reportfinchp

reportfinchp
“The Use of Wood Fuelled
Combined Heat and Power in the
Finnish Forestry Industry”
Report of the Study Tour Facilitated by The Renewable Energy Information
Office
Tel: +353-23-29146
SHINAGH HOUSE, BANDON, CO. CORK
FAX: +353-23-41304
e-mail: [email protected]
Table of Contents
1. WOOD FUELLED CHP- A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
2
2. PROGRAM
3
3. INTERNATIONAL WOOD ENERGY SEMINAR NORDIC TREASURE HUNT :
EXTRACTING ENERGY FROM FOREST RESIDUES
ORGANISED BY THE FINNISH WOOD ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMME
AND OPET FINLAND
5
4. KONNEVESI HEATING PLANT -1.25 MWTH DISTRICT HEAT PLANT FUELLED BY
WOOD CHIPS, SAWDUST AND PEAT
7
5. SATERI OY POWER AND HEAT PLANT -10 MWE AND 50 MWTH INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS PLANT FUELLED BY PEAT, WOOD WASTE, MILL SLUDGE AND
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
10
6. PRESENTATION: "HOW TO DESIGN AND REALISE WOOD FIRED CHP FOR
MECHANICAL WOOD INDUSTRIES"
SPEAKER: MR. YRJÖ ORISPÄÄ, PROTERMO OY
11
7. KARSTULA CHP
PLANT - A 10 MWTH/ 1 MWE CHP PLANT FUELLED BY
WOOD RESIDUES FROM AN ADJACENT LOGHOUSE FACTORY
19
8. FORSSA CHP PLANT -17 MWE AND 48 MWTH FLUIDISED BED BOILER FUELLED
BY WOOD WASTES FOREST CHIPPINGS, PEAT AND BUILDING WASTE
22
9. CONTACT DETAILS
24
10.ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDED READING
25
1
Wood Fuelled CHP- A General Introduction
Background*
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a very common industrial energy efficient technology used increasingly in
industry world-wide. In the UK alone, 10,000 MW of CHP is to be installed by 2010. As wood processing is an
energy intensive industry, CHP can make a significant impact on profitability. Evidence shows that CHP can reduce
total site energy costs by over 30%. In Europe, leading wood fired CHP equipment supply companies are based
mainly in Scandinavia.
There are currently four large industrial wood processing plants in Ireland . They have a combined heat capacity of
over 110 MW and a combined electricity requirement of over 40 MW. All of these plants use wood waste to provide
their process heat and then buy in their electricity separately. None of these plants currently uses CHP. Evidence
shows that in the Paper and Board sector, CHP can reduce total site energy bills by as much as 30%.
All of these Irish plants could generate electricity from wood fired CHP. A recent report on the total renewable
energy resource in Ireland has also highlighted the significant potential of wood biomass CHP. If the four
companies were to employ this technology it would add some 30,000 toe (tonnes of oil equivalent) to Ireland’s
Renewable Energy Balance and would represent almost a quarter of Ireland’s renewable electricity production in
2000. In addition, all of the wood fuel for these CHP plants would be grown in Ireland, providing a secure, long
term, supply of electricity and heat from a major national resource.
As wood biomass is CO2 neutral, the savings in terms of CO2 emissions (the main greenhouse gas) could be in
excess of 300,000 tonnes annually. This would represent a total CO2 emissions saving, for Ireland, of about three
quarters of a percent of total annual energy CO2 emissions.
Why invest in Wood Biomass CHP?*
•
•
•
•
•
•
CHP will reduce your energy costs.
CHP is widely used by your competitors in Europe and elsewhere.
CHP can offer security against energy price fluctuations.
CHP provides a secure supply of energy to your site.
CHP can help your business comply with environmental legislation.
CHP can improve your profit margin and give your company a competitive edge.
