CEMV3.1R2pdf

CEMV3.1R2pdf
Common Methodology
for Information Technology
Security Evaluation
Evaluation methodology
September 2007
Version 3.1
Revision 2
CCMB-2007-09-004
Foreword
This version of the Common Methodology for Information Technology Security Evaluation
(CEM v3.1) is the first major revision since being published as CEM v2.3 in 2005.
CEM v3.1 aims to: eliminate redundant evaluation activities; reduce/eliminate activities that
contribute little to the final assurance of a product; clarify CEM terminology to reduce
misunderstanding; restructure and refocus the evaluation activities to those areas where
security assurance is gained; and add new CEM requirements if needed.
Trademarks:

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other
countries

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and other countries
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Legal Notice:
The governmental organisations listed below contributed to the development of this version
of the Common Methodology for Information Technology Security Evaluation. As the joint
holders of the copyright in the Common Methodology for Information Technology Security
Evaluation, version 3.1 (called “CEM 3.1”), they hereby grant non-exclusive license to
ISO/IEC to use CEM 3.1 in the continued development/maintenance of the ISO/IEC 18045
international standard. However, these governmental organisations retain the right to use,
copy, distribute, translate or modify CEM 3.1 as they see fit.
Australia/New Zealand:
Canada:
France:
Germany:
Japan:
Netherlands:
Spain:
United Kingdom:
United States:
September 2007
The Defence Signals Directorate and the
Government Communications Security Bureau respectively;
Communications Security Establishment;
Direction Centrale de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'Information;
Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik;
Information Technology Promotion Agency
Netherlands National Communications Security Agency;
Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas and
Centro Criptológico Nacional;
Communications-Electronics Security Group;
The National Security Agency and the
National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Version 3.1
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Table of contents
Table of Contents
1
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 12
2
SCOPE ........................................................................................................... 13
3
NORMATIVE REFERENCES ......................................................................... 14
4
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ........................................................................... 15
5
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATED TERMS ..................................................... 17
6
OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................... 18
6.1
7
Organisation of the CEM .................................................................................................................. 18
DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS ........................................................................ 19
7.1
Terminology ....................................................................................................................................... 19
7.2
Verb usage.......................................................................................................................................... 19
7.3
General evaluation guidance ............................................................................................................ 19
7.4
Relationship between CC and CEM structures .............................................................................. 19
8
8.1
EVALUATION PROCESS AND RELATED TASKS ....................................... 21
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 21
8.2
Evaluation process overview ............................................................................................................ 21
8.2.1
Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 21
8.2.2
Responsibilities of the roles ............................................................................................................ 21
8.2.3
Relationship of roles ....................................................................................................................... 22
8.2.4
General evaluation model ............................................................................................................... 22
8.2.5
Evaluator verdicts ........................................................................................................................... 23
8.3
Evaluation input task ........................................................................................................................ 25
8.3.1
Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 25
8.3.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................ 25
8.3.3
Management of evaluation evidence sub-task ................................................................................ 26
8.4
Evaluation sub-activities ................................................................................................................... 27
8.5
Evaluation output task ...................................................................................................................... 27
8.5.1
Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 27
8.5.2
Management of evaluation outputs ................................................................................................. 28
8.5.3
Application notes ............................................................................................................................ 28
8.5.4
Write OR sub-task .......................................................................................................................... 28
8.5.5
Write ETR sub-task ........................................................................................................................ 29
9
CLASS APE: PROTECTION PROFILE EVALUATION ................................. 37
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9.1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 37
9.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................... 37
9.2.1
Re-using the evaluation results of certified PPs.............................................................................. 37
9.3
PP introduction (APE_INT) ............................................................................................................. 38
9.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_INT.1) ........................................................................................ 38
9.4
Conformance claims (APE_CCL) .................................................................................................... 40
9.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_CCL.1) ....................................................................................... 40
9.5
Security problem definition (APE_SPD) ......................................................................................... 46
9.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_SPD.1) ....................................................................................... 46
9.6
Security objectives (APE_OBJ) ........................................................................................................ 48
9.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_OBJ.1) ........................................................................................ 48
9.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_OBJ.2) ........................................................................................ 48
9.7
Extended components definition (APE_ECD) ................................................................................ 52
9.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_ECD.1) ....................................................................................... 52
9.8
Security requirements (APE_REQ) ................................................................................................. 57
9.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_REQ.1) ....................................................................................... 57
9.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_REQ.2) ....................................................................................... 61
10
CLASS ASE: SECURITY TARGET EVALUATION .................................... 67
10.1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 67
10.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................... 67
10.2.1
Re-using the evaluation results of certified PPs ......................................................................... 67
10.3
ST introduction (ASE_INT) ............................................................................................................. 68
10.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_INT.1) ................................................................................... 68
10.4
Conformance claims (ASE_CCL) .................................................................................................... 71
10.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_CCL.1) .................................................................................. 71
10.5
Security problem definition (ASE_SPD) ......................................................................................... 79
10.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_SPD.1) ................................................................................... 79
10.6
Security objectives (ASE_OBJ) ........................................................................................................ 81
10.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_OBJ.1) ................................................................................... 81
10.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_OBJ.2) ................................................................................... 81
10.7
Extended components definition (ASE_ECD) ................................................................................ 85
10.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_ECD.1) .................................................................................. 85
10.8
Security requirements (ASE_REQ) ................................................................................................. 90
10.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_REQ.1) .................................................................................. 90
10.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_REQ.2) .................................................................................. 94
10.9
TOE summary specification (ASE_TSS) ....................................................................................... 100
10.9.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_TSS.1) ................................................................................. 100
10.9.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_TSS.2) ................................................................................. 101
11
CLASS ADV: DEVELOPMENT ................................................................ 103
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11.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 103
11.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................. 103
11.3
Security Architecture (ADV_ARC) ............................................................................................... 105
11.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_ARC.1) ............................................................................... 105
11.4
Functional specification (ADV_FSP) ............................................................................................. 111
11.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.1) ................................................................................ 111
11.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.2) ................................................................................ 115
11.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.3) ................................................................................ 121
11.4.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.4) ................................................................................ 128
11.4.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.5) ................................................................................ 134
11.4.6
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.6) ................................................................................ 142
11.5
Implementation representation (ADV_IMP) ................................................................................ 143
11.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_IMP.1) ................................................................................ 143
11.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_IMP.2) ................................................................................ 146
11.6
TSF internals (ADV_INT) .............................................................................................................. 147
11.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.1) ................................................................................ 147
11.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.2) ................................................................................ 150
11.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.3) ................................................................................ 153
11.7
Security policy modelling (ADV_SPM) ......................................................................................... 154
11.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_SPM.1) ............................................................................... 154
11.8
TOE design (ADV_TDS)................................................................................................................. 155
11.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.1) ............................................................................... 155
11.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.2) ............................................................................... 160
11.8.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.3) ............................................................................... 167
11.8.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.4) ............................................................................... 179
11.8.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.5) ............................................................................... 192
11.8.6
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.6) ............................................................................... 192
12
CLASS AGD: GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS ................................................ 193
12.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 193
12.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................. 193
12.3
Operational user guidance (AGD_OPE) ....................................................................................... 194
12.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_OPE.1) ............................................................................... 194
12.4
Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) ............................................................................................ 198
12.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) ............................................................................... 198
13
CLASS ALC: LIFE-CYCLE SUPPORT .................................................... 201
13.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 201
13.2
CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) ........................................................................................................ 202
13.2.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.1) ............................................................................... 202
13.2.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.2) ............................................................................... 203
13.2.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.3) ............................................................................... 205
13.2.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.4) ............................................................................... 210
13.2.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.5) ............................................................................... 217
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13.3
CM scope (ALC_CMS) ................................................................................................................... 226
13.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.1) ............................................................................... 226
13.3.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.2) ............................................................................... 226
13.3.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.3) ............................................................................... 227
13.3.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.4) ............................................................................... 228
13.3.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.5) ............................................................................... 230
13.4
Delivery (ALC_DEL) ...................................................................................................................... 232
13.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DEL.1) ................................................................................ 232
13.5
Development security (ALC_DVS) ................................................................................................ 234
13.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DVS.1) ................................................................................ 234
13.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DVS.2) ................................................................................ 237
13.6
Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR) ....................................................................................................... 242
13.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.1) ................................................................................ 242
13.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.2) ................................................................................ 244
13.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.3) ................................................................................ 249
13.7
Life-cycle definition (ALC_LCD) ................................................................................................... 256
13.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_LCD.1) ................................................................................ 256
13.7.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_LCD.2) ................................................................................ 257
13.8
Tools and techniques (ALC_TAT) ................................................................................................. 261
13.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.1) ................................................................................ 261
13.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.2) ................................................................................ 263
13.8.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.3) ................................................................................ 266
14
CLASS ATE: TESTS ................................................................................ 270
14.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 270
14.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................. 270
14.2.1
Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE ................................................................. 271
14.2.2
Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected behaviour of functionality ................ 272
14.2.3
Verifying the adequacy of tests ................................................................................................ 272
14.3
Coverage (ATE_COV) .................................................................................................................... 274
14.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.1) ............................................................................... 274
14.3.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.2) ............................................................................... 275
14.3.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.3) ............................................................................... 276
14.4
Depth (ATE_DPT) ........................................................................................................................... 277
14.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.1) ................................................................................ 277
14.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.2) ................................................................................ 279
14.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.3) ................................................................................ 282
14.4.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.4) ................................................................................ 285
14.5
Functional tests (ATE_FUN) .......................................................................................................... 286
14.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_FUN.1) ................................................................................ 286
14.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_FUN.2) ................................................................................ 289
14.6
Independent testing (ATE_IND) .................................................................................................... 290
14.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.1) ................................................................................. 290
14.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.2) ................................................................................. 296
14.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.3) ................................................................................. 302
15
CLASS AVA: VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ..................................... 303
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15.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 303
15.2
Vulnerability analysis (AVA_VAN) ............................................................................................... 304
15.2.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.1) .............................................................................. 304
15.2.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.2) .............................................................................. 311
15.2.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.3) .............................................................................. 319
15.2.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.4) .............................................................................. 330
15.2.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.5) .............................................................................. 340
16
CLASS ACO: COMPOSITION .................................................................. 341
16.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 341
16.2
Application notes ............................................................................................................................. 341
16.3
Composition rationale (ACO_COR) .............................................................................................. 343
16.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_COR.1) ............................................................................... 343
16.4
Development evidence (ACO_DEV) .............................................................................................. 351
16.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.1) ............................................................................... 351
16.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.2) ............................................................................... 352
16.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.3) ............................................................................... 355
16.5
Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL) ........................................................................... 359
16.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_REL.1) ............................................................................... 359
16.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_REL.2) ............................................................................... 362
16.6
Composed TOE testing (ACO_CTT) ............................................................................................. 366
16.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_CTT.1) ............................................................................... 366
16.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_CTT.2) ............................................................................... 369
16.7
Composition vulnerability analysis (ACO_VUL) ......................................................................... 374
16.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.1) ............................................................................... 374
16.7.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.2) ............................................................................... 378
16.7.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.3) ............................................................................... 383
A
GENERAL EVALUATION GUIDANCE ........................................................ 388
A.1
Objectives ......................................................................................................................................... 388
A.2
Sampling ........................................................................................................................................... 388
A.3
Dependencies.................................................................................................................................... 391
A.3.1 Dependencies between activities .................................................................................................. 391
A.3.2 Dependencies between sub-activities ........................................................................................... 391
A.3.3 Dependencies between actions ..................................................................................................... 392
A.4
Site Visits .......................................................................................................................................... 392
A.4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 392
A.4.2 General Approach ......................................................................................................................... 393
A.4.3 Orientation Guide for the Preparation of the Check List .............................................................. 394
A.4.4 Example of a checklist .................................................................................................................. 396
A.5
B
Scheme Responsibilities .................................................................................................................. 399
VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (AVA) ..................................................... 401
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B.1
What is Vulnerability Analysis ....................................................................................................... 401
B.2
Evaluator construction of a Vulnerability Analysis ..................................................................... 402
B.2.1 Generic vulnerability guidance ..................................................................................................... 402
B.2.2 Identification of Potential Vulnerabilities ..................................................................................... 413
B.3
When attack potential is used ......................................................................................................... 417
B.3.1 Developer...................................................................................................................................... 417
B.3.2 Evaluator ....................................................................................................................................... 417
B.4
Calculating attack potential ............................................................................................................ 419
B.4.1 Application of attack potential ...................................................................................................... 419
B.4.2 Characterising attack potential ...................................................................................................... 420
B.5
Example calculation for direct attack ............................................................................................ 429
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1 - Mapping of the CC and CEM structures .............................................................. 20
Figure 2 - Generic evaluation model .................................................................................... 23
Figure 3 - Example of the verdict assignment rule ............................................................... 24
Figure 4 - ETR information content for a PP evaluation ...................................................... 30
Figure 5 - ETR information content for a TOE evaluation ................................................... 33
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List of tables
List of tables
Table 1 Example of a checklist at EAL 4 (extract) ............................................................ 397
Table 2 Vulnerability testing and attack potential ............................................................... 418
Table 3 Calculation of attack potential ................................................................................ 426
Table 4 Rating of vulnerabilities and TOE resistance ......................................................... 428
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Introduction
1
Introduction
1
The target audience for the Common Methodology for Information
Technology Security Evaluation (CEM) is primarily evaluators applying the
CC and certifiers confirming evaluator actions; evaluation sponsors,
developers, PP/ST authors and other parties interested in IT security may be
a secondary audience.
2
The CEM recognises that not all questions concerning IT security evaluation
will be answered herein and that further interpretations will be needed.
Individual schemes will determine how to handle such interpretations,
although these may be subject to mutual recognition agreements. A list of
methodology-related activities that may be handled by individual schemes
can be found in Annex A.
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Scope
2
Scope
3
The Common Methodology for Information Technology Security Evaluation
(CEM) is a companion document to the Common Criteria for Information
Technology Security Evaluation (CC). The CEM defines the minimum
actions to be performed by an evaluator in order to conduct a CC evaluation,
using the criteria and evaluation evidence defined in the CC.
4
The CEM does not define evaluator actions for certain high assurance CC
components, where there is as yet no generally agreed guidance.
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Normative references
3
Normative references
5
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of
this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including
any amendments) applies.
CC
Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Version
3.1, revision 2, September 2007.
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Terms and definitions
4
Terms and definitions
6
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
7
Terms which are presented in bold-faced type are themselves defined in this
Section.
8
action  evaluator action element of the CC Part 3. These actions are either
explicitly stated as evaluator actions or implicitly derived from developer
actions (implied evaluator actions) within the CC Part 3 assurance
components.
9
activity  the application of an assurance class of the CC Part 3.
10
check  to generate a verdict by a simple comparison. Evaluator expertise
is not required. The statement that uses this verb describes what is mapped.
11
12
13
14
evaluation deliverable  any resource required from the sponsor or
developer by the evaluator or evaluation authority to perform one or more
evaluation or evaluation oversight activities.
evaluation evidence  a tangible evaluation deliverable.
evaluation technical report  a report that documents the overall verdict
and its justification, produced by the evaluator and submitted to an
evaluation authority.
examine  to generate a verdict by analysis using evaluator expertise. The
statement that uses this verb identifies what is analysed and the properties for
which it is analysed.
15
interpretation  a clarification or amplification of a CC, CEM or scheme
requirement.
16
methodology  the system of principles, procedures and processes applied
to IT security evaluations.
17
observation report  a report written by the evaluator requesting a
clarification or identifying a problem during the evaluation.
18
overall verdict  a pass or fail statement issued by an evaluator with
respect to the result of an evaluation.
19
20
oversight verdict  a statement issued by an evaluation authority
confirming or rejecting an overall verdict based on the results of evaluation
oversight activities.
record  to retain a written description of procedures, events, observations,
insights and results in sufficient detail to enable the work performed during
the evaluation to be reconstructed at a later time.
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Terms and definitions
21
22
23
24
25
26
report  to include evaluation results and supporting material in the
Evaluation Technical Report or an Observation Report.
scheme  set of rules, established by an evaluation authority, defining the
evaluation environment, including criteria and methodology required to
conduct IT security evaluations.
sub-activity  the application of an assurance component of the CC Part 3.
Assurance families are not explicitly addressed in the CEM because
evaluations are conducted on a single assurance component from an
assurance family.
tracing  a simple directional relation between two sets of entities, which
shows which entities in the first set correspond to which entities in the
second.
verdict  a pass, fail or inconclusive statement issued by an evaluator with
respect to a CC evaluator action element, assurance component, or class.
Also see overall verdict.
work unit  the most granular level of evaluation work. Each CEM action
comprises one or more work units, which are grouped within the CEM action
by CC content and presentation of evidence or developer action element. The
work units are presented in the CEM in the same order as the CC elements
from which they are derived. Work units are identified in the left margin by a
symbol such as ALC_TAT.1-2. In this symbol, the string ALC_TAT.1
indicates the CC component (i.e. the CEM sub-activity), and the final digit
(2) indicates that this is the second work unit in the ALC_TAT.1 subactivity.
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Symbols and abbreviated terms
5
Symbols and abbreviated terms
CEM
Common Methodology for Information Technology
Security Evaluation
ETR
Evaluation Technical Report
OR
Observation Report
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Overview
6
Overview
6.1
Organisation of the CEM
27
Chapter 7 defines the conventions used in the CEM.
28
Chapter 8 describes general evaluation tasks with no verdicts associated with
them as they do not map to CC evaluator action elements.
29
Chapter 9 addresses the work necessary for reaching an evaluation result on
a PP.
30
Chapters 10 to 16 define the evaluation activities, organised by Assurance
Classes.
31
Annex A covers the basic evaluation techniques used to provide technical
evidence of evaluation results.
32
Annex B provides an explanation of the Vulnerability Analysis criteria and
examples of their application
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Document Conventions
7
Document Conventions
7.1
Terminology
33
Unlike the CC, where each element maintains the last digit of its identifying
symbol for all components within the family, the CEM may introduce new
work units when a CC evaluator action element changes from sub-activity to
sub-activity; as a result, the last digit of the work unit's identifying symbol
may change although the work unit remains unchanged.
34
Any methodology-specific evaluation work required that is not derived
directly from CC requirements is termed task or sub-task.
7.2
Verb usage
35
All work unit and sub-task verbs are preceded by the auxiliary verb shall and
by presenting both the verb and the shall in bold italic type face. The
auxiliary verb shall is used only when the provided text is mandatory and
therefore only within the work units and sub-tasks. The work units and subtasks contain mandatory activities that the evaluator must perform in order to
assign verdicts.
36
Guidance text accompanying work units and sub-tasks gives further
explanation on how to apply the CC words in an evaluation. The verb usage
is in accordance with ISO definitions for these verbs. The auxiliary verb
should is used when the described method is strongly preferred. All other
auxiliary verbs, including may, are used where the described method(s) is
allowed but is neither recommended nor strongly preferred; it is merely
explanation.
37
The verbs check, examine, report and record are used with a precise meaning
within this part of the CEM and the Chapter 4 should be referenced for their
definitions.
7.3
General evaluation guidance
38
Material that has applicability to more than one sub-activity is collected in
one place. Guidance whose applicability is widespread (across activities and
EALs) has been collected into Annex A. Guidance that pertains to multiple
sub-activities within a single activity has been provided in the introduction to
that activity. If guidance pertains to only a single sub-activity, it is presented
within that sub-activity.
7.4
Relationship between CC and CEM structures
39
There are direct relationships between the CC structure (i.e. class, family,
component and element) and the structure of the CEM. Figure 1 illustrates
the correspondence between the CC constructs of class, family and evaluator
action elements and CEM activities, sub-activities and actions. However,
several CEM work units may result from the requirements noted in CC
developer action and content and presentation elements.
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Document Conventions
Figure 1 - Mapping of the CC and CEM structures
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Evaluation process and related tasks
8
Evaluation process and related tasks
8.1
Introduction
40
This chapter provides an overview of the evaluation process and defines the
tasks an evaluator is intended to perform when conducting an evaluation.
41
Each evaluation, whether of a PP or TOE (including ST), follows the same
process, and has four evaluator tasks in common: the input task, the output
task, the evaluation sub-activities, and the demonstration of the technical
competence to the evaluation authority task.
42
The input task and the output tasks, which are related to management of
evaluation evidence and to report generation, are entirely described in this
chapter. Each task has associated sub-tasks that apply to, and are normative
for all CC evaluations (evaluation of a PP or a TOE).
43
The evaluation sub-activities are only introduced in this chapter, and fully
described in the following chapters.
44
In contrast to the evaluation sub-activities, input and output tasks have no
verdicts associated with them as they do not map to CC evaluator action
elements; they are performed in order to ensure conformance with the
universal principles and to comply with the CEM.
45
The demonstration of the technical competence to the evaluation authority
task may be fulfilled by the evaluation authority analysis of the output tasks
results, or may include the demonstration by the evaluators of their
understanding of the inputs for the evaluation sub-activities. This task has no
associated evaluator verdict, but has an evaluator authority verdict. The
detailed criteria to pass this task are left to the discretion of the evaluation
authority, as noted in Annex 0.
8.2
Evaluation process overview
8.2.1
Objectives
46
This section presents the general model of the methodology and identifies:
a)
roles and responsibilities of the parties involved in the evaluation
process;
b)
the general evaluation model.
8.2.2
Responsibilities of the roles
47
The general model defines the following roles: sponsor, developer, evaluator
and evaluation authority.
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48
The sponsor is responsible for requesting and supporting an evaluation. This
means that the sponsor establishes the different agreements for the evaluation
(e.g. commissioning the evaluation). Moreover, the sponsor is responsible
for ensuring that the evaluator is provided with the evaluation evidence.
49
The developer produces the TOE and is responsible for providing the
evidence required for the evaluation (e.g. training, design information), on
behalf of the sponsor.
50
The evaluator performs the evaluation tasks required in the context of an
evaluation: the evaluator receives the evaluation evidence from the developer
on behalf of the sponsor or directly from the sponsor, performs the
evaluation sub-activities and provides the results of the evaluation
assessment to the evaluation authority.
51
The evaluation authority establishes and maintains the scheme, monitors the
evaluation conducted by the evaluator, and issues certification/validation
reports as well as certificates based on the evaluation results provided by the
evaluator.
8.2.3
Relationship of roles
52
To prevent undue influence from improperly affecting an evaluation, some
separation of roles is required. This implies that the roles described above are
fulfilled by different entities, except that the roles of developer and sponsor
may be satisfied by a single entity.
53
Moreover, some evaluations (e.g. EAL1 evaluation) may not require the
developer to be involved in the project. In this case, it is the sponsor who
provides the TOE to the evaluator and who generates the evaluation
evidence.
8.2.4
General evaluation model
54
The evaluation process consists of the evaluator performing the evaluation
input task, the evaluation output task and the evaluation sub-activities. Figure
2 provides an overview of the relationship between these tasks and subactivities.
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Figure 2 - Generic evaluation model
55
The evaluation process may be preceded by a preparation phase where initial
contact is made between the sponsor and the evaluator. The work that is
performed and the involvement of the different roles during this phase may
vary. It is typically during this step that the evaluator performs a feasibility
analysis to assess the likelihood of a successful evaluation.
8.2.5
Evaluator verdicts
56
The evaluator assigns verdicts to the requirements of the CC and not to those
of the CEM. The most granular CC structure to which a verdict is assigned is
the evaluator action element (explicit or implied). A verdict is assigned to an
applicable CC evaluator action element as a result of performing the
corresponding CEM action and its constituent work units. Finally, an
evaluation result is assigned, as described in CC Part 1, Chapter 10,
Evaluation results.
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Figure 3 - Example of the verdict assignment rule
57
The CEM recognises three mutually exclusive verdict states:
a)
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Conditions for a pass verdict are defined as an evaluator completion
of the CC evaluator action element and determination that the
requirements for the PP, ST or TOE under evaluation are met. The
conditions for passing the element are defined as:
1)
the constituent work units of the related CEM action, and;
2)
all evaluation evidence required for performing these work
units is coherent, that is it can be fully and completely
understood by the evaluator, and
3)
all evaluation evidence required for performing these work
units does not have any obvious internal inconsistencies or
inconsistencies with other evaluation evidence. Note that
obvious means here that the evaluator discovers this
inconsistency while performing the work units: the evaluator
should not undertake a full consistency analysis across the
entire evaluation evidence every time a work unit is
performed.
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b)
Conditions for a fail verdict are defined as an evaluator completion of
the CC evaluator action element and determination that the
requirements for the PP, ST, or TOE under evaluation are not met, or
that the evidence is incoherent, or an obvious inconsistency in the
evaluation evidence has been found;
c)
All verdicts are initially inconclusive and remain so until either a pass
or fail verdict is assigned.
58
The overall verdict is pass if and only if all the constituent verdicts are also
pass. In the example illustrated in Figure 3, if the verdict for one evaluator
action element is fail then the verdicts for the corresponding assurance
component, assurance class, and overall verdict are also fail.
8.3
Evaluation input task
8.3.1
Objectives
59
The objective of this task is to ensure that the evaluator has available the
correct version of the evaluation evidence necessary for the evaluation and
that it is adequately protected. Otherwise, the technical accuracy of the
evaluation cannot be assured, nor can it be assured that the evaluation is
being conducted in a way to provide repeatable and reproducible results.
8.3.2
Application notes
60
The responsibility to provide all the required evaluation evidence lies with
the sponsor. However, most of the evaluation evidence is likely to be
produced and supplied by the developer, on behalf of the sponsor.
61
Since the assurance requirements apply to the entire TOE, all evaluation
evidence pertaining to all parts of the TOE is to be made available to the
evaluator. The scope and required content of such evaluation evidence is
independent of the level of control that the developer has over each of the
parts of the TOE. For example, if design is required, then the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) requirements will apply to all subsystems that are part of the
TSF. In addition, assurance requirements that call for procedures to be in
place (for example, CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) and Delivery
(ALC_DEL)) will also apply to the entire TOE (including any part produced
by another developer).
62
It is recommended that the evaluator, in conjunction with the sponsor,
produce an index to required evaluation evidence. This index may be a set of
references to the documentation. This index should contain enough
information (e.g. a brief summary of each document, or at least an explicit
title, indication of the sections of interest) to help the evaluator to find easily
the required evidence.
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63
It is the information contained in the evaluation evidence that is required, not
any particular document structure. Evaluation evidence for a sub-activity
may be provided by separate documents, or a single document may satisfy
several of the input requirements of a sub-activity.
64
The evaluator requires stable and formally-issued versions of evaluation
evidence. However, draft evaluation evidence may be provided during an
evaluation, for example, to help an evaluator make an early, informal
assessment, but is not used as the basis for verdicts. It may be helpful for the
evaluator to see draft versions of particular appropriate evaluation evidence,
such as:
a)
test documentation, to allow the evaluator to make an early
assessment of tests and test procedures;
b)
design documents, to provide the evaluator with background for
understanding the TOE design;
c)
source code or hardware drawings, to allow the evaluator to assess
the application of the developer's standards.
65
Draft evaluation evidence is more likely to be encountered where the
evaluation of a TOE is performed concurrently with its development.
However, it may also be encountered during the evaluation of an alreadydeveloped TOE where the developer has had to perform additional work to
address a problem identified by the evaluator (e.g. to correct an error in
design or implementation) or to provide evaluation evidence of security that
is not provided in the existing documentation (e.g. in the case of a TOE not
originally developed to meet the requirements of the CC).
8.3.3
Management of evaluation evidence sub-task
8.3.3.1
Configuration control
66
The evaluator shall perform configuration control of the evaluation
evidence.
67
The CC implies that the evaluator is able to identify and locate each item of
evaluation evidence after it has been received and is able to determine
whether a specific version of a document is in the evaluator's possession.
68
The evaluator shall protect the evaluation evidence from alteration or loss
while it is in the evaluator's possession.
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8.3.3.2
Disposal
69
Schemes may wish to control the disposal of evaluation evidence at the
conclusion of an evaluation. The disposal of the evaluation evidence should
be achieved by one or more of:
a)
returning the evaluation evidence;
b)
archiving the evaluation evidence;
c)
destroying the evaluation evidence.
8.3.3.3
Confidentiality
70
An evaluator may have access to sponsor and developer commerciallysensitive information (e.g. TOE design information, specialist tools), and
may have access to nationally-sensitive information during the course of an
evaluation. Schemes may wish to impose requirements for the evaluator to
maintain the confidentiality of the evaluation evidence. The sponsor and
evaluator may mutually agree to additional requirements as long as these are
consistent with the scheme.
71
Confidentiality requirements affect many aspects of evaluation work,
including the receipt, handling, storage and disposal of evaluation evidence.
8.4
Evaluation sub-activities
72
The evaluation sub-activities vary depending whether it is a PP or a TOE
evaluation. Moreover, in the case of a TOE evaluation, the sub-activities
depend upon the selected assurance requirements.
8.5
Evaluation output task
8.5.1
Objectives
73
The objective of this Section is to describe the Observation Report (OR) and
the Evaluation Technical Report (ETR). Schemes may require additional
evaluator reports such as reports on individual units of work, or may require
additional information to be contained in the OR and the ETR. The CEM
does not preclude the addition of information into these reports as the CEM
specifies only the minimum information content.
74
Consistent reporting of evaluation results facilitates the achievement of the
universal principle of repeatability and reproducibility of results. The
consistency covers the type and the amount of information reported in the
ETR and OR. ETR and OR consistency among different evaluations is the
responsibility of the evaluation authority.
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75
The evaluator performs the two following sub-tasks in order to achieve the
CEM requirements for the information content of reports:
a)
write OR sub-task (if needed in the context of the evaluation);
b)
write ETR sub-task.
8.5.2
Management of evaluation outputs
76
The evaluator delivers the ETR to the evaluation authority, as well as any
ORs as they become available. Requirements for controls on handling the
ETR and ORs are established by the scheme which may include delivery to
the sponsor or developer. The ETR and ORs may include sensitive or
proprietary information and may need to be sanitised before they are given to
the sponsor.
8.5.3
Application notes
77
In this version of the CEM, the requirements for the provision of evaluator
evidence to support re-evaluation and re-use have not been explicitly stated.
Where information for re-evaluation or re-use is required by the sponsor, the
scheme under which the evaluation is being performed should be consulted.
8.5.4
Write OR sub-task
78
ORs provide the evaluator with a mechanism to request a clarification (e.g.
from the evaluation authority on the application of a requirement) or to
identify a problem with an aspect of the evaluation.
79
In the case of a fail verdict, the evaluator shall provide an OR to reflect the
evaluation result. Otherwise, the evaluator may use ORs as one way of
expressing clarification needs.
80
For each OR, the evaluator shall report the following:
a)
the identifier of the PP or TOE evaluated;
b)
the evaluation task/sub-activity during which the observation was
generated;
c)
the observation;
d)
the assessment of its severity (e.g. implies a fail verdict, holds up
progress on the evaluation, requires a resolution prior to evaluation
being completed);
e)
the identification of the organisation responsible for resolving the
issue;
f)
the recommended timetable for resolution;
g)
the assessment of the impact on the evaluation of failure to resolve
the observation.
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81
The intended audience of an OR and procedures for handling the report
depend on the nature of the report's content and on the scheme. Schemes may
distinguish different types of ORs or define additional types, with associated
differences in required information and distribution (e.g. evaluation ORs to
evaluation authorities and sponsors).
8.5.5
Write ETR sub-task
8.5.5.1
Objectives
82
The evaluator shall provide an ETR to present technical justification of the
verdicts.
83
The CEM defines the ETR's minimum content requirement; however,
schemes may specify additional content and specific presentational and
structural requirements. For instance, schemes may require that certain
introductory material (e.g. disclaimers and copyright Chapters) be reported in
the ETR.
84
The reader of the ETR is assumed to be familiar with general concepts of
information security, the CC, the CEM, evaluation approaches and IT.
85
The ETR supports the evaluation authority to confirm that the evaluation was
done to the required standard, but it is anticipated that the documented results
may not provide all of the necessary information, so additional information
specifically requested by the scheme may be necessary. This aspect is
outside the scope of the CEM.
8.5.5.2
ETR for a PP Evaluation
86
This Section describes the minimum content of the ETR for a PP evaluation.
The contents of the ETR are portrayed in Figure 4; this figure may be used as
a guide when constructing the structural outline of the ETR document.
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Figure 4 - ETR information content for a PP evaluation
8.5.5.2.1
Introduction
87
The evaluator shall report evaluation scheme identifiers.
88
Evaluation scheme identifiers (e.g. logos) are the information required to
unambiguously identify the scheme responsible for the evaluation oversight.
89
The evaluator shall report ETR configuration control identifiers.
90
The ETR configuration control identifiers contain information that identifies
the ETR (e.g. name, date and version number).
91
The evaluator shall report PP configuration control identifiers.
92
PP configuration control identifiers (e.g. name, date and version number) are
required to identify what is being evaluated in order for the evaluation
authority to verify that the verdicts have been assigned correctly by the
evaluator.
93
The evaluator shall report the identity of the developer.
94
The identity of the PP developer is required to identify the party responsible
for producing the PP.
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95
The evaluator shall report the identity of the sponsor.
96
The identity of the sponsor is required to identify the party responsible for
providing evaluation evidence to the evaluator.
97
The evaluator shall report the identity of the evaluator.
98
The identity of the evaluator is required to identify the party performing the
evaluation and responsible for the evaluation verdicts.
8.5.5.2.2
Evaluation
99
The evaluator shall report the evaluation methods, techniques, tools and
standards used.
100
The evaluator references the evaluation criteria, methodology and
interpretations used to evaluate the PP.
101
The evaluator shall report any constraints on the evaluation, constraints on
the handling of evaluation results and assumptions made during the
evaluation that have an impact on the evaluation results.
102
The evaluator may include information in relation to legal or statutory
aspects, organisation, confidentiality, etc.
8.5.5.2.3
Results of the evaluation
103
The evaluator shall report a verdict and a supporting rationale for each
assurance component that constitutes an APE activity, as a result of
performing the corresponding CEM action and its constituent work units.
104
The rationale justifies the verdict using the CC, the CEM, any interpretations
and the evaluation evidence examined and shows how the evaluation
evidence does or does not meet each aspect of the criteria. It contains a
description of the work performed, the method used, and any derivation of
results. The rationale may provide detail to the level of a CEM work unit.
8.5.5.2.4
Conclusions and recommendations
105
The evaluator shall report the conclusions of the evaluation, in particular the
overall verdict as defined in CC Part 1 Chapter 10, Evaluation results, and
determined by application of the verdict assignment described in 8.2.5.
106
The evaluator provides recommendations that may be useful for the
evaluation authority. These recommendations may include shortcomings of
the PP discovered during the evaluation or mention of features which are
particularly useful.
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8.5.5.2.5
List of evaluation evidence
107
The evaluator shall report for each item of evaluation evidence the following
information:

the issuing body (e.g. the developer, the sponsor);

the title;

the unique reference (e.g. issue date and version number).
8.5.5.2.6
List of acronyms/Glossary of terms
108
The evaluator shall report any acronyms or abbreviations used in the ETR.
109
Glossary definitions already defined by the CC or CEM need not be repeated
in the ETR.
8.5.5.2.7
Observation reports
110
The evaluator shall report a complete list that uniquely identifies the ORs
raised during the evaluation and their status.
111
For each OR, the list should contain its identifier as well as its title or a brief
summary of its content.
8.5.5.3
ETR for a TOE Evaluation
112
This Section describes the minimum content of the ETR for a TOE
evaluation. The contents of the ETR are portrayed in Figure 5; this figure
may be used as a guide when constructing the structural outline of the ETR
document.
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Figure 5 - ETR information content for a TOE evaluation
8.5.5.3.1
Introduction
113
The evaluator shall report evaluation scheme identifiers.
114
Evaluation scheme identifiers (e.g. logos) are the information required to
unambiguously identify the scheme responsible for the evaluation oversight.
115
The evaluator shall report ETR configuration control identifiers.
116
The ETR configuration control identifiers contain information that identifies
the ETR (e.g. name, date and version number).
117
The evaluator shall report ST and TOE configuration control identifiers.
118
ST and TOE configuration control identifiers identify what is being
evaluated in order for the evaluation authority to verify that the verdicts have
been assigned correctly by the evaluator.
119
If the ST claims that the TOE conforms to the requirements of one or more
PPs, the ETR shall report the reference of the corresponding PPs.
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120
The PPs reference contains information that uniquely identifies the PPs (e.g.
title, date, and version number).
121
The evaluator shall report the identity of the developer.
122
The identity of the TOE developer is required to identify the party
responsible for producing the TOE.
123
The evaluator shall report the identity of the sponsor.
124
The identity of the sponsor is required to identify the party responsible for
providing evaluation evidence to the evaluator.
125
The evaluator shall report the identity of the evaluator.
126
The identity of the evaluator is required to identify the party performing the
evaluation and responsible for the evaluation verdicts.
8.5.5.3.2
Architectural description of the TOE
127
The evaluator shall report a high level description of the TOE and its major
components based on the evaluation evidence described in the CC assurance
family entitled TOE design (ADV_TDS), where applicable.
128
The intent of this Section is to characterise the degree of architectural
separation of the major components. If there is no TOE design (ADV_TDS)
requirement in the ST, this is not applicable and is considered to be satisfied.
8.5.5.3.3
Evaluation
129
The evaluator shall report the evaluation methods, techniques, tools and
standards used.
130
The evaluator may reference the evaluation criteria, methodology and
interpretations used to evaluate the TOE or the devices used to perform the
tests.
131
The evaluator shall report any constraints on the evaluation, constraints on
the distribution of evaluation results and assumptions made during the
evaluation that have an impact on the evaluation results.
132
The evaluator may include information in relation to legal or statutory
aspects, organisation, confidentiality, etc.
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8.5.5.3.4
Results of the evaluation
133
For each activity on which the TOE is evaluated, the evaluator shall report:

the title of the activity considered;

a verdict and a supporting rationale for each assurance component
that constitutes this activity, as a result of performing the
corresponding CEM action and its constituent work units.
134
The rationale justifies the verdict using the CC, the CEM, any interpretations
and the evaluation evidence examined and shows how the evaluation
evidence does or does not meet each aspect of the criteria. It contains a
description of the work performed, the method used, and any derivation of
results. The rationale may provide detail to the level of a CEM work unit.
135
The evaluator shall report all information specifically required by a work
unit.
136
For the AVA and ATE activities, work units that identify information to be
reported in the ETR have been defined.
8.5.5.3.5
Conclusions and recommendations
137
The evaluator shall report the conclusions of the evaluation, which will
relate to whether the TOE has satisfied its associated ST, in particular the
overall verdict as defined in CC Part 1 Chapter 10, Evaluation results, and
determined by application of the verdict assignment described in 8.2.5.
138
The evaluator provides recommendations that may be useful for the
evaluation authority. These recommendations may include shortcomings of
the IT product discovered during the evaluation or mention of features which
are particularly useful.
8.5.5.3.6
List of evaluation evidence
139
The evaluator shall report for each item of evaluation evidence the following
information:

the issuing body (e.g. the developer, the sponsor);

the title;

the unique reference (e.g. issue date and version number).
8.5.5.3.7
List of acronyms/Glossary of terms
140
The evaluator shall report any acronyms or abbreviations used in the ETR.
141
Glossary definitions already defined by the CC or CEM need not be repeated
in the ETR.
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8.5.5.3.8
Observation reports
142
The evaluator shall report a complete list that uniquely identifies the ORs
raised during the evaluation and their status.
143
For each OR, the list should contain its identifier as well as its title or a brief
summary of its content.
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9
Class APE: Protection Profile evaluation
9.1
Introduction
144
This Chapter describes the evaluation of a PP. The requirements and
methodology for PP evaluation are identical for each PP evaluation,
regardless of the EAL (or other set of assurance requirements) that is claimed
in the PP. The evaluation methodology in this Chapter is based on the
requirements on the PP as specified in CC Part 3 class APE.
145
This Chapter should be used in conjunction with Annexes A, B and C in CC
Part 1, as these Annexes clarify the concepts here and provide many
examples.
9.2
Application notes
9.2.1
Re-using the evaluation results of certified PPs
146
While evaluating a PP that is based on one or more certified PPs, it may be
possible to re-use the fact that these PPs were certified. The potential for reuse of the result of a certified PP is greater if the PP under evaluation does
not add threats, OSPs, security objectives and/or security requirements to
those of the PP that conformance is being claimed to. If the PP under
evaluation contains much more than the certified PP, re-use may not be
useful at all.
147
The evaluator is allowed to re-use the PP evaluation results by doing certain
analyses only partially or not at all if these analyses or parts thereof were
already done as part of the PP evaluation. While doing this, the evaluator
should assume that the analyses in the PP were performed correctly.
148
An example would be where the PP that conformance is being claimed to
contains a set of security requirements, and these were determined to be
internally consistent during its evaluation. If the PP under evaluation uses the
exact same requirements, the consistency analysis does not have to be
repeated during the PP evaluation. If the PP under evaluation adds one or
more requirements, or performs operations on these requirements, the
analysis will have to be repeated. However, it may be possible to save work
in this consistency analysis by using the fact that the original requirements
are internally consistent. If the original requirements are internally
consistent, the evaluator only has to determine that:
149
a)
the set of all new and/or changed requirements is internally
consistent, and
b)
the set of all new and/or changed requirements is consistent with the
original requirements.
The evaluator notes in the ETR each case where analyses are not done or
only partially done for this reason.
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9.3
PP introduction (APE_INT)
9.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_INT.1)
9.3.1.1
Objectives
150
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the PP is correctly
identified, and whether the PP reference and TOE overview are consistent
with each other.
9.3.1.2
Input
151
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.3.1.3
Action APE_INT.1.1E
APE_INT.1.1C
The PP introduction shall contain a PP reference and a TOE overview.
APE_INT.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the PP introduction contains a PP reference
and a TOE overview.
APE_INT.1.2C
The PP reference shall uniquely identify the PP.
APE_INT.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the PP reference to determine that it uniquely
identifies the PP.
152
The evaluator determines that the PP reference identifies the PP itself, so that
it may be easily distinguished from other PPs, and that it also uniquely
identifies each version of the PP, e.g. by including a version number and/or a
date of publication.
153
The PP should have some referencing system that is capable of supporting
unique references (e.g. use of numbers, letters or dates).
APE_INT.1.3C
The TOE overview shall summarise the usage and major security features
of the TOE.
APE_INT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE overview to determine that it describes
the usage and major security features of the TOE.
154
The TOE overview should briefly (i.e. several paragraphs) describe the usage
and major security features expected of the TOE. The TOE overview should
enable consumers and potential TOE developers to quickly determine
whether the PP is of interest to them.
155
The evaluator determines that the overview is clear enough for TOE
developers and consumers, and sufficient to give them a general
understanding of the intended usage and major security features of the TOE.
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APE_INT.1.4C
The TOE overview shall identify the TOE type.
APE_INT.1-4
The evaluator shall check that the TOE overview identifies the TOE type.
APE_INT.1.5C
The
TOE
overview
shall
identify
hardware/software/firmware available to the TOE.
APE_INT.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE overview to determine that it identifies
any non-TOE hardware/software/firmware available to the TOE.
156
While some TOEs may run stand-alone, other TOEs (notably software
TOEs) need additional hardware, software or firmware to operate. In this
section of the PP, the PP author lists all hardware, software, and/or firmware
that will be available for the TOE to run on.
157
This identification should be detailed enough for potential consumers and
TOE developers to determine whether their TOE may operate with the listed
hardware, software and firmware.
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non-TOE
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9.4
Conformance claims (APE_CCL)
9.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_CCL.1)
9.4.1.1
Objectives
158
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine the validity of various
conformance claims. These describe how the PP conforms to the CC, other
PPs and packages.
9.4.1.2
Input
159
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP;
b)
the PP(s) that the PP claims conformance to;
c)
the package(s) that the PP claims conformance to.
9.4.1.3
Action APE_CCL.1.1E
APE_CCL.1.1C
The conformance claim shall contain a CC conformance claim that
identifies the version of the CC to which the PP claims conformance.
APE_CCL.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a CC
conformance claim that identifies the version of the CC to which the PP
claims conformance.
160
The evaluator determines that the CC conformance claim identifies the
version of the CC that was used to develop this PP. This should include the
version number of the CC and, unless the International English version of the
CC was used, the language of the version of the CC that was used.
APE_CCL.1.2C
The CC conformance claim shall describe the conformance of the PP to
CC Part 2 as either CC Part 2 conformant or CC Part 2 extended.
APE_CCL.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the CC conformance claim states a claim of
either CC Part 2 conformant or CC Part 2 extended for the PP.
APE_CCL.1.3C
The CC conformance claim shall describe the conformance of the PP to
CC Part 3 as either CC Part 3 conformant or CC Part 3 extended.
APE_CCL.1-3
The evaluator shall check that the CC conformance claim states a claim of
either CC Part 3 conformant or CC Part 3 extended for the PP.
APE_CCL.1.4C
The CC conformance claim shall be consistent with the extended
components definition.
APE_CCL.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the CC conformance claim for CC Part 2 to
determine that it is consistent with the extended components definition.
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161
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 2 conformant, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition does not define
functional components.
162
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 2 extended, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition defines at least one
extended functional component.
APE_CCL.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the CC conformance claim for CC Part 3 to
determine that it is consistent with the extended components definition.
163
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 3 conformant, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition does not define
assurance components.
164
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 3 extended, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition defines at least one
extended assurance component.
APE_CCL.1.5C
The conformance claim shall identify all PPs and security requirement
packages to which the PP claims conformance.
APE_CCL.1-6
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a PP claim
that identifies all PPs for which the PP claims conformance.
165
If the PP does not claim conformance to another PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
166
The evaluator determines that any referenced PPs are unambiguously
identified (e.g. by title and version number, or by the identification included
in the introduction of that PP).
167
The evaluator is reminded that claims of partial conformance to a PP are not
permitted.
APE_CCL.1-7
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a package
claim that identifies all packages to which the PP claims conformance.
168
If the PP does not claim conformance to a package, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
169
The evaluator determines that any referenced packages are unambiguously
identified (e.g. by title and version number, or by the identification included
in the introduction of that package).
170
The evaluator is reminded that claims of partial conformance to a package
are not permitted.
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APE_CCL.1.6C
The conformance claim shall describe any conformance of the PP to a
package as either package-conformant or package-augmented.
APE_CCL.1-8
The evaluator shall check that, for each identified package, the conformance
claim states a claim of either package-name conformant or package-name
augmented.
171
If the PP does not claim conformance to a package, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
172
If the package conformance claim contains package-name conformant, the
evaluator determines that:
173
a)
If the package is an assurance package, then the PP contains all SARs
included in the package, but no additional SARs.
b)
If the package is a functional package, then the PP contains all SFRs
included in the package, but no additional SFRs.
If the package conformance claim contains package-name augmented, the
evaluator determines that:
a)
If the package is an assurance package, then the PP contains all SARs
included in the package, and at least one additional SAR or at least
one SAR that is hierarchical to a SAR in the package.
b)
If the package is a functional package, then the PP contains all SFRs
included in the package, and at least one additional SFR or at least
one SFR that is hierarchical to a SFR in the package.
APE_CCL.1.7C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the TOE type is
consistent with the TOE type in the PPs for which conformance is being
claimed.
APE_CCL.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that the TOE type of the TOE is consistent with all TOE types of the PPs.
174
If the PP does not claim conformance to another PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
175
The relation between the types may be simple: a firewall PP claiming
conformance to another firewall PP, or more complex: a smart card PP
claiming conformance to a number of other PPs at the same time: a PP for
the integrated circuit, a PP for the smart card OS, and two PPs for two
applications on the smart card.
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APE_CCL.1.8C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
the security problem definition is consistent with the statement of the
security problem definition in the PPs for which conformance is being
claimed.
APE_CCL.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that it demonstrates that the statement of security problem definition is
consistent, as defined by the conformance statement of the PP, with the
statements of security problem definition stated in the PPs to which
conformance is being claimed.
176
If the PP under evaluation does not claim conformance with another PP, this
work unit is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
177
If the PP to which conformance is being claimed does not have a statement
of security problem definition, this work unit is not applicable and therefore
considered to be satisfied.
178
If strict conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is being
claimed, no conformance claim rationale is required. Instead, the evaluator
determines whether
a)
the threats in the PP under evaluation are a superset of or identical to
the threats in the PP to which conformance is being claimed;
b)
the OSPs in the PP under evaluation are a superset of or identical to
the OSPs in the PP to which conformance is being claimed;
c)
the assumptions in the PP under evaluation are identical to the
assumptions in the PP to which conformance is being claimed;
179
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security problem
definition of the PP under evaluation is equivalent or more restrictive than
the statement of security problem definition in the PP to which conformance
is being claimed.
180
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
APE_CCL.1.9C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
security objectives is consistent with the statement of security objectives in
the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
APE_CCL.1-11
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that the statement of security objectives is consistent, as defined by the
conformance statement of the PPs, with the statement of security objectives
in the PPs.
181
If the PP does not claim conformance to another PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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182
If strict conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is being
claimed, no conformance claim rationale is required. Instead, the evaluator
determines whether:

The PP under evaluation contains all security objectives for the TOE
of the PP to which conformance is being claimed. Note that it is
allowed for the PP under evaluation to have additional security
objectives for the TOE;

The PP under evaluation contains exactly all security objectives for
the operational environment (with one exception in the next bullet).
Note that it is not allowed for the PP under evaluation to have
additional security objectives for the operational environment;

The PP under evaluation may specify that certain objectives for the
operational environment in the PP that conformance is being claimed
to are security objectives for the TOE in the PP under evaluation.
This is a valid exception to the previous bullet.
183
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security objectives of the
PP under evaluation is equivalent or more restrictive than the statement of
security objectives in the PP to which conformance is being claimed.
184
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
APE_CCL.1.10C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
security requirements is consistent with the statement of security
requirements in the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
APE_CCL.1-12
The evaluator shall examine the PP to determine that it is consistent, as
defined by the conformance statement of the PP, with all security
requirements in the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
185
If the PP does not claim conformance to another PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
186
If strict conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is being
claimed, no conformance claim rationale is required. Instead, the evaluator
determines whether the statement of security requirements in the PP under
evaluation is a superset of or identical to the statement of security
requirements in the PP to which conformance is being claimed (for strict
conformance).
187
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security requirements of
the PP under evaluation is equivalent or more restrictive than the statement
of security requirements in the PP to which conformance is being claimed.
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188
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
APE_CCL.1.11C
The conformance statement shall describe the conformance required of
any PPs/STs to the PP as strict-PP or demonstrable-PP conformance.
APE_CCL.1-13
The evaluator shall check that the PP conformance statement states a claim
of strict-PP or demonstrable-PP conformance.
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9.5
Security problem definition (APE_SPD)
9.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_SPD.1)
9.5.1.1
Objectives
189
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the security problem
intended to be addressed by the TOE and its operational environment is
clearly defined.
9.5.1.2
Input
190
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.5.1.3
Action APE_SPD.1.1E
APE_SPD.1.1C
The security problem definition shall describe the threats.
APE_SPD.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the security problem definition describes the
threats.
191
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and/or OSPs only, the
statement of threats need not be present in the PP. In this case, this work unit
is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
192
The evaluator determines that the security problem definition describes the
threats that must be countered by the TOE and/or its operational
environment.
APE_SPD.1.2C
All threats shall be described in terms of a threat agent, an asset, and an
adverse action.
APE_SPD.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the security problem definition to determine
that all threats are described in terms of a threat agent, an asset, and an
adverse action.
193
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and OSPs only, the
statement of threats need not be present in the PP. In this case, this work unit
is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
194
Threat agents may be further described by aspects such as expertise,
resource, opportunity, and motivation.
APE_SPD.1.3C
The security problem definition shall describe the OSPs.
APE_SPD.1-3
The evaluator shall check that the security problem definition describes the
OSPs.
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195
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and/or threats only,
OSPs need not be present in the PP. In this case, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
196
The evaluator determines that OSP statements are made in terms of rules or
guidelines that must be followed by the TOE and/or its operational
environment.
197
The evaluator determines that each OSP is explained and/or interpreted in
sufficient detail to make it clearly understandable; a clear presentation of
policy statements is necessary to permit tracing security objectives to them.
APE_SPD.1.4C
The security problem definition shall describe the assumptions about the
operational environment of the TOE.
APE_SPD.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the security problem definition to determine
that it describes the assumptions about the operational environment of the
TOE.
198
If there are no assumptions, this work unit is not applicable and is therefore
considered to be satisfied.
199
The evaluator determines that each assumption about the operational
environment of the TOE is explained in sufficient detail to enable consumers
to determine that their operational environment matches the assumption. If
the assumptions are not clearly understood, the end result may be that the
TOE is used in an operational environment in which it will not function in a
secure manner.
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9.6
Security objectives (APE_OBJ)
9.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_OBJ.1)
9.6.1.1
Objectives
200
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the security
objectives for the operational environment are clearly defined.
9.6.1.2
Input
201
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.6.1.3
Action APE_OBJ.1.1E
APE_OBJ.1.1C
The statement of security objectives shall describe the security objectives
for the operational environment.
APE_OBJ.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security objectives defines
the security objectives for the operational environment.
202
The evaluator checks that the security objectives for the operational
environment are identified.
9.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_OBJ.2)
9.6.2.1
Objectives
203
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the security
objectives adequately and completely address the security problem definition
and that the division of this problem between the TOE and its operational
environment is clearly defined.
9.6.2.2
Input
204
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.6.2.3
Action APE_OBJ.2.1E
APE_OBJ.2.1C
The statement of security objectives shall describe the security objectives
for the TOE and the security objectives for the operational environment.
APE_OBJ.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security objectives defines
the security objectives for the TOE and the security objectives for the
operational environment.
205
The evaluator checks that both categories of security objectives are clearly
identified and separated from the other category.
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APE_OBJ.2.2C
The security objectives rationale shall trace each security objective for the
TOE back to threats countered by that security objective and OSPs
enforced by that security objective.
APE_OBJ.2-2
The evaluator shall check that the security objectives rationale traces all
security objectives for the TOE back to threats countered by the objectives
and/or OSPs enforced by the objectives.
206
Each security objective for the TOE may trace back to threats or OSPs, or a
combination of threats and OSPs, but it must trace back to at least one threat
or OSP.
207
Failure to trace implies that either the security objectives rationale is
incomplete, the security problem definition is incomplete, or the security
objective for the TOE has no useful purpose.
APE_OBJ.2.3C
The security objectives rationale shall trace each security objective for the
operational environment back to threats countered by that security
objective, OSPs enforced by that security objective, and assumptions
upheld by that security objective.
APE_OBJ.2-3
The evaluator shall check that the security objectives rationale traces the
security objectives for the operational environment back to threats countered
by that security objective, to OSPs enforced by that security objective, and to
assumptions upheld by that security objective.
208
Each security objective for the operational environment may trace back to
threats, OSPs, assumptions, or a combination of threats, OSPs and/or
assumptions, but it must trace back to at least one threat, OSP or assumption.
209
Failure to trace implies that either the security objectives rationale is
incomplete, the security problem definition is incomplete, or the security
objective for the operational environment has no useful purpose.
APE_OBJ.2.4C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives counter all threats.
APE_OBJ.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that it justifies for each threat that the security objectives are suitable to
counter that threat.
210
If no security objectives trace back to the threat, the evaluator action related
to this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
211
The evaluator determines that the justification for a threat shows whether the
threat is removed, diminished or mitigated.
212
The evaluator determines that the justification for a threat demonstrates that
the security objectives are sufficient: if all security objectives that trace back
to the threat are achieved, the threat is removed, sufficiently diminished, or
the effects of the threat are sufficiently mitigated.
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213
Note that the tracings from security objectives to threats provided in the
security objectives rationale may be part of a justification, but do not
constitute a justification by themselves. Even in the case that a security
objective is merely a statement reflecting the intent to prevent a particular
threat from being realised, a justification is required, but this justification
may be as minimal as “Security Objective X directly counters Threat Y”.
214
The evaluator also determines that each security objective that traces back to
a threat is necessary: when the security objective is achieved it actually
contributes to the removal, diminishing or mitigation of that threat.
APE_OBJ.2.5C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives enforce all OSPs.
APE_OBJ.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that for each OSP it justifies that the security objectives are suitable to
enforce that OSP.
215
If no security objectives trace back to the OSP, the evaluator action related to
this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
216
The evaluator determines that the justification for an OSP demonstrates that
the security objectives are sufficient: if all security objectives that trace back
to that OSP are achieved, the OSP is enforced.
217
The evaluator also determines that each security objective that traces back to
an OSP is necessary: when the security objective is achieved it actually
contributes to the enforcement of the OSP.
218
Note that the tracings from security objectives to OSPs provided in the
security objectives rationale may be part of a justification, but do not
constitute a justification by themselves. In the case that a security objective is
merely a statement reflecting the intent to enforce a particular OSP, a
justification is required, but this justification may be as minimal as “Security
Objective X directly enforces OSP Y”.
APE_OBJ.2.6C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives for the operational environment uphold all assumptions.
APE_OBJ.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that for each assumption for the operational environment it contains an
appropriate justification that the security objectives for the operational
environment are suitable to uphold that assumption.
219
If no security objectives for the operational environment trace back to the
assumption, the evaluator action related to this work unit is assigned a fail
verdict.
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220
The evaluator determines that the justification for an assumption about the
operational environment of the TOE demonstrates that the security objectives
are sufficient: if all security objectives for the operational environment that
trace back to that assumption are achieved, the operational environment
upholds the assumption.
221
The evaluator also determines that each security objective for the operational
environment that traces back to an assumption about the operational
environment of the TOE is necessary: when the security objective is
achieved it actually contributes to the operational environment upholding the
assumption.
222
Note that the tracings from security objectives for the operational
environment to assumptions provided in the security objectives rationale may
be a part of a justification, but do not constitute a justification by themselves.
Even in the case that a security objective of the operational environment is
merely a restatement of an assumption, a justification is required, but this
justification may be as minimal as “Security Objective X directly upholds
Assumption Y”.
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9.7
Extended components definition (APE_ECD)
9.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_ECD.1)
9.7.1.1
Objectives
223
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether extended
components have been clearly and unambiguously defined, and whether they
are necessary, i.e. they may not be clearly expressed using existing CC Part 2
or CC Part 3 components.
9.7.1.2
Input
224
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.7.1.3
Action APE_ECD.1.1E
APE_ECD.1.1C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all extended security
requirements.
APE_ECD.1-1
The evaluator shall check that all security requirements in the statement of
security requirements that are not identified as extended requirements are
present in CC Part 2 or in CC Part 3.
APE_ECD.1.2C
The extended components definition shall define an extended component
for each extended security requirement.
APE_ECD.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the extended components definition defines
an extended component for each extended security requirement.
225
If the PP does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
226
A single extended component may be used to define multiple iterations of an
extended security requirement, it is not necessary to repeat this definition for
each iteration.
APE_ECD.1.3C
The extended components definition shall describe how each extended
component is related to the existing CC components, families, and classes.
APE_ECD.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that it describes how each extended component fits into the
existing CC components, families, and classes.
227
If the PP does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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228
The evaluator determines that each extended component is either:
a)
a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 family, or
b)
a member of a new family defined in the PP.
229
If the extended component is a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3
family, the evaluator determines that the extended components definition
adequately describes why the extended component should be a member of
that family and how it relates to other components of that family.
230
If the extended component is a member of a new family defined in the PP,
the evaluator confirms that the extended component is not appropriate for an
existing family.
231
If the PP defines new families, the evaluator determines that each new family
is either:
a)
a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 class, or
b)
a member of a new class defined in the PP.
232
If the family is a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 class, the
evaluator determines that the extended components definition adequately
describes why the family should be a member of that class and how it relates
to other families in that class.
233
If the family is a member of a new class defined in the PP, the evaluator
confirms that the family is not appropriate for an existing class.
APE_ECD.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of an extended component identifies all
applicable dependencies of that component.
234
If the PP does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
235
The evaluator confirms that no applicable dependencies have been
overlooked by the PP author.
APE_ECD.1.4C
The extended components definition shall use the existing CC components,
families, classes, and methodology as a model for presentation.
APE_ECD.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each extended functional component uses the existing CC Part
2 components as a model for presentation.
236
If the PP does not contain extended SFRs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
237
The evaluator determines that the extended functional component is
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.3, Component structure.
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238
If the extended functional component uses operations, the evaluator
determines that the extended functional component is consistent with CC
Part 1 8, Operations.
239
If the extended functional component is hierarchical to an existing functional
component, the evaluator determines that the extended functional component
is consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.2.1, Component changes highlighting.
APE_ECD.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new functional family uses the existing
CC functional families as a model for presentation.
240
If the PP does not define new functional families, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
241
The evaluator determines that all new functional families are defined
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.2, Family structure.
APE_ECD.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new functional class uses the existing CC
functional classes as a model for presentation.
242
If the PP does not define new functional classes, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
243
The evaluator determines that all new functional classes are defined
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.1, Class structure
APE_ECD.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of an extended assurance component uses the
existing CC Part 3 components as a model for presentation.
244
If the PP does not contain extended SARs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
245
The evaluator determines that the extended assurance component definition
is consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.3, Assurance component structure.
246
If the extended assurance component uses operations, the evaluator
determines that the extended assurance component is consistent with CC Part
1 8, Operations.
247
If the extended assurance component is hierarchical to an existing assurance
component, the evaluator determines that the extended assurance component
is consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.3, Assurance component structure.
APE_ECD.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that, for each defined extended assurance component, applicable
methodology has been provided.
248
If the PP does not contain extended SARs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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249
The evaluator determines that, for each evaluator action element of each
extended SAR, one or more work units are provided and that successfully
performing all work units for a given evaluator action element will
demonstrate that the element has been achieved.
APE_ECD.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new assurance family uses the existing
CC assurance families as a model for presentation.
250
If the PP does not define new assurance families, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
251
The evaluator determines that all new assurance families are defined
consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.2, Assurance family structure.
APE_ECD.1-11
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new assurance class uses the existing CC
assurance classes as a model for presentation.
252
If the PP does not define new assurance classes, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
253
The evaluator determines that all new assurance classes are defined
consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.1, Assurance class structure.
APE_ECD.1.5C
The extended components shall consist of measurable and objective
elements such that conformance or nonconformance to these elements can
be demonstrated.
APE_ECD.1-12
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each element in each extended component is measurable and
states objective evaluation requirements, such that conformance or
nonconformance can be demonstrated.
254
If the PP does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
255
The evaluator determines that elements of extended functional components
are stated in such a way that they are testable, and traceable through the
appropriate TSF representations.
256
The evaluator also determines that elements of extended assurance
components avoid the need for subjective evaluator judgement.
257
The evaluator is reminded that whilst being measurable and objective is
appropriate for all evaluation criteria, it is acknowledged that no formal
method exists to prove such properties. Therefore the existing CC functional
and assurance components are to be used as a model for determining what
constitutes conformance to this requirement.
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9.7.1.4
Action APE_ECD.1.2E
APE_ECD.1-13
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each extended component may not be clearly expressed using
existing components.
258
If the PP does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
259
The evaluator should take components from CC Part 2 and CC Part 3, other
extended components that have been defined in the PP, combinations of
these components, and possible operations on these components into account
when making this determination.
260
The evaluator is reminded that the role of this work unit is to preclude
unnecessary duplication of components, that is, components that may be
clearly expressed by using other components. The evaluator should not
undertake an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of components
including operations in an attempt to find a way to express the extended
component by using existing components.
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9.8
Security requirements (APE_REQ)
9.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_REQ.1)
9.8.1.1
Objectives
261
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the SFRs and
SARs are clear, unambiguous and well-defined and whether they are
internally consistent.
9.8.1.2
Input
262
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.8.1.3
Action APE_REQ.1.1E
APE_REQ.1.1C
The statement of security requirements shall describe the SFRs and the
SARs.
APE_REQ.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SFRs.
263
The evaluator determines that each SFR is identified by one of the following
means:
264
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 2;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the PP;
c)
by reference to a PP that the PP claims to be conformant with;
d)
by reference to a security requirements package that the PP claims to
be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the PP.
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SFRs.
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The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SARs.
APE_REQ.1-2
265
The evaluator determines that each SAR is identified by one of the following
means:
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 3;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the PP;
c)
by reference to a PP that the PP claims to be conformant with;
d)
by reference to a security requirements package that the PP claims to
be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the PP.
266
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SARs.
APE_REQ.1.2C
All subjects, objects, operations, security attributes, external entities and
other terms that are used in the SFRs and the SARs shall be defined.
APE_REQ.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the PP to determine that all subjects, objects,
operations, security attributes, external entities and other terms that are used
in the SFRs and the SARs are defined.
267
The evaluator determines that the PP defines all:
268

(types of) subjects and objects that are used in the SFRs;

(types of) security attributes of subjects, users, objects, information,
sessions and/or resources, possible values that these attributes may
take and any relations between these values (e.g. top_secret is
“higher” than secret);

(types of) operations that are used in the SFRs, including the effects
of these operations;

(types of) external entities in the SFRs;

other terms that are introduced in the SFRs and/or SARs by
completing operations, if these terms are not immediately clear, or
are used outside their dictionary definition.
The goal of this work unit is to ensure that the SFRs and SARs are welldefined and that no misunderstanding may occur due to the introduction of
vague terms. This work unit should not be taken into extremes, by forcing
the PP writer to define every single word. The general audience of a set of
security requirements should be assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of
IT, security and Common Criteria.
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269
All of the above may be presented in groups, classes, roles, types or other
groupings or characterisations that allow easy understanding.
270
The evaluator is reminded that these lists and definitions do not have to be
part of the statement of security requirements, but may be placed (in part or
in whole) in different sections. This may be especially applicable if the same
terms are used in the rest of the PP.
APE_REQ.1.3C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all operations on the
security requirements.
APE_REQ.1-4
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
identifies all operations on the security requirements.
271
The evaluator determines that all operations are identified in each SFR or
SAR where such an operation is used. This includes both completed
operations and uncompleted operations. Identification may be achieved by
typographical distinctions, or by explicit identification in the surrounding
text, or by any other distinctive means.
APE_REQ.1.4C
All operations shall be performed correctly.
APE_REQ.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all assignment operations are performed correctly.
272
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all iteration operations are performed correctly.
273
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all selection operations are performed correctly.
274
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all refinement operations are performed correctly.
275
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
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APE_REQ.1.5C
Each dependency of the security requirements shall either be satisfied, or
the security requirements rationale shall justify the dependency not being
satisfied.
APE_REQ.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that each dependency of the security requirements is either
satisfied, or that the security requirements rationale justifies the dependency
not being satisfied.
276
A dependency is satisfied by the inclusion of the relevant component (or one
that is hierarchical to it) within the statement of security requirements. The
component used to satisfy the dependency should, if necessary, be modified
by operations to ensure that it actually satisfies that dependency.
277
A justification that a dependency is not met should address either:
a)
why the dependency is not necessary or useful, in which case no
further information is required; or
b)
that the dependency has been addressed by the operational
environment of the TOE, in which case the justification should
describe how the security objectives for the operational environment
address this dependency.
APE_REQ.1.6C
The statement of security requirements shall be internally consistent.
APE_REQ.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that it is internally consistent.
278
The evaluator determines that the combined set of all SFRs and SARs is
internally consistent.
279
The evaluator determines that on all occasions where different security
requirements apply to the same types of developer evidence, events,
operations, data, tests to be performed etc. or to “all objects”, “all subjects”
etc., that these requirements do not conflict.
280
Some possible conflicts are:
a)
an extended SAR specifying that the design of a certain
cryptographic algorithm is to be kept secret, and another extended
SAR specifying an open source review;
b)
FAU_GEN.1 Audit data generation specifying that subject identity is
to be logged, FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control specifying who has
access to these logs, and FPR_UNO.1 Unobservability specifying
that some actions of subjects should be unobservable to other
subjects. If the subject that should not be able to see an activity may
access logs of this activity, these SFRs conflict;
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c)
FDP_RIP.1 Subset residual information protection specifying
deletion of information no longer needed, and FDP_ROL.1 Basic
rollback specifying that a TOE may return to a previous state. If the
information that is needed for the rollback to the previous state has
been deleted, these requirements conflict;
d)
Multiple iterations of FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control especially
where some iterations cover the same subjects, objects, or operations.
If one access control SFR allows a subject to perform an operation on
an object, while another access control SFR does not allow this, these
requirements conflict.
9.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (APE_REQ.2)
9.8.2.1
Objectives
281
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the SFRs and
SARs are clear, unambiguous and well-defined, whether they are internally
consistent, and whether the SFRs meet the security objectives of the TOE.
9.8.2.2
Input
282
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the PP.
9.8.2.3
Action APE_REQ.2.1E
APE_REQ.2.1C
The statement of security requirements shall describe the SFRs and the
SARs.
APE_REQ.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SFRs.
283
The evaluator determines that each SFR is identified by one of the following
means:
284
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 2;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the PP;
c)
by reference to an individual component in a PP that the PP claims to
be conformant with;
d)
by reference to an individual component in a security requirements
package that the PP claims to be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the PP.
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SFRs.
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APE_REQ.2-2
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SARs.
285
The evaluator determines that each SAR is identified by one of the following
means:
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 3;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the PP;
c)
by reference to an individual component in a PP that the PP claims to
be conformant with;
d)
by reference to an individual component in a security requirements
package that the PP claims to be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the PP.
286
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SARs.
APE_REQ.2.2C
All subjects, objects, operations, security attributes, external entities and
other terms that are used in the SFRs and the SARs shall be defined.
APE_REQ.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the PP to determine that all subjects, objects,
operations, security attributes, external entities and other terms that are used
in the SFRs and the SARs are defined.
287
The evaluator determines that the PP defines all:
288

