Soluzioni SKF per oil gas downstream

Soluzioni SKF per oil gas downstream
Reliability, availability, sustainability
Achieve your business goals with SKF downstream solutions
The Power of Knowledge Engineering
Every hydrocarbon processing plant is different.
Common challenges
Common goals
The downstream hydrocarbon processing industry is going
through dramatic changes on a global basis. North American
refineries and chemical plants are reconfiguring to adapt to
changing feedstock composition. The Middle East is investing
dramatically in new capacity while Europe is reducing theirs.
China, India and Brazil are making significant investments to
align local production with their growing economies.
Regardless of type of process or plant architecture, most HPI
facilities are focused on two primary goals regarding equipment
health management:
While each of these creates its own set of issues, they also have
much in common. Chances are you are dealing with some or all
of these challenges:
• Workforce competency and skills development
• Retention or acquisition of critical knowledge
• Reduced staff size in some markets and ramping up in
• Increased environmental and safety regulations
• Management demands to be more cost effective while
still improving performance
• More rapid decision making in an era of increasing risk
• Increasing influence of equipment reliability on slim
operating margins
• Improving the reliability and availability of rotating
• Implementing or optimizing an overall plant reliability and
maintenance programme
And the same.
An uncommon resource
For many companies around the world, the search for a partner
that understands their business, their challenges and their
machinery has led them to SKF. Through our global engineering,
reliability and service organization, SKF provides a range of tools,
technologies and value-added services unmatched by any other
SKF has a unique understanding of rotating equipment and how
machine components and industrial processes are interrelated.
This knowledge – coupled with our expertise in bearings, sealing
solutions, lubrication systems, condition monitoring applications
and reliability services – enables us to deliver effective, integrated
Working with both OEMs and plant maintenance professionals,
SKF has provided assistance to improve designs of many types of
equipment, ranging from pumps, fans and motors to gearboxes,
compressors and turbines.
Combining fundamental machine knowledge with our deep
understanding of maintenance and reliability processes adds up
to what’s most important to our customers: the real-world
experience SKF brings to the table.
A proven work management process for
Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO)
Experience has confirmed that when maintenance activities are
conducted more strategically and effectively, value is created at all
levels of an organization. By extending the life of critical assets,
inventory and parts costs go down, resulting in significant savings.
Depending on market conditions, these savings can combine with
increased revenues resulting from greater machine availability and
elimination of unanticipated downtime.
Through a proven methodology we call Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO), SKF delivers solutions that can make your assets more
productive, producing more without increasing capital spending on
new equipment, and making the best use of your existing manpower resources.
In existing plants, the AEO process begins with identifying opportunities for improvement throughout your operation or enterprise.
Our consultants work to understand your business goals, application challenges and plant culture to create a road map for improving reliability and profitability.
The Asset Efficiency Optimization process is based on our worldclass best practices and provides a fully structured and documented maintenance programme.
Whether a new or existing operation, the AEO methodology combines
a broad range of strategic and tactical tools to help you know:
• What must you do?
• Why must you do it?
• Who must do it, when?
• How should it be done?
• What can you learn to keep improving?
SKF will work with you to define areas of focus in order to get the
fastest return on your investment. Your customized programme
can include everything from training and logistics, to a full predictive maintenance service contract with qualified manpower and
technology to help maintain your plant – even remotely.
optimizing performance
Existing plants
New plants or processing units
SKF provides a broad spectrum of services to meet the needs of
existing plants. These range from a complete predictive maintenance (PDM) programme that includes everything from processes
and procedures on asset management and work management to
hardware and software to implement PDM, proactive reliability
maintenance (PRM) and operator driven reliability (ODR) programmes.
Through a slightly modified version of the Asset Efficiency Optimization process, SKF can design and implement a complete maintenance programme for new assets to make them efficient and
effective. This includes pre-populating the plant's computerized
maintenance management system (CMMS) prior to onset of
Root Cause
Failure Analysis
reliability analysis
Maintenance task
Machine upgrade
rebuild and redesign
Assessing and benchmarking your asset
SKF asset management assessments
Asset Efficiency Optimization typically begins with an assessment
that benchmarks your current programme against our best
practices and other previously assessed plants.
Conducted by SKF with key members of your organization, the
assessment provides a snapshot of your plant’s maintenance and
work management situation, taking into account industry-specific
maintenance and reliability issues.
For existing plants, the 40-point SKF Client Needs Analysis (CNA)
helps identify the top issues that need to be addressed and helps
determine where opportunities for improvement exist as well as
the potential
cost benefit of these improvements. SKF can also
assist with easy implementation.
For new plants, SKF consulting services lay the groundwork for
success, identifying the processes, systems and programmes that
are needed to help ensure the plant's
efficiency from the first day
of commercial operation.
For large companies with many sites, the SKF CNA process can
be used to provide management with8benchmarking insight and
possible pathways to raise performance across the enterprise.
Individual result
Energy, power generation
Fire Fighting
Energy, po
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SKF compares your current work
management programme practices
against our best practices and develops a
spider chart that allows a quick understanding of this comparison against the
40 sub-areas assessed. The chart shows
your score and defines it in terms of
“fire-fighting, maintaining, promoting or
innovating”. The areas that have the
greatest potential for improvement are
highlighted as gaps.
management situation
Areas of focus
Action plans for implementation
In each case, the ultimate goal of the assessment is to establish a
continuous improvement programme based on industry experience and best practices.
Guided by the results of a 40-point analysis, SKF consultants can
help you identify your plant’s needs and improvement opportunities, and then develop appropriate action plans. SKF can implement and execute your plan, or train your team to do so – whatever is best for your organization and bottom line.
Maintenance Strategy – A comprehensive maintenance strategy
can transform maintenance from a cost centre into a profit centre.
Work Identification – Being able to better identify potential faults
before they become a problem will decrease unplanned downtime
and increase production efficiency.
Importantly, we can also assist with cultural change management,
providing system-wide support to facilitate the organizational
changes needed to achieve sustainable efficiencies and cost
Work Control – Detecting problems earlier enables better scheduling of labour and spare parts for repair. Machine uptime increases, while overtime, work backlog and total costs decrease.
Work Execution – With an optimum work execution programme,
maintenance labour productivity increases, maintenance rework
decreases and total maintenance costs are reduced.
Living Programme – Developing a living programme is essential
to maintain and optimize the maintenance strategy and create a
path to continuous improvement.
Optimizing the machine life cycle
to reduce total cost of ownership
SKF Life Cycle Management
As a supplier of components, systems and engineering expertise to
manufacturers of all types of machinery, our view of the world is
based on the Life Cycle Management (LCM) of an asset. Our
solutions cover all aspects of the life cycle from improved designs
with integrated solutions to enhanced operations and maintenance.
SKF can help improve performance and reduce Total Cost of
Ownership through SKF Life Cycle Management, a proven approach to improving machine reliability and operational efficiency.
The SKF service portfolio combines SKF competencies to address
every stage of the machine life cycle, from 3-D modelling and
simulation for equipment designers to cloud-based remote
condition monitoring and training for industrial end users.
Depending on your needs, you can take advantage of these
and other SKF offerings and capabilities.
• Maintenance programme assessments
• Maintenance strategy review
• Predictive and proactive maintenance strategy and execution
• CMMS/ERP implementation
• Asset diagnostic services
• Integrated hardware and software solutions
• A full range of mechanical services
• Engineering design and simulation
• Machine upgrades
• Remanufacturing services
• Expert training and technical support
Whether you’re an equipment design engineer or
an end-user, SKF Life Cycle Management can help
your organization:
• Asset management consulting services
• Optimize designs
Note: see case studies at the end of this brochure for examples.
