Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices

Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
12. Remote System Upgrades
with Arria GX Devices
AGX52012-1.2
Introduction
System designers today face difficult challenges such as shortened design
cycles, evolving standards, and system deployments in remote locations.
Arria™ GX FPGAs help overcome these challenges with their inherent
re-programmability and dedicated circuitry to perform remote system
upgrades. Remote system upgrades help deliver feature enhancements
and bug fixes without costly recalls, reduce time-to-market, and extend
product life.
Arria GX FPGAs feature dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry. Soft
logic (either the Nios® embedded processor or user logic) implemented in
an Arria GX device can download a new configuration image from a
remote location, store it in configuration memory, and direct the
dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to initiate a reconfiguration
cycle. The dedicated circuitry performs error detection during and after
the configuration process, recovers from any error condition by reverting
back to a safe configuration image, and provides error status information.
This dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry is unique to Stratix®,
Stratix II, Stratix II GX, and Arria GX FPGAs and helps to avoid system
downtime.
Remote system upgrade is supported in all Arria GX configuration
schemes: fast passive parallel (FPP), active serial (AS), passive serial (PS),
and passive parallel asynchronous (PPA). Remote system upgrade can
also be implemented in conjunction with advanced Arria GX features
such as real-time decompression of configuration data for efficient field
upgrades.
This chapter describes the functionality and implementation of the
dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry. It also defines several
concepts related to remote system upgrade, including factory
configuration, application configuration, remote update mode, local
update mode, the user watchdog timer, and page mode operation.
Additionally, this chapter provides design guidelines for implementing
remote system upgrade with the various supported configuration
schemes.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
■
■
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May 2008
“Functional Description” on page 12–2
“Remote System Upgrade Modes” on page 12–7
“Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry” on page 12–13
12–1
Functional Description
■
■
■
Functional
Description
“Quartus II Software Support” on page 12–23
“System Design Guidelines” on page 12–27
“Conclusion” on page 12–30
The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry in Arria GX FPGAs
manages remote configuration and provides error detection, recovery,
and status information. User logic or a Nios processor implemented in the
FPGA logic array provides access to the remote configuration data source
and an interface to the system’s configuration memory.
Arria GX FPGA’s remote system upgrade process involves the following
steps:
1.
A Nios processor (or user logic) implemented in the FPGA logic
array receives new configuration data from a remote location. The
connection to the remote source is a communication protocol such
as the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP),
peripheral component interconnect (PCI), user datagram protocol
(UDP), universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART), or a
proprietary interface.
2.
The Nios processor (or user logic) stores this new configuration data
in non-volatile configuration memory. The non-volatile
configuration memory can be any standard flash memory used in
conjunction with an intelligent host (for example, a MAX® device or
microprocessor), the serial configuration device, or the enhanced
configuration device.
3.
The Nios processor (or user logic) initiates a reconfiguration cycle
with the new or updated configuration data.
4.
The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry detects and recovers
from any error(s) that might occur during or after the
reconfiguration cycle, and provides error status information to the
user design.
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Figure 12–1 shows the steps required for performing remote
configuration updates. (The numbers in the figure below coincide with
the steps above.)
Figure 12–1. Functional Diagram of Aria GX Remote System Upgrade
1
2
Data
Development
Location
Data
Configuration
Memory
Arria GX
Device
Control Module
Data
Arria GX Device Configuration
3
Arria GX FPGAs support remote system upgrade in the FPP, AS, PS, and
PPA configuration schemes.
■
■
■
1
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May 2008
Serial configuration devices use the AS scheme to configure Arria GX
FPGAs.
A MAX II device (or microprocessor and flash configuration
schemes) uses FPP, PS, or PPA schemes to configure Arria GX
FPGAs.
Enhanced configuration devices use the FPP or PS configuration
schemes to configure Arria GX FPGAs.
The JTAG-based configuration scheme does not support remote
system upgrade.
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Functional Description
Figure 12–2 shows the block diagrams for implementing remote system
upgrade with the various Arria GX configuration schemes.
Figure 12–2. Remote System Upgrade Block Diagrams for Various Arria GX Configuration Schemes
MAX II Device &
Flash Memory
External Processor &
Flash Memory
Serial
Configuration
Device
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
Arria GX
Device
Arria GX
Device
Arria GX
Device
Arria GX Device
Nios Processor
or User Logic
Processor
MAX II
Device
Flash
Memory
Nios Processor
or User Logic
Nios Processor
or User Logic
Serial
Configuration
Device
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
Flash Memory
1
For active serial configuration scheme, remote system upgrade
only supports single device configuration.
You must set the mode select pins (MSEL[3..0]) and the RUnLU pin to
select the configuration scheme and remote system upgrade mode best
suited for your system. Table 12–1 lists the pin settings for Arria GX
FPGAs. Standard configuration mode refers to normal FPGA
configuration mode with no support for remote system upgrades, and the
remote system upgrade circuitry is disabled. The following sections
describe the local update and remote update remote system upgrade
modes.
f
For more information on standard configuration schemes supported in
Arria GX FPGAs, see the Configuring Arria GX Devices chapter of the
Arria GX Handbook.
Table 12–1. Arria GX Remote System Upgrade Modes (Part 1 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
FPP
MSEL[3..0]
RUnLU
0000
—
Remote System Upgrade
Mode
Standard
0100 (1)
0
Local update
0100 (1)
1
Remote update
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Table 12–1. Arria GX Remote System Upgrade Modes (Part 2 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
FPP with decompression
feature enabled (2)
Fast AS (40 MHz) (3)
AS (20 MHz) (3)
PS
PPA
Remote System Upgrade
Mode
MSEL[3..0]
RUnLU
1011
—
Standard
1100 (1)
0
Local update
1100 (1)
1
Remote update
1000
—
Standard
1001
1
Remote update
1101
—
Standard
1110
1
Remote update
0010
—
Standard
0110 (1)
0
Local update
0110 (1)
1
Remote update
0001
—
Standard
0101 (1)
0
Local update
0101 (1)
1
Remote update
Notes to Table 12–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
These schemes require that you drive the RUnLU pin to specify either remote update or local update mode. AS
schemes only support the remote update mode.