The Benefits of Investing in Wood Biomass CHP
Energy Cost Savings
Fossil Fuel CHP
Yes
Wood Biomass CHP
Yes
Secure Energy Supply
Secure Energy Prices
Better Control
Environmental Benefits
CO2 Emissions
Local Job Creation
Imported Fuel
Local Self Sufficiency
Sustainable Development
Medium term
Medium term
Yes
Yes
136 Tonnes/TJ
Short term
Yes
No
No
Long term
Long term
Yes
Yes
0 Tonnes/TJ **
Long term
No, a national resource
Yes
Yes
Benefits
** Wood Biomass is CO2 neutral, 1 TJ = 278,000 kWh
*Source: “Report on Wood Biomass Combined Heat and Power for the Irish Wood Processing Industry- January
1999”, Renewable Energy Information Office Publication - available on the web site: www.irish-energy.ie/reio.htm
by clicking on the Reference Centre Link
2
The Renewable Energy Information Office Facilitated Study Tour
“The Use of Wood Fuelled Combined Heat and Power in the Finnish Forestry
Industry”
The study tour was facilitated by the Renewable Energy Information Office of The Irish Energy Centre and took
th
st
place in Finland from Tuesday 29 August to Friday 1 September. The objective of the study tour was promotion
of the use of combined heat and power production in the Irish wood processing industry. The visit was aimed at
boardmills, the larger sawmills and the main forestry organisations
PROGRAM
Wednesday 30th August 2000
International Wood Energy Seminar Nordic Treasure Hunt: Extracting Energy from Forest Residues
Jyväskylä, Finland, Organised by Finnish Wood Energy Technology Programme and OPET Finland
Thursday 31st August 2000
Morning
METKO Forest Machinery Exhibition, Jämsänkoski
Afternoon: Small Scale Wood Heating Plant Visit
Visit to Konnevesi Heating plant
A 1.25 MWth district heat plant fuelled by wood chips, sawdust and peat
Hosted by Mr. Juha Huotari of Sermet Oy
Afternoon: Large Scale Combined Power and Heat Plant Visit
Visit to Sateri Oy Power and Heat Plant
Hosted by Fortum Heat and Power
A 10 MWe and 5O MWth industrial process plant fuelled by peat, wood waste, mill sludge and industrial waste
Evening
Presentation: “How to Design and Realise Wood fired CHP Plants for Mechanical Wood Industries”
Speaker: Mr. Yrjö Orispää, Managing Director, Protermo Oy
Conference Room, Hotel Alexandra, Jyväskylä
Friday 1st September 2000
Small Scale Combined Heat and Power Plant visit
Visit to Karstula CHP Plant
Hosted by Mr. Juha Houtari of Sermet Oy
A 10 MWth/ 1 MWe CHP plant fuelled by wood residues from an adjacent loghouse factory
Large Scale Combined Heat and Power Plant Visit
Visit to Forssa CHP plant
Hosted by Mr. Visa Ahola of Foster Wheeler
A 17 MWe and 48 MWth fluidised bed boiler fuelled by wood wastes, forest chippings, peat and building waste
3
Wednesday 30th August 2000
4
Nordic Treasure Hunt:
Extracting Energy from Forest Residues
The Nordic countries all have significant experience and know-how in wood energy. The European
Commission has set ambitious targets for the use of renewable energy sources. In Denmark, Finland and
Sweden forest chips play important role not only as an energy source but also in forest management.
This seminar focused on forest residues and its uses in the context of Nordic experiences and
technologies. Competitiveness and costs as well as environmentally sound forestry are the key issues. The
seminar was organised in collaboration with the Finnish Wood Energy Technology Programme and OPET
Finland. In connection with the Programme the annual seminar was held on August 30, 2000 at the
conference centre in Paviljonki, Messukatu 10, Jyväskylä, Finland.
The seminar was followed by an excursion to the METKO 2000 exhibition, the leading event for forestry
machinery in Finland. It gathered the professionals of forest contracting as well as the marketing
companies supplying machinery, services and products to this sector.
The Tekes` Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003 focuses on developing the production
technology and improving the quality of forest chips from logging residues and small-sized trees. OPET
Finland, a Finnish member of the European Network for the Organisations for the Promotion of Energy
Technologies, serves as a gateway to Finnish energy technologies and market actors, networking
experiences from Finland to Europe and vice versa.
PROGRAMME
Wednesday 30th August 2000
8.0
Registration
Chairperson Satu Helynen, VTT Energy
9.00
Renewable Energy Sources in Finnish Energy Policy and Climate Change
Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, Energy Department
Role of Technology Development in Promoting Wood Energy
Satu Helynen, VTT Energy
Research on Bioenergy in Sweden - Present Status and Future Plans
Erik Ling, Swedish National Energy Administration
10.40
Wood Energy and Technology in Denmark
Niels Heding, Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute
Forest Chips in Finland - Use, Experiences and Prices
Pentti Hakkila & Ismo Nousiainen, VTT Energy
Forest Chips in the Energy Strategy of Large Pulp and Paper Company - Case
UPM Kymmene Oyj, Juha Kouki, UPM-Kymmene Oyj
13.30
Technology of Fuel Chip Production in Sweden
Gert Andersson, SkogForsk
Cost, Competitiveness and Trade of Wood Fuels in Sweden
Bengt Hillring, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Cost Factors of Fuel Chip Production
Antti Asikainen, University of Joensuu
15.30
Cofiring of Wood - Fuel Handling and Cocombustion
Timo Järvinen & Markku Orjala, VTT Energy
Practical Experiences of Large-Scale Use of Forest Fuels in Sweden
Ulf Johnsson, Växjö Energi
Discussion and conclusions of the seminar
16.40
Thursday 31st August 2000
Visit to Forest Exhibition METKO in Jämsänkoski
9.00
Departure for METKO Forest exhibition by bus (60 km south from Jyväskylä)
13.30 Departure for Helsinki by bus (220 km)
For further information on the seminar and to order proceedings, see the following web site:
www.tekes.fi/opet/
5
Thursday 31st August 2000
6
Konnevesi
A district heating plant designed for wet solid fuels 1.25 MWth
The site visit to this plant was hosted by Juha Huotari, Engineering Director, Sermet Oy.
