2014 Designexhibitionbooklet

2014 Designexhibitionbooklet
2014 Design and Project Exhibition
The Joseph Black Lecture
Form follows function Strive for perfection and beauty is
the by-product
Given by
Ron Dennis CBE
Chief Executive & Chairman of McLaren Group
Chairman of McLaren Automotive
Department of
Mechanical Engineering
1970
Exhibition
1971
Exhibition
1972
Some thoughts on design
and designers
Dr T Emerson
GKN Ltd
1973
The Design Council and
engineering
G E P Constable
Head of Engineering Design,
Design Council
1974
Design as a team game
E McEwen
Vice-Chairman
Engineering Joseph Lucas
Ltd
1975
The Ralph Shire Memorial
Lecture: Design problems in
aircraft gas turbines
L Haworth FRS
Director
Rolls-Royce (1971) Ltd
1976
Innovation in engineering
design
Dr A Moulton CBE
Director
Molton Developments Ltd
1977
Ship design
R J Daniels OBE
Director General of Ships
& Head of Royal Corps of
Naval Constructors
1978
The design’s craft
Dr G B R Feilden CBE
Director General
British Standards Institution
1979
Design for maintenance in
British Rail
K Taylor
Chief Mechanical & Electrical
Engineer
British Railways Board
1980
Effective industrial innovation
and its contribution to
Britain’s economic recovery
V J Osola
Chief Executive
Redman Heenan
International
1981
Investment in new product
development
Viscount Caldecote DSC
FEng
Chairman Delta Group plc
1982
The context of design
Sir Kenneth Corfield
Chairman & Chief Executive
Standard Telephones &
Cables Ltd
1983
Higher innovation: the
management of creative
disorder
Sir Basil Blackwell FEng
Vice-Chairman and Chief
Executive Westland plc
1984
Designing for dependability
in advanced power plant and
associated systems
Dr W Rizk CBE FEng
FIMechE
Chairman
GEC Diesels Ltd and GECRuston Gas Turbines Ltd)
1985
Better design for British
industry
Sir William Barlow FEng
Chairman & Chief Executive
of BICC, Chairman of the
Design Council
2
1986
The Car of the Year 2000
A.C.Rudd BSc (Eng) FSAE
Managing Director
Lotus Engineering Ltd
1987
Design for living
Sir Montague Finniston
FEng FRS
1988
Design: The common goal
John Butcher M.P.
Parliamentary Under
Secretary of Department of
Trade & Industry
1989
Industry: design & young
people
Ivor Owen
Director
The Design Council
1990
Effective management of
design
Peter Hills
SERC - Engineering Design
Co-ordinator
The Design Council
1991
Competing with better
products in less time
Keith Nichols
UK Marketing Manager
(CIM) Digital Equipment Ltd
1992
Concorde and its successor
Sidney Swadling
Director of Engineering
British Aerospace Airbus Ltd
1993
Metrology in the field of
engineering
David McMurtry
Chairman & Chief Executive
Renishaw plc
1994
Tribology in machine design
Professor Duncan Dowson,
CBE, FRS, FEng
The University of Leeds
2001
The Farnborough F1 Air Taxi:
an evolution in air travel
Richard Noble OBE
Farborough Aircraft
1995
Design to thrive
Prof. Ivan Yates, CBE FEng
Royal Academy of
Engineering
Visiting Professor, Eng Dept.
University of cambridge
Council Member,
The Design Council
2002
Designing the human knee
Professor John O’Connor
Oxford Orthopaedic
Engineering Centre
1996
Innovation-led
competitiveness: through
equivalence in
product organisation,
technology and culture
Professor Gordon Edge
The Generics Group
1997
Engineering and design:
against the odds
James Dyson
Dyson Appliances
1998
Technological innovation: a
managed resource
Professor Chris Pearce
Inbis Group pl
1999
The creation of the Goss
Challenger
Adrian Thompson
Paragon Mann Ltd
2000
The birth of a Morgan:
innovation and tradition
create a new sports car
Charles Morgan
Morgan Motor Company
2003
Challenging the design
process models
Professor Mogens Myrup
Andreasen
Technical University of
Denmark
2004
Information knowledge
management in an
international design firm
Mike Shears CBE
Arup Group
2005
Balancing conflicting needs
by design
Geoff E Kirk
Civil Aerospace, Rolls-Royce
plc
2006
Advanced technology for
space exploration
Professor Erik K Antonsson
NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory: 2002-2006
2007
The engineering challenges
of large scale structures for
wind energy generation
Dr Ian Chatting
Vestas Technology UK
3
2008
Design and manufacture:
dealing with technical
cultural aspects
Dipl.-Ing. Frank Ludwig
BMW Group
2009
Design, innovation and
competition: establishing the
balance
George W Buckley
3M
2010
Health and safety: the cradle
to grave approach
Judith Hackett
Health and Safety Executive
2011
Designing a spaceship for
everybody: the engineering
challenges of commercial
spaceflight
Jonathan Firth
Virgin Galactic
2012
Engineering Sustainability:
the role of design and
engineering in sustainable
innovation
Professor Jeremy Watson
Arup Group
2013
Inventing Your Future
Tom Pellereau
Aventom Ltd
lated during his final-year project. The
Bursary funded Chris for three-months to
work on hardware design for a new prototype system. Chris is now working for
the company that inspired his research,
This booklet contains details of the BIZ Karts Ltd (www.bizkarts.com) - the
27 Group Design and Business pro- largest kart manufacturer in the UK.
jects, including Mechanical, Aerospace,
Automotive (Formula Student) projects We are pleased to announce that we
undertaken by 3rd year students, and have recently received support for three
the 165 engineering projects undertaken additional more extensive awards - the
The
by 4th year students. It also contains de- Embleton Innovation Bursaries.
tails of the 30 Integrated Mechanical and three six-month bursaries are generElectrical Engineering (IMEE) projects ously supported by Honorary Graduate,
for the first time. Of note is the fact that Pro-Chancellor (1996-2003) and local
the Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) group entrepreneur, David Embleton – our
project is a joint Aero/IMEE activity, thanks to David for his kind support. We
further reflecting the importance of this are now developing a portfolio of awards
initiative. Details of all projects are in- that will allow us to support “product”
cluded on the Department’s website innovation of whatever type at a variety
(www.wiki.bath.ac.uk/display/Mech- of levels. We see this as highly important
to developing a pool of ideas and busiEngDesignExhibition/Home).
ness opportunities that can be assessed
We have introduced another innovation properly. This is very much along the
this year. As before, student projects lines of the entrepreneurial spirit of the
come from a variety of sources - indus- USA, the west coast in particular, where
try, research collaborators and internal if you have not had a couple of ideas or
requirements - however, this year each businesses go “pear shaped”, you don’t
project has two supervisors and have count!
been undertaken by two teams. These
teams are effectively in competition with One such entrepreneurial activity might
each other. The analogy here is that be starting an F2 team, which our guest
the ‘customer’ is requiring a tender or speaker did in 1971 and the rest, as they
proposal for a particular need or future say, is history… Thus I am delighted to
activity and it is the role of the team to welcome Ron Dennis, CEO of McLarsatisfy the requirement with detailed so- en Group and Executive Chairman of
lutions that are high quality, innovative McLaren Auto, to give his keynote address: “Form follows function - strive
and original.
for perfection and beauty is the byThe first of our competitively awarded product.”
‘Innovation Bursaries’ which fund students to develop their research and
create actual working prototypes and
business plans for pitching to investors,
is now fully up and running. Chris Day
(MEng IMEE 2013) received the first Geoff
Herrington Innovation Bursary to devel- Professor Steve Culley
op his research into battery management On behalf of the Design
systems, an extension of an idea formu- Team
Welcome to the 2014 Design and
Project Exhibition and to the Joseph
Black Lecture given by the legendary
Ron Dennis of McLaren.
4
Ron Dennis CBE
Ron Dennis CBE is the Chief Executive and
Chairman of McLaren Group and Chairman of
McLaren Automotive. He has been a pioneering
force within motorsport since he began his
career more than 40 years ago, and in terms of
wins achieved under his direction, is the most
successful team chief in the history of Formula
1 racing.
His innovative approach to business
and entrepreneurial skill have enabled
McLaren to grow and diversify significantly.
McLaren Group today includes a range of world
leading, high technology companies, which
operate from the iconic McLaren Technology
Centre and employ over 2,000 people.
McLaren’s activities range from producing the innovative hybrid super car, the
McLaren P1™; to helping Team GB athletes win 15 medals at the Olympics; to
working in partnership with GSK to improve the efficiency of their drug trials and of
their manufacturing facilities.
McLaren Group
The McLaren Group is an organisation with one goal: to win.
It is perhaps best known for its success on the Formula 1 track, having won 182
Grand Prix races and 20 world championships. However, it is far more than just a
racing team. Guided by the vision of Chief Executive and Chairman Ron Dennis, the
McLaren Group has grown to become a global technology company.
At its iconic headquarters, the McLaren Technology Centre, McLaren engineers and
manufactures cutting edge, high performance road cars such as the McLaren P1™,
it competes to win on the track and delivers world beating technologies to boost
performance in industries as diverse as healthcare, energy and transportation.
Key Note Speech:
Form follows function Strive for perfection and beauty is the
by-productuct
5
Our most grateful thanks and acknowledgements are due to the companies listed
below for proposing and sponsoring this year’s design projects. The financial
support and equipment that they have provided has been crucial to the success
of the projects, and the encouragement and insight of their staff has been highly
valuable to, and appreciated by, our students.
6
The Group Design and Business Project activity remains a key
feature of the 4 semester-based MEng course. Students work full-time in
Semester 2 of Year 3 on this unit, and this is worth 20% of the final degree
classification. The projects cover Aerospace, Formula Student and a
remarkably diverse range of mechanical and manufacturing engineering
projects. Many project requirements arise from genuine industry needs, and
some are undertaken in industry. The project has an integrated business
element which aims to show how engineering and commercial activities
progress side-by-side, just as in a normal business environment. This aspect
also includes the creation and publication of a business plan covering
investment appraisals and commercial risks.
This year, for the first time in the mechanical/manufacturing area of the course,
the large number of student groups has allowed two groups of students to
‘compete’ by working to develop solutions for one project requirement. This
has allowed the students to experience a form of commercial rivalry between
competing teams, and introduces them to the business realities of developing
competitive technical and commercial solutions that need to be clearly
differentiated from other bids. The Design Exhibition will provide each group
with the opportunity to display their proposals in public for the first time, so
some competitive rivalry may be apparent in their displays.
7
Group 1
Dematerialised Cryogenic
Machining System
Project Background
The additive manufacturing process is one that many in the manufacturing industry believe will
grow considerably over the next 5 years. Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) consists of
melting metal powers into complex geometry components. One limitation of the DMLS process
is that current machines are unable to achieve the surface and tolerance demanded
acceptable by these industries.
Design Brief
This objective is to design a cryogenic machining system to
complement the additive manufacturing process which yields
significant benefits over the use of conventional machining
technology.
Design Specification
The machine must:
 Be of dematerialised construction, this is one where
all unnecessary weight is removed
 Machine at a feed of 10,000mm/min
 Machine to a tolerance of 20 microns
 Machine a maximum cutting depth of 1mm


Use a cryogenic coolant to improve
surface finish and tool life
Include appropriate safety systems
to ensure safe operation
Solution
Ball screw actuators
control the movement of
the sliding mechanism.
Vertical motion about the
ball screw is translated to
a range of motion in 3 axis
of orientation by use of
ball hinges and linkage
joints
Ball joints allow for a
60° range of motion
Machine bed provides a
large variety of locations
for fixtures for locating the
work piece
The centre piece locates
the spindle in place and
also mounts the LN2
supply and nozzle to the
assembly
A
Sensory motors control
the movement of the ball
screw and therefore the
entire system movement
The cryogenic supply, A, injects liquid nitrogen at -150°C and injects it directly at the point of
cut to cool the work piece. The spindle and coolant work in conjunction to provide high speed
finishing that improves both tool life and surface finish over conventional finishing operations.
Designers:
Supervisors:
M.Evans, O.Gallop, A.Wilson Hardy, W.Hortop, L.Hucker, M.Lopes
Dr. V. Dhokia, Dr. M. Ansell
8
Group A
Background
CryoPOD
Laser additive manufacturing of metals is an
Cryogenic Parallel Operated Device
emerging technology with tangible benefits in
reducing material wastage and the ability to
manufacture complex 3D shapes. Although well suited to the
requirements of the aerospace and medical industries, these
techniques cannot currently produce components to the required
surface finish and tolerance.
The CryoPOD machining centre is a high speed finishing machine
targeted at finishing critical geometries on these components by the
novel use of two emerging technologies;
Cryogenic cooling system: Machining the hard-to-machine materials used in the Medical
and Aerospace industries generates large amounts of heat resulting in short tool lives, in
the order of minutes. By delivering liquid nitrogen directly to the point of cut CryoPOD’s
coolant system significantly increases tool life, reducing tooling costs by up to £ 100,000 a
year.
Parallel operating configuration: CryoPOD machines
components at high speed with low depths of cut,
reducing the cutting force and required machine
stiffness compared to a conventional CNC milling
centre. This allows for the use of a parallel rather than
a conventional serial machine architecture,
significantly reducing the moving mass and improving
efficiency.
Key specifications
 Capable of locating and then finishing critical
geometries on components produced from hardto-machine materials.
 Accommodates a maximum working volume
of 300 mm x 300 mm x 300mm.
 Static stiffness of 12.5 N/µm.
 Capable of feed rates of up to 10 m/min at
depths of cut of 0.5 mm.
 Able to hold tolerances on size, position and
form within ± 0.01 mm.
Designers : P. Mack, H. Zhao, V. K. Scariot, J. Mitton, L. Comin and M. Banks
Supervisors: Dr. V. Dhokia and Dr. M. Ansell
9
Group 2
The ‘Drop-in’
Cricket Pitch
Brief
Design an affordable Drop-In Pitch (DIP) system
that is suitable for use in Britain. The system
must insert and extract a portable cricket wicket
and transport it safely to an offsite hothouse
location.
A Drop-in Pitch
Portable cricket pitch or “Drop-In Pitch” refers to
a cricket pitch that can be installed and removed
from a sports field when required. This facilitates
the creation of multipurpose venues, as well as
providing greater utilisation opportunities for
cricket venues in both sporting and non-sporting
events. A DIP system has three components: the
metal tray that holds the pitch, the hole in the
ground where tray sits called the cradle and then
the transporter which lifts, lowers and transports
the tray.
The Solution
The Pitch Perfect DIP system approximately
achieves a 75% cost reduction from currently
used DIP products. The gantry-style transporter
frame evenly spreads its load across eight
powered wheels, as the transporter travels on
specially designed matting to protect the outfield
grass from damage. To minimise weight and
increase mobility, the pitch was sectioned into
four parts; two 10x2.8m trays and two 3.7x2.8m
trays. The innovative lifting mechanism, which
uses two chain hoists, is able to securely lift the
different sized trays whilst applying minimum
bending forces. The tray itself has an internal
lattice structure that reduces the weight of the
tray whilst providing optimum rigidity with a
maximum bending deflection of 2.77mm.
Design Specification
•  Transporter must be able to move
across the cricket pitch without causing
damage.
•  Transporter must lift and lower the tray
by at least 1 meter.
•  Tray should be isolated from vibrations
during transportation.
•  Tray rigidity must prevent the pitch
from cracking.
•  Tray must have suitable drainage
ability.
•  Manufacturing costs should be a factor
of 10 less than current methods
(£250,000).
•  Cradle should have a stable base and
suitable drainage ability.
•  System must transfer the tray on and off
a low loader lorry as well as into and out
of the cradle.
As well as achieving the required specifications,
one of the main features of this DIP system is
that it can be dismantled to ease storage when
not in use.
The Pitched Perfect Team
Alex Lee
Ali Alsamawi
Hannah Rose - PM
Mustapha Bello
Vito Macedo - BM
Supervisors
Mr R Valentine
Prof. A Miles
10
Group B
DESIGN BRIEF
Cricket pitches deteriorate during play.
Portable drop-in pitches are freely removable
and replaceable, allowing substitution for new
pitches when existing pitches wear down.
Drop-in pitches also facilitate venues hosting
multiple sports in the same playing area.
Existing solutions are large, expensive and not
suitable for UK roads. A cheaper solution was
to be designed, consisting of a set of
segmented, road-transportable pitch trays,
plus systems to lift them onto a vehicle and
transport them.
KEY SPECIFICATION
TECHNICAL CHALLENGES
 Pitch trays that combine to form a full 30
yard by 10 foot pitch.
 Road legislation governing the width of
vehicles – restricted at 2.55m.
 Concrete base in playing field to
accommodate trays and drain excess water.
 Weight of complete pitch – 30 tonnes.
 Prevent damage to the playing field from
heavy loading.
 Transporter system to lift trays from the
cradle and transport them on UK roads.
FINAL SOLUTION
 Articulated lorry to transport trays on UK
roads.
 Modular trays of 5 and 10 yard length that
combine to form a complete pitch.
 Trailer mounted jib cranes with retractable
outriggers.
 Spreader fixture to accommodate lifting
different tray sizes.
Team:
Doug Hardman
Will Skinner
Amir Beigi
Daniel Mattos
Matt Kemp
Supervisors:
Mr Rod Valentine
Prof. Tony Miles
11
Group 3
Westcode HRX Compressor
A Next Generation Air Compressor for the Rapid Transit Railway Industry
DESIGN BRIEF
Westcode specialise in service and maintenance of pneumatic compressors in the railway
sector. They are aiming to become an original equipment manufacturer, for which they
need an updated design to take to market. This project aims to design a new compressor,
based upon Westcode’s old design, which is now 30 years old.
REQUIREMENTS
 Match performance of
old design
 Reduced maintenance
costs
 Reduced size and weight
 Bring design up to date
OUTCOMES
New compressor design, the HRX, featuring:
 Horizontal layout changed from V-shape to reduce height
 Redesign of valve system to allow faster operating speed
 Addition of health monitoring system to aid maintenance and prevent damage