These modes are only supported when using a MAX II device or microprocessor and flash for configuration. In
these modes, the host system must output a DCLK that is 4x the data rate.
The EPCS16 and EPCS64 serial configuration devices support a DCLK up to 40 MHz; other EPCS devices support
a DCLK up to 20 MHz. See the Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data
Sheet in volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook for more information.
Configuration Image Types & Pages
When using remote system upgrade, FPGA configuration bitstreams are
classified as factory configuration images or application configuration
images. An image, also referred to as a configuration, is a design loaded
into the FPGA that performs certain user-defined functions. Each FPGA
in your system requires one factory image and one or more application
images. The factory image is a user-defined fall-back, or safe,
configuration and is responsible for administering remote updates in
conjunction with the dedicated circuitry. Application images implement
user-defined functionality in the target FPGA.
A remote system update involves storing a new application configuration
image or updating an existing one via the remote communication
interface. After an application configuration image is stored or updated
remotely, the user design in the FPGA initiates a reconfiguration cycle
with the new image. Any errors during or after this cycle are detected by
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May 2008
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Arria GX Device Handbook, Volume 2
Functional Description
the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry and cause the FPGA to
automatically revert to the factory image. The factory image then
performs error processing and recovery. While error processing
functionality is limited to the factory configuration, both factory and
application configurations can download and store remote updates and
initiate system reconfiguration.
Arria GX FPGAs select between the different configuration images stored
in the system configuration memory using the page address pins or start
address registers. A page is a section of the configuration memory space
that contains one configuration image for each FPGA in the system. One
page stores one system configuration, regardless of the number of FPGAs
in the system.
Page address pins select the configuration image within an enhanced
configuration device or flash memory (MAX II device or microprocessor
setup). Page start address registers are used when Arria GX FPGAs are
configured in AS mode with serial configuration devices. Figure 12–3
illustrates page mode operation in Arria GX FPGAs.
Figure 12–3. Page Mode Operation in Arria GX FPGAs
Configuration
Memory
SOF 0
Page 0
Configuration
Data
Data[ ]
SOF n
Page n
Arria GX
Device
PGM[ ]
Page Select Pins or
Start Address Register
Arria GX devices drive out three page address pins, PGM[2..0], to the
MAX II device or microprocessor or enhanced configuration device.
These page pins select between eight configuration pages. Page zero
(PGM[2..0] = 000) must contain the factory configuration, and the other
seven pages are application configurations. The PGM[] pins are pointers
to the start address and length of each page, and the MAX II device,
microprocessor, and enhanced configuration devices perform this
translation.
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
1
f
When implementing remote system upgrade with an
intelligent-host-based configuration, your MAX II device or
microprocessor should emulate the page mode feature
supported by the enhanced configuration device, which
translates PGM pointers to a memory address in the
configuration memory. Your MAX II device or microprocessor
must provide a similar translation feature.
For more information about the enhanced configuration device page
mode feature, refer to the Dynamic Configuration (Page Mode)
Implementation section of the Enhanced Configuration Devices (EPC4,
EPC8, & EPC16) Data Sheet chapter in volume 2 of the Configuration
Handbook.
When implementing remote system upgrade with AS configuration, a
dedicated 7-bit page start address register inside Arria GX device
determines the start addresses for configuration pages within the serial
configuration device. The PGM[6..0] registers form bits [22..16] of
the 24-bit start address while the other 17 bits are set to zero:
StAdd[23..0] = {1'b0, PGM[6..0], 16'b0}. During AS
configuration, Arria GX devices use this 24-bit page start address to
obtain configuration data from the serial configuration devices.
Remote System
Upgrade Modes
Remote system upgrade has two modes of operation: remote update
mode and local update mode. The remote and local update modes allow
you to determine the functionality of your system upon power up and
offer different features. The RUnLU input pin selects between the remote
update (logic high) and local update (logic low) modes.
Overview
In remote update mode, Arria GX devices load the factory configuration
image upon power up. The user-defined factory configuration should
determine which application configuration is to be loaded and trigger a
reconfiguration cycle. Remote update mode allows up to eight
configuration images (one factory plus seven application images) when
used with the MAX II device or microprocessor and flash-based
configuration or an enhanced configuration device.
When used with serial configuration devices, the remote update mode
allows an application configuration to start at any flash sector boundary.
This translates to a maximum of 128 pages in the EPCS64 and 32 pages in
the EPCS16 device, where the minimum size of each page is 512 KBits.
Additionally, the remote update mode features a user watchdog timer
that can detect functional errors in an application configuration.
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Remote System Upgrade Modes
Local update mode is a simplified version of the remote update mode. In
this mode, Arria GX FPGAs directly load the application configuration,
bypassing the factory configuration. This mode is useful if your system is
required to boot into user mode with minimal startup time. It is also
useful during system prototyping, as it allows you to verify functionality
of the application configuration.
In local update mode, a maximum of two configuration images or pages
is supported: one factory configuration, located at page address
PGM[2..0] = 000, and one application configuration, located at page
address PGM[2..0] = 001. Because the page address of the application
configuration is fixed, the local update mode does not require the factory
configuration image to determine which application is to be loaded. If
any errors are encountered while loading the application configuration,
Arria GX FPGAs revert to the factory configuration. The user watchdog
timer feature is not supported in this mode.
1
Also, local update mode does not support AS configuration with
the serial configuration devices because these devices don’t
support a dynamic pointer to page 001 start address location.
Table 12–2 details the differences between remote and local update
modes.