Technical Details of the plant are as per the attached OPET Fact Sheet
Features of the plant are as follows:
• The plant is fully automated and unmanned. The plant is computer monitored i.e. the plant operator is informed
of the plants performance via mobile telephone. The plant monitoring system is also connected by modem to
the operator and manufacturers computers
•
This plant was factory assembled and turn-key delivered to the site in five modules
•
Ash from the boiler grate falls into cooling water before it is taken by conveyor to a storage bin. It is easily
moved from the storage bin to be transported off site. This ash may be mixed with fertilisers and spread on
existing forests
The total cost of the plant, including an extension of the district heating network was 615,000 Euro
Points made during discussion at the plant are as follows:
Question: The fuel being used in the plant is a mixture of sawdust, wood chips and peat. The fuel supply which is
stored on site had a very low moisture content (approximately 40%). The point was made that by-products from
Irish saw mills would rarely have such a low moisture content.
Response: The fuel used in the Sermet Biograte can have a moisture content between 40-60%. The higher the
moisture content however the less electricity is produced.
Question: How much electricity is produced from 1 tonne of saw mill by products? The point was subsequently
made that in Ireland there is generally 1-2 dry cubic metres in each tonne of saw mill by product.
Response: In Finland 1 tonne consists of 4 dry cubic metres approximately. Each cubic metre produces 0.7 MWh
Question: A saw mill can generate and use its own electricity by placing a CHP plant adjacent to or in his saw mill.
In the forestry industry is it feasible to set up a CHP plant adjacent to a large user of heat/ electricity e.g. a hospital
Response: Each case is site specific and a study would have to be carried out taking all of the aforementioned
factors into account as they tend to vary in each case
Conclusions:
There are a number of factors to be taken into account in determining the amount of electricity which can be
generated e.g. moisture content and type of fuel used
A value must also be placed on the saw mill by products so that the profitability of wood fuelled CHP can be
determined.
Each case must be studied individually. It was concluded that feasibility studies should be carried out individually
for each one. The possibility of receiving financial support for same should be investigated and it was suggested
that Enterprise Ireland may be of help in this regard. It is hoped that these feasibility studies would lead to the
development of wood fuelled CHP plants in the wood processing industry in Ireland and could in turn be used as a
reference for the whole of the Irish wood industry.
Further information on this type of biomass plant is available at www.tekes.fi/opet/
REIO notes on the energy content on wood:
1 cubic meter of wood chips weighs approx. 250 kg
1 tonne of wood chips fills approx. 4 cubic metres
The calorific value of one cubic meter of wood chips is approx. 2.6 GJ or 722 kWh
The calorific value of one tonne of wood chips is 10.4 GJ or 2889 kWh
[These calculations are based on Norway spruce wood chips with a moisture content of 40% which is equal to the
moisture content in ‘storage-dry’ wood chips]
Further details of the energy density of as received solid wood fuels is available on the following web site:
www.finbioenergy.fi
7
OPET Finland
ENERGIE
A district heating plant designed for
wet solid fuels 1.25 MWth
Konnevesi
Konnevesi is town of 3300 inhabitants and it is located
60 kilometres to the Northeast of Jyväskylä. In the
beginning of the 1980s a district heating network was
built in the town of Konnevesi. Originally there were
two heavy fuel oil fired boilers with thermal capacities
of 1.3 MW and 0.6 MW. Heat demand of the network
increased and investment for a new 1.25 MWth biomass
heating plant was made at the beginning of the 1997.
The district heating network was also extended to
accommodate the increased heat demand of the town.
The new heating station was commissioned in
September 1997. Konnevesi municipality owns both
the network and the plants.
The main fuel is wood chips (7000 bulk m3/a) and in
addition have sawdust and peat used sporadically. Fuel
is bought from Vapo Oy, which delivers wood chips to
the plant. Moisture content of used fuel has been
remarkably high, up to 65 w-%.
boiler, which is used in the plant. The boiler plant was
delivered as a completely factory-made package.
The fuel storage is equipped with push-bar unloaders.
Fuel is transferred with drag-chain conveyors into the
fuel bin in the boiler room and then fed into the
primary combustion chamber by a stoker screw
through an inlet in the centre of the grate. The grate is
divided in sections, each of which can be programmed
to rotate at a desired speed to ensure stable feeding and
combustion of the fuel. The movement of the grate is
adjusted in such a way that the fuel is distributed as an
even bed over the whole grate. The fuel dries and
ignites on the grate. The fuel feed is automatically
controlled according to the outlet temperature of boiler
water. The flue gases are cleaned by a multi-cyclone
dust particulate separator.
