R&S®HMO1002, R&S®HMO1202 User Manual

R&S®HMO1002, R&S®HMO1202 User Manual
R&S®HMO1002 Series
R&S®HMO1202 Series
Digital Oscilloscope
User Manual
Version 03
User Manual
Test & Measurement
5800530103
General Information Regarding the CE Marking
General Information Regarding the CE Marking
ROHDE & SCHWARZ measuring instruments comply with regulations of the
EMC Directive. ROHDE & SCHWARZ is basing the conformity assessment
on prevailing generic and product standards. In cases with potentially
different thresholds, ROHDE & SCHWARZ instruments apply more rigorous
test conditions. Thresholds for business and commercial sectors as well
as small business are applicable for interference emission (class 1B). As to
the interference immunity, the standard thresholds for the industrial sector
apply. Measurement and data lines connected to the measuring instrument
significantly affect compliance with specified thresholds. Depending on the
respective application, utilized lines may differ. In regards to interference
emission and immunity during measurements, it is critical that the following
terms and conditions are observed:
1. Data Cables
It is imperative to only use properly shielded cables when connecting
measuring instruments and interfaces to external devices (printers, computers, etc.). Unless the manual prescribes an even shorter maximum cable
length, data cables (input/output, signal/control) may not exceed a length
of 3m and may not be used outside of buildings. If the instrument interface
includes multiple ports for interface cables, only one cable at a time may be
connected. Generally, interconnections require double-shielded connecting
cables. The double-shielded cable HZ72 (available at ROHDE & SCHWARZ) is
well suitable as IEEE bus cable.
2. Signal Cables
In general, measuring cables for the transmission of signals between measuring point and measuring instrument should be kept as short as possible.
Unless an even shorter maximum cable length is prescribed, signal cables
(input/output, signal/control) may not exceed a length of 1m and may not be
used outside of buildings. All signal cables must be shielded (coaxial cable
RG58/U). It is important to ensure proper ground connection. Signal generators require the use of double-shielded coaxial cables (RG223/U, RG214/U).
3. Impact on Measuring Instruments
If strong high-frequency electric and magnetic fields are present, it may
occur despite diligent measurement setup that unwanted signal units are
injected into the measuring instrument via connected measuring cables. This
will not damage the ROHDE & SCHWARZ measuring instrument or put it out
of operation. In some cases, these circumstances may cause the measuring
value to slightly exceed specifications.
4. RF immunity of oscilloscopes.
4.1 Electromagnetic RF field
The influence of electric and magnetic RF fields may become visible (e.g. RF
superimposed), if the field intensity is high. In most cases the coupling into
the oscilloscope takes place via the device under test, mains/line supply,
test leads, control cables and/or radiation. The device under test as well as
the oscilloscope may be effected by such fields. Although the interior of the
oscilloscope is screened by the cabinet, direct radiation can occur via the
CRT gap. As the bandwidth of each amplifier stage is higher than the total
–3 dB bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the influence of RF fields of even higher
frequencies may be noticeable.
General Information
Regarding
the CE Marking
4.2 Electrical fast transients / electrostatic discharge
Electrical fast transient signals (burst) may be coupled into the oscilloscope
directly via the mains/line supply, or indirectly via test leads and/or control
cables. Due to the high trigger and input sensitivity of the oscilloscopes,
such normally high signals may effect the trigger unit and/or may become
visible on the TFT, which is unavoidable. These effects can also be caused by
direct or indirect electrostatic discharge.
2
Content
Content
1
Important Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Setting up the instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Intended Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.6 Ambient conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.7 Warranty and repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.8Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.9 Measuring Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.10 Mains voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.12 Product Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Front view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 General Operating Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.5 Basic Settings and Integrated Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.6 Instrument Firmware Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.7 Options / Voucher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.8 Self Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.9 Education Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.10 Back Panel of the Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3
Quick Start Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on. . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3 Display of signal details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Cursor Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5 Automatic Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6 Mathematical functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.7 Storing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4
Vertical System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2 Sensitivity, Y Positioning and Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.4 Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5 Threshold Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6 Naming a Channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5
Horizontal System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1 Acquisition modes RUN and STOP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2 Time Base Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3 Acquisition modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.4 Interlace Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5 ZOOM Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.6 Navigation Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.7 Marker Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6
Trigger System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.1 Trigger Modes Auto, Normal and Single. . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.2 Trigger Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.3 Trigger type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.4 Trigger Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.5 External Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7
Signal Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.1 Display Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.2 Usage of the Virtual Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.3 Signal Intensity Display and Persistence Function. . . . 26
7.4 XY display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.1 Cursor Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.2 Automatic Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
9.1 Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.3 Quick View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test based on Masks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9.5 Component Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9.6 Digital Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
10 Signal Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10.1 Function Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10.2 Pattern Generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
11 Documentation, Storage and Recall. . . . . . . . . . 41
11.1 Device Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
11.2References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
11.3Traces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
11.4Screenshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
12 Mixed-Signal Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12.1 Logic Trigger for Digital Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12.2 Display Functions for the Logic Channels. . . . . . . . . . . 44
11.5 FILE/PRINT Key Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12.3 Display of Logic Channels as BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12.4 Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels. . . . . . . . . . 45
12.5 Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels. . . . . . . 46
13 Serial Bus Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13.1 Software options (license key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13.2 Serial Bus Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13.3 Parallel / Parallel Clocked BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13.4I2C BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13.5 SPI / SSPI BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.6 UART/RS-232 BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
13.7 CAN BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
13.8 LIN BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
14 Remote Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14.1 USB VCP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14.2 USB TMC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14.3 USB MTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.4Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
15 Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
16Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
16.1 List of figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
16.2Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3
Important Notes
1Important
Notes
1.1 Symbols
(1)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Symbol 1: Caution, general danger zone –
Refer to product documentation
Symbol 2: Risk of electric shock
Symbol 3: Ground
Symbol 4: PE terminal
Symbol 5: ON/OFF supply voltage
Symbol 6: Stand by display
Symbol 7: Ground terminal
1.2 Unpacking
While unpacking, check the package contents for completeness (measuring instrument, power cable, product
CD, possibly optional accessories). After unpacking, check
the instrument for mechanical damage occurred during
transport and for loose parts inside. In case of transport
damage, please inform the supplier immediately. The instrument must not be operated in this case.
1.3 Setting up the instrument
As you can see from the picture, there are small feets on
the bottom which can be folded out. Please make sure you
have fully folded out the feet‘s in order to ensure stability
of the instrument.
The instrument must be installed in a way, that at any time
the disconnection of the power line is not restricted.
1.4Safety
This instrument was built in compliance with DIN EN
61010-1 (VDE 0411 part 1), safety regulations for electrical
measuring instruments, control units and Iaboratory equipment. It has been tested and shipped from the plant in safe
condition. It is in compliance with the regulations of the
European standard EN 61010-1 and the international standard IEC 61010-1. To maintain this condition and to ensure
safe operation, the user must observe all instructions and
warnings given in this operating manual. Casing, chassis
and all measuring ports are connected to a protective Fig.
1.1: Operating positions earth conductor. The instrument is
designed in compliance with the regulations of protection
class I. For safety reasons, the instrument may only be
operated with authorized safety sockets. The power cord
must be plugged in before signal circuits may be connected. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged.
Check regularly if the power cables are in perfect condition. Choose suitable protective measures and installation
types to ensure that the power cord cannot be damaged
and that no harm is caused by tripping hazards or from
electric shock, for instance.
It is prohibited to disconnect the earthed protective
connection inside or outside the instrument!
If it is assumed that a safe operation is no longer possible,
the instrument must be shut down and secured against
any unintended operation.
Safe operation can no longer be assumed:
❙❙ in case of visible damage,
❙❙ in case loose parts were noticed,
❙❙ if it does not function any more,
❙❙ after prolonged storage under unfavourable conditions
(e.g. like in the open or in moist atmosphere),
❙❙ After rough handling during transport (e.g. packaging that
does not meet the minimum requirements by post office,
railway or forwarding agency).
1.5 Intended Operation
The measuring instrument is intended only for use by personnel familiar with the potential risks of measuring electrical quantities. For safety reasons, the instrument may only
be connected to properly installed safety socket outlets.
Separating the grounds is prohibited. The power plug must
be inserted before signal circuits may be connected. The
product may be operated only under the operating condi-
Fig. 1.1: Operating positions
4
Use the measurement instrument only with original ROHDE &
SCHWARZ measuring equipment, measuring cables and power
cord. Never use inadequately measured power cords. Before each
measurement, measuring cables must be inspected for damage
and replaced if necessary. Damaged or worn components can
damage the instrument or cause injury..
Important Notes
tions and in the positions specified by the manufacturer,
without the product‘s ventilation being obstructed. If the
manufacturer‘s specifications are not observed, this can
result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury,
and in some cases, death. Applicable local or national
safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents
must be observed in all work performed.
The measuring instrument is designed for use in the
following sectors: industrial sector, home, business and
commercial sectors, small businesses. The measuring
instrument is designed for indoor use only. Before each
measurement, you need to verify at a known source if the
measurement instrument functions properly.
To disconnect from the mains, the low-heat device socket on the
back panel has to be unplugged.
1.6 Ambient conditions
The allowed operating temperature ranges from +5 °C to
+40 °C (pollution category 2). The maximum relative humidity (without condensation) is at 80%. During storage
and transport, the temperature must be between –20 °C
and +70 °C. In case of condensation during transportation
or storage, the instrument will require approximately two
hours to dry and reach the appropriate temperature prior
to operation. The instrument is designed for use in a clean
and dry indoor environment. Do not operate with high dust
and humidity levels, if danger of explosion exists or with
aggressive chemical agents. Any operating position may
be used; however, adequate air circulation must be maintained. For continuous operation, a horizontal or inclined
position (integrated stand) is preferable. The maximum
operating altitude for the instrument is 2000 m. Specifications with tolerance data apply after a warm up period of at
least 30 minutes at a temperature of 23 °C (tolerance ±2°C).
Specifications without tolerance data are average values.
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes.
1.7 Warranty and repair
ROHDE & SCHWARZ instruments are subject to strict
quality controls. Prior to leaving the manufacturing site,
each instrument undergoes a 10-hour burn-in test. This is
followed by extensive functional quality testing to examine
all operating modes and to guarantee compliance with
the specified technical data. The testing is performed with
testing equipment that is calibrated to national standards.
The statutory warranty provisions shall be governed by
the laws of the country in which the ROHDE & SCHWARZ
The product may only be opened by authorized and
qualified personnel. Before any work is performed on the
product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
product was purchased. In case of any complaints, please
contact your supplier.
Any adjustments, replacements of parts, maintenance or
repair may be carried out only by authorized ROHDE &
SCHWARZ technical personnel. Only original parts may be
used for replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed after parts relevant to safety have been
replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation
resistance measurement, leakage current measurement,
functional test). This helps to ensure the continued safety
of the product.
1.8Maintenance
Clean the outer case of the instrument at regular intervals, using
a soft, lint-free dust cloth. Before cleaning the instrument, please
make sure that it has been switched off and disconnected from
all power supplies. (e.g. mains or battery supply).
The display may only be cleaned with water or appropriate
glass cleaner (not with alcohol or other cleaning agents).
Follow this step by rubbing the display down with a dry,
clean and lint-free cloth. Do not allow cleaning fluid to
enter the instrument. The use of other cleaning agents
may damage the labeling or plastic and laquered surfaces.
Before cleaning the measuring instrument, please make sure that
it has been switched off and disconnected from all power supplies (e.g. AC supply network or battery).
No parts of the instruments may be cleaned with chemical cleaning agents (such as alcohol, acetone or cellulose thinner)!
1.9 Measuring Category
This oscilloscope is designed for measurements on circuits
that are only indirectly connected to the mains or not
connected at all. The instrument is not rated for any measurement category. Make sure the entry voltage of the
analog channels CH1/CH2 does not exceed 200 V (peak
value),150 VRMS at 1 MΩ input impedance. The entry voltage of the external trigger input (TRIG. EXT.) does not
exceeded 100 V (peak value).The maximum value allowed
for transient overvoltages is 200 V (peak value). To ensure
compliance, it is necessary to only use probes that have
been manufactured and tested in accordance with DIN EN
61010-031in order to prevent transient overvoltages at the
measurement input. The auxilary output (AUX OUT) is a
multi-purpose output with the function as component tester, trigger output, pass/fail and function generator. When
performing measurements in category II, III or IV circuits, it
is mandatory to insert a probe that reduces the voltage so
that no transient overvoltages will be applied to the instrument. Direct measurements (without galvanic isolation) to
category II, III or IV circuits are prohibited. The measuring
5
Important Notes
circuits are considered not connected to the mains if an
isolation transformer in compliance with class II is used.
It is also possible to perform measurements on the mains
if appropriate transformers (e.g. current connectors) are
used that are in compliance with safety class II. The measurement category (for which the manufacturer specified
the required transformer) must be observed.
The measurement categories refer to transients from
the power system. Transients are short, very fast (steep)
current and voltage variations which may occur periodically and nonperiodically. The level of potential transients
increases as the distance to the source of the low voltage
installation decreases.
❙❙ Measurement CAT IV: Measurements at the source of
the low voltage installations (e.g. meters)
❙❙ Measurement CAT III: Measurements in building
installations (e.g. power distribution installations, power
switches, firmly installed sockets, firmly installed engines
etc.).
❙❙ Measurement CAT II: Measurements on circuits
electronically directly connected to the mains (e.g.
household appliances, power tools, etc.)
❙❙ 0 (instruments without measured measurement
category): Other circuits that are not connected directly to
the mains.
1.10 Mains voltage
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 100
to 240 V (±10%), 50 or 60 Hz. There is hence no line voltage selector. The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel
and part of the line input connector. Prior to exchanging
a fuse, the line cord must be pulled out. Exchange is only
allowed if the fuse holder is undamaged. It can be taken
out using a screwdriver put into the slot. The fuse can be
pushed out of its holder and must be exchanged with the
identical type (type informations below). The holder with
the new fuse can then be pushed back in place against the
spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to bridge
the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire.
Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided. Keep cells
and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors
using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or
batteries must not be stored in a box or in a drawer
where they can short-circuit each other, or where they
can be short-circuited by other conductive materials.
Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If
a cell or a battery has been swallowed, seek medical
aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed
to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If contact
occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water
and seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries can
cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with
the identical type in order to ensure the safety of the
product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate
from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium
are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations
regarding waste disposal and recycling.
1.12 Product Disposal
Fig. 1.2:
Type of fuse:
IEC 60127 - T2.5H 250V (Size 5 x 20 mm)
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/
cells is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary,
product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/
or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries
and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133
standard.
6
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG)
Act is an implementation of the following EC directives:
❙❙ 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE) and
❙❙ 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain
hazardous substances in electrical and electronic
equipment (RoHS).
Once its lifetime has ended, this product should be disposed of separately from your household waste. The disposal at municipal collection sites for electronic equipment
is also not permitted. As mandated for all manufacturers
Important Notes
by the German Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act
(ElektroG), ROHDE & SCHWARZ assumes full responsibility for the ecological disposal or the recycling at the endof-life of their products.
Please contact your local service partner to dispose of the
product.
7
Introduction
2 Introduction
A
2.1 Front view
On the instrument frontside you can find the power key
1 , in order to switch on the instrument or enter stand-bymode. If the instrument is in stand-by-mode, this key light
up red. If the instrument is switched off using the main
power switch on the backside, the red light will also switch
off (this will take some seconds). Furthermore you find on
the front panel the control panel 2 , A , B , C , D , the BNC
connectors of the analog inputs 45 to 46 , the probe adjustment output 49 , the bus signal source 48 ,the connectors
for the optional logic probe R&SHO3508 50 , a USB port for
USB sticks 52 and the TFT screen 53 . For component and
Pass/Fail test use the BNC connector AUX OUT 51 .
Use the connectors for the active logic probes 50 exclusively for
the logic probes of type R&SHO3508. Connecting other types may
demolish the input.
2.2 Control panel
The controls in the front panel allow access to all basic
functions while advanced settings are easily accessible
through the menu structure and gray soft menu keys.
The power button 1 is clearly set apart by its design. The
most significant controls feature colored LEDs, indicating
the current setting. The control panel is divided into four
sections.
55
52
51
Fig. 2.1: Frontview of the R&S®HMO1202
8
50
49
48
3
4
6
7 9
10 12
13 15
16
Fig. 2.2:
Control
8
5
11
14
panel of
17
section A
Section A
This section includes the CURSOR/MENU, ANALYZE and
GENERAL sections. The CURSOR/MENU section includes
cursor functions 8 , universal knob 4 , Intens/Persist control switch 7 and the option to select the virtual screen
6 . The ANALYZE section allows users to directly access
the FFT displays 9 , the QUICK VIEW 10 display (all important parameters of the actual signal display), the PASS/
FAIL mask test and the AUTO MEASURE settings 11 . The
portion Analyze allows direct selection of FFT 9 displays,
the Quick view mode 10 (all important parameters of the
actual signal display), and the automeasure function 11 for
the automatic measurement of parameters. The GENERAL
section includes the Save/Recall 12 key. With this option,
you can control the settings to load and save instrument
settings, reference signals, signals and screen displays.
Additional keys enable the user to access general settings
13 such as language, DISPLAY 14 , AUTOSET 15 as well as
integrated HELP 16 and FILE/PRINT 17 . Depending on how
it is programmed, FILE/PRINT enables you to directly save
instrument settings, signals or screen displays.
1
A
2
47
B
46
C
45
D
Introduction
Section B :
B
22
18
23
19
24
25
20
26
21
27
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
The VERTICAL section features all controls for analog
channels, such as the position
control knob 18 , the XY and
component test mode (UTIL
menu) 19 , the vertical gain adjustment knob 20 , the advanced menu options key 21 , the
channel select keys 22 to 23
and selection key for the optional logic probe R&SHO3508
24 . You can also access the
MATH key, reference and BUS
signal settings key here 27 .
Section C :
The TRIGGER section includes
all options to set the trigger
level 28 , to switch between
Auto and Normal mode 29 ,
to set the trigger type 31 , the
source 32 , the single trigger
33 , to switch the trigger slope
35 and to set the trigger signal
filters 36 . Additionally, you
can find status indicators, and
you can see if a signal fulfills
the trigger conditions 30 and
which slope is used 34 .
D
Section D :
In the HORIZONTAL section,
37
users can shift the trigger po41
38
sition horizontally or set and
navigate markers manually,
37
42
either step-by-step with the
39
keys 37 38 39 or alternatively
by using the smaller one of
the knobs 41 . In the menu,
43
you can also set search criteria for events. The illuminated
40
key 39 allows the selection
44
of the Run and Stop mode.
When the stop mode is seFig. 2.3: Control panels of
lected, the key will light up
sections B, C and D
in red. 40 activates the zoom
option, 44 selects the acquisition modes, 43 adjusts the
time base speed and 42 enables access to the time base
menus. To the left of the control panel, you also find the
soft menu keys 2 to control the menu options.
2.3Screen
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series is equipped with a 6.5” (16.51 cm) TFT color monitor with LED
backlight and VGA resolution (640x480 pixels). In the
default setting (no menus shown), the screen includes
12 scale divisions on the time axis. If menus are shown,
this will be reduced to 10 divisions. Small arrows on the
left of the display indicate the reference potentials of the
channels. The line above the graticule includes status and
settings information such as time base, trigger delay and
other trigger conditions, the current sampling rate and
the acquisition mode. The short menu to the right of the
graticule contains the most important settings of the currently active channel. You may select these settings using
the soft menu keys. Measurement results for automated
measurements and cursors, settings for the activated
vertical channels, reference signals and mathematically derived curves are shown in the lower section of the screen.
Within the graticule, signals of the selected channels are
displayed. By default, 8 scale divisions are shown. This
can be extended virtually to 20 divisions which can be displayed using the Scroll/Bar 5 key.
2.4 General Operating Concept
The general operating concept is based on a few key principals, recurring with various settings and functions:
❙❙ Keys that do not open a soft menu (e.g. SCROLL BAR)
activate a specific function; pressing this key a second
time will deactivate this function.
❙❙ Keys that open a soft menu when pressed once will close
the soft menu when pressed a second time.
❙❙ Depending on the requirements, the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU section is designed to either select a
numeric value or to navigate through submenus.
❙❙ The MENU OFF key below the soft menu keys closes the
current menu or switches to the next higher level.
❙❙ Pressing the appropriate key will activate a deactivated
channel. If a channel was already activated, selecting
another channel will change operation to the channel
whose key was pressed (its LED lights up).
❙❙ If cursor measurements are activated, the COARSE/FINE
key will select the cursor with the activated universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section. This key is used to
select or confirm input in all menus for alphanumerical
input and for the file manager.
The soft menus include some frequently used navigation
elements as described below. You can select the respective element by pressing the corresponding soft menu
key, and the element will be marked in blue. Alternatively,
you can press the soft menu key to toggle between function options. For functions that need to be activated and
require value selections, you may toggle between OFF
and the set value (e.g. TIME OFFSET function). The round
arrow in the menu window indicates that the value is to be
set by means of the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel. If the respective function includes an additional menu level, it will be indicated by a small triangle on
the bottom right of a menu item. If additional menu pages
are available, you can navigate these on the same level by
using the last menu item. It includes the number of menu
pages on this level as well as the current page number.
You can advance to the next page by pressing the appropriate soft menu key. Once the last page was listed, the
display will loop back to the first page.
9
Introduction
2.5 Basic Settings and Integrated Help
You can access important basic settings such as language
for user interface and help, general settings and interface
settings in the menu that opens when you press the SETUP key in the GENERAL section. On the first page of the
menu for the basic settings you can select the language
for user interface and help. The menu item INTERFACE
activates the menus to perform the interface configuration
(USB or Ethernet). The menu item PRINTER includes settings for POSTSCRIPT and PCL compatible printers. When
pushing this soft menu key, a submenu opens allowing the
user to select the paper format and color mode. Using the
assigned soft menu key, the top menu item PAPER FORMAT allows you to choose from A4, A5, B5, B6, Executive,
Letter and Legal in either portrait or landscape format. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select
the appropriate format. Following the same setup procedure, the menu item COLOR MODE allows you to choose
between Grayscale, Color and Inverted. The Grayscale
mode converts the color image to a grayscale image which
can be printed on a black-and-white postscript printer.
The Color mode prints the image in color as shown on the
screen (black background). The INVERTED mode prints the
color image with a white background on a color printer thus
saving toner and ink.
The menu item DEVICE INFORMATION opens a window
with detailed information on hardware and software of the
measuring instrument. The soft menu key DEVICE NAME
allows you to define a name with up to 19 characters which
will be listed when screenshots are printed. The soft menu
MENU allows you to select whether soft menus are to be
closed manually or automatically after 4-30 s. Use the soft
menu key LOGO IN SCREENSHOT to determine whether
the R&S logo displays on the top right corner of printouts or
not.
The soft menu UPDATE for the instrument and help update
and LICENCES to upgrade software options will be described in detail in the following chapters. The soft menu DATE
& TIME is used to set the date and time. The soft menu
SOUND is used to set the sound options. You can activate a
sound as beeping during setup, in the event of an error and
for the triggers.
The integrated help can be activated by pushing the HELP
key in the GENERAL section. This opens a window with explanatory text. The text in the help window is dynamically
updated with descriptions of the corresponding setting or
function. If you no longer require help, push the HELP key
to close the HELP option. This will turn the LED indicator
for the key off and the text window for the help will close.
the data to the base directory of a USB stick. Then connect
the USB stick with the USB port of the oscilloscope and
press the SETUP key in the GENERAL section of the control panel. The menu item UPDATE can be found on page
2|2. Selecting this menu item opens a window displaying
version number, date and build information of the currently
installed firmware. Pressing the soft menu key UPDATE
the instrument firmware will result in a search for the corresponding file on the USB stick. The information for the
new firmware to be installed will then be displayed on the
stick below the row labeled NEW:. The version number
will be displayed in red in case the existing firmware on the
instrument is identical to the latest version; otherwise the
version number will be shown in green. Only if this is the
case, press the soft menu EXECUTE to start the update.
2.7 Options / Voucher
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series includes
options which allow you to expand the range of application
for the instrument (such as bandwidth upgrade or bus
analysis functions). At this time, the options R&S®HOO10/
HOO11/HOO12 resp. R&S®HOO512/HOO712/HOO572 are
available for the R&S®HMO1002 series and the options
R&S®HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 resp. R&S®HOO312/HOO313/
HOO323 are available for the R&S®HMO1202 series. The
bandwidth options R&S®HOO572, R&S®HOO512 and
R&S®HOO712, R&S®HOO312, R&S®HOO313 and
R&S®HOO323 resp. the bus analysis functions
R&S®HOO10, R&S®HOO11 and R&S®HOO12 can be
purchased ex factory with the R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 series. The bandwidth upgrade vouchers
Bandwidth Upgrades R&S®HMO1002 Series
Description
Optionen-Code
Voucher-Code
Bandwidth upgrade 50 MHz to 70 MHz
R&S®HOO572
R&S®HV572
Bandwidth upgrade 50 MHz to 100 MHz
R&S®HOO512
R&S®HV512
Bandwidth upgrade 70 MHz to 100 MHz
R&S®HOO712
R&S®HV712
Bandwidth Upgrades R&S®HMO1202 Series
Description
Optionen-Code
Voucher-Code
Bandwidth upgrade 100 MHz to 200 MHz R&S®HOO312
R&S®HV312
Bandwidth upgrade 100 MHz to 300 MHz R&S®HOO313
R&S®HV313
Bandwidth upgrade 200 MHz to 300 MHz R&S®HOO323
R&S®HV323
Bus Analysis Options
Description
Optionen-Code
Voucher-Code
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on analog and
digital channels
R&S®HOO10
R&S®HV110
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on all analog
channels
R&S®HOO11
R&S®HV111
CAN und LIN on analog and digital
channels (only R&S®HMO1002,
R&S®HMO1202)
R&S®HOO12
R&S®HV112
Tab. 2.1: Overview R&S®HMO1002/1202 Options / Voucher
2.6 Instrument Firmware Update
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series is constantly being advanced. You can download the current
firmware at www.rohde-schwarz.com. The firmware is
packed in a ZIP file. After downloading the ZIP file, unpack
10
1) o nly when ordering with a R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202
2) A
ctivation of R&S®HMO1002/HMO1202 options via upgrade voucher
R&S®HV572, R&S®HV512, R&S®HV712, R&S®HV312,
R&S®HV313 and R&S®HV323 and the bus analysis upgrade
Introduction
vouchers R&S®HV110, R&S®HV111 and R&S®HV112 allow
for an upgrade at a later date via licence key. The installed
options and vouchers can be verified under DEVICE
INFORMATION in the SETUP menu.