Designed for easy disassembly to reduce maintenance time
Jonathan Blackburn
Katerina Prokopiou
DESIGN TEAM
Sachindra Gamage
Luca Volpe
SUPERVISORS
Dr S MacGregor
Dr M Cole
12
Matthew Hale
Mohd Zulazam
Group C
Railway Air Compressor – Group C
Design Brief
0
Westcode is an established
supplier supporting the Global
Rolling Stock Industry, offering
solutions for Door and HVAC
systems and a range of
Aftermarket products and
services for vehicle systems
including Air Suspension and
Brake Control and Actuation.
Compressed air is used to
operate the majority of the
systems on a rail vehicle
including brakes, air suspension
and door systems. A reliable
compressor is therefore an
integral part of the system.
The Team
Tom Haydon – PM
Alex Caldwell
Rasjad Davey
Alex Sanins - BM
Luke George
Vitor Dangelo
Specifications






Westcode are now looking to
design and supply a new type
of compressor, assessing all the
potential
design
options
available and taking forward
the best proven technologies
into a production unit.
Free air delivery 25 cfm at 10 bar
Increased reliability
25 year product life
Ease of maintenance / modularity
Environmental considerations
Weight and size constraints
Prototype
compressor model
Benefits to Customer





Reduced through-life cost of ownership for railway operators, due to reduced
maintenance costs
Preventative maintenance through complete Remote Monitoring System
Increased efficiency, reducing power consumption and carbon emissions
Enhanced modularity, reducing manufacturing costs and easing maintenance
Various product packages to suit customers’ needs, including service contracts and
pay-per-hour
Supervisors:
Dr M Cole, Dr S MacGregor
13
-P
Group 4
Automatic Silver Nitrate Applicator
Bespoke Machining Solutions
Background
Benefits of the Chosen Design
Silver nitrate sticks are medical
devices commonly used for chemical
cauterisation; the removal of
verrucae, warts and granulated tissue;
and the halting of nosebleeds.




Brief
Greater dipping accuracy
Higher production rate
Fewer staff required
Potential to automate
packaging
Key Specification Points
The brief from Bray Healthcare was
to produce a semi-automated process
of applying silver nitrate solution to
plastic sticks, tripling the current
production volume whilst maintaining
a low rate of rejection.



The Design

The flexible and compact solution
processes the sticks in batches of 100.
The continuous production line
ensures minimal downtime and
increased output, with a capability of
producing up to 30 million sticks per
year.

High precision actuator
ensures sticks are dipped
accurately
Unique sorting system for
stick loading
Innovative ramp system to
collect and dispense sticks
onto conveyors
Streamlined replacement of
silver nitrate tanks
Variable production speed
Group Members
Christopher Kirkman
Andy Watt
Matthew Jones
Tim Maulin
Chris Meehan
Kieran Evans
Supervisors
Mr M Ould
Sponsored by
Bray Healthcare
14
Dr S Gheduzzi
Group D
Silver Nitrate
Manufacturing Machine
Silver Nitrate Applicators are thin plastic sticks used by medical practitioners
to treat skin granulation and cauterise wounds. Currently the manual
manufacturing process is heavily reliant on experienced operators, therefore
a gap exists for a machine to automate the process and increase the output.
The Specification
-
Design a machine suitable for
modular installation.
-
Automate & de-skill the process
-
Increase the output to 30
million units per year
-
Maintain failure rate of <1%
-
Minimise machine footprint
-
Maximum factory delivery cost
£200K with a return on
investment <2 years
Our Design
-
Fully modular batch production
system with three carriages
each securing up to 500 sticks.
Continuous process with
output in batches of 10 to 250.
Automated two pot replenishment system to reduce down
time between batches.
De-skilled dipping process
accurate to 0.05mm.
Engineers: Jack Chartres; Chris Hopkins; Stuart Jaeckel;
Alex Matthews; Katrina Reynolds; Isabel Tienmann
Supervisors: Dr. Sabina Gheduzzi & Mr. Martin Ould
Sponsor Company: Bray Healthcare
15
Group 5
Solution
3M is a global company with market
focus on the manufacturing industry.
The abrasives manufacturing is a
significant part of a business constantly
looking at new ways to innovate and
improve the industry.
Identifying key processes in the
splicing procedure allowed the
individual analysis of their feasibility
to be automated. A number of novel
solutions have been used to reduce
manual time by automating processes
such as preparing the web ends for
splicing and making sure that the webs
are of sound quality.
Design Brief
Design an automated splicing machine
requiring minimal manual handling,
for use in the abrasives manufacturing
industry. A variety of rolls are used in
the sector so the machine must be
capable of processing all types.
Our machine reduces roll change over
time by 25% whilst ensuring quality
and reliability.
Key issues
 Fully integrated automatic unwind
allowing continuous running
 Meet the tensions currently used
 Web speed in the required range
 All existing web forms to be
processed on new design
 Minimal handling requirements
Team
Simon McKinney
Heng Way Ping
Elis Evans
Supervisors
Philippa Bradbury
Marc Nelson
Evans Menelaou
16
Prof. G Mullineux
Dr L Newnes
Group E
Automated Unwind and Flying Splice
Machine for Abrasive Manufacturing
Context
The abrasive manufacturing process begins with the unwinding of large reels of web
known as jumbos. A web is a long thin and flexible material. In order to eliminate
downtime, an expiring jumbo must be joined together with a full jumbo without
stopping the manufacturing line. This process of joining two webs is known as splicing.
Design Brief
The Design
The project’s aim is to design a new
machine to replace the customer’s old
machine. The new machine must be
capable of:
 Unwinding varying sized jumbos
 Automatically controlling web
tension
 Splicing two jumbos together
Key features include:
1. Flying splice for zero downtime
2. Automated splice setup
3. Ergonomic human-machine interface
4. Simple jumbo removal system
5. Load cell – servomotor tension control
Manual processes must be automated
where possible.
1
2
5
3
4
Project Team
Sponsors:
Supervisors
Prof. Glen Mullineux
Dr. Linda Newnes
Tobias Phillips (PM)
Helle Flom (BM)
Oktay Cetinel
Will Voke
Kristoffer Thuesen
17
Group 6
Design Brief
Achievements
Penn Elcom, a manufacturer of hardware
for the music industry, are looking to
improve the production of their bestselling range of flight case handles.
Millions of these handles are produced
annually and the company is seeking to
return parts of their manufacturing
operations from China back to the UK.
Following a full feasibility analysis of
Penn Elcom’s current manufacturing
processes, a rotary indexing table was
developed to automate the labourintensive spring insertion and crimping
processes. The final design is comprised
of six sub-assemblies:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The project’s aim was to identify a section
of the manufacturing process amenable to
automation and design a machine to
achieve the pertinent operations.
Handle-wire Storage and Escapement
Spring Orientation and Feed
Spring Escapement and Insertion
Crimping
Handle Ejection
Rotary Table Operation and Control
The machine is capable of five minutes
autonomous operation. A sprung handle is
produced every two seconds and fed
continuously to the next production stage.
The machine is compatible with the two
handles Penn Elcom have specified.
Design Objectives
Integrate into a manual production line
Reduce human labour
Reduce product throughput time
Achieve compatibility with two handle
part-numbers.
 Safeguard high product reliability




Project Team
Greg Whitby
Laura Cunliffe
Edward Joyce
Project Supervisors
Professor Stephen Culley
Dr Aydin Nassehi
Sponsor
Penn Elcom Ltd.
18
Henry Carr
Carl Bishop
Kun Qian
Group F
Flight Case Handle Manufacture
Project Brief:
Flight cases are used worldwide to
transport music and electrical equipment.
Penn Elcom is one of the world’s leading
flight case component manufacturers,
producing 2 million handles per year.
A potential company merger will double
their annual production volume of these
handles, therefore the company needs
to increase productivity on the manufacturing line.
Solution:
 Redesign handle to reduce
number of components
 Develop an automated machine
to reduce labour costs
This saves Penn Elcom around
£180,000 annually and reduces the
James Lilburne
Alessandra Verza
Matthew Ashworth
Oliver Byrne
Project Manager:
James Wright
Business Manager:
Anna Lockett
19
number of processes
by 50%.
Supervisors:
Prof. Stephen Culley
Dr. Aydin Nassehi
Group 7
StuntAround
Motocross Backflip Simulation System
The Background:
Freestyle Motocross (FMX) is a sport that
involves skill and guts – not many of the
fans have these attributes. Backflips are
the hardest tricks to perform, and once
perfected, they induce the most thrill.
This product aims to get fans more
practically involved in the sport with no
need of experience and in complete
safety. It offers them a chance to
experience what they can only dream of.
The Objectives:
We were set the task to design a device
that allows anyone to experience a
backflip on an FMX bike. This product
should:
• complete a realistic backflip on an
FMX bike
• induce a thrill
• maintain 6 degrees of motion
• be transportable between shows
and events
• be adaptable for a range of users
• be completely safe
The Product:
This design has vertical, horizontal and rotational motion that work in sync , to
simulate the trajectory of a backflip. A control system ensures that the same path is
followed each time and adapts for a wide range of people’s heights and weights. Failsafe systems have been implemented into both mechanical and control systems.
Although this stage of design does not provide user-input and free motion, it is
possible with further developments. The device can also be dismantled entirely, for
transport around the UK.
The Supervisors:
Mr. Jeffrey Barrie
Prof. Richie Gill
The Sponsor: Camshaft Ltd
Mr. Philip Turner
20
The Team: 7X Design
Prem-Sagar Tank
Duncan Cameron
Nick Avery
Ed Mason
Orestis Katsoulas
Benjamin Bell
Group G
Motorbike Stunt Training System
Reuben Thomas (Project Manager),
Thomas Alderton (Business Manager)
Oliver Skittery, Toby Coker, Tim Chard & Stuart Gordon
Basic Requirements
Given the basic aim, the constraints
were applied that the system must:




Allow movement in all six
degrees of freedom.
Give user movement control
whilst maintaining safety.
Transportable system.
Meet legislative constraints.
Solution
A simulation system has been
developed with the following features:

Design Brief

Inspired by freestyle motocross
events, the project objective was to
design a system to allow any spectator
or member of the public to experience
the challenge and sensation of
performing a backflip on a motorcycle
in complete safety. This could be met
in one of two ways:




A system in which the user
completes the full range of
motion, meeting all sensory
requirements.
A simulated experience in which
some
sensory
inputs
are
synthesised (e.g. vision and
sound).
Virtual reality helmet providing
the visuals and audio.
A bespoke
‘dummy bike’
incorporating full controls and
comprehensive user restraints.
Movement simulated using a
Kuka robotic arm controlled by a
motion cueing algorithm.
Transportation by a fixed body
Scania lorry with necessary
stabilising components.
Sponsors
Camshaft Ltd.
21
Supervisors
Mr J. Barrie
Prof. R. Gill
Group 8
BETTER
HUMAN
DIFFERENT
Autonomous
Decorating Machine
BENEFITS
AIMS
Base Unit & Drone
Head Prototypes
Design an innovative, ‘Autonomous Decorating System’
incorporating robotics technology developed within
Dyson. The system will perform painting activities faster
and to a higher standard than can be achieved by hand.
SAFETY - This machine will traverse the ceiling
and walls, eliminating the need for ladders or
scaffolding.
CLEAN PROCESS - Non-stick pipes reduce
the clean up time post painting and excess
paint is purged back into paint bucket for further
use.
TIME SAVING - Machine can be set up to paint
large areas unattended whilst operator can
work on other jobs.
Group Members
Bruno Ainsworth
Theofanis Demetriou
Ben Harwood
Joshua Lewis
Tom Parsons
Paul Wrigley
Supervisors
Chris Bannister
Marcelle McManus
KEY ISSUES & ACHIEVEMENTS
A Dyson digital motor, currently used in hand-held vacuums, enables the
‘Drone’ to suck to the painting surface. Visual sensors similar to those in
gaming devices have been used to map out the surface landscape. A
hand-held device uses an accelerometer with software similar to that seen
in smart phone apps, to assist in the mapping process. Wireless interaction
between the ‘Base Unit’ and ‘Drone’ allows regulation of paint flow through
the paint cord and unreeling of the cord in tandem with the motion of the
drone.
22
Group H
PM-01
THE FUTURE OF HOME DECORATING
Autonomous Wall & Ceiling
Painting Machine
The Product
Facts & Figures
The PM-01 is a machine capable of mechanising
and automating part of the decorating process - in
this case Painting.




Paints an average room in 15 minutes
Priced at £4,250
>70% cost saving for customer
Features Automated Cleaning System
Spray Nozzle:
Allows for even paint cover
8 Tiered Scissor Lift:
Provides vertical movement
for spray nozzle
Storage:
Houses standard 5L paint tin
User interface, Cameras &
Control Unit:
Allows for user control and
enables environmental
understanding
Pump:
Transfers paint from storage to
spray nozzle
The PM-01 can be used in
both a domestic and commercial setting. Primarily,
customers include building
contractors and decorating
firms, whilst homeowners
are able to rent or hire the
product from DIY retailers.
Motorised wheels:
Add control and
steering to lateral
movement
Project Team
Jonathan Faulkner
Georgina James
Joshua Evans
Natalie James
Supervisors
Dr C Bannister
Dr MMcManus
23
Hakim Samsudin
Group 9
Desalination Using Wave Energy
Team
Design Brief
Water shortage is the second most important problem challenging
mankind today. Although water covers 70% of the planet,
freshwater - what we drink, wash and irrigate our fields with - is
incredibly rare (only 1% of world’s water is freshwater available for
use).To compound this issue, existing water systems have become
stressed, with rivers and lakes drying up or becoming too polluted
for use. By 2025, it is estimated two-thirds of the world’s population
may face water shortage
Laur Läänemets – P.M.
Aidan O’Kelly – B.M.
Sen Pan
Harish Rama
Ben Whiteley
Henry Wood
What Can Be Done?
Desalination (process of turning seawater into freshwater) is not a
new concept but current systems utilise expensive nuclear power or
polluting diesel generators to power the process. This project
focuses on harnessing clean green ocean waves to power the
conversion process instead.
Supervisors
Dr. A Hillis
Dr. J Darling
Sponsor
The brief, set by Zyba Renewables, was to incorporate their
patented CCell curved wave paddle into a system that is capable of
producing economically viable freshwater from nothing more that
the power of waves. To achieve this we designed WaveFresh.
Key Features/ Specifications of Our Product
Provides bespoke fresh water solutions at a variety of different capacities
• Utilises hydraulic piston pumps to harness the wave power
• Uses environmentally-friendly gravity based structure for mounting to the seabed
• Buries transmission pipes for protection from storms and marine life
• Incorporates hydraulic pressure rectification to provide constant power supply
• Uses reverse osmosis (RO) for the desalination process
• Deliberately designed in modular sections to aid changes to capacity and demand
•
24
Group J
Design Brief:
The Product
Through utilisation of C-Cell’s unique
‘patented’ design, design a means to
profitably produce electricity on a local
and global scale.
C-Cell is a nearshore Wave Power
device. Its design is simple: the
oscillatory motion caused by waves
hitting the C-Cell Paddle is converted
via a hydraulic system into rotary
motion at a generator. This produces
the electricity on which we all depend.
The collective electricity is transmitted
to shore for consumption.
Historical Context:
Mankind thrives to evolve. Developments
in technology have brought an era where
“nothing is impossible”, however, with it
a global issue set for world destruction
(Global Warming). If mankind is to
survive, ZERO EMISSIONS must be
achieved. Merely reducing the rate of
global warming is insufficient; the breaks
on CO2 emissions must be fully
depressed.
Through the motion of sea waves, Zyba
Renewables’ innovative C-Cell wave
energy device will produce ‘green’
electricity. 70% of the earth is covered
with water, with an estimated 2TW of
untapped energy. Through this, our gift
to the world, is the future…
Specification
A 20 year lifetime guarantee and low
maintenance cost will enable us to
reach a competitive £4/W Capital
Cost. Initially going to be released
within the United Kingdom, a small 10
device batch will produce 300kW of
power, sufficient to power more than
500 homes.
Unique Selling Points:
Its curved design yields 1.5x more energy
per metre wave with 2x more efficiency
than competitors. This alongside its
shape makes it stronger, cheaper and
more powerful.
Designers: W.Irlam, R.Matthews, M.McCurrach, J.Payne, O.Pringle & A.Schild
Supervisors: Dr J.Darling & Dr A.Hillis
25
Group 10
Drill-Fettle Robot for
Aerospace Assemblies
Description
CRAWL-R is a lightweight autonomous
robot which will bring time and cost
savings to the aerospace industry.
CRAWL-R utilises a Stewart Platform to
achieve locomotion and drilling motion
and can achieve a drilling accuracy of
0.2 mm.
Design Brief
Part-to-part interchangeability cannot
be achieved for aerospace assemblies
due to their large sizes, and flexible
nature. Post-assembly machining is
required to ensure that tight interface
tolerances can be achieved. These
processes account for the majority of
the cost of wing and fuselage
assembly.
Team
Megan Henson (Project Manager)
Charles Brooker (Business Manager)
Gordon Cheung
Jamie Douglas
Steven Brace
Saul Harris
We have developed a small mobile
machine tool that can traverse the
wing assembly and carry out local
machining operations. The device is
capable of adhering itself to fully
inverted curved surfaces whilst walking
and carrying out machining operations.
Specification
- Capable of 5 axis milling and drilling
- Operational on inverted surface
- On-board scarf collection
- Walking speed of 200mm/sec
Project Supervisors
Dr. J Muelaner
Prof. P Keogh
26
Group K
Autonomous Drilling Robot
Design Brief
The manufacture and assembly of aircraft
wings is a major task in the aerospace
industry. One of the most challenging tasks in
this process is the drilling of holes for rivets,
with aircraft such as the A380 having
110,000 holes to be drilled.
The goal of this project was to design an
autonomous drilling robot in order to remove
the expensive labour force from this process.
Design Description:
Achievements:
The Autonomous Drilling Robot (ADR) is a
device capable of roaming free over a wing
assembly at any orientation, drilling holes at
predetermined locations to a high level of
precision and then verifying that the hole is to
the correct tolerance.
The team designed a drilling robot able to
drill the majority of holes in a wing assembly
to a higher accuracy and faster than manual
methods. The robot is able to do this at
approximately one third of the current
manual labour cost.
Future plans for the ADR include the ability
to detect ridges and carry out fettling
operations.
Specification:








Supervisors:
Engineers:
Alex Lewis (Project Manager)
Elliott Compton
Mark Bleakley
Can operate at any orientation
Able to drill up to one hole every 8.7s
Can drill 8 holes from one position
Drill holes up to 60mm deep and
between 4-13mm diameter without
changing bits
Accurate to 0.01mm
Able to verify hole diameter, depth and
tolerances
Swarf Removal system
Mass of 93kg
Prof. P Keogh
Mr J Muelaner
Ross Freeguard
Muhammad Alidi
Amanda Hambsch
27
Formula Student – TBR15
Team Bath Racing has designed the next generation single seater racing car for
the amateur weekend racer. The car features a full carbon fibre monocoque and a
single cylinder KTM450 SXF engine, that is turbocharged by the Garett GT1241.
To optimise the engine performance E85, a biofuel blend of ethanol and gasoline,
is utilised.
The Car was designed to be responsive, efficient and have a high power to
weight ratio.
Team: Thomas Peirson-Smith (PM), Jocelyn Cheli, Gavin Grant, Will Charles,
Jake Reid, Ryan Marsh, James Mady, Harry Leeming, Toby Davis, Marcos
Fukuchi, Michael Graham, Yu Ruo Jia , Decquan Chen, Ben Hansen, Josh
Gillman, Ted Rickards (BM), Peter Alton, Martin McDonald, Oliver Dolbear,
Konstantinos Deligiannis Barmpalias, Rob Ashburner, Tom Stevens, Lizzie
Attwood, Jack Carroll, Mark Cooper, Kevin Johnson
Supervisors: Dr G W Owen & Dr K Robinson
28
Business Project
Our project centres around a hypothetical electric powertrain company shifting its focus
towards motor racing.
Test Vehicle: “e-Demon”
The e-Demon is an upgraded pro kart chassis powered by
2 x 10kW motors. It is being used to test our motor control
systems and hone our electric formula student capabilities.
Formula Student Electric Project
Technical Objectives

