes high to begin the initialization of
the device for both uncompressed and compressed configuration data in an FPP configuration.
Related Information
• Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the FPP configuration timing.
Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration
To configure a Stratix V device, connect the device to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Note: If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are using FPP x16
configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins.
Figure 8-6: Single Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal
for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be
high enough to meet the V
IH
specification of the I/O on the device
and the external host. Altera
recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
Altera Corporation
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
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Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration
8-15
Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Stratix V devices that are connected in a chain.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA[]
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and enter user mode at the
same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you
must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the
nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered for every fourth device to prevent signal integrity and clock
skew problems.
• All devices in the chain must use the same data width.
• If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data, the devices must be
of the same package and density.
Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Stratix V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Note: If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are using FPP x16
configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins.
Note: By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For multi-device configuration
chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software. Otherwise, device configura‐
tion could fail.
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Using One Configuration Data
Figure 8-7: Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive a
Different Set of Configuration Data
Connect the resistor to a supply
that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device.
V CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends
powering up all configuration
system I/Os with V CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR
V CCPGM
DATA[7..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device Master
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
FPGA Device Slave
MSEL[4..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
nCE
MSEL[4..0]
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA[]
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Stratix V devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect the devices to an
external host as shown in the following figure.
Note: If you are using the FPP x8 configuration mode, use DATA[7..0] pins. If you are using FPP x16
configuration mode, use DATA[15..0] pins.
Note: By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For multi-device configuration
chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software. Otherwise, device configura‐
tion could fail.
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Transmitting Configuration Data
8-17
Figure 8-8: Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive the
Same Data
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal for the
FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high
enough to meet the V IH specification of
the I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM V CCPGM
DATA[7..0]
10 kΩ
FPGA Device Slave
FPGA Device Master
10 kΩ
MSEL[4..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
GND
nCEO
MSEL[4..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
N.C.
GND
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
The nCE pins of the device in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration for these devices to
begin and end at the same time.
Transmitting Configuration Data
This section describes how to transmit configuration data when you are using .rbf file for FPP x8, x16,
and x32 configuration modes. The configuration data in the .rbf file is little endian.
For example, if the .rbf file contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01, refer to the following tables for details
on how this data is transmitted in the FPP x8, x16, and x32 configuration modes.
Table 8-6: Transmitting Configuration Data for FPP x8 Configuration Mode
In FPP x8 configuration mode, the LSB of a byte is BIT0, and the MSB is BIT7.
BYTE0 = 02
BYTE1 = 1B
BYTE2 = EE
BYTE3 = 01
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
0000 0010
0001 1011
1110 1110
0000 0001
Table 8-7: Transmitting Configuration Data for FPP x16 Configuration Mode
In FPP x16 configuration mode, the first byte in the file is the LSB of the configuration word, and the second byte
in the file is the MSB of the configuration word.
WORD0 = 1B02
WORD1 = 01EE
LSB: BYTE0 = 02
MSB: BYTE1 = 1B
LSB: BYTE2 = EE
MSB: BYTE3 = 01
D[7..0]
D[15..8]
D[7..0]
D[15..8]
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Active Serial Configuration
WORD0 = 1B02
WORD1 = 01EE
LSB: BYTE0 = 02
MSB: BYTE1 = 1B
LSB: BYTE2 = EE
MSB: BYTE3 = 01
0000 0010
0001 1011
1110 1110
0000 0001
Table 8-8: Transmitting Configuration Data for FPP x32 Configuration Mode
In FPP x32 configuration mode, the first byte in the file is the LSB of the configuration double word, and the
fourth byte is the MSB.
Double Word = 01EE1B02
LSB: BYTE0 = 02
BYTE1 = 1B
BYTE2 = EE
MSB: BYTE3 = 01
D[7..0]
D[15..8]
D[23..16]
D[31..24]
0000 0010
0001 1011
1110 1110
0000 0001
Ensure that you do not swap the the upper bits or bytes with the lower bits or bytes when performing the
FPP configuration. Sending incorrect configuration data during the configuration process may cause
unexpected behavior on the CONF_DONE signal.
Active Serial Configuration
The AS configuration scheme supports AS x1 (1-bit data width) and AS x4 (4-bit data width) modes. The
AS x4 mode provides four times faster configuration time than the AS x1 mode. In the AS configuration
scheme, the Stratix V device controls the configuration interface.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the AS configuration timing.
DATA Clock (DCLK)
Stratix V devices generate the serial clock, DCLK, that provides timing to the serial interface. In the AS
configuration scheme, Stratix V devices drive control signals on the falling edge of DCLK and latch the
configuration data on the following falling edge of this clock pin.
The maximum DCLK frequency supported by the AS configuration scheme is 100 MHz except for the AS
multi-device configuration scheme. You can source DCLK using CLKUSR or the internal oscillator. If you
use the internal oscillator, you can choose a 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 MHz clock under the Device and Pin
Options dialog box, in the Configuration page of the Quartus Prime software.
After power-up, DCLK is driven by a 12.5 MHz internal oscillator by default. The Stratix V device
determines the clock source and frequency to use by reading the option bit in the programming file.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the DCLK frequency specification in the AS configuration scheme.
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Active Serial Single-Device Configuration
8-19
Active Serial Single-Device Configuration
To configure a Stratix V device, connect the device to a serial configuration (EPCS) device or quad-serial
configuration (EPCQ) device, as shown in the following figures.
Figure 8-9: Single Device AS x1 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 3.0-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCS or EPCQ Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
MSEL[4..0]
GND
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
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nCEO
N.C.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
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Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration
Figure 8-10: Single Device AS x4 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 3.0-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA0
DATA1
GND
AS_DATA0/
ASDO
AS_DATA1
DATA2
AS_DATA2
DATA3
AS_DATA3
DCLK
nCSO
DCLK
nCS
nCEO
N.C.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Stratix V devices that are connected to a chain. Only AS x1 mode supports
multi-device configuration.
The first device in the chain is the configuration master. Subsequent devices in the chain are configuration
slaves.
Note: The AS multi-device configuration scheme does not support 100 MHz DCLK frequency.
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Pin Connections and Guidelines
8-21
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Hardwire the MSEL pins of the first device in the chain to select the AS configuration scheme. For
subsequent devices in the chain, hardwire their MSEL pins to select the PS configuration scheme. Any
other Altera® devices that support the PS configuration can also be part of the chain as a configuration
slave.
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA[]
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE, nSTATUS, and nCONFIG pins together, the devices initialize and enter user
mode at the same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire
chain and you must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an
error on the nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered every fourth device to prevent signal integrity and clock
skew problems.
Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Stratix V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to an EPCS or EPCQ device, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-11: Multiple Device AS Configuration When Both Devices in the Chain Receive Different Sets
of Configuration Data
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 3.0-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCS or EPCQ Device
FPGA Device Master
FPGA Device Slave
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user I/O
pin when it does not feed another
device’s nCE pin.
GND
DATA
AS_DATA1
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
DCLK
MSEL [4..0]
(4)
For the appropriate MSEL settings
based on POR delay settings, set
the slave device MSEL setting to the
PS scheme.
Buffers
For more information, refer to the
MSEL pin settings.
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for
AS_DATA1 or DATA0 and DCLK for every
fourth device.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the
external clock source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
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Estimating the Active Serial Configuration Time
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
Estimating the Active Serial Configuration Time
The AS configuration time is mostly the time it takes to transfer the configuration data from an EPCS or
EPCQ device to the Stratix V device.
Use the following equations to estimate the configuration time:
• AS x1 mode
.rbf Size x (minimum DCLK period / 1 bit per DCLK cycle) = estimated minimum configuration time.
• AS x4 mode
.rbf Size x (minimum DCLK period / 4 bits per DCLK cycle) = estimated minimum configuration time.
Compressing the configuration data reduces the configuration time. The amount of reduction varies
depending on your design.
Using EPCS and EPCQ Devices
EPCS devices support AS x1 mode and EPCQ devices support AS x1 and AS x4 modes.
Related Information
• Serial Configuration (EPCS) Devices Datasheet
• Quad-Serial Configuration (EPCQ) Devices Datasheet
Controlling EPCS and EPCQ Devices
During configuration, Stratix V devices enable the EPCS or EPCQ device by driving its nCSO output pin
low, which connects to the chip select (nCS) pin of the EPCS or EPCQ device. Stratix V devices use the
DCLK and ASDO pins to send operation commands and read address signals to the EPCS or EPCQ device.
The EPCS or EPCQ device provides data on its serial data output (DATA[]) pin, which connects to the
AS_DATA[] input of the Stratix V devices.
Note: If you wish to gain control of the EPCS pins, hold the nCONFIG pin low and pull the nCE pin high.
This causes the device to reset and tri-state the AS configuration pins.
Trace Length and Loading Guideline
The maximum trace length and loading apply to both single- and multi-device AS configuration setups as
listed in the following table. The trace length is the length from the Stratix V device to the EPCS or EPCQ
device.
Table 8-9: Maximum Trace Length and Loading Guideline for AS x1 and x4 Configurations for Stratix V
Devices
Maximum Board Trace Length (Inches)
Stratix V Device AS Pins
DCLK
Altera Corporation
12.5/ 25/ 50 MHz
10
Maximum Board Load (pF)
100 MHz
6
5
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Maximum Board Trace Length (Inches)
Stratix V Device AS Pins
12.5/ 25/ 50 MHz
8-23
Maximum Board Load (pF)
100 MHz
DATA[3..0]
10
6
10
nCSO
10
6
10
Programming EPCS and EPCQ Devices
You can program EPCS and EPCQ devices in-system using a USB-Blaster™, EthernetBlaster,
EthernetBlaster II, or ByteBlaster™ II download cable. Alternatively, you can program the EPCS or EPCQ
using a microprocessor with the SRunner software driver.
In-system programming (ISP) offers you the option to program the EPCS or EPCQ either using an AS
programming interface or a JTAG interface. Using the AS programming interface, the configuration data
is programmed into the EPCS by the Quartus Prime software or any supported third-party software.
Using the JTAG interface, an Altera IP called the serial flash loader (SFL) must be downloaded into the
Stratix V device to form a bridge between the JTAG interface and the EPCS or EPCQ. This allows the
EPCS or EPCQ to be programmed directly using the JTAG interface.
Related Information
• AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with the Quartus II Software
• AN 418: SRunner: An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming
Programming EPCS Using the JTAG Interface
To program an EPCS device using the JTAG interface, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
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Programming EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
Figure 8-12: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the JTAG Interface
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPG
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
V CCPD
EPCS Device
Connect the pull-up resistors
to V CCPGM at a 3.0-V power
supply.
V CCPD
The resistor value can vary
from 1 k Ω to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for
your setup.
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the
external clock source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
GND
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
TCK
TDO
V CCPD
TMS
TDI
Serial
Flash
Loader
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Instantiate SFL in your design to
form a bridge between the
EPCS and the 10-pin header.
Pin 1
1 kΩ
Download Cable
GND 10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
GND
Programming EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
To program an EPCQ device using the JTAG interface, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
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8-25
Figure 8-13: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ Device
Connect the pull-up resistors
to V CCPGM at a 3.0-V power
supply.
V CCPD V CCPD
The resistor value can vary
from 1 k Ω to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for
your setup.
