AN4679
Thermal
Management
Handbook
Revised March 2014
Introduction: Thermal Management in Electronic Systems.................................................. 3
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Temperature-Sensing Technologies........................................................................................ 4
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Thermistors............................................................................................................................... 4
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NTC Thermistors................................................................................................................... 4
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RTDs......................................................................................................................................... 7
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Thermocouples......................................................................................................................... 9
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Temperature Sensor ICs......................................................................................................... 13
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Analog Temperature Sensor ICs......................................................................................... 13
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Local Digital Temperature Sensor ICs.................................................................................16
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Other Digital Temperature Sensor Features....................................................................18
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Remote Digital Temperature Sensors................................................................................. 21
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Remote Temperature Sensor Error Sources................................................................... 23
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Other Remote Sensor Features...................................................................................... 26
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Other Types of Thermal Management Components............................................................. 28
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Temperature Switches............................................................................................................ 28
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Fan Speed Controllers............................................................................................................ 31
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Types of Fans...................................................................................................................... 32
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Controlling Fan Speed.........................................................................................................34
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Minimizing the Effects of Fan Speed Control on Acoustical Noise.....................................37
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Monitoring Fan Speed......................................................................................................... 37
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Closed-Loop RPM Control.................................................................................................. 41
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Fan Controller Temperature Sensing.................................................................................. 42
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Closed-Loop, Temperature-Based (Thermal Closed-Loop) Fan Speed Control.............42
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Lookup Table Mapping of Temperature and Fan Drive...................................................42
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“No-MCU” Fan Control.....................................................................................................42
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Signal Conditioners for Non-IC Temperature Sensors........................................................... 44
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Thermistor Conditioners...................................................................................................... 44
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RTD Conditioners................................................................................................................ 45
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Thermocouple Conditioners................................................................................................ 46
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Using Thermal Management Components—Principles and Application Circuits............. 48
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Sensing Location: The Key to Choosing the Right Sensor Type............................................48
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Remote Diode Sensor Guidelines.......................................................................................... 53
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PC Board Layout Guidelines for Remote Sensors..............................................................53
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Thermal Diode Design Guidelines...................................................................................... 55
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Application Examples..............................................................................................................56
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RTD-to-Digital Conversion.................................................................................................. 56
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Thermocouple Interface Circuits......................................................................................... 60
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IR-Linked Temperature Sensor........................................................................................... 62
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RS-232-Powered Temperature Sensor............................................................................... 63
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Fan Control Circuits................................................................................................................ 64
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Fan Control Partitioning.......................................................................................................64
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Pulse-Width-Modulated, Fan Power-Supply Drive..............................................................70
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4-Wire Fan Drive................................................................................................................. 71
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Converting PWM Control Signals to Linear Fan Drive........................................................72
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Linear Fan Drive.................................................................................................................. 74
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High-Voltage Fan Control........................................................................................................74
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48V, 4-Wire Fan Speed Control.......................................................................................... 75
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48V, PWM Power Supply Fan Speed Controller.................................................................75
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48V, Linear Fan Speed Controller....................................................................................... 76
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On/Off Fan Control Circuits.....................................................................................................77
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Basic On/Off Fan Controllers Using Temperature Switches............................................... 77
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Simple, Two-Speed Fan Controller..................................................................................... 80
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Fan Fail-Safe Circuit............................................................................................................81
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Temperature Switches............................................................................................................ 82
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In-Circuit Temperature Switch Testing.................................................................................82
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Thermal Crowbar.................................................................................................................82
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Additional Resources.............................................................................................................. 84
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Application Notes, Tutorials, and Reference Designs............................................................ 84
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Introduction: Thermal Management in Electronic Systems
Thermal management in electronic systems is done for one or more of the three purposes
outlined below.
1.� Control Temperature data is an input to a large number of control systems. The control
system may be as simple as an on/off thermostatic controller for room temperature,
which activates a heater whenever the temperature drops below a specific threshold. Or
it may be a complex fan speed control system that uses measured temperature to
adjust the speeds of several fans to ensure adequate cooling of system components,
while changing fan speeds in such a way as to minimize the audibility of the changes.
2.� Calibration Temperature data is used to correct temperature-dependent errors in a
component. Calibration functions can be implemented simply using an analog
temperature sensor with an operational amplifier circuit, or they may be much more
complex with a lookup table that provides a 12-bit correction factor every 5°C for a data
acquisition system. For example, a TCXO uses temperature to adjust the operating
parameters of a crystal oscillator to compensate for the shift in the crystal’s resonant
frequency over temperature. Signal conditioners for sensors such as pressure
transducers use temperature data to correct for thermally induced drift in the
transducers’ characteristics.
3.� Protection Many components in electronic systems can be exposed to temperature
extremes—from ambient conditions, power dissipation in nearby components, or their
own power dissipation—that can damage them. Thermal management components can
be deployed to detect, and in some cases eliminate, potentially dangerous thermal
conditions before they can cause damage. Again, these solutions can be as simple as
an over-/under-temperature detector to protect circuit board components from damage,
or as complex as a cooling system that uses temperature data from multiple locations to
ensure proper operating temperature under a variety of external conditions.
This handbook provides an introduction to thermal management devices and illustrates some
of the ways in which they may be used.
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Temperature-Sensing Technologies
Thermal management begins with the measurement of temperature. Maxim manufactures a
wide variety of temperature-sensing ICs for such measurement. In addition to the various types
of IC sensors, there are several other technologies that enable temperature to be measured by
electronic systems. Some of the more widely used approaches are discussed in this section.
Application circuit examples can be found later in this handbook, in the section titled “Using
Thermal Management Components—Principles and Circuits.”
Thermistors
Thermistors are temperature-dependent resistors, usually made from conductive materials
such as metal-oxide ceramics or polymers. The most common thermistors have a negative
temperature coefficient (NTC) of resistance and, therefore, are often referred to as NTCs.
Positive temperature coefficient thermistors, known as PTCs, are also available.
Characteristics include moderate temperature range (generally up to +150C, though some
are capable of much higher temperatures), low-to-moderate cost (depending on accuracy),
poor but predictable linearity, and some signal conditioning required. Thermistors are available
in probes, in surface-mount packages, with bare leads, and in a variety of specialized
packages. Maxim manufactures ICs that convert thermistor resistance to a digital format.
A common approach to using a thermistor for temperature measurement in shown in Figure 1,
where a thermistor and fixed-value resistor form a voltage divider whose output is digitized by
an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Figure 1. This basic circuit shows how a thermistor can interface to an ADC. Resistor R1 and the
thermistor form a voltage divider with a temperature-dependent output voltage.
NTC Thermistors
NTCs are the most commonly used thermistors for measurement applications. Usually molded
from metal-oxide semiconductor materials, they have a large negative temperature coefficient.
The relationship between resistance and temperature for a common NTC is shown in Figure
2. Note the nonlinearity of the resistance vs. temperature curve.
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(a)
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(b)
Figure 2. Resistance vs. temperature curves for a standard NTC . Nominal resistance is 10k  at
+25°C. Note the nonlinearity and large relative temperature coefficient of curve (a). Curve (b) is
based on a logarithmic scale and also exhibits significant nonlinearity.
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Note that the nonlinearity of NTCs introduces a difficulty when a wide range of temperatures
must be measured. Because the slope of the curves in Figure 2 decreases significantly at
temperature extremes, the effective temperature resolution of any ADC used with the NTC will
be degraded at those extremes. This may require the use of a higher resolution ADC if a wide
range of temperatures must be measured
Combining an NTC with a fixed resistor in a voltage-divider circuit like the one in Figure 1
provides some linearization, as shown in Figure 3. By selecting an appropriate value for the
fixed resistor, the temperature range for which the curve is most linear can be shifted to meet
the needs of the application.
Figure 3. Making an NTC voltage-divider, as in Figure 1, helps to linearize the NTC ’s resistance curve
over a limited temperature range. The voltages on the NTC and the external resistor, R1, are shown
as a function of temperature. Note that the voltage is roughly linear from 0 °C to +70°C.
The accuracy specifications for NTCs vary significantly. At one end of the spectrum are very
low-cost thermistors that are guaranteed only at a single temperature. The components are
capable of giving a rough indication of temperature—within a few degrees of the actual value
at the guaranteed temperature—and no guarantee at other temperatures. At the other end are
significantly more expensive, interchangeable thermistors that are guaranteed to a fraction of a
degree accuracy over a wide range of temperature.
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RTDs
Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are resistors whose resistance varies with
temperature. Platinum is the most common, most accurate wire material; platinum RTDs are
referred to as Pt-RTDs. Nickel, copper, and other metals may also be used to make
RTDs.Platinum RTD characteristics include a wide temperature range (up to roughly 800°C),
excellent accuracy and repeatability, reasonable linearity, and the necessity for signal
conditioning.
Because of their accuracy, stability, and wide temperature range, platinum RTDs are used in a
variety of precision applications, including instruments, process control, and automotive
systems.
For Pt-RTDs, the most common values for nominal resistance at 0°C are 100Ω and 1kΩ,
though other values are available. The average slope between 0°C and +100°C is called alpha
(α). This value depends on the impurities and their concentrations in the platinum. The two
most widely used values for alpha are 0.00385 and 0.00392, corresponding to the IEC 751
(PT100) and SAMA standards.
The resistance vs. temperature curve is reasonably linear, but has some curvature, as
described by the Callendar-Van Dusen equation:
R(T) = R0(1 + aT + bT2 + c(T - 100)T3)
Where:
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T = temperature (°C)
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R(T) = resistance at T
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R0 = resistance at T = 0°C
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IEC 751 specifies α = 0.00385055 and the following Callendar-Van Dusen coefficient values:
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a = 3.90830 x 10-3
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b = -5.77500 x 10-7
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c = -4.18301 x 10-12 for -200°C  T  0°C, 0 for 0°C  T  +850°C
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Figure 4 shows the curve of resistance vs. temperature for a PT100 RTD with a straight-line
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approximation using α. Note that the straight-line approximation is accurate to better than
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±0.4°C from -20°C to +120°C. Figure 5 shows the error (in degrees) between the actual
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resistance and the value calculated from the straight-line approximation.
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Figure 4. PT100 RTD resistance vs. temperature. Also shown is the straight-line approximation for
0°C to +100°C.
Figure 5. PT100 nonlinearity compared to linear approximation based on the slope from 0 °C to
+100°C.
Signal conditioning for a simple 2-wire RTD usually consists of a precision resistor connected
in series with the RTD, a current source that forces current through the RTD and the precision
reference resistor, and a high-resolution ADC. The voltage across the reference resistor is the
reference voltage for the ADC. The ADC’s conversion result is simply the ratio of the RTD’s
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resistance to the reference resitance. An example of a simple RTD signal-conditioning circuit
is shown in Figure 6. Several variations are possible. The current source may be integrated
into the ADC, or the current source may be eliminated and a voltage source may be used to
provide bias to the RTD-RREF divider. Note that this approach can provide accurate results only
when the wires connecting the RTD to circuit have very low resistance. When the RTD’s cable
resistance is significant (greater than a few mΩ for a PT100), a 3-wire or 4-wire RTD will
generally be used. Four wires allow force and sense connections to the RTD to eliminate the
effect of wire resistance. Three wires provide a compromise solution that partially cancels the
effect of cable resistance. Linearization is generally done using a lookup table, although
external linear circuits can provide good linearization over a limited temperature range.
IRTD
AIN+
RTD
RREF
ADC
(12 to 24 bits)
AINREFIN+
REFIN-
Figure 6. Simplified RTD signal-conditioning circuit.
RTDs are available in a variety of packages, such as probes and surface-mount packages.
Thermocouples
Thermocouples are made by joining two wires of dissimilar metals. The point of contact
between the wires generates a voltage that is approximately proportional to temperature.
Characteristics include wide temperature range (up to +1800C), low-cost (depending on
package), very low output voltage (about 40µV per C for a K type), reasonable linearity, and
moderately complex signal conditioning (cold-junction compensation and amplification). There
are several thermocouple types, which are designated by letters. The most widely used is the
K type. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of a few common thermocouple types. Note
that the sensitivities and usable temperature ranges differ among the various types.
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Table 1. Characteristics of some common thermocouple types.
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Temperature
Nominal
Type
Range
Sensitivity
Conductor Alloys
(°C;Short Term)
( µV/°C)
K
−180 to +1300
41
J
−180 to +800
55
N
−270 to +1300
39
R
−50 to +1700
10
S
−50 to +1750
10
B
0 to +1820
10
T
−250 to +400
43
E
−40 to +900
68
Chromel (90% Ni, 10% Cr)
Alumel (95% Ni, 2% Mn, 2% Al, and 1% Si)
100% Fe
Constantan (55% Cu, 45% Ni)
Nicrosil (84.1% Ni, 14.4% Cr, 1.4% Si, 0.1% Mg)
Nisil (95.6% Ni, 4.4% Si)
87% Pt, 13% Rh
100% Pt
90% Pt, 10% Rh
100% Pt
70% Pt, 30% Rh
94% Pt, 6% Rh
100% Cu
Constantan
Chromel
Constantan
Figure 7 shows the output voltage vs. temperature for a type K thermocouple. The curve is
reasonably linear, although it clearly has significant deviations from absolute linearity. Figure 8
shows the deviation from a straight-line approximation, assuming a linear output from 0°C to
+1000°C for an average sensitivity of 41.28µV/°C. In practice, linearity correction can be done
by calculating the actual value or by using a lookup table.
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Figure 7. Type K thermocouple output voltage vs. temperature.
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Figure 8. Type K thermocouple deviation from a straight-line approximation.
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Measuring temperature with a thermocouple is somewhat difficult because the output of the
thermocouple is low. It is also complicated because additional thermocouples are created at
the point where the thermocouple wires make contact with the copper wires (or traces) that
connect to the signal conditioning circuitry. This point is called the cold junction (see Figure 9).
Figure 9. Simple thermocouple circuit. The junction between metal 1 and metal 2 is the main
thermocouple junction. Other thermocouples are present where the metal 1 and metal 2 wires join
with the measuring device’s copper wires or PCB traces.
The net effect is that the output voltage of this circuit appears to be the voltage due to the
thermocouple minus the voltage of a similar thermocouple at the cold junction temperature.
Therefore, if the thermocouple is at +525°C and the cold junction is at +25°C, VOUT will indicate
+500°C. To correct for this error, you must measure the cold junction temperature and add that
temperature to the value indicated by VOUT:
VOUT = VTC - VCJ
VTC = VOUT + VCJ
This is done by placing a temperature sensor at the cold junction location and using the
measured temperature to compensate for the cold junction temperature. A complete
thermocouple-to-digital circuit might look like the one in Figure 10. A precision op amp and
precision resistors provide gain to the thermocouple output signal. A temperature sensor at the
cold junction location is monitored to correct for cold junction temperature, and an ADC
provides output data at the resolution required. In general, calibration is necessary to correct
for amplifier offset voltage, as well as resistor, temperature sensor, and voltage reference
errors, and linearization must be performed to correct for the effect of the thermocouple’s
nonlinear temperature-voltage relationship.
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Figure 10. Example of a thermocouple signal-conditioning circuit.
Maxim manufactures ICs (the MAX31850, MAX31851, and MAX31855 series) that perform the
signal conditioning functions for a variety of thermocouple types, thus simplifying the design
task and significantly reducing the number of components required to amplify, cold-junction
compensate, and digitize the thermocouple’s output. Thermocouples are available in probes
and as elements with bare leads.