Build working “e-Demon” test Vehicle

Re-build TBR12 (shown below) as electric powertrain vehicle

Enter electric entry into Formula Student Competition in 2015
Dan
Motors
Ed
Dynamics
Guy
Configuration
Hashan
Cooling
Luke
Batteries
Simon
Control
29
Supervisors
Academic
Dr R Butler
Dr J du Bois
Dr MJ Carley
Dr D Cleaver
Dr JL Cunningham
Prof I Gursul
Dr P Iravani
Dr DN Johnston
DR HA Kim
Prof GD Lock
Dr M Meo
Prof ST Newman
Dr A T Rhead
Dr M Wilson
Dr Z Wang
Industry
Dr L Boyd
Dr J Crocker
Mr D Heaton
Mr F A Hewitt
Sir R Hill
Prof J Jupp
Mr A Langridge
Mr K MacGregor
Mr G O’Connor
Mr C Stevens
Sponsors
Airbus UK
Rolls-Royce
University of Bath Alumni Fund
30
Human Powered Aircraft
Raven
A twin fuselage Human Powered Aircraft.
Two Pilots, each with their own propeller.
Fly-by-radio controls.
MATLAB used extensively as primary design tool.
Designed By:
Tom White
Tomos Harris
Josh Lane
Zhiyun Wang
Designed to complete
the Kremer International
Marathon Prize:
A marathon distance in
under one hour with 10
turns
A truly marketable HPA.
Integration of electrical
motors would mean it could
be flown by everyone.
Possibly the newest and
most exciting way to go on
Safari?
31
Aerostream Aviation
Aerospace Group Business and Design Project
Group: Civil Transport Aircraft 1
Design Brief
The Boeing 747 will soon reach the end
of its service life and as there is
currently no direct replacement for the
B747-800, the task is to design an
improved alternative aircraft.
The Team
Meghan Silveira: Project Manager/Cabin
and Cockpit Design
Ross Atherton: Structural
Integrator/Manufacturing Strategy for
Final Assembly
Heather Borsuk: Aerodynamics/DOC
Daniel Lee: Fuel Systems/Project Costing
Martin McIver: Stability &
Control/Business Manager
Steve Sides: Wing Structure/Marketing
Chris Wheele: Performance &
Propulsion/Regulation
Althea Yii: Landing Gear/Aftermarket
Jibran Yousafzai: Technical
Integrator/Supply Chain & Sub Assembly
Design Specification
 450 passenger capacity in 3 class
layout
 8000nm range
 Initial cruise altitude 35000ft
 Entry in service of 2025
 Airport Compatibility ICAO Code F
 Minimize turnaround time
 DOC target – 15% reduction against
2010 state of the art
The Arnoux/A370
The Arnoux is an aerodynamically efficient aircraft which is capable of carrying
450 passengers in a three class layout over 8000nm with the lowest fuel burn of
any large aircraft with a reduction of 19% compared to 777-300ER. With a
maximum take-off weight of 357 tonnes, the Arnoux cruises at a Mach number of
0.83 allowing it to fly from London to New York in 6hr30. The Arnoux shall be the
largest all electric and the most energy efficient aircraft in service in 2025. With a
wingspan of 64m and blended winglets to reduce vortex drag the aircraft can fit
into the 64m gate requirements. The aircraft uses a high percentage of modern,
low density/high strength composites. This detailed design reduces the structural
weight, therefore reducing fuel burn and overall reducing the DOC of the aircraft.
32
Design Brief
The X1 is a double decker twin
engine aircraft, with backwards
swept gull wings. It has three classes
in the 450 passenger standard
layout, with a total of 615
passengers in the high density
configuration. The total length of
the aircraft is 65.5m, which fits
within the 80m length limit with
potential for stretch and shrink
variants.
To design a replacement for the
Boeing 747, a 450 passenger aircraft
capable of travelling 8000 nautical
miles.
The 747 has been in service for 50
years and the current variant the
747-8i is not selling as expected. As
the only aircraft in the 400-500
passenger market and with the
rapid expansion of the aviation
industry the replacement should be
able to perform well.
Specification/Key issues
The aircraft must
 Carry 450
passengers
 Have a design
range of
8000nm
 Cruise at 0.820.86 Mach
 Approach
speed of less
than 145kts
 Reach airport
compatibility
ICAO Code F
 ETOPS time of
180mins
The aircraft
should
 Initial cruise at
35000ft
 Maximum
cruise at
41000ft
 Equivalent
cabin altitude
of 6000ft
 Have a turnaround time
less than one
and a half
hours
The Phoenix is focused towards
cheap and comfortable flights, as
these were determined the most
important factors when booking a
flight. The Phoenix has wider seats
than any commercial aircraft and
aims to create a benchmark for
passenger comfort standards with
high quality cabin environment
control.
Our Design
Phoenix has designed a replacement
for the 747, the X1: due to release in
2025, its advanced design will
dominate the market by reducing
operating costs by 15%.
Members: G. Cowley, A. Taylor, M. Walsh, B.
Sanderson, C. Rossiter, D. Choi, H. Blofield, N.
Rattan, V. Ajayakumar (J. Mitchell)
Supervisor: Dr M Wilson
33
Universal Aid Vehicles
Design Brief
The Design
In 2015 the IMechE will be holding a
competition to design an unmanned
aerial vehicle capable of delivering
two 1kg payloads over a distance of
20 nautical miles.
Named the T2-Aquila, the design is a
twin boom, pusher propeller aircraft,
which uses interchangeable modules
to carry out a range of missions.
The systems are based around a
primary onboard CPU which will run
search and control algorithms with a
secondary back up running essential
functions and fail safes.
Universal Aid Vehicles are designing a
system capable of performing the
mission with maximum autonomy,
automatically detecting targets and
delivering the payloads accurately
and quickly.
This competition also acts as a basis
for a simulated business case, using
the product to deliver humanitarian
aid in real environment.
Product Specification
MTOW
Maximum Velocity
Range
Maximum Altitude
Altitude Control
Payload Accuracy
Maximum Wind Velocity
Design Team
Roberto La Spina
PM & High Level Autonomy
Robert Wheeler
Structure & Manufacturing
Tom Boyce
Aerodynamics & Certification & Regs
Thomas Fletcher
Propulsion & Project Costing
Hayden Sansum
Sensing & Business Manager
Tom Magowan
Avionics & Marketing Manager
Woolsey Williams
Navigation & Direct Operating Costs
7kg
60knots
20nm
150m
+/- 3m
+/- 30m
5knots
Supervisors: Dr P Iravani, Dr J du Bois,
Dr D Cleaver
34
35
David Clarke
Sean Phillips
EJ200 Maintenance Optimisation
Intelligent Work Scopes
Once an engine type has been in service for a
significant period of time, it is possible to statistically analyse the engine life data to show how
long components are lasting before failure. This
information can then be used to inform maintenance policies, by confirming whether a part
should or should not be replaced at any given
time. This project aims to validate an existing
model which highlights the potential cost savings to Rolls-Royce through the use of statistical
modelling to improve maintenance policies.
A study is required into the potential replacement of manual inspection at first line with
functional/symptomatic/diagnostics prognostics.
The aim of the project is to determine whether
burdensome and costly borescope inspections
at defined intervals can be mitigated by understanding the rationale behind the inspections,
the failure consequences and the ability to replace the inspection with functional/symptomatic
diagnostics or prognostics.
Tom Pierce
Exhaust/Intake Overpressure Prediction
Luis Rodriguez de la Oliva
The aerodynamic loads resulting from transient
engine surge can be significant and often set
intake and exhaust maximum load design limits. Advances in transient and porous panel flow
modelling techniques offer the opportunity for
designing more optimum intake and exhaust
components complementing existing empirically
based tools which are limited in their application.
The aim of this project is to apply newly developed tools and assess their effectiveness and
usability for this application.
TP400 IPC Surge Margin Analysis
The TP400 engine is a turboprop engine which
powers the Airbus A400M, a military transport
aircraft. This project is split into two parts: the first
aims to complete the development of a model to
analyse TP400 IPC surge margin during in-flight
manoeuvres and extract information about IPC
stability threats, particularly inlet distortion, from
flight test data. The second part aims to investigate improved ground start performance.
James Sullivan
Jonathan Swift
Aerospace Electrical Technology Review
Fluid System Ripple Damper
The process of moving to electrical power systems has taken place in many other industries
such as automotive, marine and rail. This project
will explore the motivations for these trends in
the context of the aerospace industry, together
with exploring the state of the art in the enabling
technologies with a fresh and innovative view.
The aim is to deliver a recommended scope of
work that will guide Rolls Royce strategic research in the area of electrical technologies that
will develop and exploit the emerging and developing technologies and industry trends for the
short, medium and long term up to 2050.
Dynamic pressure instabilities can occur in fuel
or oil systems as a result of pump or valve generated flow fluctuations. Sometimes referred
to as ‘pressure ripple’, this phenomenon can
generate sufficient force to damage system
components or pipework in aerospace applications. The aim of this project is to develop as
novel ripple damper solution to the proof of concept stage through a combination of experimental and experimental means.
36
David Clare
Sebastian East
Supervisor Andrew Hillis
Supervisor Andrew Hillis
Optimisation of Gear Driven Door Mechanisms
Dynamic Modelling of Electrically Actuated
Nose Landing Gear
To save weight in aircraft landing gear, bay door
actuators can be removed by mechanically coupling the motion of the gear to that of the doors.
Because the doors have to close again once the
gear is deployed, this requires complex linkages
that have a variety of conflicting requirements.
This project aims to create a tool in MATLAB that
will automatically optimise the geometry of such
linkages to meet the requirements.
The project is an investigation into the shimmy
stability of aircraft nose landing gear, with a focus on single aisle commercial airliners. This is
part of the strategic research activities within the
company, looking to produce a more electric aircraft in order to reduce weight at an aircraft level.
37
The External Industrial Project is a design-based project undertaken with industry
over a six month period between March and August. Each year, approximately a
dozen third year students choose this option instead of a full time group design
project. Because of the timing, they do not exhibit their work at the Design and
Project Exhibition.
This year’s External Integrated Students are:
Student
Company
Based
Supervisor
Steven Goguelin
INPG/DP-Technology
Grenoble, France RFN
Kieran Chandler
INPG/DP-Technology
Grenoble, France FHO
The Department would like to thank all the external input received during the group
project activity. In particular, thanks goes to the External Panel Review and Advice
team (EPRA), established by Sir Robert Hill in 2011. This is a team of experienced
Engineers and Senior Managers from industry, which undertakes a detailed review
of each project, with the students.
Brian Brooksbank
John Clayden
Colin Dimbylow
Bob Hill
Anne Holden
Gan Jenkins
Robin Kerr
Andy Knott
Peter Lidgett
Paul Maillardet
Howard Mathers
David Mattick
Bob Meggs
Frank Mungo
38
Mike Parkinson
Jonathon Reeve
Malcolm Shirley
Gareth Somerset
John Spencer
Adrian Worker
Peter Wyatt
The Final Year Engineering Project is the major individual research or
design part of the MEng degree programmes in the Department of Mechanical
Engineering. Students work full time on the project, which counts for 20% of
the overall degree classification.
The general aim of the project is to provide the student with the opportunity to
show creativity and initiative in planning and executing work on a demanding
Master’s level project in a specific topic area which may include experimental,
design, analytical, computational and business components. A number of the
projects are taken in conjunction with industry, as well as Formula Student
and Specialist Design related activities.
39
Sam Abbott
Supervisor: Dr D N Johnston
Tim Adams
Supervisor: Prof. G Mullineux
Investigation of digital hydraulic control
Deflections of the string bed of a tennis
racket
Traditional throttle valves are inherently inefficient in the way they use resistance to control flow. This project investigated a rotary fast
switching valve as an alternative. This switched
inertance device was applied to a real target application to explore its suitability as a pressure
controller with encouraging results achieved
both using MATLAB/Simulink and by experiment. This new valve technique is expected to
provide efficiency improvements in hydraulic
applications such as excavators.
The overall aim was to gain a greater understanding of the mechanical properties of a
tennis racket string bed. This was done in two
ways: by experimenting and observing the deflections in the string bed, and by developing an
energy string model. It was found that the energy model fairly accurately modelled how the
strings interacted in the experimental testing.
More work is required in the future to develop
the model even further.
Mawuli Agbesi
Supervisor: Dr Z Whang
Vladislavs Aleksejevs
Supervisor: Dr Z Whang
Hydrodynamics of fish olfaction and its
implications for biomimetic underwater
vehicles
Active control of the separated flow over an
airfoil using suction
The aim of this project was to investigate the
hydrodynamic behaviour within the nasal
region of various fish species. A dye visualisation technique was employed using
anatomically correct models which found that
the Amu Darya sturgeon, Northern pike and
Atlantic guitarfish all exploit external currents to
induce internal nasal flows. The fluid behaviour
observed has a direct influence on a fish’s olfactory sensitivity and these findings can be applied
to novel underwater vehicles which track scents.
The main aim of this project was to investigate
the efficiency of suction method. A set of experiments with four variable parameters (angle of
attack, air flow velocity, suction slot location and
suction flow rate) was conducted in an open
jet wind tunnel. The obtained data was used to
calculate such parameters as change in lift and
drag forces. The possible application of suction
method on real aircrafts was also discussed.
Vytenis Aleliunas
Supervisor: Dr H A Kim
Angelos Alexandropoulos
Supervisor: Dr R D Burke
Cross-validation algorithm development for
multi-fidelity surrogate models
Energy and Exergy analysis on Internal
Combustion Engines
High fidelity engineering simulation tools, due
to their computational complexity, sometimes
cannot be used for optimisation studies, where
repeated design evaluations are required.
Therefore, cheaper surrogate models (models
of models) are created and cross-validated
before being used. This project was aimed
at expanding traditional cross-validation
methodology to allow not only rejecting or
accepting surrogate models but also providing
guidance on how most efficiently improve its
accuracy.
This project evaluates the available literature
concerning the application of first and secondlaw analysis to internal combustion engines.
The balance equations have been evaluated
under steady-state and transient operation.
Four case studies have been performed, two of
which are under steady-state and two under
transient operation. An Energy and Exergy
analysis has been performed for each individual
subsystem of the engine. Added to this, a comparative approach has been followed between
the first and second-law.
40
Haris Ali
Supervisor: Prof. C R Bowen
David Anscombe
Supervisor: Prof. I A Gursul
Harvesting Energy using Pyroelectric
materials
Aeroelastic effects in formation flight
Some materials release electric charge when
their temperature changes. Materials belong to
various families: from crystalline to polymers.
Common examples include quartz, plastics
(PVDF) and human bone and ligament. Pyroelectric materials are already being used in
sensors. The electric power they produce is very
small (nano-watt range). They can be successfully used as wireless chargers e.g. in systems
where access is costly and man power intensive
(battery powered stand-alone alarms etc.)
Formation flight of civil aircraft is a potential
solution to reducing fuel burn by reducing drag.
This project measured forces and deformations
of a wing in formation to determine the
aeroelastic response compared to solo flight.
Lift, tip deflection and tip twist all increased
as expected, but so did the drag, which was
not. There was no significant change in the
dynamic response. Potentially there were
effects occurring that had previously not been
considered.
Matthew Ashworth
Supervisor: Prof. P G Maropoulos
Elie Bardavid
Supervisor: Dr A J Hillis
Determining the angular repeatability of the
indoor GPS system
Damage detection in wind turbine support
structures
Metrology is a field seeking to develop increasingly capable measurement instruments. This
project involved testing an instrument called
the indoor GPS. The project sought to calculate
the accuracy and repeatability of the system for
angular measurements. Testing indicated good
accuracy and repeatability for rotations over the
local y and z axes, but not the x axis. Further
work has been suggested by repeating the experiments for full 360° rotations over all axes.
A wind turbine was modelled in order to investigate if damage could be detected by looking at
the structure’s dynamic properties. Ansys was
used for the design part before the time and frequency domain analysis were done in Matlab/
Simulink. A nonlinear model of a wind turbine
was completed and showed that there was a
change of the fundamental frequency when the
structure was damaged.
Ali Bastas
Supervisor: Prof. P G Maropoulos
Thomas Beamish
Supervisor: Dr A T Rhead
Coordinate Measurement Machine Scanning Probe vs. Touch-Trigger Probe
Leidenfrost Pump
This project compared the measurement performance parameters (measuring uncertainty and
measuring time) of the Scanning Probe (SM25)
against the Touch-trigger Probe (TP200) for
calibrated rectangular (Gauge Block Experiments) and spherical (Imperial Sphere Experiments) geometries on a Coordinate Measuring
Machine.
41
A surface with a ratchet-like topology at a
temperature above 220°C causes droplets to
self-propel and even move uphill. Until now,
research has looked into self-propulsion of
droplets, but not a continuous body of water.
This project investigated whether a continuous
body of water can self-propel. Results from this
research highlighted the temperamental nature
of the self-propelling effect, and the significance
of surface finish and liquid properties on producing motion in the defined correct direction.
Ankit Bharadia
Supervisor: Prof. P G Maropoulos
Alex Blumfield
Supervisor: Dr M P Ansell
Rapid Machine Tool Verification
Dynamic viscoelastic properties of rubber
Rapid Machine Tool Verification technology, involving Renishaw’s touch trigger probe, quickly
inspects the machine tool to ensure it is capable of machining a component within required
specification. The machine + probe repeatability is found to be 4.6 µm with no warm up.
Tool change increases this repeatability by
8.6 µm. Different axes warm up at different rates
depending on their configuration. Warm up
cycle can be designed to minimize warm up
time. Further investigation is required to consolidate repeatability sensitivity to feedrate.
Unlike most published materials research
papers, the samples examined in this project
were commercially sold elastomer products
of unknown composition. The damping and
complex dynamic moduli of the samples were
measured via DMTA, and the composition determined experimentally through the usage
of FTIR, TGA and EDS. As anticipated, the
amount and type of the underlying polymer and
filler particles, notably silica and carbon black,
were found to have been altered to enhance the
properties of the products.
Nikias Bouras
Supervisor: Dr S Akehurst
Philip Boyd
Supervisor: Dr L B Newnes
Modelling of torsional vibrations in vehicle
powertrains
How do Decision-makers Use Cost Data
In this project, Simulink was used to model the
propagation & elimination of unwanted vibrations and noise in a car’s driveline. This powertrain was modelled to include all relevant stages,
from the engine to the wheels. Some highlights
of the model include backlash and gear ratios in
the differential, viscous along with dry friction in
the clutch, an advanced tire friction model, and
active PI control of the clutch clamp force.
The aim of this project was to establish how
decision-makers use cost data. This was done
by using a student survey to model the thought
process. The main finding was that the classification of how decision-makers use cost data
does match the decision-makers arrow by Shah.
Michael Bridge
Supervisor: Prof. A W Miles
Alexander Brooks
Supervisor: Dr D J Cleaver
Head/stem assembly test rig for modular
total hip replacement
Leidenfrost Propulsion
The majority of total hip replacements use
implants with a modular femoral head which is
impacted during surgery to fix onto the neck taper. Taper junction strength is directly related to
the peak assembly force and rigid initial seating
is generally agreed to reduce implant failures.
The project evaluated an adjustable spring
loaded taper assembly device which could deliver pre-set impact forces to improve the reliability of taper junction assembly and ultimately
reduce implant failures.
Leidenfrost propulsion occurs as part of the
film-boiling regime, where a thermal gradient
instigates motion. Results over a superheated
and submerged thermal gradient profile validated a force as a result of viscous action as part of
the nucleate boiling regime, rather than Leidenfrost propulsion. The use of the phenomenon
as a part-less pump was also explored, where
a brass block heated to 350°C demonstrated
a change in head using a fine asymmetrically
tapped internal bore.
42
Jordan Bryan
Supervisor: Dr M P Ansell
Alex Buckingham
Supervisor: Dr V Dhokia
Evaluating the Photocatalytic Action of
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in a Melamine
Urea Formaldehyde Resin Coating for Paper
Surfaces
The design and manufacture of a personalised mobile phone case
This project investigated the potential of utilising
titanium dioxide nanoparticles to photocatalytically degrade volatile organic compounds in an
indoor environment when mixed into a melamine
urea formaldehyde resin coating applied to a
paper substrate. It was found that the nanoparticles were largely ineffective because
their photocatalytic properties could not