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA0
GND
TCK
TDO
V CCPD
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
AS_DATA0/ASDO
DATA1
AS_DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
Serial
AS_DATA2
Flash
AS_DATA3
Loader
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
nCSO
CLKUSR
Instantiate SFL in your
design to form a bridge
between the EPCQ and
the 10-pin header.
1 kΩ
Download Cable
GND 10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
GND
For more information, refer to the
MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the external
clock source to drive DCLK during configuration.
Programming EPCS Using the Active Serial Interface
To program an EPCS device using the AS interface, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 8-14: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the AS Interface
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 3.0-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
EPCS Device
nCEO
N.C.
nCE
10 kΩ
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
Pin 1
For more information, refer
to the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
V CCPGM
Power up the USB-Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, EthernetBlaster, or
EthernetBlaster II cable’s V
CC(TRGT)
to V CCPGM .
USB-Blaster or ByteBlaster II
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
Programming EPCQ Using the Active Serial Interface
To program an EPCQ device using the AS interface, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 8-15: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ Using the AS Interface
Using the AS header, the programmer serially transmits the operation commands and configuration bits
to the EPCQ on DATA0. This is equivalent to the programming operation for the EPCS.
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 3.0-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
EPCQ Device
nCEO
N.C.
10 kΩ
DATA0
DATA1
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS_DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
AS_DATA2
AS_DATA3
DCLK
nCS
DCLK
nCSO
Pin 1
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply
the external clock source to
drive DCLK during
configuration.
V CCPGM
Power up the USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II cable’s
V CC(TRGT) to V CCPGM .
USB-Blaster or ByteBlaster II
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
When programming the EPCS and EPCQ devices, the download cable disables access to the AS interface
by driving the nCE pin high. The nCONFIG line is also pulled low to hold the Stratix V device in the reset
stage. After programming completes, the download cable releases nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the
pull-down and pull-up resistors to drive the pin to GND and VCCPGM, respectively.
During the EPCQ programming using the download cable, DATA0 transfers the programming data,
operation command, and address information from the download cable into the EPCQ. During the EPCQ
verification using the download cable, DATA1 transfers the programming data back to the download cable.
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Passive Serial Configuration
Passive Serial Configuration
The PS configuration scheme uses an external host. You can use a microprocessor, MAX II device,
MAX V device, or a host PC as the external host.
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an external storage such as
flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the configuration process resides in the external host.
You can store the configuration data in Programmer Object File (.pof), .rbf, .hex, or .ttf. If you are using
configuration data in .rbf, .hex, or .ttf, send the LSB of each data byte first. For example, if the .rbf
contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA, the serial data transmitted to the device must be 0100-0000
1101-1000 0111-0111 1000-0000 0101-1111.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data from the flash
memory device and configure the Stratix V device.
For a PC host, connect the PC to the device using a download cable such as the Altera USB-Blaster USB
port, ByteBlaster II parallel port, EthernetBlaster, and EthernetBlaster II download cables.
The configuration data is shifted serially into the DATA0 pin of the device.
If you are using the Quartus Prime programmer and the CLKUSR pin is enabled, you do not need to
provide a clock source for the pin to initialize your device.
Related Information
• Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the PS configuration timing.
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host
To configure a Stratix V device, connect the device to an external host, as shown in the following figure.
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8-29
Figure 8-16: Single Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
V CCPGM
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable
input signal for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends powering up all the configuration system
I/Os with V CCPGM .
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
To configure a Stratix V device, connect the device to a download cable, as shown in the following figure.
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Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration
Figure 8-17: Single Device PS Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (V
CCIO ) as the
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II
cable.
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
GND
nCEO
N.C.
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
Pin 1
V CCIO
V IO
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download
cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a MAX II device, MAX V
device, or microprocessor, you do not
need the pull-up resistors on DATA0
and DCLK.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
Shield
GND
GND
In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this
pin is connected to nCE
when you use it for AS
programming. Otherwise,
this pin is a no connect.
Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Stratix V devices that are connected in a chain.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA0
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and enter user mode at the
same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you
must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the
nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data, the devices must be
of the same package and density.
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Using Multiple Configuration Data
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Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Stratix V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to the external host as shown in the following figure.
Note: By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multi-device configura‐
tion chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software. Otherwise, device
configuration could fail.
Figure 8-18: Multiple Device PS Configuration when Both Devices Receive Different Sets of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input signal for
the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to meet the V
IH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external host. Altera recommends powering up all the
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
V CCPGM
FPGA Device 1
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
10 kΩ
nCEO
FPGA Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a
user I/O pin when it does not
feed another device’s nCE
pin.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information, refer
to the MSEL pin settings.
After a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Stratix V devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect the devices to an
external host, as shown in the following figure.
Note: By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multi-device configura‐
tion chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software. Otherwise, device
configuration could fail.
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Using PC Host and Download Cable
Figure 8-19: Multiple Device PS Configuration When Both Devices Receive the Same Set of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to meet the V
IH
specification of the I/O on the device and the external host. Altera
recommends powering up all the configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
10 kΩ
FPGA Device 2
FPGA Device 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
N.C.
nCEO
GND
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
N.C.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
You can leave the nCEO
pin unconnected or use it
as a user I/O pin.
The nCE pins of the devices in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration for these devices
to begin and end at the same time.
Using PC Host and Download Cable
To configure multiple Stratix V devices, connect the devices to a download cable, as shown in the
following figure.
Note: By default, the nCEO pin is disabled in the Quartus Prime software. For the multi-device configura‐
tion chain, you must enable the nCEO pin in the Quartus Prime software. Otherwise, device
configuration could fail.
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JTAG Configuration
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Figure 8-20: Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (V
CCIO ) as the
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II
cable.
V CCPGM
10 k Ω
V CCPGM
10 k Ω
FPGA Device 1
V CCPGM
CONF_DONE
10 k Ω
V CCPGM
10 k Ω (2)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
Pin 1
V CCPGM
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
GND
V IO
V CCPGM
nCE
10 k Ω
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download cable
is the only configuration scheme used
on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a configuration device,
you do not need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK.
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
nCEO
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
GND
In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this
pin is connected to nCE
when you use it for AS
programming. Otherwise,
this pin is a no connect.
FPGA Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[4..0]
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
nCE
DATA0
nCONFIG
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device. Configuration automatically begins for the second device.
JTAG Configuration
In Stratix V devices, JTAG instructions take precedence over other configuration schemes.
The Quartus Prime software generates an SRAM Object File (.sof) that you can use for JTAG configura‐
tion using a download cable in the Quartus Prime software programmer. Alternatively, you can use the
JRunner software with .rbf or a JAM™ Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL) Format File
(.jam) or JAM Byte Code File (.jbc) with other third-party programmer tools.
Note: You cannot use the Stratix V decompression or design security features if you are configuring your
Stratix V device using JTAG-based configuration.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on Stratix V devices do not
affect JTAG boundary-scan or programming operations.
Related Information
• JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Stratix V Devices on page 10-1
Provides more information about JTAG boundary-scan testing.
• Device Configuration Pins on page 8-10
Provides more information about JTAG configuration pins.
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 8-45
• AN 425: Using the Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device Programming
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JTAG Single-Device Configuration
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the JTAG configuration timing.
• Programming Support for Jam STAPL Language
• USB-Blaster Download Cable User Guide
• ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
• EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide
• EthernetBlaster II Communications Cable User Guide
JTAG Single-Device Configuration
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software sets the other devices to the
bypass mode. A device in a bypass mode transfers the programming data from the TDI pin to the TDO pin
through a single bypass register. The configuration data is available on the TDO pin one clock cycle later.
The Quartus Prime software can use the CONF_DONE pin to verify the completion of the configuration
process through the JTAG port:
• CONF_DONE pin is low—indicates that configuration has failed.
• CONF_DONE pin is high—indicates that configuration was successful.
After the configuration data is transmitted serially using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port is clocked an
additional 1,222 cycles to perform device initialization.
To configure a Stratix V device using a download cable, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
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JTAG Single-Device Configuration
Figure 8-21: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
The resistor value can vary from
1 kΩ to 10 kΩ. Perform signal
integrity analysis to select the
resistor value for your setup.
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPD
V CCPGM
GND
V CCPD
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
N.C.
You must connect
nCE to GND or drive
it low for successful
JTAG configuration.
nCE
nCEO
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPD .
TCK
TDO
TMS
TDI
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[4..0]
DCLK
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
Pin 1
V CCPD
V CCPD
TRST
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect
nCONFIG to V CCPGM and MSEL[4..0] to GND. Pull
DCLK either high or low, whichever is convenient
on your board. If you are using JTAG in
conjunction with another configuration scheme,
connect MSEL[4..0], nCONFIG, and DCLK based
on the selected configuration scheme.
GND
1 kΩ
GND
GND
To configure Stratix V device using a microprocessor, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
You can use JRunner as your software driver.
Figure 8-22: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Memory
ADDR
V CCPGM
DATA
10 kΩ
Microprocessor
TRST
TDI
TCK
TMS
TDO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[4..0]
nCEO
nCE
N.C.
GND
The microprocessor must use
the same I/O standard as
V CCPD to drive the JTAG pins.
Connect the pull-up resistor to a
supply that provides an
acceptable input signal for all
FPGA devices in the chain.
V CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the
I/O on the device.
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect
nCONFIG to V CCPGM and MSEL[4..0] to GND. Pull
DCLK high or low. If you are using JTAG in
conjunction with another configuration scheme, set
the MSEL[4..0] pins and tie nCONFIG and DCLK
based on the selected configuration scheme.
Connect nCE to GND or
drive it low.
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10 kΩ
FPGA Device
V CCPD
V CCPGM
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JTAG Multi-Device Configuration
Related Information
AN 414: The JRunner Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration
JTAG Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple devices in a JTAG chain.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Isolate the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to allow each device to enter user mode independently.
• One JTAG-compatible header is connected to several devices in a JTAG chain. The number of devices
in the chain is limited only by the drive capability of the download cable.
• If you have four or more devices in a JTAG chain, buffer the TCK, TDI, and TMS pins with an on-board
buffer. You can also connect other Altera devices with JTAG support to the chain.
• JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains multiple devices or when testing
your system using the JTAG boundary-scan testing (BST) circuitry.
Using a Download Cable
The following figure shows a multi-device JTAG configuration.
Figure 8-23: JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect nCONFIG to V
CCPGM and MSEL[4..0]
to GND. Pull DCLK either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board. If you are
using JTAG in conjunction with another configuration scheme, connect MSEL[4..0],
nCONFIG, and DCLK based on the selected configuration scheme.
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPD .
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode)
Pin 1
V CCPD
V CCPD
V CCPD
V IO
1 kΩ
V CCPD
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
V CCPD
nCE
TRST
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
V CCPGM
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
V CCPD
nCE
TRST
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
TRST
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPD .
The resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10
kΩ. Perform signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for your setup.
Altera Corporation
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
You must connect nCE to
GND or drive it low for
successful JTAG configuration.
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CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction
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Related Information
AN 656: Combining Multiple Configuration Schemes
Provides more information about combining JTAG configuration with other configuration schemes.
CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction
The CONFIO_IO JTAG instruction allows you to configure the I/O buffers using the JTAG port before or
during device configuration. When you issue this instruction, it interrupts configuration and allows you
to issue all JTAG instructions. Otherwise, you can only issue the BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE JTAG
instructions.
You can use the CONFIO_IO JTAG instruction to interrupt configuration and perform board-level testing.
After the board-level testing is completed, you must reconfigure your device. Use the following methods
to reconfigure your device:
• JTAG interface—issue the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction.
• FPP, PS, or AS configuration scheme—pulse the nCONFIG pin low.
Configuration Data Compression
Stratix V devices can receive compressed configuration bitstream and decompress the data in real-time
during configuration. Preliminary data indicates that compression typically reduces the configuration file
size by 30% to 55% depending on the design.
Decompression is supported in all configuration schemes except the JTAG configuration scheme.
You can enable compression before or after design compilation.
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation
To enable compression before design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the Assignment Menu, click Device.
2. Select your Stratix V device and then click Device and Pin Options.
3. In the Device and Pin Options window, select Configuration under the Category list and turn on
Generate compressed bitstreams.
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation
To enable compression after design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Select the programming file type (.pof, .sof, .hex, .hexout, .rbf, or .ttf). For POF output files, select a
configuration device.
3. Under the Input files to convert list, select SOF Data.
4. Click Add File and select a Stratix V device .sof.
5. Select the name of the file you added to the SOF Data area and click Properties.
6. Turn on the Compression check box.
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Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration
Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration
The following figure shows a chain of two Stratix V devices. Compression is only enabled for the first
device.
This setup is supported by the AS or PS multi-device configuration only.
Figure 8-24: Compressed and Uncompressed Serial Configuration Data in the Same Configuration File
Serial Configuration Data
Compressed
Configuration
Data
Decompression
Controller
Uncompressed
Configuration
Data
FPGA
Device 1
nCE
EPCS, EPCQ, or
External Host
FPGA
Device 2
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
For the FPP configuration scheme, a combination of compressed and uncompressed configuration in the
same multi-device configuration chain is not allowed because of the difference on the DCLK-to-DATA[]
ratio.
Remote System Upgrades
Stratix V devices contain dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry. You can use this feature to upgrade
your system from a remote location.
Figure 8-25: Stratix V Remote System Upgrade Block Diagram
2
1
Development
Location
3
Data
Data
Data
FPGA
Remote System
Upgrade Circuitry
Configuration
Memory
FPGA Configuration
4
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Configuration Images
8-39
You can design your system to manage remote upgrades of the application configuration images in the
configuration device. The following list is the sequence of the remote system upgrade:
1. The logic (embedded processor or user logic) in the Stratix V device receives a configuration image
from a remote location. You can connect the device to the remote source using communication
protocols such as TCP/IP, PCI, user datagram protocol (UDP), UART, or a proprietary interface.
2. The logic stores the configuration image in non-volatile configuration memory.
3. The logic starts reconfiguration cycle using the newly received configuration image.
4. When an error occurs, the circuitry detects the error, reverts to a safe configuration image, and
provides error status to your design.
Configuration Images
Each Stratix V device in your system requires one factory image. The factory image is a user-defined
configuration image that contains logic to perform the following:
• Processes errors based on the status provided by the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry.
• Communicates with the remote host, receives new application images, and stores the images in the
local non-volatile memory device.
• Determines the application image to load into the Stratix V device.
• Enables or disables the user watchdog timer and loads its time-out value.
• Instructs the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to start a reconfiguration cycle.
You can also create one or more application images for the device. An application image contains selected
functionalities to be implemented in the target device.
Store the images at the following locations in the EPCS or EPCQ devices:
• Factory configuration image—PGM[23..0] = 24'h000000 start address on the EPCS or EPCQ device.
• Application configuration image—any sector boundary. Altera recommends that you store only one
image at one sector boundary.
When you are using EPCQ 256, ensure that the application configuration image address granularity is
32'h00000100. The granularity requirement is having the most significant 24 bits of the 32 bits start
address written to PGM[23..0] bits.
Note: If you are not using the Quartus Prime software or SRunner software for EPCQ 256 programming,
put your EPCQ 256 device into four-byte addressing mode before you program and configure your
device.
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Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode
Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode
Figure 8-26: Transitions Between Factory and Application Configurations in Remote Update Mode
Configuration Error
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Power Up
Configuration
Error
Factory
Configuration
(page 0)
Application 1
Configuration
Reload a
Different Application
Reload a
Different Application
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Application n
Configuration
Configuration Error
Related Information
Remote System Upgrade State Machine on page 8-43
A detailed description of the configuration sequence in the remote update mode.
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
The remote system upgrade circuitry contains the remote system upgrade registers, watchdog timer, and a
state machine that controls these components.
Note: If you are using the Altera Remote Update IP core, the IP core controls the RU_DOUT, RU_SHIFTnLD,
RU_CAPTnUPDT, RU_CLK, RU_DIN, RU_nCONFIG, and RU_nRSTIMER signals internally to perform all
the related remote system upgrade operations.
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Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
8-41
Figure 8-27: Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
[4..0]
Control Register
[37..0]
Logic Array
Update Register
[37..0]
update
Remote
System
Upgrade
State
Machine
Shift Register
dout
din
Bit [4..0]
dout
din
Bit [37..0]
capture
capture
clkout capture
Logic Array
RU_DOUT
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
Timeout
User
Watchdog
Timer
update
clkin
RU_CLK
RU_DIN
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about remote system upgrade circuitry timing specifications.
Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
To enable the remote system upgrade feature, follow these steps:
1. Select Active Serial x1/x4 or Configuration Device from the Configuration scheme list in the
Configuration page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
2. Select Remote from the Configuration mode list in the Configuration page of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Enabling this feature automatically turns on the Auto-restart configuration after error option.
Altera Remote Update IP core provides a memory-like interface to the remote system upgrade circuitry
and handles the shift register read and write protocol in the Stratix V device logic.
Related Information
Altera Remote Update IP Core User Guide
Remote System Upgrade Registers
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Control Register
Table 8-10: Remote System Upgrade Registers
Register
Description
Shift
Accessible by the logic array and clocked by RU_CLK.
• Bits[4..0]—Contents of the status register are shifted into these bits.
• Bits[37..0]—Contents of the update and control registers are shifted
into these bits.
Control
This register is clocked by the 10-MHz internal oscillator. The contents of
this register are shifted to the shift register for the user logic in the application
configuration to read. When reconfiguration is triggered, this register is
updated with the contents of the update register.
Update
This register is clocked by RU_CLK. The factory configuration updates this
register by shifting data into the shift register and issuing an update. When
reconfiguration is triggered, the contents of the update register are written to
the control register.
Status
After each reconfiguration, the remote system upgrade circuitry updates this
register to indicate the event that triggered the reconfiguration. This register
is clocked by the 10-MHz internal oscillator.
Related Information
• Control Register on page 8-42
• Status Register on page 8-43
Control Register
Table 8-11: Control Register Bits
Bit
0
Name
AnF
Reset
Value(17)
1'b0
Description
Application not Factory bit. Indicates the
configuration image type currently loaded in
the device; 0 for factory image and 1 for
application image. When this bit is 1, the
access to the control register is limited to read
only and the watchdog timer is enabled.
Factory configuration design must set this bit
to 1 before triggering reconfiguration using
an application configuration image.
1..24
(17)
PGM[0..23]
24'h000000 Upper 24 bits of AS configuration start
address (StAdd[31..8]), the 8 LSB are zero.
This is the default value after the device exits POR and during reconfiguration back to the factory configura‐
tion image.
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Status Register
Bit
Name
Reset
Value(17)
8-43
Description
25
Wd_en
1'b0
User watchdog timer enable bit. Set this bit to
1 to enable the watchdog timer.
26..37
Wd_timer[11..0]
12'b000000000000
User watchdog time-out value.
Status Register
Table 8-12: Status Register Bits
Bit
Name
Reset
Value(18)
Description
0
CRC
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates CRC error during applica‐
tion configuration.
1
nSTATUS
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nSTATUS is asserted by
an external device due to error.
2
Core_nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that reconfiguration has
been triggered by the logic array of the device.
3
nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nCONFIG is asserted.
4
Wd
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that the user watchdog
time-out.
Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The operation of the remote system upgrade state machine is as follows:
1. After power-up, the remote system upgrade registers are reset to 0 and the factory configuration image
is loaded.
2. The user logic sets the AnF bit to 1 and the start address of the application image to be loaded. The user
logic also writes the watchdog timer settings.
3. When the configuration reset (RU_CONFIG) goes low, the state machine updates the control register
with the contents of the update register, and triggers reconfiguration using the application configura‐
tion image.
4. If error occurs, the state machine falls back to the factory image. The control and update registers are
reset to 0, and the status register is updated with the error information.
5. After successful reconfiguration, the system stays in the application configuration.
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from stalling the device indefinitely.
You can use the timer to detect functional errors when an application configuration is successfully loaded
(17)
(18)
This is the default value after the device exits POR and during reconfiguration back to the factory configura‐
tion image.
After the device exits POR and power-up, the status register content is 5'b00000.
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Design Security
into the device. The timer is automatically disabled in the factory configuration; enabled in the application
configuration.
Note: If you do not want this feature in the application configuration, you need to turn off this feature by
setting the Wd_en bit to 1'b0 in the update register during factory configuration user mode
operation. You cannot disable this feature in the application configuration.
The counter is 29 bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying the user watchdog
timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. The granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The
cycle time is based on the frequency of the user watchdog timer internal oscillator.
The timer begins counting as soon as the application configuration enters user mode. When the timer
expires, the remote system upgrade circuitry generates a time-out signal, updates the status register, and
triggers the loading of the factory configuration image. To reset the time, assert RU_nRSTIMER.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the operating range of the user watchdog internal oscillator's frequency.
Design Security
The Stratix V design security feature supports the following capabilities:
• Enhanced built-in advanced encryption standard (AES) decryption block to support 256-bit key
industry-standard design security algorithm (FIPS-197 Certified)
• Volatile and non-volatile key programming support
• Secure operation mode for both volatile and non-volatile key through tamper protection bit setting
• Limited accessible JTAG instruction during power-up in the JTAG secure mode
• Supports board-level testing
• Supports in-socket key programming for non-volatile key
• Available in all configuration schemes except JTAG
• Supports both remote system upgrades and compression features
The Stratix V design security feature provides the following security protection for your designs:
• Security against copying—the security key is securely stored in the Stratix V device and cannot be read
out through any interface. In addition, as configuration file read-back is not supported in Stratix V
devices, your design information cannot be copied.
• Security against reverse engineering—reverse engineering from an encrypted configuration file is very
difficult and time consuming because the Stratix V configuration file formats are proprietary and the
file contains millions of bits that require specific decryption.
• Security against tampering—After you set the tamper protection bit, the Stratix V device can only
accept configuration files encrypted with the same key. Additionally, programming through the JTAG
interface and configuration interface is blocked.
When you use compression with the design security feature, the configuration file is first compressed and
then encrypted using the Quartus Prime software. During configuration, the device first decrypts and
then decompresses the configuration file.
When you use design security with Stratix V devices in an FPP configuration scheme, it requires a
different DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio.
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Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
The Altera Unique Chip ID IP core provides the following features:
• Acquiring the chip ID of an FPGA device.