(types of) subjects and objects that are used in the SFRs;

(types of) security attributes of subjects, users, objects, information,
sessions and/or resources, possible values that these attributes may
take and any relations between these values (e.g. top_secret is
“higher” than secret);

(types of) operations that are used in the SFRs, including the effects
of these operations;

(types of) external entities in the SFRs;

other terms that are introduced in the SFRs and/or SARs by
completing operations, if these terms are not immediately clear, or
are used outside their dictionary definition.
The goal of this work unit is to ensure that the SFRs and SARs are welldefined and that no misunderstanding may occur due to the introduction of
vague terms. This work unit should not be taken into extremes, by forcing
the PP writer to define every single word. The general audience of a set of
security requirements should be assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of
IT, security and Common Criteria.
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289
All of the above may be presented in groups, classes, roles, types or other
groupings or characterisations that allow easy understanding.
290
The evaluator is reminded that these lists and definitions do not have to be
part of the statement of security requirements, but may be placed (in part or
in whole) in different sections. This may be especially applicable if the same
terms are used in the rest of the PP.
APE_REQ.2.3C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all operations on the
security requirements.
APE_REQ.2-4
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
identifies all operations on the security requirements.
291
The evaluator determines that all operations are identified in each SFR or
SAR where such an operation is used. This includes both completed
operations and uncompleted operations. Identification may be achieved by
typographical distinctions, or by explicit identification in the surrounding
text, or by any other distinctive means.
APE_REQ.2.4C
All operations shall be performed correctly.
APE_REQ.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all assignment operations are performed correctly.
292
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all iteration operations are performed correctly.
293
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all selection operations are performed correctly.
294
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
APE_REQ.2-8
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all refinement operations are performed correctly.
295
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
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APE_REQ.2.5C
Each dependency of the security requirements shall either be satisfied, or
the security requirements rationale shall justify the dependency not being
satisfied.
APE_REQ.2-9
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that each dependency of the security requirements is either
satisfied, or that the security requirements rationale justifies the dependency
not being satisfied.
296
A dependency is satisfied by the inclusion of the relevant component (or one
that is hierarchical to it) within the statement of security requirements. The
component used to satisfy the dependency should, if necessary, be modified
by operations to ensure that it actually satisfies that dependency.
297
A justification that a dependency is not met should address either:
a)
why the dependency is not necessary or useful, in which case no
further information is required; or
b)
that the dependency has been addressed by the operational
environment of the TOE, in which case the justification should
describe how the security objectives for the operational environment
address this dependency.
APE_REQ.2.6C
The security requirements rationale shall trace each SFR back to the
security objectives for the TOE.
APE_REQ.2-10
The evaluator shall check that the security requirements rationale traces each
SFR back to the security objectives for the TOE.
298
The evaluator determines that each SFR is traced back to at least one security
objective for the TOE.
299
Failure to trace implies that either the security requirements rationale is
incomplete, the security objectives for the TOE are incomplete, or the SFR
has no useful purpose.
APE_REQ.2.7C
The security requirements rationale shall demonstrate that the SFRs meet
all security objectives for the TOE.
APE_REQ.2-11
The evaluator shall examine the security requirements rationale to determine
that for each security objective for the TOE it justifies that the SFRs are
suitable to meet that security objective for the TOE.
300
If no SFRs trace back to the security objective for the TOE, the evaluator
action related to this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
301
The evaluator determines that the justification for a security objective for the
TOE demonstrates that the SFRs are sufficient: if all SFRs that trace back to
the objective are satisfied, the security objective for the TOE is achieved.
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302
If the SFRs that trace back to a security objective for the TOE have any
uncompleted assignments, or uncompleted or restricted selections, the
evaluator determines that for every conceivable completion or combination
of completions of these operations, the security objective is still met.
303
The evaluator also determines that each SFR that traces back to a security
objective for the TOE is necessary: when the SFR is satisfied, it actually
contributes to achieving the security objective.
304
Note that the tracings from SFRs to security objectives for the TOE provided
in the security requirements rationale may be a part of the justification, but
do not constitute a justification by themselves.
APE_REQ.2.8C
The security requirements rationale shall explain why the SARs were
chosen.
APE_REQ.2-12
The evaluator shall check that the security requirements rationale explains
why the SARs were chosen.
305
The evaluator is reminded that any explanation is correct, as long as it is
coherent and neither the SARs nor the explanation have obvious
inconsistencies with the remainder of the PP.
306
An example of an obvious inconsistency between the SARs and the
remainder of the PP would be to have threat agents that are very capable, but
an AVA_VAN SAR that does not protect against these threat agents.
APE_REQ.2.9C
The statement of security requirements shall be internally consistent.
APE_REQ.2-13
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that it is internally consistent.
307
The evaluator determines that the combined set of all SFRs and SARs is
internally consistent.
308
The evaluator determines that on all occasions where different security
requirements apply to the same types of developer evidence, events,
operations, data, tests to be performed etc. or to “all objects”, “all subjects”
etc., that these requirements do not conflict.
309
Some possible conflicts are:
a)
an extended SAR specifying that the design of a certain
cryptographic algorithm is to be kept secret, and another extended
SAR specifying an open source review;
b)
FAU_GEN.1 Audit data generation specifying that subject identity is
to be logged, FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control specifying who has
access to these logs, and FPR_UNO.1 Unobservability specifying
that some actions of subjects should be unobservable to other
subjects. If the subject that should not be able to see an activity may
access logs of this activity, these SFRs conflict;
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c)
FDP_RIP.1 Subset residual information protection specifying
deletion of information no longer needed, and FDP_ROL.1 Basic
rollback specifying that a TOE may return to a previous state. If the
information that is needed for the rollback to the previous state has
been deleted, these requirements conflict;
d)
Multiple iterations of FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control especially
where some iterations cover the same subjects, objects, or operations.
If one access control SFR allows a subject to perform an operation on
an object, while another access control SFR does not allow this, these
requirements conflict.
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10
Class ASE: Security Target evaluation
10.1
Introduction
310
This Chapter describes the evaluation of an ST. The ST evaluation should be
started prior to any TOE evaluation sub-activities since the ST provides the
basis and context to perform these sub-activities. The evaluation
methodology in this section is based on the requirements on the ST as
specified in CC Part 3 class ASE.
311
This Chapter should be used in conjunction with Annexes A, B and C in CC
Part 1, as these Annexes clarify the concepts here and provide many
examples.
10.2
Application notes
10.2.1
Re-using the evaluation results of certified PPs
312
While evaluating an ST that is based on one or more certified PPs, it may be
possible to re-use the fact that these PPs were certified. The potential for reuse of the result of a certified PP is greater if the ST does not add threats,
OSPs, assumptions, security objectives and/or security requirements to those
of the PP. If the ST contains much more than the certified PP, re-use may not
be useful at all.
313
The evaluator is allowed to re-use the PP evaluation results by doing certain
analyses only partially or not at all if these analyses or parts thereof were
already done as part of the PP evaluation. While doing this, the evaluator
should assume that the analyses in the PP were performed correctly.
314
An example would be where the PP contains a set of security requirements,
and these were determined to be internally consistent during the PP
evaluation. If the ST uses the exact same requirements, the consistency
analysis does not have to be repeated during the ST evaluation. If the ST
adds one or more requirements, or performs operations on these
requirements, the analysis will have to be repeated. However, it may be
possible to save work in this consistency analysis by using the fact that the
original requirements are internally consistent. If the original requirements
are internally consistent, the evaluator only has to determine that:
315
a)
the set of all new and/or changed requirements is internally
consistent, and
b)
the set of all new and/or changed requirements is consistent with the
original requirements.
The evaluator notes in the ETR each case where analyses are not done or
only partially done for this reason.
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10.3
ST introduction (ASE_INT)
10.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_INT.1)
10.3.1.1
Objectives
316
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the ST and the
TOE are correctly identified, whether the TOE is correctly described in a
narrative way at three levels of abstraction (TOE reference, TOE overview
and TOE description), and whether these three descriptions are consistent
with each other.
10.3.1.2
Input
317
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.3.1.3
Action ASE_INT.1.1E
ASE_INT.1.1C
The ST introduction shall contain an ST reference, a TOE reference, a
TOE overview and a TOE description.
ASE_INT.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the ST introduction contains an ST reference,
a TOE reference, a TOE overview and a TOE description.
ASE_INT.1.2C
The ST reference shall uniquely identify the ST.
ASE_INT.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the ST reference to determine that it uniquely
identifies the ST.
318
The evaluator determines that the ST reference identifies the ST itself, so that
it may be easily distinguished from other STs, and that it also uniquely
identifies each version of the ST, e.g. by including a version number and/or a
date of publication.
319
In evaluations where a CM system is provided, the evaluator may validate
the uniqueness of the reference by checking the configuration list. In the
other cases, the ST should have some referencing system that is capable of
supporting unique references (e.g. use of numbers, letters or dates).
ASE_INT.1.3C
The TOE reference shall identify the TOE.
ASE_INT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE reference to determine that it identifies
the TOE.
320
The evaluator determines that the TOE reference identifies the TOE, so that
it is clear to which TOE the ST refers, and that it also identifies the version
of the TOE, e.g. by including a version/release/build number, or a date of
release.
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ASE_INT.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the TOE reference to determine that it is not
misleading.
321
If the TOE is related to one or more well-known products, it is allowed to
reflect this in the TOE reference. However, this should not be used to
mislead consumers: situations where only a small part of a product is
evaluated, yet the TOE reference does not reflect this, are not allowed.
ASE_INT.1.4C
The TOE overview shall summarise the usage and major security features
of the TOE.
ASE_INT.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE overview to determine that it describes
the usage and major security features of the TOE.
322
The TOE overview should briefly (i.e. several paragraphs) describe the usage
and major security features of the TOE. The TOE overview should enable
potential consumers to quickly determine whether the TOE may be suitable
for their security needs.
323
The TOE overview in an ST for a composed TOE should describe the usage
and major security feature of the composed TOE, rather than those of the
individual component TOEs.
324
The evaluator determines that the overview is clear enough for consumers,
and sufficient to give them a general understanding of the intended usage and
major security features of the TOE.
ASE_INT.1.5C
The TOE overview shall identify the TOE type.
ASE_INT.1-6
The evaluator shall check that the TOE overview identifies the TOE type.
ASE_INT.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE overview to determine that the TOE
type is not misleading.
325
There are situations where the general consumer would expect certain
functionality of the TOE because of its TOE type. If this functionality is
absent in the TOE, the evaluator determines that the TOE overview
adequately discusses this absence.
326
There are also TOEs where the general consumer would expect that the TOE
should be able to operate in a certain operational environment because of its
TOE type. If the TOE is unable to operate in such an operational
environment, the evaluator determines that the TOE overview adequately
discusses this.
ASE_INT.1.6C
The
TOE
overview
shall
identify
hardware/software/firmware required by the TOE.
ASE_INT.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE overview to determine that it identifies
any non-TOE hardware/software/firmware required by the TOE.
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327
While some TOEs are able to run stand-alone, other TOEs (notably software
TOEs) need additional hardware, software or firmware to operate. If the TOE
does not require any hardware, software or firmware, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
328
The evaluator determines that the TOE overview identifies any additional
hardware, software and firmware needed by the TOE to operate. This
identification does not have to be exhaustive, but detailed enough for
potential consumers of the TOE to determine whether their current hardware,
software and firmware support use of the TOE, and, if this is not the case,
which additional hardware, software and/or firmware is needed.
ASE_INT.1.7C
The TOE description shall describe the physical scope of the TOE.
ASE_INT.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the TOE description to determine that it
describes the physical scope of the TOE.
329
The evaluator determines that the TOE description lists the hardware,
firmware, software and guidance parts that constitute the TOE and describes
them at a level of detail that is sufficient to give the reader a general
understanding of those parts.
330
The evaluator also determines that there is no possible misunderstanding as
to whether any hardware, firmware, software or guidance part is part of the
TOE or not.
ASE_INT.1.8C
The TOE description shall describe the logical scope of the TOE.
ASE_INT.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the TOE description to determine that it
describes the logical scope of the TOE.
331
The evaluator determines that the TOE description discusses the logical
security features offered by the TOE at a level of detail that is sufficient to
give the reader a general understanding of those features.
332
The evaluator also determines that there is no possible misunderstanding as
to whether any logical security feature is offered by the TOE or not.
333
An ST for a composed TOE may refer out to the description of the logical
scope of the component TOEs, provided in the component TOE STs to
provide the majority of this description for the composed TOE. However, the
evaluator determines that the composed TOE ST clearly discusses which
features of the individual components are not within the composed TOE, and
therefore not a feature of the composed TOE.
10.3.1.4
Action ASE_INT.1.2E
ASE_INT.1-11
The evaluator shall examine the TOE reference, TOE overview and TOE
description to determine that they are consistent with each other.
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10.4
Conformance claims (ASE_CCL)
10.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_CCL.1)
10.4.1.1
Objectives
334
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine the validity of various
conformance claims. These describe how the ST and the TOE conform to the
CC and how the ST conforms to PPs and packages.
10.4.1.2
Input
335
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the PP(s) that the ST claims conformance to;
c)
the package(s) that the ST claims conformance to.
10.4.1.3
Action ASE_CCL.1.1E
ASE_CCL.1.1C
The conformance claim shall contain a CC conformance claim that
identifies the version of the CC to which the ST and the TOE claim
conformance.
ASE_CCL.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a CC
conformance claim that identifies the version of the CC to which the ST and
the TOE claim conformance.
336
The evaluator determines that the CC conformance claim identifies the
version of the CC that was used to develop this ST. This should include the
version number of the CC and, unless the International English version of the
CC was used, the language of the version of the CC that was used.
337
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will consider any differences between
the version of the CC claimed for a component and the version of the CC
claimed for the composed TOE. If the versions differ the evaluator will
assess whether the differences between the versions will lead to conflicting
claims.
338
For instances where the CC conformance claims for the base TOE and
dependent TOE are for different major releases of the CC (e.g. one
component TOE conformance claim is CC v2.x and the other component
TOE conformance claim is CC v3.x), the conformance claim for the
composed TOE will be the earlier release of the CC, as the CC is developed
with an aim to provide backwards compatibility (although this may not be
achieved in the strictest sense, it is understood to be achieved in principle).
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ASE_CCL.1.2C
The CC conformance claim shall describe the conformance of the ST to
CC Part 2 as either CC Part 2 conformant or CC Part 2 extended.
ASE_CCL.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the CC conformance claim states a claim of
either CC Part 2 conformant or CC Part 2 extended for the ST.
339
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will consider whether this claim is
consistent not only with the CC Part 2, but also with the claims of
conformance to CC Part 2 by each of the component TOEs. I.e. if one or
more component TOEs claims to be CC Part 2 extended, then the composed
TOE should also claim to be CC Part 2 extended.
340
The CC conformance claim for the composed TOE may be CC Part 2
extended, even though the component TOEs are Part 2 conformant, in the
event that additional SFRs are claimed for the base TOE (see composed TOE
guidance for ASE_CCL.1.6C)
ASE_CCL.1.3C
The CC conformance claim shall describe the conformance of the ST to
CC Part 3 as either CC Part 3 conformant or CC Part 3 extended.
ASE_CCL.1-3
The evaluator shall check that the CC conformance claim states a claim of
either CC Part 3 conformant or CC Part 3 extended for the ST.
ASE_CCL.1.4C
The CC conformance claim shall be consistent with the extended
components definition.
ASE_CCL.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the CC conformance claim for CC Part 2 to
determine that it is consistent with the extended components definition.
341
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 2 conformant, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition does not define
functional components.
342
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 2 extended, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition defines at least one
extended functional component.
ASE_CCL.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the CC conformance claim for CC Part 3 to
determine that it is consistent with the extended components definition.
343
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 3 conformant, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition does not define
assurance components.
344
If the CC conformance claim contains CC Part 3 extended, the evaluator
determines that the extended components definition defines at least one
extended assurance component.
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ASE_CCL.1.5C
The conformance claim shall identify all PPs and security requirement
packages to which the ST claims conformance.
ASE_CCL.1-6
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a PP claim
that identifies all PPs for which the ST claims conformance.
345
If the ST does not claim conformance to a PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
346
The evaluator determines that any referenced PPs are unambiguously
identified (e.g. by title and version number, or by the identification included
in the introduction of that PP).
347
The evaluator is reminded that claims of partial conformance to a PP are not
permitted. Therefore, conformance to a PP requiring a composite solution
may be claimed in an ST for a composed TOE. Conformance to such a PP
would not have been possible during the evaluation of the component TOEs,
as these components would not have satisfied the composed solution. This is
only possible in the instances where the “composite” PP permits use of the
composition evaluation approach (use of ACO components).
348
The ST for a composed TOE will identify the STs of the component TOEs
from which the composed ST is comprised. The composed TOE is
essentially claiming conformance to the STs of the component TOEs.
ASE_CCL.1-7
The evaluator shall check that the conformance claim contains a package
claim that identifies all packages to which the ST claims conformance.
349
If the ST does not claim conformance to a package, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
350
The evaluator determines that any referenced packages are unambiguously
identified (e.g. by title and version number, or by the identification included
in the introduction of that package).
351
The evaluator determines that the component TOE STs from which the
composed TOE is derived are also unambiguously identified.
352
The evaluator is reminded that claims of partial conformance to a package
are not permitted.
ASE_CCL.1.6C
The conformance claim shall describe any conformance of the ST to a
package as either package-conformant or package-augmented.
ASE_CCL.1-8
The evaluator shall check that, for each identified package, the conformance
claim states a claim of either package-name conformant or package-name
augmented.
353
If the ST does not claim conformance to a package, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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354
355
If the package conformance claim contains package-name conformant, the
evaluator determines that:
a)
If the package is an assurance package, then the ST contains all SARs
included in the package, but no additional SARs.
b)
If the package is a functional package, then the ST contains all SFRs
included in the package, but no additional SFRs.
If the package conformance claim contains package-name augmented, the
evaluator determines that:
a)
If the package is an assurance package then the ST contains all SARs
included in the package, and at least one additional SAR or at least
one SAR that is hierarchical to a SAR in the package.
b)
If the package is a functional package, then the ST contains all SFRs
included in the package, and at least one additional SFR or at least
one SFR that is hierarchical to a SFR in the package.
ASE_CCL.1.7C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the TOE type is
consistent with the TOE type in the PPs for which conformance is being
claimed.
ASE_CCL.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that the TOE type of the TOE is consistent with all TOE types of the PPs.
356
If the ST does not claim conformance to a PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
357
The relation between the types may be simple: a firewall ST claiming
conformance to a firewall PP, or more complex: a smart card ST claiming
conformance to a number of PPs at the same time (a PP for the integrated
circuit, a PP for the smart card OS, and two PPs for two applications on the
smart card).
358
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will determine whether the conformance
claim rationale demonstrates that the TOE types of the component TOEs are
consistent with the composed TOE type. This does not mean that both the
component and the composed TOE types have to be the same, but rather that
the component TOEs are suitable for integration to provide the composed
TOE. It should be made clear in the composed TOE ST which SFRs are only
included as a result of composition, and were not examined as SFRs in the
base and dependent TOE (e.g. EALx) evaluation.
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ASE_CCL.1.8C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
the security problem definition is consistent with the statement of the
security problem definition in the PPs for which conformance is being
claimed.
ASE_CCL.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that it demonstrates that the statement of security problem definition is
consistent, as defined by the conformance statement of the PP, with the
statements of security problem definition stated in the PPs to which
conformance is being claimed.
359
If the ST does not claim conformance with a PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
360
If the PP does not have a statement of security problem definition, this work
unit is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
361
If strict conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is being
claimed no conformance claim rationale is required. Instead, the evaluator
determines whether:
a)
the threats in the ST are a superset of or identical to the threats in the
PP to which conformance is being claimed;
b)
the OSPs in the ST are a superset of or identical to the OSPs in the PP
to which conformance is being claimed;
c)
the assumptions in the ST are identical to the assumptions in the PP
to which conformance is being claimed;
362
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP, the evaluator examines
the conformance claim rationale to determine that it demonstrates that the
statement of security problem definition of the ST is equivalent or more
restrictive than the statement of security problem definition in the PP to
which conformance is being claimed.
363
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
364
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will consider whether the security
problem definition of the composed TOE is consistent with that specified in
the STs for the component TOEs. This is determined in terms of
demonstrable conformance. In particular, the evaluator examines the
conformance claim rationale to determine that:
a)
Threat statements and OSPs in the composed TOE ST do not
contradict those from the component STs.
b)
Any assumptions made in the component STs are upheld in the
composed TOE ST. That is, either the assumption should also be
present in the composed ST, or the assumption should be positively
addressed in the composed ST. The assumption may be positively
addressed through specification of requirements in the composed
TOE to provide functionality fulfilling the concern captured in the
assumption.
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ASE_CCL.1.9C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
security objectives is consistent with the statement of security objectives in
the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
ASE_CCL.1-11
The evaluator shall examine the conformance claim rationale to determine
that the statement of security objectives is consistent, as defined by the
conformance statement of the PP, with the statement of security objectives in
the PPs to which conformance is being claimed.
365
If the ST does not claim conformance to a PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
366
If strict conformance is required by the PP, no conformance claim rationale
is required. Instead, the evaluator determines whether:

The ST contains all security objectives for the TOE of the PP to
which conformance is being claimed. Note that it is allowed for the
ST under evaluation to have additional security objectives for the
TOE;

The ST contains exactly all security objectives for the operational
environment (with one exception in the next bullet). Note that it is
not allowed for the ST under evaluation to have additional security
objectives for the operational environment;

The ST may specify that certain objectives for the operational
environment in the PP that conformance is being claimed to are
security objectives for the TOE in the ST. This is a valid exception to
the previous bullet.
367
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security objectives of the
ST is equivalent or more restrictive than the statement of security objectives
in the PP to which conformance is being claimed.
368
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
369
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will consider whether the security
objectives of the composed TOE are consistent with that specified in the STs
for the component TOEs. This is determined in terms of demonstrable
conformance. In particular, the evaluator examines the conformance claim
rationale to determine that:
a)
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The statement of security objectives in the dependent TOE ST
relevant to any IT in the operational environment are consistent with
the statement of security objectives for the TOE in the base TOE ST.
It is not expected that the statement of security objectives for the
environment within in the dependent TOE ST will cover all aspects
of the statement of security objectives for the TOE in the base TOE
ST.
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b)
The statement of security objectives in the composed ST is consistent
with the statements of security objectives in the STs for the
component TOEs.
370
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP, the evaluator examines
the conformance claim rationale to determine that it demonstrates that the
statement of security objectives of the ST is at least equivalent to the
statement of security objectives in the PP, or component TOE ST in the case
of a composed TOE ST.
ASE_CCL.1.10C
The conformance claim rationale shall demonstrate that the statement of
security requirements is consistent with the statement of security
requirements in the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
ASE_CCL.1-12
The evaluator shall examine the ST to determine that it is consistent, as
defined by the conformance statement of the PP, with all security
requirements in the PPs for which conformance is being claimed.
371
If the ST does not claim conformance to a PP, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
372
If strict conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is being
claimed, no conformance claim rationale is required. Instead, the evaluator
determines whether the statement of security requirements in the ST is a
superset of or identical to the statement of security requirements in the PP to
which conformance is being claimed (for strict conformance).
373
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security requirements of
the ST is equivalent or more restrictive than the statement of security
requirements in the PP to which conformance is being claimed.
For guidance on “equivalent or more restrictive” see CC Part 1 Annex D, PP
conformance.
For a composed TOE, the evaluator will consider whether the security
requirements of the composed TOE are consistent with that specified in the
STs for the component TOEs. This is determined in terms of demonstrable
conformance. In particular, the evaluator examines the conformance
rationale to determine that:
374
375
a)
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The statement of security requirements in the dependent TOE ST
relevant to any IT in the operational environment is consistent with
the statement of security requirements for the TOE in the base TOE
ST. It is not expected that the statement of security requirements for
the environment within in the dependent TOE ST will cover all
aspects of the statement of security requirements for the TOE in the
base TOE ST, as some SFRs may need to be added to the statement
of security requirements in the composed TOE ST. However, the
statement of security requirements in the base should support the
operation of the dependent component.
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376
b)
The statement of security objectives in the dependent TOE ST
relevant to any IT in the operational environment is consistent with
the statement of security requirements for the TOE in the base TOE
ST. It is not expected that the statement of security objectives for the
environment within in the dependent TOE ST will cover all aspects
of the statement of security requirements for the TOE in the base
TOE ST.
c)
The statement of security requirements in the composed is consistent
with the statements of security requirements in the STs for the
component TOEs.
If demonstrable conformance is required by the PP to which conformance is
being claimed, the evaluator examines the conformance claim rationale to
determine that it demonstrates that the statement of security requirements of
the ST is at least equivalent to the statement of security requirements in the
PP, or component TOE ST in the case of a composed TOE ST.
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10.5
Security problem definition (ASE_SPD)
10.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_SPD.1)
10.5.1.1
Objectives
377
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the security problem
intended to be addressed by the TOE and its operational environment is
clearly defined.
10.5.1.2
Input
378
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.5.1.3
Action ASE_SPD.1.1E
ASE_SPD.1.1C
The security problem definition shall describe the threats.
ASE_SPD.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the security problem definition describes the
threats.
379
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and/or OSPs only, the
statement of threats need not be present in the ST. In this case, this work unit
is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
380
The evaluator determines that the security problem definition describes the
threats that must be countered by the TOE and/or operational environment.
ASE_SPD.1.2C
All threats shall be described in terms of a threat agent, an asset, and an
adverse action.
ASE_SPD.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the security problem definition to determine
that all threats are described in terms of a threat agent, an asset, and an
adverse action.
381
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and/or OSPs only, the
statement of threats need not be present in the ST. In this case, this work unit
is not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
382
Threat agents may be further described by aspects such as expertise,
resource, opportunity, and motivation.
ASE_SPD.1.3C
The security problem definition shall describe the OSPs.
ASE_SPD.1-3
The evaluator shall check that the security problem definition describes the
OSPs.
383
If all security objectives are derived from assumptions and threats only,
OSPs need not be present in the ST. In this case, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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384
The evaluator determines that OSP statements are made in terms of rules or
guidelines that must be followed by the TOE and/or its operational
environment.
385
The evaluator determines that each OSP is explained and/or interpreted in
sufficient detail to make it clearly understandable; a clear presentation of
policy statements is necessary to permit tracing security objectives to them.
ASE_SPD.1.4C
The security problem definition shall describe the assumptions about the
operational environment of the TOE.
ASE_SPD.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the security problem definition to determine
that it describes the assumptions about the operational environment of the
TOE.
386
If there are no assumptions, this work unit is not applicable and is therefore
considered to be satisfied.
387
The evaluator determines that each assumption about the operational
environment of the TOE is explained in sufficient detail to enable consumers
to determine that their operational environment matches the assumption. If
the assumptions are not clearly understood, the end result may be that the
TOE is used in an operational environment in which it will not function in a
secure manner.
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10.6
Security objectives (ASE_OBJ)
10.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_OBJ.1)
10.6.1.1
Objectives
388
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the security
objectives for the operational environment are clearly defined.
10.6.1.2
Input
389
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.6.1.3
Action ASE_OBJ.1.1E
ASE_OBJ.1.1C
The statement of security objectives shall describe the security objectives
for the operational environment.
ASE_OBJ.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security objectives defines
the security objectives for the operational environment.
390
The evaluator checks that the security objectives for the operational
environment are identified.
10.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_OBJ.2)
10.6.2.1
Objectives
391
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the security
objectives adequately and completely address the security problem definition
and that the division of this problem between the TOE and its operational
environment is clearly defined.
10.6.2.2
Input
392
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.6.2.3
Action ASE_OBJ.2.1E
ASE_OBJ.2.1C
The statement of security objectives shall describe the security objectives
for the TOE and the security objectives for the operational environment.
ASE_OBJ.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security objectives defines
the security objectives for the TOE and the security objectives for the
operational environment.
393
The evaluator checks that both categories of security objectives are clearly
identified and separated from the other category.
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ASE_OBJ.2.2C
The security objectives rationale shall trace each security objective for the
TOE back to threats countered by that security objective and OSPs
enforced by that security objective.
ASE_OBJ.2-2
The evaluator shall check that the security objectives rationale traces all
security objectives for the TOE back to threats countered by the objectives
and/or OSPs enforced by the objectives.
394
Each security objective for the TOE may trace back to threats or OSPs, or a
combination of threats and OSPs, but it must trace back to at least one threat
or OSP.
395
Failure to trace implies that either the security objectives rationale is
incomplete, the security problem definition is incomplete, or the security
objective for the TOE has no useful purpose.
ASE_OBJ.2.3C
The security objectives rationale shall trace each security objective for the
operational environment back to threats countered by that security
objective, OSPs enforced by that security objective, and assumptions
upheld by that security objective.
ASE_OBJ.2-3
The evaluator shall check that the security objectives rationale traces the
security objectives for the operational environment back to threats countered
by that security objective, to OSPs enforced by that security objective, and to
assumptions upheld by that security objective.
396
Each security objective for the operational environment may trace back to
threats, OSPs, assumptions, or a combination of threats, OSPs and/or
assumptions, but it must trace back to at least one threat, OSP or assumption.
397
Failure to trace implies that either the security objectives rationale is
incomplete, the security problem definition is incomplete, or the security
objective for the operational environment has no useful purpose.
ASE_OBJ.2.4C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives counter all threats.
ASE_OBJ.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that it justifies for each threat that the security objectives are suitable to
counter that threat.
398
If no security objectives trace back to the threat, the evaluator action related
to this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
399
The evaluator determines that the justification for a threat shows whether the
threat is removed, diminished or mitigated.
400
The evaluator determines that the justification for a threat demonstrates that
the security objectives are sufficient: if all security objectives that trace back
to the threat are achieved, the threat is removed, sufficiently diminished, or
the effects of the threat are sufficiently mitigated.
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401
Note that the tracings from security objectives to threats provided in the
security objectives rationale may be part of a justification, but do not
constitute a justification by themselves. Even in the case that a security
objective is merely a statement reflecting the intent to prevent a particular
threat from being realised, a justification is required, but this justification
may be as minimal as “Security Objective X directly counters Threat Y”.
402
The evaluator also determines that each security objective that traces back to
a threat is necessary: when the security objective is achieved it actually
contributes to the removal, diminishing or mitigation of that threat.
ASE_OBJ.2.5C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives enforce all OSPs.
ASE_OBJ.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that for each OSP it justifies that the security objectives are suitable to
enforce that OSP.
403
If no security objectives trace back to the OSP, the evaluator action related to
this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
404
The evaluator determines that the justification for an OSP demonstrates that
the security objectives are sufficient: if all security objectives that trace back
to that OSP are achieved, the OSP is enforced.
405
The evaluator also determines that each security objective that traces back to
an OSP is necessary: when the security objective is achieved it actually
contributes to the enforcement of the OSP.
406
Note that the tracings from security objectives to OSPs provided in the
security objectives rationale may be part of a justification, but do not
constitute a justification by themselves. In the case that a security objective is
merely a statement reflecting the intent to enforce a particular OSP, a
justification is required, but this justification may be as minimal as “Security
Objective X directly enforces OSP Y”.
ASE_OBJ.2.6C
The security objectives rationale shall demonstrate that the security
objectives for the operational environment uphold all assumptions.
ASE_OBJ.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the security objectives rationale to determine
that for each assumption for the operational environment it contains an
appropriate justification that the security objectives for the operational
environment are suitable to uphold that assumption.
407
if no security objectives for the operational environment trace back to the
assumption, the evaluator action related to this work unit is assigned a fail
verdict.
The evaluator determines that the justification for an assumption about the
operational environment of the TOE demonstrates that the security objectives
are sufficient: if all security objectives for the operational environment that
trace back to that assumption are achieved, the operational environment
upholds the assumption.
408
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409
The evaluator also determines that each security objective for the operational
environment that traces back to an assumption about the operational
environment of the TOE is necessary: when the security objective is
achieved it actually contributes to the operational environment upholding the
assumption.
410
Note that the tracings from security objectives for the operational
environment to assumptions provided in the security objectives rationale may
be a part of a justification, but do not constitute a justification by themselves.
Even in the case that a security objective of the operational environment is
merely a restatement of an assumption, a justification is required, but this
justification may be as minimal as “Security Objective X directly upholds
Assumption Y”.
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10.7
Extended components definition (ASE_ECD)
10.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_ECD.1)
10.7.1.1
Objectives
411
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether extended
components have been clearly and unambiguously defined, and whether they
are necessary, i.e. they may not be clearly expressed using existing CC Part 2
or CC Part 3 components.
10.7.1.2
Input
412
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.7.1.3
Action ASE_ECD.1.1E
ASE_ECD.1.1C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all extended security
requirements.
ASE_ECD.1-1
The evaluator shall check that all security requirements in the statement of
security requirements that are not identified as extended requirements are
present in CC Part 2 or in CC Part 3.
ASE_ECD.1.2C
The extended components definition shall define an extended component
for each extended security requirement.
ASE_ECD.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the extended components definition defines
an extended component for each extended security requirement.
413
If the ST does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
414
A single extended component may be used to define multiple iterations of an
extended security requirement, it is not necessary to repeat this definition for
each iteration.
ASE_ECD.1.3C
The extended components definition shall describe how each extended
component is related to the existing CC components, families, and classes.
ASE_ECD.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that it describes how each extended component fits into the
existing CC components, families, and classes.
415
If the ST does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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416
The evaluator determines that each extended component is either:
a)
a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 family, or
b)
a member of a new family defined in the ST.
417
If the extended component is a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3
family, the evaluator determines that the extended components definition
adequately describes why the extended component should be a member of
that family and how it relates to other components of that family.
418
If the extended component is a member of a new family defined in the ST,
the evaluator confirms that the extended component is not appropriate for an
existing family.
419
If the ST defines new families, the evaluator determines that each new family
is either:
a)
a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 class, or
b)
a member of a new class defined in the ST.
420
If the family is a member of an existing CC Part 2 or CC Part 3 class, the
evaluator determines that the extended components definition adequately
describes why the family should be a member of that class and how it relates
to other families in that class.
421
If the family is a member of a new class defined in the ST, the evaluator
confirms that the family is not appropriate for an existing class.
ASE_ECD.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of an extended component identifies all
applicable dependencies of that component.
422
If the ST does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
423
The evaluator confirms that no applicable dependencies have been
overlooked by the ST author.
ASE_ECD.1.4C
The extended components definition shall use the existing CC components,
families, classes, and methodology as a model for presentation.
ASE_ECD.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each extended functional component uses the existing CC Part
2 components as a model for presentation.
424
If the ST does not contain extended SFRs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
425
The evaluator determines that the extended functional component is
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.3, Component structure.
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426
If the extended functional component uses operations, the evaluator
determines that the extended functional component is consistent with CC
Part 1 8, Operations.
427
If the extended functional component is hierarchical to an existing functional
component, the evaluator determines that the extended functional component
is consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.2.1, Component changes highlighting.
ASE_ECD.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new functional family uses the existing
CC functional families as a model for presentation.
428
If the ST does not define new functional families, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
429
The evaluator determines that all new functional families are defined
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.2, Family structure.
ASE_ECD.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new functional class uses the existing CC
functional classes as a model for presentation.
430
If the ST does not define new functional classes, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
431
The evaluator determines that all new functional classes are defined
consistent with CC Part 2 Section 7.1.1, Class structure.
ASE_ECD.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of an extended assurance component uses the
existing CC Part 3 components as a model for presentation.
432
If the ST does not contain extended SARs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
433
The evaluator determines that the extended assurance component definition
is consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.3, Assurance component structure.
434
If the extended assurance component uses operations, the evaluator
determines that the extended assurance component is consistent with CC Part
1 Section 8, Operations.
435
If the extended assurance component is hierarchical to an existing assurance
component, the evaluator determines that the extended assurance component
is consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.3, Assurance component structure.
ASE_ECD.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that, for each defined extended assurance component, applicable
methodology has been provided.
436
If the ST does not contain extended SARs, this work unit is not applicable
and therefore considered to be satisfied.
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437
The evaluator determines that, for each evaluator action element of each
extended SAR, one or more work units are provided and that successfully
performing all work units for a given evaluator action element will
demonstrate that the element has been achieved.
ASE_ECD.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new assurance family uses the existing
CC assurance families as a model for presentation.
438
If the ST does not define new assurance families, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
439
The evaluator determines that all new assurance families are defined
consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.2, Assurance family structure.
ASE_ECD.1-11
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each definition of a new assurance class uses the existing CC
assurance classes as a model for presentation.
440
If the ST does not define new assurance classes, this work unit is not
applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
441
The evaluator determines that all new assurance classes are defined
consistent with CC Part 3 Section 7.1.1, Assurance class structure.
ASE_ECD.1.5C
The extended components shall consist of measurable and objective
elements such that conformance or nonconformance to these elements can
be demonstrated.
ASE_ECD.1-12
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each element in each extended component is measurable and
states objective evaluation requirements, such that conformance or
nonconformance can be demonstrated.
442
If the ST does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
443
The evaluator determines that elements of extended functional components
are stated in such a way that they are testable, and traceable through the
appropriate TSF representations.
444
The evaluator also determines that elements of extended assurance
components avoid the need for subjective evaluator judgement.
445
The evaluator is reminded that whilst being measurable and objective is
appropriate for all evaluation criteria, it is acknowledged that no formal
method exists to prove such properties. Therefore the existing CC functional
and assurance components are to be used as a model for determining what
constitutes conformance with this requirement.
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10.7.1.4
Action ASE_ECD.1.2E
ASE_ECD.1-13
The evaluator shall examine the extended components definition to
determine that each extended component can not be clearly expressed using
existing components.
446
If the ST does not contain extended security requirements, this work unit is
not applicable and therefore considered to be satisfied.
447
The evaluator should take components from CC Part 2 and CC Part 3, other
extended components that have been defined in the ST, combinations of
these components, and possible operations on these components into account
when making this determination.
448
The evaluator is reminded that the role of this work unit is to preclude
unnecessary duplication of components, that is, components that may be
clearly expressed by using other components. The evaluator should not
undertake an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of components
including operations in an attempt to find a way to express the extended
component by using existing components.
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10.8
Security requirements (ASE_REQ)
10.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_REQ.1)
10.8.1.1
Objectives
449
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the SFRs and
SARs are clear, unambiguous and well-defined and whether they are
internally consistent.
10.8.1.2
Input
450
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.8.1.3
Action ASE_REQ.1.1E
ASE_REQ.1.1C
The statement of security requirements shall describe the SFRs and the
SARs.
ASE_REQ.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SFRs.
451
The evaluator determines that each SFR is identified by one of the following
means:
452
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 2;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the ST;
c)
by reference to a PP that the ST claims to be conformant with;
d)
by reference to a security requirements package that the ST claims to
be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the ST.
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SFRs.
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ASE_REQ.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SARs.
453
The evaluator determines that each SAR is identified by one of the following
means:
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 3;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the ST;
c)
by reference to a PP that the ST claims to be conformant with;
d)
by reference to a security requirements package that the ST claims to
be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the ST.
454
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SARs.
ASE_REQ.1.2C
All subjects, objects, operations, security attributes, external entities and
other terms that are used in the SFRs and the SARs shall be defined.
ASE_REQ.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the ST to determine that all subjects, objects,
operations, security attributes, external entities and other terms that are used
in the SFRs and the SARs are defined.
455
The evaluator determines that the ST defines all:
456