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section and the
ENTER key to enter the licence key manually. After
entering the complete key, press the soft menu key
ACCEPT to confirm the entry. The option will be activated
after restarting the instrument.
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series is prepared for mixed-signal operation and have the appropriate
connectors on the front panel. Connecting an 8-channel
logic probe R&S®HO3508 equips the scope with 8 logic
channels.
2.8 Self Alignment
The instrument must have reached the required operating temperature (switched on for at least 20 minutes) and all inputs must
be unused, in other words all cables and probes must be removed
from the inputs.
Fig. 2.4: UPGRADE menu
Once you have entered the voucher code on the
homepage http://voucher.hameg.com, the licence key will
be generated („SERIAL NUMBER.hlk“). The ASCII file may
be opened with an editor. This allows you to read the
actual key in plain text. You can choose between two
methods to enable the desired option with this key: an
automated reading or manual input. The automated
reading via USB stick is the fastest and easiest method.
Store the licence file on a USB stick and then install it to
the instrument using the FRONT USB port. Press the
SETUP key in the GENERAL section of the HMO control
panel to open the SETUP menu. You will find the
LICENCES menu on page 2|2. Press the soft menu key
READ KEYS from licence file to open the file manager.
Select the required licence file with the universal knob in
the CURSOR/MENU section and then use the soft menu
key LOAD to load it. This will load the licence key, making
the option instantly available by restarting the instrument.
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
an integrated self alignment procedure to achieve the
highest possible accuracy. During the standard self alignment the instrument adjusts vertical accuracy, offset, time
base and several trigger settings and saves the identified
correction data internally. To start the self alignment in the
SETUP menu, press the soft menu key SELF ALIGNMENT
and press the START key. The procedure will run for about
5-10 minutes. Each step and its corresponding progress
will be shown in a bar display.
Alternatively, you can enter the licence key manually.
Select the menu UPGRADE and press the soft menu key
INPUT KEY manually. This will open an input window. Use
Fig. 2.6: Self alignment successful
If an error occurs during the self alignment although it has been
carried out as described, please send the exported .log file (see
Self Alignment menu) to [email protected]
You can save the .log file to a USB stick.
Fig. 2.5: Manual input of the license key
2.8.1 Logic Probe Self Alignment
The self alignment for the optional logic probe
R&S®HO3508 primarily aligns the switching levels. To start
the self alignment for the logic probe, it is necessary that
the logic probe type R&S®HO3508 is connected to the
R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series. It is imperative that the bit connectors are not connected. To start the
11
Introduction
process, select the menu item LOGIC PROBE in the SELF
ALIGNMENT soft menu. The process is similar to the basic
instrument alignment but it only takes a few seconds.
message will display on the screen. In addition, the home
screen, the instrument information and a screenshot will
indicate that the education mode has been activated. To
deactivate this mode, press the soft menu key EDUCATION MODE again, and the blue marking will disappear.
2.10 Back Panel of the Instrument
On the back panel of the instrument, you will find the
Ethernet/USB interface which is permanently installed in
the instrument. Optional interfaces are not available.
Fig. 2.7: Self alignment logic probe
2.9 Education Mode
The education mode allows you to deactivate the AUTOSET, QUICK VIEW and Auto measuring functions. When
this mode is activated (function is marked in blue), a
12
Fig. 2.8: Back panel
Quick Start Guide
3 Quick Start Guide
DC. Briefly press the AUTOSET key once 15 .
The following chapter is an introduction to the most important R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
and settings allowing you to use the instrument promptly.
The integrated calibrator signal output is used as the signal
source which means that the first steps will not require any
additional instruments.
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on
A
3
4
6
7 9
10 12
13 15
16
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling
Fig. 3.1:
Control
5
8
11
14
17
panel of
After a few seconds, the oscilloscope will have automatically selected the sensitivity, time base and trigger settings. A
square wave signal will now be shown.
section A
To optimally set up the instrument, position the handle so
that the display will be inclined slightly upwards. Plug the
power cord into the rear panel conn 1 on the front panel.
The display appears after a few seconds, and the oscilloscope is ready for operation. Press the AUTOSET key 15
until a beep. This will reset the most important oscilloscope settings to their default settings.
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture
Make sure to align the passive probes prior to their first use. For
more information, please refer to the probe manual. Place the
probe in the appropriate position on the ADJ. output.
Take one of the provided probes and remove the protective
cap from the tip. Apply the probe compensation box to the
BNC connector for channel 1 and turn it to the right until it latches into place. On the right hand side of the screen, you will
see the short menu for channel 1. Press the soft menu key to
the right of each menu item to select frequently used settings.
Press the top soft menu key to change the input coupling to
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
3.3 Display of signal details
With the time base knob
D
43 you can change the displayed time window. Turning
37
it CCW increases the time
41
38
base. Continue to turn the
knob CCW until you can read
37
42
“TB:5ms” in the upper left
39
corner of the screen. Press
the ZOOM key 40 . You will
see the two window display:
43
The upper section of the
window displays the entire
40
captured signal whereas
44
the lower section shows an
enlarged section. Use the
Fig. 3.5: Section D of the
time base knob to select the
control panel with zoom key
zoom factor. The small knob
allows you to determine the horizontal position of the section. Press the ZOOM key 40 again to deactivate the zoom
mode.
13
Quick Start Guide
❙❙ amplitude, number of rising edges,
❙❙ pos. pulse width, neg. pulse width,
❙❙ pos. duty cycle, neg. duty cycle.
Fig. 3.6: ZOOM function
3.4 Cursor Measurements
After displaying and reviewing the signal, the next step
will introduce cursor measurements of the signal. Again,
briefly press the AUTOSET key once followed by the
CURSOR/MEASURE key. You can now select the desired
type of measurement cursor from the menu. Press the
soft menu key MEASURE TYPE to open the appropriate selection menu. You can specify your selection with
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section of the
control panel. Turn the knob CCW until the entry V MARKER is marked in blue. Press the MENU OFF key to close
the menu or wait until it automatically closes after a few
seconds. Now two cursors will be shown along the signal
as well as the measurement results on the bottom of the
display. Press the universal knob to select the active cursor
and turn the universal knob to position the cursor. The
cursor measurement results will be shown on the bottom
of the display. In this example with the entry “V marker”,
the display includes the voltage at both cursor positions,
their difference, and the time difference between the cursor positions. To switch off the cursor, press the CURSOR
MEASURE key again.
3.5 Automatic Measurements
In addition to cursor measurements the most important
signal parameters can be displayed. Your oscilloscope offers these possibilities:
❙❙ Display definition of 6 parameters from varying sources
❙❙ Quick display of all important parameters of one source
by use of the QUICK VIEW feature
Please change the time base to 100 µs per scale division
and press the QuickView 10 key. You will see the most important parameters of a signal displayed:
❙❙ positive and negative peak voltages
❙❙ rise and fall times
❙❙ mean voltage
10 additional parameters are shown below the grid:
❙❙ RMS, peak-peak voltage,
❙❙ frequency, period,
14
Fig. 3.7: Quick View parameter measurement
With just one key, you can view all available parameters
simultaneously that characterize the signal. This feature
always applies to the currently active display channel. You
may also display parameters for several signals. For this
option, press the Quickview 10 key twice to deactivate this
mode, press the CH2 key 23 to activate CH2 and press the
AUTO MEASURE 11 key to open the menu as displayed
below. Pressing the MEAS. PLACE soft key will display a
list. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to choose the appropriate measurement place. The parameters will be displayed at the bottom of the screen. This
menu allows you to define the parameters.
Fig. 3.8: Selection of parameters
Press the CH2 key in the VERTICAL section. This will
activate CH2. Press the AUTOMEASURE key to return to
the definition menu. Select Measurement Place 1, select
MEAN as measurement type and CH1 as source. Press the
MEAS. PLACE soft menu key on top to select the second
measurement place. Define the measurement place as before as RMS value with the voltage of CH2. Once the menu
is closed, parameters can be easily identified by the colors
of the respective source signal (in this instance, yellow for
channel 1 and blue for channel 2).
Quick Start Guide
3.6 Mathematical functions
In addition to cursor and automatic measurements, the
R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series can also apply mathematical operations to the signals. Pressing the
MATH 26 key opens a menu enabling you to apply addition, subtraction, multiplication or division to two analog
channels. This also displays the mathematical graph. The
top soft menu key allows you to select the first operand.
With the key below, you can select the operator. The soft
menu key below that allows you to select the second operand. Only activated and displayed channels are available
for the operands. The sources selected in the function
must be activated so that the mathematical graph can be
calculated and the result signals can be displayed.
Press the soft menu key ACCEPT. The oscilloscope accepts
the name and returns to the settings menu. Here you can
store the current image by pressing the soft menu key SAVE.
Alternatively, you can move up one level in the menu by
using the OFF key on the bottom and select the menu item
FILE/PRINT. In the following menu press the soft menu key
SCREENSHOTS. This will assign the function Screenshot to
the FILE/PRINT 17 key with the selected settings. This enables you to generate a screenshot on your USB stick by pressing the FILE/PRINT key at any given time using any menu.
3.7 Storing data
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series is able to
store 4 different types of data:
❙❙ Device settings
❙❙ Reference signals
❙❙ Traces
❙❙ Screenshots
Out of these data types, signals and screen displays can only
be stored on a USB stick. All other data types can be stored
on a USB stick or internally in the instrument to non-volatile
storage media. To store data you have to define the data
type and the destination to be used for storing. First attach
a USB stick to the front USB connector of your oscilloscope.
Press the Save/Recall 12 key to open the respective menu.
Select the type of data you wish to store by pressing the respective soft menu key (in this example SCREENSHOTS). This
will open the settings menu. In the top menu make sure that
Storage Front is selected. Press the soft menu key to open
the menu where you can select these settings. It is important to connect a USB stick with the front USB connector of
your oscilloscope which must be recognized by your instrument. Pressing the soft menu key SAVE allows you to save a
screenshot using the default file name (the current file name
is displayed in the menu item FILE NAME). You can also select a name for the target file with up to 8 characters. Select
the menu item FILE NAME and use the universal knob to
enter the name (in this example “TRC”).
Fig. 3.10: Screenshot menu
Fig. 3.9: Save/Recall menu
15
Vertical System
4 Vertical System
You can select vertical settings using knobs for the
vertical position and the
22
sensitivity. You may also use
18
a menu that is permanently
23
displayed as well as an ad19
vanced menu. You can select
24
for which channel you want
the settings to be activated
25
by pressing the respective
20
channel key. Once a channel
26
has been activated, the key
21
will be marked by a colored
27
LED light. Additionally, the
screen display will include a
Fig. 4.1: Control panel for the
frame around the activated
vertical system
channel with a frame and a
color brighter than that of deactivated channels. The corresponding short menu is always visible and you can push
the Menu 21 key to activate the advanced menu.
B
Fig. 4.1: Short menu for vertical settings
4.1Coupling
The analog channels have an input impedance of 1 MΩ or
50Ω with the R&S®HMO1202 series. The R&S®HMO1002
series have only an input impedance of 1 MΩ.
.
Do not connect the 50 Ω inputs to effective voltage higher than 5V.
The 50 Ω input impedance should only be selected if the
signal source is 50 Ω, e.g. a generator with a 50 Ω output
where the termination within the scope is to be used. In
all other cases 1 MΩ is to be selected. The user determines if DC coupling or AC coupling is to be used. With DC
coupling, the DC voltage of the signal will be displayed.
With AC coupling, an input filter of 2 Hz suppresses the
display of DC voltage. Signals of up to 200 V (peak value)
may be connected directly to 1 MΩ inputs. Higher voltages
can be measured with external probes (up to 40 kV peak
voltage). This should only be used with DC coupling. For
all general applications, the probes supplied with the ins16
trument will be used. With the R&S®HMO1002 series the
HZ154 probe is included in delivery which offers 10:1 /
1:1 switchable attenuation. The attenuation setting has to
be set manually in the channel menu. The R&S®HMO1202
series is delivered with the RT-ZP03 probe.
You can set the coupling using the short menu or channel
menu. Simply press the respective soft menu key to set
the coupling and the graphic inversion of the input channel. The menu applies to the corresponding active channel.
The illuminated channel key indicates which channel is
active. You can switch between channels by pressing the
respective channel key.
4.2 Sensitivity, Y Positioning and Offset
You can select the sensitivity of the analog inputs by using
the knob in the VERTICAL section (VOLTS/DIV) in 1-2-5
steps of 1mV/div to 10V/div. The knob is associated with
the active channel (push the respective channel key to
activate the desired channel). Pushing the knob once will
switch to a continuous sensitivity setting. You can use
the smaller knob in the VERTICAL section (POSITION) to
determine vertical settings for the active channel. Press
the MENU key to access advanced options. On page 2|2 of
this menu, you can add a DESKEW. To activate this offset
push the corresponding soft menu key. You can set the
offset value using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key
in the CURSOR/MENU section. Each analog channel may
be shifted in time by ±32 ns. This deskew setting is used
to compensate different signal delays when using different
cable lengths or probes.
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
Both the short menu and the advanced menu enable you
to insert an analog 20 MHz low pass filter to the signal
path. This will eliminate all higher frequency interference.
To activate the filter in the short menu, press the respective soft menu key BWL. In the advanced channel MENU
the bandwidth limit will be set with the soft menu key
BANDWIDTH. Once the filter is activated, the menu item
will be marked in blue, and the identifier BW will be displayed in the channel information window. Signal inversion
is available in the short menu and the advanced menu in
the VERTICAL section. An activated filter will be indicated
in blue in the menu and by a bar above the channel name
in the channel name window.
4.4 Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere)
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series does not
includes an integrated probe attenuation detection. You
can manually set the attenuation factor in the advanced
MENU in the VERTICAL section. This is possible with the
predefined steps x1, x10, x100, x1000 or, using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key, as defined by the user from
x0.001 to x1000. In this menu, you can also select the unit
Ampere in case you are using a current probe. If you select
the unit Ampere (A), the menu shows the most common
factors (1V/A, 100mV/A, 10mV/A, 1mV/A). You may also
Vertical System
use the USER setting to select any given value. You can set
the value using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key in
the CURSOR/MENU section. This setting may also be used
to measure the voltage via shunt. All measurements are
always displayed with the correct unit and scale.
4.4.1 Probe Compensation
Make sure to align passive probes prior to their first use, after an
extended measurement break, or when switching instruments or
channels.
You can perform the probe compensation via compensation wizard or manually. To open the wizard, press the
SETUP key in the GENERAL section, and then press the
soft menu key PROBE COMP. This compensation wizard
will guide you through all the important points of the probe
compensation. After connecting a probe, you can select
the respective analog channel via soft menu key CHANNEL 1 (CH1) or CHANNEL 2 (CH2). The enclosed probe
stylus allows you to set the probe trimmers to an optimal
square wave shape.
this range and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger
event occurs. With FIND LEVEL will automatically analyze
the signal and find an approriate level.
4.6 Naming a Channel
The last entry NAME in the VERTICAL menu opens a
submenu which allows you to enter a channel name. This
name will be displayed on the grid and the printout. Your
first option is to switch the display on (ON) or off (OFF).
The next option includes the menu item LIBRARY. After
selecting this option, you can use the universal knob to
choose a name from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows you to enter a completely new name or
to customize the suggested name. You may enter up to 8
characters. Use the ACCEPT key to confirm the name in
the editor. It will then be shown in the display. The name
is assigned to that specific signal and will move alongside
any set offset value.
Fig. 4.3: Name selection
Fig. 4.2: Probe compensation wizard
The compensation is performed at 1 kHz (LF) and 1 MHz
(HF). Use the soft menu FULL SCREEN to hide the wizard
help entries. Select NEXT STEP to toggle the wizard into
the 1MHz HF compensation. If multiple probes are connected, you can switch the channel via soft menu key
NEXT CHANNEL. Use the EXIT option to exit the wizard
after a successful probe compensation. If you would like to
perform a manual compensation without the compensation wizard, choose the UTIL menu in the Vertical control
panel, then select the soft menu key PATTERN GEN. in the
soft menu SQUARE WAVE (see chapter 10.2.1).
4.5 Threshold Setting
On page 2|2 in the advanced MENU in the VERTICAL
section you can set a THRESHOLD. This threshold defines
the level to detect a High or a Low if analog channels are
used as source for the serial bus analysis or logic trigger. After selecting this soft menu item, you can set the
threshold using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key.
With the soft menu key HYSTERESIS a range around the
trigger threshold level can be set. If the signal jitters inside
17
Horizontal System
5 Horizontal System
D
37
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the
horizontal system
In the HORIZONTAL system
section, users can select time
base settings for capturing,
trigger time position, zoom
functions, acquisition modes,
marker functions and search
functions. Knobs allow you to
set time base and trigger time
position. A menu enables you
to select the desired acquisition mode. A separate key is
available to activate the zoom.
37
Use the arrow keys
and the SET/CLR key to select
marker functions.
5.1 Acquisition modes RUN and STOP
The acquisition mode can be selected with the RUN/
STOP key 39 In Run mode signals are shown on the screen
according to the selected trigger conditions, discarding
previously captured signals with each new capture. If you
wish to analyze a captured signal on the screen without
overwriting it, capture must be stopped by pressing the
RUN/STOP key. While in STOP mode, you may not capture
new signals and the key is illuminated in red.
5.2 Time Base Settings
The TIME/DIV knob in the HORIZONTAL section of the
control panel is used to change the time base. The current
time base setting (e.g.”TB: 500 ns”) is displayed in the upper right above the graticule. To the right of the display you
can see the trigger time position in relation to the default
setting. The default setting shows the trigger time position
in the center of the display, with 50% of the signal display
before and 50% after this trigger position. The X-POSITION
knob 41 allows continuous adjustment of the x position.
The maximum values allowed depend on the time base
setting.
Pushing the SET/CLR key resets the value to its reference
position as long as the marker or search functions have not
37 allow you to change
been applied. The arrow keys
the X position by a fixed amount of 5 divisions in the
respective direction. The MENU 42 key opens a menu to
37 and the
determine the function for the arrow keys
SET/CLR key. As described above, these keys allow you to
set the X position. Alternatively, you can use them to mark
events within the signal with the option to navigate between up to 8 markers. In the submenu NUMERIC INPUT
you can enter any horizontal position directly. This menu
also allows you to activate and set search functions. You
can also set the TIME REFERENCE (position for the trigger
reference point, from -6 divisions to +6 divisions with 0
being the center and default setting).
18
5.3 Acquisition modes
The acquisition modes are selected by pressing the ACQUIRE 44 key. This opens a display menu which offers the
following acquisition modes:
5.3.1 Roll
This acquisition mode is intended specifically for very
slow signals, with the untriggered signal „rolling“ across
the screen from right to left (requires signals slower than
200 kHz). The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series
uses a ring buffer to store the signal values in roll mode.
Simply put, the instrument writes the first division to the
first storage space, the second division to the second
storage space, etc. Once the storage is full, the instrument
overwrites the first storage space with the data of the
most recent measurement value. This creates a „ring“ or
cycle run, similar to a ticker.
The ZOOM feature is not available in the roll mode (also refer to
Chap. 5.5 ZOOM Function)
5.3.2 Arithmetic
The soft menu ARITHMETIC offers following menu items:
❙❙ REFRESH:
This mode allows the capture and display of current
signals.
❙❙ ENVELOPE:
In this mode, the display includes the normal capture of
each signal and the maximum as well as the minimum
values of each capture. Over time, this creates an
envelope surrounding the signal.
❙❙ AVERAGE:
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the
Cursor/Menu section of the control panel to set the
number of signal periods for averaging, available in
powers of 2 from 2 to 1024 (requires repetitive signals).
❙❙ SMOOTH:
The function SMOOTH is used to calculate the mean
value from several adjacent sampling points. The result is
a smooth waveform. This function is used for non-periodic signals.
❙❙ FILTER:
In this mode, you can activate a low pass filter with
adjustable cut off frequency to suppress unwanted high
frequency interferences. The cut off frequency can be set
based on the sampling frequency. The minimum setting is
1/100 of the sampling frequency and the maximum value
is 1/4 of the sampling rate. You can select this setting with
the universal knob.
5.3.3 Peak Detect
This mode is used for very large time base settings to
detect even short signal changes. You can also deactivate
this function within the menu (OFF) or you can select the
automatic switching mode (AUTO). The following conditions must be met to activate the PEAK DETECT mode:
❙❙ Function HIGH RESOLUTION is deactivated
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
Horizontal System
During peak detection, the oscilloscope distinguishes between two types:
❙❙ Acquisition peak detection:
Each A/D converter converts at the full sampling rate (no
Interlace mode), even if results have not been written to
the acquisition memory at full sampling rate (for slow time
bases, for instance). If peak detection is activated, unused
converter values will be evaluated to detect minimum and
maximum amplitudes. During this process, the identified
minimum and maximum values including sampling
interval are written to the acquisition memory. As a result,
the acquisition memory stores data pairs representing the
signal sequence according to the sampling interval. The
smallest detectable pulse is the period of the maximum
sampling rate (no Interlace mode). This describes the
so-called acquisition peak detection.
❙❙ Memory peak detection:
A hardware peak detection is not available if data is
written to the acquisition memory at the ADC‘s maximum
sample rate. For slow time bases and the record mode is
set to AUTOMATIC or MA.WFM.RATE, not all data from
the acquisition memory will display on the screen. With
peak detection activated when reading out, skipped data
will be used to create a minimum and maximum value.
The smallest detectable pulse is the period of the sample
rate used to write to the acquisition memory. This
describes the so-called memory peak detection.
If one of the peak detection modes or a combination of
the two are used, the corresponding detection mode is
marked with „PD“ in the upper right of the display.
5.3.4 High Resolution
This mode uses Boxcar Averaging via adjacent detection
points (i.e. the converter runs at the maximum sampling
rate) to increase the vertical resolution to up to 16 bit. You
can deactivate this function within the menu (OFF) or you
can select the automatic switching mode (AUTO).
5.3.5 Interpolation
With the soft menu item INTERPOLATION users can select Sinx/x, Linear or Sample-Hold as interpolation type to
display acquired data points. The default setting is Sinx/x
interpolation which is the best option for displaying analog
signals. Linear interpolation (LINEAR) uses a line to connect acquired data points. SAMPLE-HOLD allows a more
precise assessment of the position for the acquired data
points.
5.3.6 Record Mode
This soft menu item provides the following functions:
5.3.6.1 MAX. WFM.-RATE
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and
sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and
sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
When using the MAX. WAVEFORM RATE mode, the oscilloscope is set to display the maximum amount of captures
per second in the signal window. Each column in the signal
window displays a captured date. When peak detection is
activated, each column displays a pair of min/max values.
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series displays
a signal window of 600x400 pixels (Yt without zoom). This
translates into 600 data points per detection. When peak
detection is activated, 600 pairs of min/max values or 1,200
data values are displayed. The memory depth corresponds
to at least the displayed time window (time base x signal
window grid section in horizontal direction) multiplied by
the current sampling rate. The minimum value is determined by the maximum sampling rate and the maximum
signal repeat rate of the oscilloscope. The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided
by the amount of data skipped while reading out from the
acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling
rate.
Averaging several adjacent sampling rates creates a value
with a higher degree of accuracy than the input data. The
resulting data is called high resolution data. The process
of merging multiple sampling rates to one new value only
allows a sampling rate that is smaller than the maximum
value. If the HIGH RESOLUTION mode is activated and
the current instrument setting allows the use of the HIGH
RESOLUTION mode, the detection mode is marked with
„HR“ in the upper right of the display.
The following requirements must be met to activate the
HIGH RESOLUTION mode:
❙❙ Sampling rate is smaller than the maximum sampling rate
(no Interlace mode)
❙❙ Peak detection is deactivated
❙❙ No active logic pod
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
By default, all functions listed above are deactivated.
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate
5.3.6.2 MAX. SA. RATE
If this function is activated, the instrument always sets
the maximum sampling rate while using the maximum
memory available. The MAX. SAMPLE RATE function
always uses the maximum sampling rate and displays
19
Horizontal System
The entire oscilloscope memory can only be read out in STOP
mode if the maximum sampling rate has been activated.
the maximum amount of data. Each column in the signal
window displays up to 40 detected data values (limited
by processor performance). How much data is currently
displayed depends on the displayed time window and the
current sampling rate. If peak detection is activated, each
column displays up to 20 pairs of min/max values. The
memory depth always corresponds to the maximum acquisition memory. The displayed sampling rate is identical
with the current sampling rate. Peak detection is used if
the displayed time window contains more data than 40 *
signal window columns in the acquisition memory or min/
max data in the acquisition memory.
memory). The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the
current sampling rate divided by the amount of data skipped while loading from the acquisition memory. If peak
detection is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate.
Fig. 5.4: Example figure of AM modulated signal with automatic setting
Fig. 5.3: Example figure of AM modulated signal with max. sampling rate
5.3.6.3 AUTOMATIK
This function is the default setting and offers the best
compromise between maximum repeat rate and maximum
sampling rate (selection of memory depth). Each column
in the signal window displays up to 10 captured data values. How much data is currently displayed depends on
the displayed time window and the current sampling rate.
When peak detection is activated, each column displays
up to 5 pairs of min/max values. The memory depth is at
least twice as much as the storage capacity set for the
maximum repeat rate (limited by the maximum acquisition
All settings apply the identical current sampling rate
(sampling rate used to write to the acquisition memory).
In STOP mode it is also possible to change menu items.