• Allowing you to identify your device in your design as part of a security feature to protect your design
from an unauthorized device.
Related Information
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core User Guide
JTAG Secure Mode
When you enable the tamper-protection bit, Stratix V devices are in the JTAG secure mode after
power-up. During this mode, many JTAG instructions are disabled. Stratix V devices only allow
mandatory JTAG 1149.1 and 1149.6 instructions to be exercised. These JTAG instructions are
SAMPLE/PRELOAD, BYPASS, EXTEST, and optional instructions such as IDCODE and SHIFT_EDERROR_REG.
To enable the access of other JTAG instructions such as USERCODE, HIGHZ, CLAMP, PULSE_nCONFIG, and
CONFIG_IO, you must issue the UNLOCK instruction to deactivate the JTAG secure mode. You can issue the
LOCK instruction to put the device back into JTAG secure mode. You can only issue both the LOCK and
UNLOCK JTAG instructions during user mode.
Related Information
Supported JTAG Instruction on page 10-3
Provides more information about JTAG binary instruction code related to the LOCK and UNLOCK
instructions.
Security Key Types
Stratix V devices offer two types of keys—volatile and non-volatile. The following table lists the
differences between the volatile key and non-volatile keys.
Table 8-13: Security Key Types
Key Types
Key Programmability Power Supply for Key
Storage
Programming Method
Volatile
• Reprogrammable Required external
battery, VCCBAT (19)
• Erasable
On-board
Non-volatile
One-time
programming
On-board and in-socket
programming (20)
Does not require an
external battery
Both non-volatile and volatile key programming offers protection from reverse engineering and copying.
If you set the tamper-protection bit, the design is also protected from tampering.
(19)
(20)
VCCBAT is a dedicated power supply for volatile key storage. VCCBAT continuously supplies power to the
volatile register regardless of the on-chip supply condition.
Third-party vendors offer in-socket programming.
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You can perform key programming through the JTAG pins interface. Ensure that the nSTATUS pin is
released high before any key-programming attempts.
Note: To clear the volatile key, issue the KEY_CLR_VREG JTAG instruction. To verify the volatile key has
been cleared, issue the KEY_VERIFY JTAG instruction.
Related Information
• Supported JTAG Instruction on page 10-3
Provides more information about the KEY_CLR_VREG and KEY_VERIFY instructions.
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the VCCBAT pin connection recommendations.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the VCCBAT pin connection recommendations.
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about battery specifications.
Security Modes
Table 8-14: Supported Security Modes
There is no impact to the configuration time required when compared with unencrypted configuration modes
except FPP with AES (and/or decompression), which requires a DCLK that is up to ×8 the data rate.
Security Mode
Tamper
Protection Bit
Setting
Device Accepts
Unencrypted File
Device Accepts
Encrypted File
Security Level
No key
—
Yes
No
—
Volatile Key
—
Yes
Yes
Secure
Volatile Key with
Tamper Protection Bit
Set
Set
No
Yes
Secure with tamper
resistant
Non-volatile Key
—
Yes
Yes
Secure
Non-volatile Key with
Tamper Protection Bit
Set
Set
No
Yes
Secure with tamper
resistant
The use of unencrypted configuration bitstream in the volatile key and non-volatile key security modes is
supported for board-level testing only.
Note: For the volatile key with tamper protection bit set security mode, Stratix V devices do not accept
the encrypted configuration file if the volatile key is erased. If the volatile key is erased and you
want to reprogram the key, you must use the volatile key security mode.
Enabling the tamper protection bit disables the test mode in Stratix V devices and disables programming
through the JTAG interface. This process is irreversible and prevents Altera from carrying out failure
analysis.
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Design Security Implementation Steps
Figure 8-28: Design Security Implementation Steps
AES Key
Programming File
Step 3
Key Storage
Step 1
256-bit User-Defined
Key
FPGA Device
AES Decryption
Quartus Prime Software
AES Encryptor
Step 4
Step 1
Encrypted
Configuration
File
Step 2
Memory or
Configuration
Device
To carry out secure configuration, follow these steps:
1. The Quartus Prime software generates the design security key programming file and encrypts the
configuration data using the user-defined 256-bit security key.
2. Store the encrypted configuration file in the external memory.
3. Program the AES key programming file into the Stratix V device through a JTAG interface.
4. Configure the Stratix V device. At the system power-up, the external memory device sends the
encrypted configuration file to the Stratix V device.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
• Added the CvP_CONFDONE pin to the Configuration Pin Summary for
Stratix V Devices table.
• Added the I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
table.
• Updated the voltage supported for the AS x1 and x4 configuration
scheme in the MSEL Pin Settings for Each Configuration Scheme of
Stratix V Devices table.
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Added timing waveforms for FPP, AS, and PS configuration.
• Updated the Trace Length and Loading Guideline section.
• Updated data rate to x8 in the Supported Security Modes table.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
January 2015
2015.01.23
Added the Transmitting Configuration Data section.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Updated Figure 8-17: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a
Download Cable.
• Updated Figure 8-19: JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using
a Download Cable.
• Updated the maximum clock rate for Partial Reconfiguration in Table
8-1.
• Updated the MSEL pin settings recommendation in the MSEL Pin
Settings section.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry section.
• Updated the Configuration Pin Summary section.
• Updated Figure 8-3, Figure 8-7, and Figure 8-14.
June 2013
2013.06.11
Updated the Configuration Error Handling section.
May 2013
2013.05.10
Removed support for active serial multi-device configuration using the
same configuration data.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Added the ALTCHIP_ID megafunction section.
• Added links for AS, PS, FPP, and JTAG configuration timing to
device datasheet.
• Updated "Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the
JTAG Interface" and "Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ
Using the JTAG Interface" figures.
• Updated CvP support for partial reconfiguration in the Table 8-1:
Configuration Modes and Features Supported by Stratix V Devices.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
March 2013
2013.03.04
Remove a note to the nIO_PULLUP pin in Table 8-3: Configuration Pin
Summary for Stratix V Devices.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added configuration modes and features for Stratix V devices.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
1.7
Altera Corporation
Changes
• Added MAX V devices.
• Updated Figure 9-2, Figure 9-3, Figure 9-11, Figure 9-16, Figure 9-17,
Figure 9-20, and Figure 9-23.
• Updated Table 9-4, Table 9-5, Table 9-7, Table 9-11, and Table 9-12.
• Updated "MSEL Pin Settings" and "FPP Multi-Device Configuration"
sections.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
8-49
Changes
February 2012
1.6
• Updated "Security Key Types" section.
• Updated Table 9-10.
December
2011
1.5
• Updated "FPP Configuration Timing", "JTAG Secure Mode", and
"Security Key Types" sections.
• Updated Table 9-8.
November
2011
1.4
• Updated Table 9-5, Table 9-9, and Table 9-14.
• Updated Figure 9-8, Figure 9-9, and Figure 9-21.
• Updated "AS Multi-Device Configuration" and "Active Serial
Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)" sections.
May 2011
1.3
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Added "Remote System Upgrades Using EPCQ 256" and "JTAG
Secure Mode" sections.
• Updated Table 9-5.
• Updated "Configuration", "Configuration Error", "Programming
EPCS and EPCQ", "JTAG Configuration", "Remote Update Mode",
and "Design Security" sections.
• Minor text edits.
January 2011
1.2
• Updated Table 9-7, Table 9-8, Table 9-12, and Table 9-14.
• Updated Figure 9-15 and Figure 9-21.
• Updated "User Watchdog Timer", "DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio for FPP
Configuration", "VCCPD Pin", "POR Delay Specification", and
"Programming EPCS and EPCQ" sections.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software
10.1.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the error detection features in Stratix V devices. You can use these features to
mitigate single event upset (SEU) or soft errors.
Related Information
Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
Error Detection Features
The on-chip error detection CRC circuitry allows you to perform the following operations without any
impact on the fitting or performance of the device:
• Auto-detection of CRC errors during configuration.
• Optional CRC error detection and identification in user mode.
• Optional internal scrubbing in user mode. When enabled, this feature corrects single-bit and doubleadjacent errors automatically.
• Testing of error detection functions by deliberately injecting errors through the JTAG interface.
Configuration Error Detection
When the Quartus Prime software generates the configuration bitstream, the software also computes a 16bit CRC value for each frame. A configuration bitstream can contain more than one CRC values
depending on the number of data frames in the bitstream. The length of the data frame varies for each
device.
When a data frame is loaded into the FPGA during configuration, the precomputed CRC value shifts into
the CRC circuitry. At the same time, the CRC engine in the FPGA computes the CRC value for the data
frame and compares it against the precomputed CRC value. If both CRC values do not match, the
nSTATUS pin is set to low to indicate a configuration error.
You can test the capability of this feature by modifying the configuration bitstream or intentionally
corrupting the bitstream during configuration.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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User Mode Error Detection
User Mode Error Detection
In user mode, the contents of the configured CRAM bits may be affected by soft errors. These soft errors,
which are caused by an ionizing particle, are not common in Altera devices. However, high-reliability
applications that require the device to operate error-free may require that your designs account for these
errors.
You can enable the error detection circuitry to detect soft errors. Each data frame stored in the CRAM
contains a 32-bit precomputed CRC value. When this feature is enabled, the error detection circuitry
continuously computes a 32-bit CRC value for each frame in the CRAM and compares the CRC value
against the precomputed value.
• If the CRC values match, the 32-bit CRC signature in the syndrome register is set to zero to indicate
that no error is detected.
• Otherwise, the resulting 32-bit CRC signature in the syndrome register is non-zero to indicate a CRC
error. The CRC_ERROR pin is pulled high, and the error type and location are identified.
Within a frame, the error detection circuitry can detect all single-, double-, triple-, quadruple-, and
quintuple-bit errors. When a single-bit or double-adjacent error is detected, the error detection circuitry
reports the bit location and determines the error type for single-bit and double-adjacent errors. The
probability of other error patterns is very low and the reporting of bit location is not guaranteed. The
probability of more than five CRAM bits being flipped by soft errors is very low. In general, the
probability of detection for all error patterns is 99.9999%. The process of error detection continues until
the device is reset by setting the nCONFIG signal low.
Internal Scrubbing
Internal scrubbing is the ability to internally correct soft errors in user mode. This feature corrects singlebit and double-adjacent errors detected in each data frame without the need to reconfigure the device.
Note:
Figure 9-1: Block Diagram
Error Detection
State Machine
32-Bit CRC
Calculation and Error
Search Engine
Internal Scrubbing
Data Registers, CRC
Registers, and CRAM
Array
Specifications
This section lists the EMR update interval, error detection frequencies, and CRC calculation time for error
detection in user mode.
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Minimum EMR Update Interval
9-3
Minimum EMR Update Interval
The interval between each update of the error message register depends on the device and the frequency
of the error detection clock. Using a lower clock frequency increases the interval time, hence increasing
the time required to recover from a single event upset (SEU).