(types of) subjects and objects that are used in the SFRs;

(types of) security attributes of subjects, users, objects, information,
sessions and/or resources, possible values that these attributes may
take and any relations between these values (e.g. top_secret is
“higher” than secret);

(types of) operations that are used in the SFRs, including the effects
of these operations;

(types of) external entities in the SFRs;

other terms that are introduced in the SFRs and/or SARs by
completing operations, if these terms are not immediately clear, or
are used outside their dictionary definition.
The goal of this work unit is to ensure that the SFRs and SARs are welldefined and that no misunderstanding may occur due to the introduction of
vague terms. This work unit should not be taken into extremes, by forcing
the ST writer to define every single word. The general audience of a set of
security requirements should be assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of
IT, security and Common Criteria.
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457
All of the above may be presented in groups, classes, roles, types or other
groupings or characterisations that allow easy understanding.
458
The evaluator is reminded that these lists and definitions do not have to be
part of the statement of security requirements, but may be placed (in part or
in whole) in different sections. This may be especially applicable if the same
terms are used in the rest of the ST.
ASE_REQ.1.3C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all operations on the
security requirements.
ASE_REQ.1-4
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
identifies all operations on the security requirements.
459
The evaluator determines that all operations are identified in each SFR or
SAR where such an operation is used. Identification may be achieved by
typographical distinctions, or by explicit identification in the surrounding
text, or by any other distinctive means.
ASE_REQ.1.4C
All operations shall be performed correctly.
ASE_REQ.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all assignment operations are performed correctly.
460
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all iteration operations are performed correctly.
461
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all selection operations are performed correctly.
462
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all refinement operations are performed correctly.
463
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
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ASE_REQ.1.5C
Each dependency of the security requirements shall either be satisfied, or
the security requirements rationale shall justify the dependency not being
satisfied.
ASE_REQ.1-9
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that each dependency of the security requirements is either
satisfied, or that a security requirements rationale is provided which justifies
the dependency not being satisfied.
464
A dependency is satisfied by the inclusion of the relevant component (or one
that is hierarchical to it) within the statement of security requirements. The
component used to satisfy the dependency should, if necessary, be modified
by operations to ensure that it actually satisfies that dependency.
465
A justification that a dependency is not met should address either:
a)
why the dependency is not necessary or useful, in which case no
further information is required; or
b)
that the dependency has been addressed by the operational
environment of the TOE, in which case the justification should
describe how the security objectives for the operational environment
address this dependency.
ASE_REQ.1.6C
The statement of security requirements shall be internally consistent.
ASE_REQ.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that it is internally consistent.
466
The evaluator determines that the combined set of all SFRs and SARs is
internally consistent.
467
The evaluator determines that on all occasions where different security
requirements apply to the same types of developer evidence, events,
operations, data, tests to be performed etc. or to “all objects”, “all subjects”
etc., that these requirements do not conflict.
468
Some possible conflicts are:
a)
an extended SAR specifying that the design of a certain
cryptographic algorithm is to be kept secret, and another extended
SAR specifying an open source review;
b)
FAU_GEN.1 Audit data generation specifying that subject identity is
to be logged, FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control specifying who has
access to these logs, and FPR_UNO.1 Unobservability specifying
that some actions of subjects should be unobservable to other
subjects. If the subject that should not be able to see an activity may
access logs of this activity, these SFRs conflict;
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c)
FDP_RIP.1 Subset residual information protection specifying
deletion of information no longer needed, and FDP_ROL.1 Basic
rollback specifying that a TOE may return to a previous state. If the
information that is needed for the rollback to the previous state has
been deleted, these requirements conflict;
d)
Multiple iterations of FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control especially
where some iterations cover the same subjects, objects, or operations.
If one access control SFR allows a subject to perform an operation on
an object, while another access control SFR does not allow this, these
requirements conflict.
10.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_REQ.2)
10.8.2.1
Objectives
469
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the SFRs and
SARs are clear, unambiguous and well-defined, whether they are internally
consistent, and whether the SFRs meet the security objectives of the TOE.
10.8.2.2
Input
470
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.8.2.3
Action ASE_REQ.2.1E
ASE_REQ.2.1C
The statement of security requirements shall describe the SFRs and the
SARs.
ASE_REQ.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SFRs.
471
The evaluator determines that each SFRs is identified by one of the
following means:
472
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 2;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the ST;
c)
by reference to an individual component in a PP that the ST claims to
be conformant with;
d)
by reference to an individual component in a security requirements
package that the ST claims to be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the ST.
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SFRs.
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ASE_REQ.2-2
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
describes the SARs.
473
The evaluator determines that all SARs are identified by one of the following
means:
a)
by reference to an individual component in CC Part 3;
b)
by reference to an extended component in the extended components
definition of the ST;
c)
by reference to an individual component in a PP that the ST claims to
be conformant with;
d)
by reference to an individual component in a security requirements
package that the ST claims to be conformant with;
e)
by reproduction in the ST.
474
It is not required to use the same means of identification for all SARs.
ASE_REQ.2.2C
All subjects, objects, operations, security attributes, external entities and
other terms that are used in the SFRs and the SARs shall be defined.
ASE_REQ.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the ST to determine that all subjects, objects,
operations, security attributes, external entities and other terms that are used
in the SFRs and the SARs are defined.
475
The evaluator determines that the ST defines all:
476

(types of) subjects and objects that are used in the SFRs;

(types of) security attributes of subjects, users, objects, information,
sessions and/or resources, possible values that these attributes may
take and any relations between these values (e.g. top_secret is
“higher” than secret);

(types of) operations that are used in the SFRs, including the effects
of these operations;

(types of) external entities in the SFRs;