Temperature Sensor ICs
Temperature sensor ICs take advantage of the predictable thermal characteristics of silicon PN
junctions. Because they are active circuits built using conventional semiconductor processes,
they can take a variety of forms and include a variety of features (such as digital interfaces,
ADC inputs, and fan-control functions) not available in other technologies. The operating
temperature range for temperature sensor ICs extends as low as -55°C and as high as
+125°C, with a few products operating to an upper limit of around +150°C. Descriptions of
common types of temperature sensor ICs follow.
Analog Temperature Sensor ICs
Analog temperature sensor ICs convert temperature to voltage or, in some cases, to current.
The simplest analog temperature sensors have just three active connections: for ground,
power supply voltage input, and output. Other analog sensors with enhanced features may
have additional inputs or outputs—for example, comparator or voltage reference outputs.
Analog temperature sensor ICs use the thermal characteristics of bipolar transistors to develop
an output voltage proportional to temperature. A conceptual circuit is shown in Figure 11.
Practical ICs are designed differently, but this circuit illustrates how active circuits can be made
to measure temperature. Two matched transistors on the same die are connected as diodes
and biased with currents I1 and I2. The base-emitter voltage (VBE) for each transistor depends
on its temperature and collector current. If the transistors are located near each other on the
die and there are no significant thermal gradients in their vicinity, their temperatures will be the
same. If they are well matched and their collector currents are matched, their V BE values will
also match. If the currents are different, the V BE values will follow this equation:
VBE2 - VBE1 = n(kT/q)ln(IC2/IC1)
Where:
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n = the ideality factor (also called “nonideality factor”) of the transistor junction; depends on
process and device design and is generally very close to 1.01
k = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.3806503 × 10-23 m2 kg s-2 K-1
q = the electron charge = 1.60217646 × 10-19 coulombs
T = temperature in °K (temperature in °C + 273.15)
Figure 11. Conceptual circuit showing how two matched transistors can sense temperature.
Practical designs include trim capabilities and compensation for nonideal behavior of the circuit
elements.
Figure 12 shows a curve of output voltage vs. temperature for a typical analog temperature
sensor, the MAX6605. Note that the curve is quite linear. Figure 13 shows the deviation from a
straight line for this sensor. From 0°C to +85°C, the linearity is within about ±0.2°C, which is
quite good compared to thermistors, RTDs, and thermocouples.
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Figure 12. Output voltage vs. temperature for the MAX6605 analog temperature-sensor IC.
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Figure 13. The MAX6605 output voltage deviation from a straight line. Linearity from 0 °C to +85°C is
approximately ±0.2°C.
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Analog temperature sensors can have excellent accuracy. For example, the DS600 has a
guaranteed accuracy of ±0.5°C from -20°C to +100°C, as seen in Table 2. Other analog
sensors are available with larger error tolerances, but many of these have very low operating
current (on the order of 15µA, max) and are available in small packages (e.g., SC70).
Table 2. Maxim’s Analog Temperature Sensors
Part
DS600
MAX6605
MAX6607
MAX6608
MAX6610
MAX6611
MAX6612
MAX6613
Description
±0.5°C accurate analog-output sensor with
temperature switch
+2.7V to +5.5V analog temp sensor in SC70
+1.8V temp sensor in SC70
+1.8V temp sensor in SOT23
Temp sensor and voltage reference in SOT23
Temp sensor and voltage reference in SOT23
High-slope, low-power, analog temp sensor
+1.8V to +5.5V analog temp sensor
Accuracy
(±°C)
Accuracy
Range (°C)
Operating
Temp Range
(°C)
Supply
Voltage
Range VCC
(V)
0.5
-20 to +100
-40 to +125
+2.7 to +5.5
3.8
5
5
3.7
3.7
4.3
4.4
-20 to +85
-10 to +85
-10 to +85
-20 to +85
-20 to +85
+60 to +100
-20 to +85
-55 to +125
-20 to +85
-20 to +85
-40 to +125
-40 to +125
-55 to +150
-55 to +130
+2.7 to +5.5
+1.8 to +3.6
+1.8 to +3.6
+3.0 to +5.5
+4.5 to +5.5
+2.4 to +5.5
+1.8 to +5.5
Local Digital Temperature Sensor ICs
Integrating an analog temperature sensor with an ADC is an obvious way to create a
temperature sensor with a direct digital interface. Such a device is normally called a digital
temperature sensor, or a local digital temperature sensor. “Local” refers to the fact that the
sensor measures its own temperature, as opposed to a remote sensor that measures the
temperature of an external IC or discrete transistor.
There is a wide variety of digital temperature sensors available with various feature sets; see
Table 3 for a complete list of Maxim’s local digital temperature sensors. Figure 14 shows block
diagrams for two digital temperature sensors. Figure 14a illustrates a sensor that simply
measures temperature and clocks the resulting data out through a 3-wire digital interface.
Figure 14b shows a sensor that includes several additional features, such as
over-/undertemperature outputs, registers to set trip thresholds for these outputs, and
EEPROM.
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(a)
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(b)
Figure 14. Block diagrams of local digital temperature sensors. (a) Simple sensor with serial digital
output. (b) Sensor with additional functions, such as over-/undertemperature alarm outputs and user
EEPROM.
Digital temperature sensors are available with guaranteed accuracy as good as ±0.5°C over a
wide temperature range. One advantage of using a digital temperature sensor is that all of the
errors involved in digitizing the temperature value are included within the sensor’s accuracy
specifications. In contrast, an analog temperature sensor’s specified error must be added to
that of any ADC, amplifier, voltage reference, or other component that is used with the sensor.
A good example of a very high-performance digital temperature sensor is the MAX31725,
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which achieves ±0.5°C accuracy across a wide temperature range of -40°C to +105°C. Over
an even more extensive, -55°C to +125°C temperature range, the maximum temperature error
is just ±0.7°C. The MAX31725 also features unusually high 16-bit (0.00390625°C) resolution.
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Other Digital Temperature Sensor Features
In addition to the basic temperature-sensing function, digital sensors can include various
combinations of several other useful features, the most common of which are:
Overtemperature Outputs Most digital temperature sensors include one or more outputs that
indicate that the measured temperature has gone beyond a preset (usually softwareprogrammable) limit. The output may behave like a comparator output, with one state when
temperature is above the threshold and the other state when temperature is below the
threshold. Another common implementation is for the output to behave as an interrupt that is
reset only in response to an action by the master.
Fault Queue When short-term temperature variations commonly occur, you may prefer that
the overtemperature output is not asserted as a result of a single overthreshold measurement.
Instead, it may be better to assert the output only after a few consecutive overthreshold
measurements have taken place. A fault queue allows you to select the number of consecutive
overthreshold measurements required before the output asserts.
Nonvolatile Memory Some digital sensors include nonvolatile memory (NVM) to store
overtemperature thresholds. This can be useful if, for example, the sensor is to be used for
system protection. With the correct values stored in the NVM threshold registers, the
overtemperature detection function begins to operate immediately upon power-up, with no
need for the master to write to the sensor.
Interfaces Digital temperature sensors are available with a wide variety of digital interfaces
including I2C, SMBus™, SPI™, 1-Wire®, and PWM.
I2C/SMBus Timeout In systems using either I2C or SMBus to communicate with the
temperature sensor, communications errors can cause a slave to hold the bus low and prevent
either the master or other slaves from using the bus. A solution often included in slave ICs like
temperature sensors is known as “timeout.” A timeout circuit monitors the bus and, when the
data bus has been held in a low state for more than 35ms, for example, the IC’s internal
interface resets. If the IC has been holding the bus low, it releases the bus, allowing other
devices to communicate. Bus timeout is an optional part of the SMBus specification. Because
the I2C specification allows very low clock speeds, timeout is not part of the I2C specification.
However, the timeout feature is included in many I2C slave devices.
Package Compatible with Ambient Temperature Sensing. When it is necessary to measure
air temperature (as opposed to the temperature of a board or an external die), a sensor in a
TO-92 or similar package can be a good choice. See the Sensing Ambient Air Temperature
section for more information.
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Table 3. Maxim’s Local Digital Temperature Sensors
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Part
Description
Interface
Accuracy
(±ºC)
Nonvolatile
Memory
VCC Range
(V)
DS1620
Digital thermometer and thermostat
3-wire
0.5
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1621
Digital thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
0.5
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1624
Digital thermometer and memory
3-wire
0.5
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1626
High-precision digital thermometer and
thermostat
3-wire
0.5
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1629
Digital thermometer and real-time clock
2-wire
2
✓
+2.2 to +5.5
DS1631
High-precision digital thermometer and
thermostat
2-wire
0.5
✓
+2.2 to +5.5
DS1721
Digital thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
1
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1722
Digital thermometer
3-wire
2
DS1726
High-precision digital thermometer and
thermostat
3-wire
1
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1731
High-precision digital thermometer and
thermostat
2-wire
1
✓
+2.2 to +5.5
DS1775
Digital thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
2
DS1821
Programmable 1-Wire digital thermostat and
thermometer
1-Wire
1
✓
+2.7 to +5.5
DS1822
Econo 1-Wire digital thermometer
1-Wire
2
✓
+3.0 to +5.5
DS1825
Programmable resolution, 1-Wire digital
thermometer with 4-bit ID
1-Wire
0.5
✓
+3.0 to +3.7
DS18B20
Programmable resolution digital thermometer
1-Wire
0.5
✓
+3.0 to +5.5
DS18S20
High-precision digital thermometer
1-Wire
0.5
✓
+3.0 to +5.5
DS28
Digital thermometer with sequence detect
and PIO
1-Wire
0.5
✓
+3.0 to +5.5
DS620
Low-voltage, ±0.5°C accuracy digital
thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
0.5
✓
+1.7 to +3.5
DS75
Digital thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
2
+2.7 to +5.5
DS75LV
Low-voltage digital thermometer and
thermostat
2-wire
2
+1.7 to +3.7
DS75LX
Digital thermometer and thermostat with
extended addressing
2-wire
2
+1.7 to +3.7
DS7505
High-precision, DS75-compatible digital
thermometer and thermostat
2-wire
0.5
LM75
Digital temperature sensor and thermal
watchdog
2-wire
2
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+2.65 to +5.5
+2.7 to +5.5
✓
+1.7 to +3.7
+3.0 to +5.5
Part
Description
Interface
Accuracy
(±ºC)
MAX6575
Temp sensor with single-wire time-delay
interface
1-wire
4.5
+2.7 to +5.5
MAX6576
Temp sensor with single-wire period output
1-wire
4.5
+2.7 to +5.5
MAX6577
Temp sensor with single-wire frequency
output
1-wire
3.5
+2.7 to +5.5
MAX6625
I²C, 9-bit temp sensor
2-wire
2
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6626
I²C, 12-bit temp sensor
2-wire
2
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6629
12-bit + sign digital temp sensor
3-wire
1
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6630
12-bit + sign digital temp sensor
3-wire
1
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6631
12-bit + sign digital temp sensor
3-wire
1
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6632
12-bit + sign digital temp sensor
3-wire
1
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6633
12-bit + sign I²C temp sensor with 4 I²C
address pins
2-wire
1.5
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6634
12-bit + sign I²C sensor with 3 address pins
and user-programmable thresholds
2-wire
1.5
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6635
12-bit + sign I²C sensor with 2 address pins
and user-programmable thresholds
2-wire
1.5
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6652
Temperature sensor and 4-channel voltage
monitor
2-wire
3
+2.7 to +5.5
MAX6662
12-bit + sign SPI temp sensor
3-wire
2.5
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX6683
Temperature sensor and 4-channel voltage
monitor
2-wire
4
+2.7 to +5.5
MAX7500
Digital temp sensor and thermal watchdog I²C
bus with timeout; LM75 compatible
2-wire
2
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX7501/
MAX7502
Digital temp sensors and thermal watchdog
I²C bus with timeout and reset
2-wire
2
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX7503/
MAX7504
Digital temp sensors and thermal watchdog
I²C bus with reset
2-wire
2
+3.0 to +5.5
MAX31722
Digital thermometer and thermostat with
SPI/3-Wire Interface
3-wire/
SPI
2
✓
+1.7 to +3.7
MAX31723
Digital thermometer and thermostat with
SPI/3-Wire Interface
3-wire/
SPI
0.5
✓
+1.7 to +3.7
MAX31725
±0.5°C Local Temperature Sensor
2-wire
0.5
MAX31820
1-Wire Ambient Temperature Sensor
1-Wire
0.5
MAX31826
1-Wire Digital Temperature Sensor with 1Kb
Lockable EEPROM
1-wire
0.5
20
�
Nonvolatile
Memory
VCC Range
(V)
+2.5 to +3.7
✓
+3.0 to +3.7
+3.0 to +3.7
Remote Digital Temperature Sensors
A remote digital temperature sensor, also called a remote sensor or a thermal diode sensor,
measures the temperature of an external transistor—either a discrete transistor or one that is
integrated on the die of another IC, as shown in Figure 15. Microprocessors, FPGAs, and
ASICs often include one or more sensing transistors (usually called “thermal diodes”) similar to
the one shown in Figure 15.
Figure 15. A remote temperature sensor monitoring the temperature of a sensing transistor (or
thermal diode) on the die of an external IC.
Remote temperature sensors operate on a principle similar to the one shown in Figure 11,
except that only one sensing transistor is used (see Figure 16). Why is only one sensing
transistor used? There are two reasons. First, two transistors would require one or two more
pins on both the target IC and the sensor IC. Second, the use of two transistors would require
the manufacturer of the target IC to very precisely match those transistors. Any differences
between the two transistors would lead to measurement errors that would be out of the control
of the remote sensor IC’s manufacturer. Using a single sensing transistor requires fewer pins
and allows the key error sources to be controlled (and compensated) by the manufacturer of
the remote sensor IC.
21
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Figure 16. Simplified block diagram of a remote diode temperature sensor.
The bias current through the transistor alternates between current sources I1 and I2, and the
ADC measures the resulting VBE while each current value flows. As before, the difference
between the two VBE values is directly proportional to absolute temperature.
VBE2 - VBE1 = n(kT/q)ln(IC2/IC1)
What is the advantage of measuring the die temperature of an external IC? First, consider the
types of ICs that might have high die temperatures. These may be power supply ICs, highspeed microprocessors, DSPs, FPGAs, or ASICs. Power dissipation may vary significantly
over a period of time depending on loading. If the die temperature rises to a value that is above
the nominal operating temperature—to +100°C, for example—performance may suffer enough
to cause the system to fail. A system that can monitor the die temperatures of sensitive
components may be able to prevent failure by acting on the thermal data. The system might,
for example, activate a cooling fan or reduce clock speeds to help reduce the die temperature
of an overheated IC. If the temperature approaches a value high enough to cause irreversible
damage, the system might shut itself down before damage can occur.
Figure 17 compares monitoring a high-temperature IC with a remote sensor and with a local
sensor. The target IC starts at a low die temperature, which quickly rises to a high value. Note
that the local sensor responds slowly to the change in the target’s die temperature. This is
because of the time required for temperature changes to propagate from the target’s die
through its lead frame and package, the PCB, and the local sensor’s die. Several seconds are
needed for the local sensor to respond to changes in the target’s die temperature. Also, note
that the local sensor’s reading is much different from the target’s die temperature. The local
sensor is measuring board temperature, which is influenced by other devices on the board,
chassis temperature, air temperature, and air flow. Therefore, it is unlikely that the local sensor
will report a temperature that correlates well with the target’s die temperature.