This does not impact the current memory depth but the
amount of displayed data will be adjusted. Peak detection
is also activated in STOP mode (time base in microseconds). In time bases displaying each sampling point, all
three settings behave identically (except used memory
depth and signal update rate). Table 5.1 displays advantages and disadvantages of each setting. Finally, it needs
to be mentioned that this menu replaces the adjustable
memory depth, a standard for other manufacturers. An
adjustable memory depth is intended to allow users to
understand the relation between memory depth, time
base and sampling rate and to evaluate advantages and
disadvantages. With this option, the oscilloscope always
captures signals with the maximum sampling rate. This allows users in STOP mode to zoom in retrospectively, even
at the maximum repeat rate. It is also possible to zoom out
at the maximum repeat rate if the STOP mode was run at
fast time bases. If a high repeat rate can only be attained
Setting
Advantages
Disadvantages
Application
Maximum waveform rate:
ıı Many captures in one image
ıı Rare events can be detected more
quickly in connection with persistence
ıı Quick response to Operation or
change in signal
ıı Low noise band
ıı High aliasing risk
ıı Low accuracy of details
ıı Low accuracy of measurements
due to reduced amount of data
ıı Search for rare events
ıı Displaying modulated signals
Maximum sample rate
ıı Maximum accuracy of details
ıı Lowest aliasing risk
ıı High accuracy of measurements
ıı Slow response to operation or
change in signal
ıı Low signal update rate
ıı Higher visibility of noise
ıı For signals with high frequency
parts
ıı Assessment of small signal
details
Automatikc:
ıı Average signal update rate
ıı Reasonably smooth operation
ıı Good accuracy of measurements
ıı Low noise band
ıı Possible aliasing
ıı Default application
Table 5.1: Advantages and disadvantages of each setting.
20
Horizontal System
by means of low memory depth (as is the case with other
manufacturers) it is nearly impossible to zoom in retrospectively in STOP mode.
5.4 Interlace Mode
In interlace mode, ADC and storage of two channels are
connected. This doubles the sampling rate and the acquisition memory. A channel is considered active even if it has
been deactivated while still serving as the trigger source. If
a channel is activated, the respective LED next to the input
connector is illuminated. The following conditions must be
met to activate the Interlace mode:
❙❙ No active logic pod
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
❙❙ Logic trigger not active
The interlace mode will be activated automatically.
5.5 ZOOM Function
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features a
memory depth of 1 MSa resp. 2MSa. This allows the user
to record long and complex signals which can be analyzed
in full detail with the Zoom function. To activate this feature, press the ZOOM key 40 . The screen will be divided
into two sections. The upper window displays the entire
time base window whereas the lower graticule shows an
enlarged section of the upper window. The enlarged signal
section is marked by two blue cursors in the original signal
(upper window). If several channels are activated in Zoom
mode, all displayed channels will be zoomed simultaneously by the same factor and at the identical position. Fig.
5.5 displays the Zoom window with 100 µs per division.
The signal was captured within a time window of 12ms.
The zoom area (lower grid) also displays the parameter for
zoom time base whereas time is displayed above the zoom
window. Z indicates the zoom time base (zoom factor)
and determines the width of the zoom area displayed in
the zoom window (10 divisions x scaling per division). Tz
indicates the zoom time and determines the position of the
zoom area.
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
The time base setting in the upper right of the display is
highlighted in gray while the zoom time base above the
zoom window is marked in white. The large knob in the
HORIZONTAL menu is used to change the zoom factor.
You can also press this knob. If the knob is pushed, the
time base setting is highlighted in white and the zoom time
base in gray. Now the knob is available to select the time
base setting. This allows you to change time base settings
without having to leave the zoom mode. Pressing the knob
again will highlight the cursors limiting the zoom area in
white, allowing you to use the knob to change the zoom
area. Now you can use the small knob in the horizontal
area of the control panel to move the position of the zoomed section across the entire signal. As described above,
pressing the large knob enables you to set the time base
but not the zoom factor. This in turn enables the small
knob to move the trigger position to define the relationship
of pre- and post captures/records.
The ZOOM function is not available in ROLL mode.
In the acquisition mode ROLL, it is generally not possible
to zoom in on the memory because the signal values of
the X axis are always captured with the maximum memory
depth. The acquisition mode NORMAL always includes
more samples in the memory than what can be shown in
the display. That explains why in this mode you are able
to zoom in on the memory. The same does not apply to
the values in the Y axis (amplitude). These values apply to
a specified axis and can therefore also be scaled in ROLL
mode.
5.6 Navigation Function
The X-POS. function (MENU key in the HORIZONTAL
section) offers easy trigger time handling and allows it
to be entered numerically. The soft menu keys allow you
to set the trigger time to the minimum or the maximum
value, for instance. You can use the soft menu key TIME
REFERENCE to define where in the signal window to find
the trigger point value “0”. The signal is scaled by this reference point. You can use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the desired setting.
5.7 Marker Function
Markers allow you to highlight specific positions on the
screen, e.g. a rising or falling slope, an unexpected signal
value or a search result. Markers can be used to identify
specific signal sections to zoom in on and to analyze the
data more closely. Use the soft menu to activate the marker function. Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL
section to open the soft menu. Use the universal knob in
the menu to select MARKER. Once this mode is activated,
you can press the SET/CLR key to set a time marker at the
6th time unit (the menu in the center of the grid must be
deactivated). The time markers are marked by a vertical
line in gray-blue. The knob X Position allows you to move
the signal including the set marker. After identifying an
important signal position and setting it to the center of the
screen using the position knob, you can set an additional
marker. This procedure allows you to mark up to 8 interesting positions within the signal. You can toggle between
37 . These keys
markers by pressing the arrow keys
21
Horizontal System
also allow you to center the markers in the middle of
the screen. This feature enables you to quickly compare
marked signal sections in ZOOM mode. To delete a marker,
center it in the middle of the screen and press the SET/CLR
key once again. You can also delete all time markers simultaneously in the marker soft menu. With the soft menu
key TRIGGER TIME TO ZERO the triger time can be set to
0 s. Additionally, CLEAR ALL MARKER removes all defined
time stamp markers.
6 Trigger System
Four keys are available to select one of the frequently used
trigger settings:
❙❙ TYPE: Selection of trigger
type Edge, Puls, Logic, Video
and Hold off time
❙❙ SLOPE: Type of slope
❙❙ SOURCE: Determines the
trigger source
❙❙ FILTER: Determines the
exact trigger conditions
Additional keys are available
to select the trigger modes (AUTO, NORMAL and
SINGLE).
Fig. 5.6: Marker in Zoom mode
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
Fig. 6.1: Control panel
for the trigger system
6.1 Trigger Modes Auto, Normal and Single
The AUTO/NORM 29 key allows you to toggle directly
between the basic trigger modes. If Auto mode is activated, the key is not illuminated. Pressing the key will activate
NORMAL mode, and a red LED will highlight the
key. In AUTO mode, the screen always displays a signal.
If a signal fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope
will synchronize with this event and triggers when the set
condition is met. In case of a signal that does not fulfill the
trigger condition (a simple case would be direct current),
the oscilloscope itself will generate a trigger event. This
allows a glance at the input signals at any time, regardless
of the trigger condition. In NORMAL mode, the signal will
now be captured and displayed if the trigger condition is
met. In case no new signal fulfills the set trigger condition,
the signal that was triggered last will be displayed. To
ensure that only a signal that meets the trigger condition
is detected and displayed, press the Single key to 33 activate this mode. This key is highlighted in white when
the SINGLE mode is activated. The R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 series detection and trigger system is now
activated, indicated by a blinking RUN/STOP key 39 . If the
trigger condition is fulfilled, the trigger system is activated,
data is stored and the oscilloscope switches to STOP mode
(the RUN/STOP key is permanently highlighted in red).
6.2 Trigger Source
The two analog channels are available as trigger sources
(SOURCE key). If the optional extension with active logic
probes R&S®HO3508 including 8 digital inputs is connected, up to 8 digital inputs are available as trigger source.
The soft menu key AC LINE enables you to trigger the
trigger at system frequency. The trigger signal is extracted
internally from the power supply.
6.3 Trigger type
The trigger type can be selected with the TYPE key 17 in
the TRIGGER section. A submenu will be opened.
22
Trigger System
6.3.1 Slope Trigger
The easiest and by far the most frequently used trigger
is the slope trigger. The oscilloscope triggers if slopes
that were set with the EDGE key occur within the signal
selected in the SOURCE menu. The signal slope has to
pass through the set trigger level. The trigger type EDGE
TRIGGER is selected in the Autosetup mode (AUTOSET
key). If, for instance, you select the pulse trigger and press
the AUTOSET key the setting will switch to Edge Trigger.
The TYPE key 31 in the TRIGGER section allows you to set
the trigger type. This opens a menu with corresponding
options. If the edge type is not active (highlighted in blue),
you can press the respective soft menu key to select this
type. The slope type (rising, falling or both) can be set
directly with the SLOPE 35 key. This will shift the setting
forward by one, i.e. from rising to falling slope, to both
slopes, and pressing the key yet one more time will trigger
another rising slope. The center of the status line on the
top of the display and the display above the SLOPE key 35
show which slope type has been selected.
Fig. 6.2: Filter settings of edge trigger
The FILTER 36 key allows you to select how to couple the
signal for the trigger circuit:
❙❙ AUTO LEVEL: Automatic filter setting (default setting).
❙❙ AC: The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency of 5 Hz which suppresses the
DC portion of the triggering signal. With a changing DC
portion, the trigger level remains at the set point in the AC
signal. The trigger type AUTO (AUTO/NORM key) includes
the Peak-Peak mode which sets limits for the trigger in the
AC signal. This setting means that the trigger condition
will be met for any applied signal without having to set the
level. For the trigger type NORM (AUTO/NORM key), the
Peak-Peak mode is deactivated, allowing the trigger level
to be moved past the peak values of the signal.
❙❙ DC: The trigger signal is coupled to the trigger circuit with
all signal portions (AC and DC voltage). This has no
impact on the triggering signal.
❙❙ HF: The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency (-3 dB) of 30 kHz and is
automatically limited when triggering the level with
normal trigger. This coupling type should only be applied
to very high frequency signals.
❙❙ LP (low pass): The trigger signal is coupled via low pass
with a maximum cut-off frequency of 5 kHz. This filter
removes high frequencies and is available with AC and
DC coupling.
❙❙ NR (noise reduction): A low pass filter with a maximum
cut-off frequency of 100 MHz will improve the noise
performance for the trigger amplifier. This filter removes
high frequencies and is available with AC and DC
coupling.
The coupling types low pass and noise reduction may not be activated simultaneously.
6.3.2 Pulse Trigger
The pulse trigger allows triggering for specific pulse widths
of positive or negative pulses or for pulse width ranges.
The oscilloscope triggers if a pulse occurs within the signal
selected in the SOURCE menu that matches the properties
set in the FILTER menu. If a pulse fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope triggers on the trailing slope, i.e.
for a positive pulse it triggers on the falling slope and for a
negative pulse on a rising slope.
Activate the pulse trigger by pressing the TYPE key 31 in
the TRIGGER section. Press the FILTER key 36 , then you
can select additional settings for the pulse trigger in the
soft menu. There are six different settings:
❙❙ ti > t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
greater than the adjustable reference time t.
❙❙ ti < t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
less than the adjustable reference time t.
❙❙ ti = t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger
equals the adjustable reference time t. The reference time
is a combination of time t plus the adjustable deviation.
❙❙ ti ≠ t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
unequal to the adjustable reference time t. The reference
time is a combination of time t plus the adjustable
deviation.
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger
is less than the adjustable reference time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the
trigger is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and
less than the adjustable reference time t1.
The comparison time can be set between 16 ns to 10s. For
any value up to 1 ms the resolution is 2 ns and for any value
greater than 1 ms the resolution is 1 µs. The deviation can
be set ±8 ns up to 657,5 µs with a resolution of 8 ns. The
time resp. the variation (tolerance zone) can be selected
via universal knob or KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU
section. Selecting the corresponding soft menu item allows you to set any of these settings for positively (POS.)
or negatively polarized pulses (NEG.). For the associated
positive pulse, you define the width from rising to falling
slopes, and accordingly for the associated negative pulse
from falling to rising slopes. As is consistent with the principle, triggering always occurs on the second slope of the
pulse.
23
Trigger System
6.3.3 Logic Trigger
You may test all settings in the logic trigger without any active
logic probes R&S®HO3508 connected.
Selecting the LOGIC trigger in the soft menu after pressing
the TYPE key 31 will switch the trigger source to the digital
inputs. Pressing the SOURCE key 32 after selecting this
trigger type displays a soft menu for additional settings
and a window to list these settings. The soft menu key
LOGIC CHANNEL enables you to select a logic channel for
which you wish to determine the trigger condition. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section for this
purpose. In the general menu, the selected digital input
is marked with a blue background. In the field, the trigger
level is marked as High (H), Low (L) or (X). Use the corresponding soft menu key to select the trigger level. The soft
menu item COMBINATION allows the logic combination of
the digital channels. They can be combined by logic AND
or OR. If AND is selected, the set conditions of all channels
must be met simultaneously for the input signal so that the
combination produces a logic High (H) as a result. If OR is
selected, at least one of the defined level conditions must
be met. The last item in this menu is the option TRIGGER
ON. Use the soft menu key to select TRUE or FALSE.
This allows you to preselect whether the trigger will be
generated at the beginning (TRUE) or the end of the logic
condition (FALSE).
❙❙ ti = t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is equal to the adjustable reference
time.
❙❙ ti < t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is less than the adjustable reference
time
❙❙ ti > t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is greater than the adjustable
reference time.
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger
is less than the adjustable referance time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the
trigger is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and
less than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ Timeout: Triggers if the combination is still valid after
time t. Time t defines the trigger time limit for the timeout.
Fig. 6.4: Logic channels’ settings display
Fig. 6.3: Logic trigger menu
After selecting the desired set of conditions, you can use
the FILTER key 36 for additional settings. A soft menu will
open allowing you to add a time limit to the TRIGGER ON
option (this menu shows the condition selected in the
SOURCE menu). Press the top soft menu key DURATION
to add a time limit. This option compares the duration of
the output signal for the combination of the logic conditions to the set duration ti. If the duration is identical or not
identical, you can set the deviation ∆t. If t is within these
parameters, the trigger condition has been met. The menu
field below allows the selection of the comparison criteria.
The following criteria are available:
❙❙ ti ≠ t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is unequal to the adjustable reference
time.
24
As with the pulse trigger, for ti ≠ t or ti = t you can set a reference time with the soft menu key TIME and the universal
knob. Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows you
to use the universal knob and KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/
MENU control panel to set the deviation ∆t which defines
the tolerance between set reference time t and valid and
real pulse width ti (permissible tolerance range). To change
the threshold values for the logic states “one” and “zero”,
it is necessary to use settings in the channel menu (MENU
key in the VERTICAL section). Select the POD 24 ). If logic
mode is already activated, the digital channels will be displayed in the channel display section of the display (framed
and marked with “POD:xxxV“). Pressing the MENU key 21
in the VERTICAL section allows you to activate one of five
predefined logic levels. Three of these are fixed for TTL,
CMOS and ECL. After pressing the respective menu item,
two customized logic levels may be set from –2 V to 8 V
(USER1 / USER2) with the universal knob or the KEYPAD
key in the CURSOR/MENU section. The soft menu key SET
TO DEFAULT POS. & SIZE activates the display for all digital
channels of the selected group by using default values for
the vertical position and size. You may also define the name
for the current signal by using the soft menu NAME. A library provides a list of predefined names. The name can be
activated, deactivated or edited.
Trigger System
6.3.4 Video Trigger
The video trigger allows you to trigger on PAL, NTSC
SECAM standard video signals or on HDTV signals. After
selecting the VIDEO trigger press the SOURCE 32 key. The
FILTER 36 menu allows you to define additional settings.
The oscilloscope triggers if the CVBS signal (Color Video
Baseband Signal) selected in the SOURCE menu features
the attributes set in the FILTER menu. Select the desired
standard by pressing the respective soft menu key STANDARD. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section or press the soft menu key again to select the desired
standard. The following modes are available:
❙❙ PAL
❙❙ NTSC
❙❙ SECAM
❙❙ PAL-M
❙❙ SDTV 576i Interlaced
❙❙ HDTV 720p Progressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080pProgressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080i Interlaced
Fig. 6.5: Video trigger menu
The second setting will apply to the polarity of the sync
pulse (may be positive or negative). With positive video
modulation (the highest brightness is represented in the
image by the maximum signal voltage), the synchronization pulses are negative, with negative modulation they
are positive. The slopes of the synchronization pulses are
used for triggering which explains why a faulty polarity
setting causes irregular triggering by image information.
Next you can select between frame triggering (FRAME)
and line triggering (LINE). Selecting LINE allows you to
define the exact line between 1 and 625 via universal knob
or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU section. The
soft menu item ALL LINES enables the oscilloscope to
trigger on the start of the lines in the video signal. This key
selects all lines i.e. even when other trigger conditions are
met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each line. If FRAME
is selected for frame triggering, the lower menu items will
allow to trigger on ODD or only EVEN half frames. In this
case, the oscilloscope will trigger on the start of the half
frames in the video signal. The respective key will select
the odd (even) half frames, i.e. even if the other trigger
conditions are met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each
odd (even) half frame.
6.3.5 Trigger Hold Off Time
The trigger hold off time indicates how long after a trigger
the oscilloscope waits until the trigger system is ready
again. The trigger system is active again only after the
trigger hold off time has expired. This allows the function
to guarantee stable triggering in case unwanted events are
triggered. Ideally, the hold off time is used to trigger on
periodic signals with several slopes.
Changing the time base does not impact the selected hold off
time.
HOLD OFF is a dual soft menu key. If the top section of the
soft menu key is active (highlighted in blue), a value can
be entered in the CURSOR/MENU section via universal
knob or numerically via KEYPAD button. You may enter
any value between 50 ns and 10 s. The bottom section of
the soft menu key OFF (highlighted in blue) allows you to
deactivate the function HOLD OFF.
6.4 Trigger Events
Use the UTIL menu in the VERTICAL control panel on page
2|2, and then choose the soft menu key ACQ. TRIGGER
EV. to issue a pulse at the AUX OUT connector for each
trigger event (Issuing The Trigger Frequency).
6.5 External Trigger
The settings for the external trigger input (EXT TRIG IN)
can be set via the POD menu. After pressing the POD button you can activate resp. deactivate the external trigger
functionality (soft menu key EXT). If the external trigger
functionality is activated (ON), the settings for the external
trigger functionality can be set via MENU menu in the
VERTICAL section of the front panel. Via soft menu key
EXT. THRESHOLD the threshold for the external trigger signal can be set. You can use an external trigger signal e.g.
for CS (Chip Select) of a SPI BUS (displayed as green line).
Fig. 6.6: External trigger signal
25
Signal Display
7 Signal Display
The following chapter describes the selection and display
of signals from various sources as well as all available display modes.
7.1 Display Settings
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
a high quality TFT display with VGA (640x480 pixels resolution) including LED backlighting. Basic display settings
can be defined by pressing the DISPLAY 14 key in the
GENERAL section. When the soft menu item VIRTUAL
SCREEN is activated, a scroll bar will display to the right of
the display graticule. Use the universal knob to upload and
download the display window within the 20 divisions of
the virtual screen. You will find a detailed description of the
VIRTUAL SCREEN option in the next chapter.
The following settings can be selected:
❙❙ DOTS ONLY:
If this option is activated (ON), only the acquired data
points will be shown. This means that the data points of
all signals will not be connected by vertical lines. If this
option is deactivated (OFF), interpolated data points will
also be shown.
❙❙ INVERSE BRIGHTN.:.
This setting inverts the brightness of the displayed signals.
Normally, frequently captured dots will be displayed more
brightly than rare dots. The INVERSE BRIGHTNESS option
reverses the circumstances. Rare events display a higher
brightness compared to frequent events. To capture rare
events in a signal, this setting can be used in combination
with persistence.
❙❙ FALSE COLORS:
This setting converts the brightness levels of the displayed signals to a color scale (ranging anywhere from
blue, magenta, red and yellow to white). Thanks to the
higher contrast, users can view signal details more easily.
This setting applies to all signals simultaneously.
❙❙ GRID:
This soft menu allows you to display the graticule as
LINES (the graticule is divided into horizontal and vertical
divisions), as CENTER CROSS (displays one horizontal
and one vertical zero line, showing the divisions as dots)
or as OFF (the entire graticule will include no dots or
lines).
❙❙ INFO WINDOWS:
Selecting this soft menu item will open a submenu which
allows you to set the transparency for the info windows.
Info windows are small windows that appear on the
screen depending on the particular application (e.g.
values are displayed when offset is changed). A transparency value of 0% to 100% is selectable. Use the
universal knob or the KEYPAD key to define this setting.
Additional menu items allow you to activate or deactivate
the info windows for POSITION and TRACE BRIGHTN.. If
POSITION is activated and the vertical position is
changed, the respective value on the zero line will be
26
displayed. Depending on the selected trigger type, the
user will see specific information about the acquisition
status. This information will only be displayed if the signal
changes on the screen can persist over a longer period. If
the trigger condition has been met, the information
window shows a progress display for the post-trigger and
pre-trigger. If the trigger condition has not been met, the
information window shows the time of the last trigger
event (Trig?). If the trigger type AUTOMATIC is selected,
the instrument will switch to non-triggered acquisition
mode in case of a non-triggered condition over an extended period of time. This acquisition mode does not
display an info window as the data currently captured is
displayed.
❙❙ AUX. CURSORS:
This soft menu allows you to define the settings for
auxiliary cursors. Pressing the function keys enables you
to activate or deactivate the cursors. The menu item
DEFAULTS resets the default settings.
7.2 Usage of the Virtual Screen
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area
The graticule for the R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202
series includes 8 vertical divisions but also has a virtual
range of 20 divisions. These 20 divisions may be used
entirely by the optional digital channels D0 to D7, the mathematical channels and the references signals. The analog
channels may use up to ±10 divisions from the center.
Fig. 7.1 illustrates the functionality of the virtual screen.
The display includes a section of 8 vertical divisions in
gray. This section enables you to display analog signals.
The small bar next to the graticule indicates the position of
the 8 visible divisions within the available 20 divisions. By
pressing the SCROLL BAR 5 the bar will be activated and
displayed in blue and you can use the universal knob to
shift the 8 visible divisions (gray section) within the available 20 divisions. This allows a simple and clear display of
many individual signal portions.
Signal Display
7.3 Signal Intensity Display and Persistence
Function
The default setting (indicated as active when the INTENS/
PERSIST 7 key is illuminated in white) allows you to use
the universal knob to change the intensity of the signal
display to anywhere from 0% to 100%. Persistence mode
allows the display of varying signals by enabling the instrument to write several signals on the display simultaneously. It is also possible to induce accelerated aging of
signals with an adjustable persistence from 50ms to infinite. Signals occurring less frequently will be displayed in
darker color and signals occurring more frequently will be
displayed in lighter color. Press the INTENS/PERSIST key in
the soft menu to select this mode.
The soft menu items TRACE, GRID and BACKLIGHT allow
you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to adjust the grid intensity and the backlighting. The
soft menu SETTINGS allows you to select the persistence
settings for the signals on the screen. The persistence
function ensures that signals will not be replaced when
the screen is updated. Instead, the signals will pause for a
specific amount of time and then slowly begin to fade. This
type of display is very similar to that of an analog oscilloscope. There are three possible settings for the duration of
the persistence: OFF, AUTOMATIC and MANUAL.
the set persistence time. Instead, these signals will continue to be displayed in the background with low brightness. This display is useful for the analysis of peak values
in signals, for instance.
7.4 XY display
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
a key that allows you to switch directly to the XY display.
Two signals will be displayed simultaneously, one in Y
direction and one in X direction. This implicates that the
time base X will be replaced by amplitude values of a
secondsource. The resulting signal curves for harmonic signals are known as Lissajous figures and allow the analysis
of frequency and phase position for these two signals. In
case of a nearly identical frequency the figure will rotate. If
the frequency is exactly identical, the figure will stand still
and the phase position can be deduced from its shape.
You can activate the XY display by pressing the UTIL key
19 in the VERTICAL section. The display will divided into
one large and three small display areas. The large grid
shows the XY display while the small grids show the
source for X and Y. The small windows feature the classical signal display as Y vs. time. The analog channels can
be selected as source.
Fig. 7.2: Persistence function
The option MANUAL allows you to set a duration of 50ms
to infinite by using the universal knob or the KEYPAD
key. If a finite duration was selected, new signals will be
written on top of one another within this timeframe where
the most recent captures will be displayed more brightly
than older signals. For instance, if 300 ms is selected, the
display for the signal curves will become darker in 50ms
intervals and will be erased after 300 ms. The AUTOMATIC
setting allows you to select the automatic configuration of
the persistence. If this setting is activated, the instrument
attempts to select the optimal time. If OFF is selected, the
persistence function is deactivated.
Another available option is the BACKGROUND function.
With this key, you can activate or deactivate a mode which
allows older signal curves to not disappear entirely after
27
Signal Display
8 Measurements
There are two different types of measurements on signals:
cursor measurements and automatic measurements. All
measurements are stored in a buffer memory that is larger
than the display memory. The integrated hardware counter
shows the frequency and period duration for the selected
input.
8.1 Cursor Measurements
The measurement option that is most frequently used with
an oscilloscope is the cursor measurement. Depending on
the measurement type up to three markers are available. To
control cursor measurements, you may use the keys CURSOR MEASURE and KEYPAD as well as the universal knob.
The menu CURSOR MEASURE allows you to select cursorbased measurements for an activated signal source on the
oscilloscope. The measurement type can be defined in the
menu that opens when you press the CURSOR MEASURE
key.
Following measurement types can be selected:
PEAK VALUES: This mode provides two
cursors to measure the minimum and the maximum voltage of a signal within the interval set
by using both cursors. The values Vp- and Vp+
correspond to the minimum and the maximum voltage.
The peak value (Vpp) corresponds to the amount of voltage between the minimum and maximum value.
RMS, MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION: This
mode provides two cursors to measure the
effective value (RMS – Root Mean Square), the
mean value and the standard deviation within the interval
set by using both cursors.
DUTY RATIO: This mode provides three
cursors to determine the duty ratio between
the two horizontal cursors. The third cursor is
used to specify the threshold at which the duty ratio is
measured.