other terms that are introduced in the SFRs and/or SARs by
completing operations, if these terms are not immediately clear, or
are used outside their dictionary definition.
The goal of this work unit is to ensure that the SFRs and SARs are welldefined and that no misunderstanding may occur due to the introduction of
vague terms. This work unit should not be taken into extremes, by forcing
the ST writer to define every single word. The general audience of a set of
security requirements should be assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of
IT, security and Common Criteria.
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477
All of the above may be presented in groups, classes, roles, types or other
groupings or characterisations that allow easy understanding.
478
The evaluator is reminded that these lists and definitions do not have to be
part of the statement of security requirements, but may be placed (in part or
in whole) in different sections. This may be especially applicable if the same
terms are used in the rest of the ST.
ASE_REQ.2.3C
The statement of security requirements shall identify all operations on the
security requirements.
ASE_REQ.2-4
The evaluator shall check that the statement of security requirements
identifies all operations on the security requirements.
479
The evaluator determines that all operations are identified in each SFR or
SAR where such an operation is used. Identification may be achieved by
typographical distinctions, or by explicit identification in the surrounding
text, or by any other distinctive means.
ASE_REQ.2.4C
All operations shall be performed correctly.
ASE_REQ.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all assignment operations are performed correctly.
480
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all iteration operations are performed correctly.
481
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all selection operations are performed correctly.
482
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
ASE_REQ.2-8
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that all refinement operations are performed correctly.
483
Guidance on the correct performance of operations may be found in CC Part
1 Annex 8, Operations.
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ASE_REQ.2.5C
Each dependency of the security requirements shall either be satisfied, or
the security requirements rationale shall justify the dependency not being
satisfied.
ASE_REQ.2-9
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that each dependency of the security requirements is either
satisfied, or that the security requirements rationale justifies the dependency
not being satisfied.
484
A dependency is satisfied by the inclusion of the relevant component (or one
that is hierarchical to it) within the statement of security requirements. The
component used to satisfy the dependency should, if necessary, be modified
by operations to ensure that it actually satisfies that dependency.
485
A justification that a dependency is not met should address either:
a)
why the dependency is not necessary or useful, in which case no
further information is required; or
b)
that the dependency has been addressed by the operational
environment of the TOE, in which case the justification should
describe how the security objectives for the operational environment
address this dependency.
ASE_REQ.2.6C
The security requirements rationale shall trace each SFR back to the
security objectives for the TOE.
ASE_REQ.2-10
The evaluator shall check that the security requirements rationale traces each
SFR back to the security objectives for the TOE.
486
The evaluator determines that each SFR is traced back to at least one security
objective for the TOE.
487
Failure to trace implies that either the security requirements rationale is
incomplete, the security objectives for the TOE are incomplete, or the SFR
has no useful purpose.
ASE_REQ.2.7C
The security requirements rationale shall demonstrate that the SFRs meet
all security objectives for the TOE.
ASE_REQ.2-11
The evaluator shall examine the security requirements rationale to determine
that for each security objective for the TOE it demonstrates that the SFRs are
suitable to meet that security objective for the TOE.
488
If no SFRs trace back to the security objective for the TOE, the evaluator
action related to this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
489
The evaluator determines that the justification for a security objective for the
TOE demonstrates that the SFRs are sufficient: if all SFRs that trace back to
the objective are satisfied, the security objective for the TOE is achieved.
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490
The evaluator also determines that each SFR that traces back to a security
objective for the TOE is necessary: when the SFR is satisfied, it actually
contributes to achieving the security objective.
491
Note that the tracings from SFRs to security objectives for the TOE provided
in the security requirements rationale may be a part of the justification, but
do not constitute a justification by themselves.
ASE_REQ.2.8C
The security requirements rationale shall explain why the SARs were
chosen.
ASE_REQ.2-12
The evaluator shall check that the security requirements rationale explains
why the SARs were chosen.
492
The evaluator is reminded that any explanation is correct, as long as it is
coherent and neither the SARs nor the explanation have obvious
inconsistencies with the remainder of the ST.
493
An example of an obvious inconsistency between the SARs and the
remainder of the ST would be to have threat agents that are very capable, but
an AVA_VAN SAR that does not protect against these threat agents.
ASE_REQ.2.9C
The statement of security requirements shall be internally consistent.
ASE_REQ.2-13
The evaluator shall examine the statement of security requirements to
determine that it is internally consistent.
494
The evaluator determines that the combined set of all SFRs and SARs is
internally consistent.
495
The evaluator determines that on all occasions where different security
requirements apply to the same types of developer evidence, events,
operations, data, tests to be performed etc. or to “all objects”, “all subjects”
etc., that these requirements do not conflict.
496
Some possible conflicts are:
a)
an extended SAR specifying that the design of a certain
cryptographic algorithm is to be kept secret, and another extended
assurance requirement specifying an open source review;
b)
FAU_GEN.1 Audit data generation specifying that subject identity is
to be logged, FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control specifying who has
access to these logs, and FPR_UNO.1 Unobservability specifying
that some actions of subjects should be unobservable to other
subjects. If the subject that should not be able to see an activity may
access logs of this activity, these SFRs conflict;
c)
FDP_RIP.1 Subset residual information protection specifying
deletion of information no longer needed, and FDP_ROL.1 Basic
rollback specifying that a TOE may return to a previous state. If the
information that is needed for the rollback to the previous state has
been deleted, these requirements conflict;
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where some iterations cover the same subjects, objects, or operations.
If one access control SFR allows a subject to perform an operation on
an object, while another access control SFR does not allow this, these
requirements conflict.
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10.9
TOE summary specification (ASE_TSS)
10.9.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_TSS.1)
10.9.1.1
Objectives
497
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE summary
specification addresses all SFRs, and whether the TOE summary
specification is consistent with other narrative descriptions of the TOE.
10.9.1.2
Input
498
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.9.1.3
Action ASE_TSS.1.1E
ASE_TSS.1.1C
The TOE summary specification shall describe how the TOE meets each
SFR.
ASE_TSS.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it describes how the TOE meets each SFR.
499
The evaluator determines that the TOE summary specification provides, for
each SFR from the statement of security requirements, a description on how
that SFR is met.
500
The evaluator is reminded that the objective of each description is to provide
potential consumers of the TOE with a high-level view of how the developer
intends to satisfy each SFR and that the descriptions therefore should not be
overly detailed.
501
For a composed TOE, the evaluator also determines that it is clear which
component provides each SFR or how the components combine to meet each
SFR.
10.9.1.4
Action ASE_TSS.1.2E
ASE_TSS.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it is consistent with the TOE overview and the TOE description.
502
The TOE overview, TOE description, and TOE summary specification
describe the TOE in a narrative form at increasing levels of detail. These
descriptions therefore need to be consistent.
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10.9.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ASE_TSS.2)
10.9.2.1
Objectives
503
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE summary
specification addresses all SFRs, whether the TOE summary specification
addresses interference, logical tampering and bypass, and whether the TOE
summary specification is consistent with other narrative descriptions of the
TOE.
10.9.2.2
Input
504
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST.
10.9.2.3
Action ASE_TSS.2.1E
ASE_TSS.2.1C
The TOE summary specification shall describe how the TOE meets each
SFR.
ASE_TSS.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it describes how the TOE meets each SFR.
505
The evaluator determines that the TOE summary specification provides, for
each SFR from the statement of security requirements, a description on how
that SFR is met.
506
The evaluator is reminded that the objective of each description is to provide
potential consumers of the TOE with a high-level view of how the developer
intends to satisfy each SFR and that the descriptions therefore should not be
overly detailed.
507
For a composed TOE, the evaluator also determines that it is clear which
component provides each SFR or how the components combine to meet each
SFR.
ASE_TSS.2.2C
The TOE summary specification shall describe how the TOE protects itself
against interference and logical tampering.
ASE_TSS.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it describes how the TOE protects itself against interference and logical
tampering.
508
The evaluator is reminded that the objective of each description is to provide
potential consumers of the TOE with a high-level view of how the developer
intends to provide protection against interference and logical tampering and
that the descriptions therefore should not be overly detailed.
509
For a composed TOE, the evaluator also determines that it is clear which
component provides the protection or how the components combine to
provide protection.
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ASE_TSS.2.3C
The TOE summary specification shall describe how the TOE protects itself
against bypass.
ASE_TSS.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it describes how the TOE protects itself against bypass.
510
The evaluator is reminded that the objective of each description is to provide
potential consumers of the TOE with a high-level view of how the developer
intends to provide protection against bypass and that the descriptions
therefore should not be overly detailed.
511
For a composed TOE, the evaluator also determines that it is clear which
component provides the protection or how the components combine to
provide protection.
10.9.2.4
Action ASE_TSS.2.2E
ASE_TSS.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the TOE summary specification to determine
that it is consistent with the TOE overview and the TOE description.
512
The TOE overview, TOE description, and TOE summary specification
describe the TOE in a narrative form at increasing levels of detail. These
descriptions therefore need to be consistent.
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11
Class ADV: Development
11.1
Introduction
513
The purpose of the development activity is to assess the design
documentation in terms of its adequacy to understand how the TSF meets the
SFRs and how the implementation of these SFRs cannot be tampered with or
bypassed. This understanding is achieved through examination of
increasingly refined descriptions of the TSF design documentation. Design
documentation consists of a functional specification (which describes the
interfaces of the TSF), a TOE design description (which describes the
architecture of the TSF in terms of how it works in order to perform the
functions related to the SFRs being claimed), and an implementation
description (a source code level description). In addition, there is a security
architecture description (which describes the architectural properties of the
TSF to explain how its security enforcement cannot be compromised or
bypassed), an internals description (which describes how the TSF was
constructed in a manner that encourages understandability), and a security
policy model (which formally describes the security policies enforced by the
TSF).
11.2
Application notes
514
The CC requirements for design documentation are levelled by the amount,
and detail of information provided, and the degree of formality of the
presentation of the information. At lower levels, the most security-critical
portions of the TSF are described with the most detail, while less securitycritical portions of the TSF are merely summarised; added assurance is
gained by increasing the amount of information about the most securitycritical portions of the TSF, and increasing the details about the less securitycritical portions. The most assurance is achieved when thorough details and
information of all portions are provided.
515
The CC considers a document's degree of formality (that is, whether it is
informal or semiformal) to be hierarchical. An informal document is one that
is expressed in a natural language. The methodology does not dictate the
specific language that must be used; that issue is left for the scheme. The
following paragraphs differentiate the contents of the different informal
documents.
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516
A functional specification provides a description of the purpose and methodof-use of interfaces to the TSF. For example, if an operating system presents
the user with a means of self-identification, of creating files, of modifying or
deleting files, of setting permissions defining what other users may access
files, and of communicating with remote machines, its functional
specification would contain descriptions of each of these and how they are
realised through interactions with the externally-visible interfaces to the TSF.
If there is also audit functionality that detects and record the occurrences of
such events, descriptions of this audit functionality would also be expected to
be part of the functional specification; while this functionality is technically
not directly invoked by the user at the external interface, it certainly is
affected by what occurs at the user's external interface.
517
A design description is expressed in terms of logical divisions (subsystems
or modules) that each provide a comprehensible service or function. For
example, a firewall might be composed of subsystems that deal with packet
filtering, with remote administration, with auditing, and with connectionlevel filtering. The design description of the firewall would describe the
actions that are taken, in terms of what actions each subsystem takes when an
incoming packet arrives at the firewall.
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11.3
Security Architecture (ADV_ARC)
11.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_ARC.1)
11.3.1.1
Objectives
518
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TSF is
structured such that it cannot be tampered with or bypassed, and whether
TSFs that provide security domains isolate those domains from each other.
11.3.1.2
Input
519
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the implementation representation (if available);
f)
the operational user guidance;
11.3.1.3
Application notes
520
The notions of self-protection, domain separation, and non-bypassability are
distinct from security functionality expressed in Part 2 SFRs because selfprotection and non-bypassability largely have no directly observable
interface at the TSF. Rather, they are properties of the TSF that are achieved
through the design of the TOE, and enforced by the correct implementation
of that design. Also, the evaluation of these properties is less straight-forward
than the evaluation of mechanisms; it is more difficult to check for the
absence of functionality than for its presence. However, the determination
that these properties are being satisfied is just as critical as the determination
that the mechanisms are properly implemented.
521
The overall approach used is that the developer provides a TSF that meets
the above-mentioned properties, and provides evidence (in the form of
documentation) that can be analysed to show that the properties are indeed
met. The evaluator has the responsibility for looking at the evidence and,
coupled with other evidence delivered for the TOE, determining that the
properties are achieved. The work units can be characterised as those
detailing with what information has to be provided, and those dealing with
the actual analysis the evaluator performs.
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522
The security architecture description describes how domains are defined and
how the TSF keeps them separate. It describes what prevents untrusted
processes from getting to the TSF and modifying it. It describes what ensures
that all resources under the TSF's control are adequately protected and that
all actions related to the SFRs are mediated by the TSF. It explains any role
the environment plays in any of these (e.g. presuming it gets correctly
invoked by its underlying environment, how is its security functionality
invoked?). In short, it explains how the TOE is considered to be providing
any kind of security service.
523
The analyses the evaluator performs must be done in the context of all of the
development evidence provided for the TOE, at the level of detail the
evidence is provided. At lower assurance levels there should not be the
expectation that, for example, TSF self-protection is completely analysed,
because only high-level design representations will be available. The
evaluator also needs to be sure to use information gleaned from other
portions of their analysis (e.g., analysis of the TOE design) in making their
assessments for the properties being examined in the following work units.
11.3.1.4
Action ADV_ARC.1.1E
ADV_ARC.1.1C
The security architecture description shall be at a level of detail
commensurate with the description of the SFR-enforcing abstractions
described in the TOE design document.
ADV_ARC.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the security architecture description to
determine that the information provided in the evidence is presented at a
level of detail commensurate with the descriptions of the SFR-enforcing
abstractions contained in the functional specification and TOE design
document.
524
With respect to the functional specification, the evaluator should ensure that
the self-protection functionality described cover those effects that are evident
at the TSFI. Such a description might include protection placed upon the
executable images of the TSF, and protection placed on objects (e.g., files
used by the TSF). The evaluator ensures that the functionality that might be
invoked through the TSFI is described.
525
If Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.1) or Evaluation of sub-activity
(ADV_TDS.2) is included, the evaluator ensures the security architecture
description contains information on how any subsystems that contribute to
TSF domain separation work.
526
If Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.3) or higher is available, the
evaluator ensures that the security architecture description also contains
implementation-dependent information. For example, such a description
might contain information pertaining to coding conventions for parameter
checking that would prevent TSF compromises (e.g. buffer overflows), and
information on stack management for call and return operations. The
evaluator checks the descriptions of the mechanisms to ensure that the level
of detail is such that there is little ambiguity between the description in the
security architecture description and the implementation representation.
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527
The evaluator action related to this work unit is assigned a fail verdict if the
security architecture description mentions any module, subsystem, or
interface that is not described in the functional specification or TOE design
document.
ADV_ARC.1.2C
The security architecture description shall describe the security domains
maintained by the TSF consistently with the SFRs.
ADV_ARC.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the security architecture description to
determine that it describes the security domains maintained by the TSF.
528
Security domains refer to environments supplied by the TSF for use by
potentially-harmful entities; for example, a typical secure operating system
supplies a set of resources (address space, per-process environment
variables) for use by processes with limited access rights and security
properties. The evaluator determines that the developer's description of the
security domains takes into account all of the SFRs claimed by the TOE.
529
For some TOEs such domains do not exist because all of the interactions
available to users are severely constrained by the TSF. A packet-filter
firewall is an example of such a TOE. Users on the LAN or WAN do not
interact with the TOE, so there need be no security domains; there are only
data structures maintained by the TSF to keep the users' packets separated.
The evaluator ensures that any claim that there are no domains is supported
by the evidence and that no such domains are, in fact, available.
ADV_ARC.1.3C
The security architecture description shall describe how the TSF
initialisation process is secure.
ADV_ARC.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the security architecture description to
determine that the initialisation process preserves security.
530
The information provided in the security architecture description relating to
TSF initialisation is directed at the TOE components that are involved in
bringing the TSF into an initial secure state (i.e. when all parts of the TSF are
operational) when power-on or a reset is applied. This discussion in the
security architecture description should list the system initialisation
components and the processing that occurs in transitioning from the “down”
state to the initial secure state.
531
It is often the case that the components that perform this initialisation
function are not accessible after the secure state is achieved; if this is the case
then the security architecture description identifies the components and
explains how they are not reachable by untrusted entities after the TSF has
been established. In this respect, the property that needs to be preserved is
that these components either 1) cannot be accessed by untrusted entities after
the secure state is achieved, or 2) if they provide interfaces to untrusted
entities, these TSFI cannot be used to tamper with the TSF.
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532
The TOE components related to TSF initialisation, then, are treated
themselves as part of the TSF, and analysed from that perspective. It should
be noted that even though these are treated as part of the TSF, it is likely that
a justification (as allowed by TSF internals (ADV_INT)) can be made that
they do not have to meet the internal structuring requirements of ADV_INT.
ADV_ARC.1.4C
The security architecture description shall demonstrate that the TSF
protects itself from tampering.
ADV_ARC.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the security architecture description to
determine that it contains information sufficient to support a determination
that the TSF is able to protect itself from tampering by untrusted active
entities.
533
”Self-protection” refers to the ability of the TSF to protect itself from
manipulation from external entities that may result in changes to the TSF.
For TOEs that have dependencies on other IT entities, it is often the case that
the TOE uses services supplied by the other IT entities in order to perform its
functions. In such cases, the TSF alone does not protect itself because it
depends on the other IT entities to provide some of the protection. For the
purposes of the security architecture description, the notion of self-protection
applies only to the services provided by the TSF through its TSFI, and not to
services provided by underlying IT entities that it uses.
534
Self-protection is typically achieved by a variety of means, ranging from
physical and logical restrictions on access to the TOE; to hardware-based
means (e.g. “execution rings” and memory management functionality); to
software-based means (e.g. boundary checking of inputs on a trusted server).
The evaluator determines that all such mechanisms are described.
535
The evaluator determines that the design description covers how user input is
handled by the TSF in such a way that the TSF does not subject itself to
being corrupted by that user input. For example, the TSF might implement
the notion of privilege and protect itself by using privileged-mode routines to
handle user input. The TSF might make use of processor-based separation
mechanisms such as privilege levels or rings. The TSF might implement
software protection constructs or coding conventions that contribute to
implementing separation of software domains, perhaps by delineating user
address space from system address space. And the TSF might have reliance
its environment to provide some support to the protection of the TSF.
536
All of the mechanisms contributing to the domain separation functions are
described. The evaluator should use knowledge gained from other evidence
(functional specification, TOE design, TSF internals description, other parts
of the security architecture description, or implementation representation, as
included in the assurance package for the TOE) in determining if any
functionality contributing to self-protection was described that is not present
in the security architecture description.
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537
Accuracy of the description of the self-protection mechanisms is the property
that the description faithfully describes what is implemented. The evaluator
should use other evidence (functional specification, TOE design, TSF
Internals documentation, other parts of the security architectural description,
implementation representation, as included in the ST for the TOE) in
determining whether there are discrepancies in any descriptions of the selfprotection mechanisms. If Implementation representation (ADV_IMP) is
included in the assurance package for the TOE, the evaluator will choose a
sample of the implementation representation; the evaluator should also
ensure that the descriptions are accurate for the sample chosen. If an
evaluator cannot understand how a certain self-protection mechanism works
or could work in the system architecture, it may be the case that the
description is not accurate.
ADV_ARC.1.5C
The security architecture description shall demonstrate that the TSF
prevents bypass of the SFR-enforcing functionality.
ADV_ARC.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the security architecture description to
determine that it presents an analysis that adequately describes how the SFRenforcing mechanisms cannot be bypassed.
538
Non-bypassability is a property that the security functionality of the TSF (as
specified by the SFRs) is always invoked. For example, if access control to
files is specified as a capability of the TSF via an SFR, there must be no
interfaces through which files can be accessed without invoking the TSF's
access control mechanism (such as an interface through which a raw disk
access takes place).
539
Describing how the TSF mechanisms cannot be bypassed generally requires
a systematic argument based on the TSF and the TSFIs. The description of
how the TSF works (contained in the design decomposition evidence, such
as the functional specification, TOE design documentation) - along with the
information in the TSS - provides the background necessary for the evaluator
to understand what resources are being protected and what security functions
are being provided. The functional specification provides descriptions of the
TSFIs through which the resources/functions are accessed.
540
The evaluator assesses the description provided (and other information
provided by the developer, such as the functional specification) to ensure that
no available interface can be used to bypass the TSF. This means that every
available interface must be either unrelated to the SFRs that are claimed in
the ST (and does not interact with anything that is used to satisfy SFRs) or
else uses the security functionality that is described in other development
evidence in the manner described. For example, a game would likely be
unrelated to the SFRs, so there must be an explanation of how it cannot
affect security. Access to user data, however, is likely to be related to access
control SFRs, so the explanation would describe how the security
functionality works when invoked through the data-access interfaces. Such a
description is needed for every available interface.
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541
An example of a description follows. Suppose the TSF provides file
protection. Further suppose that although the “traditional” system call TSFIs
for open, read, and write invoke the file protection mechanism described in
the TOE design, there exists a TSFI that allows access to a batch job facility
(creating batch jobs, deleting jobs, modifying unprocessed jobs). The
evaluator should be able to determine from the vendor-provided description
that this TSFI invokes the same protection mechanisms as do the
“traditional” interfaces. This could be done, for example, by referencing the
appropriate sections of the TOE design that discuss how the batch job facility
TSFI achieves its security objectives.
542
Using this same example, suppose there is a TSFI whose sole purpose is to
display the time of day. The evaluator should determine that the description
adequately argues that this TSFI is not capable of manipulating any protected
resources and should not invoke any security functionality.
543
Another example of bypass is when the TSF is supposed to maintain
confidentiality of a cryptographic key (one is allowed to use it for
cryptographic operations, but is not allowed to read/write it). If an attacker
has direct physical access to the device, he might be able to examine sidechannels such as the power usage of the device, the exact timing of the
device, or even any electromagnetic emanations of the device and, from this,
infer the key.
544
If such side-channels may be present, the demonstration should address the
mechanisms that prevent these side-channels from occurring, such as random
internal clocks, dual-line technology etc. Verification of these mechanisms
would be verified by a combination of purely design-based arguments and
testing.
545
For a final example using security functionality rather than a protected
resource, consider an ST that contains FCO_NRO.2 Enforced proof of
origin, which requires that the TSF provides evidence of origination for
information types specified in the ST. Suppose that the “information types”
included all information that is sent by the TOE via e-mail. In this case the
evaluator should examine the description to ensure that all TSFI that can be
invoked to send e-mail perform the “evidence of origination generation”
function are detailed. The description might point to user guidance to show
all places where e-mail can originate (e.g., e-mail program, notification from
scripts/batch jobs) and then how each of these places invokes the evidence
generation function.
546
The evaluator should also ensure that the description is comprehensive, in
that each interface is analysed with respect to the entire set of claimed SFRs.
This may require the evaluator to examine supporting information
(functional specification, TOE design, other parts of the security architectural
description, operational user guidance, and perhaps even the implementation
representation, as provided for the TOE) to determine that the description has
correctly capture all aspects of an interface. The evaluator should consider
what SFRs each TSFI might affect (from the description of the TSFI and its
implementation in the supporting documentation), and then examine the
description to determine whether it covers those aspects.
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11.4
Functional specification (ADV_FSP)
11.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.1)
11.4.1.1
Objectives
547
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
provided a high-level description of at least the SFR-enforcing and SFRsupporting TSFIs, in terms of descriptions of their parameters. There is no
other required evidence that can be expected to be available to measure the
accuracy of these descriptions; the evaluator merely ensures the descriptions
seem plausible.
11.4.1.2
Input
548
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the operational user guidance;
11.4.1.3
Action ADV_FSP.1.1E
ADV_FSP.1.1C
The functional specification shall describe the purpose and method of use
for each SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting TSFI.
ADV_FSP.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
states the purpose of each SFR-supporting and SFR-enforcing TSFI.
549
The purpose of a TSFI is a general statement summarising the functionality
provided by the interface. It is not intended to be a complete statement of the
actions and results related to the interface, but rather a statement to help the
reader understand in general what the interface is intended to be used for.
The evaluator should not only determine that the purpose exists, but also that
it accurately reflects the TSFI by taking into account other information about
the interface, such as the description of the parameters; this can be done in
association with other work units for this component.
550
If an action available through an interface plays a role in enforcing any
security policy on the TOE (that is, if one of the actions of the interface can
be traced to one of the SFRs levied on the TSF), then that interface is SFRenforcing. Such policies are not limited to the access control policies, but
also refer to any functionality specified by one of the SFRs contained in the
ST. Note that it is possible that an interface may have various actions and
results, some of which may be SFR-enforcing and some of which may not.
551
Interfaces to (or actions available through an interface relating to) actions
that SFR-enforcing functionality depends on, but need only to function
correctly in order for the security policies of the TOE to be preserved, are
termed SFR supporting. Interfaces to actions on which SFR-enforcing
functionality has no dependence are termed SFR non-interfering.
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552
It should be noted that in order for an interface to be SFR supporting or SFR
non-interfering it must have no SFR-enforcing actions or results. In contrast,
an SFR-enforcing interface may have SFR-supporting actions (for example,
the ability to set the system clock may be an SFR-enforcing action of an
interface, but if that same interface is used to display the system date that
action may only be SFR supporting). An example of a purely SFRsupporting interface is a system call interface that is used both by untrusted
users and by a portion of the TSF that is running in user mode.
553
At this level, it is unlikely that a developer will have expended effort to label
interfaces as SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting. In the case that this has
been done, the evaluator should verify to the extent that supporting
documentation (e.g., operational user guidance) allows that this identification
is correct. Note that this identification activity is necessary for several work
units for this component.
554
In the more likely case that the developer has not labelled the interfaces, the
evaluator must perform their own identification of the interfaces first, and
then determine whether the required information (for this work unit, the
purpose) is present. Again, because of the lack of supporting evidence this
identification will be difficult and have low assurance that all appropriate
interfaces have been correctly identified, but nonetheless the evaluator
examines other evidence available for the TOE to ensure as complete
coverage as is possible.
ADV_FSP.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the method of use for each SFR-supporting and SFR-enforcing TSFI is
given.
555
See work unit ADV_FSP.1-1 for a discussion on the identification of SFRsupporting and SFR-enforcing TSFI.
556
The method of use for a TSFI summarises how the interface is manipulated
in order to invoke the actions and obtain the results associated with the TSFI.
The evaluator should be able to determine, from reading this material in the
functional specification, how to use each interface. This does not necessarily
mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for each TSFI, as it may
be possible to describe in general how kernel calls are invoked, for instance,
and then identify each interface using that general style. Different types of
interfaces will require different method of use specifications. APIs, network
protocol interfaces, system configuration parameters, and hardware bus
interfaces all have very different methods of use, and this should be taken
into account by the developer when developing the functional specification,
as well as by the evaluator evaluating the functional specification.
557
For administrative interfaces whose functionality is documented as being
inaccessible to untrusted users, the evaluator ensures that the method of
making the functions inaccessible is described in the functional specification.
It should be noted that this inaccessibility needs to be tested by the developer
in their test suite.
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ADV_FSP.1.2C
The functional specification shall identify all parameters associated with
each SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting TSFI.
ADV_FSP.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
identifies all parameters associated with each SFR-enforcing and SFRsupporting TSFI.
558
See work unit ADV_FSP.1-1 for a discussion on the identification of SFRsupporting and SFR-enforcing TSFI.
559
The evaluator examines the functional specification to ensure that all of the
parameters are described for identified TSFI. Parameters are explicit inputs
or outputs to an interface that control the behaviour of that interface. For
examples, parameters are the arguments supplied to an API; the various
fields in packet for a given network protocol; the individual key values in the
Windows Registry; the signals across a set of pins on a chip; etc.
560
While difficult to obtain much assurance that all parameters for the
applicable TSFI have been identified, the evaluator should also check other
evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., operational user guidance) to see
if behaviour or additional parameters are described there but not in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.1.3C
The functional specification shall provide rationale for the implicit
categorisation of interfaces as SFR-non-interfering.
ADV_FSP.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the rationale provided by the developer for the
implicit categorisation of interfaces as SFR-non-interfering to determine that
it is accurate.
561
In the case where the developer has provided adequate documentation to
perform the analysis called for by the rest of the work units for this
component without explicitly identifying SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting
interfaces, this work unit should be considered satisfied.
562
This work unit is intended to apply to cases where the developer has not
described a portion of the TSFI, claiming that it is SFR-non-interfering and
therefore not subject to other requirements of this component. In such a case,
the developer provides a rationale for this characterisation in sufficient detail
such that the evaluator understands the rationale, the characteristics of the
interfaces affected (e.g., their high-level function with respect to the TOE,
such as “colour palette manipulation”), and that the claim that these are SFRnon-interfering is supported. Given the level of assurance the evaluator
should not expect more detail than is provided for the SFR-enforcing or
SFR-supporting interfaces, and in fact the detail should be much less. In
most cases, individual interfaces should not need to be addressed in the
developer-provided rationale section.
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ADV_FSP.1.4C
The tracing shall demonstrate that the SFRs trace to TSFIs in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.1-5
The evaluator shall check that the tracing links the SFRs to the
corresponding TSFIs.
563
The tracing is provided by the developer to serve as a guide to which SFRs
are related to which TSFIs. This tracing can be as simple as a table; it is used
as input to the evaluator for use in the following work units, in which the
evaluator verifies its completeness and accuracy.
11.4.1.4
Action ADV_FSP.1.2E
ADV_FSP.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is a complete instantiation of the SFRs.
564
To ensure that all SFRs are covered by the functional specification, as well
as the test coverage analysis, the evaluator may build upon the developer's
tracing (see ADV_FSP.1-5 a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TSFI). Note that this map may have to be at a level of
detail below the component or even element level of the requirements,
because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections) performed on
the functional requirement by the ST author.
565
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 component contains an element with
assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the FDP_ACC.1
assignment, and these ten rules were covered by three different TSFI, it
would be inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 to TSFI A, B, and
C and claim they had completed the work unit. Instead, the evaluator would
map FDP_ACC.1 (rule 1) to TSFI A; FDP_ACC.1 (rule 2) to TSFI B; etc. It
might also be the case that the interface is a wrapper interface (e.g., IOCTL),
in which case the mapping would need to be specific to certain set of
parameters for a given interface.
566
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that
they completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for those
requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST. It is also important to note that since
the parameters associated with TSFIs must be fully specified, the evaluator
should be able to determine if all aspects of an SFR appear to be
implemented at the interface level.
ADV_FSP.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is an accurate instantiation of the SFRs.
567
For each functional requirement in the ST that results in effects visible at the
TSF boundary, the information in the associated TSFI for that requirement
specifies the required functionality described by the requirement. For
example, if the ST contains a requirement for access control lists, and the
only TSFI that map to that requirement specify functionality for Unix-style
protection bits, then the functional specification is not accurate with respect
to the requirements.
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568
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that the
evaluator completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for
those requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST.
11.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.2)
11.4.2.1
Objectives
569
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
provided a description of the TSFIs in terms of their purpose, method of use,
and parameters. In addition, the SFR-enforcing actions, results and error
messages of each TSFI that is SFR-enforcing are also described.
11.4.2.2
Input
570
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is required by the workunits is:
571
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design.
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is used if included in the
ST for the TOE is:
a)
the security architecture description;
b)
the operational user guidance;
11.4.2.3
Action ADV_FSP.2.1E
ADV_FSP.2.1C
The functional specification shall completely represent the TSF.
ADV_FSP.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the TSF is fully represented.
572
The identification of the TSFI is a necessary prerequisite to all other
activities in this sub-activity. The TSF must be identified (done as part of the
TOE design (ADV_TDS) work units) in order to identify the TSFI. This
activity can be done at a high level to ensure that no large groups of
interfaces have been missed (network protocols, hardware interfaces,
configuration files), or at a low level as the evaluation of the functional
specification proceeds.
573
In making an assessment for this work unit, the evaluator determines that all
portions of the TSF are addressed in terms of the interfaces listed in the
functional specification. All portions of the TSF should have a corresponding
interface description, or if there are no corresponding interfaces for a portion
of the TSF, the evaluator determines that that is acceptable.
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ADV_FSP.2.2C
The functional specification shall describe the purpose and method of use
for all TSFI.
ADV_FSP.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
states the purpose of each TSFI.
574
The purpose of a TSFI is a general statement summarising the functionality
provided by the interface. It is not intended to be a complete statement of the
actions and results related to the interface, but rather a statement to help the
reader understand in general what the interface is intended to be used for.
The evaluator should not only determine that the purpose exists, but also that
it accurately reflects the TSFI by taking into account other information about
the interface, such as the description of actions and error messages.
ADV_FSP.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the method of use for each TSFI is given.
575
The method of use for a TSFI summarises how the interface is manipulated
in order to invoke the actions and obtain the results associated with the TSFI.
The evaluator should be able to determine, from reading this material in the
functional specification, how to use each interface. This does not necessarily
mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for each TSFI, as it may
be possible to describe in general how kernel calls are invoked, for instance,
and then identify each interface using that general style. Different types of
interfaces will require different method of use specifications. APIs, network
protocol interfaces, system configuration parameters, and hardware bus
interfaces all have very different methods of use, and this should be taken
into account by the developer when developing the functional specification,
as well as by the evaluator evaluating the functional specification.
576
For administrative interfaces whose functionality is documented as being
inaccessible to untrusted users, the evaluator ensures that the method of
making the functions inaccessible is described in the functional specification.
It should be noted that this inaccessibility needs to be tested by the developer
in their test suite.
577
The evaluator should not only determine that the set of method of use
descriptions exist, but also that they accurately cover each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.2.3C
The functional specification shall identify and describe all parameters
associated with each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely identifies all parameters associated with every TSFI.
578
The evaluator examines the functional specification to ensure that all of the
parameters are described for each TSFI. Parameters are explicit inputs or
outputs to an interface that control the behaviour of that interface. For
examples, parameters are the arguments supplied to an API; the various
fields in packet for a given network protocol; the individual key values in the
Windows Registry; the signals across a set of pins on a chip; etc.
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579
In order to determine that all of the parameters are present in the TSFI, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (actions, error
messages, etc.) to determine if the effects of the parameter are accounted for
in the description. The evaluator should also check other evidence provided
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all parameters associated with every
TSFI.
580
Once all of the parameters have been identified, the evaluator needs to ensure
that they are accurately described, and that the description of the parameters
is complete. A parameter description tells what the parameter is in some
meaningful way. For instance, the interface foo(i) could be described as
having “parameter i which is an integer"; this is not an acceptable parameter
description. A description such as “parameter i is an integer that indicates the
number of users currently logged in to the system” is much more acceptable.
581
In order to determine that the description of the parameters is complete, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (purpose,
method of use, actions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the descriptions
of the parameter(s) are accounted for in the description. The evaluator should
also check other evidence provided (e.g., TOE design, architectural design,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.2.4C
For each SFR-enforcing TSFI, the functional specification shall describe
the SFR-enforcing actions associated with the TSFI.
ADV_FSP.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes the SFR-enforcing actions associated
with the SFR-enforcing TSFIs.
582
If an action available through an interface can be traced to one of the SFRs
levied on the TSF, then that interface is SFR-enforcing. Such policies are not
limited to the access control policies, but also refer to any functionality
specified by one of the SFRs contained in the ST. Note that it is possible that
an interface may have various actions and results, some of which may be
SFR-enforcing and some of which may not.
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583
The developer is not required to “label” interfaces as SFR-enforcing, and
likewise is not required to identify actions available through an interface as
SFR-enforcing. It is the evaluator's responsibility to examine the evidence
provided by the developer and determine that the required information is
present. In the case where the developer has identified the SFR-enforcing
TSFI and SFR-enforcing actions available through those TSFI, the evaluator
must judge completeness and accuracy based on other information supplied
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance), and on the other information presented for the
interfaces (parameters and parameter descriptions, error messages, etc.).
584
In this case (where the developer has provided only the SFR-enforcing
information for SFR-enforcing TSFI) the evaluator also ensures that no
interfaces have been mis-categorised. This is done by examining other
information supplied for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security
architecture description, operational user guidance), and the other
information presented for the interfaces (parameters and parameter
descriptions, for example) not labelled as SFR-enforcing.
585
In the case where the developer has provided the same level of information
on all interfaces, the evaluator performs the same type of analysis mentioned
in the previous paragraphs. The evaluator should determine which interfaces
are SFR-enforcing and which are not, and subsequently ensure that the SFRenforcing aspects of the SFR-enforcing actions are appropriately described.
586
The SFR-enforcing actions are those that are visible at any external interface
and that provide for the enforcement of the SFRs being claimed. For
example, if audit requirements are included in the ST, then audit-related
actions would be SFR-enforcing and therefore must be described, even if the
result of that action is generally not visible through the invoked interface (as
is often the case with audit, where a user action at one interface would
produce an audit record visible at another interface).
587
The level of description that is required is that sufficient for the reader to
understand what role the TSFI actions play with respect to the SFR. The
evaluator should keep in mind that the description should be detailed enough
to support the generation (and assessment) of test cases against that interface.
If the description is unclear or lacking detail such that meaningful testing
cannot be conducted against the TSFI, it is likely that the description is
inadequate.
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ADV_FSP.2.5C
For SFR-enforcing TSFIs, the functional specification shall describe
direct error messages resulting from processing associated with the SFRenforcing actions.
ADV_FSP.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes error messages that may result from
SFR-enforcing actions associated with each SFR-enforcing TSFI.
588
This work unit should be performed in conjunction with, or after, work unit
ADV_FSP.2-6 in order to ensure the set of SFR-enforcing TSFI and SFRenforcing actions is correctly identified. The developer may provide more
information than is required (for example, all error messages associated with
each interface), in which the case the evaluator should restrict their
assessment of completeness and accuracy to only those that they determine
to be associated with SFR-enforcing actions of SFR-enforcing TSFI.
589
Errors can take many forms, depending on the interface being described. For
an API, the interface itself may return an error code, set a global error
condition, or set a certain parameter with an error code. For a configuration
file, an incorrectly configured parameter may cause an error message to be
written to a log file. For a hardware PCI card, an error condition may raise a
signal on the bus, or trigger an exception condition to the CPU.
590
Errors (and the associated error messages) come about through the
invocation of an interface. The processing that occurs in response to the
interface invocation may encounter error conditions, which trigger (through
an implementation-specific mechanism) an error message to be generated. In
some instances this may be a return value from the interface itself; in other
instances a global value may be set and checked after the invocation of an
interface. It is likely that a TOE will have a number of low-level error
messages that may result from fundamental resource conditions, such as
“disk full” or “resource locked”. While these error messages may map to a
large number of TSFI, they could be used to detect instances where detail
from an interface description has been omitted. For instance, a TSFI that
produces a “disk full” message, but has no obvious description of why that
TSFI should cause an access to the disk in its description of actions, might
cause the evaluator to examine other evidence (Security Architecture
(ADV_ARC), TOE design (ADV_TDS)) related that TSFI to determine if
the description is accurate.
591
In order to determine that the description of the error messages of a TSFI is
accurate and complete, the evaluator measures the interface description
against the other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design,
security architecture description, operational user guidance), as well as other
evidence available for that TSFI (parameters, analysis from work unit
ADV_FSP.2-6).
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ADV_FSP.2.6C
The tracing shall demonstrate that the SFRs trace to TSFIs in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.2-8
The evaluator shall check that the tracing links the SFRs to the
corresponding TSFIs.
592
The tracing is provided by the developer to serve as a guide to which SFRs
are related to which TSFIs. This tracing can be as simple as a table; it is used
as input to the evaluator for use in the following work units, in which the
evaluator verifies its completeness and accuracy.
11.4.2.4
Action ADV_FSP.2.2E
ADV_FSP.2-9
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is a complete instantiation of the SFRs.
593