be utilised when mixed into the resin. This
appears to be due to the resin acting as a nonporous barrier which blocked access to the
nanoparticles.
This design based project investigated the feasibility of reverse engineering, customisation
and re-manufacturing a bespoke mobile phone
case from high quality metal, incorporating an
element of user personalisation. Extensive use
of CAD and machine tool planning software was
used. The project concluded that while technically feasible, personalisation and hence mass
customisation of this nature is, only practical for
higher end phones already including a metallic
case due to the types of fixturing and construction methods used.
Sebastian Bush-Hipwood
Supervisor: Dr J du Bois
Him Chay
Supervisor: Dr M Meo
Fast-acting Valves for Digital Hydraulic Control of Earthquake Vibrations
Ultrasound and thermal imaging of an
Airbus composite panel
This project aims to combine earthquake vibration control with a digital hydraulic valve system.
First a concept digital valve is designed, manufactured and tested, achieving a 1.3ms digital
switching time. A computational model is developed combining a building vibration control
scenario, via an active mass damper (AMD),
and digital hydraulic valve to control the AMD.
Analysis of the vibration control performance
shows a 50% response reduction. Valve parameters, including the experimental results, are
also investigated.
This project looks at the potential use of nonlinear ultrasonic thermography for the purpose
of detecting impact damage on aircraft body
panels during service. Experiments conducted
determined that this method was viable for damage detection, but further work has to be carried
out to streamline the process for use in the field.
Stuart Chell
Supervisor: Dr M J Carley
Charlotte Cook
Supervisor: Dr A Nassehi
Manufacturing methodologies for a Human
powered aircraft wing
Extended ontologies for use in manufacturing
This project focussed on developing and implementing the tools to minimise weight of the
secondary structure of a Human Powered
Aircraft (HPA) wing. CAD tools were created
to model rapid changes in wing design. Experiments were also undertaken with candidate
materials as well as the manufacturing processes used for the 2013 legacy HPA. The results
showed a 19% like-for-like reduction in weight
over the 2013 materials and processes.
Ontology provides a common vocabulary to
model a domain and the concepts within it. This
project investigated applying current ontology
techniques to a high speed production line, to
investigate the benefits and limitations of the
tools in the manufacturing domain. From the
final OWL ontology, it was found that these
tools and techniques are insufficient to meet the
demands of a manufacturing environment, as
they could not handle numerical calculations or
the modelling of variability.
43
James Crawshaw
Supervisor: Dr S Akehurst
Kinga Czerbak
Supervisor: Dr S E Clift
Alternative Boosting systems for highly
downsized gasoline engines
Experimental characterisation of morsellised
Sawbones chips
A downsized engine has poor transient response. In an attempt to correct this, a new
boosting system was proposed, utilising twostage turbocharging in series with an electric
supercharger, for use only during transient
events. This new boosting system was analysed
using steady-state and transient one-dimensional
simulation. It was found that an improvement in
transient response could be achieved with this
new boosting system, but full validation of the
model w.r.t. inertia is required for confirmation.
Impaction grafting is an orthopaedic technique
which mitigates the bone loss in a revision hip
operation. The failure or success of this technique is dependent on the quality of the bone
graft used. The project investigated the suitability
of morsellised Sawbones chips as a substitute
for human bone graft for experimental investigation. Findings include identification of a single
density of the Sawbones material (20pcf) that
should map well onto the visco-elasto-plastic
properties of human bone.
Jake Dixon
Supervisor: Prof. G D Lock
Yizhi Du
Supervisor: Dr I G Turner
Leading Edge Turbine Cooling Measured Degradation of Bioceramics
Using an Infra-Red Camera
Manufacturing a ceramic to provide good cell
Flow visualisation experiments have been attachment, ingrowth and resorbtion rate has
conducted using an infra-red camera to gain a been the goal for research in bioceramics area
further understanding into the fluid mechanics for several decades. This project was focused
of turbine film cooling. A large scale cylindrical on fabrication and analysis porous HA/TCP
model, based on a Rolls-Royce turbine blade ceramics with inter-connected pores and funcdesign, at engine representative Reynolds tional gradient using a camphene-based freeze
numbers was tested in a low-speed wind tunnel casting technique. Samples from three type
over a range of blowing ratios. The experiments of mould materials with respect to aluminium,
confirmed that infra-red thermography is ideally PVC and Teflon were studied and compared in
suited to flow visualisation of turbine film cooling. mechanical strength and micro structure.
Bruce Edwards
Supervisor: Dr M J Carley
Katie Ewing
Supervisors: Dr S Akehurst / Mr J Roesner
Human Powered Aircraft Wing Aero-Structural Design and Analysis of Aeroelastic
Implications
Tandem Human Powered Vehicle
Human powered aircraft structures are more
flexible than civil aircraft and therefore their
structural design requires special treatment.
This project was an investigation into the interaction between the aerodynamic and inertial
forces which act upon HPA. It highlights the
importance of the proper consideration of the
torsional compliance of HPA wing primary structure on the aerodynamic drag.
This project is an investigation into the human
performance and vehicle characteristics required for a human powered land speed record
attempt. The aim of the project is to design a
software simulation which can be used as a
design tool to identify key parameters and their
required values. For example, the effect of
frontal area and its required value to meet the
record speed.
44
Alex Ferrao
Supervisor: Dr L B Newnes
Andres Figar
Supervisor: Dr K Bray
Personal delivery points: Economic and
environmental benefits of first time delivery
success
Release parameters for the swerving free
kick in football
The project investigated the increase in online
purchasing in the UK and the effect it has had
on the domestic supply chain. Many home deliveries fail, costing logistics companies billions;
the proposed solution was an unattended lockbox to receive parcels. Route modelling and
customer surveys were undertaken to assess
the economic, environmental and customer
benefits of such a system. It was shown that
large savings could be made and customer satisfaction could be increased.
With the increase in money invested in the football industry, greater attention can be placed
in coaching and product research. An understanding of the kick mechanics and factors that
determine the outcome of a free kick can ultimately enhance the performance of the team.
Not only can the player benefit from being
coached the right kicking technique but they
can also be beneficial for shoe and ball manufacturers.
Kenichero Fujimoto
Supervisor: Prof. S J Culley
Ciaran Gallagher
Supervisor: Prof. R Butler
A Biliometric Approach to Forecasting Disruptive Technologies
Investigation into the effect of thin-plies on
damage resistance and damage tolerance of
carbon fibre composite laminates
Disruptive technologies such as LCDs, digital
photography, cellular networks, have disrupted
the status quo with business, social and technological impact. The ability to monitor and
understand potential disruption in emerging
technologies such as graphene at the early
stages of the lifecycle is critical in order to better respond and manage accordingly. Findings
were integrated and proposed as a framework
for forecasting potential disruption for emerging
technologies using insights gained from accessible science and patent databases.
Aircraft weight reduction is limited due to the poor
damage properties of carbon fibre. It was hypothesised that using thin-plies in CFRP manufacture
could improve damage resistance and damage
tolerance. However, the stitches in the non-crimp
fabric used for the thin-ply test coupons resulted
in increased spacing between plies and a reduced
delamination threshold. Results showed that the
thin-ply coupons possessed worse damage resistance and tolerance than the thick-ply control
coupon, opposing the hypothesis.
Kyriakos Giannakou
Supervisor: Dr M Meo
Jamie Godsell
Supervisor: Dr M McManus
Composite high performance car wheels
Bio-methane from cows and crops
This project investigates the dynamic impact
performance of CFRP composite laminates using as basis a commercial composite car wheel
design. An RTM manufacturing system was
developed so that suitable specimens could be
produced, while numerical and ultrasonic scanning analysis were used to evaluate the impact
damage. Major findings of the work was the
identification of a critical impact load for delamination damage and the post-curing treatment
effect to the impact performance.
Biomethane is a renewable fuel that can be
used as a natural gas substitute. A life cycle
assessment (LCA) of the different biogas upgrading systems that could be used to produce
biomethane for gas grid injection on UK dairy
farms was performed. This LCA was carried out
from both environmental and energy use perspectives. Using the LCA results, comparisons
were drawn between the upgrading systems
and between biomethane and natural gas production and use.
45
Eleanor Gordon
Supervisor: Dr M P Ansell
Jonathan Green
Supervisor: Prof. P S Keogh
Nano-coatings for timber
Empirical heat transfer modelling of wind
turbines bearings
The project aimed to develop a self-cleaning
timber coating for improving indoor air quality
by combining photocatalytic titanium dioxide
nano-particles with a polymer coating. The experiments involved measuring the degradation
of methylene blue dye in contact with coated
wood samples irradiated by UV light. Both the
wood and coating reacted with the dye, complicating the results. A gas-phase experiment
revealed that no photocatalytic activity occurred
because of the lack of surface exposure of the
nano-particles.
This project investigated whether the laws of
heat transfer could be applied to bearings situated within an operational wind turbine. Following the derivation of the thermal model and application to commercial data, provided by DNV
GL, it was shown that using laws of heat transfer do accurately predict bearing temperature.
Furthermore, it was also shown that bearing
damage could be detected, in one case, over
two years before it caused the wind turbine to
shut down.
Adam Griffin
Supervisor: Dr R F Ngwompo
Jiazheng Guo
Supervisor: Dr D J Cleaver
Modelling and Simulation of an Anaesthetic
Breathing System
Novel Piezo Cooling - Optimal Parameters
The aim of this project is to develop a mathematical model of the equipment used to deliver
inhalation anaesthesia to patients during surgery so that the systems may be adapted and
optimised to offer better performance. MATLAB
Simulink is used to implement models of the
anaesthetic circuit components which can then
be built up into the complete systems that are
to be assessed. Components simulation results
show good agreement with available experimental data.
Andrew Hadley
Supervisor: Dr A Nassehi
The current methods such as natural convection and radiator/fan cooling used to
cool circuit boards have reached their limitations in size. Piezoelectric cooling has
the advantage of low noise emission and
high operating efficiency over conventional
radiator and fan cooling system. A novel
piezo cooling system which uses piezoelectric
actuators to oscillate the fins of the heat sink
to produce cooling effect was analysed using
experimental and computational methods in this
project.
Laurence Hanes
Supervisor: Dr C D Bannister
Determining environmental policy targets to Simulating
strategies
promote sustainable growth in UK airlines
As aviation passenger traffic is predicted to
grow at a steady rate of 2% per year, airline
emissions are a significant area of concern. The
project seeks to model the current UK airline
industry up to 2050 on the back of government
forecasts, and simulate the effects of different environmental policies on CO2 emissions.
Investment in technological efficiency improvements could see an 11.6% reduction in CO2
output, with taxation only attributed to a 4.5%
saving.
the impact of look-ahead
on hybrid vehicle control
A hybrid vehicle look-ahead strategy uses
GPS to predict future driving conditions. This
information can be used to influence the
discharge-recharge operation of the battery to
improve fuel economy. A hybrid vehicle model
and two look-ahead approaches were implemented in MATLAB and Simulink. It was found
that there are fuel economy gains to be made
using look-ahead systems, but they could not be
realised in a feasible real-world design.
46
Robert Hardie
Supervisor: Dr H A Kim
Matthew Holt
Supervisor: Dr H A Kim
Multiscale modelling for Boron Nitride
Nano-Tubes (BNNT)
Topology Optimisation of functionally graded
materials
Working with NASA Langley Research Centre,
Finite Element Analysis was used to create a
multiscale model of a new composite material containing boron nitride nanotube. Similar in
strength to carbon nanotubes, but also with piezoelectric properties, modelling is important due
to the current scarcity. Both single nanotubes
within a matrix and randomly distributed models
were created to assess the effective homogenized mechanical and piezoelectric properties.
Project looks at using a simplified material
model as the basis of a topology optimisation
method and in particular the effect the order
of optimisation has upon the final solution. It
was found that the best results were achieved
by performing topology optimisation first and
material optimisation second. Performing the optimisation simultaneously was also investigated
but the discontinuity in the material model prevented optimum solutions being found.
Richard Jackson
Supervisor: Prof. I A Gursul
Yang Jiao
Supervisor: Dr A J Hillis
Control of afterbody vortices
Control of an active vibration cancellation seat
for offroad vehicles
Military transport aircraft have large upsweep
angles to facilitate rear loading of cargo. This
geometry causes high drag forces, due to the
formation of a pair of counter-rotating afterbody
vortices. The efficacy of a particular device was
investigated, which aimed to reduce the strength
of these vortices. The devices showed potential
for drag reduction in some configurations, as
the vortices were suppressed. However, experimental uncertainties in force measurements
were too significant to confirm this.
Occupants in off-road vehicles experience high
level vibration. This project carried out investigations into the suspension seats used for off-road
vehicles to attenuate the vibration level transmitted to passengers. Three types of suspension seat
were analyzed and their vibration cancellation effects also evaluated. Passive suspension systems
vibration cancellation performance was the worst
performing. The performance of the semi-active
suspension is better, with the active suspension
system possessing the best vibration cancellation
performance. However, the balance between the
active suspensions performance and its energy
consumption is always a controversial topic.
Jeff Jollychen
Supervisor: Dr M Wilson
Michael Lawrie Bergengruen
Supervisor: Dr M McManus
Computational fluid dynamics of Gas Turbine
Seconday Air Systems
Energy From Algae: A Life Cycle Assessment on the Production of Biodiesel From
Microalgae Using Wastewater
Bath gas turbine test rig’s rotorstator wheelspace was modelled by using CFD to predict
the heat transfer to the rotor disc. Effects of
external ingestion was studied to explain the
over prediction of previous computational results compared to the experimental data. It
was found that external ingestion only affected
the heat transfer at higher radius. It is believed
that the uncertainties related to the thermal
boundary conditions assigned to the rotor and
the turbulence modelling are the reason for the
over prediction.
There is a great interest in algae as a source
of biomass as they present a number of advantages, the most important being the potential to
produce more oil per acre than any other feedstock currently being used. The aim of the project was to assess the environmental impacts of
a microalgae-to-biodiesel system using wastewater compared to using freshwater, identifying the energy intensive processes, suggesting
possible improvements and areas requiring further development.
47
Thomas Jones
Supervisor: Dr J L Cunningham
Mathieu Kervyn
Supervisor: Prof. P S Keogh
Influence of head size, material and design
on wear of total hip replacements
Novel topologies
bearings
Total Hip Replacement is an increasingly frequent medical procedure due to a globally aging
and increasingly obese population. Osteolysis
is a common long-term health risk, which is triggered due to microscopic wear debris entering
the blood stream, causing an inflammatory response. This project has investigated different
design parameters which can affect the wear
rate of a hip implant, in order to produce a total
hip replacement capable of sustaining the longest possible implantation time.
Due to excessive eddy current generation in
traditional heteropolar AMB design and the
large shaft space usage of homopolar AMB
design, there is an increasing need for a new
AMB that is both efficient and uses minimal
shaft space. In this project, the replacement of
laminated steel sheets by wires is investigated.
An electromagnet was manufactured using
wires and tested alongside other samples. The
use of wires gave promising results and an effective manufacturing method was developed.
Wei Hao Koh
Supervisor: Dr J Darling
Tonte Lawson
Supervisor: Prof. C R Bowen
Playground Equipment for Young Children
Broad Band Energy Harvesting: Effect of aspect ratio on broadband energy harvesting
capabilities of bistable laminates
Play is critical to the healthy growth and development of children. The aim of the project is to
design a new playground equipment from the
viewpoint of young children with certain challenges set, but under an acceptable level of risk
to help children develop skills and to prevent
obesity. Interlinked seesaws, a combination of
zig zag balance beam and seesaws with obstacles built in, was designed to help developing
balance and coordination and provide physical
activity.
for
active
magnetic
Vibration-based energy harvesting has received
widespread attention over the past decade; the
use of bistable laminates is very popular in
such harvesting systems. These laminates exist in two stable states and the snap-through
from one stable state to the other causes high
oscillation, which can be harvested by piezoelectric patches integrated onto the laminates.
This project uses experimental and computational techniques (Matlab) to determine the effect of aspect ratio on the broad-band energy
harvesting capabilities of these bistable laminates.
Sam Lewis
Supervisor: Dr S Cayzer
Aidan Litterick
Supervisor: Dr K Bray
Fracking - the future for UK Energy?
Wind tunnel determination of drag and lift
coefficient of a Spinning Ball
Fracking for natural gas in the US has become
big news in the last decade, slashing energy
prices and creating thousands of domestic jobs,
but has become controversial in the UK due
to the potential environmental risks. This project has produced cost estimates for potential
fracking activities in the UK along with predicted
production rates for the consideration of whether fracking can be a commercially viable option
for the future of UK energy.
This project focuses on the design, manufacture, calibration and testing of an experimental
rig to simultaneously measure the Lift and Drag
Force, whilst controlling the Speed of Rotation
of the ball as it is tested in the Wind Tunnel at the
University of Bath. It is primarily a design project, with the testing stage exploring the validity
of the rig as its ability to produce reliable data.
48
Duo Liu
Supervisor: Dr J L Cunningham
Xiaofu Liu
Supervisor: Dr S Akehurst
Cockpit fairing of Human powered aircraft.
Modelling of range extender electric vehicles
The dissertation mainly discussed the design process of the Human Powered Aircraft
fairing. The fairing manufacturing method was
described in detail as well. In terms of design
method, the feasibility study of design concepts
were analyzed in order to find out the best fairing
shape; the CAD model was then created for the
CFD test. The related structures - fuselage and
pilot driving position - were considered carefully
in order to design a better holistic structure.
This project aims to optimize the electric driveline of a range extender electric vehicle (REEV)
in order to achieve best fuel economy and
driving range, and the influence of each component in the driveline has been investigated.
Through modelling and optimization of a REEV
by using ADVISOR, the 313-484km range with
fuel consumption 7.1L/100km can be achieved
by the driveline, including a 38kWh Li-ion battery pack, an 83kW induction motor and a series
power follower control unit.
Shantanu Mahajan
Supervisor: Prof. R Gill
Aaron Mander
Supervisor: Prof. R Butler
Adverse reaction to metal-on-metal hip replacement
Project identifies wear patter in the taper surfaces
of large diameter metal on metal implants through
CMM retrieval analysis and least square fitting. Average volumetric material loss from the ASL-Corail
implants male and female taper was 0.63 mm3 and
4.64 mm3 respectively; average volumetric material loss from the Conserve-Profemur implants
male and female taper was 0.586 mm3 and 5.02
mm3 respectively. There is a significantly large
difference in the volumetric material loss between
the male and the female taper surfaces. Preferential material loss from the female taper surface
suggests that galvanic corrosion is the likely mechanism behind this loss.
When are long carbon fibres long enough?
This project was an investigation involving precure carbon fibre composites. Research of process induced carbon fibre composite defects
was undertaken in order to develop new methods that minimise the rate of these defects manifesting during the manufacture of composite
parts. The investigation looked at defects arising
from the debulk and automated fibre placement
processes.
Stephen McCartney
Supervisor: Dr F Osman
Jessica Marengo