Table 9-1: Estimated Minimum EMR Update Interval in Stratix V Devices
Variant
Member Code
A3
Stratix V GX
Timing Interval (µs)
EH29-H780
3.13
HF35-F1152
3.13
KF35-F1152
3.13
KF40-F1517/KH40H1517
3.13
A4
3.13
A5
3.71
A7
3.71
A9
Stratix V GT
Package
All
AB
5.01
B5
3.85
B6
3.85
C5
C7
D3
D4
Stratix V GS
All
D6
EB
3.71
2.61
EH29-H780
2.61
HF35-F1152
2.61
KF40-F1517/KH40H1517
3.13
3.13
All
D8
E9
3.71
All
D5
Stratix V E
5.01
4.33
4.33
All
5.01
5.01
Error Detection Frequency
You can control the speed of the error detection process by setting the division factor of the clock
frequency in the Quartus Prime software. The divisor is 2n, where n can be any value listed in the
following table.
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CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device
The speed of the error detection process for each data frame is determined by the following equation:
Figure 9-2: Error Detection Frequency Equation
Error Detection Frequency
=
Internal Oscillator Frequency
2n
Table 9-2: Error Detection Frequency Range for Stratix V Devices
The following table lists the frequencies and valid values of n.
Internal Oscillator
Frequency
100 MHz
Error Detection Frequency
Maximum
100 MHz
Minimum
390 kHz
n
Divisor Range
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 1 – 256
CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device
While the CRC calculation is done on a per frame basis, it is important to know the time taken to
complete CRC calculations for the entire device. The entire device detection time is the time taken to do
CRC calculations on every frame in the device. This time depends on the device and the error detection
clock frequency. The error detection clock frequency also depends on the device and on the internal
oscillator frequency, which varies from 42.6 MHz to 100 MHz.
You can calculate the minimum and maximum time for any number of divisor based on the following
formula:
Maximum time (n) = 2^(n-8) * tMAX
Minimum time (n) = 2^n * tMIN
where the range of n is from 0 to 8.
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Using Error Detection Features in User Mode
9-5
Table 9-3: Device EDCRC Detection Time in Stratix V Devices
The following table lists the minimum and maximum time taken to calculate the CRC value:
• The minimum time is derived using the maximum clock frequency with a divisor of 0.
• The maximum time is derived using the minimum clock frequency with a divisor of 8.
Variant
Member Code
Package
tMIN (ms)
tMAX (s)
EH29-H780
38
19.42
HF35-F1152
38
19.42
KF35-F1152
38
19.42
KF40-F1517/KH40H1517
38
19.42
A4
38
19.42
A5
47
24.20
A7
47
24.20
68
35.21
AB
68
35.21
B5
45
23.52
B6
45
23.52
47
24.20
47
24.20
All
29
14.91
EH29-H780
29
14.91
HF35-F1152
38
19.42
KF40-F1517/KH40H1517
38
19.42
38
19.42
54
27.81
54
27.81
68
35.21
68
35.21
A3
Stratix V GX
A9
Stratix V GT
C5
C7
D3
D4
Stratix V GS
All
All
D5
D6
All
D8
Stratix V E
E9
EB
All
Using Error Detection Features in User Mode
This section describes the pin, registers, process flow, and procedures for error detection in user mode.
Enabling Error Detection and Internal Scrubbing
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CRC_ERROR Pin
To enable user mode error detection and internal scrubbing in the Quartus Prime software, follow these
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the Assignments menu, click Device.
In the Device dialog box, click Device and Pin Options.
In the Category list, click Error Detection CRC.
Turn on Enable Error Detection CRC_ERROR pin.
To set the CRC_ERROR pin as output open drain, turn on Enable open drain on CRC_ERROR pin.
Turning off this option sets the CRC_ERROR pin as output.
6. To enable the on-chip error correction feature, turn on Enable internal scrubbing.
7. In the Divide error check frequency by list, select a valid divisor.
8. Click OK.
CRC_ERROR Pin
Table 9-4: Pin Description
Pin Name
CRC_ERROR
Pin Type
Description
I/O or output/
An active-high signal, when driven high indicates that an
output open-drain error is detected in the CRAM bits. This pin is only used
when you enable error detection in user mode.
Otherwise, the pin is used as a user I/O pin.
When using the WYSIWYG function, you can route the
crcerror port from the WYSIWYG atom to the
dedicated CRC_ERROR pin or any user I/O pin. To route
the crcerror port to a user I/O pin, insert a D-type
flipflop between them.
Error Detection Registers
This section describes the registers used in user mode.
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Error Detection Registers
9-7
Figure 9-3: Block Diagram for Error Detection in User Mode
The block diagram shows the registers and data flow in user mode.
Readback
Bitstream with
Expected CRC
Error
Detection
State
Machine
32-bit Error Detection
CRC Calculation, Error
Search Engine, and
Internal Scrubbing
Control
Signals
Syndrome
Register
Error
Message
Register
Error Injection
Block
Fault
Injection
Register
JTAG
Fault
Injection
Register
CRC_ERROR
JTAG
Update
Register
User
Update
Register
JTAG
Shift
Register
User
Shift
Register
JTAG TDO
General Routing
Table 9-5: Error Detection Registers
Name
Width
(Bits)
Description
Syndrome register
32
Contains the 32-bit CRC signature calculated for the
current frame. If the CRC value is 0, the CRC_ERROR pin is
driven low to indicate no error. Otherwise, the pin is
pulled high.
Error message register (EMR)
67
Contains error details for single-bit and double-adjacent
errors. The error detection circuitry updates this register
each time the circuitry detects an error. The Error
Message Register Map figure shows the fields in this
register and the Error Type in EMR table lists the possible
error types.
JTAG update register
67
This register is automatically updated with the contents of
the EMR one clock cycle after the content of this register is
validated. The JTAG update register includes a clock
enable, which must be asserted before its contents are
written to the JTAG shift register. This requirement
ensures that the JTAG update register is not overwritten
when its contents are being read by the JTAG shift
register.
JTAG shift register
67
This register allows you to access the contents of the JTAG
update register via the JTAG interface using the SHIFT_
EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction.
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Error Detection Registers
Name
Width
(Bits)
Description
User update register
67
This register is automatically updated with the contents of
the EMR one clock cycle after the contents of this register
are validated. The user update register includes a clock
enable, which must be asserted before its contents are
written to the user shift register. This requirement ensures
that the user update register is not overwritten when its
contents are being read by the user shift register.
User shift register
67
This register allows user logic to access the contents of the
user update register via the core interface.
JTAG fault injection register
46
You can use this register with the EDERROR_INJECT JTAG
instruction to inject errors in the bitstream. The JTAG
Fault Injection Register Map table lists the fields in this
register.
Fault injection register
46
This register is updated with the contents of the JTAG
fault injection register.
Figure 9-4: Error Message Register Map
MSB
LSB
Syndrome
32 bits
Frame Address
16 bits
Double Word
Location
Byte Offset
Bit Offset
10 bits
2 bits
3 bits
Error Type
4 bits
Table 9-6: Error Type in EMR
The following table lists the possible error types reported in the error type field in the EMR.
Error Type
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Description
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
No CRC error.
0
0
0
1
Location of a single-bit error is identified.
0
0
1
0
Location of a double-adjacent error is identified.
1
1
1
1
Error types other than single-bit and double-adjacent errors.
Table 9-7: JTAG Fault Injection Register Map
Field Name
Bit Range
Description
Error Byte
Value
31:0
Contains the location of the bit error that
corresponds to the error injection type to this
field.
Byte Location
41:32
Contains the location of the injected error in
the first data frame.
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Error Detection Process
Field Name
Bit Range
Description
45:42
Error Type
9-9
Specifies the following error types.
Bit 45
Bit 44
Bit 43
Bit 42
0
0
0
0
No error
0
0
0
1
Single-bit error
0
0
1
0
Double adjacent error
Error Detection Process
When enabled, the user mode error detection process activates automatically when the FPGA enters user
mode. The process continues to run until the device is reset even when an error is detected in the current
frame.
Figure 9-5: Error Detection Process Flow in User Mode
Receive
Data Frame
Calculate and
Compare
CRC Values
Error
Detected?
No
Pull CRC_ERROR
Signal Low for
32 Clock Cycles
Yes
Update Error
Message Register
(Overwrite)
Search for
Error Location
Drive
CRC_ERROR
Signal High
Timing
The CRC_ERROR pin is always driven low during CRC calculation. When an error occurs, the EDCRC hard
block takes 32 clock cycles to update the EMR, the pin is driven high once the EMR is updated. Therefore,
you can start retrieving the contents of the EMR at the rising edge of the CRC_ERROR pin. The pin stays
high until the current frame is read and then driven low again for 32 clock cycles. To ensure information
integrity, complete the read operation within one frame of the CRC verification. The following diagram
shows the timing of these events.
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Testing the Error Detection Block
Figure 9-6: Timing Requirements
Frame
Data Integrity
N
No CRC Error
N+1
N+2
CRC Error
CRC Error
N+3
No CRC Error
N+4
CRC Error
N+5
No CRC Error
Read Data Frame
CRC ERROR Pin
CRC Calculation
(32 clock cycles)
Read Error Message
Register (allowed time)
Read Error Message
for frame N+1
Read Error Message
for frame N+2
Read Error Message
for frame N+4
Retrieving Error Information
You can retrieve the error information via the core interface or the JTAG interface using the
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction.
Recovering from CRC Errors
The system that hosts the FPGA must control device reconfiguration. To recover from a CRC error, drive
the nCONFIG signal low. The system waits for a safe time before reconfiguring the device. When reconfigu‐
ration completes successfully, the FPGA operates as intended.
Related Information
• Error Detection Frequency on page 9-3
Provides more information about the minimum and maximum error detection frequencies.
• Minimum EMR Update Interval on page 9-3
Provides more information about the duration of each Stratix Vdevice.
• Test Methodology of Error Detection and Recovery using CRC in Altera FPGA Devices
Provides more information about how to retrieve the error information.
Testing the Error Detection Block
You can inject errors into the configuration data to test the error detection block. This error injection
methodology provides design verification and system fault tolerance characterization.
Testing via the JTAG Interface
You can intentionally inject single or double-adjacent errors into the configuration data using the
EDERROR_INJECT JTAG instruction.
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Table 9-8: EDERROR_INJECT instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
00 0001 0101
EDERROR_INJECT
Description
Use this instruction to inject errors into the
configuration data. This instruction controls the
JTAG fault injection register, which contains the
error you want to inject into the bitstream.
You can only inject errors into the first frame of the configuration data. However, you can monitor the
error information at any time. Altera recommends that you reconfigure the FPGA after the test
completes.
Automating the Testing Process
You can automate the testing process by creating a Jam™ file (.jam). Using this file, you can verify the
CRC functionality in-system and on-the-fly without reconfiguring the device. You can then switch to the
CRC circuitry to check for real errors caused by an SEU.
Related Information
Test Methodology of Error Detection and Recovery using CRC in Altera FPGA Devices
Provides more information about how to test the error detection block.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
• Updated the clock cycles for the CRC calculation in the Error
Detection Process section.
• Removed a note from the Internal Scrubbing section.
January 2015
2015.01.23
Updated the description in the CRC Calculation Time section.
June 2014
2014.06.30
Updated the CRC Calculation Time section.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the CRC Calculation Time section to include a formula to
calculate the minimum and maximum time.
• Updated the maximum error detection frequency.
• Removed preliminary and finalized the values for the Minimum EMR
Update Interval and CRC Calculation Time.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Updated the valid values of n in the error detection frequency
equation.