• Lubrication and energy management services
• Reduce time to market
• Improve energy and resource efficiency
• Improve reliability
• Extend asset service life
D e si g n an d de v el
• Improve productivity
• Minimize maintenance
i on
• Reduce total cost of
f ac
SKF Life Cycle
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Applying SKF knowledge of rotating
equipment to optimize reliability
Decades of machine and HPI industry experience
SKF has extensive knowledge and experience in solving reliability
problems of numerous pieces of equipment in a refinery, chemical
plant or along a pipeline. From pumps, motors and fans, to
compressors and turbines, SKF has solved problems or lowered
the total cost of ownership with solutions including specialized
bearings, seals, lubrication, linear motion technologies and
condition monitoring.
Some solutions begin with root cause analysis (RCA) to determine
the true cause of a machine problem. Or, if the problem is known,
SKF engineers go straight to it, and apply our application expertise
to increase equipment reliability. With expertise in many areas that
affect reliability, SKF is able to look at the problem from a systems
perspective and provide an effective solution that can combine
several SKF competency areas.
In some cases, SKF may have even partnered with the original
equipment manufacturers of your plant machinery, providing us
with knowledge that can be applied to your solutions.
OEMs, packagers and end users of compressor trains of all configurations
rely on SKF for proven solutions that improve MTBF, reliability and uptime.
Cooling tower fans are applied throughout the downstream industry and
pose specific maintenance challenges for which SKF has developed a broad
range of solutions.
A wide range of expert services to support
SKF provides a broad spectrum of services to HPI and pipeline
customers, including existing and new units prior to coming on
line. These services range from on-line or on-site training in
operator driven reliability to complete SKF management of
predictive maintenance programmes.
In many cases, our involvement begins with one or two services
and ultimately grows to include many, from data collection and
remote monitoring, to lubrication management, motor testing and
mechanical services including balancing and alignment.
You can select the services that best meet your needs and build
upon that foundation as your requirements change.
Operator Driven Reliability (ODR)
SKF has proven processes and experience in setting up operator
rounds, automating collected data, and training your staff to
communicate findings and initiate timely corrective actions,
making operations part of your asset reliability team.
Mechanical services
SKF can perform expert balancing, alignment, bearing installation
and remanufacturing, and other critical services to optimize your
machinery and your manpower resources.
Condition monitoring data collection and analysis
SKF provides on-site or remote condition monitoring services,
supported by expert data analysis and internet-based communications capabilities. Programmes can include vibration monitoring,
oil analysis, lubrication management and electric motor testing.
Remote diagnostics is ideal for organizations with limited staff
trained in predictive maintenance techniques or with sites located
remotely from a central facility.
Predictive Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance programmes aim to detect machine
conditions that will lead to failure and estimate the amount of time
before that failure occurs.
Contract Predictive Maintenance
There can be many challenges to implementing a new PdM
programme or revitalizing an existing programme. These can
include the lack of skilled resources for both data collection and
data analysis, as well as the absence of the appropriate technology.
One strategy adopted by many companies for fast implementation,
and thus fast realization of the benefits of improved reliability, is
contracting SKF to execute the programme, including supplying
the latest technology for data collection. In this way, the business
benefits are enjoyed while the existing staff is gradually acclimated
to the new approach. SKF can continue to provide these services
and technology going forward, or the customer can budget for the
technology purchase and plan a gradual takeover of the programme.
In addition to these basics, an SKF Predictive Maintenance service
contract also includes a determination for which proactive tasks
can help extend machine life.
Maintenance Strategy Review
This process helps ensure that you are performing the right
maintenance, on the right equipment, at the right time, with the
right people, for the right reasons. Ultimate goals include reducing
equipment damage and losses, increasing availability and reliability, and reducing overall maintenance costs. SKF can configure,
support, interface to and help deploy a planned maintenance
Root Cause Analysis
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is a process that identifies the events
responsible for machine failures and uses that information to help
prevent future failures. After investigating three basic types of
failure causes – physical or technical, human or organizational,
procedural or decision making – SKF delivers a report on failure
causes and effects, plus a comprehensive plan of corrective actions
to prevent recurrence.
Proactive Reliability Maintenance
An SKF Proactive Reliability Maintenance service contract applies
best practice predictive maintenance activities and other processes
to diagnose root causes of failures systematically. SKF then takes
steps to help eliminate recurrences. The process includes using
performance indicators and operational reviews to help you reach
industry best-in-class benchmarks.
your operational goals
Integrated equipment reliability
Equipment redesign and continuous improvement
The responsibilities surrounding building a new facility or operating an existing facility can be challenging for the most experienced
plant management. Success depends on achieving safety, reliability and availability goals – all with minimal staff, stringent budgets
and tight time constraints. Key to achieving these goals is establishing an integrated equipment reliability programme where the
core element is a robust, cost-effective maintenance programme.
SKF applies SKF knowledge and services to design and deliver
custom solutions to your toughest productivity challenges. SKF
engineers can troubleshoot application issues and offer suggestions for machine upgrades that can extend service intervals and
help eliminate recurring failures. Through the Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO) process, improvement is a collaborative and
ongoing process.
Spares Optimization and Management
SKF Spares Optimization and Management can help plants reduce
inventory costs and the risk of running out of stock. By providing a
justifiable basis for carrying a given inventory, plus linking spare
parts levels to asset criticality, SKF can help you reduce purchasing, supply and inventory costs while maintaining your optimum
spare parts inventory.
Mechanical services and
service contracts
Predictive and proactive
Consultancy services
Improving machine reliability through inte
A complete suite of enabling technologies – hardware and software
Managing the mountain of data
For most plants, the problem is not a shortage of machine data.
It’s managing data efficiently and turning it into reliable, actionable
A pioneer in the condition monitoring field since its inception, SKF
has continued to lead the way with new products, systems and
services that enable hydrocarbon companies and pipelines to use
data to improve operational efficiency, plant safety and extend the
asset’s life cycle. These technologies have the required safety
ratings to be used in hazardous areas.
Today, SKF provides a complete, integrated suite of enabling
technologies, called the SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite (@MS),
to help you improve and maintain reliability while reducing
maintenance costs. Data
that can be presented in
@MS includes both on-line
and off-line vibration data,
lube oil analysis data,
process data and operator
round data.
egrated condition monitoring
SKF @ptitude
Trend Oil
SKF @ptitude
Work Notification
SKF @ptitude Analyst
Human Machine
SKF @ptitude Analyst
NT Authentication
and IT Security
SKF @ptitude
Thin Client Transfer
SKF @ptitude
Decision Support
OPC Client Interfaces
for SKF @ptitude Analyst
and SKF @ptitude
Decision Support
SKF @ptitude
Monitoring Suite
SKF @ptitude SKF @ptitude SKF @ptitude
The SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite
The SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite forms the basis for a completely integrated approach to condition monitoring, permitting
fast, efficient and reliable storage, manipulation and retrieval of
large amounts of complex machine and plant information.
SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite not only integrates vibration and
operator rounds data but can also manage oil analysis results and
process data with ties to CMMS, process data historians or process
data access through OPC connections. Thus, data on a particular
piece of equipment can be grouped together allowing quicker
analysis to facilitate determination of asset health.
The SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite includes three core software
modules including SKF @ptitude Analyst, SKF @ptitude Observer
(for operator driven reliability) and SKF @ptitude Inspector. Additional supporting applications and add-ons can be incorporated into
the system to accommodate changing needs and to increase
capabilities. One of these, SKF @ptitude Decision Support, accepts
data from a wide range of sources to enable more effective and
timely decision making across your entire facility or enterprise.
Building knowledge in fault detection
Reducing the mountain of data to actionable
SKF @ptitude Decision Support (@DS) enables you to enhance the
expertise of your team – a key advantage as your most experienced personnel retire, taking critical knowledge with them.
SKF @ptitude
Decision Support
This dedicated decision support software links with a range of data
sources, including ERP and EAM/CMMS, to facilitate accurate,
timely, and consistent decision making and work order notification
– within a single plant, across multiple facilities or miles of pipeline.
By fusing knowledge from diverse sources, the software provides
information essential to effective machine and process analysis,
diagnosis, reporting and corrective action.
@DS is based on logic models that can automatically analyze data
from various sources and determine with high accuracy if a fault is
present, as well as its severity. SKF already has over 100 models of
HPI plant equipment that can be used right away with your
equipment, eliminating the need to start from scratch.
SKF @ptitude Analyst and @ptitude Decision Support integrate
your data to improve overall plant efficiency by replacing labourintensive data analysis with an automated process that identifies
the probability of specific faults within an asset or process, and
then prescribes appropriate action.
SKF @ptitude
SKF @ptitude
Monitoring Suite
SKF @ptitude
process data
SKF @ptitude
This smart filtering will allow your staff to focus on what needs
attention versus data analysis.
Using SKF @ptitute Decision Support provides the ability to quickly
determine which asset is in fault and why. Fault detection is
enhanced and can be acted on quickly while knowledge is
concurrently captured on each fault. @DS replaces labour and time
intensive analysis and saves time by automatically determining
specific faults from a single or multi-parameter set of data
including vibration, oil, operator inspections and process data.
Plantwide integration of machine data
Seamless integration of machine data
Designed to work seamlessly together and with your facility’s CMMS, ERP or other plant-wide system, SKF hardware and software
components make it easier to collect, analyze, use and share machine condition data. With one software platform that integrates data
from a complete range of condition monitoring tools and data sources, the SKF @ptitude asset management system supports a plantor enterprise-wide programme for optimized reliability, efficiency and safety.
SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite
SKF @ptitude Decision Support
SKF Remote Condition
Monitoring Centers
System (DCS)
OPC server
Plant Information Network (PIN)
Plant Control Network (PCN)
Redundant RS 485
Redundant RS 485
Relay Outputs
4 to 20 mA
SKF Multilog
(API 670)
Safety barrier
4 to
20 mA
Safe area
Safety barrier
Safety barrier
RS 485
Safety barrier
Safety barrier
Multilog WMx
SKF Machine Condition
Transmitters (MCT) (API 670)
(API 670)
1 3 5
2 4 6
Critical machines
Critical machines
ATEX Zone 1 and NEC Class I Division 1
Semi-critical machines
Balance of plants
Balance of plants
ATEX Zone 2 and NEC Class I Division 2
Condition monitoring tools
Portable and wireless collectors
Basic handheld tools
SKF handheld condition monitoring tools, available with safety
ratings to allow use in hazardous areas, put the benefits of
condition-based maintenance within reach for experts and novices
alike. This basic equipment range allows users to spot-check
critical machines and establish trends needed to identify problems
early on, before they result in costly downtime.
Portable data collectors and analyzers
The SKF Microlog series of portable data collectors and analyzers
can handle all tasks needed to perform predictive maintenance and
on-the-spot analysis of rotating machinery. Units in the series are
supported by SKF @ptitude software and meet requirements for use
in HPI and pipeline hazardous areas.
SKF Wireless Machine Condition Sensor
Operator Driven Reliability (ODR) tools
Equipment operators are usually the first to detect even the
smallest changes in machine conditions. The SKF Microlog
Inspector series of ruggedized handheld mobile computers,
safety-rated for hazardous environments, allows operators to
communicate findings and initiate timely corrective actions. These
SKF tools also facilitate communication between departments,
making it easier to implement and run an ODR programme.
A cost-effective alternative to hard-wired monitoring solutions,
the SKF Wireless Machine Condition Sensor combines a sensor,
data collector and radio into one compact, battery-operated unit.
Ideal for hazardous and hard-to-access locations, the system
collects overall machine vibration, FFT spectrum and temperature
data and uses the WirelessHART protocol, forming a mesh
network that provides access to locations where traditional WiFi
will not reach.
SKF Machine Condition Indicator
The standalone SKF
Machine Condition
Indicator (MCI) gives
plants a reliable, affordable way to monitor
non-critical machinery.
A vibration sensor and
an alarm indicator in
one unit, the fully sealed, battery-powered MCI requires no wired
or wireless connections, installing directly on machinery for
permanent, periodic vibration and temperature monitoring.
A series of LEDs on top of the unit alerts operators and maintenance technicians to developing issues that may require the
machine to undergo a further analysis.
Condition monitoring tools
On-line surveillance and protection
Machine condition transmitters from SKF
SKF offers a complete line of machine condition transmitters,
engineered to deliver added value to essential production equipment. They provide vital information on machine and bearing
performance that helps maximize potential machine utilization.
Each standalone monitoring device is connected to a permanently
mounted sensor on a machine. The devices provide low-cost
continuous monitoring of
specific machine, gear and
bearing performance parameters in pumps, fans, motors and
other general purpose machinery.
SKF Multilog On-line System WMx
Offering the functionality of a portable data
collector/analyzer, the wireless SKF Multilog WMx
is much more cost-effective to install and
implement than a traditional on-line system.
Compact and field-mounted, the system enables
remote, wireless monitoring of essential
machinery, with less project engineering
and documentation.
SKF Multilog On-line System DMx
Providing condition monitoring and machine protection in a very
small footprint, the intrinsically safe SKF Multilog DMx eliminates
the need for bulky cabinets.
Four-channel vibration monitoring
and on-board proximity probe
drivers allow processing requirements, from transducer to dynamic
data, to be performed
safely on the machine skid.
SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-M
SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-S
The SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-S is a powerful, costeffective solution for a variety of condition monitoring applications.
With highly configurable inputs and local LAN or internet compatibility, the IMx-S provides a complete array of analysis capabilities
to suit most monitoring strategies for semi-critical and essential
The SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-M is a classic, rack-based
system that is a powerful and flexible solution for a variety of
condition monitoring and machine protection applications.
Together with SKF @ptitude Monitoring Suite software, the SKF
Multilog IMx-M provides a complete system for critical machinery
shutdown/trip and early fault detection and diagnosis.
Special bearings
Specialized bearings
With over 100 years as a global leader in bearings, the SKF
standard product range is the broadest in the industry – covering
all rotating machines that use rolling element bearings in a typical
refinery or chemical plant. When the standard range will not
suffice, SKF responds to new challenges with innovation. Here are
a few examples:
Insocoat Bearings for Motors
Electric current passing through a bearing causes arcing and
microwelding across the rolling element and raceway, leading to
early and often catastrophic failure. Correcting the ground loop
that is the root cause of this phenomenon is often a vexing
problem to solve.
SKF has developed the Insocoat bearing to prevent passage of
electric current through the bearing. It utilizes a plasma coating
that physically transforms the
bearing steel into an insulating
layer. Applied to the outer or
inner ring diameter, the basic
bearing dimensions are the
same as a standard bearing,
thus permitting an easy field
retrofit / upgrade.