22
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Figure 17. Comparison of the behavior of a local sensor and a remote sensor. Note that, when an
external IC has a thermal diode available, a remote sensor can measure the die temperature of that
IC much more quickly and accurately than a local sensor can.
As the figure illustrates, the behavior of the remote sensor differs significantly from that of the
local sensor. The remote sensor responds quickly to changes in the target’s die temperature.
Because the remote sensor is measuring the actual temperature on the target die, the delay is
just that of the remote sensor’s ADC, which is usually on the order of 50µs to 100µs.
Therefore, the remote sensor can follow the target’s die temperature quickly. Because the
remote temperature sensor is measuring the temperature of the target’s die directly, the
reported temperature will be very close (on the order of ±1°C) to the actual temperature.
A secondary advantage of remote temperature sensors is that they allow you to monitor more
than one hot spot with a single IC. A basic single-remote sensor, like the MAX6642 in Figure
15, can monitor two temperatures: its own temperature plus an external temperature. The
external location may be on the die of a target IC, as in Figure 15, or it may be a hot spot on a
board that it monitors using a discrete transistor. Other remote sensors monitor as many as
seven external temperatures; this allows a total of eight locations, consisting of ICs and board
hot spots, to be monitored from a single chip. For example, the MAX6681, which has seven
remote diode inputs, might be used to monitor the temperatures of a pair of FPGAs with
integrated thermal diodes, four board hot spots using discrete diode-connected transistors, and
the temperature of the board at the MAX6681’s location. See Table 4 for a complete list of
Maxim’s remote temperature sensors and the number of locations they can monitor.
Remote Temperature Sensor Error Sources
Various characteristics of the thermal diode or the circuit board can cause temperature
measurement errors. Descriptions of the most common of these errors follow.
Parasitic Series Resistance Resistance in series with the thermal diode will affect the
temperature reported by the remote sensor. If the sensor uses diode bias currents of 100µA
and 10µA, the effect of IR drops on the differential voltage can be calculated as follows:
Begin with the equation for voltage due to two currents flowing through the transistor:
23
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VBE2 - VBE1 = n(kT/q)ln(IC2/IC1)
If the series resistance equals 1Ω, the 100µA and 10µA bias currents will cause voltage drops
across the resistor equal to 100µV and 10µV, respectively, resulting in a voltage difference of
90µV. Rearranging the above equation and assuming n = 1, we can see that this will cause an
apparent temperature shift of:
T = (q x 90µV)/[k x ln(10)] = 0.45°C
Most Maxim remote temperature sensors use 100µA and 10µA bias currents, and those
currents are generally within 20% of the nominal values, so 0.45°C is a good approximation for
these sensors.
If the series resistance is known (as is usually the case with PCB trace resistance), it is simple
to calculate the expected increase in the temperature reading and subtract that value from the
temperature reported by the sensor. Note that not all sensors will have the same 0.45°C/Ω
sensitivity to series resistance. Some sensors use much higher diode bias currents, which will
increase the sensitivity. Also note the tolerance of the bias current. A 20% tolerance would
allow reasonably accurate estimates of the effect of series resistance. A +100%/-50%
tolerance, for example, would make good estimates difficult.
When the series resistance is not known, a good solution is to use a sensor that has automatic
resistance cancellation. Several of Maxim’s remote sensors have this feature.
Ideality Factor Earlier, it was stated that the ideality factor of the PN junction is very close to
1.01, and that the actual value depends on process and transistor design. Most remote
sensors are optimized for a specific ideality factor. For example, several of Maxim’s remote
sensors are optimized for an ideality factor of 1.008, which corresponds to the center of the
distribution of several thermal diodes on many popular microprocessors.
If you use a thermal diode with a different ideality factor from the value for which the sensor
was optimized, the reported temperature will differ from the actual temperature. The actual
temperature can be easily calculated, so long as you know the ideality factor of your thermal
diode, using the equation below:
ACTUAL
T
MEASURED
=T
DIODE
(n
SENSOR
/n
)
Where:
T = temperature in °K
nSENSOR = ideality factor for which the sensor is optimized
nDIODE = ideality factor of the diode you are using
As an example, assume you have a sensor optimized for n = 1.008 and you use it to monitor
temperature of a discrete diode with n = 1.01. At T = +300°K, the measured temperature will
be:
ACTUAL
T
MEASURED
=T
DIODE
(n
SENSOR
/n
) = 300°K(1.01/1.008) = 300.6°K
24
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The resulting error is, therefore, approximately +0.6°K.
Unit-to-unit variation in ideality factors depends on the repeatability of the microprocessor
manufacturer’s process. For manufacturers with consistent processes, the variation can be a
fraction of a percent. A larger potential error can occur when the sensing transistor’s current
gain (or “beta”) is extremely low.
Low-Beta-Sensing Transistors. Note that the remote sensor in Figure 16 is forcing current
through the sensing transistor’s emitter, but the equation showing the relationship between
ΔVBE and temperature depends on a precise ratio of collector currents. As long as the
transistor’s current gain is high, this is a good approximation. If the transistor’s current gain is
very low, however, the ratio of collector currents may not match the ratio of emitter currents.
Because a significant fraction of the emitter current is flowing through the base, any change in
beta due to changes in temperature or current levels can potentially change the collector
current ratio, thereby changing the reported temperature. A 10% change in the collector current
ratio can cause roughly a 12°C change in the reported temperature.
Note that this is not a problem with discrete sensing transistors, because they have
consistently high current gains. Some integrated sensing transistors built using specialized
nanometer-scale processes that cannot support good PNP transistors may have very low
betas (less than 1), and these have the potential for poor accuracy. When such transistors will
be used, it is generally a good idea to use a remote sensor with “beta compensation.” Beta
compensation uses circuit techniques that compensate for the effects of low-beta transistors,
producing accurate temperature data for beta values as low as 0.1. Examples of Maxim’s
remote sensors with beta compensation are the MAX6693 and MAX6581.
Is beta compensation always necessary when using low-beta-sensing transistors? Not at all. If
beta is relatively uniform over the normal range of currents and temperatures, the effect of low
beta may be small enough to ignore. As an example, Figure 18 shows the results of
measuring three samples of a 45nm microprocessor with a beta of 0.3. The temperature
sensor is a standard device with no beta compensation. Note that the errors are less than
±1°C, even without the use of beta compensation. It is, therefore, advisable to understand the
characteristics of the sense transistors you will be using, because some may require beta
compensation, while others may not. Figure 18 illustrates this with error curves for three
different samples of low-beta CPUs. The temperatures of these CPUs were measured using
conventional remote temperature sensors that had no beta compensation. In total, nine CPUs
were tested; the curves in Figure 18 show the maximum, minimum, and median results.
25
�
Figure 18. Three samples of a 45nm microprocessor with beta = 0.3 measured using conventional
MAX6692Y remote temperature sensors. Note the low errors even without beta compensation.
Other Remote Sensor Features
As with local digital sensors, remote temperature sensors can include a variety of other useful
features, summarized below:
Overtemperature Outputs Nearly all remote temperature sensors include at least one
overtemperature output, and most include two or more. One of these outputs is typically an
interrupt (or SMBus alert) that may also indicate problems such as shorted or open-circuit
diodes. Other outputs are most often overtemperature comparator outputs.
Interfaces Most remote temperature-sensor ICs on the market were developed for PC
applications and, therefore, feature an SMBus/I2C-compatible interface. A few are available
with other serial interfaces. Examples are the MAX6627 and MAX6628, which use an SPIcompatible interface.
I2C/SMBus Timeout As mentioned in the Local Digital Sensors section, bus timeout is an
optional feature that can prevent I2C/SMBus lockup resulting from communication errors.
Diode Fault Detection The majority of remote sensors have the ability to detect shorted or
open-circuit thermal diodes. The manner in which a diode fault is indicated depends on the
sensor. Faults can be indicated by an ALERT (interrupt) output, a bit in a status register, or a
specific code (such as negative full scale) in the temperature data register.
Conversion Rate Control Most remote sensors can select any of several available
temperature conversion rates. Since supply current depends partly on the conversion speed,
this allows the designer to trade update rate against supply current.
26
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Offset Registers Some remote sensors include offset registers that can add an offset to the
measured temperature. This offset can be used to compensate for an error, such as might be
caused by series resistance or a transistor ideality factor, which can affect the reported
temperature value. In the absence of an offset register, the microcontroller (µC) that reads the
sensor data can add an offset as needed.
Ideality Factor Registers The majority of sensing transistors used with remote sensors have
ideality factors that fall within a relatively narrow range. When the ideality factor is outside of
that range, correcting for the resulting error in reported temperature is relatively simple. To
simplify this further, a few remote sensors also include registers that allow the ideality factor
target value to be selected to match the ideality of the sensing transistor.
Data Averaging Transient noise in the system can sometimes cause remote diode
measurement errors. There are various ways to counteract this effect. Maxim’s remote sensors
always average 10 readings before performing the analog-to-digital conversion. Some sensors
average a few samples after conversion. Averaging can be beneficial when errors due to noise
transients are random.
Table 4. Maxim’s Remote Temperature Sensors
Part
MAX6581
MAX6602
MAX6622
MAX6627
MAX6628
MAX6636
MAX6638
MAX6642
MAX6646
MAX6647
MAX6648
Description
8-channel precision
temperature monitor with beta
compensation
5-channel precision
temperature monitor with
STBY
5-channel, Penryn CPUcompatible, precision
temperature monitor with
STBY; DXN1 grounded
Remote ±1°C digital
temperature sensor with SPI
interface
Remote ±1°C digital
temperature sensor with SPI
interface
7-channel, Penryn CPUcompatible precision
temperature monitor with
STBY; DXN1 grounded
Precision temperature monitor
with 2 independent SMBus
interfaces
±1°C, SMBus remote/local
temperature sensor
Remote/local sensors with
+125°C default external
overtemperature threshold
Remote/local sensor with
+125°C default external
overtemperature threshold
Remote/local sensor with
+125°C default external
overtemperature threshold
Remote
Channels
Local
Channels
Interface
Accuracy
(±ºC)
Alarm
Outputs
Resistance
Cancellation
7
1
2-wire
1
2
Yes
4
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
4
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
1
0
3-wire
1
0
No
1
0
3-wire
1
0
No
6
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
1
1
2-wire
2
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
1
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
0.8
2
No
27
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Part
MAX6649
MAX6654
MAX6655
MAX6656
MAX6657
MAX6658
MAX6659
MAX6680
MAX6681
MAX6689
MAX6690
MAX6692
MAX6695
MAX6696
MAX6697
MAX6698
MAX6699
Description
Remote/local sensor with
+125°C default external
overtemperature threshold
±1°C remote/local temperature
sensor with resistance
cancellation
2-channel remote/local
temperature sensor and 4channel voltage monitor
2-channel remote/local
temperature sensor and 4channel voltage monitor
0°C to +125°C remote/local
temperature sensor
-55°C to +125°C remote/local
temperature sensor
-55°C to +125°C remote/local
temperature sensor with 2
overtemperature alarms
±1°C fail-safe remote/local
temperature sensor
±1°C fail-safe remote/local
temperature sensor
7-channel precision
temperature monitor
±2°C accurate remote/local
temperature sensor with
resistance cancellation
Remote/local sensor with
+85°C default external
overtemperature alert
Dual remote/local temperature
sensors with fixed SMBus
address
Dual remote/local temperature
sensors with 9 pin-selectable
SMBus addresses
7-channel precision
temperature monitor
7-channel precision
temperature monitor (3
remote, 1 local, 3 thermistor)
5-channel precision
temperature monitor
Remote
Channels
Local
Channels
Interface
Accuracy
(±ºC)
Alarm
Outputs
Resistance
Cancellation
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
2
1
Yes
2
1
2-wire
1.5
2
No
2
1
2-wire
1.5
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
1
1
2-wire
1
2
No
6
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
1
1
2-wire
2
1
Yes
1
1
2-wire
0.8
2
No
2
1
2-wire
1.5
3
No
2
1
2-wire
1.5
3
No
6
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
6
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
4
1
2-wire
1
2
Channel 1
Other Types of Thermal Management Components
Thermal management involves more than simply sensing temperature. Several kinds of
components use temperature data to perform a function, such as temperature threshold
detection (in temperature switches), fan control, or sensor signal conditioning. Some of these
are discussed below.
Temperature Switches
A temperature switch responds to temperature exceeding a predetermined threshold (also
called a set point, trip point, or trip temperature). Effectively, it is like a combination of an
analog temperature sensor and a comparator. The output is a logic gate. Temperature switches
are simple, small, and low in cost, making them ideal for “fail-safe” system protection
28
�
applications. They can operate independent of other components and, when an
overtemperature event is detected, can act to protect the system by, for example, activating a
cooling fan or disabling the power supply. Note that temperature switches can protect against
low-temperature conditions as well (e.g., by stopping the charging of a battery when
temperature is too low for safe charging).
Figure 19 is an example of a simple temperature switch with a factory-set trip temperature.
One input can be strapped to VCC or GND to set the hysteresis to either +2°C or +10°C. The
output in this case is active-low and open-drain, but active-high push-pull versions are also
available.
Figure 19. Temperature switch with a factory-set trip temperature.
For applications that require an adjustable trip temperature, temperature switches such as the
MAX6509 in Figure 20 have trip temperatures determined by an external resistor. Other
temperature switches have trip temperatures determined by pin-strapping.
Figure 20. Temperature switch with a resistor-set trip temperature.
Table 5 summarizes the features of several of Maxim’s temperature switches.