To ensure that all SFRs are covered by the functional specification, as well
as the test coverage analysis, the evaluator may build upon the developer's
tracing (see ADV_FSP.2-8 a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TSFI. Note that this map may have to be at a level of
detail below the component or even element level of the requirements,
because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections) performed on
the functional requirement by the ST author.
594
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 component contains an element with
assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the FDP_ACC.1
assignment, and these ten rules were covered by three different TSFI, it
would be inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 to TSFI A, B, and
C and claim they had completed the work unit. Instead, the evaluator would
map FDP_ACC.1 (rule 1) to TSFI A; FDP_ACC.1 (rule 2) to TSFI B; etc. It
might also be the case that the interface is a wrapper interface (e.g., IOCTL),
in which case the mapping would need to be specific to certain set of
parameters for a given interface.
595
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that
they completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for those
requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST. It is also important to note that since
the parameters, actions, and error messages associated with TSFIs must be
fully specified, the evaluator should be able to determine if all aspects of an
SFR appear to be implemented at the interface level.
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ADV_FSP.2-10
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is an accurate instantiation of the SFRs.
596
For each functional requirement in the ST that results in effects visible at the
TSF boundary, the information in the associated TSFI for that requirement
specifies the required functionality described by the requirement. For
example, if the ST contains a requirement for access control lists, and the
only TSFI that map to that requirement specify functionality for Unix-style
protection bits, then the functional specification is not accurate with respect
to the requirements.
597
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that the
evaluator completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for
those requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST.
11.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.3)
11.4.3.1
Objectives
598
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
provided a description of the TSFIs in terms of their purpose, method of use,
and parameters. In addition, the actions, results and error messages of each
TSFI are also described sufficiently that it can be determined whether they
are SFR-enforcing, with the SFR-enforcing TSFI being described in more
detail than other TSFIs.
11.4.3.2
Input
599
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is required by the workunits is:
600
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design.
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is used if included in the
ST for the TOE is:
a)
the security architecture description;
b)
the implementation representation;
c)
the TSF internals description;
d)
the operational user guidance;
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11.4.3.3
Action ADV_FSP.3.1E
ADV_FSP.3.1C
The functional specification shall completely represent the TSF.
ADV_FSP.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the TSF is fully represented.
601
The identification of the TSFI is a necessary prerequisite to all other
activities in this sub-activity. The TSF must be identified (done as part of the
TOE design (ADV_TDS) work units) in order to identify the TSFI. This
activity can be done at a high level to ensure that no large groups of
interfaces have been missed (network protocols, hardware interfaces,
configuration files), or at a low level as the evaluation of the functional
specification proceeds.
602
In making an assessment for this work unit, the evaluator determines that all
portions of the TSF are addressed in terms of the interfaces listed in the
functional specification. All portions of the TSF should have a corresponding
interface description, or if there are no corresponding interfaces for a portion
of the TSF, the evaluator determines that that is acceptable.
ADV_FSP.3.2C
The functional specification shall describe the purpose and method of use
for all TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
states the purpose of each TSFI.
603
The purpose of a TSFI is a general statement summarising the functionality
provided by the interface. It is not intended to be a complete statement of the
actions and results related to the interface, but rather a statement to help the
reader understand in general what the interface is intended to be used for.
The evaluator should not only determine that the purpose exists, but also that
it accurately reflects the TSFI by taking into account other information about
the interface, such as the description of actions and error messages.
ADV_FSP.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the method of use for each TSFI is given.
604
The method of use for a TSFI summarises how the interface is manipulated
in order to invoke the actions and obtain the results associated with the TSFI.
The evaluator should be able to determine, from reading this material in the
functional specification, how to use each interface. This does not necessarily
mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for each TSFI, as it may
be possible to describe in general how kernel calls are invoked, for instance,
and then identify each interface using that general style. Different types of
interfaces will require different method of use specifications. APIs, network
protocol interfaces, system configuration parameters, and hardware bus
interfaces all have very different methods of use, and this should be taken
into account by the developer when developing the functional specification,
as well as by the evaluator evaluating the functional specification.
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605
For administrative interfaces whose functionality is documented as being
inaccessible to untrusted users, the evaluator ensures that the method of
making the functions inaccessible is described in the functional specification.
It should be noted that this inaccessibility needs to be tested by the developer
in their test suite.
606
The evaluator should not only determine that the set of method of use
descriptions exist, but also that they accurately cover each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3.3C
The functional specification shall identify and describe all parameters
associated with each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely identifies all parameters associated with every TSFI.
607
The evaluator examines the functional specification to ensure that all of the
parameters are described for each TSFI. Parameters are explicit inputs or
outputs to an interface that control the behaviour of that interface. For
examples, parameters are the arguments supplied to an API; the various
fields in packet for a given network protocol; the individual key values in the
Windows Registry; the signals across a set of pins on a chip; etc.
608
In order to determine that all of the parameters are present in the TSFI, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (actions, error
messages, etc.) to determine if the effects of the parameter are accounted for
in the description. The evaluator should also check other evidence provided
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all parameters associated with every
TSFI.
609
Once all of the parameters have been identified, the evaluator needs to ensure
that they are accurately described, and that the description of the parameters
is complete. A parameter description tells what the parameter is in some
meaningful way. For instance, the interface foo(i) could be described as
having “parameter i which is an integer”; this is not an acceptable parameter
description. A description such as “parameter i is an integer that indicates the
number of users currently logged in to the system” is much more acceptable.
610
In order to determine that the description of the parameters is complete, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (purpose,
method of use, actions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the descriptions
of the parameter(s) are accounted for in the description. The evaluator should
also check other evidence provided (e.g., TOE design, architectural design,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
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ADV_FSP.3.4C
For each SFR-enforcing TSFI, the functional specification shall describe
the SFR-enforcing actions associated with the TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes the SFR-enforcing actions associated
with the SFR-enforcing TSFIs.
611
If an action available through an interface plays a role in enforcing any
security policy on the TOE (that is, if one of the actions of the interface can
be traced to one of the SFRs levied on the TSF), then that interface is SFRenforcing. Such policies are not limited to the access control policies, but
also refer to any functionality specified by one of the SFRs contained in the
ST. Note that it is possible that an interface may have various actions and
results, some of which may be SFR-enforcing and some of which may not.
612
The developer is not required to “label” interfaces as SFR-enforcing, and
likewise is not required to identify actions available through an interface as
SFR-enforcing. It is the evaluator's responsibility to examine the evidence
provided by the developer and determine that the required information is
present. In the case where the developer has identified the SFR-enforcing
TSFI and SFR-enforcing actions available through those TSFI, the evaluator
must judge completeness and accuracy based on other information supplied
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance), and on the other information presented for the
interfaces (parameters and parameter descriptions, error messages, etc.).
613
In this case (developer has provided only the SFR-enforcing information for
SFR-enforcing TSFI) the evaluator also ensures that no interfaces have been
mis-categorised. This is done by examining other information supplied for
the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance), and the other information presented for the
interfaces (parameters and parameter descriptions, for example) not labelled
as SFR-enforcing. The analysis done for work units ADV_FSP.3-7 and
ADV_FSP.3-8 are also used in making this determination.
614
In the case where the developer has provided the same level of information
on all interfaces, the evaluator performs the same type of analysis mentioned
in the previous paragraphs. The evaluator should determine which interfaces
are SFR-enforcing and which are not, and subsequently ensure that the SFRenforcing aspects of the SFR-enforcing actions are appropriately described.
Note that in this case, the evaluator should be able to perform the bulk of the
work associated with work unit ADV_FSP.3-8 in the course of performing
this SFR-enforcing analysis.
615
The SFR-enforcing actions are those that are visible at any external interface
and that provide for the enforcement of the SFRs being claimed. For
example, if audit requirements are included in the ST, then audit-related
actions would be SFR-enforcing and therefore must be described, even if the
result of that action is generally not visible through the invoked interface (as
is often the case with audit, where a user action at one interface would
produce an audit record visible at another interface).
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616
The level of description that is required is that sufficient for the reader to
understand what role the TSFI actions play with respect to the SFR. The
evaluator should keep in mind that the description should be detailed enough
to support the generation (and assessment) of test cases against that interface.
If the description is unclear or lacking detail such that meaningful testing
cannot be conducted against the TSFI, it is likely that the description is
inadequate.
ADV_FSP.3.5C
For each SFR-enforcing TSFI, the functional specification shall describe
direct error messages resulting from security enforcing effects and
exceptions associated with invocation of the TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes error messages that may result from an
invocation of each SFR-enforcing TSFI.
617
This work unit should be performed in conjunction with, or after, work unit
ADV_FSP.3-6 in order to ensure the set of SFR-enforcing TSFI is correctly
identified. The evaluator should note that the requirement and associated
work unit is that all direct error messages associated with an SFR-enforcing
TSFI must be described, that are associated with SFR-enforcing actions. This
is because at this level of assurance, the “extra” information provided by the
error message descriptions should be used in determining whether all of the
SFR-enforcing aspects of an interface have been appropriately described. For
instance, if an error message associated with a TSFI (e.g., “access denied”)
indicated that an SFR-enforcing decision or action had taken place, but in the
description of the SFR-enforcing actions there was no mention of that
particular SFR-enforcing mechanism, then the description may not be
complete.
618
Errors can take many forms, depending on the interface being described. For
an API, the interface itself may return an error code, set a global error
condition, or set a certain parameter with an error code. For a configuration
file, an incorrectly configured parameter may cause an error message to be
written to a log file. For a hardware PCI card, an error condition may raise a
signal on the bus, or trigger an exception condition to the CPU.
619
Errors (and the associated error messages) come about through the
invocation of an interface. The processing that occurs in response to the
interface invocation may encounter error conditions, which trigger (through
an implementation-specific mechanism) an error message to be generated. In
some instances this may be a return value from the interface itself; in other
instances a global value may be set and checked after the invocation of an
interface. It is likely that a TOE will have a number of low-level error
messages that may result from fundamental resource conditions, such as
“disk full” or “resource locked”. While these error messages may map to a
large number of TSFI, they could be used to detect instances where detail
from an interface description has been omitted. For instance, a TSFI that
produces a “disk full” message, but has no obvious description of why that
TSFI should cause an access to the disk in its description of actions, might
cause the evaluator to examine other evidence (Security Architecture
(ADV_ARC), TOE design (ADV_TDS)) related that TSFI to determine if
the description is accurate.
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620
In order to determine that the description of the error messages of a TSFI is
accurate and complete, the evaluator measures the interface description
against the other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design,
security architecture description, operational user guidance), as well as for
other evidence supplied for that TSFI (description of SFR-enforcing actions,
summary of SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering actions and results).
ADV_FSP.3.6C
The functional specification shall summarise the SFR-supporting and
SFR-non-interfering actions associated with each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.3-8
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
summarises the SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering actions associated
with each TSFI.
621
The purpose of this work unit is to supplement the details about the SFRenforcing actions (provided in work unit ADV_FSP.3-6) with a summary of
the remaining actions (i.e., those that are not SFR-enforcing). This covers all
SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering actions, whether invokable through
SFR-enforcing TSFI or through SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering
TSFI. Such a summary about all SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering
actions helps to provide a more complete picture of the functions provided
by the TSF, and is to be used by the evaluator in determining whether an
action or TSFI may have been mis-categorised.
622
The information to be provided is more abstract than that required for SFRenforcing actions. While it should still be detailed enough so that the reader
can understand what the action does, the description does not have to be
detailed enough to support writing tests against it, for instance. For the
evaluator, the key is that the information must be sufficient to make a
positive determination that the action is SFR-supporting or SFR-noninterfering. If that level of information is missing, the summary is
insufficient and more information must be obtained.
ADV_FSP.3.7C
The tracing shall demonstrate that the SFRs trace to TSFIs in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.3-9
The evaluator shall check that the tracing links the SFRs to the
corresponding TSFIs.
623
The tracing is provided by the developer to serve as a guide to which SFRs
are related to which TSFIs. This tracing can be as simple as a table; it is used
as input to the evaluator for use in the following work units, in which the
evaluator verifies its completeness and accuracy.
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11.4.3.4
Action ADV_FSP.3.2E
ADV_FSP.3-10
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is a complete instantiation of the SFRs.
624
To ensure that all SFRs are covered by the functional specification, as well
as the test coverage analysis, the evaluator may build upon the developer's
tracing (see ADV_FSP.3-9 a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TSFI. Note that this map may have to be at a level of
detail below the component or even element level of the requirements,
because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections) performed on
the functional requirement by the ST author.
625
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 component contains an element with
assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the FDP_ACC.1
assignment, and these ten rules were covered by three different TSFI, it
would be inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 to TSFI A, B, and
C and claim they had completed the work unit. Instead, the evaluator would
map FDP_ACC.1 (rule 1) to TSFI A; FDP_ACC.1 (rule 2) to TSFI B; etc. It
might also be the case that the interface is a wrapper interface (e.g., IOCTL),
in which case the mapping would need to be specific to certain set of
parameters for a given interface.
626
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that
they completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for those
requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST. It is also important to note that since
the parameters, actions, and error messages associated with TSFIs must be
fully specified, the evaluator should be able to determine if all aspects of an
SFR appear to be implemented at the interface level.
ADV_FSP.3-11
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is an accurate instantiation of the SFRs.
627
For each functional requirement in the ST that results in effects visible at the
TSF boundary, the information in the associated TSFI for that requirement
specifies the required functionality described by the requirement. For
example, if the ST contains a requirement for access control lists, and the
only TSFI that map to that requirement specify functionality for Unix-style
protection bits, then the functional specification is not accurate with respect
to the requirements.
628
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that the
evaluator completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for
those requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST.
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11.4.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.4)
11.4.4.1
Objectives
629
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
completely described all of the TSFI in a manner such that the evaluator is
able to determine whether the TSFI are completely and accurately described,
and appears to implement the security functional requirements of the ST.
11.4.4.2
Input
630
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is required by the workunits is:
631
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design.
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is used if included in the
ST for the TOE is:
a)
the security architecture description;
b)
the implementation representation;
c)
the TSF internals description;
d)
the operational user guidance;
11.4.4.3
Application notes
632
The functional specification describes the interfaces to the TSF (the TSFI) in
a structured manner. Because of the dependency on Evaluation of subactivity (ADV_TDS.1), the evaluator is expected to have identified the TSF
prior to beginning work on this sub-activity. Without firm knowledge of
what comprises the TSF, it is not possible to assess the completeness of the
TSFI.
633
In performing the various work units included in this family, the evaluator is
asked to make assessments of accuracy and completeness of several factors
(the TSFI itself, as well as the individual components (parameters, actions,
error messages, etc.) of the TSFI). In doing this analysis, the evaluator is
expected to use the documentation provided for the evaluation. This includes
the ST, the TOE design, and may include other documentation such as the
operational user guidance, security architecture description, and
implementation representation. The documentation should be examined in an
iterative fashion. The evaluator may read, for example, in the TOE design
how a certain function is implemented, but see no way to invoke that
function from the interface. This might cause the evaluator to question the
completeness of a particular TSFI description, or whether an interface has
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been left out of the functional specification altogether. Describing analysis
activities of this sort in the ETR is a key method in providing rationale that
the work units have been performed appropriately.
634
It should be recognised that there exist functional requirements whose
functionality is manifested wholly or in part architecturally, rather than
through a specific mechanism. An example of this is the implementation of
mechanisms implementing the Residual information protection (FDP_RIP)
requirements. Such mechanisms typically are implemented to ensure a
behaviour isn't present, which is difficult to test and typically is verified
through analysis. In the cases where such functional requirements are
included in the ST, it is expected that the evaluator recognise that there may
be SFRs of this type that have no interfaces, and that this should not be
considered a deficiency in the functional specification.
11.4.4.4
Action ADV_FSP.4.1E
ADV_FSP.4.1C
The functional specification shall completely represent the TSF.
ADV_FSP.4-1
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the TSF is fully represented.
635
The identification of the TSFI is a necessary prerequisite to all other
activities in this sub-activity. The TSF must be identified (done as part of the
TOE design (ADV_TDS) work units) in order to identify the TSFI. This
activity can be done at a high level to ensure that no large groups of
interfaces have been missed (network protocols, hardware interfaces,
configuration files), or at a low level as the evaluation of the functional
specification proceeds.
636
In making an assessment for this work unit, the evaluator determines that all
portions of the TSF are addressed in terms of the interfaces listed in the
functional specification. All portions of the TSF should have a corresponding
interface description, or if there are no corresponding interfaces for a portion
of the TSF, the evaluator determines that that is acceptable.
ADV_FSP.4.2C
The functional specification shall describe the purpose and method of use
for all TSFI.
ADV_FSP.4-2
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
states the purpose of each TSFI.
637
The purpose of a TSFI is a general statement summarising the functionality
provided by the interface. It is not intended to be a complete statement of the
actions and results related to the interface, but rather a statement to help the
reader understand in general what the interface is intended to be used for.
The evaluator should not only determine that the purpose exists, but also that
it accurately reflects the TSFI by taking into account other information about
the interface, such as the description of actions and error messages.
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ADV_FSP.4-3
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the method of use for each TSFI is given.
638
The method of use for a TSFI summarises how the interface is manipulated
in order to invoke the actions and obtain the results associated with the TSFI.
The evaluator should be able to determine, from reading this material in the
functional specification, how to use each interface. This does not necessarily
mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for each TSFI, as it may
be possible to describe in general how kernel calls are invoked, for instance,
and then identify each interface using that general style. Different types of
interfaces will require different method of use specifications. APIs, network
protocol interfaces, system configuration parameters, and hardware bus
interfaces all have very different methods of use, and this should be taken
into account by the developer when developing the functional specification,
as well as by the evaluator evaluating the functional specification.
639
For administrative interfaces whose functionality is documented as being
inaccessible to untrusted users, the evaluator ensures that the method of
making the functions inaccessible is described in the functional specification.
It should be noted that this inaccessibility needs to be tested by the developer
in their test suite.
640
The evaluator should not only determine that the set of method of use
descriptions exist, but also that they accurately cover each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.4-4
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine the
completeness of the TSFI
641
The evaluator shall use the design documentation to identify the possible
types of interfaces. The evaluator shall search the design documentation and
the guidance documentation for potential TSFI not contained in the
developer's documentation, thus indicating that the set of TSFI defined by
the developer is incomplete. The evaluator shall examine the arguments
presented by the developer that the TSFI is complete and check down to the
lowest level of design or with the implementation representation that no
additional TSFI exist.
ADV_FSP.4.3C
The functional specification shall identify and describe all parameters
associated with each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.4-5
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely identifies all parameters associated with every TSFI.
642
The evaluator examines the functional specification to ensure that all of the
parameters are described for each TSFI. Parameters are explicit inputs or
outputs to an interface that control the behaviour of that interface. For
examples, parameters are the arguments supplied to an API; the various
fields in packet for a given network protocol; the individual key values in the
Windows Registry; the signals across a set of pins on a chip; etc.
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643
In order to determine that all of the parameters are present in the TSFI, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (actions, error
messages, etc.) to determine if the effects of the parameter are accounted for
in the description. The evaluator should also check other evidence provided
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.4-6
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all parameters associated with every
TSFI.
644
Once all of the parameters have been identified, the evaluator needs to ensure
that they are accurately described, and that the description of the parameters
is complete. A parameter description tells what the parameter is in some
meaningful way. For instance, the interface foo(i) could be described as
having “parameter i which is an integer”; this is not an acceptable parameter
description. A description such as “parameter i is an integer that indicates the
number of users currently logged in to the system” is much more acceptable.
645
In order to determine that the description of the parameters is complete, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (purpose,
method of use, actions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the descriptions
of the parameter(s) are accounted for in the description. The evaluator should
also check other evidence provided (e.g., TOE design, architectural design,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.4.4C
The functional specification shall describe all actions associated with each
TSFI.
ADV_FSP.4-7
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all actions associated with every TSFI.
646
The evaluator checks to ensure that all of the actions are described. actions
available through an interface describe what the interface does (as opposed to
the TOE design, which describes how the actions are provided by the TSF).
647
Actions of an interface describe functionality that can be invoked through the
interface, and can be categorised as regular actions, and SFR-related actions.
Regular actions are descriptions of what the interface does. The amount of
information provided for this description is dependant on the complexity of
the interface. The SFR-related actions are those that are visible at any
external interface (for instance, audit activity caused by the invocation of an
interface (assuming audit requirements are included in the ST) should be
described, even though the result of that action is generally not visible
through the invoked interface). Depending on the parameters of an interface,
there may be many different actions able to be invoked through the interface
(for instance, an API might have the first parameter be a “subcommand”, and
the following parameters be specific to that subcommand. The IOCTL API
in some Unix systems is an example of such an interface).
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648
In order to determine that the description of the actions of a TSFI is
complete, the evaluator should review the rest of the interface description
(parameter descriptions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the actions
described are accounted for. The evaluator should also analyse other
evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture
description, operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see
if there is evidence of actions that are described there but not in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.4.5C
The functional specification shall describe all direct error messages that
may result from an invocation of each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.4-8
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all errors messages resulting from an
invocation of each TSFI.
649
Errors can take many forms, depending on the interface being described. For
an API, the interface itself may return an error code; set a global error
condition, or set a certain parameter with an error code. For a configuration
file, an incorrectly configured parameter may cause an error message to be
written to a log file. For a hardware PCI card, an error condition may raise a
signal on the bus, or trigger an exception condition to the CPU.
650
Errors (and the associated error messages) come about through the
invocation of an interface. The processing that occurs in response to the
interface invocation may encounter error conditions, which trigger (through
an implementation-specific mechanism) an error message to be generated. In
some instances this may be a return value from the interface itself; in other
instances a global value may be set and checked after the invocation of an
interface. It is likely that a TOE will have a number of low-level error
messages that may result from fundamental resource conditions, such as
“disk full” or “resource locked”. While these error messages may map to a
large number of TSFI, they could be used to detect instances where detail
from an interface description has been omitted. For instance, a TSFI that
produces a “disk full” message, but has no obvious description of why that
TSFI should cause an access to the disk in its description of actions, might
cause the evaluator to examine other evidence (Security Architecture
(ADV_ARC), TOE design (ADV_TDS)) related that TSFI to determine if
the description is complete and accurate.
651
The evaluator determines that, for each TSFI, the exact set of error messages
that can be returned on invoking that interface can be determined. The
evaluator reviews the evidence provided for the interface to determine if the
set of errors seems complete. They cross-check this information with other
evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture
description, operational user guidance, implementation representation) to
ensure that there are no errors steaming from processing mentioned that are
not included in the functional specification.
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ADV_FSP.4-9
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes the meaning of all errors associated with
each TSFI.
652
In order to determine accuracy, the evaluator must be able to understand
meaning of the error. For example, if an interface returns a numeric code of
0, 1, or 2, the evaluator would not be able to understand the error if the
functional specification only listed: “possible errors resulting from
invocation of the foo() interface are 0, 1, or 2”. Instead the evaluator checks
to ensure that the errors are described such as: “possible errors resulting from
invocation of the foo() interface are 0 (processing successful), 1 (file not
found), or 2 (incorrect filename specification)”.
653
In order to determine that the description of the errors due to invoking a
TSFI is complete, the evaluator examines the rest of the interface description
(parameter descriptions, actions, etc.) to determine if potential error
conditions that might be caused by using such an interface are accounted for.
The evaluator also checks other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g.
TOE design, security architecture description, operational user guidance,
implementation representation) to see if error processing related to the TSFI
is described there but is not described in the functional specification.
ADV_FSP.4.6C
The tracing shall demonstrate that the SFRs trace to TSFIs in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.4-10
The evaluator shall check that the tracing links the SFRs to the
corresponding TSFIs.
654
The tracing is provided by the developer to serve as a guide to which SFRs
are related to which TSFIs. This tracing can be as simple as a table; it is used
as input to the evaluator for use in the following work units, in which the
evaluator verifies its completeness and accuracy.
11.4.4.5
Action ADV_FSP.4.2E
ADV_FSP.4-11
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is a complete instantiation of the SFRs.
655
To ensure that all SFRs are covered by the functional specification, as well
as the test coverage analysis, the evaluator may build upon the developer's
tracing (see ADV_FSP.4-10 a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TSFI. Note that this map may have to be at a level of
detail below the component or even element level of the requirements,
because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections) performed on
the functional requirement by the ST author.
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656
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 component contains an element with
assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the FDP_ACC.1
assignment, and these ten rules were covered by three different TSFI, it
would be inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 to TSFI A, B, and
C and claim they had completed the work unit. Instead, the evaluator would
map FDP_ACC.1 (rule 1) to TSFI A; FDP_ACC.1 (rule 2) to TSFI B; etc. It
might also be the case that the interface is a wrapper interface (e.g., IOCTL),
in which case the mapping would need to be specific to certain set of
parameters for a given interface.
657
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that
they completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for those
requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST. It is also important to note that since
the parameters, actions, and error messages associated with TSFIs must be
fully specified, the evaluator should be able to determine if all aspects of an
SFR appear to be implemented at the interface level.
ADV_FSP.4-12
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is an accurate instantiation of the SFRs.
658
For each functional requirement in the ST that results in effects visible at the
TSF boundary, the information in the associated TSFI for that requirement
specifies the required functionality described by the requirement. For
example, if the ST contains a requirement for access control lists, and the
only TSFI that map to that requirement specify functionality for Unix-style
protection bits, then the functional specification is not accurate with respect
to the requirements.
659
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that the
evaluator completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for
those requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST.
11.4.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.5)
11.4.5.1
Objectives
660
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
completely described all of the TSFI in a manner such that the evaluator is
able to determine whether the TSFI are completely and accurately described,
and appears to implement the security functional requirements of the ST. The
completeness of the interfaces is judged based upon the implementation
representation.
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11.4.5.2
Input
661
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is required by the workunits is:
662
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the implementation representation.
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity that is used if included in the
ST for the TOE is:
a)
the security architecture description;
b)
the TSF internals description;
c)
the formal security policy model;
d)
the operational user guidance;
11.4.5.3
Action ADV_FSP.5.1E
ADV_FSP.5.1C
The functional specification shall completely represent the TSF.
ADV_FSP.5-1
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the TSF is fully represented.
663
The identification of the TSFI is a necessary prerequisite to all other
activities in this sub-activity. The TSF must be identified (done as part of the
TOE design (ADV_TDS) work units) in order to identify the TSFI. This
activity can be done at a high level to ensure that no large groups of
interfaces have been missed (network protocols, hardware interfaces,
configuration files), or at a low level as the evaluation of the functional
specification proceeds.
664
In making an assessment for this work unit, the evaluator determines that all
portions of the TSF are addressed in terms of the interfaces listed in the
functional specification. All portions of the TSF should have a corresponding
interface description, or if there are no corresponding interfaces for a portion
of the TSF, the evaluator determines that that is acceptable.
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ADV_FSP.5.2C
The functional specification shall describe the TSFI using a semi-formal
style.
ADV_FSP.5-2
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is presented using a semiformal style.
665
A semi-formal presentation is characterised by a standardised format with a
well-defined syntax that reduces ambiguity that may occur in informal
presentations. Since the intent of the semi-formal format is to enhance the
reader's ability to understand the presentation, use of certain structured
presentation methods (pseudo-code, flow charts, block diagrams) are
appropriate, though not required.
666
For the purposes of this activity, the evaluator should ensure that the
interface descriptions are formatted in a structured, consistent manner and
use common terminology. A semiformal presentation of the interfaces also
implies that the level of detail of the presentation for the interfaces is largely
consistent across all TSFI. For the functional specification, it is acceptable to
refer to external specifications for portions of the interface as long as those
external specifications are themselves semiformal.
ADV_FSP.5.3C
The functional specification shall describe the purpose and method of use
for all TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-3
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
states the purpose of each TSFI.
667
The purpose of a TSFI is a general statement summarising the functionality
provided by the interface. It is not intended to be a complete statement of the
actions and results related to the interface, but rather a statement to help the
reader understand in general what the interface is intended to be used for.
The evaluator should not only determine that the purpose exists, but also that
it accurately reflects the TSFI by taking into account other information about
the interface, such as the description of actions and error messages.
ADV_FSP.5-4
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that
the method of use for each TSFI is given.
668
The method of use for a TSFI summarises how the interface is manipulated
in order to invoke the actions and obtain the results associated with the TSFI.
The evaluator should be able to determine, from reading this material in the
functional specification, how to use each interface. This does not necessarily
mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for each TSFI, as it may
be possible to describe in general how kernel calls are invoked, for instance,
and then identify each interface using that general style. Different types of
interfaces will require different method of use specifications. APIs, network
protocol interfaces, system configuration parameters, and hardware bus
interfaces all have very different methods of use, and this should be taken
into account by the developer when developing the functional specification,
as well as by the evaluator evaluating the functional specification.
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669
For administrative interfaces whose functionality is documented as being
inaccessible to untrusted users, the evaluator ensures that the method of
making the functions inaccessible is described in the functional specification.
It should be noted that this inaccessibility needs to be tested by the developer
in their test suite.
670
The evaluator should not only determine that the set of method of use
descriptions exist, but also that they accurately cover each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5.4C
The functional specification shall identify and describe all parameters
associated with each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-5
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely identifies all parameters associated with every TSFI.
671
The evaluator examines the functional specification to ensure that all of the
parameters are described for each TSFI. Parameters are explicit inputs or
outputs to an interface that control the behaviour of that interface. For
examples, parameters are the arguments supplied to an API; the various
fields in packet for a given network protocol; the individual key values in the
Windows Registry; the signals across a set of pins on a chip; etc.
672
In order to determine that all of the parameters are present in the TSFI, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (actions, error
messages, etc.) to determine if the effects of the parameter are accounted for
in the description. The evaluator should also check other evidence provided
for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture description,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
ADV_FSP.5-6
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all parameters associated with every
TSFI.
673
Once all of the parameters have been identified, the evaluator needs to ensure
that they are accurately described, and that the description of the parameters
is complete. A parameter description tells what the parameter is in some
meaningful way. For instance, the interface foo(i) could be described as
having “parameter i which is an integer”; this is not an acceptable parameter
description. A description such as “parameter i is an integer that indicates the
number of users currently logged in to the system”. is much more acceptable.
674
In order to determine that the description of the parameters is complete, the
evaluator should examine the rest of the interface description (purpose,
method of use, actions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the descriptions
of the parameter(s) are accounted for in the description. The evaluator should
also check other evidence provided (e.g., TOE design, architectural design,
operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see if behaviour
or additional parameters are described there but not in the functional
specification.
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ADV_FSP.5.5C
The functional specification shall describe all actions associated with each
TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-7
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all actions associated with every TSFI.
675
The evaluator checks to ensure that all of the actions are described. actions
available through an interface describe what the interface does (as opposed to
the TOE design, which describes how the actions are provided by the TSF).
676
actions of an interface describe functionality that can be invoked through the
interface, and can be categorised as regular actions, and SFR-related actions.
Regular actions are descriptions of what the interface does. The amount of
information provided for this description is dependant on the complexity of
the interface. The SFR-related actions are those that are visible at any
external interface (for instance, audit activity caused by the invocation of an
interface (assuming audit requirements are included in the ST) should be
described, even though the result of that action is generally not visible
through the invoked interface). Depending on the parameters of an interface,
there may be many different actions able to be invoked through the interface
(for instance, an API might have the first parameter be a “subcommand”, and
the following parameters be specific to that subcommand. The IOCTL API
in some Unix systems is an example of such an interface).
677
In order to determine that the description of the actions of a TSFI is
complete, the evaluator should review the rest of the interface description
(parameter descriptions, error messages, etc.) to determine if the actions
described are accounted for. The evaluator should also analyse other
evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture
description, operational user guidance, implementation representation) to see
if there is evidence of actions that are described there but not in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.5.6C
The functional specification shall describe all direct error messages that
may result from an invocation of each TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-8
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all errors messages resulting from an
invocation of each TSFI.
678
Errors can take many forms, depending on the interface being described. For
an API, the interface itself may return an error code; set a global error
condition, or set a certain parameter with an error code. For a configuration
file, an incorrectly configured parameter may cause an error message to be
written to a log file. For a hardware PCI card, an error condition may raise a
signal on the bus, or trigger an exception condition to the CPU.
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679
Errors (and the associated error messages) come about through the
invocation of an interface. The processing that occurs in response to the
interface invocation may encounter error conditions, which trigger (through
an implementation-specific mechanism) an error message to be generated. In
some instances this may be a return value from the interface itself; in other
instances a global value may be set and checked after the invocation of an
interface. It is likely that a TOE will have a number of low-level error
messages that may result from fundamental resource conditions, such as
“disk full” or “resource locked”. While these error messages may map to a
large number of TSFI, they could be used to detect instances where detail
from an interface description has been omitted. For instance, a TSFI that
produces a “disk full” message, but has no obvious description of why that
TSFI should cause an access to the disk in its description of actions, might
cause the evaluator to examine other evidence (ADV_ARC, ADV_TDS)
related that TSFI to determine if the description is complete and accurate.
680
The evaluator determines that, for each TSFI, the exact set of error messages
that can be returned on invoking that interface can be determined. The
evaluator reviews the evidence provided for the interface to determine if the
set of errors seems complete. They cross-check this information with other
evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., TOE design, security architecture
description, operational user guidance, implementation representation) to
ensure that there are no errors steaming from processing mentioned that are
not included in the functional specification.
ADV_FSP.5-9
The evaluator shall examine the presentation of the TSFI to determine that it
completely and accurately describes the meaning of all errors associated with
each TSFI.
681
In order to determine accuracy, the evaluator must be able to understand
meaning of the error. For example, if an interface returns a numeric code of
0, 1, or 2, the evaluator would not be able to understand the error if the
functional specification only listed: “possible errors resulting from
invocation of the foo() interface are 0, 1, or 2”. Instead the evaluator checks
to ensure that the errors are described such as: “possible errors resulting from
invocation of the foo() interface are 0 (processing successful), 1 (file not
found), or 2 (incorrect filename specification)”.
682
In order to determine that the description of the errors due to invoking a
TSFI is complete, the evaluator examines the rest of the interface description
(parameter descriptions, actions, etc.) to determine if potential error
conditions that might be caused by using such an interface are accounted for.
The evaluator also checks other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g.,
TOE design, security architecture description, operational user guidance,
implementation representation) to see if error processing related to the TSFI
is described there but is not described in the functional specification.
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ADV_FSP.5.7C
The functional specification shall describe all error messages that do not
result from an invocation of a TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-10
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
completely and accurately describes all errors messages that do not result
from an invocation of any TSFI.
683
This work unit complements work unit ADV_FSP.5-8, which describes
those error messages that result from an invocation of the TSFI. Taken
together, these work units cover all error messages that might be generated
by the TSF.
684
The evaluator assesses the completeness and accuracy of the functional
specification by comparing its contents to instances of error message
generation within the implementation representation. Most of these error
messages will have already been covered by work unit ADV_FSP.5-8.
685
The error messages related to this work unit are typically those that are not
expected to be generated, but are constructed as a matter of good
programming practises. For example, a case statement that defines actions
resulting from each of a list of cases may end with a final else statement to
apply to anything that might not be expected; this practise ensures the TSF
does not get into an undefined state. However, it is not expected that the path
of execution would ever get to this else statement; therefore, any error
message generation within this else statement would never be generated.
Although it would not get generated, it must still be included in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.5.8C
The functional specification shall provide a rationale for each error
message contained in the TSF implementation yet does not result from an
invocation of a TSFI.
ADV_FSP.5-11
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
provides a rationale for each error message contained in the TSF
implementation yet does not result from an invocation of a TSFI.
686
The evaluator ensures that every error message found under work unit
ADV_FSP.5-10 contains a rationale describing why it cannot be invoked
from the TSFI.
687
As was described in the previous work unit, this rationale might be as
straightforward as the fact that the error message in question is provided for
completeness of execution logic and that it is never expected to be generated.
The evaluator ensures that the rationale for each such error message is
logical.
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ADV_FSP.5.9C
The tracing shall demonstrate that the SFRs trace to TSFIs in the
functional specification.
ADV_FSP.5-12
The evaluator shall check that the tracing links the SFRs to the
corresponding TSFIs.
688
The tracing is provided by the developer to serve as a guide to which SFRs
are related to which TSFIs. This tracing can be as simple as a table; it is used
as input to the evaluator for use in the following work units, in which the
evaluator verifies its completeness and accuracy.
11.4.5.4
Action ADV_FSP.5.2E
ADV_FSP.5-13
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is a complete instantiation of the SFRs.
689
To ensure that all SFRs are covered by the functional specification, as well
as the test coverage analysis, the evaluator may build upon the developer's
tracing (see ADV_FSP.5-12 a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TSFI. Note that this map may have to be at a level of
detail below the component or even element level of the requirements,
because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections) performed on
the functional requirement by the ST author.
690
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 component contains an element with
assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the FDP_ACC.1
assignment, and these ten rules were covered by three different TSFI, it
would be inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 to TSFI A, B, and
C and claim they had completed the work unit. Instead, the evaluator would
map FDP_ACC.1 (rule 1) to TSFI A; FDP_ACC.1 (rule 2) to TSFI B; etc. It
might also be the case that the interface is a wrapper interface (e.g., IOCTL),
in which case the mapping would need to be specific to certain set of
parameters for a given interface.
691
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that
they completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for those
requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST. It is also important to note that since
the parameters, actions, and error messages associated with TSFIs must be
fully specified, the evaluator should be able to determine if all aspects of an
SFR appear to be implemented at the interface level.
ADV_FSP.5-14
The evaluator shall examine the functional specification to determine that it
is an accurate instantiation of the SFRs.
692
For each functional requirement in the ST that results in effects visible at the
TSF boundary, the information in the associated TSFI for that requirement
specifies the required functionality described by the requirement. For
example, if the ST contains a requirement for access control lists, and the
only TSFI that map to that requirement specify functionality for Unix-style
protection bits, then the functional specification is not accurate with respect
to the requirements.
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693
The evaluator must recognise that for requirements that have little or no
manifestation at the TSF boundary (e.g., FDP_RIP) it is not expected that the