BURST WIDTH: This mode determines the
duration of burst from the first edge to the last
edge (Bst).
VOLTAGE: This mode provides two cursors to
measure three different voltages. The values
V1 and V2 correspond to the voltage between
the zero base line of the selected signal and the current
position of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV corresponds to the amount of voltage between the two cursors.
RISE TIME 90%: This mode provides two cursors to measure the rise and fall time of the first
rising slope in the displayed view of the screen
within the time span set by the cursors. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of
its amplitude.
TIME: This mode provides two cursors to
measure three different times and an equivalent
frequency. The values t1 and t2 correspond to
the time between the trigger and the current position of
the first or second cursor. The value Δt corresponds to the
amount of time between the two cursors.
RISE TIME 80%: This mode provides two cursors to measure the rise and fall time of the first
rising slope in the displayed view of the screen
within the time span set by the cursors. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80%
of its amplitude.
RATIO X: This mode provides three cursors to
measure a ratio in X direction (e.g. a duty ratio)
between the first two cursors and the first and
the third cursor. The measurement values are displayed in
four different formats (floating point, percent, degrees and
radians).
V-MARKER: This mode provides two cursors to measure
three different voltages and
a time. The values V1 and V2 correspond to the voltage
between the zero base line of the selected curve and the
current position of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV
corresponds to the amount of voltage between the two
cursors. The value Δt corresponds to the amount of time
between the two cursors.
RATIO Y: This mode provides three cursors
to measure a ratio in Y direction (e.g. an
overshoot) between the first two cursors and
the first and the third cursor. The measurement values
are displayed in two different formats (floating point and
percent).
COUNT: This mode provides three cursors to
count signal changes that exceed the threshold
within a specific interval. The interval may be
set by using the first two cursors and the threshold may be
set by using the third cursor. The measurement values are
displayed in four different formats (number of rising and
falling slopes and number of positive and negative pulses).
28
CREST FACTOR: The crest factor (peak-to-average ratio)
is calculated from the maximum value divided by the RMS
value of the waveform (Crest).
To move cursors, press the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section and position the cursor by turning the universal knob. The measurement types have the following functions. The measurement results are displayed at the bottom
of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is not
applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case
for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic sta-
Measurements
tes without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?” is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement
result. For instance, the period to be measured may not
display completely and can consequently not be identified.
MEAN VALUE: This mode measures the
mean value of the signal amplitude (Mean). If
the signal is periodic, the first period on the
left of the screen will be used for the measurement. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
RMS VALUE: This mode identifies the effective value from the displayed view of the signal.
If the signal is periodic, the first period on the
left of the screen will be used for the measurement. The
effective value is not applied to a sine signal will be calculated directly (so-called TrueRMS). The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
PEAK-PEAK: This mode measures the difference in voltage between the maximum and
the minimum peak value of the signal within
the displayed view (Vpp).
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurement setting menu
If the function AUTOM. SOURCE is activated (ON), the
currently targeted channel will be used as source for the
measurement automatically. If the setting is deactivated
(OFF), the channel set under SOURCE will be applied
even if it is not targeted. Pressing the soft menu key SET
TO TRACE places the selected cursors in their optimal
position on the signal curve. This allows very fast and
typically optimal automatic positioning of the cursors. For
the most part, only fine tuning is required at this point
and the tedious major adjustments to the cursors will no
longer be necessary. In case the automated function SET
TO TRACE does not provide the anticipated results due
to complex signals, you can press the key SET TO TRACE
to position the cursors in a predefined starting position.
This allows you to return distant cursors to the screen.
The soft menu key GLUE TO TRACE allows cursors to stay
on the selected data point without changing the position
in the measurement signal even if the scaling is modified
(cursors will be „glued“ to the signal). This function can be
activated or deactivated. If this mode is deactivated, the
cursor stays in position on the screen if scaling occurs.
With GLUE TO TRACE deactivated, the measured value
changes while it remains unmodified when the mode is
activated.
The cursors will be deactivated by pressing the CURSOR
MEASURE key. The cursor menu will be closed.
8.2 Automatic Measurements
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
cursor measurements and also various automatic measurements. These may be activated by pressing the key
AUTO MEASURE 11 in the section ANALYZE. This menu
allows you to select up to six automatic measurement
functions by using the soft menu key MEAS. PLACE and
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section. Following automatic measurement types can be selected:
PEAK + : This mode measures the maximum
voltage value in the displayed view of the
screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel (Vp+).
PEAK – : This mode measures the minimum
voltage value in the displayed view of the
screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel (Vp-).
FREQUENCY: This mode identifies the frequency of the signal from the reci-procal value
of the first signal period T (f). The measurement
will only be applied to the selected channel.
PERIOD: This mode measures the duration of
the signal period T. The period identifies the
duration between two equal values of one periodically repeated signal.
AMPLITUDE: This mode measures the amplitude of a square wave signal (VAmp). This
mode calculates the difference in voltage between the upper and the lower level (Vbase and Vtop). The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel
and requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal.
CREST FACTOR: The crest factor (peak-to-average ratio)
is calculated from the maximum value divided by the RMS
value of the waveform (Crest).
TOP LEVEL: This mode measures the mean
voltage level of an upper square wave (V Top).
This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
29
Measurements
BASE LEVEL: This mode measures the mean
voltage level of the lower square wave (VBase).
This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
POS. OVERSHOOT: This mode measures the
positive overshoot of a square wave which is
calculated from top level, peak + and amplitude
value (+Ovr).
NEG. OVERSHOOT: This mode measures the
negative overshoot of a square wave which is
calculated from base level, peak - and amplitude value (-Ovr).
PULSE WIDTH +: This mode measures the
width of the positive pulse. A positive pulse
consists of a rising slope followed by a falling
slope. This measurement type identifies the two slopes
and calculates the pulse width from their time difference.
The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
.
PULSE WIDTH –: This mode measures the
width of the negative pulse. A negative pulse
consists of a falling slope followed by a rising
slope. This measurement type identifies the two slopes
and calculates the pulse width from their time difference
(t). The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
DUTY CYCLE +: This mode measures the
positive duty ratio. In this mode, positive signal
portions are identified over a specific period
and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period.
The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one complete period
of a triggered signal. The measured value Dty+ is displayed as a percentage of the signal period.
DUTY CYCLE –: This mode measures the negative duty ratio. In this mode, positive negative
portions are identified over a specific period
and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period.
The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one complete period
of a triggered signal. The measured value Dty+ is displayed as a percentage of the signal period.
RISE TIME 90%: This mode measures the rise
time of the first rising slope in the displayed
view of the screen (tr). The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of its
amplitude.
30
FALL TIME 90%: This mode measures the fall
time of the first falling slope in the displayed
view of the screen (tf). The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 90% to 10% of its
amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%: This mode measures the rise
time of the first rising slope in the displayed
view of the screen (tr80). The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 80%: This mode measures the fall
time of the first falling slope in the displayed
view of the screen (t f80). The fall time identifies the time in which the signal falls from 80% to 20% of
its amplitude.
σ-STD. DEVIATION: This mode measures the
standard deviation of the signal amplitude in
the displayed view of the screen. The standard
deviation is the measurement for the deviation
of a signal from its mean value. A low result indicates that
the values are close to the mean value. A higher result
illustrates that on average the difference between the values is greater.
DELAY: This mode measures the time delay
between the set measurement source and
the reference source. This mode searches for
the slope of the measurement source that is closest to
the time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it
searches for the nearest slope of the reference source.
This time difference indicates the measurement result. A
submenu (DELAY SETUP) allows you to select the setting
for measurement source, reference source and slopes.
PHASE: This mode measures the phase
between two slopes of two channels in the
displaced view of the screen (Phs). This mode
measures the relation of the time delay between the set
sources to the signal period of the measurement source.
This mode searches for the slope of the measurement
source that is closest to the time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it searches for the nearest slope of
the reference source. The time difference and the signal
period indicate the measurement result in degrees. A submenu (MEASUREMENT SOURCE/ REFERENCE SOURCE)
allows you to select the measurement source and the
reference source with the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section.
BURST WIDTH: This mode determines the
duration of burst from the first edge to the last
edge (Bst).
COUNT + : This mode counts positive pulses
in the displayed view of the screen. A positive
pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a
Measurements
falling slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if
the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT – : This mode counts negative pulses
in the displayed view of the screen. A negative
pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a
rising slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if
the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT +/ : This mode counts signal changes
(slopes) from Low Level to High Level in the
displayed view of the screen. The mean value is
calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal.
A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
The automatic measurement results are displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement
is not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the
case for a voltage measurement on a POD because only
logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If
“?” is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement result. For instance, the period to be measured
may not display completely and can consequently not be
identified.
The list of available sources only includes displayed
channels (possible sources are analog, digital and mathematical
channels).
With the soft menu key CLEAR ALL the activated automatic measurements will be switched off.
COUNT –/ : This mode counts signal changes
(slopes) from High Level to Low Level in the
displayed view of the screen. The mean value is
calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal.
A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
TRIGGER FREQUENCY: This mode measures
the frequency of the trigger signal bases on
the period duration (f Tr). The source for the
measurement is the currently set trigger source. The frequency will be determined with a hardware counter with a
high accuracy of 5 digits.
TRIGGER PERIOD: This mode measures the
duration of periods of the trigger signal (with a
hardware counter T Tr).
Fig. 8.2: Auto measurement setting menu
31
Analysis
9 Analysis
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series features
different analysis functions for the collected data records
which are displayed on the screen. Simple mathematical functions can be performed with the mathematical
function while more complex functions and the linking of
functions can be accomplished with the formula editor
(only with R&S®HMO1202 series). The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the recorded signal types.
The mathematical functions track the changes of the
included signals and only apply to the visible area. You can
also activate the frequency analysis (FFT) by pressing the
respective key. The function QUICK VIEW provides a quick
overview for the signal properties. A masked-based PASS/
FAIL test allows you to monitor signals automatically.
the MENU key in the VERTICAL section the configuration menu will be opened. With the first and the third soft
menu key OPERAND, you can choose the respective channel (source) for the mathematical calculation. You may only
choose activated analog channels. The central soft menu
key OPERATOR allows you to select the calculation type.
Following calculation types (OPERATOR) can be selected:
Addition
(ADD)
Multiplication
(MUL)
Subtraction
(SUB)
Division
(DIV)
You can use the universal knob in the CURSOR/ MENU
section to select operands and operators.
9.1 Mathematical Functions
The MATH menu in the VERTICAL section includes mathematical functions for the recorded signal types. The
mathematical functions track the changes of the included
signals and only apply to the visible area.of the screen. If a
signal is cut off at the edge of the screen may indicate that
the corresponding mathematical curve is also truncated.
The VOLTS/DIV knob can be used to scale an activated
mathematical curve.
Fig. 9.2: Quick Mathematics menu
Fig. 9.1: Example of a mathematical waveform
The MATH menu includes the Quick Mathematics (QM)
and formula sets (MA). Quick Mathematics is designed
for simple and quick calculations. The formula sets allow
formular combinations.
The R&S®HMO1002 series only supports the Qick Mathematics
functionality (QM).
9.1.1 Quick Mathematics (QM)
Pressing the MATH key in the VERTICAL section will activate the math short menu. The lowest soft menu key activates the Quick Mathematics (QM) or the formula editor
(MA). In the QM short menu the configuration of the math
function can be selected with the soft menu key. Pressing
32
9.1.2 Formula Editor (MA)
The formula editor menu of the R&S®HMO1202 series
(soft menu key MA) allows you to activate and deactivate
mathematical equations which are defined and displayed
within the selected formula set. The MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel opens a menu to select the formula
set and its corresponding formulas. The R&S®HMO Compact series includes five mathematical formula sets. Each
of these formula sets contains five formulas which may be
edited with a formula editor to also define linked mathematical functions. These are labeled MA1 to MA5. You can
use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to
select the formula set. The formula set editor (soft menu
key EDIT FORMULARY) lists all existing equations which
may be edited. A blue bar indicates that an equation is
selected. It is important to distinguish between editing the
display and editing the parameters. Use the universal knob
in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the respective
equation and activate by pressing the soft menu key VISIBLE. An activated, visible equation is marked by a filled-in
eye symbol in the formula editor and is listed in the short
menu. With the soft menu UNIT you can use the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the following
units:
Analysis
❙❙ V(Volt)
❙❙ A(Ampere)
❙❙ Ω
(Ohm)
❙❙ V/A (Volt per Ampere)
❙❙ W(Watt)
❙❙ VA (Volt Ampere)
❙❙ VAr (reactive power)
❙❙ dB(decibel)
❙❙ m (Milli, 10 -3)
❙❙ µ
(Mikro, 10 -6)
❙❙ n
(Nano 10 -9)
❙❙ p
(Piko, 10 -12)
❙❙ f
(Femto, 10 -15)
❙❙ a
(Atto, 10 -18)
❙❙ z
(Zepto 10 -21)
❙❙ y
(Yokto, 10 -24)
❙❙ K
(Kilo, 103)
❙❙ M (Mega, 106)
❙❙ G
(Giga, 109)
❙❙ T
(Tera, 1012)
❙❙ P
(Peta, 1015)
❙❙ E
(Exa, 1018)
❙❙ Z
(Zetta 1021)
❙❙ Y
(Yotta, 1024)
❙❙ dBm (decibel milliwatt)
❙❙ dBV (decibel Volt)
❙❙ s(second)
❙❙ Hz(Hertz)
❙❙ F(Farad)
❙❙ H(Henry)
❙❙ %(percent)
❙❙ º(degree)
❙❙ π
(Pi)
❙❙ Pa(Pascal)
❙❙ m(meter)
❙❙ g(Acceleration)
❙❙ ºC (Degress Celsius)
❙❙ K(Kelvin)
❙❙ ºF (Degrees Fahrenheit)
❙❙ N(Newton)
❙❙ J(Joule)
❙❙ C(Coulomb)
❙❙ Wb(Weber)
❙❙ T(Tesla)
❙❙ (dez)(decimal)
❙❙ (bin)(binary)
❙❙ (hex)(hexadecimal)
❙❙ (oct)(octal)
❙❙ DIV (Division, division)
❙❙ px(pixel)
❙❙ Bit(Bit)
❙❙ Bd(Baud)
❙❙ Sa(Sample)
❙❙ Square
❙❙ Root
❙❙ Amount
❙❙ Pos. Wave
❙❙ Integral
❙❙ IIR Low Pass Filter
❙❙ IIR High Pass Filter
For each corresponding equation, the input channels CH1,
CH2, CH3, CH4 and an adjustable constant are allowed as
OPERAND (sources). For the formula MA2, MA1 is added
as source, for MA3 the added source is MA2, for MA4 it is
MA3 and finally for MA5 the added source is MA4. From
these five equations, you can create, save and retrieve a
total of five different sets. New equations can be added
by using the universal knob to select the menu item NEW
in the formula set editor. Pressing the soft menu key ADD
allows you to edit the new equation.
Use the soft menu key EDIT CONSTANT and the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to choose from the
following constants:
❙❙ Pi
❙❙ 2x Pi
❙❙ 0,5 x Pi
❙❙ User 1 to 10 (up to 10 customized constants are available)
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
The selected equation unit will be applied to the channel
description, cursor types and automatic measurement
types. The equation name is listed in the formula set editor
and is used as label in the curve window. The soft menu
key DELETE removes the equation from the formula set.
An equation consists of an operator (mathematical function) and up to two operands. Use the universal knob in
the CURSOR/MENU section to choose the operators:
❙❙ Addition
❙❙ Subtraction
❙❙ Multiplication
❙❙ Division
❙❙ Maximum
❙❙ Minimum
❙❙ Neg. Wave
❙❙ Reciprocal
❙❙ Inverted
❙❙ Common logarithm
❙❙ Natural logarithm
❙❙ Derivation
For instance, if you select USER1 as constant, you can
press the soft menu key VALUE and use the universal knob
in the CURSOR/MENU section to select a numeric value.
You can apply the same method to set a DECIMAL POINT
and enter an additional SI prefix (soft menu key PREFIX).
You may choose a UNIT from the same SI prefixes as
those that are available in the soft menu EDIT. Press SAVE
to store these settings as USER 1 and return to the menu
to edit the equation. You can store up to 10 of these customized constants. When saving a formula set, you may also
add a comment (soft menu key COMMENT). Press the key
SAVE to save this formula set with the determined name
and comment to the selected location. Stored formula sets
may be reloaded at any time. Press the MATH key to activate the Mathematics menu and then press the MENU key
below the VOLTS/DIV key. This menu displays the menu
item LOAD. This will start the file manager which will display the internal memory or the connected USB stick as
possible storage location. Select the respective formula set
33
Analysis
file and press the key LOAD to load the file. It will be calculated, but will not be included in the display. You can also
choose a NAME with a maximum of 8 characters, load a
formula set (from the internal memory or from a USB stick)
or save a formula set (internally or on a USB stick). You can
use the universal knob to enter the name of your choice
and you can save it by using the ACCEPT key. The name
will now be displayed Instead of the generic labels MA1 to
MA5. You can specify the names for all equations separately. Once all equations, constants and names have been
entered, you may also choose a name for this formula set
by pressing the NAME key in the formula set menu and
entering the name of your choice.
9.1.3 Example for using the extended math
(R&S®HMO1202 series)
Fig. 9.6: Definition of the power equation
Now, all definitions will be completed and the results can
be displayed and analysed. The math analysis can be performed with cursor or automatic measurement functions.
All measurement results will be correctly shown and scaled with correct units: Ampere, Watt, Joule.
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
In general, the FFT in an oscilloscope works differently than
in a spectrum analyzer and is affected not only by the time
base setting, but also by the available number of used acquired data points when calculating the FFT. The R&S®HMO1002
allows you to include up to 128k point in the FFT.
Fig. 9.5: Definition of the current equation
This example shows the analysis of an electrical energy
waveform. The voltage across the load is being measured
with differential probe and applied to channel 2. The current is being measured with a current probe and applied to
channel 1. First, the conversion factor of the current probe
(100 mV/A) will be entered. The formula set 1 will be opened and the equation MA1 will be defined. After pushing
the soft menu key EDIT, the appropriate functions can be
selected using the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
section. In this example, channel CH1 will be multiplied
with a constant (0.1) and the unit A (Ampere) will be assigned. This ensures the correct display of the scale factors as
well as the units for cursors and automatic measurements.
The equation MA1 can be named „CURRENT using the
soft menu key LABEL.
Afterwards, a new equation MA2 will be entered and adjusted. The result of the equation calculation „CURRENT“
and channel CH2 will be multiplied which will be yielded
to a power curve. The equation MA2 can be named „POWER“ using the soft menu key LABEL. At last, a 3rd equation MA3 will be added to the set of formulas which will
be defined as the integral of the equation „POWER“. The
equation MA3 can be named „ENERGY“ using the soft
menu key LABEL.
34
The FFT is not suitable for the analysis of very slow signals (Hzrange); this type of analysis requires a classic oscilloscope mode.
The FFT menu in the ANALYZE section allows a quick Fourier transformation which displays the frequency spectrum
of the measured signal. The changed display allows you
to determine the most frequent frequencies in the signal
and the corresponding amplitude. Once the FFT key was
pressed, the screen will be divided into two graticules.
The upper left of the display shows information about the
settings in the time range, the area between the upper and
the lower window shows details about zoom and position, and the section below the large FFT display window
indicates the settings (Span and Center) in the frequency
range. The lower FFT display window will be outlined in
white when the FFT is activated. This means that the large
knob in the time range section is used to select the span.
The span is specified in the unit Hz (Hertz) and identifies
the width of the shown frequency range. The span position can be determined by selecting the center value. You
may use the horizontal encoder X Position for this purpose.
The shown frequency range ranges from (Center - Span/2)
to (Center + Span/2).
The minimum increment depends on the time base. The greater the
time base, the smaller the span. Another important element for the
FFT is the setting “Max. Sampling Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu.
Analysis
The soft menu key MODE allows you to choose from the
following display types:
❙❙ REFRESH:
This mode calculates and displays the FFT without
additional evaluation or editing of the captured data. The
new input data is captured, displayed and overwrites
previously stored and displayed values.
❙❙ ENVELOPE:
In the Envelope mode, the maximum deflections of all
spectra will be stored separately in addition to the current
spectrum and will be updated with each new spectrum.
These maximum values will be displayed with the input
data and create an envelope curve. The spectrum is
located within the envelope limits. This forms an area or a
sleeve including all occurrences of FFT signal values. With
each signal parameter change the envelope curve will be
reset.
❙❙ AVERAGE:
This mode calculates the mean value from several
spectra. It is applicable for noise reduction. The soft menu
key #AVERAGES allows you to select the number of
spectra used to calculate the mean value by setting the
universal knob in the power of 2 from 2 to 512.
is increased. This function is useful for a precise amplitude
measurement of a period signal, for instance.
HAMMING: The Hamming window function
is bell-shaped. In contrast to the Hanning and
Blackman window function, it is not equal to
zero at the margin of the measurement interval. Therefore
the height of the noise level in the spectrum is greater
than with the Hanning and Blackman window function but
less than with the square wave window function. However, the spectral lines not as wide as in other bell-shaped
functions. This function is useful for a precise amplitude
measurement of a period signal, for instance.
BLACKMAN: The Blackman window function
is bell-shaped and its waveform features the
steepest fall-off among the available functions.
Is is zero at both ends of the measurement interval. The
Blackman window function allows you to measure the amplitudes with high accuracy. However, it is more difficult
to determine the frequency due to the wide spectral lines.
This function is useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal, for instance.
RECTANGLE: The rectangle function multiplies
all points by 1. This results in a high frequency
accuracy with narrow spectral lines and increased noise. This function can be used for pulse
response tests with start and end values of zero.
The menu item Y-SCALING allows you to scale the FFT in
the amplitude logarithmically (dBm / dBV) or linear (Veff).
The unit dBm (Decibel-Milliwatt) refers to 1 mW. The unit
dBV (Decibel-Volt) refers to 1 Veff. The displayed values
refer to a 50 Ohm terminating resistor. You can use an
external terminating resistor parallel to the high impedance
input.
Fig. 9.7: FFT
The menu entry POINTS allows you to select the maximum number of capture points to be included in the
calculation by using the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section. The possible settings are 2048, 4096,
8192, 16384, 32768, 65536, 131072 points. The soft menu
WINDOWS allows you to improve the FFT display in case
of irregularities at the margins of the measurement interval. Irregularities are calculated as a leap by a computing
algorithm and interfere with the measurement result. In
the event of a bell-shaped window function, the margins
with lower values are multiplied and the impact is
damped. The soft menu item WINDOW allows you to
choose from the following window functions:
HANNING: The Hanning window function is
bell-shaped. In contrast to the Hamming window function, it is equal to zero at the margin of
the measurement interval. Therefore the noise level is reduced in the spectrum and the width of the spectral lines
You can deactivate the FFT function by pressing the soft
menu key FFT OFF or pressing the FFT key on the control
panel again.
9.3 Quick View
Pressing the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section
activates several basic automatic measurements. The
QUICK VIEW function allows a quick overview of the typical signal size. Measurement results are displayed at the
bottom of the screen and with a cursor on the signal.
The following five measurement values are displayed directly in the signal:
❙❙ Maximum voltage (Vp+)
❙❙ Mean voltage (Mean)
❙❙ Minimum voltage (Vp-)
❙❙ Rise time (tr)
❙❙ Fall time (tf)
35
Analysis
The following ten measurement values are displayed at the
bottom of the screen:
❙❙ RMS value
Period
❙❙ Peak to peak voltage
Frequency
❙❙ Amplitude Number of positive /slopes
❙❙ Pos. pulse width Neg. pulse width
❙❙ Pos. duty ratio
Neg. duty ratio
Pressing the AUTO MEASURE key allows you to change
the six measurement parameters on the bottom right. You
may undo these changes by choosing RESET or restore
the default setting. Only one channel can be active in the
Quickview mode. All measurements will be performed on
the active channel.
Pressing the QUICK VIEW key again switched off the
function.
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test based on Masks
The Pass/Fail test allows you to evaluate if a signal is located within defined limits. This limits are set by a so-called
mask. If the signal exceeds the mask, there is an error.
These errors will be displayed together with successful
sweeps and the total of all sweeps at the bottom of the
screen. It is also possible to perform certain actions if errors are discovered.
Press the UTIL key in the VERTICAL section and press the
soft menu key PASS/FAIL on page 2|2 to activate the mode
which opens a menu to set and use the mask test. Prior to
starting the test by pressing the top soft menu key TEST
ON/OFF, it is necessary to generate or load a mask and to
select an action. To generate a new mask, press the soft
menu key NEW MASK. Masks are displayed as light gray
curves/waveforms on the screen. If a mask was copied or
loaded, you can use menu items to change the expansion
of the signal form and consequently the limits for the test.
Fig. 9.8: PASS/FAIL mask test.
In the menu that opens you can use the key COPY CHANNEL to copy the current signal into a mask memory. The
mask displays in white and appears as an overlay of the
output signal. The menu keys Y-POSITION and STRETCH
Y enable you to shift this curve vertically or to enlarge it.
The two menu items WIDTH Y and WIDTH X allow you to
36
set the tolerance for the mask. The universal knob or the
KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU section are used to
enter values with a resolution of 1/100 division. A mask includes a minimum and a maximum value for each captured
data value. The minimum and maximum value for a source
curve with only one value per data are identical. The width
indicates the distance between the peripheral points and
the original point. The greater the selected value is, the greater are the potential curve deviations in the amplitude. The
tolerance mask is displayed in white in the background. The
generated and edited mask can be used immediately for the
test, however, it is only saved temporarily in the instrument
storage. The soft menu key SAVE can be used to store the
mask permanently to a USB stick or to the internal memory.
Press the key MENU OFF to return to the start menu.