The 1.25 MW biomass plant was delivered by Sermet
Oy. Sermet developed and patented the BioGrate
OPET – Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies
Contact: [email protected]
www.tekes.fi/opet/
8
Technical data
T h e turn-key delivered plant transported in five
modules from the factory to Konnevesi. Schedule for
the new biomass heating plant investment:
- Contract
4/97
- Designing
5/97
- Manufacturing
6-7/97
- Assemblage at the factory
8/97
- Delivery and commission
9/97
Efficiency of the plant has been high in the whole
range of capacity, almost 90%. The new biomass plant
produces 5000 MWh/a, which is 80% of annual heat
consumption. The remainder is produced by old heavy
fuel oil fired boilers, which are used for peak loads and
in summer time, when heat consumption is small.
Heated building volume in Konnevesi is about 100 000
m3.
Investment costs for the plant were 437 000 EUR
including the extension of district heating network
605 000 EUR. The Ministry of Trade and Industry
gave financial support for the investments 30% (181
000 EUR). Further funding came from loans. It is
possible that the municipality will sell the plant for a
private entrepreneur in the future.
Boiler
Fuel
Heat production
Efficiency
Investment costs
Investment
support
Underfeed rotating grate, 1.25 MW
Wood chips, sawdust, peat
5000 MWh/a
90 %
605 000 EUR (including extension
of district heating network)
181 000 EUR (30%)
Additional information
Sermet Oy
Teollisuustie 12, FIN-74700 Kiuruvesi
Tel. +358-17-768811
Fax +358-17-7688211
[email protected]
www.sermet.fi
Produced by OPET Finland, VTT Energy 24.8.2000
Sermet BioGrate compact 1-4 MW
Fuel feed
Flue gas cleaner
Primary combustion chamber
Ash removal
Secondary combustion chamber
Stack
Boiler
OPET – Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies
Contact: [email protected]
www.tekes.fi/opet/
9
Visit to Säteri Combined Heat and Power Plant
A 50MWth Bubbling Fluidised Boiler CHP plant
This visit is hosted by Fortum Heat and Power
The Säteri power plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler which was upgraded in August 1999. The
upgrading included installation of 50 MWth bubbling fluidised bed boiler and capacity increase of the K5 boiler.
The plant provides electricity as well as steam to Sateri Oy.
The visit included a general introduction of Fortum and a tour of the plant. The Sateri plant is one of a number of
CHP plants operated by Fortum in the region and forms part of a local power and heat plant group.
Technical parameters:
Fuels:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel input
Steam flow
Steam pressure
Steam temperature
50 MWth
17 kg/s
60 bar
o
500 C
Improved bottom ash removal as a result of BFB
boiler conversion
Peat
Wood
Mill sludge
Industrial waste
Sateri Oy Plant
Presentation: "How to design and realise profitable wood fired CHP plants for
mechanical forest industries”
Speaker: Mr. Yrjö Orispää, Managing Director, Protermo Oy
Location: Conference Room, Hotel Alexandra, Jyväskylä
Presentation Content
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction (e.g. advantages of CHP generation, typical stages of a CHP project)
Necessary input data for performing a feasibility study (e.g. present and future energy consumption, available
fuels, present and future energy prices)
Energy generation alternatives (e.g. power plant concepts and size classes, main design parameters)
Basis for feasibility calculations
Criteria for feasibility assessment
Procurement alternatives
Conclusions
The full presentation report follows on the next page:
10
How to design and realise
profitable wood fired CHP
plants for mechanical forest
industries
Speaker: Mr. Yrjo Orispaa,
Managing Director,
Protermo Oy
Helsinki office
Melkonkatu 18
FIN-00210 HELSINKI
Tel
+358 9 2532 0401
Fax
+358 9 2532 0410
Mobile
+358 40 545 1121
E-mail
[email protected]
Internet
www.protermo.fi
Trade Reg. No. 583.845
Protermo Oy
Oulu Office
Isokatu 19 B 17
FIN-90100 OULU
Tel
+358 8 5304885
Fax
+358 8 5304685
Mobile
+358 400 586137
E-mail
[email protected]
Protermo AB
Stockholm office
Torsgatan 12, Plan 3
S-111 23 STOCKHOLM
Tel
+46-8-441 7085
Fax
+46-8-441 7089
11
Y Orispää
31.08.2000
12(6)
How to design and realise profitable wood fired CHP plants
for mechanical forest industries
INTRODUCTION
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production is an energy conversion process where
electricity and useful heat are produced simultaneously in a single process.
The advantage of applying CHP is based on the high overall efficiency of the process
compared to generating electricity and heat separately.
When the efficiency of a modern conventional large scale condensing power plant
generating only electricity remains at around 40 %, the CHP plants achieve an efficiency
of 80 to 90 %.
As a result, fuel consumption compared to corresponding generation in separate processes
is lowered approximately by one third.
CHP
100
90
80
70
60
% 50
40
30
20
10
0
Condensing
power
The emissions from energy generation are reduced correspondingly. This is one of the
reasons, why the authorities favour CHP generation, because it is one of the few
technologies, which can effectively contribute to the reaching of the goals of the Kyoto
agreement.