Table 12–2. Differences Between Remote & Local Update Modes (Part 1
of 2)
Features
Remote Update Mode
Local Update Mode
1
0
RUnLU input pin setting
Page selection upon
power up
PGM[2..0] = 000
PGM[2..0] = 001
(Factory)
(Application)
Supported configurations MAX II device or
microprocessor-based
configuration, serial
configuration, and
enhanced configuration
devices (FPP, PS, AS,
PPA)
MAX II device or
microprocessor-based
configuration and
enhanced configuration
devices (FPP, PS, PPA)
Number of pages
supported
Two pages
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Eight pages for external
host or controller based
configuration; up to 128
pages (512 KBits/page)
for serial configuration
device
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Table 12–2. Differences Between Remote & Local Update Modes (Part 2
of 2)
Features
Remote Update Mode
Local Update Mode
User watchdog timer
Available
Disabled
Remote system upgrade
control and status
register
Read/write access
allowed in factory
configuration. Read
access in application
configuration
Only status register read
access allowed in local
update mode (factory and
application
configurations). Write
access to control register
is disabled
Remote Update Mode
When Arria GX FPGAs are first powered up in remote update mode, it
loads the factory configuration located at page zero (page address pins
PGM[2..0] = "000"; page registers PGM[6..0] = "0000000"). You
should always store the factory configuration image for your system at
page address zero. A factory configuration image is a bitstream for the
FPGA(s) in your system that is programmed during production and is the
fall-back image when errors occur. This image is stored in non-volatile
memory and is never updated or modified using remote access. This
corresponds to PGM[2..0] = 000 of the enhanced configuration device
or standard flash memory, and start address location 0x000000 in the
serial configuration device.
The factory image is user designed and contains soft logic to:
■
■
■
■
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May 2008
Process any errors based on status information from the dedicated
remote system upgrade circuitry
Communicate with the remote host and receive new application
configurations, and store this new configuration data in the local
non-volatile memory device
Determine which application configuration is to be loaded into the
FPGA
Enable or disable the user watchdog timer and load its time-out
value (optional)
Instruct the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to initiate a
reconfiguration cycle
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Remote System Upgrade Modes
Figure 12–4 shows the transitions between the factory and application
configurations in remote update mode.
Figure 12–4. Transitions Between Configurations in Remote Update Mode
Configuration Error
Application 1
Configuration
Power Up
Configuration
Error
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Factory
Configuration
Reload a Different Application
(page 0)
Reload a Different Application
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Application n
Configuration
Configuration Error
After power up or a configuration error, the factory configuration logic
should write the remote system upgrade control register to specify the
page address of the application configuration to be loaded. The factory
configuration should also specify whether or not to enable the user
watchdog timer for the application configuration and, if enabled, specify
the timer setting.
The user watchdog timer ensures that the application configuration is
valid and functional. After confirming the system is healthy, the userdesigned application configuration should reset the timer periodically
during user-mode operation of an application configuration. This timer
reset logic should be a user-designed hardware and/or software health
monitoring signal that indicates error-free system operation. If the user
application configuration detects a functional problem or if the system
hangs, the timer is not reset in time and the dedicated circuitry updates
the remote system upgrade status register, triggering the device to load
the factory configuration. The user watchdog timer is automatically
disabled for factory configurations.
1
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Only valid application configurations designed for remote
update mode include the logic to reset the timer in user mode.
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
For more information about the user watchdog timer, see “User
Watchdog Timer” on page 12–19.
If there is an error while loading the application configuration, the remote
system upgrade status register is written by the Arria GX FPGA’s
dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry, specifying the cause of the
reconfiguration. Actions that cause the remote system upgrade status
register to be written are:
■
■
■
■
nSTATUS driven low externally
Internal CRC error
User watchdog timer time out
A configuration reset (logic array nCONFIG signal or external
nCONFIG pin assertion)
Arria GX FPGAs automatically load the factory configuration located at
page address zero. This user-designed factory configuration should read
the remote system upgrade status register to determine the reason for
reconfiguration. The factory configuration should then take appropriate
error recovery steps and write to the remote system upgrade control
register to determine the next application configuration to be loaded.
When Arria GX devices successfully load the application configuration,
they enter into user mode. In user mode, the soft logic (Nios processor or
state machine and the remote communication interface) assists the Arria
GX device in determining when a remote system update is arriving.
When a remote system update arrives, the soft logic receives the
incoming data, writes it to the configuration memory device, and triggers
the device to load the factory configuration. The factory configuration
reads the remote system upgrade status register, determines the valid
application configuration to load, writes the remote system upgrade
control register accordingly, and initiates system reconfiguration.
Arria GX FPGAs support the remote update mode in the AS, FPP, PS, and
PPA configuration schemes. In the FPP, PS, and PPA schemes, the MAX II
device, microprocessor, or enhanced configuration device should sample
the PGM[2..0] outputs from the Arria GX FPGA and transmit the
appropriate configuration image. In the AS scheme, the Arria GX device
uses the page addresses to read configuration data out of the serial
configuration device.
Local Update Mode
Local update mode is a simplified version of the remote update mode.
This feature allows systems to load an application configuration
immediately upon power up without loading the factory configuration
first. Local update mode does not require the factory configuration to
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May 2008
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Remote System Upgrade Modes
determine which application configuration to load, because only one
application configuration is allowed (at page address one
(PGM [2..0] = 001). You can update this application configuration
remotely. If an error occurs while loading the application configuration,
the factory configuration is automatically loaded.
Upon power up or nCONFIG assertion, the dedicated remote system
upgrade circuitry drives out “001” on the PGM[] pins selecting the
application configuration stored in page one. If the device encounters any
errors during the configuration cycle, the remote system upgrade
circuitry retries configuration by driving PGM[2..0] to zero
(PGM[2..0] = 000) to select the factory configuration image. The error
conditions that trigger a return to the factory configuration are:
■
■
An internal CRC error
An external error signal (nSTATUS detected low)
When the remote system upgrade circuitry detects an external
configuration reset (nCONFIG pulsed low) or internal configuration reset
(logic array nCONFIG assertion), the device attempts to reload the
application configuration from page one.
Figure 12–5 shows the transitions between configurations in local update
mode.