Supervisor: Dr M P Ansell
Investigating the mechanical properties of
silicone for use as synthetic finger joints
Should-Cost analysis for the automotive industry: Assistive software evaluation methodology and case study
Joint replacement surgery is an excellent option for treating arthritis. However, occasionally
the joints fail from wear and tear. Improving the
properties of the silicone material could help
improve its resistance to wear and tear. This
project found that silicone is very complicated to
test due to its high strength and elasticity. The
addition of micro-silica stiffened the silicone, but
did not strengthen it, and the material was not
affected by exposure to the bodily environment.
The performance of cost estimators had historically been dependent on experience. An ever
increasing amount of computer aids are available to assist with the process. The research
project aimed to investigate what methodologies are available and applicable for the evaluation of cost estimation aids in this respect. After
examining the available options it is concluded
that a mix-method comparative study was the
best approach. This concludes with a process
for the study and proposed further work.
49
Donato McNiven
Supervisor: Dr M McManus
Ian Milsom
Supervisor: Dr D N Johnston
Small Hydro Power Generation - Life Cycle
Assessment
Simulation of a hydraulic system
Hydropower is regarded as a low carbon
method of generating electricity using electromechanical installations. This project
examines two main types of run-of-the-river
hydropower facilities, namely the Archimedean screw and the Kaplan turbine. The
Archimedean screw is a simple and dependable
design, whereas the Kaplan is more complex
and efficient. By conducting life cycle assessments of these technologies, the respective environmental aspects can be assessed in each
case, together with the energy generated.
Liam Morgan
Supervisor: Dr K Robinson
Investigation
Plastics
into
Thermally
Undertake the cost estimation of 1 or more Automotive or other commodity and having gained
an understanding of the requirements of the
type of commodity, review and catalogue different specialist software that could be used in the
context of Cost Engineering.
Sudip Nair
Supervisor: Dr V Dhokia
Conductive Design and manufacture of a model aircraft
wing
This collaborative project with Visteon, an automotive supplier, investigated the use of thermally
conductive plastics for use in automotive electronics cooling and housing. Issues with brittle
properties, high cost and manufacturing meant
that an integrated housing and heat sink was not
viable. However, tests on sample material and
finite element simulations show that for a small
thermal performance cost conductive plastic
heat sinks are lighter than aluminium and are
competitive or cheaper in cost due to lower volume of material so are a potential future opportunity.
The purpose of this project is to provide an integrated process to design and manufacture a
customized, precision model aircraft wing for the
radio controlled hobbyist. The process is to be
evaluated by designing and building an exemplar
wing for an Arcus Sonic Glider. The integrated
process utilized FLZvortex for the aerodynamic
calculations, FreeCAD for the 3D design and a
Bridgeport CNC mill to successfully manufacture
the custom-precision wing with the implementation of some minor constraints.
Alexander O’Neill
Supervisor: Dr R D Burke
Haris Papadopoulos
Supervisor: Dr A J Hillis
Dynamic modelling and simulation of an
Organic Rankine Cycle used for waste heat
recovery of an Internal Combustion Engine
Design of a wave powered desalination plant
seawater supply
With the emphasis placed on reducing global
carbon emissions, stringent exhaust CO2 emissions are being introduced over the coming
years in the automotive industry. This project
looks to dynamically simulate a novel engine
waste heat recovery system over a typical drive
cycle and quantify power outputs and limitations. The project has identified up to 3kW of
electric power can be generated by using the
engine exhaust gas and coolant flows, providing
up to 5% extra power.
This study was focused on the technical
investigation of the feasibility and performance
of a flexible desalination configuration. The integration of a renewable energy source with a
reverse-osmosis plant is a fundamentally attractive solution of addressing fresh water-scarcity.
Although wave energy has a high suitability of
coupling to a membrane-based system, little
research has been conducted. Hence, the
results obtained in this project are beneficial for
the evaluation of the potential of such a coherent
concept.
50
Will Paskins
Supervisor: Prof. S J Culley
Alexandros Perrakis
Supervisor: Dr E A Dekoninck
Desktop machinery
Towards the Design of Musical Conversations between People
Researching the performance of desktop
machinery for small-scale prototyping; Investigating the capabilities of desktop machines both
in the physical domain (such as accuracy, materials and repeatability) and the programming
domain, the latter focusing on novice use with
particular attention on the testing and observation of students producing their own prototyped
parts following machine programme and
operation instructions.
This project investigated the different interaction
methods used currently in music therapy. The
ideas were tested on the Apple iPad between
able-minded people. It was hoped that the research would establish the characteristics for the
possible design of a device that would enable a
two-way musical conversation between an unskilled carer (someone with no musical skills),
and a cognitively disabled person. Results suggest that testing on cognitively disabled patients
could potentially be initiated.
James Plunkett
Supervisor: Dr K Robinson
Will Pope
Supervisor: Dr I G Turner
Designing and Testing a Liquid Whistle Degasser
The degradation of bioceramics
A liquid whistle degasser was designed and
tested. A liquid whistle comprises of a nozzle, through which flow is accelerated, and
a reed onto which this flow impinges. The
action of the flow impinging on the reed
causes it to oscillate. The acceleration of the
flow and the oscillation of the reed have a
degassing effect. Results showed a 46%
degassing effect at 90barg inlet pressure, the
effect of the reed was insignificant.
The number of bone graft surgeries has increased exponentially in the last decade and
demand for material outstrips supply. Currently available synthetic materials have
limitations in mechanical properties that
inhibit their use for some applications. By coating
the commercially available BoneSave granules
in a polymer, it was found that the mechanical
properties were improved and maintained after
immersion for 6 weeks in Simulated Body Fluid.
Consequently these coated granules may be appropriate for a wider range of clinical procedures.
Dominic Price
Supervisor: Dr M McManus
William Ramsay
Supervisor: Dr M Meo
Fracking: the future of UK Energy?
Thermodynamic analysis of “micro” power
tunnels
The aim of this project was to investigate the
extent of the environmental and seismological
effects of fracking and to set out ways in which
they can be reduced or eliminated through
regulation, monitoring and best practice. Life
cycle assessment was used to assess the
emissions of each stage of the process. Water
contamination and induced seismicity were also
esearched. It was found that the negative environmental effects can be successfully mitigated.
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Power tunnels are used to route high-voltage
(up to 400kV) electricity transmission cables
beneath densely populated urban areas and
some natural features. Reducing tunnel diameter to save on expensive construction
costs could severely restrict the capability of
the forced-draught cooling system. Industrial
modelling tools are used to evaluate the thermodynamic and electrical performance of a
range of ‘micro’ power tunnel designs and to
provide a platform for the future development of
this exciting new concept.
Andrew Reeve
Supervisor:Dr C M Sangan
Siôn Roberts
Supervisor: Prof. S T Newman
The design of a test rig to study the performance characteristics of Tesla turbines
Feasibility study into cryogenic machining
of steel used in the oil and gas industry
A test rig to study the performance characteristics of a Tesla turbine was designed and built.
The turbine ran off a supply of compressed air.
The inlet pressure of the air, the load torque
on the turbine and the speed of the rotor were
varied. Pressure and temperature were measured at inlet and outlet in order to ascertain
the efficiency, power and torque capabilities.
Maximum recorded performance was 40W @
6000 RPM at an efficiency of 18%.
Liquid emulsion coolants are commonly used
in metal machining to maximise the tool life
and surface finish of components. However,
the cleanliness, maintenance and disposal
of emulsion based coolants can be problematic. This project in partnership with National
Oilwell Varco, is a feasibility study into using cryogenic coolants instead of traditional
emulsion coolants in the machining of low
alloy steels. The investigation compared the
coolants in terms of technical, medical and
environmental performance measures.
Siddhant Sajan Hegde
Supervisor: Dr A T Rhead
Anhadjeet Sandhu
Supervisor: Prof. G D Lock
Using Uncertainty to predict the Compressive
Strength of damaged composite laminates
Film cooling in turbines
The aim of this project was to create a
computational tool that would provide a less
conservative estimate of probability of failure
due to sub-laminate buckling driven delamination propagation, than that currently used
in the Aerospace Industry. It was found that
reducing uncertainty in threshold strain caused
the biggest reduction in probability of failure in
comparison to other stochastic parameters,
where uncertainty in threshold strain was found
to be almost entirely dependent on material
properties.
The aim of the project was to conduct experimental research into film cooling in turbines
using liquid crystal thermography. Film cooling
experiments were carried out on Rohacell surfaces at different blowing ratios (M). It was found
that cooling effectiveness was maximum at M =
0.25. Adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficients were calculated at various points
using the semi-infinite solution of Fourier’s 1-D
equation. The values of h were observed to follow an overall decreasing trend until secondary
flow lift-off at M = 1.
Jemima Sarson
Supervisor: Mr J Roesner
Timothy Sauvalle
Supervisor: Dr C M Sangan
Hydraulic Efficiency of a Forklift Truck
Leading edge slat for NACA 2415 aerofoil
Through the use of the AMESim software
package, the hydraulic system of an existing
forklift was simulated. A variety of modifications
were applied to the simulation in an attempt to
improve the forklift’s efficiency. Whilst all approaches resulted in efficiency improvements,
the most promising solution was identified to be
the use of potential energy recovery systems.
As part of the MEng degree at the University of
Bath, second year students undertake an aerofoil laboratory to study a NACA 2415 aerofoil.
The aim for this project was to add a leading
edge slat device that would enable students
to visualise its effects. The slat was designed,
manufactured and then integrated within the
wind tunnel. It was found to produce the required increase in the linear region of the lift
curve slope.
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Peter Sexton
Supervisor: Dr S Akehurst
Franziska Schmucker
Supervisor: Dr J L Cunningham
Installation and calibration of a large turbo- Finite element analysis of hip prosthesis
charger with e-booster
loosening
The project involved integrating an eBoost
supercharger into a highly downsized, 1.2L
engine to further increase the power and
efficiency. GT-Power was used as the simulation and calibration tool, allowing the finalised engine to be subjected to various steady
state & transient tests. The results showed
the potential for a peak engine BMEP up
to 32 bar, and a peak power output of 161
kW. Further improvements would involve
optimising for part load efficiency as well as
implementing a drivecycle simulation.
Loosening of total hip replacements is one of
the most common long term complications. It
has been shown that it is possible to diagnose
loosening of implants through a vibration sweep
applied to the leg. A 2D finite element model of
the femur and implant was created to theoretically predict the mode shapes and resonance
frequencies with the aim of understanding the
influence the fixation condition has on the vibration of the system.
Rebecca Shering
Supervisor: Dr I G Turner
Lauren Shipway
Supervisor: Dr M J Carley
Bioceramics for Synthetic Bone Graft Human powered aircraft - investigation into
Substitutes
joining carbon fibre tubes
Growth in orthopaedic injuries is exacerbating
demand for substitute bone graft materials. Porous bioceramics are favoured due to their
biocompatibility but are limited to non-critical
applications due to their brittleness. In this
project, a high fracture toughness polymer
coating was added to bioceramic granules,
which were then immersed in a simulated
physiological environment. The polymer coating enhanced mechanical properties but degraded after four weeks immersion questioning
the long-term stability of the polymer in vivo.
The project was to investigate the optimum method of manufacturing carbon fibre tubular t-joints
for the human powered aircraft. This was done
by first predicting the loads on the aircraft then
destructively testing different joining methods to
compare the weight and strength of the joints.
This provided comparisons not found in the literature and could be useful for applications requiring
a balance between weight and strength.
Bethan Smith
Supervisor: Dr V Dhokia
Hannah Southan
Supervisor: Prof.A W Miles
Cryogenic Drilling of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic: An experimental study into
the effect of cryogenic coolant and changing drill parameters on hole quality when
drilling CFRP
Development and Evaluation of a Loading Rig
to Test Total Knee Replacements
The majority of all part rejects for composites is
due to delamination caused by drilling. However,
there is a distinct lack of literature on changing
parameters and environments in order to improve
this. The study found that a low drill speed should
be used in order to reduce both entrance and exit
delamination, and improve surface roughness. It
was found that cryogenic cooling improved tool
wear, but causes worse delamination and has
little effect on surface roughness - contrary to
previous research.
This project focuses on the design and evaluation of a total knee replacement test rig that will
be used in PhD research to investigate the tibial
stem components of total knee prostheses under
load. The rig was tested repeatedly using cyclic
compressive loading at various degrees of knee
flexion, to investigate both the repeatability of
the rig and the effect of flexion angle upon tibial
strain.
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Alex Squire
Supervisor: Dr J L du Bois
Cyclocopter: the generation of lift from a cycloidal blade system
Adam Thomas
Supervisor: Dr P Iravani
The Cyclocopter is a design for a Vertical Take
Off and Landing Rotary Wing aircraft that was
regarded as unfeasible in the late 1930s. An
investigation into the aerodynamic forces was
performed in order to predict the behaviour of
such a device. A prototype was built and tested
and it was found that the behaviour of the rotor
did not match the theoretical model.
Project aim was to create a dynamic model of
walking featuring a representation of a prosthetic foot and investigate the effects of adding
a powered, movable ankle joint. This would allow development of prosthetics that replicate
normal walking gait. It was found that a range
of open loop ankle control parameters permitted stable walking gaits for level and inclined
walking surfaces. Transitioning between stable
ankle control parameters did not adversely influence the long term stability.
Ben Thompson
Supervisor: Dr C R P Courtney
Oliver Tulloch
Supervisor: Dr S Cayzer
Measuring ultrasonic scattering in aluminium plates
Making sense of smart meter data
The focus of this NDT based project is the
conception and conducting of experiments to
measure Lamb wave propagation - a form of
ultrasonic guided wave - in aluminium plates,
and the subsequent scattering effects induced by
circular defects. Lamb waves were successfully
generated using piezoelectric wafer transducers
and wide area surveillance was achieved utilising laser vibrometry. Multiple signal processing
techniques were employed on data gathered
from various hole sizes and scattering was successfully identified for holes of diameter greater
than the incident wavelength.
The project involved the analysis of smart meter
data. A smart meter records a property’s energy
usage at regular intervals typically every 15, 30
or 60 minutes. A short program was written in
Python that is capable of identifying motifs (patterns) within time series data. The program was
compared to the brute force method, a speed up
of one order of magnitude was achieved.
Active/Robotic prosthetic leg
Danielle Winton
Supervisor: Dr M J Carley
Christopher Wiseman
Supervisor: Mr A J Green
Human powered aircraft - propellor design
and manufacture
Investigating the wheel arch air flow of the
Team Green 4 Eco-Marathon vehicle to improve fuel efficiency.
This project involved designing and building a
propeller for the human powered aircraft. The
propeller was designed to minimise the induced
drag and make it as efficient as possible at the
design condition. The forces acting on the blade
were calculated and the performance of the propeller was then analysed at a range of advance
ratios. Two mould plugs were made, one in blue
foam and the other in MDF. Future work will
involve finishing the propeller build.
The Team Green 4 vehicle was created by Andy
Green to compete in the Shell Eco-Marathon
where the aim is maximise fuel efficiency.
Efficiency is lost through aerodynamic drag
which can be found in wheel arch airflow.
Altering the distance between the wheel and the
arch wall produced variations in the flow and
power needed to rotate the wheel. A 5mm gap
gave the least power to rotate the wheel at real
world vehicle speeds.
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Thomas Woollacott
Supervisor: Dr M Meo
Guangwen Wu
Supervisor: Dr C Sangan
Smart Composites for Impact properties
enhancement
Development of heat transfer measurement
technique in gas turbine
Unidirectional carbon fibre composites are susceptible to impact damage and at low impact
energies delaminations can occur with no visual
cues to their presence. Shape memory alloys
(SMAs) have been incorporated into the carbon composite with the objective of absorbing
impact energy, eliminating the impact damage
at these low energies. SMA wires positioned in
the top and bottom of the composite panel were
found to decrease the delamination area
compared to the control sample, but did not
eliminate the problem of barely visible impact
damage.
Two methods are used for heat transfer
measurement: heat flux sensor and surface
thermocouple. The results are compared to
identify which method is suitable for a gas turbine condition. Three value are compared: the
surface temperature (°C), the heat flux (W/m2)
and the heat transfer coefficient (W/m2k). A
conclusion is obtained that at low air flow velocity, the heat flux sensor is more reliable and
in a high air flow velocity condition, the surface
thermocouple performs better.
Krishan Arora
Supervisor: Dr R D Burke
Christopher Bell
Supervisor: Dr C D Copeland
Engine Calibration including mapping for Induction and Injection Optimisation for a
transient response
Formula Student Vehicle
This project assesses a method for reducing
engine calibration effort by utilising a Volterra
Series dynamic model to represent engine
behaviour. The model was trained using
experimental data that was 60% shorter than
traditional methods. The dynamic model
accurately predicted steady state torque and
exhaust gas temperatures for 13 spark angles
with an nRMSE of 10%. Transient performance
was optimised using sequential injection with
injection end coinciding with intake valve closure.
JImmy BIchard
Supervisor: Mr J Barrie
Due to the change in breathing characteristics
imposed on a Formula Student engine thanks
to a regulated 20mm restrictor, fuel and air
mixing is negatively affected. This report looks
into methods of improving the breathing performance using simulation as well as improving
the effective mixing in the manifold using turbulence geometry. Different injector positions were
trialled with varying swirl vanes and tumble flaps
resulting in an 8% overall increase in torque.
Robert Birkhead
Supervisor: Dr K Robinson
Laminate design and manufacturing optiThermal management of Formula Student Vemisation of a Formula Student CFRP monohicle
coque chassis
The project focused on the design and manufacture of the monocoque for the 2014 Team
Bath Racing Formula Student car.
High
performance composite materials were used
to create a stiff and lightweight structure,
with the laminate optimised to reduce weight
by 30% compared to last year’s car, whilst
maintaining the required stiffness and
strength. The manufacturing process was also
improved to increase the ease and efficiency
of manufacture and the quality of the final part.
Thermal management is essential for optimum
engine performance and reliability. This project focuses on the design and testing of a robust thermal management system for the 2014
Team Bath Racing Formula Student vehicle.
Separate oil and water heat exchangers were
specified using data from dynamometer testing, and these were validated through on track
testing.
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Massimiliamo Breda
Supervisor: Dr G O Owen
Luca Coniglio
Supervisors: Prof. R Butler/Dr T J Dodwell
Aerodynamics - evaluation of its effect on
car drivability
Analysis and optimisation of next generation composite FS wheels
The project involved investigating the performance of the aerodynamic devices fitted to the
Formula Student car TBR13 and an evaluation
of their effect on the overall car performance.
The flow-viz test identified areas to improve in
the design of the future aerodynamic components. The study demonstrated that the current
aerodynamic package is improving the performance of the car and the point scoring of the
team.
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics are ideal to