evaluator completely map those requirements to the TSFI. The analysis for
those requirements will be performed in the analysis for the TOE design
(ADV_TDS) when included in the ST.
11.4.6
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.6)
694
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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11.5
Implementation representation (ADV_IMP)
11.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_IMP.1)
11.5.1.1
Objectives
695
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the implementation
representation made available by the developer is suitable for use in other
analysis activities; suitability is judged by its conformance to the
requirements for this component.
11.5.1.2
Input
696
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the implementation representation;
b)
the documentation of the development tools, as resulting from
ALC_TAT ;
c)
TOE design description.
11.5.1.3
Application notes
697
The entire implementation representation is made available to ensure that
analysis activities are not curtailed due to lack of information. This does not,
however, imply that all of the representation is examined when the analysis
activities are being performed. This is likely impractical in almost all cases,
in addition to the fact that it most likely will not result in a higher-assurance
TOE vs. targeted sampling of the implementation representation. For this
sub-activity, this is even truer. It would not be productive for the evaluator to
spend large amounts of time verifying the requirements for one portion of the
implementation representation, and then use a different portion of the
implementation representation in performing analysis for other work units.
Therefore, the evaluator is encouraged to select the sample of the
implementation representation from the areas of the TOE that will be of most
interest during the analysis performed during work units from other families
(e.g. ATE_IND, AVA_VAN and ADV_INT).
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11.5.1.4
Action ADV_IMP.1.1E
ADV_IMP.1.1C
The implementation representation shall define the TSF to a level of detail
such that the TSF can be generated without further design decisions.
ADV_IMP.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the implementation representation defines the
TSF to a level of detail such that the TSF can be generated without further
design decisions.
698
Source code or hardware diagrams and/or IC hardware design language code
or layout data that are used to build the actual hardware are examples of parts
of an implementation representation. The evaluator samples the
implementation representation to gain confidence that it is at the appropriate
level and not, for instance, a pseudo-code level which requires additional
design decisions to be made. The evaluator is encouraged to perform a quick
check when first looking at the implementation representation to assure
themselves that the developer is on the right track. However, the evaluator is
also encourage to perform the bulk of this check while working on other
work units that call for examining the implementation; this will ensure the
sample examined for this work unit is relevant.
ADV_IMP.1.2C
The implementation representation shall be in the form used by the
development personnel.
ADV_IMP.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the implementation representation is in the
form used by development personnel.
699
The implementation representation is manipulated by the developer in form
that it suitable for transformation to the actual implementation. For instance,
the developer may work with files containing source code, which is
eventually compiled to become part of the TSF. The developer makes
available the implementation representation in the form they use, so that the
evaluator may use automated techniques in the analysis. This also increases
the confidence that the implementation representation examined is actually
the one used in the production of the TSF (as opposed to the case where it is
supplied in an alternate presentation format, such as a word processor
document). It should be noted that other forms of the implementation
representation may also be used by the developer; these forms are supplied
as well. The overall goal is to supply the evaluator with the information that
will maximise the evaluator's analysis efforts.
700
The evaluator samples the implementation representation to gain confidence
that it is the version that is usable by the developer. The sample is such that
the evaluator has assurance that all areas of the implementation
representation are in conformance with the requirement; however, a
complete examination of the entire implementation representation is
unnecessary.
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701
Conventions in some forms of the implementation representation may make
it difficult or impossible to determine from just the implementation
representation itself what the actual result of the compilation or run-time
interpretation will be. For example, compiler directives for C language
compilers will cause the compiler to exclude or include entire portions of the
code.
702
Some forms of the implementation representation may require additional
information because they introduce significant barriers to understanding and
analysis. Examples include shrouded source code or source code that has
been obfuscated in other ways such that it prevents understanding and/or
analysis. These forms of implementation representation typically result from
by taking a version of the implementation representation that is used by the
TOE developer and running a shrouding or obfuscation program on it. While
the shrouded representation is what is compiled and may be closer to the
implementation (in terms of structure) than the original, un-shrouded
representation, supplying such obfuscated code may cause significantly more
time to be spent in analysis tasks involving the representation. When such
forms of representation are created, the components require details on the
shrouding tools/algorithms used so that the un-shrouded representation can
be supplied, and the additional information can be used to gain confidence
that the shrouding process does not compromise any security mechanisms.
703
The evaluator samples the implementation representation to gain confidence
that all of the information needed to interpret the implementation
representation has been supplied. Note that the tools are among those
referenced by Tools and techniques (ALC_TAT) components. The evaluator
is encouraged to perform a quick check when first looking at the
implementation representation to assure themselves that the developer is on
the right track. However, the evaluator is also encouraged to perform the
bulk of this check while working on other work units that call for examining
the implementation; this will ensure the sample examined for this work unit
is relevant.
ADV_IMP.1.3C
The mapping between the TOE design description and the sample of the
implementation representation shall demonstrate their correspondence.
ADV_IMP.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the mapping between the TOE design
description and the sample of the implementation representation to determine
that it is accurate.
704
The evaluator augments the determination of existence (specified in work
unit ADV_IMP.1-1) by verifying the accuracy of a portion of the
implementation representation and the TOE design description. For parts of
the TOE design description that are interesting, the evaluator would verify
the implementation representation accurately reflects the description
provided in the TOE design description.
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705
For example, the TOE design description might identify a login module that
is used to identify and authenticate users. If user authentication is sufficiently
significant, the evaluator would verify that the corresponding code in fact
implements that service as described in the TOE design description. It might
also be worthwhile to verify that the code accepts the parameters as
described in the functional specification.
706
It is worth pointing out the developer must choose whether to perform the
mapping for the entire implementation representation, thereby guaranteeing
that the chosen sample will be covered, or waiting for the sample to be
chosen before performing the mapping. The first option is likely more work,
but may be completed before the evaluation begins. The second option is less
work, but will produce a suspension of evaluation activity while the
necessary evidence is being produced.
11.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_IMP.2)
707
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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11.6
TSF internals (ADV_INT)
11.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.1)
11.6.1.1
Objectives
708
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the defined subset
of the TSF is designed and structured such that the likelihood of flaws is
reduced and that maintenance can be more readily performed without the
introduction of flaws.
11.6.1.2
Input
709
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE design description;
c)
the implementation representation (if ADV_IMP is part of the
claimed assurance);
d)
the architectural description;
e)
the documentation of the coding standards, as resulting from
ALC_TAT.
11.6.1.3
Application notes
710
The role of the internals description is to provide evidence of the structure of
the design and implementation of the TSF.
711
The structure of the design has two aspects: the constituent parts of the TSF
and the procedures used to design the TSF. In cases where the TSF is
designed in a manner consistent with the design represented by the TOE
design (see ADV_TDS), the assessment of the TSF design is obvious. In
cases where the design procedures (see ALC_TAT) are being followed, the
assessment of the TSF design procedures is similarly obvious.
712
In cases where the TSF is implemented using procedure-based software, this
structure is assessed on the basis of its modularity; the modules identified in
the internals description are the same as the modules identified in the TOE
design (TOE design (ADV_TDS)). A module consists of one or more source
code files that cannot be decomposed into smaller compilable units.
713
The use of the assignment in this component levies stricter constraints on the
subset of the TSF that is explicitly identified in the assignment
ADV_INT.1.1D than on the remainder of the TSF. While the entire TSF is to
be designed using good engineering principles and result in a well-structured
TSF, only the specified subset is specifically analysed for this characteristic.
The evaluator determines that the developer's application of coding standards
result in a TSF that is understandable.
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714
The primary goal of this component is to ensure the TSF subset's
implementation representation is understandable to facilitate maintenance
and analysis (of both the developer and evaluator).
11.6.1.4
Action ADV_INT.1.1E
ADV_INT.1.1C
The justification shall explain the characteristics used to judge the
meaning of “well-structured”.
ADV_INT.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the justification to determine that it identifies
the basis for determining whether the TSF is well-structured.
715
The evaluator verifies that the criteria for determining the characteristic of
being well-structured are clearly defined in the justification. Acceptable
criteria typically originate from industry standards for the technology
discipline. For example, procedural software that executes linearly is
traditionally viewed as well-structured if it adheres to software engineering
programming practises, such as those defined in the IEEE Standard (IEEE
Std 610.12-1990). For example, it would identify the criteria for the
procedural software portions of the TSF subset:
a)
the process used for modular decomposition
b)
coding standards used in the development of the implementation
c)
a description of the maximum acceptable level of intermodule
coupling exhibited by the TSF subset
d)
a description of the minimum acceptable level of cohesion exhibited
the modules of the TSF subset
716
For other types of technologies used in the TOE - such as non-procedural
software (e.g. object-oriented programming), widespread commodity
hardware (e.g. PC microprocessors), and special-purpose hardware (e.g.
smart-card processors) - the evaluator should seek guidance from the
evaluation authority for determining the adequacy of criteria for being “wellstructured”.
ADV_INT.1.2C
The TSF internals description shall demonstrate that the assigned subset
of the TSF is well-structured.
ADV_INT.1-2
The evaluator shall check the TSF internals description to determine that it
identifies the Assigned subset of the TSF.
717
This subset may be identified in terms of the internals of the TSF at any layer
of abstraction. For example, it may be in terms of the structural elements of
the TSF as identified in the TOE design (e.g. the audit subsystem), or in
terms of the implementation (e.g. encrypt.c and decrypt.c files, or the 6227
IC chip).
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718
It is insufficient to identify this subset in terms of the claimed SFRs (e.g. the
portion of the TSF that provide anonymity as defined in FPR_ANO.2)
because this does not indicate where to focus the analysis.
ADV_INT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the TSF internals description to determine that
it demonstrates that the assigned TSF subset is well-structured.
719
The evaluator examines the internals description to ensure that it provides a
sound explanation of how the TSF subset meets the criteria from
ADV_INT.1-1
720
For example, it would explain how the procedural software portions of the
TSF subset meets the following:
a)
that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the modules
identified in the TSF subset and the modules described in the TOE
design (ADV_TDS)
b)
how the TSF design is a reflection of the modular decomposition
process
c)
a justification for all instances where the coding standards were not
used or met
d)
a justification for any coupling or cohesion outside the acceptable
bounds
11.6.1.5
Action ADV_INT.1.2E
ADV_INT.1-4
The evaluator shall determine that the TOE design for the assigned TSF
subset is well-structured.
721
The evaluator examines a sample of the TOE design to verify the accuracy of
the justification. For example, a sample of the TOE design is analysed to
determine its adherence to the design standards, etc. As with all areas where
the evaluator performs activities on a subset the evaluator provides a
justification of the sample size and scope
722
The description of the TOE's decomposition into subsystems and modules
will make the argument that the TSF subset is well-structured self-evident.
Verification that the procedures for structuring the TSF (as examined in
ALC_TAT) are being followed will make it self-evident that the TSF subset
is well-structured.
ADV_INT.1-5
The evaluator shall determine that the assigned TSF subset is wellstructured.
723
If ADV_IMP is not part of the claimed assurance, then this work unit is not
applicable and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
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724
The evaluator examines a sample of the TSF subset to verify the accuracy of
the internals description. For example, a sample of the procedural software
portions of the TSF subset is analysed to determine its cohesion and
coupling, its adherence to the coding standards, etc. As with all areas where
the evaluator performs activities on a subset the evaluator provides a
justification of the sample size and scope.
11.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.2)
11.6.2.1
Objectives
725
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TSF is
designed and structured such that the likelihood of flaws is reduced and that
maintenance can be more readily performed without the introduction of
flaws.
11.6.2.2
Input
726
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the modular design description;
b)
the implementation representation (if ADV_IMP is part of the
claimed assurance));
c)
the TSF internals description;
d)
the documentation of the coding standards, as resulting from
ALC_TAT.
11.6.2.3
Application notes
727
The role of the internals description is to provide evidence of the structure of
the design and implementation of the TSF.
728
The structure of the design has two aspects: the constituent parts of the TSF
and the procedures used to design the TSF. In cases where the TSF is
designed in a manner consistent with the design represented by the TOE
design (see ADV_TDS), the assessment of the TSF design is obvious. In
cases where the design procedures (see ALC_TAT) are being followed, the
assessment of the TSF design procedures is similarly obvious.
729
In cases where the TSF is implemented using procedure-based software, this
structure is assessed on the basis of its modularity; the modules identified in
the internals description are the same as the modules identified in the TOE
design (TOE design (ADV_TDS)). A module consists of one or more source
code files that cannot be decomposed into smaller compilable units.
730
The primary goal of this component is to ensure the TSF's implementation
representation is understandable to facilitate maintenance and analysis (of
both the developer and evaluator).
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11.6.2.4
Action ADV_INT.2.1E
ADV_INT.2.1C
The justification shall describe the characteristics used to judge the
meaning of “well-structured”.
ADV_INT.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the justification to determine that it identifies
the basis for determining whether the TSF is well-structured.
731
The evaluator verifies that the criteria for determining the characteristic of
being well-structured are clearly defined in the justification. Acceptable
criteria typically originate from industry standards for the technology
discipline. For example, procedural software that executes linearly is
traditionally viewed as well-structured if it adheres to software engineering
programming practises, such as those defined in the IEEE Standard (IEEE
Std 610.12-1990). For example, it would identify the criteria for the
procedural software portions of the TSF:
732
a)
the process used for modular decomposition
b)
coding standards used in the development of the implementation
c)
a description of the maximum acceptable level of intermodule
coupling exhibited by the TSF
d)
a description of the minimum acceptable level of cohesion exhibited
the modules of the TSF
For other types of technologies used in the TOE - such as non-procedural
software (e.g. object-oriented programming), widespread commodity
hardware (e.g. PC microprocessors), and special-purpose hardware (e.g.
smart-card processors) - the evaluation authority should be consulted for
determining the adequacy of criteria for being “well-structured”.
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ADV_INT.2.2C
The TSF internals description shall demonstrate that the entire TSF is
well-structured.
ADV_INT.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the TSF internals description to determine that
it demonstrates that the TSF is well-structured.
733
The evaluator examines the internals description to ensure that it provides a
sound explanation of how the TSF meets the criteria from ADV_INT.2-1
734
For example, it would explain how the procedural software portions of the
TSF meet the following:
a)
that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the modules
identified in the TSF and the modules described in the TOE design
(ADV_TDS)
b)
how the TSF design is a reflection of the modular decomposition
process
c)
a justification for all instances where the coding standards were not
used or met
d)
a justification for any coupling or cohesion outside the acceptable
bounds
11.6.2.5
Action ADV_INT.2.2E
ADV_INT.2-3
The evaluator shall determine that the TOE design is well-structured.
735
The evaluator examines the TOE design of a sample of the TSF to verify the
accuracy of the justification. For example, a sample of the TOE design is
analysed to determine its adherence to the design standards, etc. As with all
areas where the evaluator performs activities on a subset the evaluator
provides a justification of the sample size and scope
736
The description of the TOE's decomposition into subsystems and modules
will make the argument that the TSF subset is well-structured self-evident.
Verification that the procedures for structuring the TSF (as examined in
ALC_TAT) are being followed will make it self-evident that the TSF subset
is well-structured.
ADV_INT.2-4
The evaluator shall determine that the TSF is well-structured.
737
If ADV_IMP is not part of the claimed assurance, then this work unit is not
applicable and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
738
The evaluator examines a sample of the TSF to verify the accuracy of the
internals description. For example, a sample of the procedural software
portions of the TSF is analysed to determine its cohesion and coupling, its
adherence to the coding standards, etc. As with all areas where the evaluator
performs activities on a subset the evaluator provides a justification of the
sample size and scope.
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11.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_INT.3)
739
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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11.7
Security policy modelling (ADV_SPM)
11.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_SPM.1)
740
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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11.8
TOE design (ADV_TDS)
11.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.1)
11.8.1.1
Input
741
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
security architecture description;
d)
the TOE design.
11.8.1.2
Action ADV_TDS.1.1E
ADV_TDS.1.1C
The design shall describe the structure of the TOE in terms of subsystems.
ADV_TDS.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the structure
of the entire TOE is described in terms of subsystems.
742
The evaluator ensures that all of the subsystems of the TOE are identified.
This description of the TOE will be used as input to work unit ADV_TDS.12, where the parts of the TOE that make up the TSF are identified. That is,
this requirement is on the entire TOE rather than on only the TSF.
743
The TOE (and TSF) may be described in multiple layers of abstraction (i.e.
subsystems and modules) Depending upon the complexity of the TOE, its
design may be described in terms of subsystems and modules, as described
in CC Part 3 Annex A.4, ADV_TDS: Subsystems and Modules. At this level
of assurance, the decomposition only need be at the “subsystem” level.
744
In performing this activity, the evaluator examines other evidence presented
for the TOE (e.g., ST, operator user guidance) to determine that the
description of the TOE in such evidence is consistent with the description
contained in the TOE design.
ADV_TDS.1.2C
The design shall identify all subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that all
subsystems of the TSF are identified.
745
In work unit ADV_TDS.1-1 all of the subsystems of the TOE were
identified, and a determination made that the non-TSF subsystems were
correctly characterised. Building on that work, the subsystems that were not
characterised as non-TSF subsystems should be precisely identified. The
evaluator determines that, of the hardware and software installed and
configured according to the Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) guidance,
each subsystem has been accounted for as either one that is part of the TSF,
or one that is not.
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ADV_TDS.1.3C
The design shall describe the behaviour of each SFR-supporting or SFRnon-interfering TSF subsystem in sufficient detail to determine that it is
not SFR-enforcing.
ADV_TDS.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that each SFRsupporting or SFR-non-interfering subsystem of the TSF is described such
that the evaluator can determine that the subsystem is SFR-supporting or
SFR-non-interfering.
746
SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering subsystems do not need to be
described in detail as to how they function in the system. However, the
evaluator makes a determination, based on the evidence provided by the
developer, that the subsystems that do not have high-level descriptions are
SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering. Note that if the developer provides a
uniform level of detailed documentation then this work unit will be largely
satisfied, since the point of categorising the subsystems is to allow the
developer to provide less information for SFR-supporting and SFR-noninterfering subsystems than for SFR-enforcing subsystems.
747
An SFR-supporting subsystem is one that is depended on by an SFRenforcing subsystem in order to implement an SFR, but does not play as
direct a role as an SFR-enforcing subsystem. An SFR-non-interfering
subsystem is one that is not depended upon, in either a supporting or
enforcing role, to implement an SFR.
ADV_TDS.1.4C
The design shall summarise the SFR-enforcing behaviour of the SFRenforcing subsystems.
ADV_TDS.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it provides a
complete, accurate, and high-level description of the SFR-enforcing
behaviour of the SFR-enforcing subsystems.
748
The developer may designate subsystems as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the subsystems have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the subsystems have the
appropriate information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and
to obtain the appropriate information from the developer should the
developer fail to provide the required information for a particular subsystem.
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749
SFR-enforcing behaviour refers to how a subsystem provides the
functionality that implements an SFR. A high-level description need not refer
to specific data structures (although it may), but instead talks about more
general data flow, message flow, and control relationships within a
subsystem. The goal of these descriptions is to give the evaluator enough
information to understand how the SFR-enforcing behaviour is achieved.
Note that the evaluator should find unacceptable asserts of SFR-enforcement
in the TOE design documentation for this work unit. It should be noted that it
is the evaluator's determination with respect to what “high-level” means for a
particular TOE, and the evaluator obtains enough information from the
developer to make a sound verdict for this work unit.
750
To determine completeness and accuracy, the evaluator examines other
information available (e.g., functional specification, security architecture
description, implementation representation). Descriptions of functionality in
these documents should be consistent with what is provided for evidence for
this work unit
ADV_TDS.1.5C
The design shall provide a description of the interactions among SFRenforcing subsystems of the TSF, and between the SFR-enforcing
subsystems of the TSF and other subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that interactions
between the subsystems of the TSF are described.
751
The goal of describing the interactions between the SFR-enforcing
subsystems and other subsystems is to help provide the reader a better
understanding of how the TSF performs it functions. These interactions do
not need to be characterised at the implementation level (e.g., parameters
passed from one routine in a subsystem to a routine in a different subsystem;
global variables; hardware signals (e.g., interrupts) from a hardware
subsystem to an interrupt-handling subsystem), but the data elements
identified for a particular subsystem that are going to be used by another
subsystem need to be covered in this discussion. Any control relationships
between subsystems (e.g., a subsystem responsible for configuring a rule
base for a firewall system and the subsystem that actually implements these
rules) should also be described.
752
The evaluators need to use their own judgement in assessing the
completeness of the description. If the reason for an interaction is unclear, or
if there are SFR-related interactions (discovered, for instance, in examining
the descriptions of subsystem behaviour) that do not appear to be described,
the evaluator ensures that this information is provided by the developer.
However, if the evaluator can determine that interactions among a particular
set of subsystems, while incompletely described by the developer, will not
aid in understanding the overall functionality nor security functionality
provided by the TSF, then the evaluator may choose to consider the
description sufficient, and not pursue completeness for its own sake.
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ADV_TDS.1.6C
The mapping shall demonstrate that all behaviour described in the TOE
design is mapped to the TSFIs that invoke it.
ADV_TDS.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it contains a
complete and accurate mapping from the TSFI described in the functional
specification to the subsystems of the TSF described in the TOE design.
753
The subsystems described in the TOE design provide a description of how
the TSF works at a detailed level for SFR-enforcing portions of the TSF, and
at a higher level for other portions of the TSF. The TSFI provide a
description of how the implementation is exercised. The evidence from the
developer identifies the subsystem that is initially involved when an
operation is requested at the TSFI, and identify the various subsystems that
are primarily responsible for implementing the functionality. Note that a
complete “call tree” for each TSFI is not required for this work unit.
754
The evaluator assesses the completeness of the mapping by ensuring that all
of the TSFI map to at least one subsystem. The verification of accuracy is
more complex.
755
The first aspect of accuracy is that each TSFI is mapped to a subsystem at the
TSF boundary. This determination can be made by reviewing the subsystem
description and interactions, and from this information determining its place
in the architecture. The next aspect of accuracy is that the mapping makes
sense. For instance, mapping a TSFI dealing with access control to a
subsystem that checks passwords is not accurate. The evaluator should again
use judgement in making this determination. The goal is that this information
aids the evaluator in understanding the system and implementation of the
SFRs, and ways in which entities at the TSF boundary can interact with the
TSF. The bulk of the assessment of whether the SFRs are described
accurately by the subsystems is performed in other work units.
11.8.1.3
Action ADV_TDS.1.2E
ADV_TDS.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE security functional requirements and
the TOE design, to determine that all ST security functional requirements are
covered by the TOE design.
756
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems. Note that this map may have to be at a
level of detail below the component or even element level of the
requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections)
performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
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757
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control component contains an
element with assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the
FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control assignment, and these ten rules were
implemented in specific places within fifteen modules, it would be
inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control to
one subsystem and claim the work unit had been completed. Instead, the
evaluator would map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 1) to
subsystem A, behaviours x, y, and z; FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control
(rule 2) to subsystem A, behaviours x, p, and q; etc.
ADV_TDS.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it is an
accurate instantiation of all security functional requirements.
758
The evaluator ensures that each security requirement listed in the TOE
security functional requirements section of the ST has a corresponding
design description in the TOE design that accurately details how the TSF
meets that requirement. This requires that the evaluator identify a collection
of subsystems that are responsible for implementing a given functional
requirement, and then examine those subsystems to understand how the
requirement is implemented. Finally, the evaluator would assess whether the
requirement was accurately implemented.
759
As an example, if the ST requirements specified a role-based access control
mechanism, the evaluator would first identify the subsystems that contribute
to this mechanism's implementation. This could be done by in-depth
knowledge or understanding of the TOE design or by work done in the
previous work unit. Note that this trace is only to identify the subsystems,
and is not the complete analysis.
760
The next step would be to understand what mechanism the subsystems
implemented. For instance, if the design described an implementation of
access control based on UNIX-style protection bits, the design would not be
an accurate instantiation of those access control requirements present in the
ST example used above. If the evaluator could not determine that the
mechanism was accurately implemented because of a lack of detail, the
evaluator would have to assess whether all of the SFR-enforcing subsystems
have been identified, or if adequate detail had been provided for those
subsystems.
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11.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.2)
11.8.2.1
Input
761
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
security architecture description;
d)
the TOE design.
11.8.2.2
Action ADV_TDS.2.1E
ADV_TDS.2.1C
The design shall describe the structure of the TOE in terms of subsystems.
ADV_TDS.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the structure
of the entire TOE is described in terms of subsystems.
762
The evaluator ensures that all of the subsystems of the TOE are identified.
This description of the TOE will be used as input to work unit ADV_TDS.22, where the parts of the TOE that make up the TSF are identified. That is,
this requirement is on the entire TOE rather than on only the TSF.
763
The TOE (and TSF) may be described in multiple layers of abstraction (i.e.
subsystems and modules) Depending upon the complexity of the TOE, its
design may be described in terms of subsystems and modules, as described
in CC Part 3 Annex A.4, ADV_TDS: Subsystems and Modules. At this level
of assurance, the decomposition only need be at the “subsystem” level.
764
In performing this activity, the evaluator examines other evidence presented
for the TOE (e.g., ST, operator user guidance) to determine that the
description of the TOE in such evidence is consistent with the description
contained in the TOE design.
ADV_TDS.2.2C
The design shall identify all subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that all
subsystems of the TSF are identified.
765
In work unit ADV_TDS.2-1 all of the subsystems of the TOE were
identified, and a determination made that the non-TSF subsystems were
correctly characterised. Building on that work, the subsystems that were not
characterised as non-TSF subsystems should be precisely identified. The
evaluator determines that, of the hardware and software installed and
configured according to the Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) guidance,
each subsystem has been accounted for as either one that is part of the TSF,
or one that is not.
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ADV_TDS.2.3C
The design shall describe the behaviour of each SFR non-interfering
subsystem of the TSF in detail sufficient to determine that it is SFR noninterfering.
ADV_TDS.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that each SFRnon-interfering subsystem of the TSF is described such that the evaluator can
determine that the subsystem is SFR-non-interfering.
766
SFR-non-interfering subsystems do not need to be described in detail as to
how they function in the system. However, the evaluator makes a
determination, based on the evidence provided by the developer, that the
subsystems that do not have detailed descriptions are SFR-non-interfering.
Note that if the developer provides a uniform level of detailed documentation
then this work unit will be largely satisfied, since the point of categorising
the subsystems is to allow the developer to provide less information for SFRnon-interfering subsystems than for SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting
subsystems.
767
An SFR-non-interfering subsystem is one on which the SFR-enforcing and
SFR-supporting subsystems have no dependence; that is, they play no role in
implementing SFR functionality.
ADV_TDS.2.4C
The design shall describe the SFR-enforcing behaviour of the SFRenforcing subsystems.
ADV_TDS.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it provides a
complete, accurate, and detailed description of the SFR-enforcing behaviour
of the SFR-enforcing subsystems.
768
The developer may designate subsystems as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the subsystems have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the subsystems have the
appropriate information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and
to obtain the appropriate information from the developer should the
developer fail to provide the required information for a particular subsystem.
769
SFR-enforcing behaviour refers to how a subsystem provides the
functionality that implements an SFR. While not at the level of an
algorithmic description, a detailed description of behaviour typically
discusses how the functionality is provided in terms of what key data and
data structures are, what control relationships exist within a subsystem, and
how these elements work together to provide the SFR-enforcing behaviour.
Such a description also references SFR-supporting behaviour, which the
evaluator should consider in performing subsequent work units.
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770
To determine completeness and accuracy, the evaluator examines other
information available (e.g., functional specification, security architecture
description, implementation representation). Descriptions of functionality in
these documents should be consistent with what is provided for evidence for
this work unit
ADV_TDS.2.5C
The design shall summarise the SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering
behaviour of the SFR-enforcing subsystems.
ADV_TDS.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it provides a
complete and accurate high-level description of the SFR-supporting and
SFR-non-interfering behaviour of the SFR-enforcing subsystems.
771
The developer may designate subsystems as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the subsystems have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the subsystems have the
appropriate information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and
to obtain the appropriate information from the developer should the
developer fail to provide the required information for a particular subsystem.
772
In contrast to the previous work unit, this work unit calls for the evaluator to
assess the information provided for SFR-enforcing subsystems that is SFRsupporting or SFR-non-interfering. The goal of this assessment is two-fold.
First, it should provide the evaluator greater understanding of the way each
subsystem works. Second, the evaluator determines that all SFR-enforcing
behaviour exhibited by a subsystem has been described. Unlike the previous
work unit, the information provided for the SFR-supporting or SFR-noninterfering behaviour does not have to be as detailed as that provided by the
SFR-enforcing behaviour. For example, data structures or data items that do
not pertain to SFR-enforcing functionality will likely not need to be
described in detail, if at all. It is the evaluator's determination, however, with
respect to what “high-level” means for a particular TOE, and the evaluator
obtains enough information from the developer (even if it turns out to be
equivalent to information provided for the parts of the subsystem that are
SFR-enforcing) to make a sound verdict for this work unit.
773
The evaluator is cautioned, however, that “perfect” assurance is not a goal
nor required by this work unit, so judgement will have to be exercised in
determine the amount and composition of the evidence required to make a
verdict on this work unit.
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774
To determine completeness and accuracy, the evaluator examines other
information available (e.g., functional specification, security architecture
description, implementation representation). Descriptions of functionality in
these documents should be consistent with what is provided for evidence for
this work unit. In particular, the functional specification should be used to
determine that the behaviour required to implement the TSF Interfaces
described by the functional specification are completely described by the
subsystem, since the behaviour will either be SFR-enforcing, SFRsupporting or SFR-non-interfering.
ADV_TDS.2.6C
The design shall summarise the behaviour of the SFR-supporting
subsystems.
ADV_TDS.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it provides a
complete and accurate high-level description of the behaviour of the SFRsupporting subsystems.
775
The developer may designate subsystems as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the subsystems have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the subsystems have the
appropriate information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and
to obtain the appropriate information from the developer should the
developer fail to provide the required information for a particular subsystem.
776
In contrast to the previous two work units, this work unit calls for the
developer to provide (and the evaluator to assess) information about SFR
supporting subsystems. Such subsystems should be referenced by the
descriptions of the SFR-enforcing subsystems, as well as by the descriptions
of interactions in work unit ADV_TDS.2-7. The goal of evaluator's
assessment, like that for the previous work unit, is two-fold. First, it should
provide the evaluator with an understanding of the way each SFR-supporting
subsystem works. Second, the evaluator determines that the behaviour is
described in enough detail so that the way in which the subsystem supports
the SFR-enforcing behaviour is clear, and that the behaviour is not itself
SFR-enforcing. The information provided for SFR-supporting subsystem's
behaviour does not have to be as detailed as that provided by the SFRenforcing behaviour. For example, data structures or data items that do not
pertain to SFR-enforcing functionality will likely not need to be described in
detail, if at all. It is the evaluator's determination, however, with respect to
what “high-level” means for a particular TOE, and the evaluator obtains
enough information from the developer (even if it turns out to be equivalent
to information provided for the parts of the subsystem that are SFRenforcing) to make a sound verdict for this work unit.
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777
The evaluator is cautions, however, that “perfect” assurance is not a goal nor
required by this work unit, so judgement will have to be exercised in
determine the amount and composition of the evidence required to make a
verdict on this work unit.
778
To determine completeness and accuracy, the evaluator examines other
information available (e.g., functional specification, security architecture
description, implementation representation). Descriptions of functionality in
these documents should be consistent with what is provided for evidence for
this work unit. In particular, the functional specification should be used to
determine that the behaviour required to implement the TSF Interfaces
described by the functional specification are completely described by the
subsystem.
ADV_TDS.2.7C
The design shall provide a description of the interactions among all
subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that interactions
between the subsystems of the TSF are described.
779
The goal of describing the interactions between the subsystems is to help
provide the reader a better understanding of how the TSF performs it
functions. These interactions do not need to be characterised at the
implementation level (e.g., parameters passed from one routine in a
subsystem to a routine in a different subsystem; global variables; hardware
signals (e.g., interrupts) from a hardware subsystem to an interrupt-handling
subsystem), but the data elements identified for a particular subsystem that
are going to be used by another subsystem need to be covered in this
discussion. Any control relationships between subsystems (e.g., a subsystem
responsible for configuring a rule base for a firewall system and the
subsystem that actually implements these rules) should also be described.
780
It should be noted while the developer should characterise all interactions
between subsystems, the evaluators need to use their own judgement in
assessing the completeness of the description. If the reason for an interaction
is unclear, or if there are SFR-related interactions (discovered, for instance,
in examining the descriptions of subsystem behaviour) that do not appear to
be described, the evaluator ensures that this information is provided by the
developer. However, if the evaluator can determine that interactions among a
particular set of subsystems, while incompletely described by the developer,
will not aid in understanding the overall functionality nor security
functionality provided by the TSF, then the evaluator may choose to consider
the description sufficient, and not pursue completeness for its own sake.
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ADV_TDS.2.8C
The mapping shall demonstrate that all behaviour described in the TOE
design is mapped to the TSFIs that invoke it.
ADV_TDS.2-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it contains a
complete and accurate mapping from the TSFI described in the functional
specification to the subsystems of the TSF described in the TOE design.
781
The subsystems described in the TOE design provide a description of how
the TSF works at a detailed level for SFR-enforcing portions of the TSF, and
at a higher level for other portions of the TSF. The TSFI provide a
description of how the implementation is exercised. The evidence from the
developer identifies the subsystem that is initially involved when an
operation is requested at the TSFI, and identify the various subsystems that
are primarily responsible for implementing the functionality. Note that a
complete “call tree” for each TSFI is not required for this work unit.
782
The evaluator assesses the completeness of the mapping by ensuring that all
of the TSFI map to at least one subsystem. The verification of accuracy is
more complex.
783
The first aspect of accuracy is that each TSFI is mapped to a subsystem at the
TSF boundary. This determination can be made by reviewing the subsystem
description and interactions, and from this information determining its place
in the architecture. The next aspect of accuracy is that the mapping makes
sense. For instance, mapping a TSFI dealing with access control to a
subsystem that checks passwords is not accurate. The evaluator should again
use judgement in making this determination. The goal is that this information
aids the evaluator in understanding the system and implementation of the
SFRs, and ways in which entities at the TSF boundary can interact with the
TSF. The bulk of the assessment of whether the SFRs are described
accurately by the subsystems is performed in other work units.
11.8.2.3
Action ADV_TDS.2.2E
ADV_TDS.2-9
The evaluator shall examine the TOE security functional requirements and
the TOE design, to determine that all ST security functional requirements are
covered by the TOE design.
784
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems. Note that this map may have to be at a
level of detail below the component or even element level of the
requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements, selections)
performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
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785
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control component contains an
element with assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the
FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control assignment, and these ten rules were
implemented in specific places within fifteen modules, it would be
inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control to
one subsystem and claim the work unit had been completed. Instead, the
evaluator would map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 1) to
subsystem A, behaviours x, y, and z; FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control
(rule 2) to subsystem A, behaviours x, p, and q; etc.
ADV_TDS.2-10
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it is an
accurate instantiation of all security functional requirements.
786
The evaluator ensures that each security requirement listed in the TOE
security functional requirements section of the ST has a corresponding
design description in the TOE design that accurately details how the TSF
meets that requirement. This requires that the evaluator identify a collection
of subsystems that are responsible for implementing a given functional
requirement, and then examine those subsystems to understand how the
requirement is implemented. Finally, the evaluator would assess whether the
requirement was accurately implemented.
787
As an example, if the ST requirements specified a role-based access control
mechanism, the evaluator would first identify the subsystems that contribute
to this mechanism's implementation. This could be done by in-depth
knowledge or understanding of the TOE design or by work done in the
previous work unit. Note that this trace is only to identify the subsystems,
and is not the complete analysis.
788
The next step would be to understand what mechanism the subsystems
implemented. For instance, if the design described an implementation of
access control based on UNIX-style protection bits, the design would not be
an accurate instantiation of those access control requirements present in the
ST example used above. If the evaluator could not determine that the
mechanism was accurately implemented because of a lack of detail, the
evaluator would have to assess whether all of the SFR-enforcing subsystems
have been identified, or if adequate detail had been provided for those
subsystems.
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11.8.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.3)
11.8.3.1
Objectives
789
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE design
provides a description of the TOE in terms of subsystems sufficient to
determine the TSF boundary, and provides a description of the TSF internals
in terms of modules (and optionally higher-level abstractions). It provides a
detailed description of the SFR-enforcing modules and enough information
about the SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering modules for the evaluator
to determine that the SFRs are completely and accurately implemented; as
such, the TOE design provides an explanation of the implementation
representation.
11.8.3.2
Input
790
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
security architecture description;
d)
the TOE design.
11.8.3.3
Application notes
791
There are three types of activity that the evaluator must undertake with
respect to the TOE design. First, the evaluator determines that the TSF
boundary has been adequately described. Second, the evaluator determines
that the developer has provided documentation that conforms to the content
and presentation requirements for this subsystem, and that is consistent with
other documentation provided for the TOE. Finally, the evaluator must
analyse the design information provided for the SFR-enforcing modules (at a
detailed level) and the SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering modules (at
a less detailed level) to understand how the system is implemented, and with
that knowledge ensure that the TSFI in the functional specification are
adequately described, and that the test information adequately tests the TSF
(done in the Class ATE: Tests work units).
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792
It is important to note that while the developer is obligated to provide a
complete description of the TSF (although SFR-enforcing modules will have
more detail than the SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering modules), the
evaluator is expected to use their judgement in performing their analysis.
While the evaluator is expected to look at every module, the detail to which
they examine each module may vary. The evaluator analyses each module in
order to gain enough understanding to determine the effect of the
functionality of the module on the security of the system, and the depth to
which they need to analyse the module may vary depending on the module's
role in the system. An important aspect of this analysis is that the evaluator
should use the other documentation provided (TSS, functional specification,
security architecture description, and the TSF internal document) in order to
determine that the functionality that is described is correct, and that the
implicit designation of SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering modules (see
below) is supported by their role in the system architecture.
793
The developer may designate modules as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the modules have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the modules have the appropriate
information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and to obtain the
appropriate information from the developer should the developer fail to
provide the required information for a particular module.
11.8.3.4
Action ADV_TDS.3.1E
ADV_TDS.3.1C
The design shall describe the structure of the TOE in terms of subsystems.
ADV_TDS.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the structure
of the entire TOE is described in terms of subsystems.
794
The evaluator ensures that all of the subsystems of the TOE are identified.
This description of the TOE will be used as input to work unit ADV_TDS.32, where the parts of the TOE that make up the TSF are identified. That is,
this requirement is on the entire TOE rather than on only the TSF.
795
The TOE (and TSF) may be described in multiple layers of abstraction (i.e.
subsystems and modules). Depending upon the complexity of the TOE, its
design may be described in terms of subsystems and modules, as described
in CC Part 3 Annex A.4, ADV_TDS: Subsystems and Modules. For a very
simple TOE that can be described solely at the “module” level (see
ADV_TDS.3-2), this work unit is not applicable and therefore considered to
be satisfied.
796
In performing this activity, the evaluator examines other evidence presented
for the TOE (e.g., ST, operator user guidance) to determine that the
description of the TOE in such evidence is consistent with the description
contained in the TOE design.
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ADV_TDS.3.2C
The design shall describe the TSF in terms of modules.
ADV_TDS.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the entire
TSF is described in terms of modules.
797
The evaluator will examine the modules for specific properties in other work
units; in this work unit the evaluator determines that the modular description
covers the entire TSF, and not just a portion of the TSF. The evaluator uses
other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., functional specification,
security architecture description) in making this determination. For example,
if the functional specification contains interfaces to functionality that does
not appear to be described in the TOE design description, it may be the case
that a portion of the TSF has not been included appropriately. Making this
determination will likely be an iterative process, where as more analysis is
done on the other evidence, more confidence can be gained with respect to
the completeness of the documentation.
798
Unlike subsystems, modules describe the implementation in a level of detail
that can serve as a guide to reviewing the implementation representation. A
description of a module should be such that one could create an
implementation of the module from the description, and the resulting
implementation would be 1) identical to the actual TSF implementation in
terms of the interfaces presented and used by the module, and 2)
algorithmically identical to the TSF module. For instance, RFC 793 provides
a high-level description of the TCP protocol. It is necessarily implementation