• Updated the width of the JTAG fault injection and fault injection
registers.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
June 2012
2.0
Minor text edits.
February 2012
1.4
Updated Table 10–9 and Table 10–10.
November
2011
1.3
• Chapter moved to Volume 2.
• Updated Table 10–9 and Table 10–10.
• Minor text edits.
May 2011
1.2
• Chapter moved to Volume 2.
• Updated Table 10–9 and Table 10–10.
• Minor text edits.
December
2010
1.1
No change.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the boundary-scan test (BST) features in Stratix V devices.
Related Information
• JTAG Configuration on page 8-33
Provides more information about JTAG configuration.
• Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
BST Operation Control
Stratix V devices support IEEE Std. 1149.1 and IEEE Std. 1149.6. The IEEE Std. 1149.6 is only supported
on the high-speed serial interface (HSSI) transceivers in Stratix V devices. IEEE Std. 1149.6 enables
board-level connectivity checking between transmitters and receivers that are AC coupled (connected
with a capacitor in series between the source and destination).
IDCODE
The IDCODE is unique for each Stratix V device. Use this code to identify the devices in a JTAG chain.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
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IDCODE
Table 10-1: IDCODE Information for Stratix V Devices
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Family
Stratix V GX
Stratix V GT
(21)
(22)
Member Code Version (4 Bits)
Part Number
(16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity
(11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit)
A3 (21)
0000
0010 1001
0100 0111
000 0110 1110
1
A3 (22)
0000
0010 1001
0010 0001
000 0110 1110
1
A4
0000
0010 1001
0010 0111
000 0110 1110
1
A5
0000
0010 1001
0001 0011
000 0110 1110
1
A7
0000
0010 1001
0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
A9
0000
0010 1001
0100 0101
000 0110 1110
1
AB
0000
0010 1001
0010 0101
000 0110 1110
1
B5
0000
0010 1001
0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
B6
0000
0010 1001
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
B9
0000
0010 1001
0001 0101
000 0110 1110
1
BB
0000
0010 1001
0000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
C5
0000
0010 1001
0010 0011
000 0110 1110
1
C7
0000
0010 1001
0100 0011
000 0110 1110
1
The IDCODE is applicable for KF35 and KF40 packages only.
The IDCODE is applicable for EH29 and HF35 packages only.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
10-3
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Family
Member Code Version (4 Bits)
Stratix V GS
Stratix V E
Part Number
(16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity
(11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit)
D3
0000
0010 1001
0001 0001
000 0110 1110
1
D4 (23)
0000
0010 1001
0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
D4 (24)
0000
0010 1001
0001 0111
000 0110 1110
1
D5
0000
0010 1001
0000 0111
000 0110 1110
1
D6
0000
0010 1001
0001 0100
000 0110 1110
1
D8
0000
0010 1001
0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
E9
0000
0010 1001
1001 0101
000 0110 1110
1
EB
0000
0010 1001
1000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
Supported JTAG Instruction
Table 10-2: JTAG Instructions Supported by Stratix V Devices
JTAG Instruction
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
(23)
(24)
Instruction Code
00 0000 0101
Description
• Allows you to capture and
examine a snapshot of signals at
the device pins during normal
device operation and permits an
initial data pattern to be an output
at the device pins.
• Use this instruction to preload the
test data into the update registers
before loading the EXTEST instruc‐
tion.
• Used by the SignalTap™ II
Embedded Logic Analyzer.
The IDCODE is applicable for EH29 and HF35 packages only.
The IDCODE is applicable for KF40 package only.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
EXTEST
00 0000 1111
• Allows you to test the external
circuit and board-level intercon‐
nects by forcing a test pattern at
the output pins, and capturing the
test results at the input pins.
Forcing known logic high and low
levels on output pins allows you to
detect opens and shorts at the pins
of any device in the scan chain.
• The high-impedance state of
EXTEST is overridden by bus hold
and weak pull-up resistor features.
BYPASS
11 1111 1111
Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal device operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the BST
data to pass synchronously through
the selected devices to adjacent
devices.
USERCODE
00 0000 0111
• Examines the user electronic
signature (UES) within the devices
along a JTAG chain.
• Selects the 32-bit USERCODE
register and places it between the
TDI and TDO pins to allow serial
shifting of USERCODE out of TDO.
• The UES value is set to default
value before configuration and is
only user-defined after the device
is configured.
IDCODE
00 0000 0110
• Identifies the devices in a JTAG
chain. If you select IDCODE, the
device identification register is
loaded with the 32-bit
vendor-defined identification
code.
• Selects the IDCODE register and
places it between the TDI and TDO
pins to allow serial shifting of
IDCODE out of TDO.
• IDCODE is the default instruction at
power up and in the TAP RESET
state. Without loading any
instructions, you can go to the
SHIFT_DR state and shift out the
JTAG device ID.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
10-5
Description
HIGHZ
00 0000 1011
• Sets all user I/O pins to an inactive
drive state.
• Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the
BST data to pass synchronously
through the selected devices to
adjacent devices while tri-stating
all I/O pins until a new JTAG
instruction is executed.
• If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the HIGHZ
value at the pin.
CLAMP
00 0000 1010
• Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the
BST data to pass synchronously
through the selected devices to
adjacent devices while holding the
I/O pins to a state defined by the
data in the boundary-scan register.
• If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the CLAMP
value at the pin. The CLAMP value
is the value stored in the update
register of the boundary-scan cell
(BSC).
PULSE_NCONFIG
00 0000 0001
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin
low to trigger reconfiguration even
though the physical pin is not
affected.
CONFIG_IO
00 0000 1101
Allows I/O reconfiguration (after or
during reconfigurations) through the
JTAG ports using I/O configuration
shift register (IOCSR) for JTAG
testing. You can issue the CONFIG_IO
instruction only after the nSTATUS pin
goes high.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
LOCK
01 1111 0000
Put the device in JTAG secure mode.
In this mode, only BYPASS, SAMPLE/
PRELOAD, EXTEST, IDCODE,
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG, and UNLOCK
instructions are supported. This
instruction can only be accessed
through JTAG core access in user
mode. It cannot be accessed through
external JTAG pins in test or user
mode.
UNLOCK
11 0011 0001
Release the device from the JTAG
secure mode to enable access to all
other JTAG instructions. This
instruction can only be accessed
through JTAG core access in user
mode. It cannot be accessed through
external JTAG pins in test or user
mode.
KEY_CLR_VREG
00 0010 1001
Clears the volatile key.
KEY_VERIFY
00 0001 0011
Verifies the non-volatile key has been
cleared.
EXTEST_PULSE
00 1000 1111
Enables board-level connectivity
checking between the transmitters
and receivers that are AC coupled by
generating three output transitions:
• Driver drives data on the falling
edge of TCK in the
UPDATE_IR/DR state.
• Driver drives inverted data on the
falling edge of TCK after entering
the RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
• Driver drives data on the falling
edge of TCK after leaving the
RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
The EXTEST_PULSE JTAG instruction
is only supported in user mode for
Stratix V devices.
EXTEST_TRAIN
00 0100 1111
Behaves the same as the
EXTEST_PULSE instruction except that
the output continues to toggle on the
TCK falling edge as long as the TAP
controller is in the RUN_TEST/IDLE
state.
The EXTEST_TRAIN JTAG instruction
is only supported in user mode for
Stratix V devices.
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JTAG Secure Mode
10-7
Note: If the device is in a reset state and the nCONFIG or nSTATUS signal is low, the device IDCODE might
not be read correctly. To read the device IDCODE correctly, you must issue the IDCODE JTAG
instruction only when the nCONFIG and nSTATUS signals are high.
Note: If you use DC coupling on the HSSI signals, execute the EXTEST instruction. If you use AC coupling
on the HSSI signals, execute the EXTEST_PULSE instruction. AC-coupled and DC-coupled HSSI are
only supported in post-configuration mode.
Related Information
JTAG Secure Mode on page 8-45
Provides more information about PULSE_NCONFIG, CONFIG_IO, LOCK, and UNLOCK JTAG instructions.
JTAG Secure Mode
If you enable the tamper-protection bit, the Stratix V device is in JTAG secure mode after power up. In
the JTAG secure mode, the JTAG pins support only the BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, EXTEST, IDCODE,
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG, and UNLOCK instructions. Issue the UNLOCK JTAG instruction to enable support for
other JTAG instructions.
JTAG Private Instruction
Caution: Never invoke the following instruction codes. These instructions can damage and render the
device unusable:
•
•
•
•
•
•
1100010000
0011001001
1100010011
1100010111
0111100000
1110110011
I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation
A Stratix V device operating in BST mode uses four required JTAG pins—TDI, TDO, TMS, TCK, and one
optional pin, TRST.
The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resistor, while the TDI and TMS pins have internal weak pullup resistors. The 3.0- or 2.5-V VCCPD supply of I/O bank 3A powers the TDO, TDI, TMS, and TCK pins. All
user I/O pins are tri-stated during JTAG configuration.
The JTAG chain supports several different devices. Use the supported TDO and TDI voltage combinations
listed in the following table if the JTAG chain contains devices that have different VCCIO levels. The
output voltage level of the TDO pin must meet the specification of the TDI pin it drives.
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Performing BST
Table 10-3: Supported TDO and TDI Voltage Combinations
The TDO output buffer for VCCPD of 3.0 V meets VOH (MIN) of 2.4 V, and the TDO output buffer for VCCPD of
2.5 V meets VOH (MIN) of 2.0 V.
Device
Stratix V
Non-Stratix V(25)
TDI Input Buffer
Power (V)
Stratix V TDO VCCPD
VCCPD = 3.0 V
VCCPD = 2.5 V
VCCPD = 3.0 V
Yes
Yes
VCCPD = 2.5 V
Yes
Yes
VCC = 3.3 V
Yes
Yes
VCC = 2.5 V
Yes
Yes
VCC = 1.8 V
Yes
Yes
VCC = 1.5 V
Yes
Yes
Performing BST
You can issue BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE JTAG instructions before, after, or during configuration
without having to interrupt configuration.
To issue other JTAG instructions, follow these guidelines:
• To perform testing before configuration, hold the nCONFIG pin low.
• To perform BST during configuration, issue CONFIG_IO JTAG instruction to interrupt configuration.
While configuration is interrupted, you can issue other JTAG instructions to perform BST. After BST
is completed, issue the PULSE_CONFIG JTAG instruction or pulse nCONFIG low to reconfigure the
device.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on Stratix V devices do not
affect JTAG boundary-scan or configuration operations. Toggling these pins does not disrupt BST
operation (other than the expected BST behavior).
If you design a board for JTAG configuration of Stratix V devices, consider the connections for the
dedicated configuration pins.
Related Information
• JTAG Configuration
Provides more information about JTAG configuration.
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about JTAG configuration timing.
Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry is enabled after the Stratix V device powers up.
(25)
The input buffer must be tolerant to the TDO VCCPD voltage.
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Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
10-9
To ensure that you do not inadvertently enable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry when it is not required,
disable the circuitry permanently with pin connections as listed in the following table.
