AT89C2051

AT89C2051
Features
• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products
• 2K Bytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
2.7V to 6V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
Two-Level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM
15 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Sources
Programmable Serial UART Channel
Direct LED Drive Outputs
On-Chip Analog Comparator
Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
Description
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with
2K Bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51™ instruction set. By combining
a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to
many embedded control applications.
The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K Bytes of Flash, 128
bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator
and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power Down Mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next
hardware reset.
8-Bit
Microcontroller
with 2K Bytes
Flash
AT89C2051
Pin Configuration
PDIP/SOIC
/VPP
0368D-B–12/97
4-15
Block Diagram
4-16
AT89C2051
AT89C2051
Pin Description
VCC
Supply voltage.
XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
Oscillator Characteristics
GND
Ground.
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to
P1.7 provide internal pullups. P1.0 and P1.1 require external pullups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive input
(AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the
on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1 output
buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly.
When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as
inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs and are
externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL) because
of the internal pullups.
Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming
and verification.
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively,
of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as
an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz
crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the
device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left
unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2.
There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external
clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry
is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be
observed.
Figure 1. Oscillator Connections
Port 3
Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bidirectional I/O
pins with internal pullups. P3.6 is hard-wired as an input to
the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible
as a general purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink 20 mA. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are
pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as
inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features
of the AT89C2051 as listed below:
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
P3.0
RXD (serial input port)
P3.1
TXD (serial output port)
P3.2
INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3
INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4
T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5
T1 (timer 1 external input)
Note:
C1, C2 = 30 pF ± 10 pF for Crystals
= 40 pF ± 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators
Figure 2. External Clock Drive Configuration
Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.
RST
Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST
goes high. Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles
while the oscillator is running resets the device.
Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the
internal clock operating circuit.
4-17
Special Function Registers
A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in the table below.
Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip.
Read accesses to these addresses will in general return
random data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.
User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future products to invoke
new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of
the new bits will always be 0.
Table 1. AT89C2051 SFR Map and Reset Values
0F8H
0F0H
0FFH
B
00000000
0F7H
0E8H
0E0H
0EFH
ACC
00000000
0E7H
0D8H
0D0H
0DFH
PSW
00000000
0D7H
0C8H
0CFH
0C0H
0C7H
0B8H
IP
XXX00000
0BFH
0B0H
P3
11111111
0B7H
0A8H
IE
0XX00000
0AFH
0A0H
0A7H
98H
SCON
00000000
90H
P1
11111111
88H
TCON
00000000
80H
4-18
SBUF
XXXXXXXX
9FH
97H
TMOD
00000000
TL0
00000000
TL1
00000000
SP
00000111
DPL
00000000
DPH
00000000
AT89C2051
TH0
00000000
TH1
00000000
8FH
PCON
0XXX0000
87H
AT89C2051
Restrictions on Certain Instructions
Program Memory Lock Bits
The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective
member of Atmel’s growing family of microcontrollers. It
contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set. However,
there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when
utilizing certain instructions to program this device.
All the instructions related to jumping or branching should
be restricted such that the destination address falls within
the physical program memory space of the device, which is
2K for the AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of
the software programmer. For example, LJMP 7E0H would
be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory), whereas LJMP 900H would not.
On the chip are two lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table below:
1. Branching instructions:
LCALL, LJMP, ACALL, AJMP, SJMP, JMP @A+DPTR
These unconditional branching instructions will execute
correctly as long as the programmer keeps in mind that the
destination branching address must fall within the physical
boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to
7FFH for the 89C2051). Violating the physical space limits
may cause unknown program behavior.
CJNE [...], DJNZ [...], JB, JNB, JC, JNC, JBC, JZ, JNZ With
these conditional branching instructions the same rule
above applies. Again, violating the memory boundaries
may cause erratic execution.
For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt
service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved.
2. MOVX-related instructions, Data Memory:
The AT89C2051 contains 128 bytes of internal data memory. Thus, in the AT89C2051 the stack depth is limited to
128 bytes, the amount of available RAM. External DATA
memory access is not supported in this device, nor is external PROGRAM memory execution. Therefore, no MOVX
[...] instructions should be included in the program.