reduce mass of racing vehicles. Because of formidable mechanical properties and light weight,
CFRP can be used to manufacture Formula
Students wheels capable of providing optimal
structural performance by limiting the weight
to less than 1kg (per corner). Results show the
new design provides outstanding strength with
only 3.5kg of total unsprung rotational mass.
Alex Freeman
Supervisor: Prof. S T Newman
James Garlick
Supervisor: Dr A Nassehi
Superlightweight upright design via RP
techniques
Using manufacturing strategy and control
techniques to influence FS car build.
This Project focuses on the practical application of Project Management tools to the formula
student project in order to deliver the car with
ample time for pre race testing. The project
implements a selection of Project Management
tools and tracks the progress of car production
against a baseline plan. Control techniques
are implemented to keep the project on track;
contingency plans are set in place to mitigate
project risk. The value of the project management tools to a small project is then assessed.
John Goodyear
Supervisor: Dr C D Bannister
Validation of theoretical tyre testing data for
FS tyres (Hossier and Avon)
The aim of this project was to develop a
tyre model that could simply and effectively
compare different tyres and tyre set-ups from
minimal testing data, to allow, for example,
Formula Student teams to make informed
decisions on tyre choice without extensive
testing. Rig testing was performed to produce the required data, and statistical linear fit
modelling was used to create tyre models that
were effective in comparing tyre set-ups.
Benjamin Hughes
Supervisor: Dr G O Owen
Exhaust and Silencer Optimisation for a
Formula Student Car.
An investigation was carried out to determine
the effects of changing various properties of
an absorptive exhaust silencer. Both practical
testing and simulation were carried out and the
results were used to design an optimal exhaust
silencer configuration.
56
Pengxiang Meng
Supervisor: Dr G O Owen
Francisco Parga
Supervisor: Dr J L Cunningham
Driver’s evaluation and analysis
Development and Validation of a Full-Car
Formula SAE CFD Model
In this project, the main objective is specifically
using data from the Race Technology products to study the drivers’ ability. Three kinds
of analysis procedures were developed, and
the complete procedure was applied in this
project. The analysis process followed the
established method in order to inspect details
of drivers’ behaviours. Moreover, three drivers
attended the analysis and evaluation works
and two kinds of evaluation metrics were set
up for drivers’ assessment. Finally, the trackside driver coaching method was established
for improving drivers’ perfromance on the track.
Matt Scovell
Supervisor: Dr M Meo
This is a project to examine the validity of CFD
analysis of a Formula Student car using real
life data. The TBR13 car was fitted with pressure sensing equipment to determine the flow
phenomena present at key points on the car.
Qualitatively, CFD was shown to be a good
indicator of flow phenomena, though precise
quantitative analysis was not shown to be possible.
Matthew Sellick
Supervisor: Dr G Owen
Advanced materials for a Formula Student
Impact attenuator
Dynamic Modelling of a Formula Student
Racing Car
For the first time the TBR car will be fitted with
a carbon composite impact attenuator. In an effort to reduce mass, reduce the part count and
improve maintenance, advanced materials were
considered for the crash structure of the Formula Student vehicle. This project covers the
design, development, manufacture and testing
of the new impact attenuator. The final design
features a carbon composite laminate that is
capable of absorbing 7350J of energy at an
average deceleration below 20g and not exceeding a peak deceleration of 40g.
Team Bath Racing’s Formula Student car is
often completed only shortly before the start of
the competition, leaving little time to test the car
and experimentally develop suspension set ups
to tune the performance and handling of the car.
A full vehicle model was therefore developed
and validated against testing data of the previous year’s car and adapted to cover the 2014
car yet to be built providing initial settings for the
main suspension parameters.
Michael Strother
Supervisor: Dr S Akehurst
Alexander Summers
Supervisor: Dr G O Owen
Cylinder head and gasket optimisation of
Aprilia engine
Maximising grip for Formula Student vehicle
tyres
Team Bath Racing has used an Aprilia engine
to power the Formula Student car for several
years and a re-occurring issue has been the
suspected failure of the cylinder head gasket.
This project showed the evidence for this failure occurring, looked at improving the assembly methods of the engine to ensure reliability,
along with testing and simulation of the contact
pressure and deformation of the cylinder head,
liner and gasket to find the failure mode.
This project looked into maximising grip creation for the tyres used on the TBR vehicle.
Another area of research was comparing the
current Hoosier tyre to a new Avon tyre that
the team is considering using. A test rig was
used to measure tyre grip. It was found that the
Hoosier produced optimal grip at 10.5 psi when
mounted to a 7” wide rim. The Avon was found
to produce less grip than the Hoosier.
57
Philip Thomas
Supervisor:Dr J L Cunningham
David Turton
Supervisor: Mr A J Green
The Underbody Aerodynamics of a Formula
Student Car
Development of composite wing manufacturing techniques for FS
Aiming to expand TBR’s experience with designing and validating underbody aerodynamic
ground effect components, this project focused
on physical and simulated testing of a modular underfloor and diffuser. This involved use of
surface flow visualisation, dynamic pressure
measurements using a pressure sensor array
and embedded pressure taps and suspension
load measurements to measure aerodynamic
forces. These results were compared to CFD
simulation to test the correlation between predicted and achieved results.
It was sought to reduce the mass of a front
wing for a Formula Student car by categorising
new composite material properties, optimising
internal construction and investigating closed
mould manufacturing techniques. A new thin
ply spread tow fabric was tested against other
traditional glass fibre and woven carbon fibre
fabrics at a material level and developed into
representative beam samples before a final
design of thin skin with box spar supports was
constructed and validated.
Kadir Usal
Supervisor: Mr A J Green
Jay Walia
Supervisor: Dr R D Burke
Transmission System Performance Optimisation of a Formula Student Car.
Engine Calibration for the Formula Student
Endurance event
The project covers three optimisation methods
to improve the performance of the transmission
system - one being computational and the other
two being experimental methods looking at gear
ratio modification, lightweight clutch assembly
concept and gearshift control. These methods
were carried forward to improve accceleration
aspect and transient response of the vehicle,
main outcomes being the reduction of gear shift
time below 150 miliseconds and increasing the
consistency of gearshifts to 100%.
The Formula Student competition is the most
established motorsport contest in Europe. The
most important event of the contest is known as
the Endurance event. This project investigates
the effect of an engine calibration process on the
engine performance for this event. Engine calibration incorporates the fine-tuning of specific engine
constraints including the spark timing to improve
the performance. For this study, particular emphasis will be paid on design of experiments, statistical modelling and two optimisation strategies.
The study showed that the preferred optimisation
strategy was dynamic programming.
Joshua Wesley
Supervisor: Dr K Robinson
Jing Yao
Supervisor: Dr G O Owen
Data Driven Vehicle Setup of a Formula Student Car
Brake performance evaluation and improvement
Data acquisition has become a very powerful
tool to Race Engineers operating in competitive motorsport, and when used wisely, it can be
used to improve on track vehicle performance.
This project aims to identify key vehicle performance metrics and quantify them using vehicle
instrumentation. The values of the performance
metrics can then be used to assess vehicle setup changes such that the vehicle setup process
can be streamlined, in turn, improving vehicle
dynamic performance.
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Brake system is one of the most important
components in the chassis design; it directly influences the vehicle performance in the Formula
Student competition events. In order to maintain
competitive, it is necessary to evaluate and improve the current brake design. To achieve this, a
brake system model is created by using spreadsheet to analyse the brake design. The brake
balance of TBR13 racing car is analysed and
suggested with brake bias of 60/40 in Endurance
event. It is then combined with an experimental
analysis with the data collected from straight-line
tests to evaluate the brake performance under
Ben Carless
Supervisor: Dr E Dekoninck
Mike Doughty
Supervisor: Dr A T Rhead
Development of Hand Armour for
Hockey Players:
Visualising the invisible
Hockey is played around the world but the fast
paced nature of the sport, and the types of
equipment used, introduces a significant risk of
injury to players, especially hand injuries.
Impact from a stick/ball and abrasions with the
pitch can cause severe injury. A novel hand
protector has been developed and tested to better meet the needs of hockey players, allowing
safer participation without comprising any level
of performance.
The compression strength of composite components subject to surface damage that is invisible
is a serious constraint on composite airframe
weight. A compression rig, rated to 15 tonnes,
was designed and manufactured to operate inside an X-Ray Computed Tomography machine,
resulting in the ability to take snap-shots of the
way impact damage forms and grows under
load. This will increase the understanding of
the material and help to improve the strength of
composites.
Sam Flicos
Supervisors: Dr T Adlam & Dr J L Cunningham
Robert Ford
Supervisor: Dr P Iravani
Thermoflow, Designing a Home Uroflowmetry Product which measures Urine Flow Rate
from the Temperature Change
A Novel Vacuum Wheel For A Climbing
Robot
It was investigated through experimentation
and prototyping whether it would be posible
to design a retrofit home uroflowmetry device
which measures urine flow rate with the change
in temperature of the water in the toilet bowl.
59
Many wall climbing robots lack the capacity to
travel over curved surfaces, furthermore few
achieve fluid, dynamic motion. The project’s aim
was therefore to develop a wheel to combine
the benefits of low friction rolling motion with a
vacuum pressure to adhere to inclined surfaces.
The final prototype successfully supports its
own weight, and the same again in payload,
whilst achieving locomotion over curved and inclined surfaces.
Phil Greenfield
Supervisors: Mr A Lewis & Mr J Barrie
Arm Cycle Training Device
This project looked at designing an arm cycle
training device. This is an upper body training
device that would be used by high level rugby
players in short high intensity bursts to work
on power. A proof of principle prototype for the
working mechanism of the training aid was
produced and a full CAD model of a final form.
Oliver Hebden
Supervisor: Prof. S J Culley
Ian Holman
Supervisor: Dr S A McGregor
Design of an Inclusive Roller Coaster Restraint
Eco-Friendly & Renewable River Energy for
Device for the Future;
LIPPHS - Low Impact Pico Power Hydrokinetic System
Traditional amusement restraint technology
designed using a ‘one size fits all’ mentality
exclude participants who are differently abled
or physically shaped. A novel roller coaster
restraint capable of conforming to a passenger
in three axes has been developed, tested and
validated through the evolution of digital and
physical prototypes. Following the completion
of concept modelling, ergonomic user trials and
mechanism testing, an initial solution design
scheme has been validated, ready for future
development.
This project develops an environmentally and
ecologically low impact device for generating
electricity. It is the size of a small car or dinghy,
and is based around a novel alternative to a
cycloidal propeller which theoretically has potential to exceed the efficiency of existing open
flow technologies. UK applications are alongside Solar PV and Wind in the existing domestic
Feed-in-Tariff market. Whilst abroad there are
humanitarian and remote power applications
Jon Ridley
Supervisor: Mr J Muelaner & Prof. G Jones
Adam Sandey
Supervisor: Dr J Darling
Adjustable Geometry Mountain Bike Handlebar
Simulating the Luge start on the Team Bath
Push Start Track
The viability of a mountain bike handlebar, the
geometry of which the rider can adjust on-thefly, has been proven. The project culminates
with a fully functioning proof-of-principle prototype; the rider can sweep the grips and controls
between two distinct positions for comfort, performance and aerodynamic benefits. User trials
and feedback have confirmed that the idea has
commercial potential with a ‘technology push’
approach.
At the start of the Luge, competitors pull off from
handles propelling themselves forward. Without
ice training facilities in the UK, the project has
developed a simulation device that can be used
on a push start track which mimics the behaviour of the sled on ice. This required the design
of a system that would allow yaw, pitch and roll
movements of the sled and the subsequent effect on the onwards travel.
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Christopher Shaw
Supervisor: Mr J Roesner
Louis Swaidani
Supervisor: Dr A Nassehi
Re-designing Controls for Heavy Equipment
Vehicles
The infinite floor for Virtual reality (VR) systems
The general design of heavy-equipment controls
has not progressed from early hydraulic-based
designs developed in the 1940s. The project
aim was to address this issue by considering
the wide range of new joystick/controller designs
made possible through use of modern electronic
components. End results of the project included
an innovative six-axis controller designed for
motor-grader use and a software-based demo
simulation allowing a level of user-testing to be
achieved.
Virtual realities such as ‘Immersive first-person’
(which utilise head-mounted displays) or ‘Chamber’ simulations can be used to immerse a user
in vast and realistic virtual worlds. However, they
often lack a means to explore them. This project
was aimed at creating a novel design for an Infinite Floor device which allows a user to explore
virtual realities by walking naturally, in any direction, for an unlimited distance whilst remaining in
the same place.
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Gemma Hatton
Supervisors: Dr G Owen & Dr A Kim
Jamie Mitchell
Supervisors: Mr S Cooper & Dr M McManus
An Investigation into the Simulation of the
Racing Line
Can energy-intensive industries take advantage of renewable electricity generation
which is surplus to general requirements?
A quasi-static methodology and a point mass
vehicle model were used to calculate the racing
line around Copse Corner of the Silverstone
Circuit. This simulated result was compared to
real data from a Ginetta G50 and the aim was to
see how simplified the model and method could
be while maintaining accuracy, which future
studies can use as a basis for optimum racing
line simulations with short run times.
Andrew Simpson
Supervisor: Dr K Bray
Comparison
techniques
of
goalkeeper
The project investigates the assumptions
required to power energy-intensive industries
(specifically aluminium and cement) in the UK
with renewable energy, which is surplus to general requirements. Multiple wind and solar PV
capacity scenarios were modelled to determine
the quantity of distribution of the renewable
electricity. Alternative operating models were
suggested to increase consumption of surplus
electricity. This is a feasible alternative to renewable storage for aluminium and cement
industries, provided wind capacity exceeds
35 GW.
K L Ivan Tan
Supervisor: Dr S Cayzer
clearance
Analysis of energy usage for space heating
at Easton Community Centre
This project investigated the distribution techniques available to an elite-level goalkeeper
whilst in possession of the ball - the punt
and the drop kick. The optimal technique for
attaining maximal length was to be determined.
Ultimately it was found that the punt kick technique achieved a greater range as the release
parameters - angle and velocity - were, on
average, greater, generating a greater horizontal distance.
With increasing environmental concerns, the
Board at Easton Community Centre are meeting in August 2014 to discuss methods of reducing the centre’s carbon emissions. This project
was commissioned to establish the gas usage
for space heating. Space heating accounts for
82.42% of annual gas consumption, with the
system being 98.28% efficient. Looking at the
rate of heat loss for the building, windows makeup 63.98% and the skylight 18.44%.
Hanbin Wang
Supervisor: Mr J Barrie
Rebecca Whitehead
Supervisor: Dr S Cayzer
Eco-design of human-powered submarine
An analysis of energy consumption and the
associated savings made from the installation of PV solar, at Easton Community Centre, with a particular focus on water heating.
This project report describes the Life Cycle
Assessment on Human Powered Submarine Minerva, developed by Bath University Racing
Submarine Team to compete in the International
Submarine Races. This report includes two Life
Cycle Assessments to locate the significant environmental issues, and seeking for alternative
solutions to reduce environmental impacts, enabling an affordable competitive racing machine
to be developed with eco-friendly features. By
applying new material and methodology, the
environmental impacts could have been
reduced significantly.
This project contains a detailed analysis of the
supply and demand characteristics of solar
generated electricity and water heating energy
consumption at Easton Community Centre.
It was found that of the 12.7% of total energy
consumption water heating accounted for, 37%
was supplied by solar power. Further exploration
into shifting demand to better align with the solar
supply found that an increase in savings of 3%
could be achieved.
62
Rongyu Zha
Supervisor: Dr J Darling
Chi Zhang
Supervisor: Prof. P Maropoulos
High speed stability of towed vehicles
Coordinate Measurement Machine
A Comparison of Scanning Probe vs. Touch
Probe Data Capture
This project was to examine and discuss the
stability of a model car with trailer mounted on a
treadmill. Then to explore the effect of potential
influencing factors on the stability of car-trailer
system and indicate how scale models are used
to predict real life conditions.These results also
provide guidance to manufacturers to design
more stable car-trailer systems at high speed.
Arthur Cowie
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Dr J Cunningham
Supervisor: Dr D Fabrègue, INSA Lyon, France
Study of the AES Total Ankle Replacements
and its biocompatibility
(Etude de la Prothèse Totale de Cheville AES
et sa biocompatibilité)
Study of the AES total ankle replacement
by means of looking at explanted prosthesis. The project’s main focus was the metallic
components, their alloying elements and
microstructure through a scanning electron microscope. A lesser focus was put on
the UHMWPE bearing surface and the wear
particles at its surface. Intermetallic phases
and porosities in the alloy as well as aluminium
oxide between the core and the coating were
found that could weaken fatigue resistance.
63
The study aims at comparing the accuracy of the
scanning probe with the accuracy of the touch
probe through measuring diameters of cylinders.
Through the experiment, it can be concluded
that the scanning probe provides higher accuracy and greater stability. Due to its higher cost, it
is more appropriate for objects with small volume
or complex configuration. As for the touch probe,
it can be applied to objects with simple shape.
In addition, the size does not influence the accuracy of probes much within the diameter range
of this experiment.
Paolo Moro
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Dr C Courtney
Supervisors: Dr. E Andò & Dr. G Viggiani , INPG
Grenoble, France
3D micro-mechanical characterisation of a
fibre-reinforced sand using advanced Image
Analysis
(Analyse d’Images pour la caractérisation
micro-mécanique en 3D d’un sable renforcé
avec des fibres)
This project was accomplished as part of the
world leading research on Geomechanics which
takes place in the 3SR laboratory in Grenoble.
Making use of advanced computer software
to analyse and process images created from
X-ray tomography, it was possible to extract
information in 3D about the microstructure of a
soil sample which was essentially composed of
common sand and plastic fibres.
Nicholas Pilcher
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Dr M Wilson
Supervisor: Dr V Ferrand, ISAE SUP’AERO Toulouse, France
Si Joe Portal
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Dr M McManus
Supervisors: Ms C Jourdain & Prof. P Zwolinsky, INPG Grenoble, France
Steady and unsteady flow characteristics
around a simplified geometry car model
(Structure et dynamique de l’écoulement à
l’arrière d’un corps automobile)
Development of the framework for a simulation model of integrated recycling processes
(Développement des paramètres pour un
modèle de simulation de processus de recyclage intégré)
Experimental study via wind tunnel testing into
the predominant flow structures in the nearwake of a simple bluff-body car model, namely
the Ahmed model. The investigation focused
on the effect of the rear window angle on these
flow structures and the corresponding pressure
and drag variations. Both time-averaged and
unsteady flow characteristics were observed
through surface pressure readings, Particle
Image Velocimetry and strain gauge force measurements.
This project uses an existing waste management plant as a case study to develop a model
to assist in the design of integrated waste management systems. It focuses on comparing the
effectiveness of relevant technologies in sorting
and treating two pre-identified waste fractions
in order to optimise the recycling process and
reduce the environmental footprint of the waste.
Simon Rushton
Samantha Smith
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Prof. S Keogh