PumPac Angular Contact Bearings
for Centrifugal Pumps
Process pumps throughout a
downstream plant can subject
their bearings to excessive or
varying thrust loads beyond
original design specifications.
Often the original equipment
bearings are not able to cope with
these higher loads, resulting in
reduced MTBF (Mean Time
Between Failure), higher repair cost and even operational losses.
SKF developed the PumPac Angular Contact Bearing range to deal
with these challenges.
SKF ConCentra bearing units:
Engineered for high reliability in harsh conditions
SKF ConCentra ball and roller bearings can handle punishing
outdoor conditions as well as heavy loads,
shock loads and contaminants. They
offer a proven, cost-effective
alternative to conventional
bearing and housing arrangements.
SKF ConCentra
bearing units perform
well wherever maintenance requirements are tough and minimal.
Greased and sealed, ready and easy to mount, the units help cut
maintenance demands.
Sour gas bearings
The SKF sour gas solution is a robust rolling bearing arrangement
consisting of high-nitrogen, stainless steel rings, ceramic rolling
elements and polymeric PEEK cages. Currently
installed in several highly demanding refinery,
gas well boosting and recip boosting operations,
the SKF sour gas solution is helping these
operations increase run length from months to
several years. The result? A sharp reduction in
maintenance demands and operational costs,
and an enabler for new low cost compressor
Hybrid bearings
Hybrid bearings have rings made of bearing steel and rolling
elements made of bearing grade silicon nitride (Si3N4). Because
silicon nitride is such an excellent electrical insulator, hybrid
bearings can be used to effectively insulate the housing from the
shaft in both AC and DC motors as well as in generators.
In addition to being an excellent insulator,
hybrid bearings have higher speed
capabilities and provide longer bearing
service life than standard bearings under
the same operating conditions. Hybrid
bearings also perform extremely well
under vibrating or oscillating conditions.
Customized seals
Customized sealing solutions
Improving application performance with sealing
solutions from SKF
• Withstand high or low operating temperatures
Seals are critical system components that help promote system
performance, reliability and efficiency of the complete machinery.
The implications of a non-performing sealing solution in terms
of consequential damage to the machinery and lost production
can be significant. SKF is a leader in high-quality, customengineered sealing solutions offering a comprehensive range of
both moulded and machined seals. Our flexible production system
reduces manufacturing and dispatch time to a minimum for
virtually any dimension and design. This includes large diameter
sizes up to 4 000 mm and proprietary material formulations for
problem applications.
• Reduce relubrication and cleaning costs
• Resist chemicals as required
• Minimize risk of leakage and environmental impact
SKF will help you identify the right sealing solution for your
application. SKF solutions includes a wide range of designs, sizes
and high-performance rubber and polyurethane materials to:
Radial shaft seals
Machined seals
Using a special welding technique, SKF can
manufacture seals in different polymeric
materials up to 4 000 mm in diameter as
one piece and larger with very short
delivery times. We offer virtually unlimited
seal designs and an extensive range of
sealing materials (including materials
certified to or complying with a broad range
of industry standards and regulation).
Problem-solving seals for the chemical processing
The chemical processing industry utilizes high temperature
processes and requires exposure of equipment to harsh chemicals.
This demanding environment can be extremely damaging to seals,
resulting in costly maintenance and repairs.
SKF has developed elastomeric materials to handle the high
temperatures and aggressive chemicals used in the industry.
These materials can be produced into a wide range of seal profiles
and sizes, and using our industry-leading SKF SEAL JET Machining
process, we can provide very quick response times for custom
Magnetic bearings
Magnetic bearing systems
Active magnetic bearing capabilities overview
Advantages over oil lubricated bearings
The first compressor equipped with an SKF S2M Magnetic
Bearing, commissioned in 1985, is still running. Since then, we
have partnered with many of the world’s leading OEMs and
operators to harness the power of magnetic levitation to address
the need for high speed and high reliability active magnetic
bearings in the most demanding operating environments.
Using oil lubricated bearings in cryogenic turboexpanders can be
problematic with operating temperatures as low as –150 °C
(–238 °F). Should bearing seals fail, oil will enter the process,
freeze and begin to solidify, at which point the process must be
shut down and the equipment laboriously cleaned.
SKF experience includes more than 1 000 installations in the oil
and gas industry, including upstream, midstream and downstream
processes. SKF is now pioneering the use of magnetic bearings for
the first natural gas centrifugal compressors placed on the seabed
at the Åsgard field in the Norwegian Sea.
For downstream processes, SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings have
been chosen for gas compressors, polyethylene compressors,
high-speed electric motor drives, ethylene turboexpanders, power
generation turbogenerators, high speed blowers and others.
When customers need to increase the reliability and availability
of their process machines, SKF has documented cases where
99–100% reliability is the standard. Many users have reported
more than 100 000 hours – without any fault related to magnetic
bearings. Typically, MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is more
than 40 000 hours.
SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings eliminate the possibility of oil freezing
and reduce the risk of oil spills, contamination and leakage
because they operate without lubrication. SKF S2M Magnetic
Bearings have operated in applications as low as –250 °C
(–418 °F) and are ideally suited for small frame turboexpanders
used for gas processing applications.
SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings can also operate directly in a natural
gas environment, so there is no need for shaft seals, thereby
eliminating seal wear, maintenance, replacement and downtime
issues. Shaft length can also be reduced, which improves shaft
stiffness and rotor dynamic stability.
And, when elimination of lubrication system, gearbox, couplings
and drive motor are considered, SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings
dramatically reduce the footprint and tonnage requirements.
In addition, process availability, equipment reliability and OPEX
are significantly improved.
SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings are
part of the SKF BeyondZero
portfolio. See back cover for details.
Magnetic bearing controllers
Our newest system provides a fully digital control loop for remote
monitoring and servicing of magnetic bearing applications. It has
been developed to meet the demanding conditions of subsea
compression stations, with a broad range of functionalities
previously available only through secondary and tertiary systems.
The controller’s calculation core delivers an optimized control loop
for turbo machines, proven on 30MW compressors and beyond.
Real-time data is digitized through a high sampling rate and all
data is available for post processing through the SKF software
monitoring suite.
A new approach to commissioning
The benchmark for software solutions dedicated to magnetic
bearing control and management, the SKF software suite significantly reduces time for system commissioning. Deployed on site or
viewed remotely, it enables highly accurate, real-time monitoring
for an immediate overview of data, trends and events.
3D waterfalls
Time snapshots
Lubrication management
A complete portfolio of lubrication solutio
More than a century of lubrication expertise
Lubrication software
Like any mechanical system, moving parts in pumps, compressors,
fans and blowers, generators and valves need proper lubrication to
function optimally. SKF and Lincoln automatic lubrication systems
deliver the exact quantity of the appropriate lubricant to the right
place at the right time while the equipment is running – without
production downtime.
SKF Lube Select can assist you in determining the most suitable
grease for your bearings and working conditions.
With comprehensive knowledge of tribology and industrial
demands, our engineers have developed lubrication systems for oil
and gas applications with system components tailored to the
demands of the industry.
SKF DialSet helps establish optimal relubrication intervals and
lubricant quantities for any application. It also determines proper
automatic lubrication system settings.
SKF Lubrication Planner helps you to
develop and manage your lubrication plan.
Client needs analysis
SKF Client Needs Analysis – Lubrication Management will review
your plant’s lubrication practices. Typically, within a day, you will get
a snapshot of your plant’s situation based on answers to 40
SKF Lubrication Audit is an in-depth analysis of your plant’s
lubrication programme, usually taking several days to complete.