12
Y Orispää
31.08.2000
13(6)
Doubling the share of CHP electricity from 9% to 18% in 2010 is a target proposed by the
European Commission for the European Union. Presently, the electricity production by
CHP in the member states of the European Union varies between 1% to 40%. In Finland
the share of CHP electricity is one third of the total supply.
Share of CHP in Finland
27 %
33 %
19 %
12 %
Hydro Power
Nuclear
CHP
Condensing
Net Imports
8%
In CHP generation a wide variety of fuels can be used including those with a low calorific
value and high moisture content. Traditionally, biofuels have been used in CHP generation,
mainly in connection with forest industry processes. In mechanical forest industries
suitable biofuels for CHP generation are bark, chips, sawdust and other wood waste. With
increasing energy prices and improving power plant concepts, CHP electricity generation
even in smaller scale has nowadays become an attractive alternative for saw mills and
particle board mills.
However, there is no universal rule of thumb to determine, which project is viable and
which one is not. The feasibility has to be separately verified in each case.
Normal phases of a CHP project are the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
pre-feasibility study
feasibility study
basic design including final investment budget
investment decision
detailed design and procurement of equipment
construction and erection
taking into operation.
13
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31.08.2000
14(6)
A pre-feasibility study may include several investment alternatives from which the most
profitable will be selected for a more detailed feasibility study. Sometimes the prefeasibility and feasibility study phases may be combined.
In a feasibility study, one investment alternative is normally compared to a zero
alternative, which means that only heat is generated locally and all electricity is purchased
from outside.
INPUT DATA FOR A FEASIBILITY STUDY
CHP electricity generation is based on available heat load of the mill. Therefore, it is
essential to know the variation of the heat load at least on a daily basis. The same applies
for the electricity load. The following figure shows a typical daily variation of heat
consumption during one year.
Heat consumption
20
18
16
14
MW
12
10
8
6
4
2
362
343
324
305
286
267
248
229
210
191
172
153
134
115
96
77
58
39
1
20
0
Days
For practical purposes, the loads are also presented in the form of the so-called duration
curves. This means that the loads are piled from left to right in a decreasing order as shown
in the following figure:
14
Y Orispää
31.08.2000
15(6)
Heat Load Duration Curve
20
18
16
14
MW
12
10
8
6
4
2
362
343
324
305
286
267
248
229
210
191
172
153
134
115
96
77
58
39
20
1
0
Days
In practice the most profitable size-class for CHP heat generation lies in the range of 50 %
of the peak heat load (in the above figure at about 10-12 MW). The electricity generation
capacity depends on many factors such as steam parameters, but normally it varies between
30 and 50 % of the heat capacity. This means that in this case the power plant can generate
some 3-5 MW of electricity.
Since the feasibility calculations are made for several years, often up to 25 years, it is also
necessary to know the planned capacity changes of the mill and their effects on heat and
power consumption.
Other data normally needed for performing a feasibility study are the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
amount and quality of biofuels
electricity and fuel prices
available power plant site and soil quality
availability and quality of cooling and raw water
requirements for connecting the plant into grid
environmental requirements
cost of labour
interest rates
state subsidies
taxation
15
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31.08.2000
16(6)
ENERGY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES
During the pre-feasibility study phase, various power plant concepts, size classes and
design parameters may be considered. In case of mechanical forest industries possible
concepts would be:
• steam boiler and steam turbine
• steam boiler and steam engine
A steam engine is an alternative under 1 MWe size class. As to steam boilers, there are
various firing systems available, such as:
• mechanical grate combustion
• rotating grate combustion
• fluidised bed combustion
Live steam pressure and temperature have to be optimised also.
BASIS FOR FEASIBILITY CALCULATIONS
Feasibility evaluation of a selected power plant alternative is based on the estimated
investment and operation costs of the plant. The investment cost is often verified by asking
binding offers for the main equipment, i.e. steam boiler and steam turbine or engine. The
main portion of operating expenditure is composed of fuel costs. The annual fuel
consumption can be calculated based on available heat load data and corresponding energy
generation.
For calculating the feasibility of the power plant project, a cash flow analysis for 20 to 25
years is often performed. This yields as a result annual cash flows before and after taxes.
CRITERIA FOR FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT
The main criteria for evaluating the feasibility is the net present value (NPV) of the project.
This is received by discounting the annual cash flows to the start of the project by means of
a selected discount rate.
In addition, other feasibility criteria normally applied are the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
and pay-back time. These too, can be derived from the cash flow calculation.
If the feasibility study shows a positive result, an investment decision can be made.
16
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31.08.2000
17(6)
PROCUREMENT ALTERNATIVES
The most often used methods for the procurement of the power plant equipment are the
following:
• turn-key method
• procurement of equipment in smaller packages
The advantage of the turn-key method is the minimum personnel requirement from the
buyer’s side. However, once the contract has been made, the buyer has very little to say
about the individual design and equipment choices. Also, the total price of the plant may
often be higher than in the second alternative.