Press the soft menu key LOAD MASK to open a file browser
which allows you to load previously stored masks for the
test (file extension .HMK). A loaded mask can be changed
in the menu NEW MASK. Changes will be applied to the file
when the mask is edited and saved. Pressing the soft menu
key ACTIONS in the PASS/FAIL main menu opens a menu
with the available actions. The following four actions can be
performed:
❙❙ Audio signal if the tolerance limits have been exceeded
❙❙ Stop for first-time failure (number is adjustable)
❙❙ Pulse for first-time failure (emits a pulse at the AUX output
in case of failure)
❙❙ Screen dump for first-time failure on USB stick
❙❙ Screen dump for first-time failure on printer
An action is performed if the respective condition is met
(e.g. a specific number of mask failures). Each action is assigned a unique condition which can be defined separately
from the other actions. The respective condition can be
defined in the menu for the corresponding action. Select
the respective action by pressing the appropriate soft menu
key; the corresponding soft menu item will be highlighted in
blue. Press the MENU OFF key to return to the main menu
and to start the mask test.
On the right below the display window you can view the total number and the total duration of the tests (in brackets) in
white. The number of successful tests and their percentage
(in brackets) are displayed in green, and the number of failures and their percentage (in brackets) are displayed in red.
If a test has been started, the previously unavailable soft
menu key PAUSE is now activated. Pressing the PAUSE key
will interrupt the test while the acquisition of signals and
the total duration are continued. If you press the PAUSE key
again, the test will be resumed and all event counters continue to be incremented. If you deactivate a test by pressing
the soft menu key Stop the event and time counters will be
stopped. If a new test is started by pressing the soft menu
key TEST activated (Run), all counters will be reset and resume at zero.
The PASS/FAIL mode is deactivated by pressing the soft
menu key PASS/FAIL OFF.
Analysis
9.5 Component Test
Fig. 9.9: HZ20 adapter connected to AUX OUT
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series has a
built-in component tester. This can be activated by pushing
the UTIL button (VERTICAL section) with the soft menu
key COMP. TEST. The unit under test is connected via AUX
OUT connector and BNC/Banana adapter (e.g. HZ20). After
switch on the component tester mode, the Y preamplifiers
and the time base are disconnected. While using the component tester, signals may be present at the inputs as long
as the unit under test is not connected to any other circuit.
It is possible to test components remaining in their circuits,
but in such cases all signals must be disconnected from the
front panel BNC connectors (see the following paragraph:
„Test in circuits“). The test principle is a generator within
the R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series generates
a 50 Hz or 200 Hz (±10 %) sine wave which feeds the series
connection of the test object and a sense resistor. If the test
object has only a real part such as a resistor, both voltages
will be in phase; the display will be a straight line, more or
less slanted.
If components are tested which are located in circuits or instruments, the circuits resp. instruments must be disconnected first!
If they are operated from the mains, the mains plug of the test
object has to be pulled out. This ensures that there will be no
loops between the scope and the test object via the safety earth
which might cause false results.
Is the test object short-circuited, the line will be vertical
(no voltage, current maximum). If the test object is opencircuited or missing a horizontal line will appear (voltage,
but no current). The angle of the line with the horizontal is
a measure of the resistance value, allowing for measurements of resistors between Ω and kΩ. Capacitors and
inductors cause phase shift between voltage and current
and hence between the voltages. This will cause displays of
ellipses. The location and the form factor of the ellipse are
determined by the apparent impedance at 50 Hz (resp. 200
Hz). Capacitors can be measured between µF and mF. An
ellipse with its longer axis horizontal indicates a high impedance (small capacitance or large inductance). An ellipse
with its longer axis vertical indicates a low impedance (large
capacitance or small inductance). An ellipse with its longer
axis slanted indicates a relatively large resistive loss in series
with the impedance of the capacitor or inductor.
Fig. 9.10: Component test example.
Only discharged capacitors may be tested!
With semiconductors the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting state will be indicated in their characteristic. As far as is possible with the available voltages
and currents the forward and backward characteristics are
displayed (e.g. with zener diodes up to 9 V). Because this is
a two-pole measurement, the gain of a transistor can not
be determined, however, the B-C, B-E, C-E diodes can be
measured. With this exception the diodes can be measured without fear of destruction as the maximum voltage
is limited to 9 V and the current to a few mA. This implies,
however, that a measurement of breakdown voltages > 9 V
is not possible. In general this is no dis-advantage because,
if there is a defect in a circuit, gross deviations are to be expected which will point to the defective component. Rather
exact results may be achieved if the measurements are
compared to those of intact components. This is especially
true for semiconductors. The polarity of diodes or transistors can thus be identified if the lettering or marking is missing. Please note that with semiconductors changing the
polarity will cause the display to rotate 180 degrees around
the screen center. More important in practice is the quick
determination of plain shorts and opens which are the most
common causes of requiring service.
It is highly recommended to observe the necessary precautions
when handling MOS components which can be destroyed by static charges and even tribo electricity.
9.5.1 In-circuit tests
They are possible in many cases but deliver rarely clear
results. By paralleling of real or complex impedances – especially if those are fairly low impedance at 50 Hz/200 Hz
– there will be mostly great differences compared to
37
Analysis
digital voltmeter includes a 3-digit voltage display as 7-segment display with the use of the analog channels. Four freely
configurable measuring displays are possible where two
measurement value displays for channel 1 (CH1) and two
measurement value displays for channel 2 (CH2) are available. For each channel, the measurement displays are divided
into in a primary measurement location (soft menu key Channel 1 / Channel 2) and a secondary measurement location
(soft menu key SECONDARY). The primary measurement
display will be shown in a large font, and the secondary measurement display in a small font. All measurement displays
can be configured separately.
The following primary and secondary measurement displays
are available:
❙❙ OFF: Measurement display deactivated
❙❙ DC: Mean
❙❙ DC RMS: RMS
❙❙ AC RMS: Standard Deviation
❙❙ CREST FACTOR: Crest factor (|X|max/XRMS)
❙❙ PEAK PEAK: Maximum-Minimum
❙❙ PEAK +: Maximum
❙❙ PEAK -: Minimum
Fig. 9.11: Excamples of Component test
Use the soft menu key POSITION to change the display
position of the digital voltmeter on the screen. When the
XY mode is activated, the display position of the digital voltmeter is predefined and cannot be modified. Use the soft
menu key VOLTMETER OFF to deactivate the digital voltmeter function and to close the menu.
individual components. If circuits of the same type have to
be tested often (service), comparisons with intact circuits
may help again. This is also quickly done because the intact
circuit has not to be functional, also it should not be energized. Just probe the various test points with the cables of
the component tester of the unit under test and the intact
unit and compare the screen displays. Sometimes the unit
under test may already contain an intact portion of the
same type, this ist e.g. the case with stereo circuits, pushpull circuits or symmetrical bridge circuits. In cases of doubt
one side of the dubious component can be unsoldered.
9.6 Digital Voltmeter
The digital voltmeter completely captures input data with
the selected vertical sensitivity and the basic accuracy of
the ADC. The digital voltmeter is independent from the
capture settings and the post processing of the transformer values. Determine the values by means of the measurement interval to ensure the defined frequency range of
20 Hz to 100 kHz. The measurement interval of the digital
voltmeter is not corresponding to the acquisition time
interval. Therefore, the measurement values of the digital
voltmeter can not be the same like the measurement values of the AUTO MEASURE values.
The analysis function DIG. VOLTMETER can be activated by
using the UTIL menu in the VERTICAL control panel. The
38
Fig. 9.12: Digital Voltmeter.
Signal Generation
10 Signal
Generation
10.1 Function Generator
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series includes
an integrated function generator which can generate input
signals while testing circuits, for instance. To activate the
function generator, select the UTIL menu in the VERTICAL
control panel, and then press the soft menu key FUNCTION GEN. The following waveforms can be generated
and made available at the AUX OUT connector:
❙❙ DC
❙❙ SINE: Frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 50 kHz
❙❙ SQUARE WAVE: Frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 50 kHz
❙❙ PULSE: Frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz
❙❙ TRIANGLE: Frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz
❙❙ RAMP: Frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz
Use the soft menu key FREQUENCY to select the signal
frequency, and use the soft menu key AMPLITUDE to select the signal amplitude via universal knob or numerically
via KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU control panel. You
also have the option to select a DC offset (soft menu key
OFFSET). An information box shows a preview of the respective signal form with the selected parameters.
Use the soft menu key OFF to deactivate the function generator and to close the menu.
10.2 Pattern Generator
The pattern generator includes the output of parallel
patterns on the four pins S0 to S3 on the front panel of
the instrument. It is based on a 2048 bit wide memory
(Samples) which can be issued cyclically / individually. All
sub functions of the PATTERN GENERATOR are based on
this memory. It is not possible to issue multiple functions
simultaneously. An information box shows which pins to
use. The pattern generator menu (pattern generator) includes various options. Use the UTIL menu in the VERTICAL
control panel and press the soft menu key PATTERN GEN.
to open it.
Function
Setting options
Square wave
Frequency / Period, Polarity, Duty Cycle
Counter
Frequency, counting direction
Arbitrary
Timing, pattern input
Manual
Manual switching of the 4 individual
connectors
UART
Polarity, setting the bit rate
SPI / I2C / CAN / LIN
Setting the bit rate
Tab. 10.1: Settings options for the pattern-generator
10.2.1 Square Wave
Use the soft menu SQUARE WAVE to perform a manual
probe compensation without compensation wizard. The
square wave function uses a 100-sample wide pattern (100
conditions). Additionally, you can change the polarity and
the duty cycle (1% to 99%).
10.2.2Counter
Pin Frequency
A 4 bit wide counter pattern is isS0
f/2
sued. The user can determine the
S1
f/4
counting direction (soft menu key
S2
f/8
DIRECTION) and the frequency (soft
S3
f/16
menu key FREQUENCY). The user
Tab. 10.2: Counter
frequency always refers to the switching of the pattern condition. This
results in square waveforms for individual pins, as described in Tab. 10.2.
10.2.3Arbitrary
The user can define a 4 bit wide and a 2048 sample deep
pattern via soft menu ARBITRARY. The created patterns
can be stored or recalled. If the arbitrary function is activated, the predefined pattern, which may have been generated automatically, will be retained. This means that a SPI
pattern can be analyzed and adapted as necessary.
.
Fig. 10.1: Arbitrary menu
The following settings options are available:
❙❙ PATTERN SETUP:
Use the soft menu key PATTERN LENGTH to determine
the pattern depth. Use the INDEX and the universal knob
or the KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU control panel
to select individuail samples. The selected sample will be
shown in the information box as a light blue line. To select
a sample, also use the universal knob or the KEYPAD key.
The pattern flow for all 4 bits will be shown in the
window. Around the index, ±8 bits will be displayed. Use
the soft menu key VALUE to change the value of the
selected sample. Use the soft menu key DRAW to draw
large sample amounts with the same value. The VALUE
setting remains unchanged and is applied to all selected
indices. If the pattern is deleted (soft menu key DELETE
ALL), its length will be reset to 1. All connectors will be
set to ‚0‘.
39
Signal Generation
10.2.4Manual
In the manual pattern mode, the modes of the individual
pins S0 to S3 are wired separately. Each pin is assigned
to a specific soft menu key and the condition HIGH (H) or
LOW (L) is selected.
Fig. 10.2: Arbitrary pattern setup
❙❙ TIMING SETUP:
Use the soft menu key BIT TIME to set the time at which
you would like each sample to be applied. The time is
identical for all samples. The configurable PERIOD applies
to the entire pattern and is calculated by its length
multiplied by its bit time (time of a sample). If the BURST
function is activated (ON), the instrument will pause after
each issued pattern for the duration of the IDLE TIME.
Only then will the pattern be issued again. Setting the
N-CYCLE option enables the user to issue the pattern
precisely <n> times. The sample time can be set from
20 ns to 42 s in increments of 10 ns. It will be implemented
by means of a 32 bit counter. The IDLE TIME between the
patterns can be set from 20 ns to 42 s in increments of
10 ns. It will also be implemented by means of a 32 bit
counter. Use the universal knob or the KEYPAD key in the
CURSOR/MENU control panel to enter the values.
❙❙ SAVE/RECALL:
The manually created pattern can be saved or recalled via
soft menu SAVE or RECALL. The pattern can be stored
internally or externally on a connected USB stick. The
pattern and the time settings will be saved.
❙❙ ARB. TRIGGER:
The soft menu key ARB. TRIGGER makes three possible
trigger functions available. The CONT. option (continuous
trigger) issues the pattern continuously. If the BURST
function is activated, only the IDLE TIME is applied
between the patterns. The N-CYCLE setting is voided by
the continuous output. For the EXT. (external trigger)
setting, the pattern is issued by an edge at the external
input of the oscilloscope (TRIG. EXT.). If the BURST
function is activated, the pattern will be issued <n>
times (see N-CYCLE). In addition, you are able to
determine the direction of the triggering edge. If BOTH is
selected as slope direction, both edges are of equal
value. The first edge triggers the pattern. The edges do
not alternate. If the MAN. setting is activated, the pattern
is issued manually by pressing the respective key. If the
BURST function is activated, IDLE TIME and N-CYCLE
apply.
40
10.2.5 BUS Signal Source
Use the pattern generator connectors on the front panel of
the instrument to generate the following BUS signals (for
measurements without measurement object), depending
on the setting:
❙❙ SPI: Data rate 100 kBit/s, 250 kBit/s or 1 MBit/s
❙❙ I2C: Data rate 100 kBit/s, 400 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s or 3.4 MBit/s
❙❙ UART: Data rate 9600 Bit/s, 115.2 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s
❙❙ CAN: up to 50 MBit/s
❙❙ LIN: up to 50 MBit/s
The signals of the BUS signal source are pseudo random pattern
and are not adaptable. Only the BUS type and the data rate can
be selected.
The contact at the upper left is always ground and the
signal levels are about 1 V. The following table shows how
the four outputs S1, S2, S3 and
are used, depending on
the signal.
Signal
S1
S2
S3
S0/
SPI
Clock
MOSI
MISO
Chip Select
I 2C
Data SDA
no signal
no signal
Clock SCL
UART
RX
no signal
no signal
TX
CAN
CAN L
no signal
no signal
CAN H
LIN
Low
no signal
no signal
High
Tab. 10.3: Pin assignment of the BUS signal source
An information box is displayed for each operating mode,
displaying the corresponding connector assignment. By
pressing the respective soft menu key, you can open a
submenu with the bit rate setting of the selected operating
mode.
In the SAVE/RECALL menu you can load via soft menu
DEVICE SETTINGS and the soft menu key LOAD predefined SPI/SSPI, I2C, UART, CAN and LIN BUS signal source
configuration files from internal memory.
Documentation, Storage and Recall
11Documentation,
Storage and Recall
The oscilloscope allows all screen displays that store user
settings (e.g. trigger condition and time base setting),
reference curves and curves. An internal memory
integrated with the instrument is available for reference
curves and instrument settings. Screenshots and curve
data can also be stored on a connected USB stick.
The USB stick should not exceed 4 GB and must be FAT formatted (FAT16/32). It should be avoided to store a large number of
files on the USB stick.
You can access the main menu to store and load functions by pressing the SAVE/RECALL key in the GENERAL
section.
11.1 Device Settings
The soft menu DEVICE SETTINGS allows you to save
current instrument settings load saved settings and import
or export instrument settings.
Fig. 11.2: Storing instrument settings
pressing the soft menu key LOAD. To remove files that are
no longer required you can use the universal knob to select the respective settings file and remove it by pressing
the soft menu key REMOVE FILE. If a USB stick is connected, you can also change and delete directories. Use the
soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files
by name, type, size or date.
To import or export instrument settings, you must have a USB
stick connected, otherwise the menu cannot be selected.
The soft menu IMPORT/EXPORT allows you to copy a file
from an internal memory to an external storage medium
(USB stick) or vice versa. Source (SOURCE FILE) and target (DEST. PATH) must be selected for copying. Use the
universal knob to select a storage location which will open
a file manager. Pressing the IMPORT/EXPORT key by default will copy the selected settings file.
The menu item DEFAULT SETT. also allows you to load the
factory default settings.
Fig. 11.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
Press the soft menu key SAVE to open the Save menu.
You can use the soft menu key STORAGE to select a possible location (internal memory or front USB connection)
where you would like to save the instrument settings.
Pressing this key opens the file manager. The FILE NAME
can be changed or adjusted to the corresponding setting
(SET is the default label). You can use the soft menu key
COMMENT to enter a comment which will be displayed in
the file manager footer once a file has been selected. The
option SAVE allows you to store the settings. To reload
stored preference files, press the respective soft menu key
to open the soft menu LOAD. This opens the file manager
where you can use the universal knob to select the respective file. Once the storage location and the respective
settings file has been selected, you can load the file by
Device settings of an older firmware version in SCP format can be
loaded with a newer firmware version.
11.2References
References are data sets which consist of settings information and A/D converter data. These may be stored and
reloaded internally or externally. Data can be reloaded
into one of the 4 reference memories (RE1 to RE4) which
can also be displayed. The main feature of references is
the fact that all information (e.g. vertical gain, time base
setting, A/D converter data) is included when saving or reloading, enabling a comparison between the original signal
and its corresponding values.
The soft menu REFERENCES only allows you to import
or export references (IMPORT/EXPORT). The transfer of
references to other R&S®HMO instruments is possible. The
standard menu for the file manager opens which allows
you to copy references between the internal memory and
the external USB stick. The top soft menu SOURCE allows
you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the source for the reference to be saved. You
can select from the activated channels and mathematical
curves. Open the menu to store and load by pressing the
REF key in the VERTICAL section of the control panel.
41
Documentation, Storage and Recall
With the soft menu key RE1 to RE4 up to 4 references
can be activated. The top soft menu SOURCE allows
you to use the universal knob to select the source for the
reference to be saved. You can select from the activated
channels and mathematical curves. Press the soft menu
key DISPLAY to display the selected reference curve or to
update the current reference curve.
Fig. 11.3: Storage menu for references
To load a reference from a USB stick or the internal memory, open the soft menu LOAD. This shows a window
displaying the internally stored references. You can select
the desired target reference curve in the top menu item
and by pressing LOAD in the file manager. To complete
loading and displaying the reference, press LOAD in the
file manager menu again. To save a reference, press the
SAVE key, determine the source, storage location, file
name and curve, and press the soft menu key SAVE (with
the disk icon). The FILE NAME can be changed or adjusted
to the corresponding setting (REF ist the default label). You
can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a
file has been selected.
11.3Traces
In addition to references, you can also store A/D converter
data. Traces can only be stored to externally connected
USB sticks (not internally). Depending on the selected time
base and sample rate in the ACQUIRE menu (AUTOMATIC,
MAX. SAMPLE RATE or MAX. WAVEFORM RATE) the
maximum read-out measurement points varies..
The full memory can only be read out in STOP mode with the
maximum sampling rate setting (ACQUIRE menu).
In the soft menu STORAGE the USB connection on the
front of the instrument is selected as storage location.
Selecting the respective storage location is possible when
a USB stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can also change, create or delete directories. Use
the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings
files by name, type, size or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to
confirm the target directory and you will automatically return to the curve main menu.
42
The soft menu TRACES allows you to use the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select a channel
which will be saved as a curve. You may only select channels that have been activated via channel keys. You can
also save all visible channels simultaneously.
Saving of all visible channels is only possible with the CSV format
and can not be changed.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the
name entry, where you can use the universal knob or the
KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section to enter a
name and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (TRC is
the default name). The curve main menu will display automatically. You can open a selection window by pressing
the soft menu key FORMAT to determine the file format.
The universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section allows
you to select the desired format. You can choose from the
following formats:
❙❙ BIN (MSB/LSB):
A binary file may contain any type of Byte value. The
captured curve data will be stored without any time
information.
❙❙ FLT (MSB/LSB):
A FLT file contains the captured data as voltage values.
Compared to a FLT file, the captured amount of data for a
CSV file is 16 times greater. The voltage values are stored
in the Float format (4 Byte Float, binary, Big Endian). This
file can be reused in programs written by users, for
instance.
❙❙ CSV (Comma Separated Values):
In CSV files, curve data is stored in table format. Each
table row is separated by a comma.
Example: Trace with all visible channels
[s],CH1[V],CH2[V]
-4.99500E-07,-2.601E-03
-4.99000E-07,-6.012E-04
-4.98500E-07,-6.012E-04
-4.98000E-07,1.399E-03
If you choose the “Max. Sampling Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu,
two rows will be affixed with a time stamp during the CSV export
because a minimum and a maximum value must be assigned to
this time value. To acquire an amplitude value per time stamp,
activate “Automatic” in the ACQUIRE menu.
❙❙ TXT:
TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude
values (no time values). Amplitude values are separated
by a comma. The value pairs are listed as single values
without identification.
Example:
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
You can use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
section to select in the soft menu POINTS whether to read
out the display memory or the entire acquisition memory.
You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a
Documentation, Storage and Recall
❙❙ INVERT (HG):
If INVERT (HG) is activated, waveworm is stored in color
with an inverted background.
❙❙ INVERT (BG, GRAY):
If INVERT (BG, GRAY) is activated, the waveform is stored
in gray with an inverted background.
❙❙ INVERT (ALL):
If INVERT (ALL) is activated, the waveform and
background are stored inverted.
❙❙ INVERT (ALL, GRAY):
If INVERT (ALL, GRAY) is activated, the waveform and
background are stored in gray.
Fig. 11.4: Trace storage menu
comment which will be displayed in the file manager footer
once a file has been selected. After you made all entries,
press the menu key STORE to save the selected curve(s)
according to the settings.
11.4Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an
image file which shows the current screen content at the
time that storage takes place. The soft menu STORAGE
only allows you to use the USB connection on the front as
storage location. Selecting the respective storage location
is possible when a USB stick has been recognized. If a
USB stick is connected, you can also change, create or
delete directories. Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES
to sort several settings files by name, type, size or date.
Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory and you
will automatically return to the screenshot main menu.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the
name entry where you can use the universal knob or the
KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section to enter a
name and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR is
the default name). The screenshot main menu will display
automatically. The file format of a graphics file determines
the color depth and the type of compression. The quality
of the various formats is identical for the oscilloscope graphics. You can choose from the following file formats in
the soft menu FORMAT:
❙❙ BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
❙❙ GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
❙❙ PNG = Portable Network Graphic
With the soft menu key COLOR MODE and the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section you can choose from
the following color modes:
❙❙ GRAYSCALE:
If GRAYSCALE is selected, the colors are converted to
gray scales when the waveform is stored
❙❙ COLOR:
If COLOR is selected, the waveform is stored as it displays
in the screen,
If you press the key SAVE, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected name and format.
11.4.1Printer
The soft menu key PRINT allows you to print a screenshot
immediately to a connected printer. PCL-5, PCL-XL (=
PCL-6) and Postscript settings are supported as „printer
language“ (PCL-3 is not supported). If a printer is detected, the soft menu key PRINT will no longer be grayed
out.
Fig. 11.5: Supported printer example
The supported printer will be displayed in the soft menu
DEVICE INFOS. The message „This printer is supported“ does not guaranteed the the connected printer will
be supported. This message only means that the USB
printer connection was successful and the important
printer properties are available.(e.g. printer language PCL
or PCL-XL). Connected PLC printers send an identification
string to the instrument. This identification string should
be for all printers the same (standard), but there are many
printers on the market, which have another identification
string. In this case, the instrument is not able to detect
the printer because the instrument does not have a Windows system internally to handle the identification string
deviation.
Press the RUN/STOP key to stop acquisition prior to printing
which will allow a correct printout.
If a printer connection is not possible, you have the possibillity to use the HMExplorer software with the screenshot software module. The free software HMScreenshot
(software module of the HMExplorer software) enables the
transfer of screenshots in bitmap format from the device
via interface to a connected PC where the screenshots
may then be saved or printed. For additional information
on the software, refer to the internal HMExplorer software
manual.
43
Documentation, Storage and Recall
12 Mixed-Signal
Operation
Fig. 11.6: Screenshot module
11.5 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
The FILE/PRINT key in the GENERAL section allows you
to save instrument settings, curves, screenshots and
screenshot settings simultaneously with just one key. As
described in previous chapters, you must first select the
corresponding settings for storage location, name etc.
The soft menu key FILE/PRINT in the SAVE/RECALL main
menu opens the setup menu for the FILE/PRINT key. You
may choose from the following actions:
❙❙ DEVICE SETTINGS: Stores settings
❙❙ TRACES: Stores curves
❙❙ SCREENSHOTS: Stores screenshots
❙❙ SCREEN & SETUP: Stores screenshots and settings
❙❙ PRINT: Prints directly to a compatible printer (Postscript,
some PCL and PCLX capable printer)
If you press the respective soft menu key to activate the
required operation, the corresponding menu will be displayed with a blue background. Press the MENU OFF key
to quit the selection menu. If you press the FILE/PRINT
key, the selected function will be performed.
As a standard, the R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202
series is equipped with the connectors for the
R&S®HO3508 logic probe to add 8 digital logic inputs. All
software required for the mixed signal operation is already
included in the firmware of the R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 series. It is only necessary to purchase and
connect the active R&S®HO3508 logic probe (8 channels).
If you activate the POD on R&S®HMO1002 series, analog
channel 2 will be deactivated automatically. This only allows the configuration of 1 analog channel + 8 logic channels on the screen simultaneously. The R&S®HMO1202
series allows the configuration of 2 analog channels + 8
logic channels on the screen simultaneously.
Fig. 12.1: Optional logic probe R&S®HO3508
12.1 Logic Trigger for Digital Input
Please find an additional description of the logic trigger for the
inputs of the logic probe in chapter 6.3.3.
12.2 Display Functions for the Logic Channels
You must always set the level to distinguish between the logic
states (High/Low) in the VERTICAL MENU..
Fig. 11.7: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
44
To switch on the digital channels, press the POD key in the
VERTICAL section. The digital channels 0 to 7 will now display on the screen. For the logic channels, a logic „1“ will
be indicated by a bar that is two pixels wide, and a logic
„0“ will be indicated by a bar that is one pixel wide. The
set logic level and a figure which shows the logical states
will be shown next to the name POD in the information
field in the bottom left of the display.
Mixed-Signal Operation
You may now choose the Y position and the size of the logic channel display just as you would for the analog channels. Use the knobs Y-POSITION 18 and VOLTS/DIV 20 to
select the settings (if the soft menu key “0/7“ is selected,
indicated by a blue background). If you wish to display
fewer than 8 logic channels or change the position and
size of a particular logic channel, you can use the short
menu in combination with the soft menu keys (channel 0
to 7) and the buttons Y-POSITION 18 and VOLTS/DIV 20 to
select the respective settings. You can choose a channel
by pressing the and soft menu keys. This allows you to
resize and position specific channels individually.