You will get a report including the strengths and weaknesses of
your current programme, your opportunities for improvement and
a proposal for specific enhancement projects with
a return-on-investment calculation.
lubrication system
Lubrication services
• Installation and start-up of centralized lubrication systems
• Servicing of existing centralized lubrication systems
• Lubricant suitability test for a
centralized lubrication system
• Oil analysis
lubrication systems
and progressive
lubrication system
Tools and
SKF offers a complete product
portfolio of manual lubrication tools
and the industry's most advanced
automatic lubrication systems.
ns to improve system reliability
SKF Circulating oil lubrication systems
These systems lubricate and cool heavily loaded bearings and are
suitable for all size machines. They separate dirt particles, air
bubbles and water from the oil. A pressurized oil system transports
lubricant to the individually adjustable flow meters. Circulating-oil
lubrication performs other functions. It stabilizes the lubrication
points to the proper temperature, removes and filters wear
particles from friction points, prevents corrosion damage, and
removes water condensation. Additional benefits include integrated
condition monitoring and demand-based distribution of lubricant.
SKF centralized lubrication systems:
The right lubricant quantity at the right time
SKF and Lincoln offer centralized, automatic lubrication systems
for industrial applications to provide the exact lubrication needed
for all lubrication points on your equipment while in operation.
Benefits include:
• Reduced downtime and production losses
• Extended bearing and machinery life
• Increased machine reliability and uptime
• Up to 50 percent reduction in lubricant consumption
Automatic oil mist lubrication systems
• Reduced environmental impact caused by over lubrication
Carbon Shield is the new generation of Alemite atomized oil
lubrication systems, matching your need for automated monitoring,
and integration into operating systems. The Alemite Carbon Shield
atomized oil lubrication system combines proven oil mist
lubrication technology with state of the art control, monitoring
and communications to provide reliable, cost effective bearing
lubrication for pumps and motors in downstream plants. These
systems can be designed for hazardous environments, meeting
UL Class 1, Division 2 standards.
• Improved worker safety by reducing the need to work on
and around machinery
For machinery with many lubrication points, a centralized, automatic lubrication system will pay for itself, often in less than one
year. Your SKF representative can put you in touch with the right
SKF lubrication experts to meet your application needs.
SKF single point lubricators
A range of single point automatic lubricators filled with SKF grease
provides small quantities of clean lubricant on a regular basis, thus
improving bearing performance. In addition to improving safety,
lubrication technicians can save considerable time with the use of
SKF single point lubricators.
Grease- and oil-based automatic lubrication systems
Electric testing
Electric motor testing and monitoring
SKF is a leading provider of motor and motor/machine test and
monitoring equipment for industrial maintenance professionals.
SKF’s motor test instruments are used in motor and machine
maintenance organizations around the globe, and are the standard
for motor testing that technicians and engineers depend upon.
Static motor analysis
Portable dynamic motor monitoring
SKF pioneered the market for instrumentation designed to safely
monitor motor health and performance while a motor is in operation.
The EXP4000 is the latest generation of portable dynamic motor
analyzers to provide maintenance professionals with the means to
accurately troubleshoot mechanical vs. electrical problems with
motors and the rotating equipment they drive. This analyzer performs:
The Baker AWA-IV static motor analyzers provide a full spectrum of
motor tests for predictive motor maintenance and quality assurance. The Baker AWA-IV series of portable instruments perform
automated tests on motor insulation strength and motor circuit
integrity including:
• Load condition analysis
• Surge
• Vibration analysis
• Power condition analysis
• Torque signature analysis
• Continuous monitoring
• VFD monitoring
• Polarization index (PI)
• Dielectric analysis (DA)
• Motor efficiency assessments
• Winding resistance
On-line motor monitoring and analysis
• Megohm
• DC step voltage
These analyzers find problems that can lead to premature motor
failures such as weak turn-to-turn insulation, dirt/moisture/
chemical contamination, ground wall insulation weakness, shorts
and opens, unbalances and misconnections, and lead-line cable
issues. The Baker AWA-IV is fully automated, which makes it easy
for maintenance technicians to use, but ensures integrity of
repeated tests for any given motor or sets of motors. Users can
save test data, generate test reports and identify trends that
improve maintenance decision-making.
The NetEP Online Motor Analysis System represents a breakthrough
in the ability to monitor and manage critical motor health and
performance from anywhere in the world with an Internetconnected computer. The NetEP is a permanently-installed networked device that can monitor up to 32 motors on a continuous
basis. With the NetEP, maintenance personnel can:
• Continuously monitor with alerts on more than 100
parameters of motor health for each connected motor
• Connect to motors using up to seven
different voltage busses
• Acquire time waveforms, torque/time waveforms
and torque spectrum data
• Perform current signature analysis
• Acquire, monitor and analyze trend information
to improve maintenance decisions
SKF Static Motor Analyzer –
Baker AWA-IV
SKF Online Motor Analysis
System – NetEP
SKF Dynamic Motor Analyzer – EXP4000
SKF EP1000 dynamic motor analyzer
connector and accessories
Maintenance products
Tools and technologies for
maximizing the bearing life cycle
While every bearing has a
pre-calculated service
lifetime, research shows that
not every bearing achieves
it. When bearings fail to last
for as long as they should, it
is generally due to improper
maintenance during key
stages of the bearing life
cycle: mounting, lubrication,
alignment, basic condition
monitoring and dismounting.
Organized according to these five bearing life cycle stages, SKF
maintenance products reflect the range of maintenance tasks
required for each stage. By applying the right maintenance
practices and using the right tools, you can considerably extend
your bearing’s service life and increase plant productivity
and efficiency.
SKF Shaft Alignment Tools
Shaft misalignment is responsible for up to
50% of all costs related to rotating machinery
breakdowns. To help save costs and ensure
proper shaft alignment, SKF offers a range of
accurate and easy-to-use shaft alignment tools.
Mounting / Dismounting
Includes a wide range of mechanical fitting tools,
induction heaters and hydraulic equipment.
Includes SKF designed and certified bearing greases, manual
lubrication tools, automatic lubricators, and lubrication
Includes a comprehensive range of wireless shaft alignment
tools, belt alignment tools and full range of machinery shims.
Basic condition monitoring
Includes easy to use instruments to either measure, monitor or
detect temperature, sound, visual condition, speed, electrical
discharge and vibrations that complement the full range of SKF
condition monitoring solutions.
SKF Thermal Cameras
To help detect potential problems at an early
stage, an SKF Thermal Camera supports you to
quickly and easily detect hot spots before they
can cause a machine malfunction.
Bearing mounting tools
The comprehensive range of SKF bearing
installation tools includes SKF Induction Heaters.
With a low power consumption, these userfriendly tools offer a fast and safe heating
solution for bearings and workpieces, both large
and small.
Couplings / Supergrip bolts
Time- and money-saving coupling
connection technologies
SKF OK Couplings reduce connection times
for shafts and flanges
SKF Supergrip bolts save time, cut costs
and reduce risk of seizure
Mounting and dismounting shaft couplings can be time-consuming
operations that take hours or even days to complete. SKF OK
Couplings can significantly reduce the time required to connect
rotating shafts and flanges in heavy equipment such as large
Based on the same design concept as OK couplings, SKF Supergrip
bolts represent an improved technology for connecting rotating
flange couplings and with proven reduction in coupling maintenance – from days to hours. Designed for insertion and removal by
hand with initial clearance fits, SKF Supergrip bolts eliminate
seized and jammed bolts. The need for an overhead crane and
time-consuming hammering of bolts during insertion or extraction
is eliminated.