A procurement method, where the buyer and the power plant engineer together
participate in all the design and procurement phases of the project, often leads to a
more economical end result than the turn-key method.
CONCLUSIONS
For the successful realisation of a power plant project it is essential to perform a reliable
feasibility study before making the final investment decision.
It is also important, that the procurement method is selected so that it leads technically and
economically to the most optimum solution.
17
Friday 1st September 2000
18
Honkarakenne Oy, Karstula
A Wood fuelled 10 MWth/ 1MWe CHP plant heating a wood processing factory and a town
centre
The site visit to this plant was hosted by Juha Huotari, Engineering Director, Sermet Oy.
Technical Details of the plant are as per the attached OPET Fact Sheet
The Wood fuelled CHP plant at Karstula is located adjacent to a loghouse factory, Honkarakennne Oy. The plant is
currently under construction and will be commissioned in October 2000.
A number of products are produced from this Sermet boiler: heat which is used as part of the timber dying process
in the wood processing factory, hot water which is used in the municipal district heating network and also process
steam. 1 MW of electricity will be generated from the plant for use in the wood processing company. The electricity
will be generated using a steam engine and generator.
The fuels used in the plant are loghouse factory by-products.
Following the plant tour a short presentation of Kuiruvesi CHP plant, which also makes use of Sermet Biograte
technology was made by Mr. Juha Houtari, Sermet Oy
Kiuruvesi CHP plant
This photograph demonstrates how
boiler housing may be aesthetically
pleasing
19
OPET Finland
ENERGIE
A wood fuelled 10 MWth / 1 MWe CHP plant
heating a wood processing factory and a town
centre
Honkarakenne Oy, Karstula
A new 10 MWth / 1Mwe wood fuel CHP plant will start
operation in October 2000 in Karstula. Karstula is a
town of 5000 inhabitants and it is located in Central
Finland, 100 km Northwest of Jyväskylä. The plant is
located near to a loghouse factory, Honkarakennne Oy.
Honkarakenne produces 90 000 m3/a sawn timber and
logs for loghouses.
Background to this project:
-
Increased production of Honkarakenne
Increasing energy demand for log drying and hot
working
Possibility to use loghouse factory’s by-products,
cutter shavings, bark and sawdust, as fuel
Extension of the district heating network in
Karstula town.
Sermet BioGrate 1-10 MW
Honkarakenne Oy has made significant investments to
develop its factories in Karstula. In order to meet the
increased heat demand for dryers, it was decided to
substitute old oil boilers with a wood fuelled CHP
plant, because the factory needed both more heat and
electricity. It produces 400 truck loads (70 GWh) wood
residues per year, which can be used as fuel. Measured
average moisture content of fuel (cutter shavings 44%,
bark 30%, and sawdust 26%) has been 36%. Moisture
content depends on combination of residues and in
practise it will be higher, because share of cutter
shavings will be smaller.
The owner of this CHP plant is a brand-new company,
Puulaakson Energia Oy. Puulaakson Energia is owned
by Honkarakenne, Keski-Suomen Valo (an energy
utility) and Karstula municipality. Investment costs of
Primary combustion chamber
with rotating grate
Secondary combustion
chamber
Fire tube boiler
Flue gas fan
Flue gas filter
Stack
Sub-merged ash
conveyor and container
OPET – Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies
Contact: [email protected]
www.tekes.fi/opet/
20
the plant are ultimately 4.54 million EUR, but the
project is supported with one million EUR by Ministry
of Trade and Industry. Support granted for investment
was increased, because of new technology which is
used in the plant.
The plant has a thermal capacity of 10 MWth and it will
produce 3 MW heat for the municipal district heating
network, 3 MW process steam and 3 MW heat for
Honkarakenne. In addition the plant produces 1 MWe
of electricity for the wood processing company.
Estimated heat production will be 45 GWh and
electricity production 5 GWh. Share of energy for the
district heating network (11 000 MWh) doesn’t meet
demand, so Karstula town has its own district heat
production too.
Sermet Oy will deliver the plant in factory-made
package. The plant has a patented combustion
technique, BioGrate, capable of burning biomass fuels
with moisture content from 30% to 65%. The BioGrate
boiler is equipped with underfeed rotating grate, which
moves the fuel bed cyclically by hydraulics equipment.
The movement of the grate is adjusted in such a way
that the fuel is distributed as an even bed over the
whole grate. The fuel dries and ignites on the grate.
The main advantages of the rotating grate are:
-
there are no cold spots in the primary combustion
chamber
the burning surface is even
movements of the grate zones are smooth
the secondary combustion chamber ensures
complete combustion
Electricity is produced by using a steam engine driven
generator. A modern steam engine gives a high power
to heat ratio when the heat load is matched and is
therefore well suited to small electricity capacities. In
this type of plant efficiency is high throughout the plant
part load range. The plant will be fully automatized
and unstaffed.
The first Sermet BioPower CHP installation has been
operating since autumn 1999, in Kiuruvesi, in Finland.