Figure 12–5. Transitions Between Configurations in Local Update Mode
Power Up or nCONFIG assertion
Core or External
nCONFIG Assertion
Application
Configuration
(Page 001)
Configuration
Error
Configuration
Error
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Core or External
nCONFIG Assertion
Factory
Configuration
(Page 000)
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Arria GX FPGAs support local update mode in the FPP, PS, and PPA
configuration schemes. In these schemes, the MAX II device,
microprocessor, or enhanced configuration device should sample the
PGM[2..0] outputs from the Arria GX FPGA and transmit the
appropriate configuration image.
Local update mode is not supported with the AS configuration scheme,
(or serial configuration device), because the Arria GX FPGA cannot
determine the start address of the application configuration page upon
power up. While the factory configuration is always located at memory
address 0x000000, the application configuration can be located at any
other sector boundary within the serial configuration device. The start
address depends on the size of the factory configuration and is user
selectable. Hence, only remote update mode is supported in the AS
configuration scheme.
1
Local update mode is not supported in the AS configuration
scheme (with a serial configuration device).
Local update mode supports read access to the remote system upgrade
status register. The factory configuration image can use this error status
information to determine if a new application configuration must be
downloaded from the remote source. After a remote update, the user
design should assert the logic array configuration reset (nCONFIG) signal
to load the new application configuration.
The device does not support write access to the remote system upgrade
control register in local update mode. Write access is not required because
this mode only supports one application configuration (eliminating the
need to write in a page address) and does not support the user watchdog
timer (eliminating the need to enable or disable the timer or specify its
time-out value).
Dedicated
Remote System
Upgrade
Circuitry
Altera Corporation
May 2008
1
The user watchdog timer is disabled in local update mode.
1
Write access to the remote system upgrade control register is
disabled in local update mode. However, the device supports
read access to obtain error status information.
This section explains the implementation of the Arria GX remote system
upgrade dedicated circuitry. The remote system upgrade circuitry is
implemented in hard logic. This dedicated circuitry interfaces to the
user-defined factory application configurations implemented in the
FPGA logic array to provide the complete remote configuration solution.
The remote system upgrade circuitry contains the remote system upgrade
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Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
registers, a watchdog timer, and a state machine that controls those
components. Figure 12–6 shows the remote system upgrade block’s data
path.
Figure 12–6. Remote System Upgrade Circuit Data Path
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
Bit [4..0]
Control Register
Bit [20..0]
Logic
Update Register
Bit [20..0]
update
Shift Register
dout
Bit [4..0]
din
dout
Bit [20..0]
capture
RSU
State
Machine
din
capture
timeout
User
Watchdog
Timer
clkout capture update
Logic
clkin
RU_DOUT
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
RU_CLK
RU_DIN
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Remote System Upgrade Registers
The remote system upgrade block contains a series of registers that store
the page addresses, watchdog timer settings, and status information.
These registers are detailed in Table 12–3.
Table 12–3. Remote System Upgrade Registers
Register
Description
Shift register
This register is accessible by the logic array and allows the update, status, and control
registers to be written and sampled by user logic. Write access is enabled in remote update
mode for factory configurations to allow writes to the update register. Write access is
disabled in local update mode and for all application configurations in remote update mode.
Control register
This register contains the current page address, the user watchdog timer settings, and one
bit specifying whether the current configuration is a factory configuration or an application
configuration. During a read operation in an application configuration, this register is read
into the shift register. When a reconfiguration cycle is initiated, the contents of the update
register are written into the control register.
Update register
This register contains data similar to that in the control register. However, it can only be
updated by the factory configuration by shifting data into the shift register and issuing an
update operation. When a reconfiguration cycle is triggered by the factory configuration, the
control register is updated with the contents of the update register. During a read in a factory
configuration, this register is read into the shift register.
Status register
This register is written to by the remote system upgrade circuitry on every reconfiguration to
record the cause of the reconfiguration. This information is used by the factory configuration
to determine the appropriate action following a reconfiguration. During a capture cycle, this
register is read into the shift register.
The remote system upgrade control and status registers are clocked by
the 10-MHz internal oscillator (the same oscillator that controls the user
watchdog timer). However, the remote system upgrade shift and update
registers are clocked by the user clock input (RU_CLK).
Remote System Upgrade Control Register
The remote system upgrade control register stores the application
configuration page address and user watchdog timer settings. The
control register functionality depends on the remote system upgrade
mode selection. In remote update mode, the control register page address
bits are set to all zeros (7'b0 = 0000_000) at power up in order to load
the factory configuration. However, in local update mode the control
register page address bits power up as (7'b1 = 0000_001) in order to
select the application configuration. Additionally, the control register
cannot be updated in local update mode, whereas a factory configuration
in remote update mode has write access to this register.
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Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
The control register bit positions are shown in Figure 12–7 and defined in
Table 12–4. In the figure, the numbers show the bit position of a setting
within a register. For example, bit number 8 is the enable bit for the
watchdog timer.
Figure 12–7. Remote System Upgrade Control Register
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
9
Wd_timer[11..0]
8
Wd_en
7
6
5
4
3
PGM[6..3]
2
1
0
PGM[2..0] AnF
The application-not-factory (AnF) bit indicates whether the current
configuration loaded in the Arria GX device is the factory configuration
or an application configuration. This bit is set high at power up in local
update mode, and is set low by the remote system upgrade circuitry
when an error condition causes a fall-back to factory configuration. When
the AnF bit is high, the control register access is limited to read operations.
When the AnF bit is low, the register allows write operations and disables
the watchdog timer.
1
In remote update mode, factory configuration design should set
this bit high (1'b1) when updating the contents of the update
register with application page address and watchdog timer
settings.