Once the holes have been line-bored for the initial installation,
there is no need for further reaming or boring of holes. Thus, SKF
Supergrip bolts eliminate scheduling uncertainties during
turnarounds caused by removing and installing coupling bolts.
An SKF OK Coupling does not require a keyway in the shaft or hub
to transfer the torques. This is a major savings and helps avoid
shaft stress raisers. The couplings incorporate a thin tapered inner
sleeve, designed to fit over the shaft, and a thick outer sleeve, with
a taper matching that on the inner sleeve. Oil is injected at high
pressure between the mating surfaces and the outer sleeve is
driven up the inner sleeve with an integral hydraulic jack. Once
correctly positioned, oil pressure is released and the resulting powerful interference fit enables high torques to be transmitted.
• Easy, safe and quick to install
• Keyless
• Increased equipment performance
• Extended service life
• Reduced maintenance costs
• Reduced Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)
And, compared with traditional bolt
systems, SKF Supergrip bolts have
higher torque capability due to our
design concept. The bolt sleeve is
hydraulically expanded to create an
effective interference fit. And the bolt
shank is hydraulically pre-tensioned
for a precise, controlled fit. The
combination creates a higher shear
force capability and requires only a
portable hydraulic pump to achieve.
For disassembly the process is
reversed and the bolt can be
removed by hand.
Prominent steam turbine OEMs have standardized on SKF
Supergrip bolts for many years because they offer high reliability,
very high torque transmissibility and simplified serviceability. SKF
can also engineer an upgrade of existing turbines. And field
retrofits of other challenging downstream applications requiring
high torque couplings and simplified maintenance have been
achieved, for example, on large reciprocating process compressors.
(See case study on page 33.)
SKF training solutions for management
and maintenance personnel
SKF offers a wide range of training opportunities to customers,
including management, operations and maintenance personnel.
Venues range from training conducted on-site and in regional
venues, to hands-on sessions at SKF Solution Factories.
SKF Training Solutions offers a comprehensive range of training
courses designed to help plants eliminate machinery problems and
achieve maximum reliability and productivity.
To help customers decide what training is required, SKF has
developed an electronic assessment tool. The SKF Client Needs
Analysis for Training will give a clearer perspective of staff
competency and existing skill levels. The goal of the assessment
is to provide useful and meaningful information to help focus
on improvements for plant performance. SKF analysis can be
conducted with individuals or with a group of staff members.
The course portfolio has been designed around the Asset Efficiency
Optimization (AEO) workflow process, and has been created to
allow participants to gain knowledge and expertise through a
structured development path. Course categories include
introductory, intermediate and advanced level training.
All available training options and local training schedules can be
found in the Services section on
Condition monitoring training
Through a real-life practical approach, these courses are designed
for engineers and technicians whose responsibilities require
proficiency in the use of SKF condition monitoring products.
Product training courses focus on specific SKF condition monitoring
products, while technology training courses cover the techniques
and skills required to implement and utilize condition monitoring
On-site startup and long-term programme support
SmartStart is an on-site start-up service that focuses on getting
your programme implemented efficiently.
Ongoing support can be provided as part of our Remote Diagnostic
Services concept or a structured on-site mentorship to help you
achieve the desired programme effectiveness.
Other training opportunities include formal vibration analysis
certification courses in three levels to help your employees
progress and develop competency in a structured learning
environment. Periodic refresher training is available as technologies and processes change. And annual user group meetings and
regional asset management conferences provide direct access to
experts while sharing experiences with other industry users.
Knowledge Centre
The internet-based Knowledge Centre brings together in one place
a wide array of resources to support the goals of our customers,
both OEMs and end users. These range from industry benchmarks
and reference materials to interactive web apps and e-learning.
SKF offers a wide range of training opportunities, both hands-on and virtual. On-line courses are ideal for many companies, in that the self-learning
modules enable students to learn at their own pace and on their own timetable.
Case Study
SKF Operator Driven Reliability increased pump reliability
and supported cultural change
The challenge
A large USA refinery was interested to involve operators in a pump
reliability improvement programme. The MTBF of their pump fleet
was <4 years versus a world class benchmark of >7 years. The
maintenance and reliability team were challenged to achieve a
sustained improvement without major investments in an extensive
online monitoring system or in new pump configurations.
The SKF solution
SKF proposed a turnkey programme based on a concept it
pioneered called Operator Driven Reliability. This structured
programme addresses a range of technology, process and cultural
issues, which create a shared objective between the operational
and maintenance groups.
Equipping the operators with SKF Microlog Inspectors automated
their inspection routines so they became more efficient and their
day-to-day tasks more meaningful. SKF also designed the
necessary work process improvements with linkage to an updated
maintenance strategy along with IT infrastructure development.
And, importantly, we closely supported the cultural change
management needed to create an interdepartmental shared
The results
After 18 months of programme deployment, pump MTBF rose to
6 years, annual maintenance spend on pump maintenance was
reduced by $2 million and annual spend on mechanical seals was
reduced by $310 000. These improvements were sustained over a
period of years, including the cultural transformation towards
shared success between operations and maintenance.
SKF Maintenance strategy upgrade project contributes to OEE increase
The challenge
A large synthetic crude oil refinery needed to align their maintenance strategy with their shifting business goals. The reliability
processes managed by internal consultants and external contractors had not been efficient and were proving too labor intensive.
Conversion to a new CMMS system was also underway but the
predictive maintenance module of the system was essentially an
empty shell that needed to be populated to have value. The quality
of a previous deliverable of similar scope by SKF to a sister facility
led them to ask for a proposal.
The SKF solution
SKF put together a tailor-made offer based on the customer’s
specific needs. The offer followed the structure of the SKF Asset
Efficiency Optimization model (see page 4-5) and encompassed:
maintenance strategy review based on SKF RCM methodology;
criticality analysis; task selection; job plan development; CMMS
population and SKF Spare Parts Alignment, Rationalization &
Optimization (SPARO ) suited to new programme.
The results
SKF provided the customer with maintenance practices according
to the criticality of their assets and their business goals. SKF
offered competitive and cost effective solutions compared to the
customer’s current practices, based upon their business goal to
increase OEE by 1%. The project was completed on time and
within budget. Savings created from the SPARO facet alone nearly
offset the investment cost of the project. Efficiency improvements
after project implementation continue to track well with the
original objective.
Case Study
Improving refinery OPEX by increasing asset efficiency
The challenge
A mid-sized North American refinery was operating an on-site
power plant based on a gas turbine generator set that was rated
for 52 MW capacity, but was only able to achieve 40 MW output.
To make up the difference, the refiner needed to purchase 12 MW
per day from the local utility. The local maintenance staff was
unable to achieve more output due to high turbine vibration levels
whenever the output was increased beyond 40 MW.
The SKF solution
An SKF on-site reliability contract engineer was embedded in the
operational team and performed a full rotordynamic analysis of the
gen set, including the influence of operating parameters on the its
vibration characteristics. After this thorough review, an adjustment
of operating procedures was recommended to rectify the suboptimal turbine performance.
The results
Once the SKF recommendation was implemented, the refinery was
able to increase and sustain power output to 52 MW and still
remain within acceptable vibration limits. This significant improvement was achieved with no other equipment changes necessary.
As a result the refinery was able to avoid external purchase of
power, which created savings of $100,000 per week and $5
million per year – on a sustained basis.