A typical 80C51 assembler will still assemble instructions,
even if they are written in violation of the restrictions mentioned above. It is the responsibility of the controller user to
know the physical features and limitations of the device
being used and adjust the instructions used correspondingly.
Lock Bit Protection Modes(1)
Program Lock Bits
LB1
LB2
1
U
U
No program lock features.
2
P
U
Further programming of the Flash
is disabled.
3
P
P
Same as mode 2, also verify is
disabled.
Note:
Protection Type
1. The Lock Bits can only be erased with the Chip Erase
operation.
Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the onchip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by
software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this
mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled
interrupt or by a hardware reset.
P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to ’0’ if no external pullups are
used, or set to ’1’ if external pullups are used.
It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before
the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware
inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to
the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of
an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by
reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle
should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external
memory.
Power Down Mode
In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the
instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction
executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit from power down is a hardware reset.
Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip
RAM. The reset should not be activated before V CC is
restored to its normal operating level and must be held
active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.
P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to ’0’ if no external pullups are
used, or set to ’1’ if external pullups are used.
4-19
Programming The Flash
The AT89C2051 is shipped with the 2K bytes of on-chip
PEROM code memory array in the erased state (i.e., contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The code memory array is programmed one byte at a time. Once the array
is programmed, to re-program any non-blank byte, the
entire memory array needs to be erased electrically.
Internal Address Counter: The AT89C2051 contains an
internal PEROM address counter which is always reset to
000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by applying a positive going pulse to pin XTAL1.
Programming Algorithm: To program the AT89C2051,
the following sequence is recommended.
1. Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND pins
Set RST and XTAL1 to GND
2. Set pin RST to ’H’
Set pin P3.2 to ’H’
3. Apply the appropriate combination of ’H’ or ’L’ logic
levels to pins P3.3, P3.4, P3.5, P3.7 to select one of the
programming operations shown in the PEROM Programming Modes table.
To Program and Verify the Array:
4. Apply data for Code byte at location 000H to P1.0 to
P1.7.
5. Raise RST to 12V to enable programming.
6. Pulse P3.2 once to program a byte in the PEROM array
or the lock bits. The byte-write cycle is self-timed and
typically takes 1.2 ms.
7. To verify the programmed data, lower RST from 12V to
logic ’H’ level and set pins P3.3 to P3.7 to the appropiate
levels. Output data can be read at the port P1 pins.
8. To program a byte at the next address location, pulse
XTAL1 pin once to advance the internal address counter.
Apply new data to the port P1 pins.
9. Repeat steps 5 through 8, changing data and advancing
the address counter for the entire 2K bytes array or until
the end of the object file is reached.
10.Power-off sequence:
set XTAL1 to ’L’
set RST to ’L’
Turn VCC power off
Data Polling: The AT89C2051 features Data Polling to
indicate the end of a write cycle. During a write cycle, an
attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on P1.7. Once the write cycle
has been completed, true data is valid on all outputs, and
the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time
after a write cycle has been initiated.
4-20
AT89C2051
Ready/Busy: The Progress of byte programming can also
be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. Pin P3.1 is
pulled low after P3.2 goes High during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.1 is pulled High again when programming is
done to indicate READY.
Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been
programmed code data can be read back via the data lines
for verification:
1. Reset the internal address counter to 000H by bringing
RST from ’L’ to ’H’.
2. Apply the appropriate control signals for Read Code data
and read the output data at the port P1 pins.
3. Pulse pin XTAL1 once to advance the internal address
counter.
4. Read the next code data byte at the port P1 pins.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the entire array is read.
The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Verification of the
lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are
enabled.
Chip Erase: The entire PEROM array (2K bytes) and the
two Lock Bits are erased electrically by using the proper
combination of control signals and by holding P3.2 low for
10 ms. The code array is written with all “1”s in the Chip
Erase operation and must be executed before any nonblank memory byte can be re-programmed.
Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are
read by the same procedure as a normal verification of
locations 000H, 001H, and 002H, except that P3.5 and
P3.7 must be pulled to a logic low. The values returned are
as follows.
(000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel
(001H) = 21H indicates 89C2051
Programming Interface
Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the
entire array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is selftimed and once initiated, will automatically time itself to
completion.
All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for
the Atmel microcontroller series. Please contact your local
programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.
AT89C2051
Flash Programming Modes
Mode
RST/VPP
Write Code
Data(1)(3)
12V
Read Code Data(1)
Write Lock
H
H
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.7
L
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
Bit - 1
12V
H
H
H
H
Bit - 2
12V
H
H
L
L
H
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
Chip Erase
12V
Read Signature Byte
Notes:
P3.2/PROG
(2)
H
H
1. The internal PEROM address counter is reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by a positive pulse at
XTAL 1 pin.
2. Chip Erase requires a 10-ms PROG pulse.
3. P3.1 is pulled Low during programming to indicate RDY/BSY.
Figure 3. Programming the Flash Memory
Figure 4. Verifying the Flash Memory
PP
4-21
Flash Programming and Verification Characteristics
TA = 0°C to 70°C, VCC = 5.0 ± 10%
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
VPP
Programming Enable Voltage
11.5
12.5
V
IPP
Programming Enable Current
250
µA
tDVGL
Data Setup to PROG Low
1.0
µs
tGHDX
Data Hold After PROG
1.0
µs
tEHSH
P3.4 (ENABLE) High to VPP
1.0
µs
tSHGL
VPP Setup to PROG Low
10
µs
tGHSL
VPP Hold After PROG
10
µs
tGLGH
PROG Width
1
tELQV
ENABLE Low to Data Valid
tEHQZ
Data Float After ENABLE
tGHBL
110
µs
1.0
µs
1.0
µs
PROG High to BUSY Low
50
ns
tWC
Byte Write Cycle Time
2.0
ms
tBHIH
RDY/BSY\ to Increment Clock Delay
1.0
µs
tIHIL
Increment Clock High
200
ns
Note:
1.
Only used in 12-volt programming mode.
Flash Programming and Verification Waveforms
4-22
AT89C2051
0
AT89C2051
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature ................................. -55°C to +125°C
*NOTICE:
Storage Temperature ..................................... -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on Any Pin
with Respect to Ground .....................................-1.0V to +7.0V
Maximum Operating Voltage............................................. 6.6V
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
DC Output Current...................................................... 25.0 mA
DC Characteristics
TA = -40°C to 85°C, VCC = 2.0V to 6.0V (unless otherwise noted)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
VIL
Input Low Voltage
VIH
Input High Voltage
(Except XTAL1, RST)
VIH1
Input High Voltage
(XTAL1, RST)
Voltage(1)
VOL
Output Low
(Ports 1, 3)
VOH
Output High Voltage
(Ports 1, 3)
Min
Max
Units
-0.5
0.2 VCC - 0.1
V
0.2 VCC + 0.9
VCC + 0.5
V
0.7 VCC
VCC + 0.5
V
0.5
V
IOL = 20 mA, VCC = 5V
IOL = 10 mA, VCC = 2.7V
IOH = -80 µA, VCC = 5V ± 10%
2.4
V
IOH = -30 µA
0.75 VCC
V
IOH = -12 µA
0.9 VCC
V
IIL
Logical 0 Input Current
(Ports 1, 3)
VIN = 0.45V
-50
µA
ITL
Logical 1 to 0 Transition Current
(Ports 1, 3)
VIN = 2V, VCC = 5V ± 10%
-750
µA
ILI
Input Leakage Current
(Port P1.0, P1.1)
0 < VIN < VCC
±10
µA
VOS
Comparator Input Offset Voltage
VCC = 5V
20
mV
VCM
Comparator Input Common
Mode Voltage
0
VCC
V
RRST
Reset Pulldown Resistor
50
300
KΩ
CIO
Pin Capacitance
Test Freq. = 1 MHz, TA = 25°C
10
pF
ICC
Power Supply Current
Active Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 6V/3V
15/5.5
mA
Idle Mode, 12 MHz, VCC = 6V/3V
P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
5/1
mA
VCC = 6V P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
100
µA
VCC = 3V P1.0 & P1.1 = 0V or VCC
20
µA
Power Down Mode(2)
Notes:
1. Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:
Maximum IOL per port pin: 20 mA
Maximum total IOL for all output pins: 80 mA
If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOL may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater
than the listed test conditions.