Table 12–4. Remote System Upgrade Control Register Contents (Part 1 of 2)
Control Register Bit
AnF (1)
PGM[2..0]
PGM[6..3]
Wd_en
Remote System Upgrade
Mode
Value
Local update
Remote update
1’b1
1'b0
Local update
Remote update (FPP, PS,
PPA)
3'b001
3'b000
Page mode select
Remote update (AS)
3'b000
AS configuration start
address
(StAdd[18..16])
Local update
Remote update (FPP, PS,
PPA)
4'b0000
4'b0000
Not used
Remote update (AS)
4'b0000
AS configuration start
address
(StAdd[22..19])
Remote update
1'b0
User watchdog timer
enable bit
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Definition
Application not factory
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Table 12–4. Remote System Upgrade Control Register Contents (Part 2 of 2)
Control Register Bit
Remote System Upgrade
Mode
Value
Definition
Remote update
12'b000000000000
User watchdog time-out
value
(most significant 12 bits of
29-bit count value:
Wd_timer[11..0]
{Wd_timer[11..0],
17'b0})
Note to Table 12–4:
(1)
In remote update mode, the remote configuration block does not update the AnF bit automatically (you can
update it manually). In local update mode, the remote configuration updates the AnF bit with 0 in the factory page
and 1 in the application page.
Remote System Upgrade Status Register
The remote system upgrade status register specifies the reconfiguration
trigger condition. The various trigger and error conditions include:
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
CRC (cyclic redundancy check) error during application
configuration
nSTATUS assertion by an external device due to an error
FPGA logic array triggered a reconfiguration cycle, possibly after
downloading a new application configuration image
External configuration reset (nCONFIG) assertion
User watchdog timer time out
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Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Figure 12–8 and Table 12–5 specify the contents of the status register. The
numbers in the figure show the bit positions within a 5-bit register.
Figure 12–8. Remote System Upgrade Status Register
4
Wd
3
2
1
0
nCONFIG Core_nCONFIG nSTATUS
CRC
Table 12–5. Remote System Upgrade Status Register Contents
Status Register Bit
Definition
POR Reset Value
CRC (from configuration)
CRC error caused
1 bit '0'
reconfiguration
nSTATUS
nSTATUS caused
1 bit '0'
reconfiguration
CORE (1)
CORE_nCONFIG
nCONFIG
Device logic array caused
reconfiguration
1 bit '0'
nCONFIG caused
1 bit '0'
reconfiguration
Watchdog timer caused
reconfiguration
Wd
1 bit '0'
Note to Table 12–5:
(1)
Logic array reconfiguration forces the system to load the application
configuration data into the Arria GX device. This occurs after the factory
configuration specifies the appropriate application configuration page address
by updating the update register.
Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The remote system upgrade control and update registers have identical
bit definitions, but serve different roles (see Table 12–3 on page 12–15).
While both registers can only be updated when the FPGA is loaded with
a factory configuration image, the update register writes are controlled by
the user logic, and the control register writes are controlled by the remote
system upgrade state machine.
In factory configurations, the user logic should send the AnF bit (set high),
the page address, and watchdog timer settings for the next application
configuration bit to the update register. When the logic array
configuration reset (RU_nCONFIG) goes high, the remote system upgrade
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
state machine updates the control register with the contents of the update
register and initiates system reconfiguration from the new application
page.
In the event of an error or reconfiguration trigger condition, the remote
system upgrade state machine directs the system to load a factory or
application configuration (page zero or page one, based on mode and
error condition) by setting the control register accordingly. Table 12–6 lists
the contents of the control register after such an event occurs for all
possible error or trigger conditions.
The remote system upgrade status register is updated by the dedicated
error monitoring circuitry after an error condition but before the factory
configuration is loaded.
Table 12–6. Control Register Contents After an Error or Reconfiguration
Trigger Condition
Reconfiguration
Error/Trigger
Control Register Setting
Remote Update
Local Update
nCONFIG reset
All bits are 0
PGM[6..0] = 7'b0000001
AnF = 1
nSTATUS error
All bits are 0
CORE triggered
reconfiguration
Update register
All other bits are 0
All bits are 0
PGM[6..0] = 7'b0000001
AnF = 1
All other bits are 0
CRC error
All bits are 0
All bits are 0
Wd time out
All bits are 0
All bits are 0
Read operations during factory configuration access the contents of the
update register. This feature is used by the user logic to verify that the
page address and watchdog timer settings were written correctly. Read
operations in application configurations access the contents of the control
register. This information is used by the user logic in the application
configuration.
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration
from stalling the device indefinitely. The system uses the timer to detect
functional errors after an application configuration is successfully loaded
into the FPGA.
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May 2008
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Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
The user watchdog timer is a counter that counts down from the initial
value loaded into the remote system upgrade control register by the
factory configuration. The counter is 29-bits-wide and has a maximum
count value of 229. When specifying the user watchdog timer value,
specify only the most significant 12 bits. The granularity of the timer
setting is 215 cycles. The cycle time is based on the frequency of the
10-MHz internal oscillator. Table 12–7 specifies the operating range of the
10-MHz internal oscillator.
Table 12–7. 10-MHz Internal Oscillator Specifications Note (1)
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Units
5
6.5
10
MHz
Note to Table 12–7:
(1)
These values are preliminary.
The user watchdog timer begins counting once the application
configuration enters FPGA user mode. This timer must be periodically
reloaded or reset by the application configuration before the timer expires
by asserting RU_nRSTIMER. If the application configuration does not
reload the user watchdog timer before the count expires, a time-out signal
is generated by the remote system upgrade dedicated circuitry. The timeout signal tells the remote system upgrade circuitry to set the user
watchdog timer status bit (Wd) in the remote system upgrade status
register and reconfigures the device by loading the factory configuration.
The user watchdog timer is not enabled during the configuration cycle of
the FPGA. Errors during configuration are detected by the CRC engine.
Also, the timer is disabled for factory configurations. Functional errors
should not exist in the factory configuration since it is stored and
validated during production and is never updated remotely.
1
The user watchdog timer is disabled in factory configurations
and during the configuration cycle of the application
configuration. It is enabled after the application configuration
enters user mode.
Interface Signals between Remote System Upgrade Circuitry &
FPGA Logic Array
The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry drives (or receives) seven
signals to (or from) the FPGA logic array. The FPGA logic array uses these
signals to read and write the remote system upgrade control, status, and
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
update registers using the remote system upgrade shift register.