SKF monitoring system enables fulfillment of Reliability Centered
Maintenance (RCM) update
The challenge
The results
A major downstream chemical plant commissioned an updated
RCM study, which recommended online monitoring be applied to
semi-critical machines. These assets were targeted as candidates
for improved maintenance planning and life cycle cost reduction,
using a better condition monitoring strategy with more frequent
data collection. The 35 machines in this category had previously
been monitored with portable vibration analyzers in a periodic programme with monthly readings. The chemical plant had limited
funds available to do the necessary technology upgrade.
Due to small footprint of the DMx and the agency ratings it meets,
the system installation was considerably less expensive than
another online monitoring system customer could have installed.
Data integration with the
existing SKF @ptitude software suite for the PdM and
ODR programme increased
the efficiency of the reliability
team. Integration of the data
stream to the distributed
control system in the plant
was also seamless.
The SKF solution
SKF proposed its Multilog DMx online system along with installation and startup assistance. The system integrated into the
customer’s existing Predictive Maintenance and Operator Driven
Reliability programme that were already supplied by SKF.
The SKF Multilog DMx is rated for hazardous area installation in
ATEX Zone 1, NEC Class 1 Div 1 with sensors mounted in Zone 0.
This allowed mounting directly onto the machine skids without
need for explosion-proof housings and multiple barrier strips.
Configuration for both fluid film bearings and rolling element
bearing machines stipulated by the RCM study was also possible.
Case Study
Structured reliability performance contract allows refinery
to meet margin expectations
The challenge
A moderate-size European refinery with integrated electricity
generation experienced a change in ownership with the requirement to dramatically reduce their total maintenance cost. They had
already undergone attrition of some of their most experienced
staff and were struggling with how to cope while still maintaining
high availability and operational targets.
After a positive 5–year experience with SKF Proactive Reliability
Maintenance (PRM) – a structured programme combining predictive maintenance with RCFA – the refinery asked SKF to propose
increasing the contract scope so they could retain the reliability
improvements they had experienced and allow the remaining staff
to focus on an upgrade project.
The SKF solution
SKF offered a 3–year Integrated Maintenance Solution (IMS) which
included vibration analysis, alignment, thermography, motor
diagnostics, bearing RCFA, engineering support, lubrication
programme management, MRO spares management, machine
technology upgrades, mechanical services and complete bearing
and housing supply chain management. This type of high skill /
high impact performance contract has been successfully applied
by SKF in other process industries.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were established along with the
use of the SKF Documented Solution Programme (DSP) as a
contract management tool to track cost savings and performance
against the KPIs.
The results
All contract KPIs have been met, including further improvements
in overall reliability, process availability and HSE factors. The
refinery margin expectations of the new ownership have been
SKF online motor monitoring helps industrial gas company fulfill
performance contract
The challenge
A North American supplier of industrial gas was operating under a
stringent supply contract to a major downstream facility. The
terms of the contract had several performance requirements for
which the gas supply company was liable if they did not meet the
terms. The reliability of their fleet of 30 large electric motors
(500 – 1 000 HP) were critical to fulfillment of the contract terms.
The existing solution was to monitor the motors on a periodic basis
with a portable motor current analyzer, which required workers to
physically place motor current clamps on each motor individually.
Only data “snapshots” from these periodic readings were available
with this method.
The SKF solution
SKF installed our Baker NetEP system that could be safely mounted in the motor control center, providing a stream of online motor
data to a central monitoring center (local or remote). The online
system is capable of capturing over 15 motor parameters with
much higher data resolution than is possible with a portable
The results
Workers were no longer exposed to the hazards of collecting data
around large electrical motors and the customer was able to
monitor motor condition online via their remote diagnostic center.
Motor reliability was steadily improved. They also were able to
correlate process changes that manifested themselves as changes
in motor parameters (torque, power consumption, etc). This
allowed them to further optimize process performance and helped
them fulfill their supply contract by looking through a “window”
they had never looked through before.
Case Study
New Latin American ethylene plant selects SKF S2M bearings
for turboexpanders
The challenge
One of the largest petrochemical firms in the Americas known for
implementing green technologies was planning to build a “World
Class” ethylene plant. The EPC for this project specified cryogenic
turboexpanders for liquid separation. Based on previous experience, they specified SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings for these units in
order to keep oil from contaminating the process and to provide
the lowest life cycle cost.
Drawing from our experience with
hundreds of turboexpander projects,
SKF S2M Magnetic Bearings has
standardized its range of active
magnetic bearings so that turboexpander OEMs can quote with very
little engineering support and with
manageable lead times.
The SKF solution
The results
Active magnetic bearings (AMB) eliminate the need for lubrication
systems and the possibility for contaminating heat exchangers and
process piping. For many applications, including ethylene recovery,
magnetic bearings have lower capital cost compared to high
pressure API lubrication systems. In addition, the monitoring and
protection system embedded within the magnetic bearing controller
provides end users and OEMs with the necessary diagnostic
information to support the turboexpanders throughout the
assets’ life cycle. Magnetic bearing systems provide extremely
high reliability and availability and are often selected for critical
The EPC, OEM and end user met the project timeline and CAPEX
objectives for the project for four large cryogenic turboexpanders
with magnetic bearings. In the end, the OEM decided to make a
volume purchase of 10 magnetic bearing systems which saves
costs and also provides a stock of lower cost systems for future
projects that have already been identified. Once commissioned,
the “World Class” ethylene plant will realize OPEX benefits from
highly reliable systems, high operating efficiencies and with the
flexibility to manage both cold starts and process adjustments as
required by operational considerations.
SKF solves oil flooded screw compressors problem for OEM and end user
The challenge
The results
A large OEM and packager of oil flooded screw compressors used
in the vapor recovery unit of refineries processing highly corrosive
sour gas was experiencing very low reliability at several locations.
Their refinery customers were experiencing <3 months Mean Time
Between Repair (MTBR), resulting in production losses for each
event along with significant repair costs. One refinery was in the
midst of a CAPEX requisition to bring on redundant capacity so
they could meet their operating targets. As an alternative they
were considering a dry screw compressor design, which had better
reliability but with higher CAPEX.
The new bearing
arrangement was a
drop-in replacement
for the existing fleet,
requiring no rework by
the OEM or end user.
The compressor MTBR
was extended to >2
years, thereby creating
improvements in OPEX
along with major increases in production throughput. The refinery
was able to cancel the CAPEX for additional compressor capacity
and the OEM improved the viability of their product line in the
demanding market for sour gas compression.
The SKF solution
SKF worked with the end user and OEM to conduct a detailed
application review, including Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA),
Finite Element Modeling (FEM) along with a detailed investigation
into the bearing system tribology, material selection and internal
geometry. A completely redesigned bearing was proposed,
including SKF silicon nitride ceramic rolling elements, proprietary
super-tough stainless steel rings and an engineered PEEK
polymer cage.
Case Study
SKF commissions large integrated protection and condition monitoring
system for Asian refinery
The challenge
An existing refinery in Asia required upgrading of their plant-wide
machinery protection and condition monitoring surveillance
systems. For the protection system they required SIL 2 Safety
Integrity Level 2 (SIL2). The project was to be handled as a
turnkey contract administered by an EPC. Scope of supply included
critical machines, semi-critical machines and balance-of-plant
equipment, consisting of hundreds of machines and thousands of
measurement points.