Table 10-4: Pin Connections to Permanently Disable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 Circuitry for Stratix V Devices
JTAG Pins(26)
Connection for Disabling
TMS
VCCPD supply of Bank 3A
TCK
GND
TDI
VCCPD supply of Bank 3A
TDO
Leave open
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
Consider the following guidelines when you perform BST with IEEE Std. 1149.1 devices:
• If the “10...” pattern does not shift out of the instruction register through the TDO pin during the first
clock cycle of the SHIFT_IR state, the TAP controller did not reach the proper state. To solve this
problem, try one of the following procedures:
• Verify that the TAP controller has reached the SHIFT_IR state correctly. To advance the TAP
controller to the SHIFT_IR state, return to the RESET state and send the 01100 code to the TMS pin.
• Check the connections to the VCC, GND, JTAG, and dedicated configuration pins on the device.
• Perform a SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle before the first EXTEST test cycle to ensure that known data is
present at the device pins when you enter EXTEST mode. If the OEJ update register contains 0, the data
in the OUTJ update register is driven out. The state must be known and correct to avoid contention
with other devices in the system.
• Do not perform EXTEST testing during in-circuit reconfiguration because EXTEST is not supported
during in-circuit reconfiguration. To perform testing, wait for the configuration to complete or issue
the CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt configuration.
• After configuration, you cannot test any pins in a differential pin pair. To perform BST after configu‐
ration, edit and redefine the BSC group that correspond to these differential pin pairs as an internal
cell.
Related Information
IEEE 1149.6 BSDL Files
Provides more information about BSC group definitions.
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register
The boundary-scan register is a large serial shift register that uses the TDI pin as an input and the TDO pin
as an output. The boundary-scan register consists of 3-bit peripheral elements that are associated with
Stratix V I/O pins. You can use the boundary-scan register to test external pin connections or to capture
internal data.
(26)
The JTAG pins are dedicated. Software option is not available to disable JTAG in Stratix V devices.
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Boundary-Scan Cells of a Stratix V Device I/O Pin
Figure 10-1: Boundary-Scan Register
This figure shows how test data is serially shifted around the periphery of the IEEE Std. 1149.1 device.
Each peripheral
element is either an
I/O pin, dedicated
input pin, or
dedicated
configuration pin.
Internal Logic
TAP Controller
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Stratix V Device I/O Pin
The Stratix V device 3-bit BSC consists of the following registers:
• Capture registers—Connect to internal device data through the OUTJ, OEJ, and PIN_IN signals.
• Update registers—Connect to external data through the PIN_OUT and PIN_OE signals.
The TAP controller generates the global control signals for the IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST registers (shift,
clock, and update) internally. A decode of the instruction register generates the MODE signal.
The data signal path for the boundary-scan register runs from the serial data in (SDI) signal to the serial
data out (SDO) signal. The scan register begins at the TDI pin and ends at the TDO pin of the device.
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Boundary-Scan Cells of a Stratix V Device I/O Pin
10-11
Figure 10-2: User I/O BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry for Stratix V Devices
Capture
Registers
SDO
Update
Registers
INJ
PIN_IN
0
1
D
Q
D
INPUT
0
1
Q
INPUT
OEJ
From or
To Device
I/O Cell
Circuitry
And/Or
Logic
Array
0
1
D
Q
D
OE
Q
OE
VCC
0
1
0
1
PIN_OE
0
1
PIN_OUT
OUTJ
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
SHIFT
CLOCK
UPDATE
Pin
Output
Buffer
SDI
HIGHZ
MODE
Global
Signals
Note: TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK pins, all VCC and GND pin types, and VREF pins do not have BSCs.
Table 10-5: Boundary-Scan Cell Descriptions for Stratix V Devices
This table lists the capture and update register capabilities of all BSCs within Stratix V devices.
Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Pin Type
User I/O pins OUTJ
Dedicated
clock input
0
OE Capture
Register
Input
Capture
Register
OEJ
PIN_IN
1
PIN_IN
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Drives
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Input
Update
Register
Comments
PIN_OUT
PIN_OE
INJ
—
No
Connect
(N.C.)
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
to the clock
network or
logic array
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IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Pin Type
Drives
OE Capture
Register
Input
Capture
Register
Dedicated
input
0
1
PIN_IN
Dedicated
bidirectional
(open drain)
0
OEJ
OUTJ
OEJ
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Input
Update
Register
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
to the
configuration
control
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
OUTJ drives to
(27)
Dedicated
bidirec‐
tional(28)
Dedicated
output(29)
OUTJ
0
Comments
0
to the control
logic
to the
configuration
control and
OUTJ drives to
the output
buffer
the output
buffer
IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
The BSCs for HSSI transmitters (GXB_TX[p,n]) and receivers/input clock buffers
(GXB_RX[p,n])/(REFCLK[p,n]) in Stratix V devices are different from the BSCs for the I/O pins.
(27)
(28)
(29)
This includes the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins.
This includes the DCLK pin.
This includes the nCEO pin.
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IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
Figure 10-3: HSSI Transmitter BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for Stratix V Devices
PMA
SDOUT
BSCAN
AC JTAG
Output Buffer
0
BSTX1
OE
0
D
D
Q
Q
1
1
Pad
Mission
0
(DATAOUT)
D
D
Q
Q
Tx Output
Buffer
0
1
BSOEB
1
TX_BUF_OE
nOE
Pad
OE Logic
MORHZ
ACJTAG_BUF_OE
0
0
OE
BSTX0
D
Q
D
Q
1
1
MEM_INIT
SDIN
AC JTAG
Output Buffer
SHIFT
CLK
UPDATE
Capture
Registers
HIGHZ
AC_TEST
AC_MODE
MODE
Update
Registers
Figure 10-4: HSSI Receiver/Input Clock Buffer with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for Stratix V Devices
SDOUT
BSCAN
PMA
BSRX1
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
Hysteretic
Memory
0
BSOUT1
D
Q
Pad
Mission (DATAIN)
Optional INTEST/RUNBIST
not supported
1
RX Input
Buffer
Pad
BSRX0
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
0
D
BSOUT0
Q
Hysteretic
Memory
1
HIGHZ
SDIN
SHIFT
CLK
AC_TEST
UPDATE
MODE
Capture
Registers
AC_MODE
Update
Registers
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the Supported JTAG Instruction section.
• Updated the KEY_CLR_VREG JTAG instruction.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Updated the description for EXTEST_TRAIN and EXTEST_PULSE JTAG
instructions.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
December
2012
2012.12.28
Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
1.5
Updated Table 11-1.
December
2011
1.4
Updated Table 11-2 to include KEY_CLR_VREG and KEY_VERIFY JTAG
instructions.
November
2011
1.3
Updated Table 11-1 and Table 11-2.
May 2011
1.2
• Chapter moved to volume 2 for the 11.0 release.
• Updated Table 11-1.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software 10.1
release.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the programmable power technology, hot-socketing feature, power-on reset (POR)
requirements, power-up sequencing recommendation, temperature sensing diode (TSD), and their
implementation in Stratix V devices.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Stratix V Device Handbook chapters.
• PowerPlay Power Analysis
Provides more information about the Quartus®Prime PowerPlay Power Analyzer tool in volume 3 of
the Quartus Prime Handbook.
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the recommended operating conditions of each power supply.
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides detailed information about power supply pin connection guidelines and power regulator
sharing.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides detailed information about power supply pin connection guidelines and power regulator
sharing.
• Board Design Resource Center
Provides detailed information about power supply design requirements.
• PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer
Provides more information about the two supplies which make up the VCC supply. They are VCCL
(core VCC) and VCCP (periphery VCC). The sum of ICCL and ICCP equals to ICC. ICCL and ICCP is found
on the EPE report tab.
• Stratix V Device Design Guidelines
• Stratix V GT Device Design Guidelines
Power Consumption
The total power consumption of a Stratix V device consists of the following components:
• Static power—the power that the configured device consumes when powered up but no clocks are
operating.
• Dynamic power— the additional power consumption of the device due to signal activity or toggling.
© 2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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9001:2008
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Dynamic Power Equation
Dynamic Power Equation
Figure 11-1: Dynamic Power
The following equation shows how to calculate dynamic power where P is power, C is the load
capacitance, and V is the supply voltage level.
The equation shows that power is design-dependent and is determined by the operating frequency of your
design. Stratix V devices minimize static and dynamic power using advanced process optimizations. This
technology allows Stratix V designs to meet specific performance requirements with the lowest possible
power.
Programmable Power Technology
Stratix V devices offer the ability to configure portions of the core, called tiles, for high-speed or lowpower mode of operation performed by the Quartus Prime software without user intervention. Setting a
tile to high-speed or low-power mode is accomplished with on-chip circuitry and does not require extra
power supplies brought into the Stratix V device. In a design compilation, the Quartus Prime software
determines whether a tile should be in high-speed or low-power mode based on the timing constraints of
the design.
Stratix V tiles consist of the following:
• Memory logic array block (MLAB)/ logic array block (LAB) pairs with routing to the pair
• MLAB/LAB pairs with routing to the pair and to adjacent digital signal processing (DSP)/ memory
block routing
• TriMatrix memory blocks
• DSP blocks
• PCI Express® (PCIe®) hard IP
• Physical coding sublayer (PCS)
All blocks and routing associated with the tile share the same setting of either high-speed or low-power
mode. By default, tiles that include DSP blocks or memory blocks are set to high-speed mode for
optimum performance. Unused DSP blocks and memory blocks are set to low-power mode to minimize
static power. Clock networks do not support programmable power technology.
With programmable power technology, faster speed grade FPGAs may require less power because there
are fewer high-speed MLAB and LAB pairs, when compared with slower speed grade FPGAs. The slower
speed grade device may have to use more high-speed MLAB and LAB pairs to meet performance require‐
ments.
The Quartus Prime software sets unused device resources in the design to low-power mode to reduce the
static power. It also sets the following resources to low-power mode when they are not used in the design:
• LABs and MLABs
• TriMatrix memory blocks
• DSP blocks
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If a phase-locked loop (PLL) is instantiated in the design, you may assert the areset pin high to keep the
PLL in low-power mode.
Altera recommends that you power down unused PCIe HIPs, per side, by connecting the PCIe HIP power
to GND on the PCB for additional power savings. All of the HIPs on a side of the device must be unused
to be powered down. For additional information refer to the pin connection guidelines.
Table 11-1: Programmable Power Capabilities for Stratix V Devices
This table lists the available Stratix V programmable power capabilities. Speed grade considerations can add to the
permutations to give you flexibility in designing your system.
Feature
Programmable Power Technology
LAB
Yes
Routing
Yes
Memory Blocks
Fixed setting(30)
DSP Blocks
Fixed setting(30)
Clock Networks
No
Related Information
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about powering down PCIe HIPs.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about powering down PCIe HIPs.
Temperature Sensing Diode
The Stratix V TSD uses the characteristics of a PN junction diode to determine die temperature. Knowing
the junction temperature is crucial for thermal management. You can calculate junction temperature
using ambient or case temperature, junction-to-ambient (ja) or junction-to-case (jc) thermal resistance,
and device power consumption. Stratix V devices monitor its die temperature with the internal TSD with
built-in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuitry or the external TSD with an external temperature
sensor. This allows you to control the air flow to the device.
Internal Temperature Sensing Diode
You can use the Stratix V internal TSD in the following operations:
• Power-up mode—to read the die's temperature during configuration, enable the Altera Temperature
Sensor IP core in your design.