Table 12–8 lists each of these seven signals and describes their
functionality.
Except for RU_nRSTIMER and RU_CAPTnUPDT, the logic array signals are
enabled for both remote and local update modes and for both factory and
application configurations. RU_nRSTIMER is only valid for application
configurations in remote update mode, since local update configurations
and factory configurations have the user watchdog timer disabled. When
RU_CAPTnUPDT is low, the device can write to the update register only
for factory configurations in remote update mode, since this is the only
case where the update register is written to by the user logic. When the
RU_nCONFIG signal goes high, the contents of the update register are
written into the control register for controlling the next configuration
cycle.
Table 12–8. Interface Signals between Remote System Upgrade Circuitry & FPGA Logic Array (Part 1 of 2)
Signal Name
Signal Direction
Description
RU_nRSTIMER
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
Request from the application configuration to reset the user
watchdog timer with its initial count. A falling edge of this signal
triggers a reset of the user watchdog timer.
RU_nCONFIG
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
When driven low, this signal triggers the device to reconfigure.
If asserted by the factory configuration in remote update
mode, the application configuration specified in the remote
update control register is loaded. If requested by the
application configuration in remote update mode, the factory
configuration is loaded.
In the local updated mode, the application configuration is
loaded whenever this signal is asserted.
RU_CLK
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
Clocks the remote system upgrade shift register and update
register so that the contents of the status, control, and update
registers can be read, and so that the contents of the update
register can be loaded. The shift register latches data on the
rising edge of this clock signal.
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Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Table 12–8. Interface Signals between Remote System Upgrade Circuitry & FPGA Logic Array (Part 2 of 2)
Signal Name
RU_SHIFTnLD
Signal Direction
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
Description
This pin determines if the shift register contents are shifted
over during the next clock edge or loaded in/out.
When this signal is driven high (1'b1), the remote system
upgrade shift register shifts data left on each rising edge of
RU_CLK.
When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low (1'b0) and
RU_CAPTnUPDT is driven low (1'b0), the remote system
upgrade update register is updated with the contents of the
shift register on the rising edge of RU_CLK.
When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low (1'b0) and
RU_CAPTnUPDT is driven high (1'b1), the remote system
upgrade shift register captures the status register and either
the control or update register (depending on whether the
current configuration is application or factory, respectively) on
the rising edge of RU_CLK.
RU_CAPTnUPDT
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
This pin determines if the contents of the shift register are
captured or updated on the next clock edge.
When the RU_SHIFTnLD signal is driven high (1'b1), this
input signal has no function.
When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low (1'b0) and
RU_CAPTnUPDT is driven high (1'b1), the remote system
upgrade shift register captures the status register and either
the control or update register (depending on whether the
current configuration is application or factory, respectively) on
the rising edge of RU_CLK.
When RU_SHIFTnLD is driven low (1'b0) and
RU_CAPTnUPDT is driven low (1'b0), the remote system
upgrade update register is updated with the contents of the
shift register on the rising edge of RU_CLK.
In local update mode, a low input on RU_CAPTnUPDT has no
function, because the update register cannot be updated in
this mode.
RU_DIN
RU_DOUT
Input to remote system
upgrade block (driven by
FPGA logic array)
Data to be written to the remote system upgrade shift register
on the rising edge of RU_CLK. To load data into the shift
register, RU_SHIFTnLD must be asserted.
Output from remote system Output data from the remote system upgrade shift register to
upgrade block (driven to be read by logic array logic. New data arrives on each rising
FPGA logic array)
edge of RU_CLK.
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Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Remote System Upgrade Pin Descriptions
Table 12–9 describes the dedicated remote system upgrade configuration
pins. For descriptions of all the configuration pins, refer to the Configuring
Arria GX Devices chapter in volume 2 of the Arria GX Handbook.
Table 12–9. Arria GX Remote System Upgrade Pins
Pin Name
RUnLU
User Mode
Configuration
Scheme
Remote
N/A if using
remote system configuration in
FPP, PS, or
upgrade in FPP,
PPA
PS, AS, or PPA
modes.
I/O if not using
these modes.
Pin Type
Description
Input
Input that selects between remote update
and local update. A logic high (1.5-V, 1.8V, 2.5-V, 3.3-V) selects remote update,
and a logic low selects local update.
When not using remote update or local
update configuration modes, this pin is
available as a general-purpose user I/O
pin.
When using remote configuration in AS
mode, set the RUnLU pin to high because
AS does not support local update.
PGM[2..0]
Remote
N/A if using
remote system configuration in
upgrade in FPP, FPP, PS or PPA
PS, or PPA
modes.
I/O if not using
these modes.
Quartus II
Software
Support
Output
These output pins select one of eight
pages in the memory (either flash or
enhanced configuration device) when
using remote update mode.
When not using remote update or local
update configuration modes, these pins
are available as general-purpose user
I/O pins.
Implementation in your design requires a remote system upgrade
interface between the FPGA logic array and remote system upgrade
circuitry. You also need to generate configuration files for production and
remote programming of the system configuration memory. The
Quartus® II software provides these features.
The two implementation options, altremote_update megafunction
and remote system upgrade atom, are for the interface between the
remote system upgrade circuitry and the FPGA logic array interface.
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May 2008
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Quartus II Software Support
altremote_update Megafunction
The altremote_update megafunction provides a memory-like
interface to the remote system upgrade circuitry and handles the shift
register read/write protocol in FPGA logic. This implementation is
suitable for designs that implement the factory configuration functions
using a Nios processor in the FPGA.
Tables 12–10 and 12–11 describe the input and output ports available on
the altremote_update megafunction. Table 12–12 shows the
param[2..0] bit settings.