29
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Table 5. Maxim’s Temperature Switches
�
Part
DS600
MAX6501
MAX6502
MAX6503
MAX6504
MAX6505
MAX6506
MAX6507
MAX6508
MAX6509
MAX6510
MAX6511
MAX6512
MAX6513
MAX6514
MAX6515
MAX6516
MAX6517
MAX6518
MAX6519
Description
Resistor-adjustable threshold, precision
temperature sensor, two outputs
Factory thresholds from +35°C to +125°C in
10°C increments
Factory thresholds from +35°C to +125°C in
10°C increments
Factory thresholds from -45°C to +15°C in
10°C increments
Factory thresholds from -45°C to +15°C in
10°C increments
2 outputs (ALARM, WARN), factory
thresholds from -40°C to +125°C in 5°C
increments
2 outputs (ALARM, WARN), factory
thresholds from -40°C to +125°C in 5°C
increments
2 outputs (OVER, OK) factory thresholds
from -40°C to +125°C in 5°C increments
2 outputs (OVER, OK), factory thresholds
from -40°C to +125°C in 5°C increments
Resistor-programmable temperature switch
Resistor-programmable temperature switch;
open-drain and push-pull
Measure remote temperature from +40°C to
+125°C in 10°C factory-programmed
increments
Measure remote temperature from +40°C to
+125°C in 10°C factory-programmed
increments
Measure remote temperature from +40°C to
+125°C in 10°C factory-programmed
increments
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments, analog output
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments, analog output
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments, analog output
Factory-set thresholds from -45°C to +115°C
in 10°C increments, analog output
Sensor
Output
Type
Output
Polarity
Accuracy
(±°C,
max)
Local
Open drain
1 high, 1 low
0.5
Local
Open drain
Low
6
Local
Push/pull
High
6
Local
Open drain
Low
6
Local
Push/pull
High
6
Local
Open drain
Low
3.5
Local
Push/pull
High
3.5
Local
Open drain
Low
3.5
Local
Push/pull
High
3.5
Local
Open drain
Low
4.7
Local
Selectable
Selectable
4.7
Remote
Push/pull
Low
5
Remote
Open drain
Low
5
Remote
Push/pull
High
5
Local
Open drain
Low
2.5
Local
Push/pull
High
2.5
High
2.5
Low
2.5
High
2.5
Low
2.5
Low, high
1.5
Low
1.5
Open drain
Low
3
Push/pull
High
3
Local
Local
Local
Local
MAX6685
Dual-output remote-junction switch
Remote
MAX6686
Dual-output remote-junction switch
Dual-output +40°C to +115°C local and
+120°C to +125°C remote-junction switch
Dual-output +40°C to +115°C local and
+120°C to +125°C remote-junction switch
Remote
Remote,
local
Remote,
local
MAX6687
MAX6688
30
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Push/pull,
analog
Open drain,
analog
Push/pull,
analog
Open drain,
analog
Open drain,
push/pull
Open drain
Fan Speed Controllers
Fans are used in electronic systems that require air flow to provide sufficient cooling for the
various components. If you use a fan (or multiple fans) that can move enough air to sufficiently
cool the system components under worst-case conditions (maximum ambient temperature,
maximum power dissipation), that fan will keep the internal temperatures low enough to avoid
component damage. However, the system will not normally be operating under worst-case
conditions. In fact, the amount of time a system spends at or near the worst-case thermal
conditions is often a small fraction of the system’s operating life. Therefore, constantly running
the fan at its nominal (full) speed is not necessary. Sometimes, no cooling is necessary; at
other times, limited cooling is sufficient. In addition to being unnecessary, continuous full-speed
cooling has disadvantages. These include:
Unnecessarily High Acoustic Noise Fans are noisy. Multiple fans are noisier still. The noise
level increases with speed, so if the fan is operated at its full nominal speed continuously, the
noise level will be higher than it needs to be. At a minimum, the excessive noise is unpleasant
for people working nearby. At higher sound pressure levels, excessive fan noise can damage
the hearing of those nearby. Therefore, any equipment that includes cooling fans and is
operated in the presence of users should employ some method of reducing fan speed when
full cooling is not needed. Reducing the annoyance level of fan noise can improve
marketability of equipment. In some cases, maximum noise levels are mandated by legislation,
effectively requiring some form of fan control.
Wasted Power Fan power dissipation varies dramatically, from small, fractional-watt fans
used in compact equipment to large fans that require well over 100W of input power. A fan
spinning at full speed when that speed is not needed is wasting power, increasing operating
costs, and adding to the equipment’s carbon footprint. Reducing fan speed when less cooling
is needed can reduce the power waste, resulting in lower costs and lower overall carbon
dioxide emissions.
Reduced Fan Lifetime Since the operating lifetime of a fan is related to the total number of
revolutions, running the fan at less than full speed can increase the fan’s operating life. If the
fan’s average speed can be cut in half, the fan’s lifetime can roughly be doubled, which
improves reliability and reduces maintenance costs.
There are, therefore, some good reasons to adjust the speed of your cooling fans so that they
are spinning as slowly as practical within the system’s thermal requirements.
Several different important functions are found in various combinations in specific fan control
ICs. Some of these are listed below.
Control of Fan Speed This technique is performed either by adjusting the fan’s power supply
voltage or by generating a PWM signal whose duty cycle controls the speed of the fan.
Monitoring of Fan Speed Normally done by monitoring the fan’s tachometer or “TACH”
output, this method utilizes an output that produces a specific number of pulses per revolution.
Sometimes this is done by monitoring the fan’s supply current, although this is much less
reliable.
31
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Detecting Fan Failure This is usually done as part of the fan speed monitoring process. It
can also be done by fans that have “fail” or “locked rotor” outputs instead of TACH outputs.
Monitoring the speed of a fan when driven to its full speed also allows “predictive” fan-failure
detection. As fans near end-of-life, they can begin to slow down. By detecting this
phenomenon, a system can ensure that a fan near the end of its useful lifetime is replaced
before failing completely.
Closed-Loop Control of Fan Speed This is a combination of fan speed control and
monitoring. By monitoring the fan’s tachometer signal, the speed of the fan can be adjusted to
force it to a desired value (e.g., 3600RPM).
Ensuring Low Audibility of Speed Control Adjusting the speed of a fan to match the
system’s cooling requirements can help to reduce the average noise level produced by the fan.
However, it is necessary to be aware that each time the fan’s speed is changed, the change in
noise level can be very apparent to anyone near the system. The best fan-control ICs include
features that help to reduce the audibility of fan speed changes.
Monitoring of Temperature The fan controller can include one or more channels of
temperature sensing.
Temperature-Based Fan Speed Control Temperature data can be used to adjust fan speed
based on system-specific temperature-speed profiles.
Types of Fans
The best way to control the speed of a fan depends on the type of fan. Brushless DC (BLDC)
fans are the most common type used to cool electronic equipment. These fans are available
with power supply voltages of 5V, 12V, 24V, and 48V. 12V fans are the most common. 5V fans
are often found in portable equipment, such as notebook PCs. 48V fans are commonly used in
industrial and telecommunications equipment.
There are three categories of BLDC fans, referred to by the number of wires on the fan, as
shown in Figure 21. The simplest is the 2-wire fan, which just has power supply connections.
32
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Figure 21. 2-, 3-, and 4-wire fans.
A 3-wire fan also has power supply connections, plus an additional wire that provides
information about the fan’s status. There are two standard functions for the third wire. This third
wire may be a TACH output or a “locked-rotor” output.
A TACH output is usually an open-drain logic output that produces a series of pulses as the fan
spins. Most fans produce two pulses per revolution, but fans producing one, four, or eight
pulses per revolution are also available. By determining the period or frequency of the
tachometer pulses, the fan’s speed can be calculated. This data can then be used for closedloop control of the fan’s RPM by comparing the actual RPM with the target RPM and then
adjusting the drive to the fan until the actual RPM matches the target RPM.
The tachometer signal can also be used to detect fan failure. For example, if a fan’s speed is
calculated to be 300RPM under full drive conditions, but its nominal speed is 4000RPM, it can
be safely assumed that the fan has failed. Another use for the TACH output is to detect
incipient fan failure. Prior to failing, many fans will spin more slowly at a given drive level than
they did when new. By monitoring the fan’s speed vs. drive profile, it is possible to determine
that the fan is beginning to slow, thereby allowing the fan to be replaced before it has
completely failed. This improves system reliability by preventing fan failures, and also reduces
maintenance costs because “emergency” fan replacements and potential system damage
become less likely.
The other common 3-wire function is a fan-failure or locked-rotor output that indicates that the
fan has stopped spinning. While less flexible than a TACH output, the locked-rotor signal gives
an unambiguous indication of fan failure or obstruction.
4-wire fans add a PWM speed-control input. By varying the duty cycle of the PWM waveform
supplied to this input, the speed of the fan can be varied over a range of about 30% to 100% of
the maximum speed. The recommended PWM frequency is in the range of 15kHz to 30kHz for
most fans, although some fans will accept input frequencies as low as 100Hz or as high as
100kHz. The logic levels are usually compatible with 3.3V or 5.0V logic.
33
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Controlling Fan Speed
It is clear that basic speed control is easy to do with a 4-wire fan. A µC can generate a PWM
waveform, as can most fan speed controller ICs. However, 4-wire fans are still less common
than 2- and 3-wire units, so the variety of configurations is limited relative to the other types. In
some cases, the right fan for the application is available only as a 2- or 3-wire unit. Controlling
the speed of a 2-wire or 3-wire fan can be somewhat more involved, because these fans do
not have a dedicated speed-control input. Instead, the speed of these fans must be controlled
by modifying the supply voltage applied to the fans.
If you vary a fan’s power supply voltage, the fan’s speed will vary. Figure 22 shows fan RPM
vs. fan power supply voltage for a typical, low-cost 12V fan. The fan’s speed in this example is
roughly proportional to the supply voltage.
.
Figure 22. Fan RPM vs. power supply voltage for a typical 12V fan.
One way to vary the fan’s power supply voltage is shown in Figure 23. The low-dropout
voltage regulator (LDO) provides power to the fan. The digital-to-analog converter (DAC)
controls the LDO’s output voltage by driving its ADJUST input. This approach allows a µC to
vary the fan’s speed by writing control data to the DAC. Some dedicated fan control ICs
implement a similar approach by integrating the DAC and LDO functions along with other
features.
34
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Figure 23. Some fan control ICs control the speed of a 2- or 3-wire fan by varying the power supply
voltage.
A drawback to this technique is efficiency—the LDO will dissipate some power. Still, the overall
power used is less than would result from operating the fan at full speed. Total power
dissipation is roughly proportional to fan speed. Therefore, if the fan is normally operating at
less than full speed, the circuit reduces overall power dissipation (Figure 24), which compares
the power dissipation of the linear fan drive approach with that of PWM fan drive. This
approach can be made more efficient, at a higher cost, by replacing the LDO with a switchmode voltage regulator.
Figure 24. Comparison of power dissipation in linear (upper curve) and PWM fan drive (lower curve)
approaches.
35
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A lower cost, more efficient approach is shown in Figure 25. In this case, the fan’s power
supply is modulated by a PWM waveform—the power supply effectively turns on and off at a
rate of roughly 30Hz. Because the pass transistor is always either fully on or fully off, its power
dissipation is negligible compared to the power used by the fan.
Figure 25. Controlling the speed of a 2- or 3-wire fan by pulse-width modulating the power supply
using an n-channel FET on the low side of the fan.
Using an n-channel MOSFET (or an NPN) on the ground wire of the fan allows the pass device
to be driven by a 3.3V or 5V logic-level PWM signal. The TACH or locked-rotor output is pulled
up to the fan’s power supply voltage. Alternatively, a p-channel MOSFET (or a PNP) can be
used on the positive power supply wire instead. This results in a ground-referred TACH or
locked-rotor output, but requires that the PWM signal swing up to VFAN. Maxim makes several
PWM fan speed controllers that are compatible with either n-channel or p-channel fan drive,
including the MAX6615, MAX6616, MAX6639, MAX6640, MAX6641, and MAX6678.
PWM frequencies well below 30Hz are usually avoided when using this technique because, as
frequencies decrease, there is an audible change in the fan’s speed during the on and off
periods of the PWM waveform. As the frequency increases beyond 35Hz or so, the “on” period
can become too short to allow the fan’s internal electronics to turn on and begin driving the fan.
This PWM approach suffers from three drawbacks. First, some fan manufacturers recommend
against it due to concerns about fan reliability. If you are planning to drive a 2- or 3-wire fan
with a pulse-width modulated power supply, be sure that the fan vendor allows the use of this
technique.
The second drawback is noise. With some fans, the 30Hz pulse waveform causes the fan’s
motor mechanism to move in response to the pulses, resulting in an undesirable “ticking” or
“clicking” sound emanating from the fan at a 30Hz rate. This is very audible with some fans,
though nearly inaudible with others.
The third drawback is that during the “off” period of the PWM waveform, the fan produces no
tachometer pulses. Therefore, fan speed can be monitored only during the “on” period. This
can be a serious problem with low-RPM fans, as they may not produce even a single
tachometer pulse cycle during a PWM “on” period. There are many different schemes to
overcome this problem with both varying levels of complexity and degrees of success. Some of
these techniques will be discussed in later sections.
36
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Minimizing the Effects of Fan Speed Control on Acoustical Noise
In some installations—for example, rooms that contain several servers, routers, or switches—
the total noise level from multiple fans operating at full speed can be high enough to cause
hearing damage to personnel who work near the equipment. In such a situation, the goal of the
fan controller must be to reduce fan noise to the lowest practical level that still ensures safe
operation of the electronics.
In an office or home environment, it is also important to minimize the noise level from the fan,
but not so much for hearing protection as to reduce the degree to which the noise interferes
with other sounds or disturbs the user. In addition to keeping noise levels low, it is important in
these environments to minimize the audibility of any changes in noise levels. During normal
operation of a fan control system, fan speeds will be adjusted in response to changes in
environmental or operating conditions, such as ambient temperature and power dissipation. If
the speed changes quickly, it is quite noticeable to the user. On the other hand, if the speed is
changed at a slow rate, the change will be much less audible.
There are two key requirements for ensuring gradual fan speed changes that are difficult to
hear. The first is sufficient resolution in the available fan speed values. The ear-brain system is
readily able to recognize small changes in sound pressure level (SPL). If the fan is very quiet,
a small number of speed steps (on the order of 8 to 10) may be sufficient. When the fan is
louder, many times that number (approximately 50 to 100 or more) may be necessary to
minimize the audibility of speed changes. The second requirement is a mechanism that limits
the rate of fan speed change to a specific time period per speed-control increment. For
example, if the PWM duty cycle can be set to one of 61 values, a 1% per second rate of
change might be selected. This would cause a change of speed between 50% and 100% to
take about 30 seconds. Most of Maxim’s fan speed controllers include control over the rate of
fan speed change.
Monitoring Fan Speed
The most obvious approach to monitoring fan speed is to count the number of tachometer
pulses occurring during a fixed period of time, as shown in Figure 26a. This works well if it is
possible to count a suitably large number of pulses during a sufficiently short period of time. As
an example, a 3000RPM fan that produces two pulses per revolution will generate a 100Hz
tachometer signal when operating at full speed. If we need to measure and update fan speed
once per second, we will be able to count only 50 pulses when the fan is spinning at half
speed. This may give enough resolution to determine that the fan is operating, but not enough
for precision fan speed control.
The most widely used approach is for the fan controller to generate a reference clock,
generally in the range of a few kHz, and count the number of clock cycles that occur during a
fixed number of tachometer periods (usually 1, 2, or 4), as shown in Figure 26b. This allows a
tachometer count to be completed in a few milliseconds, so the approach is compatible with
closed-loop fan speed control.
37
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Figure 26. (a) Monitoring fan speed by counting tachometer pulses for a period of 1s can result in
low-resolution measurements. (b) Generating a clock signal with sufficiently high frequency, and
then counting the number of clock pulses in a limited number of tachometer periods, provides more
resolution and allows the fan’s RPM to be controlled to within a tighter tolerance.
Some fan controller ICs include a feature that allows speed monitoring of 2-wire fans. This is
done by adding a resistor between the system ground and the fan’s ground wire. While the fan
motor operates, its supply current variations create voltage drops on the sense resistor that are
compared against a reference voltage by the fan controller IC. This technique has its
limitations—supply current waveforms differ significantly from fan to fan, and also vary as fan
speed changes, as shown in Figure 27. Therefore, supply current monitoring is more
appropriate for detection of fan failure than for closed-loop fan speed control.
38
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Figure 27. Examples of fan supply current waveforms. (a) A fan driven with half the nominal power
supply voltage. (b) The same fan driven with the nominal power supply voltage.
Figure 28 shows a typical approach to monitoring fan speed using a sensing resistor to sense
the fan’s supply current. In this circuit, the IC’s internal detection sensitivity is about 250mV.
The approach is appropriate for linear drive and PWM power supply drive (either high side or
low side).
39
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Figure 28. (a) Typical input stage for monitoring fan speed using the fan’s supply current. (b) Using
this input stage to monitor fan speed using a 2Ω sensing resistor.
As mentioned briefly in the Controlling Fan Speed section, a complication arises when a fan is
driven by a pulse-width modulated power supply. During the portion of the PWM waveform
when the fan’s power supply is off, the fan cannot produce tachometer pulses. Fan controller
ICs generally have an option that allows monitoring of the fan’s tachometer signal only during
the “on” portion of the PWM waveform, but there are cases in which the “on” period is too short
to allow proper tachometer measurement.