• User mode—to read the die's temperature during user mode, assert the clken signal to the internal
TSD circuitry.
Note: To reduce power consumption, disable the Stratix V internal TSD when you are not using it.
(30)
Tiles with DSP blocks and memory blocks that are used in the design are always set to high-speed mode. By
default, unused DSP blocks and memory blocks are set to low-power mode.
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External Temperature Sensing Diode
Related Information
• Altera Temperature Sensor IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about using the Altera Temperature Sensor IP core.
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the Stratix V internal TSD specification.
External Temperature Sensing Diode
The Stratix V external TSD requires two pins for voltage reference. The following figure shows how to
connect the external TSD with an external temperature sensor device, allowing external sensing of the
Stratix V die temperature. For example, you can connect external temperature sensing devices, such as
MAX1619, MAX1617A, MAX6627, and ADT7411 to the two external TSD pins for Stratix V device die
temperature reading. The TSD diode is a substrate or common collector PNP diode type.
Figure 11-2: TSD External Pin Connections
External TSD
TEMPDIODEP
External
Temperature
Sensor
FPGA
TEMPDIODEN
The TSD is a very sensitive circuit that can be influenced by noise coupled from other traces on the board
or within the device package itself, depending on your device usage. The interfacing signal from the
Stratix V device to the external temperature sensor is based on millivolts (mV) of difference, as seen at the
external TSD pins. Switching the I/O near the TSD pins can affect the temperature reading. Altera
recommends taking temperature readings during periods of inactivity in the device or use the internal
TSD with built-in ADC circuitry.
The following are board connection guidelines for the TSD external pin connections:
• The maximum trace lengths for the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN traces must be less than eight
inches.
• Route both traces in parallel and place them close to each other with grounded guard tracks on each
side.
• Altera recommends 10-mils width and space for both traces.
• Route traces through a minimum number of vias and crossunders to minimize the thermocouple
effects.
• Ensure that the number of vias are the same on both traces.
• Ensure both traces are approximately the same length.
• Avoid coupling with toggling signals (for example, clocks and I/O) by having the GND plane between
the diode traces and the high frequency signals.
• For high-frequency noise filtering, place an external capacitor (close to the external chip) between the
TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN trace. For Maxim devices, use an external capacitor between 2200 pF
to 3300 pF.
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• Place a 0.1 uF bypass capacitor close to the external device.
• You can use the internal TSD with built-in ADC circuitry and external TSD at the same time.
• If you only use internal ADC circuitry, the external TSD pins (TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN) can be
connected to GND because the external TSD pins are not used.
For details about device specification and connection guidelines, refer to the external temperature sensor
device datasheet from the device manufacturer.
Related Information
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides details about the external TSD specification.
• Stratix V E, GS, and GX Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides details about the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN pin connection when you are not using an
external TSD.
• Stratix V GT Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides details about the TEMPDIODEP/TEMPDIODEN pin connection when you are not using an
external TSD.
Hot-Socketing Feature
Stratix V devices support hot socketing—also known as hot plug-in or hot swap.
The hot-socketing circuitry monitors the VCCIO, VCCPD, and VCC power supplies and all VCCIO and
VCCPD banks.
When powering up or powering down these power supplies, refer to the Power-Up Sequence section of
this handbook.
During the hot-socketing operation, the I/O pin capacitance is less than 15 pF and the clock pin
capacitance is less than 20 pF.
The hot-socketing capability removes some of the difficulty that designers face when using the Stratix V
devices on PCBs that contain a mixture of devices with different voltage requirements.
The hot-socketing capability in Stratix V devices provides the following advantages:
• You can drive signals into the I/O, dedicated input, and dedicated clock pins before or during power
up or power down without damaging the device. External input signals to the I/O pins of the
unpowered device will not power the power supplies through internal paths within the device.
• The output buffers are tri-stated during system power up or power down. Because the Stratix V device
does not drive signals out before or during power up, the device does not affect the other operating
buses.
• You can insert or remove a Stratix V device from a powered-up system board without damaging or
interfering with the system board's operation. This capability allows you to avoid sinking current
through the device signal pins to the device power supply, which can create a direct connection to
GND that causes power supply failures.
• During hot socketing, Stratix V devices are immune to latch up that can occur when a device is hotsocketed into an active system.
Altera uses GND as a reference for hot-socketing and I/O buffer circuitry designs. To ensure proper
operation, connect GND between boards before connecting the power supplies. This prevents GND on
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Hot-Socketing Implementation
your board from being pulled up inadvertently by a path to power through other components on your
board. A pulled up GND could otherwise cause an out-of-specification I/O voltage or over current
condition in the Altera device.
Related Information
• Power-Up Sequence on page 11-7
• Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides details about the Stratix V hot-socketing specifications.
Hot-Socketing Implementation
The hot-socketing feature tri-state the output buffer during power up and power down of the power
supplies. When these power supplies are below the threshold voltage, the hot-socketing circuitry generates
an internal HOTSCKT signal.
Hot-socketing circuitry prevents excess I/O leakage during power up. When the voltage ramps up very
slowly, I/O leakage is still relatively low, even after the release of the POR signal and configuration is
complete.
Note: The output buffer cannot flip from the state set by the hot-socketing circuitry at very low voltage.
To allow the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to operate during configuration, the hot-socketing
feature is not applied to these configuration pins. Therefore, these pins will drive out during power
up and power down.
Figure 11-3: Hot-Socketing Circuitry for Stratix V Devices
Power-On
Reset (POR)
Monitor
V CCIO
Weak
Pull-Up
Resistor
PAD
R
Output Enable
Voltage
Tolerance
Control
Hot-Socket
Output
Pre-Driver
Input Buffer
to Logic Array
The POR circuitry monitors the voltage level of the power supplies and keeps the I/O pins tri-stated until
the device is in user mode. The weak pull-up resistor (R) in the Stratix V input/output element (IOE) is
enabled during configuration download to keep the I/O pins from floating.
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Power-Up Sequence
11-7
The 3.0-V tolerance control circuit allows the I/O pins to be driven by 3.0 V before the power supplies are
powered and prevents the I/O pins from driving out before the device enters user mode.
Note: For the VCC_AUX power supply, POR only monitors one of the VCC_AUX pins. You must connect all
the VCC_AUX pins.
Power-Up Sequence
The Stratix V devices require a power-up sequence as shown in the following figure to prevent excessive
inrush current and ensure proper transceiver functionality. This power-up sequence is divided into four
power groups. Group 1 contains the first power rails to ramp. The VCC, VCCHIP, and VCCHSSI power rails
in this group must ramp to a minimum of 80% of their full rail before any other power rails may start.
Group 1 power rails can continue to ramp to full rail. The power rails in Group 2 and Group 4 can start to
ramp in any order after Group 1 has reached its minimum 80% threshold. When the last power rail in
Group 2 reaches 80% of its full rail, the remaining power rails in Group 3 may start their ramp. During
this time, Group 2 power rails may continue to ramp to full rail. Power rails in Group 3 may ramp in any
order. All power rails must ramp monotonically. The complete power-up sequence must meet either the
standard or fast POR delay time, depending on the POR delay setting that is used.
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Power-On Reset Circuitry
Figure 11-4: Power-Up Sequence Requirement for Stratix V Devices
Power up VCCBAT at any time. If VCC, VCCR_GXB, and VCCT_GXB have the same voltage level, they can be
powered by the same regulator in Group 1 and ramp simultaneously.
Group 4
Group 1
Group 1
Group 2
V CC
V CCHIP
V CCHSSI
V CCPD
V CCPGM
V CCA_FPLL
V CC_AUX
V CCA_GXB/GTB
Group 3
V CCPT
V CCH_GXB
V CCD_FPLL
V CCT_GXB/GTB
V CCR_GXB/GTB
V CCL_GTB
Group 4
V CCIO
Group 2
Group 3
80% V CC
80% of Last Rail in Group 2
Stratix V devices may power down all power rails simultaneously. However, all rails must reach 0 V
within 100 ms from the start of power-down.
Power-On Reset Circuitry
The POR circuitry keeps the Stratix V device in the reset state until the power supply outputs are within
the recommended operating range.
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Power-On Reset Circuitry
11-9
A POR event occurs when you power up the Stratix V device until the power supplies reach the
recommended operating range within the maximum power supply ramp time, tRAMP. If tRAMP is not met,
the Stratix V device I/O pins and programming registers remain tri-stated, during which device configu‐
ration could fail.
Figure 11-5: Relationship Between tRAMP and POR Delay
Volts
POR trip level
first power
supply
last power
supply
Time
POR delay
tRAMP
configuration
time
The Stratix V POR circuitry uses an individual detecting circuitry to monitor each of the
configuration-related power supplies independently. The main POR circuitry is gated by the outputs of all
the individual detectors. The main POR signal is asserted when the power starts to ramp up. This signal is
released after the last ramp-up power reaches the POR trip level during power up.
In user mode, the main POR signal is asserted when any of the monitored power goes below its POR trip
level. Asserting the POR signal forces the device into the reset state.
The POR circuitry checks the functionality of the I/O level shifters powered by the VCCPD and VCCPGM
power supplies during power-up mode. The main POR circuitry waits for all the individual POR
circuitries to release the POR signal before allowing the control block to start programming the device.
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Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Figure 11-6: Simplified POR Diagram for Stratix V Devices
V CC
V CC POR
V CC_AUX
Modular
Main POR
V CC_AUX POR
Main POR
V CCPD
V CCPGM
Related Information
Stratix V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the POR delay specification and tRAMP.
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Table 11-2: Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the Stratix V POR Circuitry
Power Supplies Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCC_AUX
VCCBAT
VCC
VCCPT
VCCPD
VCCPGM
Power Supplies Not Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCCT_GXB
VCCH_GXB
VCCR_GXB
VCCA_GXB
VCCA_FPLL
VCCD_FPLL
VCCIO
VCCHIP
Note: For the device to exit POR, you must power the VCCBAT power supply even if you do not use the
volatile key.
Related Information
MSEL Pin Settings
Provides more information about the MSEL pin settings for each POR delay.
Document Revision History
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
11-11
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
• Updated the External Temperature Sensing Diode section to provide
the type of diode used.
• Updated the Power-Up Sequence section.
January 2015
2015.01.23
Added links to the Stratix V Design Guidelines and Stratix V GT Design
Guidelines.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added 'There are two supplies which make up the VCC supply. They
are VCCL (core VCC) and VCCP (periphery VCC). The sum of ICCL and
ICCP equals to ICC. You can refer to the Stratix V PowerPlay Early
Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer for ICCL and ICCP on the
EPE report tab.' to 'For detailed information about power supply
design requirements, refer to the Board Design Resource Center
page.'
• Updated dynamic power in Power Consumption for improve clarity.
• Added description on powering down unused PCIe HIPS in
Programmable Power Technology
• Updated Hot-Socketing Feature with ' When powering up these
power supplies, you must follow the required power-up sequence as
shown in the Power-Up Sequence section of this handbook.'
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Consolidated content from the Hot Socketing and Power-On Reset in
Stratix V Devices chapter.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
1.3
Minor text edits.
May 2011
1.2
Chapter moved to volume 2 for the Quartus II software 11.0 release.
December
2010
1.1
No changes to the content of this chapter for the Quartus II software 10.1
release.
July 2010
1.0
Initial release.
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