Table 12–10. Input Ports of the altremote_update Megafunction
Port Name
(Part 1 of 2)
Required
Source
Description
clock
Y
Logic
Array
Clock input to the altremote_update block. All
operations are performed with respects to the rising edge of
this clock.
reset
Y
Logic
Array
Asynchronous reset, which is used to initialize the remote
update block. To ensure proper operation, the remote update
block must be reset before first accessing the remote update
block. This signal is not affected by the busy signal and will
reset the remote update block even if busy is logic high. This
means that if the reset signal is driven logic high during
writing of a parameter, the parameter will not be properly
written to the remote update block.
reconfig
Y
Logic
Array
When driven logic high, reconfiguration of the device is
initiated using the current parameter settings in the remote
update block. If busy is asserted, this signal is ignored. This
is to ensure all parameters are completely written before
reconfiguration begins.
reset_timer
N
Logic
Array
This signal is required if you are using the watchdog timer
feature. A logic high resets the internal watchdog timer. This
signal is not affected by the busy signal and can reset the
timer even when the remote update block is busy. If this port
is left connected, the default value is 0.
read_param
N
Logic
Array
Once read_param is sampled as a logic high, the busy
signal is asserted. While the parameter is being read, the
busy signal remains asserted, and inputs on param[] are
ignored. Once the busy signal is deactivated, the next
parameter can be read. If this port is left unconnected, the
default value is 0.
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Table 12–10. Input Ports of the altremote_update Megafunction
Port Name
(Part 2 of 2)
Required
Source
Description
write_param
N
Logic
Array
This signal is required if you intend on writing parameters to
the remote update block. When driven logic high, the
parameter specified on the param[] port should be written
to the remote update block with the value on data_in[].
The number of valid bits on data_in[] is dependent on the
parameter type. This signal is sampled on the rising edge of
clock and should only be asserted for one clock cycle to
prevent the parameter from being re-read on subsequent
clock cycles. Once write_param is sampled as a logic
high, the busy signal is asserted. While the parameter is
being written, the busy signal remains asserted, and inputs
on param[] and data_in[] are ignored. Once the busy
signal is deactivated, the next parameter can be written. This
signal is only valid when the Current_Configuration
parameter is factory since parameters cannot be written in
application configurations. If this port is left unconnected, the
default value is 0.
param[2..0]
N
Logic
Array
3-bit bus that selects which parameter should be read or
written. If this port is left unconnected, the default value is 0.
data_in[11..0]
N
Logic
Array
This signal is required if you intend on writing parameters to
the remote update block 12-bit bus used when writing
parameters, which specifies the parameter value. The
parameter value is requested using the param[] input and
by driving the write_param signal logic high, at which point
the busy signal goes logic high and the value of the parameter
is captured from this bus. For some parameters, not all 12 bits
are used, in which case only the least significant bits are
used. This port is ignored if the
Current_Configuration parameter is set to an
application configuration since writing of parameters is only
allowed in the factory configuration. If this port is left
unconnected, the default value is 0.
Note to Table 12–10:
(1)
Logic array source means that you can drive the port from internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
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May 2008
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Quartus II Software Support
Table 12–11. Output Ports of the altremote_update Megafunction
Port Name
Required
Destination
Description
busy
Y
Logic Array
When this signal is a logic high, the remote update block is
busy either reading or writing a parameter. When the
remote update block is busy, it ignores its data_in[],
param[], and reconfig inputs. This signal goes high
when read_param or write_param is asserted and
remains asserted until the operation is complete.
pgm_out[2..0]
Y
data_out[11..0]
N
PGM[2..0] 3-bit bus that specifies the page pointer of the
pins
configuration data to be loaded when the device is
reconfigured. This port must be connected to the PGM[]
output pins, which should be connected to the external
configuration device.
Logic Array
12-bit bus used when reading parameters, which reads out
the parameter value. The parameter value is requested
using the param[] input and by driving the read_param
signal logic high, at which point the busy signal goes logic
high. When the busy signal goes low, the value of the
parameter is driven out on this bus. The data_out[]
port is only valid after a read_param has been issued
and once the busy signal is deasserted. At any other time,
its output values are invalid. For example, even though the
data_out[] port may toggle during a writing of a
parameter, these values are not a valid representation of
what was actually written to the remote update block. For
some parameters, not all 12 bits are used, in which case
only the least significant bits are used.
Note to Table 12–11:
(1)
Logic array destination means that you can drive the port to internal logic or any general-purpose I/O pin.
Table 12–12. Parameter Settings for the altremote_update Megafunction
(Part 1 of 2)
param[2..0]
Bit Setting
Width of
Parameter
Value
POR Reset
Value
Status
Register
Contents
000
5
5 bit '0
Specifies the reason for re-configuration,
which could be caused by a CRC error during
configuration, nSTATUS being pulled low due
to an error, the device core caused an error,
nCONFIG pulled low, or the watchdog timer
timed-out. This parameter can only be read.
Watchdog
Timeout Value
010
12
12 bits '0
User watchdog timer time-out value. Writing of
this parameter is only allowed when in the
factory configuration.
Selected
Parameter
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Description
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Table 12–12. Parameter Settings for the altremote_update Megafunction
param[2..0]
Bit Setting
Width of
Parameter
Value
POR Reset
Value
Watchdog
Enable
011
1
1 bit '0
Page select
100
Selected
Parameter
(Part 2 of 2)
Description
User watchdog timer enable. Writing of this
parameter is only allowed when in the factory
configuration
3 (FPP, PS, 3 bit '001' - Local Page mode selection. Writing of this parameter
PPA)
configuration
is only allowed when in the factory
configuration.
3 bit '000' Remote
configuration
7 (AS)
7 bit '0000000' Remote
configuration
Current
configuration
(AnF)
101
1
1 bit '0' - Factory Specifies whether the current configuration is
factory or and application configuration. This
1 bit '1' parameter can only be read.
Application
Illegal values
001
—
—
—
110
—
—
—
111
—
—
—
Remote System Upgrade Atom
The remote system upgrade atom is a WYSIWYG atom or primitive that
can be instantiated in your design. The primitive is used to access the
remote system upgrade shift register, logic array reset, and watchdog
timer reset signals. The ports on this primitive are the same as those listed
in Table 12–8. This implementation is suitable for designs that implement
the factory configuration functions using state machines (without a
processor).