You can reset the position and size of the individual logic
channels on page 2|2 of the POD menu. You also have the
option to label the individual bits of the logic channel by
using the soft menu NAME. This name will be displayed
on the grid and the printout. Your first option is to switch
the display on (ON) or off (OFF). The next option includes
the menu item LIBRARY. After selecting this option, you
can use the universal knob to choose a name from several
suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows you to enter
a completely new name or to customize the suggested
name. You may enter up to 8 characters. Use the ACCEPT
key to confirm the name in the editor. It will then be shown
in the display. The name is assigned to that specific signal
and will move alongside any set offset value.
of data and clock signals. The universal knob allows you to
select the BUS type PARALLEL or PARALLEL CLOCKED.
Select CONFIGURATION to determine the bus source
and structure. The contents of the menu change with the
selected BUS type. After pressing the top soft menu key
BUS WIDTH, you can use the universal knob to select
a bus width from 1-8 bits. The table displaying the bit
assignments will be adjusted dynamically depending on
your choice. Each bit of the displayed bus has a source.
The source refers to the individual POD bits. Based on the
measurement setup, the sources can be assigned via soft
menu key SOURCE and the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
The soft menu keys PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT allow you to
move the position of the selection bar for the source of the
individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted in blue. The
left side of the table contains the bits in fixed sequence,
beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob
allows you to assign a real logic channel to the selected
BUS bit. The allocation is not subject to restrictions; you
can also use partially identical logic channels in the two
possible buses. If you select PARALLEL CLOCKED as
BUS TYPE, you can also use the bottom soft menu key
CONTROL WIRES to select sources for CHIP SELECT, and
you can use the universal knob to select the settings for
CLOCK. The soft menu key ACTIVE is used to determine if
the chip select signal High or Low Active is selected.
The soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and both slopes. The active selection is always
highlighted in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the
bit source window. Press the MENU OFF button to return
to the BUS main menu.
The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP opens a menu to select
the display format and its extent. The universal knob in the
submenu allows you to choose the format to decode the
bus values. You can choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
Fig. 12.2: 8 Bit DAC signal change
12.3 Display of Logic Channels as BUS
You also have the option to combine digital channels to
form buses which will then be displayed on the screen
as a cell in a table. Basically, two independent buses are
possible. For instance, it would be possible to combine an
8 bit address bus and an 8 bit data bus. To select the settings for the buses, press the BUS button in he VERTICAL
section. Then press the MENU button in the VERTICAL
section. In the menu that opens you can press the top soft
menu key BUS to select which BUS you want to define,
B1 or B2. You can use the soft menu key BUS TYPE to
choose the BUS type for the display and the analysis. The
BUS type determines the bus structure and is organized
differently depending on serial vs. parallel or the number
The decoded values will be shown in the cells/tables of
the buses according to the selected format. The next soft
menu key BITS can also be used to activate (ON) or deactivate (OFF) the table display for the individual bus bits. You
can use the POSITION control knob to determine the position of the bus display on the screen. The VOLT/DIV knob
allows you to determine the size of the table display. This
may be particularly useful for the binary display as it allows
the display of the complete value in up to 4 rows even for
short tables.
12.4 Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you may select several
parameters via cursor measurements (CURSOR MEASURE
button). For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can
choose from the following measurement types:
45
Mixed-Signal Operation
❙❙ TIME:
The display will include the time position of both cursors
relative to the trigger time, the time difference between
the two positions and the resulting frequency.
❙❙ RATIO X:
In this measurement type, three cursors are used to
display a time ratio between the first two cursors plus the
first and third cursor. The results are shown in floating
point format, in percent, in degrees and in radians.
❙❙ V-MARKER:
For the logic channels, the logic value of the selected POD
will be measured at the respective cursor and shown in
hexadecimal and decimal format.
12.5 Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you can use the automatic measurement functions to determine several parameters. For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can
choose from the measurement types:
❙❙ FREQUENCY
❙❙ PERIOD
❙❙ PULSE WIDTH +/–
❙❙ DUTY CYCLE+/–
❙❙ DELAY
❙❙ PHASE
❙❙ BURST WIDTH
❙❙ COUNT PULSE +/–
❙❙ COUNT (pos./neg.)
13 Serial
Bus Analysis
13.1 Software options (license key)
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series can be
upgraded with options / voucher to trigger and decode
serial buses.
❙❙ R&S®HOO10 / R&S®HV110:
The option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110
can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI and UART/
RS-232 buses on the digital channels (option logic probe
R&S®HO3508 needed) and on the analog inputs. This
option allows the decoding of two serial buses
simultaneously.
❙❙ R&S®HOO11 / R&S®HV111:
The option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 can
be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI and UART/RS-232
buses on analog inputs only and it only allows the
decoding of one serial bus at a time.
❙❙ R&S®HOO12 / R&S®HV112:
The option R&S®HOO12 resp. the voucher R&S®HV112
can be used to trigger and decode CAN and LIN buses on
the digital channels (option logic probe R&S®HO3508
needed) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the
decoding of two serial buses simultaneously.
The options R&S®HOO10, R&S®HOO11 and R&S®HOO12
can be ordered in combination with a R&S®HMO1002 ex
factory. The upgrade voucher R&S®HV110, R&S®HV111
and R&S®HV112 can be activated by a software license key
(please refer to chapter 2.7).
The analysis of parallel and serial data consists of the following three basic steps:
❙❙ Protocol configuration (BUS type / protocol-specific
settings)
❙❙ Decoding (Display of decoded data / Zoom / BUS table)
❙❙ Trigger (Start / Stop / serial samples)
The serial bus analysis is performed with 1/8 of the sampling
rate.
13.2 Serial Bus Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
It is necessary to define a BUS before you can determine
the settings for the serial trigger and decoding functions. A
maximum of two buses, B1 and B2, may be defined. Press
the BUS button in the VERTICAL section. This will open
a short menu where you can press the bottom soft menu
key B1 or B2. Additionally you can use the MENU button in
the VERTICAL section and the top soft menu key to define
46
Serial Bus Analysis
the respective BUS (B1 or B2).
Depending on the installed option use the soft menu key
BUS TYPE to choose from the following BUS types:
❙❙ PARALLEL (Standard)
❙❙ PARALLEL CLOCKED (Standard)
❙❙ SSPI (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ SPI (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ I2C (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ UART (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ CAN (only available with R&S®HOO12/HV112)
❙❙ LIN (only available with R&S®HOO12/HV112)
key BUS TABLE allows you to activate or deactivate the list
view (blue highlighted). By default, the table is displayed at
the bottom of the screen. Generally, a complete message
of a protocol is displayed in a row. The columns include
important information, e.g. address and date of the message. The number of rows in the table is identical to the
number of complete message frames in storage. The decoding results may be saved as CSV file by using the soft
menu key SAVE (e.g. save to a USB stick).
Fig. 13.2: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
Fig. 13.1: Menu for the definition of buses
The soft menu key CONFIGURATION allows you to invoke
a menu corresponding to the selected bus type. A menu
description can be found in the chapters of the respective
BUS configuration. The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP is identical for all buses and allows you to select the decoding
format. You may choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
Use the soft menu key BITS to activate or deactivate the
display of individual bit lines (above the table display). The
last entry NAME in the VERTICAL menu opens a submenu
which allows you to enter a BUS name. This name will be
displayed on the grid and the printout. Your first option is
to switch the display on (ON) or off (OFF). The next option
includes the menu item LIBRARY. After selecting this
option, you can use the universal knob to choose a name
from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows
you to enter a completely new name or to customize the
suggested name. You may enter up to 8 characters. Use
the ACCEPT key to confirm the name in the editor. It will
then be shown in the display. The name is assigned to that
specific signal.
13.2.1 BUS Table
The soft menu BUS TABLE allows you to configure / export a list of all decoded messages in storage. The table
content is protocol specific and the table display can be
activated for each individual BUS type. The top soft menu
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always
displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function properly.
The Zoom function allows you to view details for any specific
message.
Example of a I2C BUS table:
“Bus table: BUS1 (I2C: Clock SCL = D0, Dates SDA = D1)“
Frame,Mark,Start time[s],Type,ID,Length,Date,Condition
1,,-197.89200e-6,Read,0x2D,5,0xF110E55D31,OK
2,,28.00000e-9,Write,0x42,8,0xEB8DC599AE5D6FC0,OK
3,,217.74000e-6,Write,0x3B,6,0xA113B7263E5B,OK
4,,376.07200e-6,Read,0x0E,6,0x55C3EB71D9E8,OK
5,,613.58000e-6,Write,0x66,8,0x91B86EE6655E2300,Data Error
A BUS table can only be stored if the STOP mode is active.
The soft menu key TRACK FRAME allows you to scroll
through the BUS table and simultaneously jump to the
corresponding position in the memory via universal knob
to display details on the screen. However, this is only possible if acquisition has been stopped. This option is also
available in the short menu BUS via soft menu key TRK
(= Track). If you activate the soft menu key FRAME TIME
DIFFERENCE (highlighted in blue), the time difference to
the previous frame (data packet) will be displayed in the
BUS table. This column will be labeled in the table as TIME
DIFF. If this function is deactivated, the absolute time in
relation to the trigger point will be displayed in the column
START TIME. The soft menu key TAB in the BUS short
menu allows you to activate or deactivate the BUS table
without opening a menu. You can use the soft menu item
POSITION to move the table to the top or bottom of the
screen. In addition, it is possible to display the BUS table
in full screen. Select the position via universal knob in the
47
Serial Bus Analysis
BUS menu or directly via soft menu key POS in the BUS
short menu.
13.3 Parallel / Parallel Clocked BUS
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series has a
PARALLEL and PARALLEL CLOCKED BUS function installed ex factory and is able to analyze up to 7 bit lines. The
soft menu key BUS WIDTH and the universal knob allow
you to select the number of bit lines. The soft menu keys
PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT allow you to move the position of
the selection bar for the source of the individual bits. The
selected bit is highlighted in blue. The left side of the table
contains the bits in fixed sequence, beginning at the top
with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows you to assign a
real logic channel to the selected BUS bit. The allocation is
not subject to restrictions; you can also use partially identical logic channels in the two possible buses.
The I2C BUS is a two-wire bus which was developed by
Philips (today known as NXP Semiconductor). A I2C BUS
has the following properties:
❙❙ Two wire bus (2-wire): Clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
❙❙ Master-Slave Communication: the master provides the
clock pulse and selects the slave
❙❙ Addressing: Each slave can be addressed via unique
address; multiple slaves can be linked with each other and
can be addressed by the same master
❙❙ Read/Write bit: Master reads data (=1) or writes data (=0)
❙❙ Acknowledge: issued after each byte
Fig. 13.4: I2C 7-Bit-Adress
Fig. 13.3: Example PARALLEL BUS with BUS table
If you select PARALLEL CLOCKED as BUS TYPE, you can
also use the bottom soft menu key CONTROL WIRES
to select sources for CHIP SELECT, and you can use the
universal knob to select the settings for CLOCK. The soft
menu key ACTIVE is used to determine if the chip select
signal High or Low Active is selected. The soft menu key
SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and
both slopes. The active selection is always highlighted
in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the bit source
window. Press the MENU OFF button to return to the BUS
main menu.
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Data
Values of the data bytes
Tab. 13.1: Content of the PARALLEL BUS table
To trigger on parallel buses, it is recommended to use the
logic trigger (see chapter 6.3.3).
13.4I2C BUS
For I2C BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO10 resp.
R&S®HOO11 option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV110 resp.
R&S®HV111.
48
The format of a simple I2C message (frame) with an
address length of 7 bit is structured as follows:
❙❙ Start condition: Falling slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
❙❙ 7 bit address (write or read slave)
❙❙ Read/Write bit (R/W): Indicates, if the data is to be
written or read out from the slave
❙❙ Acknowledge bit (ACK): Is issued by the recipient of the
previous byte if transmission was successful (exception:
for read access, the master terminates the data
transmission with a NACK bit after the last byte)
❙❙ Data: a series of data bytes with a ACK bit after each byte
❙❙ Stop condition: rising slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
13.4.1I2C BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
To decode the I2C BUS it is necessary to determine during the bus configuration which logic channel will be
connected to the clock (SCL) and which one to the data
line (SDA). This setting is selected after choosing the BUS
TYPE I2C in the BUS menu and pressing the soft menu
key CONFIGURATION. In the menu, choose the top soft
menu key CLOCK SCL and use the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU section to select the source channel. You
can define the data channel by pressing the soft menu
key DATA SDA. With the soft menu key 7BIT ADRESS you
can choose, if the adress should be interpretated inclusive
(ADR.+RW) or without Read/Write bit (ADDR. ONLY).
A small window provides information about the current
settings. Press the MENU OFF button twice to close all
menus.
Serial Bus Analysis
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source.
If the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed, both analog and digital channels are available as source.
Certain portions of the I2C messages will be displayed
in color to distinguish between the different elements. If
the data lines are selected with the table display, the respective sections will also be displayed in color. These are
described as follows:
❙❙ Read address:
Yellow
❙❙ Write address:
Magenta
❙❙ Data:Cyan
❙❙ Start:White
❙❙ Stop:White
❙❙ No acknowledge:
Red
❙❙ Acknowledge:
Green
13.4.2I2C Bus Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section
and choose I2C Bus. This will only be available if it was
configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER
section to list all available I2C trigger conditions.
Following trigger conditions can be defined:
❙❙ START: The oscilloscope triggers on the frame start
sequence.The start sequence is the falling slope on SDA
when SCL is high.
❙❙ STOP: The oscilloscope triggers on the frame stop
sequence. The start signal is the rising slope on SDA
when SCL is high.
❙❙ RESTART: The oscilloscope triggers, if a new start
sequence occurs before the stop condition. The new start
signal is a repeated start signal.
❙❙ NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE: The NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE bit is
the 9th bit in a data or address unit of the SDA line. For
NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE, the Acknowledge bit is on SDA
high, although it should be low.
❙❙ READ/WRITE: The soft menu key READ/WRITE offers
additional trigger options. You can use the soft menu key
MASTER to toggle the trigger condition between read and
write access. The 8th bit of the first data unit (depending
on the address length) is used to distinguish between
read and write access. The selected condition is displayed
in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the menu
key in blue. The address length (in bit) defines the
maximum number of slave addresses to be used with the
bus. For a 7 bit address length, the maximum number of
available addresses is 112. The 10 bit addressing mode is
downward compatible with the 7 bit addressing mode by
using 4 of 16 reserved addresses and can be used
simultaneously. For a 10 bit address length, a total of
1136 addresses (1024 + 128 - 16) is available. The highest
10 bit address is 1023 (0x3FF). The selected address
length is displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the menu key in blue. The SLAVE ADDRESS is
the address used on the BUS to distinguish which slave
Fig. 13.5: I2C Read/Wrtie trigger menu
the master communicates with. Use the universal knob in
the CURSOR/MENU section to select the address for the
observing bus participant to be triggered. The soft menu
DATA enables you to enter specific data in addition to the
address. With this menu, you can trigger on clearly
defined data bytes (color cyan) within the transmission,
allowing you to filter out irrelevant transmissions. You can
trigger on up to 24 bit (3 byte) of data. An offset of 0 to
4095 to the address is allowed. Select BYTE OFFSET
which defines the distance between the bytes relevant
for the trigger condition and the address. In most cases,
the byte offset is zero if the trigger is to occur on the
maximum first 24 bits after the address. The soft menu
key NUMBER OF BYTES allows you to define how many
bytes are to be analyzed for the trigger condition. The
input may be binary or hexadecimal (PATTERN INPUT). If
binary input is selected, the individual bits can be
assigned to any condition via soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE allows
you to set the state H (=1), L (=0) or X (don’t care) for
each bit. The state X defines any state. If the input is
hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. If you
choose the hexadecimal input, use the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob to set the respective byte
value. The soft menu key SELECT BYTE allows you to
edit the different bytes (byte 1 to byte 2 to byte 3 etc.)
Fig. 13.6: I2C BUS
49
Serial Bus Analysis
sequentially (depending on the defined NUMBER OF
BYTES). The active byte will be marked with a green
border in the display window of the trigger condition (see
fig. 12.9).
Press the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set address
and data. For measurements without measuring object
please refer to chapter 10.2.5.
13.4.3 I2C BUS Table
❙❙ No acknowledge to confirm data reception
❙❙ Duplex capability
Most SPI buses have 4 common lines, 2 data lines and 2
control lines:
❙❙ Clock to all slaves (SCLK)
❙❙ Slave select or chip select lines (SS or CS)
❙❙ Master-Out-Slave-In, Slave-Data-Input (MOSI or SDI)
❙❙ Master-In-Slave-Out, Slave-Data-Output (MISO or SDO)
If the master generates a clock pulse and selects a slave,
data can be transmitted in either one direction or
simultaneously in both directions (only available with
R&S®HOO10/R&S®HV110).
Fig. 13.8: Simple configuration of SPI BUS
13.5.1 SPI / SSPI BUS Configuration
Fig. 13.7: I2C BUS Table
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Type
Value of the R/W bit (Read/Write)
ID
Value of the address
Length
Number of words in the frame
Data
Values of the data words
State
Frame State:
❙❙ OK = Frame is valid
❙❙ DATA = during acquisition start/end only te
frame start / frame end has been decoded;
currently no data available
❙❙ ADDR. ERR. = incomplete frame decoding
❙❙ INS = the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition; the acquired part of the frame is
valid.
Tab. 13.2: Content of the I2C BUS Table
13.5 SPI / SSPI BUS
For SPI/SSPI BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO10
resp. R&S®HOO11 option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV110
resp. R&S®HV111.
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used to communicate
with slow peripheral devices, in particular for the transfer
of data streams. The SPI bus was developed by Motorola
(today known as Freescale); however, it has not been formally standardized. Generally, this is a bus with clock and
data lines and a select line (3-wire). If only one master and
one slave are present, the select line may be deleted. This
type of line is also called SSPI (Simple SPI) (2-wire). A SPI
BUS has the following properties:
❙❙ Master-slave communication
❙❙ No instrument addressing
50
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV. For 3-wire SPI the external trigger input will
be used a CS (Chip Select). The threshold can be set in the BUS
configuration menu.
Certain settings are necessary to guarantee that a SPI bus
is decoded correctly. First, you have to determine if a SPI
system with or without chip select is available (2-wire or
3-wire SPI). This can be done in the BUS setup menu when
selecting the BUS type. For a 2-wire SPI system, select the
option SSPI; for a 3-wire SPI system, select the option SPI.
Then press the CONFIGURATION button to open the setup
menu for SPI. Use the top soft menu key SOURCE to select the respective channel for chip select (CS), clock (Clk)
and data. Select the respective soft menu key CS, Clk or
Data and then use the soft menu key DATA and the universal knob to the select the respective source channel. For
the 2-wire SPI, select the possible TIME OUT instead of a
chip select source. During the time out, data and clock line
are at Low. When the time out has been reached, a new
frame begins. If the time intervals between the data packets are shorter than the time out, these packets belong
to the same frame. You can select the dead time via universal knob or via numeric input (KEYPAD button). A small
window provides information about the current settings.
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source.
If the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed, both analog and digital channels are available as source.
In addition to assigning the source, the soft menu key ACTIVE allows you to select the following settings:
❙❙ CS: Chip select high or low active (low active is the
default setting)
Serial Bus Analysis
❙❙ CLK: Data will be stored with rising or falling slope (rising
slope is the default setting)
❙❙ DATA: Data high or low active (high active is the default
setting)
Certain portions of the SPI/SSPI messages will be displayed
in color to distinguish between the different elements:
❙❙ White:
Start / End of complete frame
❙❙ Red:
Incomplete word that is not completely contained in the acquisition; change the horizontal scale or move the“Time Reference“ to get a longer acquisition
❙❙ Cyan:
Decoded words
Fig. 13.9: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
You can use the soft menu key BIT ORDER to determine if
the data of each message starts with the MSB (most significant bit) or the LSB (least significant bit). The soft menu
key WORD SIZE allows you to select via universal knob
how many bits are included per message. You may select
any value between 1 and 32 bits.
13.5.2 SPI / SSPI BUS Triggering
After the SPI/SSPI BUS configuration, it will be possible
to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the
TRIGGER section of the control panel and choose the soft
menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button
in the TRIGGER section and choose SPI Bus. This will only
be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER
button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list
all available SPI trigger conditions. The following trigger
conditions can be defined:
❙❙ FRAME START: Sets the trigger event on the start of the
frame. The frame starts when the chip select (CS) signal
switches to the selected active mode.
❙❙ FRAME END: Sets the trigger event on the end of the
frame. The frame ends when the chip select (CS) signal
switches from the selected active to the inactive mode.
❙❙ BIT: Selects the trigger time to the set bit within the set
bit sequence with the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section. You can also enter a numeric value to
determine the desired bit number (KEYPAD button).
❙❙ SER. PATTERN: Use the soft menu SER. PATTERN to
define a specific bit sequence within the frame which
start the trigger event. The soft menu key BIT OFFSET
allows you to select the first bit of the predefined bit
sequence within the frame. The bits in front of it have no
impact on the trigger event (for instance, if the bit offset =
2, bit 0 and bit 1 after CS will be ignored and the pattern
begins with bit 2). You can select a value between 0 and
4095 via universal knob or enter it numerically (KEYPAD
button). The soft menu key NUMBER OF BITS allows you
to select how many bits will be analyzed for the trigger
condition. You can select a value between 1 and 32 bit via
universal knob. The serial bit sequence (PATTERN INPUT)
can be entered as binary or hexadecimal value. If you
choose the binary input, the soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob allow you to select which
individual bits within the data are to be edited. The option
STATE allows you to assign a logic state to each bit (High
= H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow
you to set the value for the respective nibble (4 bit). If the
input is hexadecimal, only the entire nibble can be set to
X. Use the soft menu key SELECT NIBBLE to toggle
between nibbles. The active nibble will be marked with a
green border in the display window of the trigger
condition.
Press the MENU OFF button three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit
sequence. For measurements without measuring object
please refer to chapter 10.2.5.
13.5.3 SPI/SSPI BUS Table
Fig. 13.10: Example SSPI BUS table
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Length
Number of words in the frame
Data
Values of the data words
State
Frame Status:
❙❙ OK = Frame is valid
❙❙ DATA = during acquisition start/end only te
frame start / frame end has been decoded;
currently no data available
❙❙ INS = the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition; the acquired part of the frame is
valid.
Tab. 13.3: Content of the SPI/SSPI BUS table
51
Serial Bus Analysis
13.6 UART/RS-232 BUS
For UART/RS-232 BUS trigger and decoding you need the
R&S®HOO10 resp. R&S®HOO11 option or the upgrade voucher
R&S®HV110 resp. R&S®HV111.
The UART bus (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) is a general bus system and the base for many protocols. One example is the RS-232 protocol. It consists of a
frame with a start bit, 5 to 9 data bits, one parity bit and a
stop bit. The stop bit can assume the single length, or 1.5
or twice the length of a normal bit.
Fig. 13.11: UART bit sequence
13.6.1 UART/RS-232 BUS Konfiguration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
To decode the UART BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This
setting is selected after choosing the bus type UART in the
BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can press the top soft
menu key DATA SOURCE to select the desired channel via
universal knob.
❙❙ None: Use no parity bits
❙❙ Even: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is uneven (without parity bit)
❙❙ Odd: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is even (without parity bit)
The bottom soft menu key STOP BITS allows you to define
the length of the stop bit (1 = single, 1.5 = 1 1/2 or 2 =
double). On page 2|2 of the UART BUS setup menu, you
can select the BIT RATE (symbol rate) via universal knob
in the CURSOR/MENU section. The bit rate defines how
many bits are sent per second. The soft menu key BIT
RATE allows you to select standard numeric values. Press
the soft menu key USER if you wish to define customized
rates via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
The IDLE TIME describes the minimum time between the
stop bit of the last data and the start bit of the new data.
The sole purpose of the idle time is to define the start of a
transmission and consequently the exact start of a frame
(one or more symbols, most commonly bytes). Only this
information can guarantee correct decoding and triggering
(regardless of the trigger type). A start bit within the idle
time will not be recognized. You can enter the value via
universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source.
If the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed, both analog and digital channels are available as source.
The soft menu key ACTIVE can be used to determine if
the data transferred to the BUS are active high (High = 1)
or active low (Low = 1) (for RS-232, choose Low). Use the
soft menu key SYMBOL SIZE and the universal knob to
select a value between 5 bit to 9 bit for the bits that form
a symbol. Another setting can be selected via soft menu
key PARITY. Parity bits are used to detect errors during a
transmission. The soft menu PARITY offers the following
options:
Fig. 13.12: Trigger menu UART data
52
Fig. 13.13: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
Certain portions of the UART messages will be displayed
in color to distinguish between the different elements:
❙❙ White: Start / End of complete frame
❙❙ Red:Incomplete word that is not completely
contained in the acquisition; change the
horizontal scale or move the“Time Reference“ to
get a longer acquisition
❙❙ Cyan: Decoded words
13.6.2 UART/RS-232 BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu
key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in
the TRIGGER section and choose UART. This will only be
available if it was configured earlier.
Serial Bus Analysis
Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available UART trigger conditions:
❙❙ START BIT: Sets the start bit as trigger event. The start
bit is the first 0 bit that succeeds a stop bit or idle time.
❙❙ FRAME START: Defines the first start bit after idle time.
❙❙ SYMBOL<N>: Assigns a predefined N-th symbol as
trigger event.
❙❙ ANY SYMBOL: The soft menu ANY SYMBOL allows you
to define any symbol to trigger on. The symbol can be
located anywhere within a frame. The serial bit sequence
(PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary or
hexadecimal value. If you choose the binary input, the soft
menu key SELECT BIT and the universal knob allow you to
select which individual bits within the data are to be
edited. Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to
each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care).
The state X defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and the universal
knob allow you to set the value for the respective symbol.