As an example, consider a 2400RPM fan with two tachometer pulses per revolution. If this fan
is driven by a 50% duty cycle, 30Hz-modulated power supply, it will be spinning at about half
speed (1200RPM). This will result in a tachometer frequency of 40Hz, or a tachometer period
of 25ms.
With a 30Hz PWM signal at 50% duty cycle, the power supply will be applied to the fan for
16.7ms during each PWM cycle. The fan’s internal circuitry will, therefore, have only 16.7ms
available to generate a 25ms tachometer signal, so the tachometer signal will not be usable.
Note that a much faster fan would work better. For example, a 9600RPM fan would generate a
tachometer signal with a period of 6.25ms, which would be compatible with the 30Hz PWM
signal at 50% duty cycle.
40
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One solution to this problem is to periodically increase the “on” time of one cycle of the PWM
waveform to a duration that is sufficient to measure the tachometer signal. This approach
works, but its suitability depends on the fan being used. If the pulse needs to be stretched
significantly, the pulse stretching will be audible. Audibility of the pulse stretching depends on
the degree of stretching and also on the response time of the fan. If the fan responds quickly to
supply voltage changes, the pulse stretching will be easy to hear.
Another way to solve this problem is to keep the fan’s power supply active during the low
portion of the PWM waveform. Figure 29 illustrates this “keep-alive” approach. A p-channel
FET drives the fan’s high side. A diode provides 4.3V drive to the fan when the PWM is off.
This keeps the fan’s internal IC powered and continuously generating the tachometer signal so
that the fan’s speed can be monitored even during the “off” portion of the PWM waveform. A
disadvantage of this circuit is that the fan is always powered. If necessary, this can be fixed by
gating the 5V supply off when the fan needs to be off.
Figure 29. A “keep-alive” circuit enables the fan’s tachometer signal even when the PWM waveform
is off, thereby avoiding missing tachometer signals while pulse-width modulating the fan’s power
supply.
Closed-Loop RPM Control
In many cases, “fan speed control” is really “fan drive control”—for a given thermal condition,
you provide the fan with a corresponding PWM duty cycle or supply voltage. The actual fan
speed may vary from the nominal value by several percent due to fan-to-fan variations, power
supply tolerance, and other uncertainties. This “open-loop” speed control is sufficiently precise
in many systems.
In other cases, especially when acoustic noise levels or supply current are important, you may
prefer to have control over the fan’s actual RPM. When you can accurately monitor the
tachometer, it becomes possible to control the fan’s RPM by adjusting the drive level to
produce the desired tachometer frequency (or period). Fan speed accuracy as good as ±1%
can be achieved, depending on measurement resolution and clock accuracy. Closed-loop fan
speed control is available in several of Maxim’s fan controllers, including the MAX6620,
41
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MAX6639, MAX6640, MAX6650, MAX6651, MAX6660, MAX6661, MAX31785, and
MAX31790.
Fan Controller Temperature Sensing
Most fan controller ICs can sense temperature, usually both local and remote. Since fan
control is usually based on temperature, it makes sense in many systems for the fan controller
to be able to measure temperature. Exceptions include systems where the fan controller is in a
location that is physically separate from the temperatures of interest.
Closed-Loop, Temperature-Based (Thermal Closed-Loop) Fan Speed Control
Most fan controllers that have temperature-sensing capability are also able to control fan
speed based on the measured temperature. The details can vary—most such fan controllers
use some sort of straight-line mapping between temperature and fan drive, while others have a
lookup table that associates a few temperature values with fan drive levels. Still others map
temperatures to fan RPM values. The MAX6615, MAX6616, MAX6678, MAX6660, MAX6661,
and MAX31740 use straight-line mapping of temperature to fan drive. The MAX6639 and
MAX6640 use dual-slope mapping. The MAX31785 uses a lookup table LUT that allows
mapping of temperature to duty cycle and/or RPM. Additional features of these fan control
devices are shown in Table 6.
Lookup Table Mapping of Temperature and Fan Drive
Most fan controllers use some sort of straight-line or dual-slope approach to mapping fan
speed or fan drive to temperature. A few use lookup tables (LUTs) for this purpose. LUTs
provide added flexibility, allowing the relationship between fan speed and temperature to have
a slope that varies throughout the temperature range. The MAX31785 controls and monitors
up to six fans and also has a nonvolatile LUT and configuration registers. This sophisticated
fan controller measures internal temperature as well as up to six remote thermal diode
temperatures. In addition, the MAX31785 has an I2C master that allows it to read the
temperatures of up to four external I2C digital temperature sensors.
“No-MCU” Fan Control
Fan control ICs generally have state-machine-based control schemes that require a
microcontroller to load their configuration registers, thereby setting up their operating
characteristics. In some cases, a simpler approach is more useful. The MAX31740 measures
temperature using an external thermistor. It adjusts PWM duty cycle based on the thermistor’s
resistance as well as the values of a few external passive components. A capacitor sets the
PWM frequency, a resistor sets the temperature duty cycle slope, and so on. While this
approach offers less flexibility than a complex fan controller, it allows a simple, reliable fan
control circuit to be designed and implemented very quickly, with no need for firmware
development.
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Table 6. Maxim’s Fan Control Products
�
Remote
Channels
Local
Channels
Interface
Fan
Outputs
2-channel CPU peripheral monitor
2-channel thermistor inputs, 1 local
sensor, 2 fan controllers
2-channel thermistor inputs, 1 local
sensor, 2 fan controllers
I2C quad linear fan controller with
RPM control
2-channel temperature monitor with
dual PWM fan speed controller for 2-,
3-, 4-wire fans
2-channel temperature monitor with
dual PWM fan speed controller for 2and 3-wire fans
0
1
2-wire
1 linear
ClosedLoop
RPM
No
2
1
2-wire
2 PWM
No
2
2
1
2-wire
2 PWM
No
2
0
0
2-wire
4 linear
Yes
4
1
1
2-wire
2 PWM
Yes
2
1
1
2-wire
2 PWM
Yes
2
MAX6643
Automatic, stand-alone fan controller
1
1
1 PWM
No
2
MAX6644
Automatic, stand-alone fan controller
2
0
1 PWM
No
2
MAX6645
Automatic, stand-alone fan controller
2
0
1 PWM
No
2
0
0
2-wire
1 linear
Yes
Yes
0
0
2-wire
1 linear
Yes
Yes
1
1
2-wire
1 PWM
Yes
Yes
1
0
2-wire
1 linear
Yes
Yes
1
0
3-wire
1 linear
Yes
Yes
1
1
2-wire
1 PWM
Yes
Yes
1
1
2-wire
1 PWM
Yes
Yes
0
1
Pin strap
1 on/off
No
No
2
1
2-wire
2 PWM
No
No
0
1
(thermistor)
10
(6 diode, 4
2-wire)
0
Logic
1 on/off
No
No
0
N/A
1 PWM
No
No
1
2-wire
6 PWM
Yes
6
0
0
2-wire
6
Yes
6-12
6
1
2-wire
6
Yes
6
Part
DS1780
MAX6615
MAX6616
MAX6620
MAX6639
MAX6640
Description
MAX6684
Linear fan-speed regulator and
monitor
Linear fan-speed regulator and 4-fan
monitor
Temperature monitors and PWM fan
controllers
Remote-junction, temperaturecontrolled linear fan speed regulator
Remote-junction, temperaturecontrolled linear fan speed regulator
Temperature monitors and PWM fan
controllers
Temperature monitors and PWM fan
controllers
Fan on/off controller/driver and
temperature switch with factoryprogrammed threshold
2-channel temperature monitor with
dual PWM fan controller and 5 GPIOs
Fan-failure detector and power switch
MAX31740
Ultra-Simple Fan-Speed Controller
MAX31785
6-Channel Intelligent Fan Controller
MAX6650
MAX6651
MAX6653
MAX6660
MAX6661
MAX6663
MAX6664
MAX6665
MAX6678
MAX31790
MAX31782
6-Channel PWM-Output Fan RPM
Controller
Thermal Management Microcontroller.
6 Fan Controllers, I2C Master for
External Sensors
43
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Pin strap,
logic
Pin strap,
logic
Pin strap,
logic
TACH
Input
2
Signal Conditioners for Non-IC Temperature Sensors
The final type of thermal management product we will discuss works with thermistors, RTDs, or
thermocouples to help interface those sensors to systems. Simplified examples of discrete
circuits were shown in Figures 1, 6, and 10 for interfacing these sensors. Also available are
integrated solutions that can simplify the design of these interface circuits and reduce cost.
Thermistor Conditioners
Figure 30 shows the MAX6698 multifunction temperature sensor. The MAX6698 combines a
local temperature sensor, three remote-diode sensors, and three NTC thermistor channels in a
single IC. Each thermistor channel is connected to the output of a voltage divider consisting of
a thermistor (RTHER_) and a fixed resistor (REX_). A 1V-nominal voltage reference output (VREF)
drives the top of the voltage divider. The thermistor inputs (V THER1–VTHER3) drive an 8-bit ADC
with 5mV LSB. Because the thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient, the VTHER_
inputs measure the voltage across the REX_ resistors, producing an output code that increases
with rising temperature.
Figure 30. The MAX6698 includes a local temperature sensor, inputs for three external sensing
transistors, and inputs for three NTC thermistors (RTHER1–RTHER3).
Thermistor resistance vs. temperature is a highly nonlinear function, so the output code will not
correspond directly to the thermistor’s temperature. The MAX6698 data sheet includes a table
showing output code vs. temperature for one combination of thermistor and external resistor.
44
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For different thermistor-resistor combinations, create a spreadsheet to calculate the output
�
code as a function of temperature.
�
Figure 31 shows a simpler circuit for thermistor conversion. The MAX6682 has an input for a
�
single thermistor and a voltage reference output to drive the thermistor/resistor voltage divider.
�
The digital data is serial and read only. As with the MAX6698, the data sheet includes a table
�
showing how the output code maps to thermistor temperature for a common thermistor type.
�
Figure 31. MAX6682 single thermistor-to-digital converter.
RTD Conditioners
Figure 32 shows the MAX31865, a single-chip RTD-to-digital converter. The MAX31865
accepts a 2-, 3-, or 4-wire RTD, and measures its resistance relative to that of an external
reference resistor, RREF. The circuit is optimized for PT100 through PT1000 RTDs, although it
works well with a wide range of RTD resistances and materials, as well as other resistive
sensors, such as thermistors.
45
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Figure 32.The MAX31865 digitizes the resistance of a 2-, 3-, or 4-wire RTD, detects cable and sensor
faults, and includes ±45V input protection.
Because RTDs can be located some distance from the signal conditioning circuitry, their cables
can sometimes be exposed to voltages that might damage that circuitry. The MAX31865
includes internal protection for input voltages as high as ±45V. Even in the absence of large
input signals, the RTD cables can be damaged in a variety of ways. For example, a lead may
be cut or shorted to a different lead, or to ground. Some simple faults (e.g. open sensor
element or shorted sensor element) may be detected by simply determining whether the
measured resistance is out of range, but many other fault conditions require more
sophisticated detection techniques. The MAX31865 detects a variety of cable and RTD faults
automatically.
The MAX31865’s conversion resolution is 15 bits, or nominally 0.03125°C.
Thermocouple Conditioners
As discussed earlier in the Thermocouples section, signal conditioning for a thermocouple
consists of a local temperature sensor, precision amplifier, ADC, and voltage reference. Maxim
has developed several ICs that integrate all of these functions, converting thermocouple output
voltages into digital values, adding the cold-junction temperature to the result, and producing
the output data in °C (using a straight-line approximation for the thermocouple curve). Both the
cold-junction-compensated data and the cold-junction temperature value are available if
linearization calculations are desired.
46
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The MAX31855, shown in Figure 33, measures the output of E, J, K, N, R, S, or T
thermocouples (separate MAX31855 versions are available for each thermocouple type) as
well as the cold-junction temperature, combines them, and presents the data in °C format over
a simple 3-wire (clock, data output, chip select) interface. Thermocouple open-circuits and
shorts to supply and ground are automatically detected.
The MAX31850 and MAX31851 are similar to the MAX31855, but use Maxim’s 1-Wire
interface. This interface allows easy networking of multiple thermocouples, as well as any
design requiring the minimum possible number of conductors. The MAX31850 accepts E, J, K,
N, and T thermocouples, while the MAX31851 accepts the lower-output R and S
thermocouples.
Table 7 summarizes Maxim’s other temperature sensor conditioner products.
Figure 33. MAX31855 integrated thermocouple-to-digital converter with 3-wire interface.
�
47
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Table 7. Maxim’s Signal Conditioners for Non-IC Temperature Sensors
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Part
MAX6603
MAX6674
MAX6675
MAX6682
MAX6691
MAX6698
MAX31850
MAX31851
MAX31855
MAX31865
Description
2-channel, platinum RTD-to-voltage signal conditioner
(200Ω RTD)
K-thermocouple to-digital converter (0°C to +128°C)
K-thermocouple to-digital converter (0°C to +1024°C)
Thermistor-to-digital converter
4-channel, thermistor-to-pulse-width converter
7-channel, precision temp monitor (3 remote, 1 local, 3
thermistor)
Cold-junction-compensated, 1-wire, thermocouple-todigital converters for types E, J, K, N, and T
Cold-junction-compensated, 1-wire, thermocouple-todigital converters for types R and S
Cold-junction-compensated, 1-wire, thermocouple-todigital converters for types E, J, K, N, R, S, and T
RTD-to-digital converter
Sensor
Inputs
Local
Sensors
Interface
2
1
Analog
1
1
1
4
1
1
0
0
3-wire
3-wire
3-wire
Pulse
6
1
2-wire
1
1
1-wire
1
1
1-wire
1
1
3-wire
1
0
SPI
Using Thermal Management Components—Principles and
Application Circuits
Sensing Location: The Key to Choosing the Right Sensor Type
The first step in using a temperature sensor is to select the right kind of sensor for the
application. To begin, you need to understand the target whose temperature is to be
measured. Some common measurement targets are listed here, along with recommended
sensor types.
Sensing PC Board Temperature
Surface-mount sensors are ideal for PC board measurement. RTDs, thermistors, and IC
sensors are available in surface-mount packages and temperature ranges that are compatible
with sensing the temperature of a PC board. Because of their inherent linearity and low cost,
IC sensors are generally the best choice. ICs have additional features, such as digital interface
or thermostat functions. These features usually give them the edge in terms of system cost,
design complexity, and performance, as compared with other technologies.
One of the keys to measuring PC board temperature accurately is locating the sensor in the
right place. It is common to measure the temperature of a specific component or group of
components, either to ensure that the temperature does not exceed the safe operating range,
or to compensate for temperature-induced changes in a component’s performance. When the
location of the sensor is critical, use temperature sensors in small packages, such as TDFN,
SC70, or SOT23, that can be easily placed in the appropriate location. Digital outputs are
useful when sensors need to be located in sites that may be electrically noisy or far from other
temperature-related circuitry.
When multiple PC board locations need to be monitored, digital local sensors with I2C, SMBus,
or 1-Wire interfaces are especially useful because they allow devices with different slave
addresses to reside on the same bus. Many popular I2C sensors have inputs that can be used
48
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to select among several slave addresses. For example, the MAX7500 and DS75LX each have
three address inputs. The MAX7500 address inputs can be connected to VCC or GND, while
the DS75LX address inputs have three-level logic (the third logic level is detected when an
input is unconnected). Therefore, you can have up to 8 MAX7500s or as many as 27 DS75LXs
on a single bus, for example.