System Design
Guidelines
The following general guidelines are applicable when implementing
remote system upgrade in Arria GX FPGAs. Guidelines for specific
configuration schemes are also discussed in this section.
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
After downloading a new application configuration, the soft logic
implemented in the FPGA can validate the integrity of the data
received over the remote communication interface. This optional
step helps avoid configuration attempts with bad or incomplete
configuration data. However, in the event that bad or incomplete
configuration data is sent to the FPGA, it detects the data corruption
using the CRC signature attached to each configuration frame.
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System Design Guidelines
■
The auto-reconfigure on configuration error option bit is ignored
when remote system upgrade is enabled in your system. This option
is always enabled in remote configuration designs, allowing your
system to return to the safe factory configuration in the event of an
application configuration error or user watchdog timer time-out.
Remote System Upgrade With Serial Configuration Devices
Remote system upgrade support in the AS configuration scheme is
similar to support in other schemes, with the following exceptions:
■
The remote system upgrade block provides the AS configuration
controller inside the Arria GX FPGA with a 7-bit page start address
(PGM[6..0]) instead of driving the 3-bit page mode pins
(PGM[2..0]) used in FPP, PS, and PPA configuration schemes. This
7-bit address forms the 24-bit configuration start address
(StAdd[23..0]). Table 12–13 illustrates the start address
generation using the page address registers.
The configuration start address for factory configuration is always
set to 24'b0.
PGM[2..0] pins on Arria GX devices are not used in AS
configuration schemes and can be used as regular I/O pins.
The Nios ASMI peripheral can be used to update configuration data
within the serial configuration device.
■
■
■
Table 12–13. AS Configuration Start Address Generation
Serial Configuration
Device
Serial Configuration
Device Density
(MB)
Add[23]
PGM[6..0]
(Add[22..16])
Add[15..0]
EPCS64
64
0
MSB[6..0]
All 0s
EPCS16
16
0
00, MSB[4..0]
All 0s
EPCS4
4
0
0000, MSB[2..0]
All 0s
Remote System Upgrade With a MAX II Device or
Microprocessor & Flash Device
This setup requires the MAX II device or microprocessor to support page
addressing. MAX II or microprocessor devices implementing remote
system upgrade should emulate the enhanced configuration device page
mode feature. The PGM[2..0] output pins from the Arria GX device
must be sampled to determine which configuration image is to be loaded
into the FPGA.
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
If the FPGA does not release CONF_DONE after all data has been sent, the
MAX II microprocessor should reset the FPGA back to the factory image
by pulsing its nSTATUS pin low.
The MAX II device or microprocessor and flash configuration can use
FPP, PS, or PPA. Decompression is supported in the FPP (requires 4×
DCLK) and PS modes only. Figure 12–9 shows a system block diagram for
remote system upgrade with the MAX II device or microprocessor and
flash.
Figure 12–9. System Block Diagram for Remote System Upgrade With MAX II
Device or Microprocessor & Flash Device
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
Arria GX Device
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
DATA[7..0]
nCONFIG
DCLK
PGM[2..0]
RUnLU
(2)
Notes to Figure 12–9:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal
for the device.
Connect RUnLU to GND or VCC to select between remote and local update modes.
Connect MSEL[3..0] to 0100 to enable remote update remote system upgrade
mode.
Remote System Upgrade with Enhanced Configuration Devices
■
■
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Enhanced Configuration devices support remote system upgrade
with FPP or PS configuration schemes. The Arria GX decompression
feature is only supported in the PS mode. The enhanced
configuration device’s decompression feature is supported in both
PS and FPP schemes.
In remote update mode, neither the factory configuration nor the
application configurations should alter the enhanced configuration
device’s option bits or the page 000 factory configuration data. This
ensures that an error during remote update can always be resolved
by reverting to the factory configuration located at page 000.
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Conclusion
■
The enhanced configuration device features an error checking
mechanism to detect instances when the FPGA fails to detect the
configuration preamble. In these instances, the enhanced
configuration device pulses the nSTATUS signal low, and the remote
system upgrade circuitry attempts to load the factory configuration.
Figure 12–10 shows a system block diagram for remote system
upgrade with enhanced configuration devices.
Figure 12–10. System Block Diagram for Remote System Upgrade with
Enhanced Configuration Devices
External Flash Interface
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Arria GX Device
(2)
(3)
DCLK
DATA[7..0]
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
PGM[2..0]
nCEO
RUnLU
MSEL[3..0]
VCC (1)
(3) (3)
10 kΩ
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
DCLK
DATA[7..0]
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nINIT_CONF (2)
PGM[2..0]
N.C.
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 12–10:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Conclusion
Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal
for the device.
Connect RUnLU to GND or VCC to select between remote and local update modes.
Connect MSEL[3..0] to 0100 to enable remote update remote system upgrade
mode.
Arria GX devices offer remote system upgrade capability, where you can
upgrade a system in real-time through any network. Remote system
upgrade helps to deliver feature enhancements and bug fixes without
costly recalls, reduces time to market, and extends product life cycles. The
dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry in Arria GX devices provides
error detection, recovery, and status information to ensure reliable
reconfiguration.
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May 2008
Remote System Upgrades with Arria GX Devices
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
Document
Revision History
Configuring Arria GX Devices chapter of the Arria GX Handbook
Enhanced Configuration Devices (EPC4, EPC8, & EPC16) Data Sheet
chapter in volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook
Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and
EPCS128) Data Sheet in volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook
Table 12–14 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 12–14. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
May 2008,
v1.2
Changes Made
Minor text edits.
August 2007, Added the “Referenced Documents” section.
v1.1
Minor text edits.
May 2007,
v1.0
Initial Release
Altera Corporation
May 2008
Summary of Changes
—
—
—
N/A
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Document Revision History
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Arria GX Device Handbook, Volume 2
Altera Corporation
May 2008
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