The SKF solution
SKF managed the complex proposal by aligning needs of the EPC
and end user and creating a project management structure to
ensure tight integration of the architecture along with a competitive bid level. Drawing from our comprehensive range of sensors,
online and portable monitoring hardware and software, the project
team engineered a solution that met the timeline requirements
and the local support stipulations for the project. The scope
• Engineering
• Prefabrication
• Testing (FAT, iFAT and SAT)
• Transportation
• Installation
The results
The entire system was engineered, prefabricated and tested by the
local SKF service center and was commissioned on schedule and
within budget. Data integration with the plant’s control and CMMS
systems across the refinery – from critical machines through
balance-of-plant equipment monitored with SKF portable data
collectors – dramatically improved efficiency of the customer’s
reliability engineering team. It also provided timely information
essential for critical operational decisions. And the ability to
provide responsive local support across all machine classes will be
the cornerstone to meet the refinery’s long term objectives for
improved plant safety and increased reliability.
For solution information, refer to condition monitoring architecture
on page 15.
• Commissioning
SKF provides optimized oil mist system for new Middle East project
The challenge
The results
An Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) company
requested a bid from SKF for a centralized lubrication system
based on oil mist for over 100 API process pumps. The tender
documents specified six oil mist generators to provide adequate
lubrication to the rolling element pump bearings. The system
design was an historic carryover from the end customer’s
standards for systems deployed earlier.
The customer was able to
reduce scope to 4 from 6
mist generator systems
creating a significant
savings on CAPEX. And,
by adopting our recommendation for flow rates
and an upgraded control
system, the oil consumption was dramatically
reduced while system reliability was increased, which will bring
OPEX improvements that are cumulative over the life of the facility.
The resulting savings easily offset the cost of the original investment.
The SKF solution
Collaborating with SKF pump bearing lubrication specialists we
recalculated the lubrication requirements based on the latest SKF
bearing standards. Working closely with the engineering department of the final customer and the EPC, we recommended to
change the system architecture by adding a modern control
system and to re-size the system based on recalculation of actual
bearing lubrication requirements.
Case Study
Coupling upgrade improves operational efficiency of process compressor
The challenge
A detailed FEM study was conducted
to verify that the SKF solution would
have adequate shear strength to meet
the torque requirement in the
presence of pulsating loading. An SKF
line boring service (needed only once)
was included to accelerate the field
conversion and get the compressor
back on line.
A crude oil and chemical complex was reliant on a large reciprocating compressor and drive motor equipped with a rigid flange
coupling designed to handle the very high torque requirement.
During a unit turnaround, it was discovered that the fitted bolts of
the flange coupling had experienced fretting corrosion at the bolt
diameter / bolt hole interface. Forced removal of bolts resulted in
scouring of several bolt holes. Re-boring of the holes to clean up
the damage would limit options for future contingencies.
The SKF solution
SKF turbomachinery and coupling experts worked closely with the
machine builder and end user maintenance team to recommend
the application of SKF Supergrip Bolts. Based on the principal of
hydraulic mounting pioneered by SKF, this solution has been
applied for many years in large steam and gas turbine couplings
with very high torque capability. (See page 26 for a detailed
explanation of the principle behind SKF Supergrip Bolts.)
The results
The conversion was accomplished efficiently within the project
timeline and inspected after one year of service to ensure coupling
and bolt integrity. Several other units at the site were also
converted with no operational or maintenance issues reported.
Structured RCFA programme helps refiner improve naphtha recovery process
The challenge
A very large Latin American refinery was experiencing operational
issues created by reliability of the naphtha gas recovery unit within
its oil dehydration process and with subsequent impact on its
crude oil heating system. Frequent failures of the system were
reducing oil pumping capacity to the neighboring facility. Refinery
maintenance personnel could isolate the problem to the naphtha
compressor but were not able to pinpoint the actual source of the
problem nor develop remedial actions.
The SKF solution
SKF applied a pragmatic and well-structured RCFA methodology,
drawing upon historical records, operational parameters, physical
evidence and interviews of key personnel. Once the logic tree was
constructed and all variables had been verified that could have an
impact on the compressor performance, an action plan was
developed to aim directly at mitigating the root cause of the
bearing failures. During this process a very comprehensive study of
the compressor vibration with high resolution data was used to
associate bearing loading with process conditions along with a
detailed review of the oil lubrication delivery and filtration systems.
The results
All necessary improvements were made to the bearing and
lubrication systems, which led directly to the desired reliability and
performance of the naphtha system. Detailed revisions to the
repair, assembly and operational manuals and CMMS records were
made to secure the improvements. Dramatic reduction in naphtha
gas venting was realized along with resumption of full pumping
capacity to their sister facility.
SKF Solution Factory: a local gateway
to SKF capabilities
Applying a unique mix of resources to address
your challenges
To provide our customers with
direct access to SKF’s global
capabilities, SKF has created a
unique concept: SKF Solution
Here, under one roof, we offer
a wide range of specialized
services that draw on all of
our core competencies and
industry-specific knowledge.
An SKF Solution Factory is a place where customers can come
to solve difficult application challenges, consult with lubrication
specialists, have a custom machined seal designed and
manufactured on the spot, or explore design options with SKF
engineers using knowledge-engineered software that functions
as a virtual test rig.
Typically, an SKF Solution Factory also offers bearing remanufacturing and spindle repair services, training and total shaft solutions
including expert mounting, alignment and balancing. And depending on location, customers can also take advantage of remote
condition monitoring and expert diagnostics.
By combining multiple areas of expertise, an SKF Solution Factory
is able to provide integrated, value-added solutions to customers,
whether they are designing a new
piece of equipment or working to
optimize plant asset efficiency. The
network of SKF Solution Factories
is continually expanding, making
customized SKF services and
solutions available to more
customers worldwide.
The network of twenty-five SKF Solution Factories are conveniently
located in or near many of the downstream market centers around
the world.
See inserts for more details
about SKF solutions for traditional
energy production.
The Power of Knowledge Engineering
and units
The Power of Knowledge Engineering
Combining products, people, and applicationspecific knowledge, SKF delivers innovative
solutions to equipment manufacturers and production facilities in every major industry worldwide. Having expertise in multiple competence
areas supports SKF Life Cycle Management, a
proven approach to improving equipment reliability, optimizing operational and energy efficiency
and reducing total cost of ownership.
These competence areas include bearings and
units, seals, lubrication systems, mechatronics,
and a wide range of services, from 3-D computer
modelling to cloud-based condition monitoring
and asset management services.
SKF’s global footprint provides SKF customers
with uniform quality standards and worldwide
product availability. Our local presence provides
direct access to the experience, knowledge and
ingenuity of SKF people.
SKF BeyondZero is more than our climate strategy
for a sustainable environment: it is our mantra; a
way of thinking, innovating and acting.
For us, SKF BeyondZero means that we will
reduce the negative environmental impact from
our own operations and at the same time, increase
the positive environmental contribution by offering
our customers the SKF BeyondZero portfolio of
products and services with enhanced environmental performance characteristics.
For inclusion in the SKF BeyondZero portfolio,
a product, service or solution must deliver significant environmental benefits without serious
environmental trade-offs.
SKF S2M Magnetic bearings are part of the SKF BeyondZero portfolio, which includes products and
solutions with significant environmental benefits, because they reduce energy consumption and
lubricant use compared to other bearings used in oil and gas applications.
®SKF and SEAL JET are registered trademarks of the SKF Group.
® Lincoln is a registered trademark of Lincoln Industrial Corp.
©SKF Group 2014
The contents of this publication are the copyright of the publisher and may not be reproduced
(even extracts) unless prior written permission is granted. Every care has been taken to ensure
the accuracy of the information contained in this publication but no liability can be accepted for
any loss or damage whether direct, indirect or consequential arising out of the use of the
information contained herein.
PUB 75/S2 14842 EN · September 2014
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