Another useful approach to monitoring multiple PC board locations is to use multichannel
remote sensors with discrete sensing transistors. An example is shown in Figure 34, where a
MAX6697 monitors its internal temperature plus six external temperatures using discrete
transistors. Therefore, a total of seven temperatures are monitored and only a single I2C slave
address is needed.
Figure 34. Monitoring seven different board locations with a single MAX6697. The external sensing
transistors can be located near hot spots on the board.
Sensing Ambient Air Temperature
Ambient air temperature can be difficult to measure because the sensor’s temperature must be
at the same temperature as the air, but isolated from anything else (PC board, power supply,
CPU) that might be at a different temperature. Thermistors, thermocouples, and RTDs are
available with long leads that, if long enough and thin enough, isolate the sensing elements
from the PC board temperature. If the sensing element is sufficiently isolated from the PC
board, it will be at the ambient temperature. Of these three types of sensors, thermistors are
the most likely to be used for general-purpose ambient temperature sensing because of their
low cost and simple signal conditioning requirements. Figure 35 shows how a thermistor,
thermocouple, or RTD can be used to measure ambient temperature. In the figure, the
49
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thermistor is well-separated from the surface of the board, and the length of the leads provides
thermal isolation from the board.
Temperature sensor ICs in surface-mount packages are more difficult to use for measuring
ambient temperature, because the best thermal path for an IC sensor is through its leads,
which are at the same temperature as the PC board. If the PC board is at ambient
temperature, a sensor mounted on the board will measure the ambient temperature. However,
if the PC board contains components that dissipate enough power to raise its temperature
above ambient, the IC will measure the elevated board temperature, not the ambient
temperature.
Some IC packages, such as the TO92, raise the IC sensor above the PC board. However,
TO92 packages conduct heat very well through their leads, which can cause the measured
temperature to be strongly affected by the PC board temperature. Figure 36 shows a
Figure 35. Thermistor monitoring air temperature. Note that the long thermistor leads provide
thermal isolation from the board’s surface.
temperature sensor IC in a board-mounted TO92. If the board at the temperature sensor’s
location is near ambient temperature, the sensor can provide a good indication of air
temperature. If a heat source, such as a power component or other device that operates at an
elevated temperature, is near the sensor, as shown in Figure 36a, the board’s temperature at
that location will be greater than the ambient temperature. This will influence the IC’s die
temperature and cause errors in the ambient temperature measurement. Copper between hot
board areas and the sensor location will conduct heat to the vicinity of the sensor, which also
causes errors. The two guidelines below will help to keep the sensor temperature as close as
possible to the air temperature:


Locate the sensor as far as possible from high-temperature components. If practical, the
sensor should be at the coolest part of the board.
Eliminate as much copper as possible from the vicinity of the sensor. If practical, the
only copper near the sensor should be the minimum-width traces necessary to connect
to the sensor’s power and I/O pins. It’s not always practical, but if the sensor is the only
component within a radius of a few cm, heat generated on the board will have less
effect on the measured air temperature.
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Following the two guidelines above can help the sensor’s reported temperature to be within a
degree or two of ambient, depending on several factors, such as the board and ambient
temperatures. Other techniques such as drilling holes around the sensor to minimize thermal
conduction by the board may be helpful as well.
If the techniques above can’t be used—due to high component density on the board, for
example—you can connect a TO92 to the board using a twisted pair of wires to isolate the
sensor from the board. As with a thermistor, if the wires are long enough and thin enough, you
can achieve sufficient isolation to get accurate ambient temperature readings. Figure 37
shows a TO92 sensor used this way; the sensor is the DS18S20, which uses Maxim’s 1-Wire
digital interface. The MAX31820 is a similar product that can also be used for ambient
temperature sensing.
MAX31820
Ground Plane
High-Temperature
Component
(a)
�
MAX31820
No Ground Plane;
Minimal Traces
Ground Plane
High-Temperature
Component
(b)
Figure 36. A board-mounted temperature sensor in a TO92 package. (a) Although the TO92’s leads
raise the sensor above the board’s surface, a high-temperature component and copper nearby can
raise the sensor’s temperature significantly above ambient. (b) By locating the sensor as far as
possible from high-temperature components and eliminating as much copper as possible around
the sensor, ambient measurements become more accurate.
A thermal diode sensor can also be used to measure ambient temperature. In this case, a
discrete sensing transistor is mounted on the end of the twisted pair. Any of Maxim’s remote
diode sensors can be used to measure the transistor’s temperature.
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Sensing Temperature of a CPU, Graphics Processor, FPGA, ASIC, Power Device,
etc. (with an On-Chip Thermal Diode)
As discussed in the Remote Digital Temperature Sensors section, some components,
especially high-performance ICs such as CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs, include a bipolar
transistor for the purpose of sensing temperature. This is usually a PNP with the collector
grounded. The base and emitter are the “diode” connections. Because the thermal-sensing
transistor is on the IC die, measurement accuracy is far better than with other sensing
techniques, and thermal time constants are quite small. Maxim’s remote-diode sensors are
optimized for monitoring the temperature of such devices. Note that there are some differences
in ideality factor and series resistance among thermal diodes on various ICs. The effects of
these differences are described in the Remote Diode Sensor Guidelines section.
Figure 37. DS18S20 monitoring ambient temperature. (a) DS18S20 mounted at the end of a twisted
pair of wires to isolate the sensor from the PC board. (b) The DS18S20 is powered by the data line.
The data and power are controlled by the µC’s I/O pins.
Sensing Temperature of a CPU, Graphics Processor, FPGA, ASIC, Power Device,
etc. (with an On-Chip Thermistor)
Some ICs have no thermal diodes available, but instead have integrated thermistors to help
monitor temperature (see the Thermistors section). As a general rule, these thermistors are
difficult to use, with very low temperature coefficients and poor accuracy. Variations in the
nominal 25°C resistance value correspond to errors of ±50°C or more, so they must be
calibrated at one or two temperatures before using. The low temperature coefficients result in
resolutions on the order of 6°C/LSB for a typical thermistor converter such as the MAX6698. A
52
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higher-resolution resistance-measuring IC, such as the MAX31865 RTD-to-digital converter or
a 16-bit ADC, is usually necessary to achieve sufficient resolution.
Figure 38 shows a typical curve of thermistor channel code vs. temperature for the MAX6698
when used with one of these integrated thermistors. Note the low available resolution, though
the results yielded are usable.
Figure 38. MAX6698 thermistor channel code vs. temperature when used with a 0.3%/ °C integrated
thermistor.
Remote Diode Sensor Guidelines
PC Board Layout Guidelines for Remote Sensors
Follow these guidelines for best results when using remote temperature sensors. The DXP is
the anode connection and DXN is the cathode connection. Note that accuracy will depend on
the amount of noise pickup, the effects of which are not easily predictable. Always verify
accuracy before committing to a final layout.
1. Place the remote sensor as close as is practical to the thermal diode. In noisy environments,
such as a computer motherboard, this distance can be up to about 20cm. This length can be
increased if the worst noise sources are avoided. Noise sources include CRTs, clock
generators, memory buses, and PCI buses.
2. Do not route the DXP-DXN traces across or in parallel to nearby fast digital signals, which
can easily introduce +30°C error, even with good filtering.
3. Route the DXP and DXN traces in parallel and in close proximity to each other. Each parallel
pair of traces should go to a thermal diode. Route these traces away from any higher
53
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voltage traces, such as +12VDC. Leakage currents from PC board contamination must be
minimized; a 20MΩ leakage path from DXP to ground causes about +1°C error. If highvoltage traces are unavoidable, connect guard traces to GND on either side of the DXPDXN traces (see Figure 39).
4. Route through as few vias and crossunders as possible to minimize copper/solder
thermocouple effects.
5. Use wide traces when practical—5mil to 10mil traces are typical. Be aware of the effect of
trace resistance on temperature readings when using long, narrow traces.
6. When the power supply is noisy, add a resistor (up to 47Ω) in series with VCC.
7. Place a filter capacitor across the DXP-DXN inputs, located near the remote sensor IC. Use
a value recommended in the sensor’s data sheet.
Figure 39. Recommended DXP-DXN PC board traces. The two outer guard traces are recommended
if high-voltage traces will be near the DXN and DXP traces.
Cable Connections to Thermal Diodes Sometimes, thermal diodes need to be located at
distances that exceed normal circuit board spans—when the diode is measuring temperature
at the opposite end of a large chassis, for example. When distances and noise levels are
moderate to low, a simple twisted pair will work well up to 3m or 4m. For longer distances (up
to around 30m) or high noise levels, a shielded cable with the shield grounded at the remote
sensor IC should be used. Belden 8451 cable works well for such applications. Remember that
the series resistance will affect the temperature reading, so either use a sensor with resistance
cancellation or calculate the effect of wire resistance and subtract that value from the reported
temperature value. Also be aware of cable capacitance, which will reduce the maximum
capacitor value that can be used at the thermal diode inputs
Using Discrete Thermal Diodes When the remote-sensing diode is a discrete transistor,
connect its collector and base together. NPNs and PNPs work equally well for this purpose.
Table 8 lists examples of discrete transistors that are appropriate for use with remote
temperature sensors. The transistor must be a small-signal type with a relatively high forward
voltage; otherwise, the A/D input voltage range can be violated. The forward voltage at the
highest expected temperature must be greater than 0.25V at 10μA, and at the lowest expected
temperature, the forward voltage must be less than 0.95V at 100μA. Large power transistors
must not be used. Ensure that the base resistance is less than 100Ω. Tight specifications for
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forward current gain (50 < beta < 150, for example) indicate that the manufacturer has good
process controls and that the devices have consistent VBE characteristics.
Table 8. Discrete NPN Transistors for Use as Thermal Diodes
Manufacturer
Central Semiconductor (USA)
Rohm Semiconductor (USA)
Samsung (Korea)
Siemens (Germany)
Zetex (England)
Model No.
CMPT3904
SST3904
KST3904-TF
SMBT3904
FMMT3904CT-ND
Manufacturers of discrete transistors do not typically specify or guarantee the ideality factor.
This is normally not a problem since good-quality discrete transistors tend to have ideality
factors that fall within a relatively narrow range. We have observed variations in remote
temperature readings of less than ±2°C with a variety of discrete transistors. Still, it is good
design practice to verify consistency of temperature readings with several discrete transistors
from any manufacturer under consideration.
Thermal Diode Design Guidelines
Some IC vendors, such as those in the business of selling microprocessors and FPGAs, have
been including thermal diodes in their products for years and have a good understanding of
how to design these devices. For first-time designers of ICs that will incorporate thermal
diodes, this section offers some instructive guidelines:
1.� Minimize the internal resistance of the diode. As noted before, about +0.45°C error will
result from each ohm of series resistance. If a transistor is used in a diode-connected
configuration with the base connected to the collector, the base resistance can be a factor
of beta higher. In this case, the collector resistance will not matter unless it causes the
device to saturate at 100µA when diode-connected.
2.� Maximize the transistor’s beta to preserve the collector current ratio (and therefore
accuracy) across temperature and current values.
3.� The forward voltage of the diode must be within the input range of the temperature sensor
ADC. It must be greater than 0.25V at 10µA forward current and less than 0.95V at 100µA
forward current at all operating temperatures for which temperature sensing is needed.
4.� In most processes, there is no isolated P/N junction. A diode-connected transistor will work
if it meets the following constraints:
A. If it is an NPN device, it must have all three terminals isolated from any of the supplies
and be diode-connected with the base connected to the collector.
B. If it is a PNP device, it is acceptable to connect the collector to ground, but the emitter
and base must be isolated from any of the supplies.
5.� Measurements should be taken on test structures to determine if they will work properly.
Accuracy of the measurements is important—voltages should be accurate to 100µV, and
the 10µA and 100µA test currents must be accurate to ±0.1%. The sense transistor should
work well with any of Maxim’s remote temperature sensors.
6.� Noise coupled into the sense junction can cause temperature measurement errors. Take
care to isolate the sensing device from noise sources, including digital signals and noisy
power supplies.
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A. Physically separate the sense device and metal carrying fast digital signals. Also
physically separate digital signals from the metal between the sense transistor and the
bonding pads.
B. Do not locate the bonding pads for the sense junction next to bonding pads for fast
digital signals, especially near high-speed buffer outputs. If possible, locate the sense
junction bonding pads next to pads that are DC inputs (for example, DC logic inputs
used for pin-strapping).
C.�Surround the sensing device with n+ and p+ guard rings.
7.� A typical structure for a vertical PNP with a substrate collector is shown in Figure 40. The
ten emitters are connected together. Each emitter is 20µm by 2.5µm.
Figure 40. Example of an integrated PNP thermal diode design.
Application Examples
RTD-to-Digital Conversion
Because we measure RTD resistance to determine temperature, any appreciable resistance in
the RTD’s leads will cause errors in temperature measurement. This is not a problem when the
RTD is near the measurement circuitry, but for long distances, you should use a 3-wire or 4wire connection to eliminate lead-resistance errors. The circuit in Figure 41a is a 4-wire RTD
interface using the MAX1402 oversampling ADC. The MAX1402 has two matched current
sources, one of which provides excitation current for the RTD. Because the excitation current
does not flow through the sense leads, lead resistance will not affect the temperature
measurement accuracy. The MAX1402’s input buffers should be enabled for best accuracy;
the 2kΩ resistor ensures that the input voltage is within the acceptable common-mode range
with the buffers enabled.
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+5V
OUT1
RREF
4k
VDD
REFIN+
MAX1402
REFIN-
RCABLE
4-wire RTD
V+
RCABLE
AIN1
RCABLE
AIN2
PGA
MODULATOR
OUT2
RCABLE
AGND
2k
DGND
Figure 41a. 4-wire interface for a PT100 or PT1000 RTD.
�
+5V
OUT1
RREF
4k
V+
VDD
REFIN+
MAX1402
REFIN-
3-wire RTD
RCABLE
AIN1
RCABLE
AIN2
PGA
MODULATOR
OUT2
RCABLE
1k
AGND
DGND
Figure 41b. 3-wire interface for a PT100 or PT1000 RTD.
Figure 41b shows the same ADC used with a 3-wire RTD. The 3-wire connections help to
reduce the cost, size, and weight of cabling by using a pair of current sources to drive two of
the RTD’s lead wires. If the wire resistances are well-matched, equal voltage drops will be
created across the two wires driven by the current sources, thereby eliminating measurement
errors due to cable resistance.
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Figure 41c shows the MAX31865 RTD digitizer configured to accept 2-, 3-, or 4-wire RTDs
through a single terminal block. Jumpers on the terminal block select 2- and 3-wire operation.
Note that the MAX31865 does not use current sources for sensor excitation; instead, it biases
the RTD with a voltage source. The effects of lead resistance are measured directly and
subtracted from the conversion result.
VDD
Jumper for
2-wire RTD
4-wire
RTD
3-wire
RTD
VBIAS
BIAS
RREF
2-wire
RTD
�
DVDD
REFIN+
MAX31865
REFINISENSOR
FORCE+
SCLK
FORCE2
Registers
and
Interface
RTDIN+
Protection
ADC
0.01µF
SDO
SDI
CS#
RTDIN-
DRDY#
Jumper for 2-wire
or 3-wire RTD
FORCE-
GND
GND
DGND
Figure 41c.2-, 3-, and 4-wire interface for PT100 or PT1000 RTDs using the MAX31865 RTD digitizer.