Assessors: Dr R Ngwompo & Prof. C Bowen
Supervisor: Dr Marquis-Favre, INSA Lyon, France Supervisors: Dr T Chaise, Prof. M Perez and Dr
D Nélias, INSA Lyon, France
Modelling of Tyre / Surface Interactions using
Energy Methods
Study of the Influence of Precipitation Plas(Modélisation des Phénomènes d’Interactions ticity Effects in the Nickel Superalloy Inconel
Pneumatique/Sol par une Approche Energé- 718
tique)
(Étude de la plasticité de précipitation dans
l’Inconel 718)
The project’s objective was to improve the
accuracy and pertinence of a Bond Graph tyre Inconel 718, a nickel-based superalloy known to
grip model, developed at INSA Lyon, so that have excellent mechanical properties due to its
its results matched those of Pacejka’s Magic hardening phases, γ’(Ni3(Ti,Al)) and γ” (Ni3Nb).
Formula, the industry standard model. It is then During thermal treatments such as welding,
hoped that the Bond Graph model can be ap- these phases can grow and could potentially
plied to a full vehicle model more easily thatn induce a plastic phenomenon below the maPacejka’s. This was achieved by changing the terials yield strength; PRecipitation Induced
parameters entered into the model and also by Plasticity (PRIP). The existence of this
making changes to the code.
phenomenon was studied in order to deduce
whether there need be concern for this particular
alloy when used in industry.
64
Jack Donovan
Assessors: Mr J Roesner & Dr Kevin Robinson
Supervisor: Hua Huang, Technische Universität Berlin
Thomas Mackenzie
Assessors: Mr J Roesner & Dr S Cayzer
Supervisor: Dr Subhash Kumar, E.On Energy
Research Centre, RWTH Aachen
Improvement and Validation of an Automated Restructuring the German Electricity Market
Manual Transmission Model
with New Energy and Environmental Policies
Using the LEAP Model
The aim of this project is to refine a model of an Umstrukturierung des deutsches StromAMT to enable it to be used in the calibration of markts durch neuen Energien und Umweltelectronic control unit software. A test strategy politik unter Verwendung der LEAP-Leitbild
was developed, replicating the four most commonly encountered gearshift types; a comparison An analysis of the effects of introducing new
of numerical methods of validation was made. technologies or new environmental policies in
Once data from the test vehicle have been col- Germany upon the German electricity market.
lected, they can then be compared both qualita- The effects are considered in terms of cost,
tively and quantitatively with data gathered from carbon, and security, and the interdependenthe model.
cies between them are analysed.
Richard James Thomas
Assessors: Mr J Roesner & Dr V Dhokia
Supervisor: Dr T Guidat, TU Berlin, Germany
Aleksandrs Trofimovs
Assessors: Mr J Roesner & Dr R Burke
Supervisor: Dr S Nowoisky, TU Berlin, Germany
Decentralized diagnosis of end-of-life
products through information sharing within
automotive remanufacturing networks
(Dezentrale Diagnose von End-of-lifeProdukten durch Informationsaustausch innerhalb von Automobil-Wiederverarbeitungsnetze)
Identification of a turbocharger model by
using Structured Recurrent Neural Networks
(Identifizierung eines Turbolader-Modells
mit Hilfe Strukturierter Rekurrenter Neuronaler Netze)
A novel approach to identification of the
model of the turbocharger with the use of a
Structured Recurrent Neural Network model
was attempted. The goal of the project was
to create an algorithm that could identify nonlinearities present in turbocharger models,
such as compressor efficiency map, which
was approximated by the compressor output
torque, and turbocharger shaft friction torque,
for a wide range of turbocharger speeds and
pressures and evaluate practicality of the
chosen approach.
The aim of this project is to propose a model
for decentralized diagnosis, enabled through
an information system integrated through the
reverse supply chain, designed to reduce remanufacturing process and logistics costs.
The project will then assess the effects of implementing such a model, and the feasibility
of implementation of the model within current
industry.
65
T Bolton
Supervisor: Dr P J Leonard
Maninder Brar
Supervisors: Dr M Cole & Dr P Iravani
Novel Music Device
Levitating water-jet platform for fire extinguishing The aim of this project was to develop a music therapy device that a caregiver and a care
receiver could use with no previous musical
experience. Two people could collaboratively
produce music as this has been shown to allow
two people to develop a relationship. A series
of different methods of interacting with the device were explored such as pressure sensitive
buttons, velocity keys and gesture sensing. This
was finally built up into a prototype.
This project involves developing an inverted pendulum to test the performance of a
water-jet thrust vectoring mechanism and the
corresponding controller design. The main
focus is to experiment with different controller
designs and a computational model of the system is built to aid this process. The work done
in this project is aimed towards helping implement a water-jet thrust vectoring system into a
levitating platform prototype, which will be
intended for fire extinguishing applications.
Thomas Brown
Supervisor: Dr J L Du Bois
Cyclocopter: The generation of lift from a
cycloidal blade system
Cyclocopters offer a unique way to manoeuver
in the air; by being able to produce thrust in all
directions. This project involves simulating a
Cyclocopter rotor through the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and the design and
development of a test rig for experimental testing. The CFD analysis shows the flow dynamics
present along with the predicted power and lift.
These predicted forces were compared directly
to the measured data from the test rig.
Kit Buchanan
Supervisors: Dr R Ngwompo & Dr P Iravani
George Chilcott
Supervisor: Dr P Iravani
Autonomous Vehicle Gimbal Instrumentation Plate Optimising percussive excavation parameters to
reduce the required reaction force of an extraterrestrial mining robot
This project has focused on the build and development of a prototype Active Stabilising Gimbal
for an autonomous roving vehicle. This gimbal
can be used to mount cameras that these types
of vehicles require to track the ground in front
of them. A successful gimbal was created and
tested, demonstrating very good performance.
Comparisons to a simple simulated model have
also been made.
NASA intends to send mining robots to extra-terrestrial bodies to dig compacted regolith. This project
sought to develop a relationship between percussive
excavation parameters and required excavation reaction forces in various regolith types. First, a novel
Stress-based Discrete Element Modelling (SDEM)
environment was built and tested in MATLAB. Variables including tool frequency and direction of oscillation, impact energy and advance-rate were then optimised using a tool penetration test to minimise the
excavator reaction forces.
66
Joshua Ezeadiebuo
Dr F V P Robinson
Jon De Beaux
Supervisor: Prof. CR Bowen
Energy harvesting
bistables
from
arbitary
shaped Switch-mode current shaping power converter
In this project the amount of power generated from
changing the shape of a bistable laminate is investigated. Various iterations of two shapes were
investigated and compared against a square laminate. The amount of acceleration required to cause
a snap through was found and the velocity of the
laminate measured. The shapes that performed
the best then had piezoelectric patches bonded
to them and the amount of power produced from
these shapes was looked at.
Power conversion from AC to DC using converters
is essential for most applications, as they have an
input electrical power stage from which DC power
for other processes is gotten from. Thus, this project investigates converters that work to ensure
that maximum power is drawn from the mains,
and also looks at control methods to ensure that
the output DC voltage remains constant in spite of
varying loads.
Sam Fairburn
Supervisor: Dr LB Newnes
Jonathan Forster
Supervisor: Mr J Barrie
What is the role of judgement when given
empirical data? RepRap Sagalassos: A closed loop recycling
system for a 3D printer
Long-life, high-value assets such as within aerospace and marine industries require on-going
service. Companies compete via a bidding process to win contracts for this work. Various factors contribute to a company being selected for
example: technical, price, reputation etc. There
are huge risks for bidders; with stories of the cost
of bidding totalling tens of millions of pounds.
Therefore, this research seeks to try and identify the factors that influence success in a largescale bid.
The main aim of this project was to determine
whether it is possible to design and produce a
closed loop recycling system for a RepRap 3D
printer, which embodies the principles of the
RepRap project. Initial designs were created for
the system and prototypes were produced from
these designs in order to prove key concepts.
These proof of concept prototypes, along with further research, proved that it would be feasible to
create such a recycling system.
Fong Lam
Supervisor: Dr P Iravani
Navigation of Autonomous Vehicle – Quad
A Laser Sensor (LIDAR) only Autonomous
Vehicle (Quad) is built. It is able to self-navigate
through an unstructured area without any guided learning drive or manual control. The area
along the paths it has travelled through will also
be mapped after the drive. Two LIDARs are
used in this project to optimise the navigation
performance. Directions of the Quad taken are
based on potential field and a simple rule based
system formed by the reading of the LIDARs.
67
Joe Leveridge
Supervisor: Prof. SJC Culley
Melissa Leung
Supervisor: Dr I G Turner
Bioceramic Bone Substitute Material – The interpretation, prediction and visualisaInfluence of Material Properties on the tion of multi-dimensional project signatures
Compressive
Properties
of
Bonesave®
Modern engineering is critically dependent
Bonesave® is a commercially available granu- upon electronic communication and digital
lar bioceramic bone substitute however its objects. Due to the sheer volume/variety of data
material properties may not be optimised for bone involved in complex projects, potential issues
integration, resorption and support. The aims of can be impossible to identify early-on in the
the study were to investigate the effect of com- project lifecycle. In conjunction with research
position, porosity, granule size and dissolution partners LOCM & Airbus, algorithmic approaches
on the compressive properties of Bonesave®. were investigated to interpret project attributes
The results showed significant variation in the using data extracted from electronic reports. By
‘as-received’ material and the concluding obser- predicting and visualising project characterisvations indicated that the commercial Bonesave® tics, the project aims to help project managers
material contains the weakest combination of ma- harness control over complex collaborative
projects.
terial properties for mechanical strength.
YeeLui
Supervisor: Dr M Soleimani
Andrew Pennock
Supervisor: Dr JL Du Bois
Super resolution for tomographic imaging
Modelling of an off road bicycle for the
purpose of the analysis of semi-active
suspension control
Electrical
capacitance
tomography
is
increasingly being investigated and adapted in
applications ranging from medical imaging to
pipelines examinations. However, as the images produced are low in spatial resolution,
super resolution reconstruction is used to improve image resolution. The aim of this project
is to implement and develop a super resolution
algorithm for electrical resolution tomography.
Developments in magneto rheological dampers
have significantly reduced the power consumption
required to implement semi active suspension control. Downhill cycling is a highly competitive sport
that takes place off-road, over extreme terrains.
Effective suspension is critical and semi-active
control has the potential to improve handling over
passive systems. Many semi-active control laws
have been developed for automobile use; this
project aims to develop a validated model of the bicycle for the purpose of testing these laws.
Maxwell Robertson
Supervisor: Mr J Roesner
Duncan Scrivens
Supervisor: Prof. AW Miles
Load handling performance of a forklift truck
Design, Build & Test of an In Vitro Rig to
Measure Acetabular Cup Micromotion Whilst
Under Dynamic Cyclic Loading Observed During
Activities of Daily Living
Forklift truck are a staple tool in modern load
handling facilities. High loads and system nonlinearities lead to oscillatory problems in the
lifting masts causing delays or damages. To
address this a simulation model of a hydraulic
lifting mechanism was developed, validated and
used to design controllers to improve safety and
reduce delays in forklift movement.
68
The long-term fixation of cementless acetabular
cups can be threatened by micromotion at the implant-bone interface following total hip replacement
surgery. Previous studies have only investigated
micromotion by cyclically loading the cup statically.
This project involved the design, build and test of
a new rig which integrates with an existing micromotion measurement system and compression
loading hardware to investigate the effect on boneimplant micromotion caused by the dynamic loading
involved in everyday activities.
Thomas Searle
Supervisor: Dr C Clarke
Samuel Sellars
Supervisor: Dr JL Du Bois
Communications and Positioning for Swarm
Robots
Drill Alignment for Hand Surgery
A proof of concept device has been designed to
facilitate communications and relative positioning between micro swarm-robots. Radio modules allow for broadcast and unicast communication between robots. The same modules allow
for measurement of the received signal strength,
from which the inter-robot distance (transmitter
to receiver) is estimated. The inter-robot distances are then used to calculate the position
of each robot relative to the others in terms of
separation-distance and heading.
Drilling procedures are used to fixate bones
while recovering from a fracture. During the
procedure the surgeon often does not have
visual access to the bone. Current methods of
allowing the surgeon to align the drill correctly
can be difficult to use and often require several
attempts. This project involves the development of a system using electromagnetic tracking
intended to ease the alignment process, and has
particular focus on bones in the hand and wrist.
Thomas Shaw
Supervisors: Dr M Cole & Dr P Iravani
Hardware in the loop simulation of the human
walking gait
Robotic ankle prosthetics could improve
the quality of life of transtibial amputee’s by
eliminating the biomechanical imbalances in
standard prosthetics. Hardware in the loop simulation of the human walking gait, could reduce the
development times of these complex prosthetics.
The project aims to prove the concept using a
primitive walking model with a hardware in the
loop system, representing one leg of the model in
hardware and the rest in the computer model only.
Matthew Smith
Supervisor: Prof. C Brace
Robbie Smith
Supervisor: Dr A Nassehi
Development and Implementation of Online
Design of Experiments Software for Automotive Testing
Investigating the effects of subsidies for new
sources of energy
The project involved the development of a
software component which enabled multiple
parameters of an engine/vehicle to be varied
to find the limits of operation. An interface was
developed to enable Design of Experiments (DoE)
software to host automated iterative testing. Two
case studies are presented, demonstrating the
need and effectiveness of the software developed:
“Combustion Air Handling Unit Mapping Using
Limit Searching Software” and “Applications of
Limit Searching and DoE Software in Turbocharger Mapping”.
Energy subsidies are widely used by governments attempting to meet energy policy objectives such as import dependency or emission
reductions. However, subsidies are also thought
to have many counter-intuitive consequences
that manifest through dynamic system feedback
loops. This project uses a system dynamics
modelling approach to assess some important
dynamic properties of energy markets. It was
found that a large proportion of a subsidy is simply used to support a more inefficient generating
infrastructure.
69
Thekla Stefanou
Supervisor: Dr P Iravani
Positioning of an Autonomous Quad Vehicle
As a continuation of a larger project aiming
towards the creation of an autonomous quad
vehicle, the work performed establishes a
positioning system. The GPS, IMU and odometry
sensors are interfaced in ROS (Robotics Operating System), a meta-operating system in Linux,
and the kinematics of the vehicle are analysed.
Fusion of the sensor data is performed using a
Kalman Filter. The intent is to use this data for
the implementation of a path following algorithm.
Carl Tholin-Chittenden
Supervisor: Dr A Evans
Patrick Thomas
Supervisor: Dr C Clarke
Kinect® based face recognition
Instrument Equaliser with Smartphone control
Face recognition is a biometric identification
process based on face recognition and detection. Face detection has been achieved through
a novel method and haar features based detection. Recognition has been achieved through
Eigenface and a novel method. A custom RGB-D
image database has also been created to be
used for the testing part of this project. The
Microsoft Kinect camera has been used for this
purpose to create the database and also to perform real processes.
Parametric equalisers allow precise tuning of
an instrument’s frequency profile. They perform
key roles within DAWs and mixing consoles. The
project aims to reproduce this feature on a portable hardware scale, by focusing on the digital
filtering of a single audio channel. An on-board
Bluetooth antenna facilitates remote control of
the equalisation parameters via a smartphone
app, and the embedded architecture is based on
an open source platform to aid future development.
Samuel White
Supervisor: Dr S Le Blond
Joseph Windell
Supervisor: Prof. P Maropoulos
Haptic feedback for sound mixing desks
Uncertainty of Laser Scanning Measurements
The aim of this project was to try and design
a system that will convey information about
the various audio signals in a mixing desk to
the user via the medium of touch to aid in the
mixing process. This required the creation of a
functioning prototype in order to assess different
actuation methods along with different drive signal
waveform types as well as ‘beat’ enhancement
on different channels.
Laser scanning has a number of advantages
over conventional metrology, especially in the
field of reverse engineering. A known problem
with these systems is their difficulty in measuring different surface conditions. This project aims
to identify the uncertainties encountered when
measuring a range of identically shaped artefacts
with different surface conditions. The condition of
each surface will be quantified by surface roughness and optical reflectivity measurements.
70
Jake Wood-Gee
Supervisor: Dr J du Bois
Jonathan Yek
Supervisor: Dr M Balchin
Semiactive Control of a Mountain Bike Suspension System High-speed maze solving robot
Semi actively controlled suspension systems
have been proven numerous times to provide
superior performance to their current passive
counterparts. The aim of this project was to design, make and test a prototype mountain bike
suspension damping system that can be used
alongside a semi active control strategy to better
understand the challenges in making one fit for
market, as well as providing a platform to work
from for future research.
The aim of this project is to construct a small
autonomous robot. The robot will be placed into an
unknown maze and is required to navigate from a
pre-determined starting position to the goal unaided. During this time, the robot will explore the
maze and create a virtual map of the area. Finally,
the robot will calculate and follow the route which
will reach the goal in the least amount of time.
Tom Young
Supervisor: Dr M Balchin
A small-scale biomass generator for off-grid
operation
Climate change and rapidly decreasing fossil
fuel resources are forcing us to consider alternative methods and fuels to generate electricity.
This project looks at a novel combination of a
Stirling engine and thermoelectric generators in
a combined heat and power system for domestic
use. The system is fuelled by carbon-lean wood
and charcoal to provide heat and electricity for
the user.
Best Performance in a Group Business and Design Project
Adam Phelps
71
Aerospace Group (2012/13)
Automotive Group (2012/13)
The Human Powered Aircraft Group:
Anthropter
Suspension & Systems Team
Mawuli Agbesi
Alex Buckingham
Stuart Chell
Bruce Edwards (PM)
Robert Hardie
Jessica Marengo (BM)
Francisco Parga
Lauren Shipway
Pierre Thomas
Danielle Winton
Liam Morgan
Sebastian Hendrick
van Os
Adam Phelps
Matt Sellick
Roc Tian
Dave Turton
Jing Yao
Mechanical Group (2012/13)
Swirl Effect FIling Machine
Philip Boyd (PM)
Jack Donovan
Yang Jiao
Andy Pennock (BM)
Siddhant Sajan Hegde
Hannah Southan
Accenture Business Prize
(2012/13)
Vehicle Robot Design for Chassis
Dynamometer Testing
Ciaran Gallagher (BM)
Tonte Lawson
Alexandros Perrakis
Bethan Smith
Matthew Smith (PM)
Joseph Windell
72
Prize Winner
Prize Sponsor and Award
Royal Aeronautical Society
Best Student Graduating in Aerospace Engineering
Ford Motor Company
Best Student Graduating in Automotive Engineering
IET
Best Student Graduating in Manufacturing Engineering
Crown Eurpoe
Best Student Graduating in Innovation and Engineering Design
Frank Wallace Memorial
Best Performance in the Language Option
Guillermo Durango
Thomas Johnson
Jack Barclay
Stuart Whitehouse
Konrad Kral
Guy Steemson
IMechE
Project Prize (Research Project)
Guillermo Durango
IMechE Frederic Barnes Waldron
Best Student Prize
Jamie McBrien
HMGCC Design
Best Specialist Design Project
RWE npower
Best Final Year Project in the area Energy and the Environment
Thornton
Best Materials and Bioengineering Group Student Performance
Armourers and Brasiers
Medal for Outstanding Project Work
Arnstein Hagen
Samuel Peirce
Graham Smith
Guillermo Durango
Frazer-Nash
Best Student Research Project in Aerospace
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Top Formula Student Final Year Research Project
Best Final Year Project Poster
1st Prize
2nd Prize
3rd Prize
Michael Farley and
Trystan Jones
Aditya Sahu
Soroosh Safaei Keshtgar
George Paschalis
Guillermo Durango
Bath BP Centurion Award
Jack Barclay
Geoff Herrington Innovation Medal
Yiannis Eftychiou
The Chancellor’s Prize
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