2. Minimum VCC for Power Down is 2V.
4-23
External Clock Drive Waveforms
External Clock Drive
Symbol
Parameter
1/tCLCL
Oscillator Frequency
tCLCL
Clock Period
tCHCX
VCC = 2.7V to 6.0V
VCC = 4.0V to 6.0V
Min
Max
Min
Max
0
12
0
24
Units
MHz
83.3
41.6
ns
High Time
30
15
ns
tCLCX
Low Time
30
15
ns
tCLCH
Rise Time
20
20
ns
tCHCL
Fall Time
20
20
ns
4-24
AT89C2051
AT89C2051
Serial Port Timing: Shift Register Mode Test Conditions
(VCC = 5.0V ± 20%; Load Capacitance = 80 pF)
Symbol
Parameter
12 MHz Osc
Min
Max
Variable Oscillator
Min
Units
Max
tXLXL
Serial Port Clock Cycle Time
1.0
12tCLCL
µs
tQVXH
Output Data Setup to Clock Rising Edge
700
10tCLCL-133
ns
tXHQX
Output Data Hold After Clock Rising Edge
50
2tCLCL-117
ns
tXHDX
Input Data Hold After Clock Rising Edge
0
0
ns
tXHDV
Clock Rising Edge to Input Data Valid
700
10tCLCL-133
ns
Shift Register Mode Timing Waveforms
AC Testing Input/Output Waveforms(1)
Float Waveforms(1)
Note:
Note:
1.
AC Inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5V for
a logic 1 and 0.45V for a logic 0. Timing measurements are made at VIH min. for a logic 1 and VIL
max. for a logic 0.
1.
For timing purposes, a port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load voltage
occurs. A port pin begins to float when 100 mV
change frothe loaded VOH/VOL level occurs.
4-25
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC - ACTIVE (85°C)
20
Vcc=6.0V
I 15
C
C 10
m
A
Vcc=5.0V
Vcc=3.0V
5
0
0
6
12
18
24
FREQUENCY (MHz)
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC - IDLE (85°C)
3
Vcc=6.0V
I
C 2
C
Vcc=5.0V
m 1
A
Vcc=3.0V
0
0
3
6
9
12
FREQUENCY (MHz)
AT89C2051
TYPICAL ICC vs. VOLTAGE- POWER DOWN (85°C)
20
I 15
C
C 10
µ
A
5
0
3.0V
4.0V
Vcc VOLTAGE
Notes:
4-26
1.
XTAL1 tied to GND for ICC (power down)
2.
P.1.0 and P1.1 = VCC or GND
3.
Lock bits programmed
AT89C2051
5.0V
6.0V
AT89C2051
Ordering Information
Speed
(MHz)
Power
Supply
12
2.7V to 6.0V
24
4.0V to 6.0V
Ordering Code
Package
Operation Range
AT89C2051-12PC
AT89C2051-12SC
20P3
20S
Commercial
(0°C to 70°C)
AT89C2051-12PI
AT89C2051-12SI
20P3
20S
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
AT89C2051-12PA
AT89C2051-12SA
20P3
20S
Automotive
(-40°C to 105°C)
AT89C2051-24PC
AT89C2051-24SC
20P3
20S
Commercial
(0°C to 70°C)
AT89C2051-24PI
AT89C2051-24SI
20P3
20S
Industrial
(-40°C to 85°C)
Package Type
20P3
20 Lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual In-line Package (PDIP)
20S
20 Lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Gull Wing Small Outline (SOIC)
4-27
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