If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire symbol can be
set to X. Use the soft menu key SELECT SYMBOL to
toggle between symbols.
❙❙ PATTERN: Offers additional options for UART trigger
settings. The soft menu key SYMBOL OFFSET and the
universal knob are used to select the number of irrelevant
symbols that proceed the pattern within the frame that
are relevant for the trigger event. Any value between 0 to
4095 symbols after the start bit may be entered. Use the
soft menu key NUMB. OF SYMB. to select the number of
relevant symbols as 1, 2 or 3. The number of symbol
defines the pattern size. The symbol length (5 to 9 bit)
was configured at the time of the bus definition and will
be observed accordingly in the trigger menu. The value
input for the symbols may be binary or hexadecimal (as
described above). Use the soft menu key PATTERN
INPUT for this selection. If binary input is selected, the
individual bits can be assigned via soft menu key SELECT
BIT and the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE
allows you to determine the state for each bit (1, 0 or X).
If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value
for the respective symbol. Use the soft menu key SELECT
SYMBOL to toggle between symbols. The active byte will
be marked with a green border in the display window of
the trigger condition.
❙❙ PARITY ERROR: Trigger with a parity filter
❙❙ FRAME ERROR: Trigger with a frame error
❙❙ BREAK: Trigger with a break. The BREAK condition is
fulfilled if a stop bit does not succeed a start bit within a
specified time period. The stop bits low are active during
the break.
Press the MENU OFF button three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit
sequence. For measurements without measuring object
please refer to chapter 10.2.5.
13.6.3 UART BUS Table
Fig. 13.15: Example UART BUS table
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Data
Values of the data words
State
Frame State:
❙❙ OK = Frame is valid
❙❙ DATA = during acquisition start/end only te
frame start / frame end has been decoded;
currently no data available
❙❙ INS = the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition; the acquired part of the frame is
valid.
Tab. 13.4: Content of the UART BUS table
13.7 CAN BUS
For CAN BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO12
option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV112.
Fig. 13.14: UART trigger menu page 2
The CAN bus (Controller Area Network) is a bus system
primarily developed for automotive applications and is
used for the data exchange between controller units
and sensors. It can be found increasingly in the aviation,
healthcare, and general automation industries. At the
physical level, CAN is a differential signal, therefore a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) is recommended for decoding,
although standard probes are equally suitable to capture
the signals. The standard data rates range between 10
kBit/s and 1 MBit/s. A CAN message primarily consists of
a start bit, the Frame ID (11 or 29 bit), the data length code
DLC, the data, a CRC, acknowledge and an end bit.
53
Serial Bus Analysis
13.7.1 CAN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
After choosing the BUS type CAN in the BUS menu the
configuration menu will open after pressing the soft menu
key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can
press the top soft menu key DATA to select the desired
channel via universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
An analog or a digital channel can be connected to CANHigh or CAN-Low. In addition, it is possible to connect a
differential probe (e.g. HZO40) to an analog channel. When
using a differential probe, select CAN High if the positive
input of the probe is connected to CAN-H and the negative
input to CAN L. If the probe is connected with reversed
polarity, you must select CAN L.
Fig. 13.16: CAN BUS configuration
The soft menu key SAMPLE POINT allows you to specify
the exact point within the bit at which the value for the
current bit is sampled. You can select a value in percent
(25% to 90%) via universal knob or KEYPAD key in the
CURSOR/MENU section. The option BIT RATE defines
how many bits are transmitted per second and allows you
to select default data rates via universal knob. Use the soft
menu key USER to specify user-defined bit rates. You can
enter the value via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
list all available CAN trigger conditions:
❙❙ START OF FRAME: Triggers on the first slope of the SOF
bit (synchronizing bit).
❙❙ END OF FRAME: Triggers on the end of the frame.
❙❙ FRAME: The submenu offers different options, like trigger
on ERROR (general frame error), OVERLOAD (trigger on
CAN Overload frames) or DATA (trigger on data frames).
With the soft menu key READ/DATA you are able to
trigger on read and data frames. With the soft menu key
IP TYPE the identifier type (11 bit, 29 bit or any.) can be
selected.
❙❙ ERROR S: Identifies various errors in a frame. This menu
allows you to choose one or several error message types
as trigger condition. Individual frame segments (e.g. frame
start etc.) are coded during the bit stuffing procedure. The
transmitter automatically adds a complimentary bit to the
bit stream if it detects 5 consecutive bits with identical
value in the bit stream to be transmitted. A “STUFF” error
occurs if the 6th identical bit level is detected in the
specified sections. A FORM error occurs if a fixed bit field
contains one or several invalid bits. An authentication error
occurs if the transmitter receives no authentication
(acknowledge). CAN BUS applies a complex checksum
calculation (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The transmitter
calculates the CRC and transmits the result in a CRC
sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the same
manner. A CRC error occurs if the calculated result
deviates from the received CRC sequence.
❙❙ IDENTIFIER: Identifies the priority and the logical address
of a message. In the menu that opens you can press the
top soft menu key to select the FRAME TYPE (general
data, read data or read/write data) via universal knob. The
soft menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below allows you to specify
the length of the identifier type via soft menu key ID TYPE
and universal knob (11 bit base or 29 bits for extended
CAN frames). The soft menu key COMPARE defines the
comparison function. If the pattern includes at least one X
(don’t care), it is possible to trigger on a value equal or not
equal to the specified value. If the pattern includes only 0
or 1, it is possible to trigger on an area greater than or less
than the specified value. The PATTERN INPUT may be
binary or hexadecimal. If you choose the binary input, the
soft menu key BIT and the universal knob allow you to
Certain portions of the UART messages will be displayed
in color to distinguish between the different elements:
❙❙ Weiß:
Data length code, number of data bytes
❙❙ Cyan:
Data words
❙❙ Magenta:
Identifier
❙❙ Rot:
Frame Error
13.7.2 CAN BUS Triggering
After the CAN BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose CAN. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section to
54
Fig. 13.17: CAN BUS
Serial Bus Analysis
select which individual bits within the data are to be
edited. Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to
each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The
state X defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal
input, the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob
allow you to set the value for the respective byte. If the
input is hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X.
Use the soft menu key BYTE to toggle between bytes.
❙❙ IDENTIFIER AND DATA: Includes the same settings as
the soft menu IDENTIFIER. In the menu that opens you
can select the FRAME TYPE (general data or read data)
via top soft menu key and universal knob. In the menu
IDENTIFIER SETUP below you can enter the address of
the respective pattern. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows
you to specify the data bit pattern or HEX values for up to
8 bytes (only available if DATA was selected as frame
type). Available comparisons for address and data values
are GREATER, EQUAL OR LESS, EQUAL and NOT
EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
For measurements without measuring object please refer
to chapter 10.2.5.
13.7.3 CAN BUS Table
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
Type
Frame Type:
❙❙ DATA = Data Frame
❙❙ REMOTE = Remote Frame
❙❙ ERR-F. = Transmission error (Error Frame)
❙❙ OVL-F. = Overload Frame
ID
Frame ID
DLC
Data length code, number of data bytes
Data
Values of the data bytes
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
State
Frame State:
❙❙ OK = Frame is valid
❙❙ CRC = the calculated result deviates from the
received CRC sequence (cyclic redundancy
check failed)
❙❙ NACK = not Acknowledge
❙❙ CRC+NACK = cyclic redundancy check failed
followed by „not Acknowledge“
❙❙ STUFF = Bit Stuffing Error
❙❙ INS = the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition; the acquired part of the frame is
valid.
Tab. 13.5: Content of the CAN BUS table
Fig. 13.18: Example CAN BUS table
13.8 LIN BUS
For CAN BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO12
option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV112.
The LIN bus (Local Interconnect Network) is a simple
master/slave bus system for automotive applications and
is used for the data exchange between controller units and
sensors or actuators. The signal is transmitted on one line
with ground reference to the vehicle mass. A LIN BUS has
the following properties:
❙❙ Serial single-wire communication protocol (byte-oriented)
❙❙ Master-slave communication (generally up to 12 knots)
❙❙ Master-controlled communication (master initiates /
coordinates communication)
The data is transmitted in bytes without parity (based on
UART). Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 data bits and a
stop bit.
Fig. 13.19: LIN byte structure
13.8.1 LIN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
After choosing the BUS type LIN in the BUS menu press
the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that
opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to select
the desired channel via universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section. The soft menu key POLARITY allows you
to toggle between High and Low; the active function will
be highlighted in blue. An analog or a digital channel can
be connected to LIN-High or LIN-Low. You can select any
version for the LIN standard (version 1x, version 2x, J2602
or any) via soft menu key VERSION and universal knob.
The option BIT RATE allows you to specify the number
of transmitted bits per second. You can use the univer55
Serial Bus Analysis
sal knob to choose from predefined standard data rates
and user-defined data rates (USER). The highest possible
user-defined data rate is 4MBit/s. You can enter the userdefined value via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD
button).
Fig. 13.21: LIN data trigger menu
Fig. 13.20: LIN BUS menu
Certain portions of the UART messages will be displayed
in color to distinguish between the different elements:
❙❙ White: Synchronization byte / correct checksum
❙❙ Cyan:
Data words
❙❙ Yellow: Identifier
❙❙ Green: Parity bit
❙❙ Red:
Frame Error
13.8.2 LIN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key
SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the
TRIGGER section and choose LIN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
CAN trigger conditions:
❙❙ START OF FRAME: Triggers on the stop bit of the
synchronizing field.
❙❙ WAKE UP: Triggers after a wake-up frame.
❙❙ ERROR C:Identifies various errors in a frame. This menu
allows you to choose one or several error message types
as trigger condition. LIN BUS applies a complex
checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The
transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits the result in
a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the
same manner. A CRC error occurs if the calculated result
deviates from the received CRC sequence. With soft
menu key PARITY triggering occurs on a parity error.
Parity bits are bit 6 and bit 7 of the identifier. The correct
transfer of the identifier is verified. With the soft menu
key SYNCHRONISATION triggering occurs if the
synchronizing field indicates an error.
❙❙ ID: With the soft menu key IDENTIFIER you can set the
trigger to a specific identifier or a specific identifier range.
The soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison
function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care),
56
it is possible to trigger on a value equal or not equal to the
specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is
possible to trigger on an area greater than or less than the
specified value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or
hexadecimal. If you choose the binary input, the soft
menu key BIT and the universal knob allow you to select
which individual bits within the data are to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit
(High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow
you to set the value for the respective byte. If the input is
hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. Use the
soft menu key BYTE to toggle between bytes.
❙❙ ID AND DATA: The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA
and the soft menu key IDENTIFIER SETUP include the
same settings as the soft menu IDENTIFIER. The soft
menu DATA SETUP allows you to specify the data bit
pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes. Available
comparisons for address and data values are EQUAL and
NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
For measurements without measuring object please refer
to chapter 10.2.5.
Fig. 13.22: LIN BUS
Remote Control
13.8.3 LIN BUS Table
14 Remote Control
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series is
equipped with a built-in interface card, which have an
Ethernet and USB connection on board as a standard.
To make any communication possible, the chosen interface and
it’s correcponding settings must be the same in the PC as in the
oscilloscope..
In addition to a LAN interface, the R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 series includes a USB device port. For this
interface, the user can select if the instrument is accessed
via virtual COM port (VCP) or via USB TMC class.
Fig. 13.23: Example LIN BUS table
Column
Description
Start Time
Time of frame start in relation to the trigger point
ID
Frame ID
Length
Number of data bytes
Data
Values of the data bytes
Chks
Checksum value
State
Frame Status:
❙❙ OK = Frame is valid
❙❙ DATA = during acquisition start/end only te
frame start / frame end has been decoded;
currently no data available
❙❙ SYNC = Synchronisation error
❙❙ CHKS = Checksum error
❙❙ PARI = Parity error
❙❙ WAKEUP = WakeUp Frame
❙❙ INS = ein „angerissener“ Frame sitzt am Ende
der Erfassung und das eigentliche Ende wurde
nicht dekodiert
Tab. 13.6: Content of the LIN BUS table
14.1 USB VCP
All currently available USB VCP drivers have been fully tested
and released for Windows XP™, VISTA™, Windows 7™ and Windows 8™ (32 + 64 Bit).
The traditional version of the VCP allows the user to communicate with the measuring instrument using any terminal program via SCPI commands once the corresponding
Windows drivers have been installed. The actual USB-VCP
driver can be downloaded from the ROHDE & SCHWARZ
homepage www.rohde-schwarz.com for free. If a connection between PC and the instrument has been established
and no R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series USBVCP driver is installed, the operating system answers with
“Found New Hardware”. In addition, the “Found New
Hardware Wizard” is displayed. Only in this case the USB
VCP driver must be installed. Further information about the
USB VCP driver installation you can find in the installation
guide internal of the driver file.
The following requirement for USB-VCP driver installation are
necessary:
1 R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 with an activated USBVCP interface.
2 A PC with operating system Windows XP™, VISTA™, Windows 7™, Windows 8™ or Windows 10™ (32 or 64Bit).
3 Administrator rights are necessary for the installation of the
driver. If an error message regarding spelling errors appears,
the rights to install the driver are not given. In this case,
please contact your IT department to obtain the necessary
rights.
In addition, you may use the free software HMExplorer.
This Windows application offers the R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 series a terminal function, the option to
create screenshots and to sort the measured data storage.
14.2 USB TMC
A modern alternative to the virtual COM port (VCP) is
the control via USB TMC class. TMC stands for „Test &
Measurement Class“ which indicates that the connected measurement instrument can be recognized without
57
Remote Control
special Windows drivers if VISA drivers are installed and
that it can be used directly in corresponding environments.
The GPIB interface serves as model to the structure of the
TMC design. A major benefit of the USB TMC class is that
by sampling specific registers the user can determine if
commands have been terminated and if they have been
processed correctly. However, the communication via VCP
requires analysis and polling mechanisms within the controlling software which may significantly strain the interface
of the measurement instruments. The TMC status registers
solve this problem with the USB TMC in the same manner
as is the case with the GPIB interface for the hardware,
namely via corresponding control lines.
Select “Next“ to start the installation and follow the
installation instructions.
The HMExplorer software does not support the communication
via USB TMC.
14.2.1 USB TMC Configuration
The R&S®HMO1002 resp. R&S®HMO1202 series require a
generic USB instrument driver to be operated in USB-TMC
mode. The USB Test & Measurement class (USB-TMC) is a
protocol that enables GPIB-like communication via USB interfaces and a separate instrument class of the USB specification. The USB-TMC protocol supports service requests,
trigger and other GPIB-specific commands. The driver is
included in the NI-VISA package (Virtual Instrument Software Architecture) and can be downloaded at http://www.
ni.com/downloads/ni-drivers/.
Fig. 14.2: NI-VISA installation instructions
In this step, please select “NI-VISA xxx --> Leave this feature and its subfeatures installed locally“.
You need to first install the NI-VISA drivers on your Windows system. Please download the most recent version
of the NI-VISA driver package. Extract the previously
downloaded driver package and follow the installation
instructions.
Below please find an example for NI-VISA 5.4.1:
Fig. 14.3: NI-VISA feature installation locally
Now that you have successfully installed the NI-VISA
drivers, you can switch your R&S®HMO1002 resp.
R&S®HMO1202 to the USB-TMC interface. Select
the SETUP menu of your oscilloscope, and choose
INTERFACE.
Fig. 14.1: NI-VISA 5.4.1
Fig. 14.4: Setup menu
58
Remote Control
Use the soft key to select “USB” and the soft menu
PARAMETER.
Once you open the Windows Device Manager, the following entry will be displayed: “USB Test and Measurement
Devices --> USB Test and Measurement Device (IVI)”.
Fig. 14.5: Interface menu
Choose the USB type „USB TMC“.
Fig. 14.8: Device manager
14.3 USB MTP
USB-MTP provides an easy solution to load data from the
oscilloscope to the PC. This usually does not require a
driver (according to Microsoft, USB MTP is automatically
supported for Windows XP SP3 and higher). USB-MTP is
unrelated to SCPI or the remote control of the instrument.
It is merely applied to transfer data in file format. If you
select the USB MTP function on the oscilloscope and if the
instrument is connected to a PC, the instrument will display in the PC Device Manager as portable instrument.
Fig. 14.6: Interface parameter menu
Finally, use a USB interface cable (type A – B) to connect
the power supply with your Windows PC. On the first use,
the operating system issues the following message:
“Found New Hardware”. Once the installation has been
successfully completed, the following message will be
displayed: “Device Setup” - “USB Test and Measurement
Device (IVI), ready to use“.
Fig. 14.9: Device manager display
Fig. 14.7: Instrument driver installation
The instrument includes three drives:
❙❙ Internal Storage:
Access to the files stored on the instrument, e.g.
instrument settings, references, masks and formula sets
(only for the R&S®HMO1202 series)
❙❙ Live Data:
Access to multiple subfolders, README.TXT file,
SCREENSHOT and SETTINGS
❙❙ Upload:
Sending files to the oscilloscope (temporary drive)
59
Remote Control
Fig. 14.10: Folder display
If a USB stick is connected to the oscilloscope, you can
view the USB stick content via USB-MTP, or you can copy
files to the PC. The USB stick displays as USB FRONT in
the folder list. Contrary to the image preview in LIVE DATA
which is only available via right click and the OPEN option,
the image preview in USB FRONT is operational because
the size indicated in Explorer corresponds to the actual file
size. The file size in Explorer is overestimated at times to
prevent Windows from simply truncating files while the PC
is receiving them.
Fig. 14.11: Folder display with USB stick
Sending files to the oscilloscope is only supported via UPLOAD
drive. All other drives are read-only. There is no way to remove the
write protection.
14.3.1 Live Data
The LIVE DATA folder contains several subfolders and
files. Each time a screenshot is opened, a current snapshot
will be taken and sent to the PC. Double-clicking the
snapshot will open the image preview which, however,
fails to function in combination with the R&S®HMO1002 or
R&S®HMO1202 series. Due to file compression, the size of
the actual file sent is less than indicated in Explorer. This
causes the image preview to issue an error. Therefore,
screenshots can only be opened via right click and the
OPEN option. The Settings file supplies the current instrument settings in the respective format.
The folders CHANNEL, BUS and POD contain two subfolders and a README.TXT. The subfolders contain files
for the curve data in various formats. The files in the Acquisition Memory folder provide data from the acquisition
memory, whereas the files in the DISPLAY DATA folder
only provide visible curve data. The folders MATH and
REFERENCES only contain visible curve data and therefore
no subfolders are available. The respective INFO.TXT files
contain significant information relating to the curves, such
as name, units, samples etc. The file content is generated
while the file is being sent to the PC. It is therefore recommended to only read curve data when the acquisition has
been suspended (STOP mode). Reading the acquisition
60
Fig. 14.12: Folder structure of LIVE DATA
memory is only useful when the acquisition has been suspended, otherwise, only the screen data will be read. To
continue acquisition while reading the data may result in
curve data from different acquisitions.
14.3.2Upload
The UPLOAD folder is a temporary drive in the RAM of the
oscilloscope. The content of this folder is purged when the
instrument is turned off or restarted. This folder is intended
to send specific files to the oscilloscope. If the PC copies
a file into this folder, the oscilloscope will verify if this file
can be loaded directly. The file transfer of .HDS and .SCP
for instrument settings, .HLK for license keys and .HFU for
firmware updates are supported. Other file transfers will
be ignored. Instrument settings and license keys will be
loaded without the PC requiring additional information. A
firmware update must be started directly on the oscilloscope via soft menu key EXECUTE.
14.4Ethernet
For the direct connection with a host (PC) or indirect
connection over a SWITCH, a doubly protected network
cable (e.g. CAT.5, CAT.5e, CAT.5+, CAT.6 or CAT.7) is required, equipped with an Ethernet plug type the RJ-45 at
each end. Either an uncrossed or a crossed network cable
(cross over cable) can be used.
14.4.1 IP networks (IP – Internet protocol)
In order that two or several network elements (e.g. measuring instruments, host/PC‘s, …) can communicate over a
network with one another, some fundamental connections
have to be considered, so that data communication is error
free and unimpaired. For each element in a network an
IP address has to be assigned, so that they can exchange
data among themselves. IP addresses are represented
(with the IP version 4) as four decimal numbers separated
by points (e.g. 192.168.15.1). Each decimal number is represented by a binary number of 8 bits. IP addresses are
divided into public and private address ranges. Public IP
addresses will be able to route by the Internet and an Internet service Provider (ISP) can to be made available. Public
IP addresses can be reached directly over the Internet to
directly exchange internet data. Private IP addresses are
not routed by the Internet and are reserved for private net-
Remote Control
works. Network elements with private IP addresses cannot
be reached directly over the Internet so no data can be
directly exchanged over the Internet. To allow network
elements with a private IP address to exchange data over
the Internet, they require a router for IP address conversion
(English NAT; Network address translation), before connection to the Internet. The attached elements can then
data exchange over this router, which possesses a private
IP address (LAN IP address) and also a public IP address
(WAN IP address), via the Internet.
If network elements exchange data only over a local network (without connection with the Internet), appropriate
use private IP addresses. Select in addition e.g. a private IP
address for the instrument and a private IP address for the
host (PC), with which you would like to control the instrument. If you might connect your private network with the
Internet later via a router, the private IP addresses used in
your local network can be maintained. Since within each
IP address range the first IP address is used as network
IP address and the last IP address is used as Broadcast IP
address, in each case two IP addresses have to be taken
off from the “number of possible host addresses“ (see
table 1: Private IP address ranges). Apart from the organization of IP addresses into public and private address
ranges, IP addresses are also divided into classes (Class: A,
B, C, D, E). Within the classes A, B, and C are also include
the private IP of address ranges described before. The
categorisation from IP addresses is for the assignment of
public IP address ranges of importance and essentially
depends on the size of a local network (maximum number
of hosts in the network), which is to be connected with the
Internet (see table 2: Classes of IP addresses). IP addresses
can fix (statically) or variable (dynamically) to be assigned.
If IP addresses in a network are assigned fix, an IP address
must be preset manually with each network element. If IP
addresses in a network are assigned to the attached network elements automatically (dynamically), a DHCP server
(English DHCP becomes; Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol) is required for the dispatching of IP addresses.
With a DHCP server an IP address range for the automatic
dispatching of IP addresses can be preset. A DHCP server
is usually already integrated in a router (DSL router, ISDN
router, Modem router, WLAN router, …) integrated. If a
network element (e.g. an instrument) is connected by a
network cable directly with a host (PC), the IP addresses
cannot be assigned to the instrument and the host (PC) automatically, since no network with DHCP server is present
here. They have to be preset therefore at the instrument
and at the host (PC) manually.
IP addresses are divided by using subnet mask into a
network quota and into a host quota, so similarly e.g. a
telephone number is divided in pre selection (land and local area network number) and call number (user number).
Subnet mask have the same form as IP addresses. They
are represented with four decimal numbers separated
by points (e.g. 255.255.255.0). As is the case for the IP
addresses here each decimal number represents a binary
number of 8 bits. The separation between network quota
and host quota is determined by the subnet mask within
an IP address (e.g. the IP address 192.168.10.10 by the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is divided into a network quota
192.168.10.0 and a host quota of 0.0.0.10). The allocation
takes place via the transformation of the IP address and
the subnet mask in binary form and afterwards a bit by bit
one logical AND operation between IP address and subnet
mask. The result is the network quota of the IP address.
The host quota of the IP address takes place via the bit by
bit logical NAND operation between IP address and subnet
mask. By the variable allocation of IP addresses in network
quota and host quota via subnet masks, one can specify IP
address ranges individually for large and small networks.
Thus one can operate large and small IP networks and
connect if necessary to the Internet via a router. In smaller
local networks the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is mostly
used. Network quota (the first 3 numbers) and host quota
(the last number) are simple here without much mathematical expenditure to determine and it can with these
subnet mask up to 254 network elements (e.g. measuring
instruments, hosts/PC‘s...) in a network be operated at the
same time.
Often also a standard gateway is present in a network. In
most local networks is this gateway with the router to the
Internet (DSL router, ISDN router etc.) is identical. Using
adress range
subnetz mask
CIDR way of writing
number of possible host adresses
10.0.0.0 –10.255.255.255
255.0.0.0
10.0.0.0/8
224 − 2 = 16.777.214
172.16.0.0 –172.31.255.255
255.240.0.0
172.16.0.0/12
220 − 2 = 1.048.574
192.168.0.0 –192.168.255.255
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
192.168.0.0/16
192.168.0.0/24
216 − 2 = 65.534
28 − 2 = 254
Table 14.1: Private IP adress ranges
class
adress range
net quota
host quota
max. number of networks max. number of hosts
A
0.0.0.1 - 127.255.255.255
8 Bit
24 Bit
126
16.777.214
B
128.0.0.1 - 191.255.255.255
16 Bit
16 Bit
16.384
65.534
C
192.0.0.1 - 223.255.255.255
24 Bit
8 Bit
2.097.151
254
D
224.0.0.1 - 239.255.255.255
Reserved for multicast applications
E
240.0.0.1 - 255.255.255.255
Reserved for special applications
Table 14.2: Classes of IP adresses
61
Remote Control
this (gateway -) router a connection can be manufactured
with another network. Thus also network elements, which
are not in the same (local) network, can be reached and/
or network elements from the local network are able to exchange data with network elements from other networks.
For a network-spreading data exchange the IP address of
the standard gateway must also be preset. In local networks, mostly the first IP address within a network for this
(gateway -) router is used. Mostly routers in a local network to be used as gateway have an IP address with a „1“
in the last place of the IP address (e.g. 192.168.10.1).
14.4.2 Ethernet Settings
PC and instrument have to be connected to the same network.
Otherwise a remote connection is not possible.
In addition to the USB interface, the interface card includes an Ethernet interface. Configure the settings in the
oscilloscope for all necessary parameters after you select
ETHERNET as interface and press the soft menu key PARAMETER. You can specify all parameters and assign a
fixed IP address. You can also assign a dynamic IP address
with the activated DHCP function. Please contact your IT
management to configure the settings properly.
If DHCP is used and the system cannot assign an IP address to
the oscilloscope (for instance, if no Ethernet cable is connected
or the network does not support DHCP), it may take up to three
minutes until a timeout allows the interface to be configured
again.