For best accuracy when using an RTD, apply linearity correction to the resulting data to
compensate for the PT100’s nonlinearity. Normally this is done using either lookup tables,
calculations, or a combination of the two.
You can avoid the digital linearity correction by applying a small amount of positive feedback to
an amplifier circuit, as shown in Figure 42. This circuit is for a 2-wire RTD; it does not
compensate for long leads, so it should be used when the RTD is located near the
measurement circuitry. Figure 43 shows the error curve for a PT100 when linearized by the
circuit in Figure 42. For more details, refer to Maxim application note 3450, “Positive Analog
Feedback Compensates PT100 Transducer.”
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Figure 42. PT100 linearizer circuit.
�
Figure 43. Error curve showing the deviation from linearity between -100 °C and +200°C for the
output of the circuit in Figure 42.
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Thermocouple Interface Circuits
As discussed in the Thermocouples section, a thermocouple interface circuit normally includes
a high-resolution ADC, a cold-junction temperature sensor, a voltage reference, and a
precision amplifier. The circuit shown in Figure 44 uses an ADC (the MX7705) with an internal
programmable gain amplifier (PGA), which eliminates the need for an external precision
amplifier. Cold-junction temperature is measured using a MAX6627 remote diode sensor and
an external diode-connected transistor located at the thermocouple connector. Adding the coldjunction temperature to the apparent temperature measured by the ADC provides a first-order
correction for the thermocouples created at the interface between the thermocouple wires and
the thermocouple connector. Ensure that the sensing transistor is close to the connector so
that its temperature is the same as that of the connector. Negative temperatures can be
accommodated by the MAX7705, whose input common-mode range extends 30mV below
ground. This circuit can be adapted to work with all major thermocouple types.
Figure 44. Thermocouple measurement circuit. The MX7705 measures the thermocouple output, and
the MAX6627 and external transistor measure the cold-junction temperature.
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Figure 45a shows a fully integrated thermocouple-to-digital circuit. This circuit measures
thermocouple and cold-junction temperature and adds the two for first-order cold-junction
compensation. The cold-junction temperature data is available separately so that linearization
of the thermocouple’s transfer function may be done by the MCU, if necessary. No external
components are required other than a power-supply bypass capacitor (and input filter
capacitors) if the circuit will be operated within significant RF fields. The 14-bit resolution
conversion data has an LSB value of 0.25°C. In addition to measuring thermocouple
temperature, the MAX31855 also detects open thermocouple wires and shorts to GND or
VDD.
A related thermocouple-to-digital circuit is shown in block diagram form in Figure 45b. The
MAX31850 and MAX31851 integrate the same thermocouple conversion functions as the
MAX31855, but communication with the MCU is through Maxim’s 1-Wire interface, which
allows data and power to be conveyed over a single wire. The 1-Wire interface also provides a
simple way to network multiple thermocouples, as each unit has a unique, 64-bit address.
MAX31850 versions are available for E, J, K, N, and T thermocouples, while MAX31851
versions are available for R and S thermocouples.
Figure 45a. Integrated thermocouple-to-digital converter with SPI interface. Versions are available
for E,J, K, N, R, S, and T thermocouple types.
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Figure 45b. Block diagram of the MAX31850 and MAX31851 1-Wire thermocouple-to-digital ICs.
IR-Linked Temperature Sensor
When galvanic isolation or improved EMI immunity is needed, an IR link between the
temperature sensor and the system can be an excellent solution. The circuits in Figure 46
implement such a link and use a MAX6576 temperature-to-period sensor. For full design
details, refer to Maxim application note 3457, “IR-Linked Temperature Sensor.”
(a)
�
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(b)
Figure 46. IR-linked temperature sensor. (a) Sensor and transmitter. (b) Receiver.
RS-232-Powered Temperature Sensor
The circuit in Figure 47 powers a MAX6576 temperature-to-period sensor from an RS-232
interface IC, which also conveys the sensor’s output waveform to the system. The MAX6576’s
output waveform has a period that is directly related to temperature. More details can be found
in Maxim application note 3424, “RS-232-Powered Temperature Sensor.”
63
(b)
Figure 47. RS-232-powered temperature sensor.
Fan Control Circuits
Fan Control Partitioning
There are several different ways to implement fan control in a system. The best approach for a
given system depends on the characteristics of the system, the ease (or difficulty) of
developing new fan control firmware, and other factors. Some common approaches are
described below.
System Microcontroller Managing Fan Speed Control
If the system design already includes a microcontroller performing system management tasks,
that microcontroller may also be able to handle fan speed control functions. The
microcontroller needs to have enough I/Os available to monitor TACH signals and generate
PWM speed control signals. If the fans will be controlled using a varying DC supply, the
microcontroller will need either DAC outputs to control the output voltages of the fans’ power
supplies or external circuitry to convert the PWM signal into a DC power-supply voltage.
Firmware is needed to interpret temperature data and TACH signals, generate the correct
PWM waveforms with appropriate ramp rates, provide spin-up functions, and handle fault
conditions. If the microcontroller is capable of performing these functions, fan control can be
added to the system with little additional hardware cost. Firmware development cost depends
on the number of fans and the sophistication of the control and monitoring algorithms. Figure
48 shows in simplified form how this approach can be implemented.
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System
Microcontroller
From digital
temperature sensors
From analog
temperature sensors
Figure 48. When sufficient I/Os are available and the fans are located nearby, an existing system
management microcontroller may be used for fan speed control.
Dedicated Fan Management Microcontroller
If the system microcontroller doesn’t have the bandwidth or I/O capacity for managing the fans,
consider using a dedicated fan management or system management microcontroller such as
the MAX31782. Fan management microcontrollers include a sufficient number of I/Os to
monitor TACH signals and generate PWM control signals for multiple fans. They also have
sufficient command flexibility and memory space to handle a variety of complex fan
management algorithms. In addition, they include temperature monitoring capability. System
management microcontrollers also include facilities for monitoring, sequencing, and margining
power supplies. In some cases, the system management microcontroller will also include
“black box recorder”-style fault logging in nonvolatile memory for root cause analysis and
design improvement.
An example of a fan management microcontroller is the MAX31782, which can monitor
multiple external digital temperature sensors using its I2C master, as well as six external
thermal diodes; the resulting temperature data can then be used to determine the optimum
target fan speeds. The MAX31782 can produce six independent PWM signals and monitor the
TACH signals from up to six fans, allowing it to force the fans to the target speeds using
closed-loop RPM feedback. Figure 49 shows a simplified application circuit for the MAX31782.
Because the microcontroller is dedicated to thermal management, complex control algorithms
using large numbers of temperature sensors can be implemented.
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3- or 4-Wire Cooling Fans
12V
12V
PWM
PWM
TACH
TACH
PWM.5
TACH.5
MAX31782
PWM.4
TACH.4
I2C Peripheral
Expansion
12V
12V
PWM
PWM
TACH
TACH
PWM.3
TACH.3
DS75
MSDA
I2C Temp
Sensor
MSCL
PWM.2
TACH.2
12V
12V
3.3V
VDD
PWM
PWM
TACH
TACH
PWM.1
TACH.1
VSS (3)
SDA
To Host
P
SCL
PWM.0
TACH.0
RST
AD5P
AD5N
REG18
AD4P
AD4N
REG25
AD3P
Remote
�
Temp
�
Sensors
�
AD3N
AD2P
P6.4 / TBA
GPIO / Special
Functions
P6.3 / TDO
AD2N
AD1P
P6.2 / TMS / TBB
P6.1 / TDI
P6.0 / TCK
AD1N
AD0P
AD0N
Figure 49. A dedicated Thermal Management Microcontroller monitors temperature from
multiple sources and controls an array of fans in response to temperature data.
System Microcontroller Plus Fan Speed Controller (with or without temperature
sensing)
When a system management microcontroller is capable of monitoring temperature and
determining target fan speeds, but does not have enough I/Os or bandwidth for controlling and
monitoring the speeds of multiple fans—or if the time and cost involved in developing
intelligent fan control firmware are excessive—the fan speed control IC need not include
temperature sensing capability. In this approach, the system microcontroller monitors
temperature and selects the target fan speeds. The fan control IC provides the fan I/Os, ramp
rate control, fan monitoring and error detection, and RPM control, reducing the I/O and
firmware load on the microcontroller. Even when the system microcontroller has sufficient
capabilities for controlling fan speed, it is often necessary to use a separate fan speed
controller IC when the fans are located a significant distance from the system microcontroller.
Rather than routing several PWM and TACH signals between the fans and the microcontroller,
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a couple of I2C interface signals handle the communication between the system MCU and the
fan interface. The MAX31790 multichannel PWM fan speed controller is an example of a fan
controller that is appropriate for this situation. Figure 50 shows a MAX31790 controlling the
speeds of six fans. The system microcontroller (not shown) monitors external temperature
sensors and transmits target fan speeds to the MAX31790.
Figure 50. If the system microcontroller is capable of monitoring temperature sensors and
�
determining the desired fan speeds, it can communicate the desired speeds to a fan speed
�
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controller. The fan speed controller may or may not have temperature sensing capability. The
MAX31790 shown here produces six PWM signals for individual closed-loop speed control of
up to six fans. If fans share PWM signals, the unused PWM outputs may be used as TACH
inputs, thereby increasing the number of fans monitored (up to a maximum of 12).
Automatic Fan Speed Control IC (with integrated temperature sensing)
In many cases, it is best to offload the fan control functions from the system microcontroller. To
do this, use a fan speed control IC with integrated temperature sensing. This approach
provides a simple fan speed control algorithm—generally with the control parameters selected
by the system microcontroller—and relieves the system microcontroller from having to monitor
temperature and make speed decisions in real time. This approach can simplify the system
and reduce costs by integrating the sensing and speed control functions. The MAX6639 shown
in Figure 51 is a good example of this approach, measuring two temperatures and controlling
the speeds of two fans, with the MCU selecting all control parameters.
VFAN
VCC
DXP1
DXN
REMOTE AND LOCAL
TEMPERATURE
MONITORS
DXP2
SMBDATA
SMBCLK
MCU
VFAN
TACH FEEDBACK
AND PWM
GENERATOR
PWM OUT 1
TACH IN 1
PWM OUT 2
TEMP
SMB INTERFACE
AND CONTROL
REGISTERS
SENSOR
TACH IN 2
VCC
VCC
ALARM LOGIC
ALERT
VCC
OT
TO SYSTEM SHUTDOWN
VCC
MAX6639
TO CLOCK THROTTLE
FANFAIL
THERM
Figure 51. An automatic fan speed control IC like the MAX6639 monitors temperature and
controls fan speed using parameters selected by the system microcontroller.
Stand-Alone Fan Controller (no MCU required)
A stand-alone fan controller requires no microcontroller to set up the control algorithm. Instead,
the control characteristics are selected externally—for example, by using resistors and
capacitors or by strapping pins. This approach can be as simple as an on/off controller using a
temperature switch (see Basic On-Off Fan Controllers Using Temperature Switches), or it can
be a more complex controller such as the MAX31640 (Figure 52). It monitors temperature
using an external thermistor and adjusts its output PWM duty cycle automatically based on the
values of a few external resistors and a capacitor.
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The external capacitor, CF, selects the PWM frequency. The resistors select the minimum duty
cycle (RD1 and RD2), the temperature at which the duty cycle begins to increase above the
minimum value (RST), and the rate of duty cycle increase with temperature (RSLOPE). Figure
52a shows a circuit appropriate for 2- and 3-wire fans, while Figure 52b shows a circuit that
works with fans that have a speed-control input.
Figure 52a. Stand-alone speed controller for 2- or 3-wire fans.
�
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Figure 52b. Stand-alone speed controller for 4-wire fans or other fans with speed-control inputs.
The TACH or locked-rotor output (if available) is not used by the MAX31740.
Pulse-Width-Modulated, Fan Power-Supply Drive
As discussed in the Controlling Fan Speed section, this approach is simple and appropriate
when the drawbacks of increased noise and more difficult tachometer sensing are not issues.
Figure 53 shows high-side and low-side versions that work with several Maxim fan controllers,
including the MAX6615, MAX6616, MAX6639, MAX6640, MAX31785, and MAX31790. Figure
53a is a high-side drive circuit. Note that the PWM signal polarity needs to be negative and the
PWM output must be able to pull up to the fan’s supply voltage. In Figure 53b’s low-side drive
circuit, note that the PWM polarity is positive. The PWM output needs to be pulled up only high
enough to turn on the n-channel FET. For both circuits, pulse stretching may be needed to
ensure proper operation of the tachometer counter—this is especially true for slower fans.
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Figure 53. 3-wire fan control circuits using pulse-width modulation of the fan’s power supply. 2-wire
fans can be controlled with the same circuits, but do not have tachometer outputs. (a) High-side
drive. (b) Low-side drive.
4-Wire Fan Drive
The 4-wire fans normally require a high-frequency (20kHz to 50kHz) PWM signal for fan
control. The circuit in Figure 54 shows the MAX6639 dual fan speed controller used with two
4-wire fans. The MAX6639 also includes two temperature-sensing channels, and is capable of
controlling fan RPM as a function of measured temperature. Be sure to check the data sheet of
any 4-wire fan under consideration; the recommended PWM frequency is not always greater
than 20kHz. Many fan controller ICs have several available output frequencies to
accommodate such fans.
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Figure 54. The MAX6639 controlling two 4-wire fans; it measures two temperatures and can control
fan RPM based on the measured temperature.
Converting PWM Control Signals to Linear Fan Drive
Most fan control ICs generate PWM signals to control fan speed. These signals are
appropriate for 4-wire fans and, when used to modulate the power supply, can often be used
with 2- and 3-wire fans as well. When a pulse-width-modulated power supply is not acceptable,
you must drive a 2- or 3-wire fan with a linear voltage to adjust speed. If the fan controller
generates PWM for fan speed control, one of the following circuits can be used to convert the
PWM signal to a linear voltage.
Discrete PWM-to-Linear Fan Drive
The circuit in Figure 55 is appropriate for use with most PWM fan control ICs. It filters the
PWM signal, and amplifies and buffers the resulting DC voltage to drive the fan. The 2.2µF
capacitor is necessary for filtering low-frequency (100Hz) PWM waveforms. Speed controllers
like the MAX6639 have higher frequency PWM (above 20kHz), which allows the 2.2µF
capacitor to be replaced with a smaller value. It is good practice to use the highest PWM
frequency available. The circuit shown will work with all of Maxim’s PWM-output fan
controllers, including the MAX6615, MAX6616, MAX6639, MAX6640, MAX31785, and
MAX31790.
Note that using linear pass transistors, as in Figure 55, will result in some wasted power. When
the fan’s power-supply voltage is half of the nominal supply voltage, the pass device will
dissipate approximately 25% of the fan’s nominal full-speed power. The circuit in Figure 56
uses a simple switching power supply to provide the fan with a variable power-supply voltage
with far less power dissipation than would be the case with a linear pass device. This approach
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will work with most PWM-output fan controllers. In general, the highest available fan controller
PWM frequency should be used.
Figure 55. Circuit for converting PWM fan control signals to a linear supply voltage.
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Figure 56. Linear drive from a PWM-output fan controller using an external switch-mode voltage
regulator.