The 8 MW biomass CHP has been reliable and
producing environmentally friendly heat and power for
a sawmill and municipal district heating network.
Technical data
Boiler
BioGrate, 10 MW
Estimated electricity production 5 GWh
Estimated heat production
45 GWh
Moisture content of fuel
35-45 w-%
Investment costs
4.34 million EUR
Investment support
1 million EUR
- Fuels: Cutter shavings, bark, sawdust
- Fully automatized
- Underfeed rotating grate
- Steam engine
- Low emissions
Additional information
Sermet Oy
Teollisuustie 12, FIN-74700 Kiuruvesi
Tel. +358-17-768811
Fax +358-17-7688211
[email protected]
www.sermet.fi
Produced by OPET Finland, VTT Energy 7.8.2000
A loghouse produced by Honkarakenne Oy
OPET – Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies
Contact: [email protected]
www.tekes.fi/opet/
21
The CHP district heating plant fuelled by wood -the Forssa biopower plant
The Forssa biopower plant is the first CHP district heating plant in Finland fuelled entirely by wood. It is a back
counterpressure plant with a boiler specially adapted for the use of solid biofuels. The technology permits the use
of practically all other available fuels.
CONTACTS
Forssan Energia Oy
Tel. +358 3 412 61
Fax +358 3 412 6750
Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
Tel. +358 10 39 311
Fax +358 10 393 7689
[email protected]
www.fwc.com
TECHNICAL DATA
• Power production 17.2 MWe
• District heat production 48 MWth
• Annual production
cogeneration power 57 GWh
district heat 155 GWh
• Steam temperature 510 °C
• Steam pressure 61 bar
• Steam flow 22.8 kg/s
COST DATA
• Building
• Boiler/Piping/Fuel Transportation
• Turbine/Generator
• Automation System
• Other
• Total in 1996 Million FIM
20 Million FIM
40 Million FIM
15 Million FIM
10 Million FIM
9 Million FIM
94
The boiler is a conventional fluidised bed boiler with a maximum capacity of 66 MWth. The district heat water is
heated in two stages. In the first stage hot water is generated with back pressure steam and the second stage with
bleeding steam. This special solution enables a fairly high power to heat ratio, 26.3% at full load and 28.8 at 40 %
load. The plant is provided with an auxiliary water cooler (10 MWth max) to prime the power production and to help
to use the plant in summer, when the district heating demand is low.
The commercial operation of the plant started up in September 1996. The plant produces all heat and a third of the
electrical power required by the city of Forssa for almost all the year (except a short maintenance period in the
summer).
BENEFITS
The primary fuel is woodworking industry waste, including sawdust and bark, together with forest chippings,
building waste and other wood-containing substances. Wood is a renewable fuel resource which does not increase
the greenhouse effect. When wood is burnt in the fluidised bed boiler there are no sulphur emissions and the
nitrogen oxides emissions are very low.
The main waste product of a wood-fuelled power plant is ash, which may be returned to the forest as a part of
natural recycling. The ash can be used in the landfilling or in landscaping.
Clean wood fuel, new combustion technology and high-quality electrostatic precipitator ensures improvement of the
air quality in the city of Forssa. The plant emissions can be compared with emissions of wood decaying naturally.
As the plant is a CHP plant there is no waste heat to the waterways, the heat recovered and utilised in district
heating.
The owner of the plant, Forssan Energia Oy is a local energy production, distribution and transmission company.
By the plant commissioned in 1996 Forssan Energia Oy extended the production of district heat and electricity and
replaced old oil fired plants.
There is wood fuel available from different sources to feed the CHP plant. From the first beginning the aim has
been to minimise the consumption of imported oil in local energy production. Most of the wood fuel burnt in the
boiler is obtained from the vicinity of Forssa. It is planned that in the future the plant will accept the recycled
material from the neighbouring landfill disposal site as fuel.
The annual wood fuel demand is 400,000 cubic metres.
22
PICTURES
Boiler & Plant
23
Contact Information
BOILER PLANT MANUFACTURERS
Fortum Engineering Ltd
Mailing address: POB 10, 00048 Fortum, FINLAND
Street address: Rajatorpantie 8, Vantaa, Finland
Tel: +358 10 4511
Fax: +358 10 45 34094
www.fortumengineering.com
Fortum Heat and Power Oy UK Representatives
IVO Energy Limited
Fortum Direct Ltd
101 Wigmore Street,
LONDON W1H 9AB
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel. +44 207 616 1500
Fax.+44 207 616 1515
Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
P.O. Box 5, FIN-00441 Helsinki, FINLAND
Tel: +358 10 39311
Fax: +358 10 3936199
www.fosterwheeler.com
Foster Wheeler UK Representative
Foster Wheeler Energy Limited
Shinfield Park
Reading
Berkshire RG2 9FW
UK
Tel: +44 118 913 1234
Fax: +44 118 913 2333
Contact: Mr. Keith Batchelor
e-mail: [email protected]
Sermet Oy
Teollisuustie 12
FIN-74700 Kiuruvesi
FINLAND
Tel: +358 17 7688 11
Fax: +358 17 7688 211
e-mail: [email protected]
www.sermet.fi
Sermet Oy UK Representative
GWM Associates/ Sermet,
Brake Lane,
Nottinghamshire,
NG 22 9HQ,
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1623 862515
Fax: +44 1623 8625672
e-mail: [email protected]
VTT Energy
Fuel Production including wood, peat, agribiomass production and
handling, recycled fuel handling. Biomass combustion technology,
information services.