Fig. 14.9: Ethernet-settings dialog box
If the device has an IP address, it can be accessed via web
browser at this IP since the Ethernet interface includes an
integrated web server. Enter the IP address in the location
bar on your browser (http//xxx.xxx.xxx.xx). This opens a
window that includes the device name and type, serial
number and interfaces with technical information and configured parameters.
62
Technical Data
Technical
DataData
15 Technical
Max. input voltage
1MΩ
50Ω
(R&S®HMO1202 series)
R&S®HMO1002 Series
R&S®HMO1202 Series
2-channel digital oscilloscopes with
50/70/100/200/300MHz bandwidth
from firmware version 5.457
Display
Screen size / type
16,5 cm (6,5“) VGA color display
Resolution
640 (H) x 480 (V) pixels
Backlight
400 cd/m2 (LED)
Display range in horizontal direction
without menu bar
12 Div (600 pixels)
with menu bar
10 Div (500 pixels)
Display range in vertical
direction
8 Div (400 pixels)
with VirtualScreen usage
20 Div
Color depth
200 Vp (derates at 20 db/decade to 5 V above
100 kHz)
5 Veff, max. 30 Vs
Position range
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
±5 Div (from center of screen)
±15 Div (from center of screen)
Channel isolation
35 dB from DC to specified bandwidth (same
V/Div range)
XY mode
CH1, CH2
Inversion
selectively all analog channels
Logic Channels with Logic Probe R&S®HO3508
Thresholds
TTL, CMOS, ECL, user-definied (-2 V to +8 V)
Impedance
100kΩ||4pF
Coupling
DC
Max. input voltage
40 Vp
Trigger System
Trigger Mode
Auto
triggers automatically also without any
specific trigger event
256 colors
Normal
triggers only on specific trigger events
Trace display
pseudo-color, inverse brightness
Single
triggers once on a trigger event
Levels of trace brightness
32
Trigger indicator
screen and panel (LED)
Vertical System
DSO mode
Trigger sensitivity
CH1, CH2
MSO mode (POD with logic probe R&S®HO3508)
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
CH1, POD, Ext.In oder CH1, CH2, Ext.In
CH1, CH2, POD, Ext.In
Analog Channels
Y-bandwidth (-3 dB)
(1 mV, 2 mV)/Div
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
up to 5mV/Div
1.5 Div
from 5mV/Div
0.8 Div
Trigger level setting
with auto level
adjustablebetweenpeakvaluesofasignal
without auto level
±5 Div (from center of screen)
external
-5 V to +5 V
Trigger Coupling
50 MHz
100 MHz
AC
R&S®HMO1002 series
<5 mV/Div: 10 Hz to 65 MHz
>5 mV/Div: 10 Hz to 65/90/130 MHz
R&S®HMO1202 series
<5 mV/Div: 10 Hz to 130 MHz
>5 mV/Div: 10 Hz to 130/220/300 MHz
(5 mV bis 10 V)/Div
R&S®HMO1002
R&S®HMO1072
R&S®HMO1102
R&S®HMO1212
R&S®HMO1222
R&S®HMO1232
50 MHz
70 MHz
100 MHz
100 MHz
200 MHz
300 MHz
Lower AC bandwidth
2 Hz
Bandwidth limitation
(switchable)
about 20 MHz
Rise time (calculated, 10% to 90%)
R&S®HMO1002 (50 MHz)
R&S®HMO1072 (70 MHz)
R&S®HMO1102 (100 MHz)
R&S®HMO1212 (100 MHz)
R&S®HMO1222 (200 MHz)
R&S®HMO1232 (300 MHz)
DC gain accuracy
(all ranges)
<7 ns
<5 ns
<3.5 ns
<3.5 ns
<1.75 ns
<1.15 ns
R&S®HMO1202 series
<5 mV/Div: DC to 130 MHz
>5 mV/Div: DC to 130/220/300 MHz
HF
R&S®HMO1002 series
<5 mV/Div: 30 kHz to 65 MHz
>5 mV/Div: 30 kHz to 65/90/130 MHz
R&S®HMO1202 series
<5 mV/Div: 30 kHz to 130 MHz
>5 mV/Div: 30 kHz to 130/220/300 MHz
selectable filters
LF
DC to 5 kHz (-3 db), selectable in DC and auto
level mode
min. level: 1.5 Div (> 5 mV/Div)
selectable with AC, DC and HF coupling
13 calibrated steps, 1-2-5 sequence
Trigger hold-off
auto, 50 ns to 10 s
freely between calibrated steps
External Input (BNC)
1 mV/Div to 10 V/Div
coarse stepping
Impedance
Coupling
<5 mV/Div: DC to 65 MHz
>5 mV/Div: DC to 65/90/130 MHz
noiserejection
all analog channels
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
R&S®HMO1002 series
3% of full scale
Input sensitivity range
variable stepping
DC
1MΩII16pF±2pF
1MΩII16pF±2pF,50Ω(switchable)
DC, AC, GND
Function
ext. trigger input, additional digital channel
Impedance
1MΩ||16pF±2pF
Acurracy
300 mVss
Trigger level range
-5 V bis +5 V
63
1
Technical Data
Technical Data
Max. input voltage
100 Vs (derates at 20 db/decade to 5 V above
100 kHz)
Trigger types by protocols
I2C
Start, Stop, ACK, NACK, Address/Data
Trigger coupling
SPI
Start, End, Serial Pattern (32 Bit)
AC
UART/RS-232
Startbit, Frame Start, Symbol, Pattern
LIN
Frame Start, Wake Up, Identifier, Data, Error
CAN
Frame Start, Frame End, Identifier, Data, Error
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
10 Hz to 50/70/100 MHz
10 Hz to 100/200/300 MHz
DC
Technical Data
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
DC to 50/70/100 MHz
DC to 100/200/300 MHz
Trigger Output via AUX OUT (BNC)
Functions
Pulse output for every acquisition trigger
event, error output on mask violation
Output level
approx. 3 V
Pulse polarity
positive
Pulse width
>150 ns (trigger event),
>0.5 µs (mask violation)
Trigger Types
Time domain (Yt)
main screen, time domain and zoom window
Frequency domain (FFT)
time domain and frequency domain window
(FFT)
XY mode
voltage (XY)
VirtualScreen
virtual display of ±10 Div for all math, logic,
bus, reference signals
Component tester
voltage (X), current (Y)
Reference signals
up to 4 references
Channel deskew
±32 ns, step size 2 ns
Memory zoom
up to 50.000 : 1
Time base
Edge
Direction
rising, falling, both
Trigger coupling
auto level AC, DC, HF
Switchable filters
LF,noiserejection
Sources
R&S®HMO1002,
R&S®HMO1202
Horizontal System
all analog and digital channels, AC line,
external (AC, DC)
Pulse Width
Polarity
positive, negative
Functions
equal, not equal, lower, higher, within/without
a range
Pulse duration
16ns to 10s, resolution min. 2ns
Sources
all analog channels
accuracy
±50.0 x 10-6
aging
±10.0 x 10-6 per year
Operation modes
REFRESH
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
ROLL
Functions
boolean operators
AND, OR, TRUE, FALSE
time based operators
equal, not equal, lower, higher, within/without
a time range, timeout
Duration
16 ns to 10 s, resolution min. 2 ns
States
H, L, X
Sources
all logic channels
Video
Sync. pulse polarity
positive, negative
Supported standards
NTSC, SECAM, PAL, PAL-M, SDTV 576i,
HDTV 720p, HDTV 1080i, HDTV 1080p
Field
even/odd, either
Line
line number selectable, all
Sources
Realtime Sampling Rate
Analog channels
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
8x 500 MSa/s
8x 1 GSa/s
Analog channels
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
2x 500 kSa or 1x 1 MSa
2x 1 MSa or 1x 2 MSa
Logic channels
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
500 kSa per channel
1 MSa per channel
Resolution
8 Bit, (HiRes up to 16Bit)
Waveform arithmetics
refresh, roll (loose/triggered), average (up to
1024), envelope, peak detect (2 ns), filter (lowpass,adjustable),highresolution(upto16bit)
all analog channels, external (AC, DC)
Record modes
automatic, max. sampling rate,
max. waveform rate
Up to two busses can be analyzed at the
same time. Color-coded display of decoded
data in ASCII, binary, decimal and
hexadecimal format.
Interpolation
Option / Voucher codes
R&S®HOO10, R&S®HV110 Analysis of I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 signals on
analog and logic channels
R&S®HOO11, R&S®HV111 Analysis of I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 signals on
all analog channels
R&S®HOO12, R&S®HV112 Analysis of CAN and LIN signals on analog
and logic channels
2
2x 500 MSa/s or 1x 1 GSa/s
2x 1 GSa/s or 1x 2 GSa/s
Memory depth
Serial Busses (optional)
64
50 ms/Div to 50 s/Div
Acquisition System
Logic channels
Logic
Bus representation
2 ns/Div to 50 s/Div
1 ns/Div to 50 s/Div
all analog channels
sin(x)/x, linear, sample-hold
logic channels
pulse
Delay
pre-trigger
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
post-trigger
Waveform update rate
0 to 500.000 Sa x (1/sample rate)
0 to 1.000.000 Sa x (1/sample rate)
(multiplied by 2 in interlaced mode)
0 to 8x106 Sa x (1/sample rate)
up to 10,000 Wfm/s
Technical Data
Technical Data
Waveform display
dots, vectors, persistence afterglow
Persistence afterglow
min. 50 ms
FFT length
2 Kpts, 4 Kpts, 8 Kpts, 16 Kpts, 32 Kpts, 64
Kpts, 128 Kpts
Waveform Measurements and Operation
Window
Hanning, Hamming, Rectangular, Blackman
Operation
menu-driven (multilingual), auto-set, help
functions (multilingual)
Scale
dBm, dBV, Vrms
Waveform arithmetics
refresh, envelope, average (up to 512)
voltage (Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vavg, Vmin, Vmax),
amplitude, phase, frequency, period, rise/fall
time (80%, 90%), pulse width (pos/neg),
burst width, duty cycle (pos/neg), standard
deviation, delay, crest factor, overshoot (pos/
neg), edge/pulse count (pos/neg), trigger
period, trigger frequency
Cursor measurement
2 horizontal cursors, previous / next peak
search
Sources
all analog channels
Automatic measurements
Technical Data
Cursor measurements
Quick measurements
(QUICKVIEW)
Marker
voltage(V1,V2,∆V),time(t1,t2,∆t,1/∆t),
ratio X, ratio Y, pulse and edge count (pos/
neg), peak values (Vpp, Vp+, Vp-), Vmean, Vrms,
standard deviation, duty cycle (pos/neg), rise/
fall time (80%, 90%), ratio marker, crest factor
voltage (Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vmean), rise/fall
time, frequency, period plus 6 additional
measurement functions (see automatic
measurement functions, freely selectable)
up to 8 freely positionable markers for easy
navigation
Frequency Counter (hardware based)
Resolution
Probe Adjust Output
Operation
manual,adjust-wizzard
Frequence
1 kHz, 1 MHz
Level
R&S®HMO1002 series
R&S®HMO1202 series
Pattern Generator
Functions
squarewave/probeadjust,bussignalsource,
counter, programmable pattern
Square wave
(Probe ADJ output)
frequency range: <1 mHz to 500 kHz
level: 2.5 Vpp (ta <4 ns)
polarity: normal, invert
duty cycle: 1% to 99%
Bus Signal Source (4 Bit)
I2C (100 kBit/s, 400 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s), SPI
(100 kBit/s, 250 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s), UART
(9600 Bit/s, 115,2 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s),
CAN (up to 50 MBits/s),
LIN (up to 50 MBits/s)
Counter (4 Bit)
frequency: <1 mHz to 25 MHz
direction: incrementing, decrementing
Programmable pattern
(4 Bit)
sampling time: 20 ns to 42 s
memory depth: 2048 sa
pattern idle time: 20 ns to 42 s
5 digit
Frequency range
R&S®HMO1002
R&S®HMO1202
0.5 Hz bis 50/70/100 MHz
0.5 Hz bis 100/200/300 MHz
Accuracy
±50.0 x 10-6
Aging
±10.0 x 10-6 per year
Mask Testing
Functions
Pass/Fail comparison with an user-definied
mask performed on waveforms
Sources
all analog channels
Mask definition
Mask enclosing acquired waveform with userdefined tolerance
Actions
on mask violations
beep, acquisition stop, screenshot, trigger
pulse, automatically saving trace data
during acquisiton
statistics: number of completed tests, number
of passes / failed acquisitions (absolute and in
percent), test duration
approx. 2.5 Vpp (ta <4 ns)
approx. 2.5 Vpp (ta <1 ns)
Function Generator
Waveform modes
DC, sine, square, triangle/ramp, pulse
Sine
frequency range: 0.1 Hz to 50 kHz
flatness: ±1 dB relative to 1 kHz
DC offset: max. ±3 V
Square
frequency range: 0.1 Hz to 25 kHz
rise time: <4 µs
DC offset: max. ±3 V
Triangle / Ramp
frequency range: 0,1 Hz bis 10 kHz
DC offset: max. ±3 V
Pulse
frequency range: 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz
duty cycle: 10% to 90%
DC offset: max. ±3 V
Waveform Maths
Quickmath
Functions
addition, substraction, multiplication, division
Sampling rate
978 kSa/s
Sources
CH1, CH2
Frequency accuracy
±50.0 x 10-6
Mathematics (R&S®HMO1202 series)
Aging
±10.0 x 10-6 per year
Functions
Amplitude
Editing
addition, substraction, multiplication, division,
minimum / maximum, square, square root,
absolute value, pos/neg wave, reciprocal,
inverse, log10/ln, derivation, integration, filter
(lowpass/highpass)
formula editor, menu-driven
Sources
all analog channels, user-defined constants
Storage location
math. memory
Number of formula sets
5 formula sets
Number of equations
5 equations per formula set
Simultaneous display of
math. functions
1 formula set with max. 4 equations
Frequency Analysis (FFT)
Parameters
DC
±3 V
DC offset error (meas.)
±25 mV (max.)
high impedance load
60 mVpp to 6 Vpp
50Ωload
accuracy
30 mVpp to 3 Vpp
3%
Digital Voltmeter
Display (3-digit)
Primary and secondary measurement value
per channel, simultaneous measuring on all
channels
Functions
DC, DCrms, ACrms, Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, crest factor
Sources
all analog channels
frequency span, center frequency, vertical
scale, vertical position
65
3
Technical Data
Bandwidth Upgrades R&S®HMO1002 Series
Component Tester
Parameters
voltage (X), current (Y)
Description
Option Code
Voucher Code
Testing frequency
50 Hz, 200 Hz
Bandwidth upgrade
50 MHz to 70 MHz
R&S®HOO572
R&S®HV572
Bandwidth upgrade
50 MHz to 100 MHz
R&S®HOO512
R&S®HV512
Bandwidth upgrade
70 MHz to 100 MHz
R&S®HOO712
R&S®HV712
Voltage
10 Vp (open)
Current
10 mA (short)
Reference potential
Ground (PE)
Interfaces
for mass storage
(FAT16/32)
for remote control
1x USB host (type A), max. 500 mA
Ethernet (RJ45), USB device (type B)
General Data
Application memory
3 MB for references and device settings
Save / Recall
Bandwidth Upgrades R&S®HMO1202 Series
Description
Option Code
Voucher Code
Bandwidth upgrade 100 MHz
to 200 MHz
R&S®HOO312
R&S®HV312
device settings
on internal file system or external USB
memory, available file formats: SCP, HDS
Bandwidth upgrade 100 MHz
to 300 MHz
R&S®HOO313
R&S®HV313
reference waveforms
on internal file system or external USB
memory, available file formats:
BIN (MSB/LSB), FLT (MSB/LSB), CSV, TXT, HRT
Bandwidth upgrade 200 MHz
to 300 MHz
R&S®HOO323
R&S®HV323
Option Code
Voucher Code
Technical Data
traces
on external USB memory, available file
formats: BIN (MSB/LSB), FLT (MSB/LSB), CSV, TXT
data
display or acquisition data
sources
single or all analog channels
screenshots
Realtime clock (RTC)
on external USB memory, available file
formats: BMP, GIF, PNG
(color, inverted, grey-scale)
Bus Analysis Options
Description
I2C,
SPI, UART/RS-232 on analog and
digital channels
R&S®HOO10
R&S®HV110
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on all analog
channels
R&S®HOO11
R&S®HV111
CAN und LIN on analog and digital
channels
R&S®HOO12
R&S®HV112
date and time
Power supply
AC supply
100 V to 240 V, 50 Hz to 60 Hz, CAT-II
power consumption
R&S®HMO1002
R&S®HMO1202
Safety
max. 25 W
max. 30 W
in line with IEC 61010-1 (ed. 3), IEC 61010-230 (ed. 1), EN 61010-1, EN 61010-2-030 ,
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1-12 , CAN/
CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-2-030-12 ,UL Std. No.
61010-1 (3rd Edition) , UL61010-2-030
Temperature
operating temp. range
+5 °C to +40 °C
storage temperature range -20 °C to +70 °C
Rel. humidity
5% to 80% (without condensation)
Mechanical data
dimensions (W x H x D)
net weight
285 x 175 x 140 mm
1.7 kg
EMC
RF emission
in line with CISPR 11/EN 55011 class B
Immunity
in line with IEC/EN 61326-1 table 2, immunity
test requirements for industrial environments.
Test criterion is displayed noise level within
±1 div for 5 mV/div input sensitivity
All specifications at 23°C after 30 minutes warm-up
Measured value (meas.): characterizes an expected product performance by
means of measurement results gained from individual samples.
4
66
Accessories included:
Line cord, printed operating manual, 2x HZ154 probes (R&S®HMO1002) or
2x RT-ZP03 probes (R&S®HMO1202), HZ20 adapter: BNC plug to 4 mm
banana sockets, software-CD
Accessories:
HO3508
HZ115
HZO20
HZO30 HZO40 HZO41 HZO50
HZO51
HZ51 HZ52 HZ53 HZO90
HZO91
8 channel logic probe (350 MHZ, 4 pF)
Differential Probe 100 : 1/1000 : 1
High voltage probe 1000 : 1 (400 MHz, 1000 Vrms)
1 GHz active probe (0.9 pF, 1 MΩ)
Active differential probe 200 MHz (10 : 1, 3.5 pF, 1 MΩ)
A
ctive differential probe 800 MHz (10 : 1, 1 pF, 200 kΩ)
AC/DC Current Probe 30 A, DC to 100 kHz
AC/DC Current Probe 100/1000 A, DC to 20 kHz
150 MHz passive probe 10 : 1 (12 pF, 10 MΩ)
250 MHz passive probe 10 : 1 (10 pF, 10 MΩ)
100 MHz passive probe 100 : 1 (4.5 pF, 100 MΩ)
Carrying case for protection and transport
4 RU 19” rackmount kit
Appendix
16 Appendix
16.1 List of figures
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 1.2: Fig. 2.1: Fig. 2.2: Fig. 2.3: Fig. 2.4: Fig. 2.5: Fig. 2.6: Fig. 2.7: Fig. 2.8: Fig. 3.1: Fig. 3.2: Fig. 3.3: Fig. 3.4: Fig. 3.5: Fig. 3.6: Fig. 3.7: Fig. 3.8: Fig. 3.9: Fig. 3.10: Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.2: Fig. 4.3: Fig. 5.1: Fig. 5.2: Fig. 5.3: Operating positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419. . . . 6
Frontview of the R&S®HMO1202. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Control panel of section A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Control panels of sections B, C and D. . . . . . . . . . . 9
UPGRADE menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Manual input of the license key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Self alignment successful. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Self alignment logic probe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Back panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Control panel of section A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Screen display after connection of the probe . . . . 13
Screen display after changing to DC coupling. . . . 13
Screen display after Autosetup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Section D of the control panel with zoom key. . . . 13
ZOOM function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Quick View parameter measurement. . . . . . . . . . . 14
Selection of parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Save/Recall menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Screenshot menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Control panel for the vertical system. . . . . . . . . . . 16
Short menu for vertical settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Probe compensation wizard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Name selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Control panel of the horizontal system. . . . . . . . . . 18
AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate.19
Example figure of AM modulated signal with max.
sampling rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Fig. 5.4: Example figure of AM modulated signal with automatic setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Fig. 5.6: Marker in Zoom mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Fig. 6.1: Control panel for the trigger system. . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Fig. 6.2: Filter settings of edge trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Fig. 6.3: Logic trigger menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Fig. 6.4: Logic channels’ settings display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Fig. 6.5: Video trigger menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fig. 6.6: External trigger signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area. . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Fig. 7.2: Persistence function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurement setting menu. . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Fig. 8.2: Auto measurement setting menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Fig. 9.1: Example of a mathematical waveform. . . . . . . . . . 32
Fig. 9.2: Quick Mathematics menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Fig. 9.5: Definition of the current equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Fig. 9.6: Definition of the power equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Fig. 9.7: FFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fig. 9.8: PASS/FAIL mask test.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Fig. 9.9: HZ20 adapter connected to AUX OUT. . . . . . . . . . 37
Fig. 9.10: Component test example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Fig. 9.11: Excamples of Component test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fig. 9.12: Digital Voltmeter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 10.1: Arbitrary menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 10.2: Arbitrary pattern setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.1: Basic menu for instrument settings. . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.2: Storing instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.3: Storage menu for references. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.4: Trace storage menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.5: Supported printer example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.6: Screenshot module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 11.7: Definition of FILE/PRINT key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 12.1: Optional logic probe R&S®HO3508 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 12.2: 8 Bit DAC signal change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.1: Menu for the definition of buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.2: Example I2C BUS with BUS table. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.3: Example PARALLEL BUS with BUS table. . . . . . .
Fig. 13.4: I2C 7-Bit-Adress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.5: I2C Read/Wrtie trigger menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.6: I2C BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.7: I2C BUS Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.8: Simple configuration of SPI BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.9: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus. . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.10: Example SSPI BUS table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.11: UART bit sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.12: Trigger menu UART data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.13: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.14: UART trigger menu page 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.15: Example UART BUS table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.16: CAN BUS configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.17: CAN BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.18: Example CAN BUS table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.19: LIN byte structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.20: LIN BUS menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.21: LIN data trigger menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.22: LIN BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 13.23: Example LIN BUS table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.1: NI-VISA 5.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.2: NI-VISA installation instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.3: NI-VISA feature installation locally. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.4: Setup menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.5: Interface menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.6: Interface parameter menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.7: Instrument driver installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.8: Device manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.9: Device manager display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.9: Ethernet-settings dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.10: Folder display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.11: Folder display with USB stick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 14.12: Folder structure of LIVE DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
39
40
41
41
42
43
43
44
44
44
45
47
47
48
48
49
49
50
50
51
51
52
52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
56
56
57
58
58
58
58
59
59
59
59
59
62
60
60
60
16.2Glossary
A
AC coupling: 16
attenuation: 16
AVERAGE: 18, 35
B
Blackman window function: 35
67
Appendix
brightness: 25, 26, 27
bus analysis: 10, 17, 46
BUS configuration: 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56
BUS signal: 9, 40
BUS Signal Source: 40
BUS type: 45, 46, 47, 50
C
CAN bus: 53
component tester: 5, 37, 38
component test mode: 9
crest factor: 28, 29
CVBS signal: 25
P
Pass/Fail test: 8, 36
pattern depth: 39
pattern generator: 39, 40
peak detection: 19, 20
peak voltage: 14, 16, 36
Persistence mode: 27
polarity: 25, 37, 39, 54
probe attenuation detection: 16
probe compensation: 13, 17, 39
pulse trigger: 23, 24
pulse width: 14, 23, 24, 30, 36
D
DC coupling: 13, 16, 23
digital voltmeter: 38
duty cycle: 14, 39
Q
Quick Mathematics: 32
Quick view: 8, 14, 36
E
edge trigger: 23
Education Mode: 12
ENVELOPE: 18, 35
Ethernet: 10, 12, 57, 61
F
Fall time: 35
frequency interferences: 18
function generator: 5, 39
G
Grayscale mode: 10
H
Hamming/Hanning window function: 35
Hold off time: 22
I
I2C bus: 48
interlace mode: 21
L
licence key: 11, 46
LIN bus: 55
Lissajous: 27
logic channels: 44, 45, 46, 48
logic mode: 24
logic probe: 8, 9, 11, 22, 24, 44 , 46
Logic Trigger: 24, 44
low pass filter: 16, 18, 23, 33
M
mask test: 8, 36
mathematical graph: 15
maximum repeat rate: 19, 20
measurement categories: 5
measurement source: 30
memory depth: 19, 20, 21
mixed-signal operation: 11
68
R
rectangle function: 35
resistance: 5
resistance measurement: 5
RMS: 14, 28, 29, 36, 38
S
sampling frequency: 18
sampling rate: 9, 18, 19, 20, 21, 42, 46
screen displays: 8, 15, 38, 41
screenshot: 12, 15, 43, 44
Self Alignment: 11
semiconductors: 37
signal amplitude: 29, 30, 39
signal source: 16
signal voltage: 25
SPI bus: 50, 51
square wave signal: 13, 29
standard deviation: 28, 30
T
threshold: 17, 24, 28, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 55
trigger conditions: 9, 18, 22, 23, 25, 49, 51, 53, 54, 56
trigger event: 17, 22, 25, 26, 51, 53
trigger level: 9, 17, 23, 24
trigger modes: 22
trigger signal: 9, 22, 23, 31
trigger slope: 9
trigger source: 21, 22, 24, 31
trigger time: 18, 21, 24, 46, 51
trigger type: 9, 22, 23, 24, 26, 52
U
UART bus: 52
UART trigger settings: 53
USB interface: 12, 61
USB port: 8, 10, 11
USB TMC class: 57, 58
V
video modulation: 25
V marker: 14, 28, 46
Appendix
69
Appendix
70
Appendix
71
© 2016 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Customer Support: www.customersupport.rohde-schwarz.com
Service: www.service.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
5800.5301.02 │ Version 03 │R&S®HMO1x02 Serie
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®HMO1x02 Serie is abbreviated as R&S HMO1x02 Serie.
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