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Linear Fan Drive
A few Maxim products—notably the MAX6620, MAX6650, MAX6651, MAX6660, and
MAX6661—drive fans with a linear power-supply voltage. The MAX6620, which controls the
RPM of up to four 12V fans, is shown in Figure 57. External pnps or p-channel MOSFETs
serve as the pass devices.
Figure 57. The MAX6620 shown here is a 4-channel linear fan speed controller using external pass
transistors to supply variable power to the fans.
High-Voltage Fan Control
The majority of BLDC fans operate from 5V or 12V power supplies, and most fan speed control
ICs operate from supplies in the 3.0V to 5.5V range. However, many fans operate from 24V or
48V supplies, sometimes requiring changes in the external circuitry before using them with
standard speed-control ICs.
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48V, 4-Wire Fan Speed Control
The 4-wire fans are easy to adapt to high-voltage operation, because the fan controller is not
exposed to the high voltage. The fan’s PWM input is compatible with normal logic levels, and
its output is open drain, so it can be pulled up to the fan controller’s supply voltage—3.3V, for
example. The circuit in Figure 58 illustrates the concept of controlling a high-voltage 4-wire
fan; it is the same as a 12V fan control circuit, except for the fan’s power-supply voltage. Any
PWM-output fan controller IC will work with 48V fans.
Figure 58. Controlling a 48V 4-wire fan. No special precautions are needed—any PWM-output fan
controller with an appropriate output frequency available will work.
48V, PWM Power Supply Fan Speed Controller
Fan control circuits that pulse-width modulate +5V and +12V power supplies, such as those in
Figure 53, can be modified to work with 48V fans (see Figure 59). Because the MAX6639’s
PWM output cannot be pulled up to +48V, a transistor is used to level-shift the PWM signal so
that it swings between +48V and ground. The resulting high-voltage PWM is applied to the
gate of the transistor that supplies power to the fan.
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Figure 59. Controlling a 48V 2- or 3-wire fan by modulating the power supply with a PWM signal.
48V, Linear Fan Speed Controller
The MAX6650 and MAX6651 are fan RPM controllers designed for use with 12V fans. In the
standard configuration, an n-channel FET drives the low side of the fan and the tachometer
signal from the fan drives the IC’s TACH input(s). Voltage feedback is taken from the FET’s
drain (the fan’s ground terminal).
When a 48V fan is used with the MAX6650 or MAX6651, a FET with a higher voltage rating
must be selected, and the voltage feedback from the drain and the tachometer signal from the
fan must be attenuated so that they do not exceed the IC’s maximum input voltage of 13.2V.
The circuit in Figure 60 shows how this is done. For more details, refer to Maxim application
note 3361, “Using the MAX6650 and MAX6651 Fan Speed Regulators with 24V and 48V
Fans.”
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Figure 60. 48V, linear fan RPM controller. The feedback and tachometer signals are attenuated for
compatibility with the MAX6651’s input voltage tolerance.
On/Off Fan Control Circuits
While fan control based on programmable ICs and microcontrollers provides excellent flexibility
and performance, there are many cases that are better served by a very simple fan control
scheme that requires no programming or complex ICs. Some examples follow.
Basic On/Off Fan Controllers Using Temperature Switches
Simply activating a fan at a high temperature and turning it off at a low temperature is a simple,
reliable, low-cost method of temperature control, but it creates sudden changes in noise level.
This approach is therefore most appropriate when the equipment is isolated from users, or
when the normal operating temperature is stable enough that the fan will not be continuously
cycling on and off.
Temperature switches are ideal for this function. A few variations are described below.
Local Sensing, Factory-Set Threshold
The circuits in Figure 61 switch the fan on and off either by enabling the power supply of a 2or 3-wire fan, as in Figure 61a, or by driving the PWM speed control input of a 4-wire fan, as in
Figure 61b.
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Figure 61. Local on/off fan controllers with factory-set thresholds. (a) Uses a temperature switch and
a FET to enable the fan’s power supply for 2- and 3-wire fans. (b) The temperature switch’s output
directly drives a 4-wire fan’s PWM input to activate the fan.
Local Sensing, Adjustable Threshold
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The circuits in Figure 62 are similar to those in Figure 61, except that they use the MAX6510,
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an adjustable temperature switch whose threshold temperature is set by an external resistor.
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The OUTSET pin needs to be connected to VCC to make the output active-high.
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Figure 62. Local on/off fan controllers with adjustable thresholds. (a) Using a temperature switch
and a FET to enable the fan’s power supply for 2- and 3-wire fans. (b) The temperature switch’s
output directly drives a 4-wire fan’s PWM input to activate the fan. The external resistor sets the trip
threshold.
Remote Sensing, Factory-Set Threshold
The fan on/off controllers in the two previous figures use local temperature switches, so they
make the decision to activate the fan based on board temperature. When the decision needs
to be made based on either air temperature or the temperature of an IC through a thermal
diode, a remote temperature switch is a better choice. The circuits in Figure 63 are similar to
those in Figures 61 and 62, but use a remote-sensing temperature switch to determine
whether the temperature has exceeded the factory-set threshold. The circuit in Figure 63a
monitors the die temperature of an external IC using a thermal diode on the die of that IC.
When the temperature exceeds the trip threshold, the MAX6513 turns on the transistor that
supplies power to the fan. In Figure 63b, the MAX6513 monitors a discrete transistor that is
used to sense air temperature. In this case, the MAX6513’s output drives the PWM input of a
4-wire fan, activating the fan when the air temperature exceeds the trip threshold.
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Figure 63. Remote, on/off fan controllers with factory-set thresholds. (a) Uses a remote temperature
switch and a FET to enable the fan’s power supply for 2- and 3-wire fans. (b) The temperature
switch’s output directly drives a 4-wire fan’s PWM input to activate the fan.
Simple, Two-Speed Fan Controller
Some systems normally operate at a temperature high enough that the fan must be spinning,
but low enough that it can safely operate at a low speed. In these cases, a two-speed (low and
high) fan controller is a good solution. The circuit in Figure 64 is an example of such a fan
controller. It uses the MAX6668, which is a remote temperature switch with an internal power
transistor capable of driving a 250mA, 12V fan. The threshold temperature is selected at the
factory. The MAX6668 is an on/off fan controller but, by adding an external discrete pnp
transistor, it can be used to build a two-speed fan controller.
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Figure 64. Remote, two-speed fan controller with factory-set threshold. Below the threshold, the fan
runs at approximately half speed. Above the threshold, it runs at full speed.
In Figure 64, the MAX6668’s open-drain, n-channel FET is off at temperatures below the
threshold. While the FET is off, the pnp drives the ground lead of the fan. With the pnp’s base
connected to +5V, the voltage across the fan is a little over 6V, enough to ensure low-speed
operation for most small fans. Be sure to verify operation of your fan with a 6V power supply
before using this circuit. When the threshold is exceeded, the internal FET supplies 12V to the
fan, causing it to run at full speed.
Fan Fail-Safe Circuit
Some systems control a fan’s speed using a µC or fan speed controller IC located some
distance from the fan. If a problem occurs due to an interrupted connection to the PWM signal
or a µC hang, for example, a temperature switch can serve as a fail-safe circuit to ensure that
the fan will spin at full speed if the temperature rises above a predetermined threshold value.
The circuit in Figure 65 accomplishes this. The MAX6514 temperature switch’s output is
OR’ed with the PWM signal. If the temperature of the MAX6514 rises above its threshold
value, the fan will be driven to full speed.
Figure 65. Fan fail-safe circuit with factory-set trip threshold
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Temperature Switches
In-Circuit Temperature Switch Testing
When a temperature switch is used for system protection, the trip temperature is normally set
to a value well above the operating range of the system. So how do you verify at the board
level that a temperature switch with a fixed threshold is functional? One way would be to raise
the board’s temperature to a value greater than the trip threshold, but this often is neither
desirable nor practical. Another method is shown in Figure 66. The MAX6517 in this figure is
one of several Maxim temperature switches that also have an analog voltage output with a
negative temperature coefficient. To test functionality of the temperature switch, you can simply
short the analog output to ground. The MAX6517 responds as though the temperature just
increased, and the active-low TOVER output asserts, thus verifying that the protection function
is active.
Figure 66. A simple way to verify temperature switch operation at the board level is to short the
analog voltage output to ground. This makes the temperature switch react as though the
temperature is high: the active-low TOVER output trips, thus verifying functionality.
Thermal Crowbar
Some thermal protection approaches require shutting down the affected system in such a way
that it cannot independently recover. One approach to doing this is with a power supply
“crowbar”—shorting the power supply until the main power fuse blows. The circuit in Figure 67
does this with two temperature switches that monitor two separate hot spots. If only one hot
spot is to be monitored, one of the temperature switches and the OR gate can be eliminated. A
high-temperature condition turns on the silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), which shorts the
power supply and blows the fuse.
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Figure 67. Overtemperature crowbar circuit with two temperature switches. If either temperature
switch is hot enough to trip, SCR D1 will turn on, thus shorting the power supply and blowing the
fuse.
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Additional Resources
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Application Notes, Tutorials, and Reference Designs
Several application notes, tutorials, and reference designs related to temperature sensing and
fan control can be found on the Maxim website. A few of these are summarized below.
 REFD5032: Modern Thermocouples and a High-Resolution Delta-Sigma ADC Enable High-Precision Temperature
Measurement
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5032
o Includes an introduction to thermocouples and shows how to interface a thermocouple to the MAX11200
precision ADC EVKit. Lab measurement results are provided.
 AN4433: Circuit Digitizes Thermocouple Output Near Sensing point
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/4433
o Shows a simple circuit that allows a MAX6675 thermocouple digitizer to be located near a thermocouple, with
data and power transmitted over a long cable.
 REFD5244: Modern PRTD Temperature Sensors and High-Resolution Delta-Sigma ADCs Enable Wide Range HighAccuracy Temperature Measurements
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5244
o Includes an introduction to platinum RTDs and shows how to interface an RTD to the MAX11200 precision ADC
EVKit. Lab measurements are provided.
 REFD5684: Positive Analog Feedback Compensates PT100 Transducer
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3450
o Presents an analog circuit for linearizing a PT100 RTD.
 Monterey MAXREFDES15#: Ultra-Low Power, High-Accuracy 4–20mA 2-Wire Current-Loop Sensor
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5683
o Describes a reference design that combines a precision analog front end for RTDs and bridge sensors with a 4–
20mA transmitter. Block diagrams and performance measurements are provided, as are links to detailed
schematics and layout files.
 AN3457: IR-Link Temperature Sensor Allows Isolation of the Temp Sensor
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3457
o Shows how to isolate a MAX6576 temperature-to-period sensor using an IR link.
 AN3424: RS-232-Powered Temperature Sensor
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3424
o Shows a circuit for powering and communicating with a MAX6577 temperature-to-frequency sensor with RS232.
 AN1057: Compensating for Ideality Factor and Series Resistance Differences between Thermal-Sense Diodes
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/1057
o Discusses temperature measurement effects of using diodes with different ideality factors.
 AN3502: Effect of PC Board Trace Width on Remote-Diode Temperature-Sensor Accuracy
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3502
o Discusses external-diode temperature measurement errors due to long PC board traces.
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 AN208: Curve-Fitting the Error of a Bandgap-Based Digital Temperature Sensor
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/208
o Describes a technique for error-correcting bandgap temperature sensors using calibration data.
 AN3892: Overview of iButton® Sensors and Temperature/Humidity Data Loggers
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3892
o Provides an introduction to Maxim’s iButton temperature an humidity monitors.
 REFD5150: Simple Wireless Temperature Monitor Also Has Data-Logging Capabilities
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5150
o Includes designs for a 2-chip transmitter and a 2-chip receiver circuit based on the MAX6577 frequency-output
temperature sensor.
 AN3318: HFAN-08.2.0: How to Control and Compensate a Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC)
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3318
o Describes the design of a control loop for a TEC.
 AN1784: Fan Speed Control is Cool!
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/1784
o Discusses fundamentals of fan speed control and shows example circuits using the MAX6650 and MAX6651
linear fan speed controllers.
 AN809: Rev Up Your Fan-Speed Control Designs
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/809
o Discusses fan speed control basics and shows circuits using the MAX6650 and MAX6651 linear fan speed
controllers for controlling high-voltage fans. Isolated circuits are also shown.
 AN4450: Getting Started with the MAX6651 Fan Controller
o http://www.maximintegrated.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/4450
o Provides firmware examples for the MAX6651 linear fan speed controller.
Find current information about all of Maxim’s thermal management products at
www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-management.
SMBus is a trademark of Intel Corp.
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SPI is a trademark of Motorola, Inc.
1-Wire is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
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Features, 26
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Layout guidelines, 54
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RPM Control, 41
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RTD, 7, 8, 9, 14, 44, 48, 49, 56, 58
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Alpha, 7
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Callendar-Van Dusen equation, 7
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Curve, 8
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Linearity Correction, 59
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Nonlinearity, 7, 8, 58
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Pt100, 7, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59
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Signal conditioner, 9
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Temperature range, 7
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SAMA, 7
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Signal Conditioner
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RTD, 9, 45, 58
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Thermocouple, 46, 48, 61
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Temperature Sensor
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Analog, 13
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Digital, 16, 20
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IR-linked, 62
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Remote digital, 13, 21, 28, 52
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Remote diode, 13, 21, 28, 52
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RS232-powered, 63
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RTD, 7
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Thermistor, 4
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Thermocouple, 11
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Temperature Switch, 28, 29, 78, 79, 80, 82
�
Fan speed control, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81
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In-circuit testing, 82
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Thermal Crowbar, 82
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Thermal Management
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Calibration, 3
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Control, 3
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Protection, 3
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Purposes, 3
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Thermistor, 4, 6, 14, 44, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53
�
Curve, 5
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Nonlinearity, 4, 6
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NTC, 4, 5, 6, 44
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Thermocouple, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 44, 46,
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49, 54, 60, 61
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Cold junction, 12
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Curve, 11
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MAX6674, 13
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MAX6675, 13
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Nonlinearity, 10
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Signal conditioner, 12
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Temperature range, 9
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Ambient Air Sensing, 49, 51
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Analog Temperature Sensor, 13, 14
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Curve, 15
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Nonlinearity, 15
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Callendar-Van Dusen equation, 7
�
Digital Temperature Sensor
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Features, 18
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Local, 20
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Remote, 21, 28
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Fan
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2-Wire, 32
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3-Wire, 33
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4-Wire, 33
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Fan Speed
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Monitoring, 37, 41
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Fan Speed Control, 31, 34, 44
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4-wire fan, 71
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Acoustic noise, 37
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Closed-loop RPM, 41
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Controller Functions, 32
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Failsafe circuit, 81
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High-voltage 4-wire, 75, 76
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High-voltage linear, 76
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Linear power supply, 35
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On/Off, 77, 78, 79
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PWM power supply, 36
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PWM-to-linear conversion, 72
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RPM control, 41
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Two-speed, 81
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IC Die Temperature Sensing
Thermal diode, 21, 23, 52
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Thermistor, 53
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Ideality Factor, 14, 24, 25, 27, 52, 55
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Nonlinearity
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NTC thermistor, 4, 5, 6
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RTD, 7, 8, 58
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Thermocouple, 10
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NTC, 4, 6, 44
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Curve, 5
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Nonlinearity, 4
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Printed Circuit Board Sensing, 48, 49
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Pt100, 7, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59
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Linearity Correction, 59
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Remote Diode Sensor, 21, 28, 52
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Cable connection, 54
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Diode design guidelines, 56
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Discrete diode, 55
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Error sources, 23
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Type K, 10, 11, 13
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