P.O. Box 1603,
FIN-40101
Jyväskyla
FINLAND
Tel: +358 14 672 611
Fax: +358 14 672 598
www.vtt.fi/ene/indexe.htm
Renewable Energy Information Office
Irish Energy Centre,
Shinagh House,
Bandon,
Co. Cork.
Tel: 023 29146,
Fax: 023 41304,
email: [email protected],
www.irish-energy.ie/reio.htm
ETSU
Harwell
Oxfordshire
OX11 0RA
UK
Tel: 44 (0) 1235 432361
Fax: 44 (0) 1235 432144
e-mail: [email protected]
www.etsu.com/
CONSULTANTS
Protermo Oy
Helsinki Office
Melkonkatu 18
FIN-00210 HELSINKI, FINLAND
Tel. +358 9 2532 0400
Fax +358 9 2532 0410
Mobile +358 40 545 1121
e-mail [email protected]
www.protermo.fi
FEASIBILITY STUDY GRANT SUPPORT
Food and Timber Department
Enterprise Ireland
Glasnevin
Dublin 9
Contact: Mr. Willie Fitzgerald
Tel: 01 8082005
e-mail: [email protected]
www.enterprise-ireland.com/
OTHER USEFUL WEBSITES
ENERGY AGENCIES AND INFORMATION
Tekes
Technology Development Centre- Finland
Promotion and financial support for technological R&D
P.O. Box 69, FIN-00101, Helsinki, FINLAND
Tel: +358 105 2151
Fax: +358 9 6949196
www.tekes.fi
AFB-net
The European bioenergy network, AFB-net, concentrates on
actions to promote biomass utilisation and business opportunities
in Europe.
www.vtt.fi/virtual/afbnet/
OPET
Network of Organisations for the Promotion of Energy
Technologies
http://www.tekes.fi/eng/international/opet/mainpage2.html
24
Additional Information and Recommended Reading
1) Report on Wood Biomass Combined Heat and Power for the Irish Wood Processing Industry- January
1999”, Renewable Energy Information Office Publication. which is available on the website: www.irishenergy.ie/reio.htm by clicking on the Reference Centre Link
2) "Wood for Energy Production - Technology, Environment, Economy" is available in pdf format for
download on the website of The Centre for Biomass Technology: www.videncenter.dk/. A copy of this report is
also available from the Renewable Energy Information Office Tel: 023 29146 e-mail: [email protected]
3) “Introduction to Large Scale Combined Heat and Power (Revised)” is available in pdf format on the
“Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme” website: www.energy-efficiency.gov.uk. It is listed in the
publications section of the website as GPG043
4) “Financing Large-Scale CHP for Industry and Commerce” is available in pdf format on the “Energy
Efficiency Best Practice Program” website: www.energy-efficiency.gov.uk. It is listed in the publications section
of the website as GPG220
5) “How to Appraise CHP-a simple investment appraisal methodology” is available in pdf format on the
“Energy Efficiency Best Practice Program” website: : www.energy-efficiency.gov.uk. It is listed in the
publications section of the website as GPG227
6) Cogeneration Ready Reckoner Software www.isr.gov.au/resources/netenergy/domestic/cogen/cogen.html
Cogen-RR is a software programme designed to assist users with a first pass technical and financial analysis
of cogeneration at their site. The Ready Reckoner conducts a simple technical and financial analysis of a
cogeneration opportunity intended for quick preliminary evaluations. The software package is distributed by the
Australian Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy and can be downloaded from the
address given above
7) Bioenergy in Finland, Review 1998. Eija Alakangas VTT Energy, Agriculture and Forestry Biomass network
(AFB-net), Jyväskylä 1998, FINBIO publications 6. This ALTENER supported review is a comprehensive
review of bio-energy in Finland. Available on website: www.finbioenergy.fi/index_english.asp by clicking on the
“Bioenergy Information” and “Publications” links.
8) Feasibility Study Support Application Form Financial support for a feasibility study into the use of wood
fuelled CHP in the timber industry may be available from Enterprise Ireland. The application form for support is
available from Mr. Willie Fitzgerald, Food and Timber Department, Enterprise-Ireland Tel: 01 8082005 e-mail:
[email protected]
9) “Finnish Energy Technology Cases” OPET Finland. This comprehensive list of project examples includes
case studies of small and large scale CHP projects in Finland, and also projects dealing with wood handling
and energy efficiency. It is available on the following website:
www.tekes.fi/eng/international/opet/mainpage2.html
25
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