independent. While it provides a wealth of detail, it is not a suitable design
description because it is not specific to an implementation. An actual
implementation can add to the protocol specified in the RFC, and
implementation choices (for instance, the use of global data vs. local data in
various parts of the implementation) may have an impact on the analysis that
is performed. The design description of the TCP module would list the
interfaces presented by the implementation (rather than just those defined in
RFC 793), as well as an algorithm description of the processing associated
with the modules implementing TCP (assuming it was part of the TSF).
ADV_TDS.3.3C
The design shall identify all subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that all
subsystems of the TSF are identified.
799
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then subsystems in
these requirements are equivalent to modules and the activity should be
performed at the module level.
800
In work unit ADV_TDS.3-1 all of the subsystems of the TOE were
identified, and a determination made that the non-TSF subsystems were
correctly characterised. Building on that work, the subsystems that were not
characterised as non-TSF subsystems should be precisely identified. The
evaluator determines that, of the hardware and software installed and
configured according to the Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) guidance,
each subsystem has been accounted for as either one that is part of the TSF,
or one that is not.
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ADV_TDS.3.4C
The design shall provide a description of each subsystem of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that each
subsystem of the TSF describes its role in the enforcement of SFRs described
in the ST.
801
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit will
be considered satisfied by the assessment done in subsequent work units; no
explicit action on the part of the evaluator is necessary in this case.
802
On systems that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level
description of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the goal of the
subsystem-level description is to give the evaluator context for the modular
description that follows. Therefore, the evaluator ensures that the subsystemlevel description contains a description of how the security functional
requirements are achieved in the design, but at a level of abstraction above
the modular description. This description should discuss the mechanisms
used at a level that is aligned with the module description; this will provide
the evaluators the road map needed to intelligently assess the information
contained in the module description. A well-written set of subsystem
descriptions will help guide the evaluator in determining the modules that are
most important to examine, thus focusing the evaluation activity on the
portions of the TSF that have the most relevance with respect to the
enforcement of the SFRs.
803
The evaluator ensures that all subsystems of the TSF have a description.
While the description should focus on the role that the subsystem plays in
enforcing or supporting the implementation of the SFRs, enough information
must be present so that a context for understanding the SFR-related
functionality is provided.
ADV_TDS.3.5C
The design shall provide a description of the interactions among all
subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that interactions
between the subsystems of the TSF are described.
804
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit will
be considered satisfied by the assessment done in subsequent work units; no
explicit action on the part of the evaluator is necessary in this case.
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805
On systems that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level
description of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the goal of
describing the interactions between the subsystems is to help provide the
reader a better understanding of how the TSF performs its functions. These
interactions do not need to be characterised at the implementation level (e.g.,
parameters passed from one routine in a subsystem to a routine in a different
subsystem; global variables; hardware signals (e.g., interrupts) from a
hardware subsystem to an interrupt-handling subsystem), but the data
elements identified for a particular subsystem that are going to be used by
another subsystem should be covered in this discussion. Any control
relationships between subsystems (e.g., a subsystem responsible for
configuring a rule base for a firewall system and the subsystem that actually
implements these rules) should also be described.
806
It should be noted while the developer should characterise all interactions
between subsystems, the evaluators need to use their own judgement in
assessing the completeness of the description. If the reason for an interaction
is unclear, or if there are SFR-related interactions (discovered, for instance,
in examining the module-level documentation) that do not appear to be
described, the evaluator ensures that this information is provided by the
developer. However, if the evaluator can determine that interactions among a
particular set of subsystems, while incompletely described by the developer,
and a complete description will not aid in understanding the overall
functionality nor security functionality provided by the TSF, then the
evaluator may choose to consider the description sufficient, and not pursue
completeness for its own sake.
ADV_TDS.3.6C
The design shall provide a mapping from the subsystems of the TSF to the
modules of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the mapping
between the subsystems of the TSF and the modules of the TSF is complete.
807
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit is
considered satisfied.
808
For TOEs that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level description
of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the developer provides a
simple mapping showing how the modules of the TSF are allocated to the
subsystems. This will provide the evaluator a guide in performing their
module-level assessment. To determine completeness, the evaluator
examines each mapping and determines that all subsystems map to at least
one module, and that all modules map to exactly one subsystem.
ADV_TDS.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the mapping
between the subsystems of the TSF and the modules of the TSF is accurate.
809
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit is
considered satisfied.
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810
For TOEs that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level description
of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the developer provides a
simple mapping showing how the modules of the TSF are allocated to the
subsystems. This will provide the evaluator a guide in performing their
module-level assessment. The evaluator may choose to check the accuracy of
the mapping in conjunction with performing other work units. An
“inaccurate” mapping is one where the module is mistakenly associated with
a subsystem where its functions are not used within the subsystem. Because
the mapping is intended to be a guide supporting more detailed analysis, the
evaluator is cautioned to apply appropriate effort to this work unit.
Expending extensive evaluator resources verifying the accuracy of the
mapping is not necessary. Inaccuracies that lead to mis-understandings
related to the design that are uncovered as part of this or other work units are
the ones that should be associated with this work unit and corrected.
ADV_TDS.3.7C
The design shall describe each SFR-enforcing module in terms of its
purpose and interaction with other modules.
ADV_TDS.3-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the purpose of each SFR-enforcing module is complete and
accurate.
811
The developer may designate modules as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the modules have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the modules have the appropriate
information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and to obtain the
appropriate information from the developer should the developer fail to
provide the required information for a particular module.
812
The purpose of a module provides a description indicating what function the
module is fulfilling. A word of caution to evaluator is in order. The focus of
this work unit should be to provide the evaluator an understanding of how
the module works so that determinations can be made about the soundness of
the implementation of the SFRs, as well as to support architectural analysis
performed for ADV_ARC component. As long as the evaluator has a sound
understanding of the module's operation, and its relationship to other
modules and the TOE as a whole, the evaluator should consider the objective
of the work achieved and not engage in a documentation exercise for the
developer (by requiring, for example, a complete algorithmic description for
a self-evident implementation representation).
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ADV_TDS.3.8C
The design shall describe each SFR-enforcing module in terms of its SFRrelated interfaces, return values from those interfaces, interaction with and
called interfaces to other modules.
ADV_TDS.3-9
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the interfaces presented by each SFR-enforcing module
contain an accurate and complete description of the SFR-related parameters,
the invocation conventions for each interface, and any values returned
directly by the interface.
813
The SFR-related interfaces of a module are those interfaces used by other
modules as a means to invoke the SFR-related operations provided, and to
provide inputs to or receive outputs from the module. The purpose in the
specification of these interfaces is to permit the exercise of them during
testing. Inter-module interfaces that are not SFR-related need not be
specified or described, since they are not a factor in testing. Likewise, other
internal interfaces that are not a factor in traversing SFR-related paths of
execution (such as those internal paths that are fixed) need not be specified
or described, since they are not a factor in testing.
814
SFR-related interfaces are described in terms of how they are invoked, and
any values that are returned. This description would include a list of SFRrelated parameters, and descriptions of these parameters. Note that global
data would also be considered parameters if used by the module (either as
inputs or outputs) when invoked. If a parameter were expected to take on a
set of values (e.g., a “flag” parameter), the complete set of values the
parameter could take on that would have an effect on module processing
would be specified. Likewise, parameters representing data structures are
described such that each field of the data structure is identified and
described. Note that different programming languages may have additional
“interfaces” that would be non-obvious; an example would be
operator/function overloading in C++. This “implicit interface” in the class
description would also be described as part of the low-level TOE design.
Note that although a module could present only one interface, it is more
common that a module presents a small set of related interfaces.
815
In terms of the assessment of parameters (inputs and outputs) to a module,
any use of global data must also be considered. A module “uses” global data
if it either reads or writes the data. In order to assure the description of such
parameters (if used) is complete, the evaluator uses other information
provided about the module in the TOE design (interfaces, algorithmic
description, etc.), as well as the description of the particular set of global data
assessed in work unit ADV_TDS.3-9. For instance, the evaluator could first
determine the processing the module performs by examining its function and
interfaces presented (particularly the parameters of the interfaces). They
could then check to see if the processing appears to “touch” any of the global
data areas identified in the TOE design. The evaluator then determines that,
for each global data area that appears to be “touched”, that global data area is
listed as a means of input or output by the module the evaluator is
examining.
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816
Invocation conventions are a programming-reference-type description that
one could use to correctly invoke a module's interface if one were writing a
program to make use of the module's functionality through that interface.
This includes necessary inputs and outputs, including any set-up that may
need to be performed with respect to global variables.
817
Values returned through the interface refer to values that are either passed
through parameters or messages; values that the function call itself returns in
the style of a “C” program function call; or values passed through global
means (such as certain error routines in *ix-style operating systems).
818
In order to assure the description is complete, the evaluator uses other
information provided about the module in the TOE design (e.g., algorithmic
description, global data used) to ensure that it appears all data necessary for
performing the functions of the module is presented to the module, and that
any values that other modules expect the module under examination to
provide are identified as being returned by the module. The evaluator
determines accuracy by ensuring that the description of the processing
matches the information listed as being passed to or from an interface.
819
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the TSF internals, or
the security architecture description. However, the evaluator uses the
information present in those documents to the extent possible to help ensure
that the purpose is accurately and completely described. This analysis can be
aided by the analysis performed for the work units for the ADV_TDS.3.10C
element, which maps the TSFI in the functional specification to the modules
of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.3.9C
The design shall describe each SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering
module in terms of its purpose and interaction with other modules.
ADV_TDS.3-10
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that SFRsupporting and SFR-non-interfering modules are correctly categorised.
820
In the cases where the developer has provided different amounts of
information for different modules, an implicit categorisation has been done.
That is, modules (for instance) with detail presented on their SFR-related
interfaces (see ADV_TDS.3.10C) are candidate SFR-enforcing modules,
although examination by the evaluator may lead to a determination that some
set of them are SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering. Those with only a
description of their purpose and interaction with other modules (for instance)
are “implicitly categorised” as SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering.
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821
In these cases, a key focus of the evaluator for this work unit is attempting to
determine from the evidence provided for each module implicitly categorised
as SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering and the evaluation information
about other modules (in the TOE design, the functional specification, the
security architecture description, and the operational user guidance), whether
the module is indeed SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering. At this level of
assurance some error should be tolerated; the evaluator does not have to be
absolutely sure that a given module is SFR-supporting or SFR-noninterfering, even though it is labelled as such. However, if the evidence
provided indicates that a SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering module is
SFR-enforcing, the evaluator requests additional information from the
developer in order to resolve the apparent inconsistency. For instance,
suppose the documentation for Module A (an SFR-enforcing module)
indicates that it calls Module B to perform an access check on a certain type
of construct. When the evaluator examines the information associated with
Module B, they find that all the developer has provided is a purpose and a set
of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module B as SFR-supporting or
SFR-non-interfering). On examining the purpose and interactions from
Module A, the evaluator finds no mention of Module B performing any
access checks, and Module A is not listed as a module with which Module B
interacts. At this point the evaluator should approach the developer to resolve
the discrepancies between the information provided in Module A and that in
Module B.
822
Another example would be where the evaluator examines the mapping of the
TSFI to the modules as provided by ADV_TDS.3.2D. This examination
shows that Module C is associated with an SFR requiring identification of
the user. Again, when the evaluator examines the information associated
with Module C, they find that all the developer has provided is a purpose and
a set of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module C as SFRsupporting or SFR-non-interfering). Examining the purpose and interactions
presented for Module C, the evaluator is unable to determine why Module C,
listed as mapping to a TSFI concerned with user identification, would not be
classified as SFR-enforcing. Again, the evaluator should approach the
developer to resolve this discrepancy.
823
A final example is from the opposite point of view. As before, the developer
has provided information associated with Module D consisting of a purpose
and a set of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module D as SFRsupporting or SFR-non-interfering). The evaluator examines all of the
evidence provided, including the purpose and interactions for Module D. The
purpose appears to give a meaningful description of Module D's function in
the TOE, the interactions are consistent with that description, and there is
nothing to indicate that Module D is SFR-enforcing. In this case, the
evaluator should not demand more information about Module D “just be to
sure” it is correctly categorised. The developer has met their obligations and
the resulting assurance the evaluator has in the implicit categorisation of
Module D is (by definition) appropriate for this assurance level.
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ADV_TDS.3-11
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the purpose of each SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering
module is complete and accurate.
824
The description of the purpose of a module indicates what function the
module is fulfilling. From the description, the evaluator should be able to
obtain a general idea of the module's role. In order to assure the description
is complete, the evaluator uses the information provided about the module's
interactions with other modules to assess whether the reasons for the module
being called are consistent with the module's purpose. If the interaction
description contains functionality that is not apparent from, or in conflict
with, the module's purpose, the evaluator needs to determine whether the
problem is one of accuracy or of completeness. The evaluator should be wary
of purposes that are too short, since meaningful analysis based on a onesentence purpose is likely to be impossible.
825
In these cases, a key focus of the evaluator for this work unit is attempting to
determine from the evidence provided for each module implicitly categorised
as SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering and the evaluation information
about other modules (in the TOE design, the functional specification, the
security architecture description, and the operational user guidance), whether
the module is indeed SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering. At this level of
assurance some error should be tolerated; the evaluator does not have to be
absolutely sure that a given module is SFR-supporting or SFR-noninterfering, even though it is labelled as such. However, if the evidence
provided indicates that a SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering module is
SFR-enforcing, the evaluator requests additional information from the
developer in order to resolve the apparent inconsistency. For instance,
suppose the documentation for Module A (an SFR-enforcing module)
indicates that it calls Module B to perform an access check on a certain type
of construct. When the evaluator examines the information associated with
Module B, they find that all the developer has provided is a purpose and a set
of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module B as SFR-supporting or
SFR-non-interfering). On examining the purpose and interactions from
Module A, the evaluator finds no mention of Module B performing any
access checks, and Module A is not listed as a module with which Module B
interacts. At this point the evaluator should approach the developer to resolve
the discrepancies between the information provided in Module A and that in
Module B.
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ADV_TDS.3-12
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of a SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering module's interaction
with other modules is complete and accurate.
826
It is important to note that, in terms of the Part 3 requirement and this work
unit, the term interaction is intended to convey less rigour than interface. An
interaction does not need to be characterised at the implementation level
(e.g., parameters passed from one routine in a module to a routine in a
different module; global variables; hardware signals (e.g., interrupts) from a
hardware subsystem to an interrupt-handling subsystem), but the data
elements identified for a particular module that are going to be used by
another module should be covered in this discussion. Any control
relationships between modules (e.g., a module responsible for configuring a
rule base for a firewall system and the module that actually implements these
rules) should also be described.
827
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the security
architecture description, or the TSF internals document. However, the
evaluator uses the information present in those documents to the extent
possible to help ensure that the function is accurately and completely
described. This analysis can be aided by the analysis performed for the work
units for the ADV_TDS.3.10C element, which maps the TSFI in the
functional specification to the modules of the TSF.
828
A module's interaction with other modules goes beyond just a call-tree-type
document. The interaction is described from a functional perspective of why
a module interacts with other modules. The module's purpose describes what
functions the module provides to other modules; the interactions should
describe what the module depends on from other modules in order to
accomplish this function.
829
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the security
architecture description, or the TSF internals document. However, the
evaluator uses the information present in those documents to the extent
possible to help ensure that the interactions are accurately and completely
described.
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ADV_TDS.3.10C
The mapping shall demonstrate that all behaviour described in the TOE
design is mapped to the TSFIs that invoke it.
ADV_TDS.3-13
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it contains a
complete and accurate mapping from the TSFI described in the functional
specification to the modules of the TSF described in the TOE design.
830
The modules described in the TOE design provide a description of the
implementation of the TSF. The TSFI provide a description of how the
implementation is exercised. The evidence from the developer identifies the
module that is initially invoked when an operation is requested at the TSFI,
and identifies the chain of modules invoked up to the module that is
primarily responsible for implementing the functionality. However, a
complete call tree for each TSFI is not required for this work unit. The cases
in which more than one module would have to be identified are where there
are “entry point” modules or wrapper modules that have no functionality
other than conditioning inputs or de-multiplexing an input. Mapping to one
of these modules would not provide any useful information to the evaluator.
831
The evaluator assesses the completeness of the mapping by ensuring that all
of the TSFI map to at least one module. The verification of accuracy is more
complex.
832
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the security
architecture description, or the TSF internals document. However, the
evaluator uses the information present in those documents to the extent
possible to help ensure that the interactions are accurately and completely
described.
11.8.3.5
Action ADV_TDS.3.2E
ADV_TDS.3-14
The evaluator shall examine the TOE security functional requirements and
the TOE design, to determine that all ST security functional requirements are
covered by the TOE design.
833
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems, and later to modules. Note that this map
may have to be at a level of detail below the component or even element
level of the requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements,
selections) performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
834
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control component contains an
element with assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the
FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control assignment, and these ten rules were
implemented in specific places within fifteen modules, it would be
inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control to
one subsystem and claim the work unit had been completed. Instead, the
evaluator would map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 1) to modules
x, y, and z of subsystem A; FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 2) to
modules x, p, and q of subsystem A; etc.
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ADV_TDS.3-15
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it is an
accurate instantiation of all security functional requirements.
835
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems and modules. Note that this map may
have to be at a level of detail below the component or even element level of
the requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements,
selections) performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
836
As an example, if the ST requirements specified a role-based access control
mechanism, the evaluator would first identify the subsystems, and modules
that contribute to this mechanism's implementation. This could be done by
in-depth knowledge or understanding of the TOE design or by work done in
the previous work unit. Note that this trace is only to identify the subsystems,
and modules, and is not the complete analysis.
837
The next step would be to understand what mechanism the subsystems, and
modules implemented. For instance, if the design described an
implementation of access control based on UNIX-style protection bits, the
design would not be an accurate instantiation of those access control
requirements present in the ST example used above. If the evaluator could
not determine that the mechanism was accurately implemented because of a
lack of detail, the evaluator would have to assess whether all of the SFRenforcing subsystems and modules have been identified, or if adequate detail
had been provided for those subsystems and modules.
11.8.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.4)
11.8.4.1
Objectives
838
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE design
provides a description of the TOE in terms of subsystems sufficient to
determine the TSF boundary, and provides a description of the TSF internals
in terms of modules (and optionally higher-level abstractions). It provides a
detailed description of the SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting modules and
enough information about the SFR-non-interfering modules for the evaluator
to determine that the SFRs are completely and accurately implemented; as
such, the TOE design provides an explanation of the implementation
representation.
11.8.4.2
Input
839
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
security architecture description;
d)
the TOE design.
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11.8.4.3
Application notes
840
There are three types of activity that the evaluator must undertake with
respect to the TOE design. First, the evaluator determines that the TSF
boundary has been adequately described. Second, the evaluator determines
that the developer has provided documentation that conforms to the content
and presentation requirements this subsystem, and that is consistent with
other documentation provided for the TOE. Finally, the evaluator must
analyse the design information provided for the SFR-enforcing modules (at a
detailed level) and the SFR-supporting and SFR-non-interfering modules (at
a less detailed level) to understand how the system is implemented, and with
that knowledge ensure that the TSFI in the functional specification are
adequately described, and that the test information adequately tests the TSF
(done in the Class ATE: Tests work units).
11.8.4.4
Action ADV_TDS.4.1E
ADV_TDS.4.1C
The design shall describe the structure of the TOE in terms of subsystems.
ADV_TDS.4-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the structure
of the entire TOE is described in terms of subsystems.
841
The evaluator ensures that all of the subsystems of the TOE are identified.
This description of the TOE will be used as input to work unit ADV_TDS.45, where the parts of the TOE that make up the TSF are identified. That is,
this requirement is on the entire TOE rather than on only the TSF.
842
The TOE (and TSF) may be described in multiple layers of abstraction (i.e.
subsystems and modules) Depending upon the complexity of the TOE, its
design may be described in terms of subsystems and modules, as described
in CC Part 3 Annex A.4, ADV_TDS: Subsystems and Modules. For a very
simple TOE that can be described solely at the “module” level (see
ADV_TDS.4-3), this work unit is not applicable and therefore considered to
be satisfied.
843
In performing this activity, the evaluator examines other evidence presented
for the TOE (e.g., ST, operator user guidance) to determine that the
description of the TOE in such evidence is consistent with the description
contained in the TOE design.
ADV_TDS.4-2
The evaluator shall examine the TDS documentation to determine that the
semiformal notation used for describing the subsystems, modules and their
interfaces is defined or referenced.
844
A semiformal notation can be either defined by the sponsor or a
corresponding standard be referenced. The evaluator should provide a
mapping of security functions and their interfaces outlining in what part of
the documentation a function or interface is semiformal described and what
notation is used. The evaluator examines all semiformal notations used to
make sure that they are of a semiformal style and to justify the
appropriateness of the manner how the semiformal notations are used for the
TOE.
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845
The evaluator is reminded that a semi-formal presentation is characterised by
a standardised format with a well-defined syntax that reduces ambiguity that
may occur in informal presentations. The syntax of all semiformal notations
used in the functional specification shall be defined or a corresponding
standard be referenced. The evaluator verifies that the semiformal notations
used for expressing the functional specification are capable of expressing
features relevant to security. In order to determine this, the evaluator can
refer to the SFR and compare the TSF security features stated in the ST and
those described in the FSP using the semiformal notations.
ADV_TDS.4.2C
The design shall describe the TSF in terms of modules, designating each
module as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting, or SFR-non-interfering.
ADV_TDS.4-3
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the entire
TSF is described in terms of modules.
846
The evaluator will examine the modules for specific properties in other work
units; in this work unit the evaluator determines that the modular description
covers the entire TSF, and not just a portion of the TSF. The evaluator uses
other evidence provided for the evaluation (e.g., functional specification,
architectural description) in making this determination. For example, if the
functional specification contains interfaces to functionality that does not
appear to be described in the TOE design description, it may be the case that
a portion of the TSF has not been included appropriately. Making this
determination will likely be an iterative process, where as more analysis is
done on the other evidence, more confidence can be gained with respect to
the completeness of the documentation.
847
Unlike subsystems, modules describe the implementation in a level of detail
that can serve as a guide to reviewing the implementation representation. A
description of a module should be such that one could create an
implementation of the module from the description, and the resulting
implementation would be 1) identical to the actual TSF implementation in
terms of the interfaces presented and used by the module, and 2)
algorithmically identical to the TSF module. For instance, RFC 793 provides
a high-level description of the TCP protocol. It is necessarily implementation
independent. While it provides a wealth of detail, it is not a suitable design
description because it is not specific to an implementation. An actual
implementation can add to the protocol specified in the RFC, and
implementation choices (for instance, the use of global data vs. local data in
various parts of the implementation) may have an impact on the analysis that
is performed. The design description of the TCP module would list the
interfaces presented by the implementation (rather than just those defined in
RFC 793), as well as an algorithm description of the processing associated
with the modules implementing TCP (assuming it was part of the TSF).
ADV_TDS.4-4
The evaluator shall check the TOE design to determine that the TSF
modules are identified as either SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting, or SFRnon-interfering.
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848
The purpose of designating each module (according to the role a particular
module plays in the enforcement of the SFRs) is to allow developers to
provide less information about the parts of the TSF that have little role in
security. It is always permissible for the developer to provide more
information or detail than the requirements demand, as might occur when the
information has been gathered outside the evaluation context. In such cases
the developer must still designate the modules as either SFR-enforcing, SFRsupporting, or SFR-non-interfering.
849
The accuracy of these designations is continuously reviewed as the
evaluation progresses. The concern is the mis-designation of modules as
being less important (and hence, having less information) than is really the
case. While blatant mis-designations may be immediately apparent (e.g.,
designating an authentication module as anything but SFR-enforcing when
User identification (FIA_UID) is one of the SFRs being claimed), other misdesignations might not be discovered until the TSF is better understood. The
evaluator must therefore keep in mind that these designations are the
developer's initial best effort, but are subject to change. Further guidance is
provided under work unit ADV_TDS.4-16, which examines the accuracy of
these designations.
ADV_TDS.4.3C
The design shall identify all subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.4-5
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that all
subsystems of the TSF are identified.
850
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then subsystems in
these requirements are equivalent to modules and the activity should be
performed at the module level.
851
In work unit ADV_TDS.4-1 all of the subsystems of the TOE were
identified, and a determination made that the non-TSF subsystems were
correctly characterised. Building on that work, the subsystems that were not
characterised as non-TSF subsystems should be precisely identified. The
evaluator determines that, of the hardware and software installed and
configured according to the Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) guidance,
each subsystem has been accounted for as either one that is part of the TSF,
or one that is not.
ADV_TDS.4.4C
The design shall provide a semiformal description of each subsystem of the
TSF, supported by informal, explanatory text where appropriate.
ADV_TDS.4-6
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that each
subsystem of the TSF describes its role in the enforcement of SFRs described
in the ST.
852
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit will
be considered satisfied by the assessment done in subsequent work units; no
explicit action on the part of the evaluator is necessary in this case.
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853
On systems that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level
description of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the goal of the
subsystem-level description is to give the evaluator context for the modular
description that follows. Therefore, the evaluator ensures that the subsystemlevel description contains a description of how the security functional
requirements are achieved in the design, but at a level of abstraction above
the modular description. This description should discuss the mechanisms
used at a level that is aligned with the module description; this will provide
the evaluators the road map needed to intelligently assess the information
contained in the module description. A well-written set of subsystem
descriptions will help guide the evaluator in determining the modules that are
most important to examine, thus focusing the evaluation activity on the
portions of the TSF that have the most relevance with respect to the
enforcement of the SFRs.
854
The evaluator ensures that all subsystems of the TSF have a description.
While the description should focus on the role that the subsystem plays in
enforcing or supporting the implementation of the SFRs, enough information
must be present so that a context for understanding the SFR-related
functionality is provided.
ADV_TDS.4.5C
The design shall provide a description of the interactions among all
subsystems of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.4-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that interactions
between the subsystems of the TSF are described.
855
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit will
be considered satisfied by the assessment done in subsequent work units; no
explicit action on the part of the evaluator is necessary in this case.
856
On systems that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level
description of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the goal of
describing the interactions between the subsystems is to help provide the
reader a better understanding of how the TSF performs it functions. These
interactions do not need to be characterised at the implementation level (e.g.,
parameters passed from one routine in a subsystem to a routine in a different
subsystem; global variables; hardware signals (e.g., interrupts) from a
hardware subsystem to an interrupt-handling subsystem), but the data
elements identified for a particular subsystem that are going to be used by
another subsystem need to be covered in this discussion. Any control
relationships between subsystems (e.g., a subsystem responsible for
configuring a rule base for a firewall system and the subsystem that actually
implements these rules) should also be described.
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857
It should be noted while the developer should characterise all interactions
between subsystems, the evaluators need to use their own judgement in
assessing the completeness of the description. If the reason for an interaction
is unclear, or if there are SFR-related interactions (discovered, for instance,
in examining the module-level documentation) that do not appear to be
described, the evaluator ensures that this information is provided by the
developer. However, if the evaluator can determine that interactions among a
particular set of subsystems, while incompletely described by the developer,
and a complete description will not aid in understanding the overall
functionality nor security functionality provided by the TSF, then the
evaluator may choose to consider the description sufficient, and not pursue
completeness for its own sake.
ADV_TDS.4.6C
The design shall provide a mapping from the subsystems of the TSF to the
modules of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.4-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the mapping
between the subsystems of the TSF and the modules of the TSF is complete.
858
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit is
considered satisfied.
859
For TOEs that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level description
of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the developer provides a
simple mapping showing how the modules of the TSF are allocated to the
subsystems. This will provide the evaluator a guide in performing their
module-level assessment. To determine completeness, the evaluator
examines each mapping and determines that all subsystems map to at least
one module, and that all modules map to exactly one subsystem.
ADV_TDS.4-9
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the mapping
between the subsystems of the TSF to the modules of the TSF is accurate.
860
If the design is presented solely in terms of modules, then this work unit is
considered satisfied.
861
For TOEs that are complex enough to warrant a subsystem-level description
of the TSF in addition to the modular description, the developer provides a
simple mapping showing how the modules of the TSF are allocated to the
subsystems. This will provide the evaluator a guide in performing their
module-level assessment. The evaluator may choose to check the accuracy of
the mapping in conjunction with performing other work units. An
“inaccurate” mapping is one where the module is mistakenly associated with
a subsystem where its functions are not used within the subsystem. Because
the mapping is intended to be a guide supporting more detailed analysis, the
evaluator is cautioned to apply appropriate effort to this work unit.
Expending extensive evaluator resources verifying the accuracy of the
mapping is not necessary. Inaccuracies that lead to mis-understandings
related to the design that are uncovered as part of this or other work units are
the ones that should be associated with this work unit and corrected.
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ADV_TDS.4.7C
The design shall describe each SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting
module in terms of its purpose and interaction with other modules.
ADV_TDS.4-10
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the purpose of each SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting
module is complete and accurate.
862
The developer may designate modules as SFR-enforcing, SFR-supporting,
and SFR non-interfering, but these “tags” are used only to describe the
amount and type of information the developer must provide, and can be used
to limit the amount of information the developer has to develop if their
engineering process does not produce the documentation required. Whether
the modules have been categorised by the developer or not, it is the
evaluator's responsibility to determine that the modules have the appropriate
information for their role (SFR-enforcing, etc.) in the TOE, and to obtain the
appropriate information from the developer should the developer fail to
provide the required information for a particular module.
863
The purpose of a module provides a description indicating what function the
module is fulfilling. A word of caution to evaluator is in order. The focus of
this work unit should be to provide the evaluator an understanding of how
the module works so that determinations can be made about the soundness of
the implementation of the SFRs, as well as to support architectural analysis
performed for ADV_ARC subsystems. As long as the evaluator has a sound
understanding of the module's operation, and its relationship to other
modules and the TOE as a whole, the evaluator should consider the objective
of the work achieved and not engage in a documentation exercise for the
developer (by requiring, for example, a complete algorithmic description for
a self-evident implementation representation).
ADV_TDS.4.8C
The design shall describe each SFR-enforcing and SFR-supporting
module in terms of its SFR-related interfaces, return values from those
interfaces, interaction with and called interfaces to other modules.
ADV_TDS.4-11
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the interfaces presented by each SFR-enforcing and SFRsupporting module contain an accurate and complete description of the SFRrelated parameters, the invocation conventions for each interface, and any
values returned directly by the interface.
864
The SFR-related interfaces of a module are those interfaces used by other
modules as a means to invoke the SFR-related operations provided, and to
provide inputs to or receive outputs from the module. The purpose in the
specification of these interfaces is to permit the exercise of them during
testing. Inter-module interfaces that are not SFR-related need not be
specified or described, since they are not a factor in testing. Likewise, other
internal interfaces that are not a factor in traversing SFR-related paths of
execution (such as those internal paths that are fixed).
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865
SFR-related interfaces are described in terms of how they are invoked, and
any values that are returned. This description would include a list of
parameters, and descriptions of these parameters. Note that global data
would also be considered parameters if used by the module (either as inputs
or outputs) when invoked. If a parameter were expected to take on a set of
values (e.g., a “flag” parameter), the complete set of values the parameter
could take on that would have an effect on module processing would be
specified. Likewise, parameters representing data structures are described
such that each field of the data structure is identified and described. Note that
different programming languages may have additional “interfaces” that
would be non-obvious; an example would be operator/function overloading
in C++. This “implicit interface” in the class description would also be
described as part of the low-level TOE design. Note that although a module
could present only one interface, it is more common that a module presents a
small set of related interfaces.
866
In terms of the assessment of parameters (inputs and outputs) to a module,
any use of global data must also be considered. A module “uses” global data
if it either reads or writes the data. In order to assure the description of such
parameters (if used) is complete, the evaluator uses other information
provided about the module in the TOE design (interfaces, algorithmic
description, etc.), as well as the description of the particular set of global data
assessed in work unit ADV_TDS.4-10. For instance, the evaluator could first
determine the processing the module performs by examining its function and
interfaces presented (particularly the parameters of the interfaces). They
could then check to see if the processing appears to “touch” any of the global
data areas identified in the TDS design. The evaluator then determines that,
for each global data area that appears to be “touched”, that global data area is
listed as a means of input or output by the module the evaluator is
examining.
867
Invocation conventions are a programming-reference-type description that
one could use to correctly invoke a module's interface if one were writing a
program to make use of the module's functionality through that interface.
This includes necessary inputs and outputs, including any set-up that may
need to be performed with respect to global variables.
868
Values returned through the interface refer to values that are either passed
through parameters or messages; values that the function call itself returns in
the style of a “C” program function call; or values passed through global
means (such as certain error routines in *ix-style operating systems).
869
In order to assure the description is complete, the evaluator uses other
information provided about the module in the TOE design (e.g., algorithmic
description, global data used) to ensure that it appears all data necessary for
performing the functions of the module is presented to the module, and that
any values that other modules expect the module under examination to
provide are identified as being returned by the module. The evaluator
determines accuracy by ensuring that the description of the processing
matches the information listed as being passed to or from an interface.
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870
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the TSF internals, or
the security architecture description. However, the evaluator uses the
information present in those documents to the extent possible to help ensure
that the purpose is accurately and completely described. This analysis can be
aided by the analysis performed for the work units for the ADV_TDS.4.10C
element, which maps the TSFI in the functional specification to the modules
of the TSF.
ADV_TDS.4.9C
The design shall describe each SFR-non-interfering module in terms of its
purpose and interaction with other modules.
ADV_TDS.4-12
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that SFR-noninterfering modules are correctly categorised.
871
As mentioned in work unit ADV_TDS.4-3, less information is required
about modules that are SFR-non-interfering. A key focus of the evaluator for
this work unit is attempting to determine from the evidence provided for
each module implicitly categorised as SFR-non-interfering and the
evaluation (information about other modules in the TOE design, the
functional specification, the security architecture description, the operational
user guidance, the TSF internals document, and perhaps even the
implementation representation) whether the module is indeed SFR-noninterfering. At this level of assurance some error should be tolerated; the
evaluator does not have to be absolutely sure that a given module is SFRnon-interfering, even though it is labelled as such. However, if the evidence
provided indicates that a SFR-non-interfering module is SFR-enforcing or
SFR-supporting, the evaluator requests additional information from the
developer in order to resolve the apparent inconsistency. For example,
suppose the documentation for Module A (an SFR-enforcing module)
indicates that it calls Module B to perform an access check on a certain type
of construct. When the evaluator examines the information associated with
Module B, it is discovered that the only information the developer has
provided is a purpose and a set of interactions (thus implicitly categorising
Module B as SFR-supporting or SFR-non-interfering). On examining the
purpose and interactions from Module A, the evaluator finds no mention of
Module B performing any access checks, and Module A is not listed as a
module with which Module B interacts. At this point the evaluator should
approach the developer to resolve the discrepancies between the information
provided in Module A and that in Module B.
872
Another example would be where the evaluator examines the mapping of the
TSFI to the modules as provided by ADV_TDS.4.2D. This examination
shows that Module C is associated with an SFR requiring identification of
the user. Again, when the evaluator examines the information associated
with Module C, they find that all the developer has provided is a purpose and
a set of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module C as SFR-noninterfering). Examining the purpose and interactions presented for Module C,
the evaluator is unable to determine why Module C, listed as mapping to a
TSFI concerned with user identification, would not be classified as SFR-
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enforcing or SFR-supporting. Again, the evaluator should approach the
developer to resolve this discrepancy.
873
A final example illustrates the opposite situation. As before, the developer
has provided information associated with Module D consisting of a purpose
and a set of interactions (thus implicitly categorising Module D as SFR-noninterfering). The evaluator examines all of the evidence provided, including
the purpose and interactions for Module D. The purpose appears to give a
meaningful description of Module D's function in the TOE, the interactions
are consistent with that description, and there is nothing to indicate that
Module D is SFR-enforcing or SFR-supporting. In this case, the evaluator
should not demand more information about Module D “just be to sure” it is
correctly categorised. The developer has met the obligations and the resulting
assurance the evaluator has in the implicit categorisation of Module D is (by
definition) appropriate for this assurance level.
ADV_TDS.4-13
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of the purpose of each SFR-non-interfering module is complete
and accurate.
874
The description of the purpose of a module indicates what function the
module is fulfilling. From the description, the evaluator should be able to
obtain a general idea of the module's role. In order to assure the description
is complete, the evaluator uses the information provided about the module's
interactions with other modules to assess whether the reasons for the module
being called are consistent with the module's purpose. If the interaction
description contains functionality that is not apparent from, or in conflict
with, the module's purpose, the evaluator needs to determine whether the
problem is one of accuracy or of completeness. The evaluator should be wary
of purposes that are too short, since meaningful analysis based on a onesentence purpose is likely to be impossible.
875
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the security
architecture description, or the TSF internals document. However, the
evaluator uses the information present in those documents to the extent
possible to help ensure that the function is accurately and completely
described. This analysis can be aided by the analysis performed for the work
units for the ADV_TDS.4.10C element, which maps the TSFI in the
functional specification to the modules of the TSF.
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ADV_TDS.4-14
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that the
description of a SFR-non-interfering module's interaction with other modules
is complete and accurate.
876
It is important to note that, in terms of the Part 3 requirement and this work
unit, the term interaction is intended to convey less rigour than interface. An
interaction does not need to be characterised at the implementation level
(e.g., parameters passed from one routine in a module to a routine in a
different module; global variables; hardware signals (e.g., interrupts) from a
hardware subsystem to an interrupt-handling subsystem), but the data
elements identified for a particular module that are going to be used by
another module should be covered in this discussion. Any control
relationships between modules (e.g., a module responsible for configuring a
rule base for a firewall system and the module that actually implements these
rules) should also be described.
877
A module's interaction with other modules can be captured in many ways.
The intent for the TOE design is to allow the evaluator to understand (in part
through analysis of module interactions) the role of the SFR-supporting and
SFR-non-interfering modules in the overall TOE design. Understanding of
this role will aid the evaluator in performing work unit ADV_TDS.4-7.
878
A module's interaction with other modules goes beyond just a call-tree-type
document. The interaction is described from a functional perspective of why
a module interacts with other modules. The module's purpose describes what
functions the module provides to other modules; the interactions should
describe what the module depends on from other modules in order to
accomplish this function.
879
Because the modules are at such a low level, it may be difficult determine
completeness and accuracy impacts from other documentation, such as
operational user guidance, the functional specification, the security
architecture description, or the TSF internals document. However, the
evaluator uses the information present in those documents to the extent
possible to help ensure that the interactions are accurately and completely
described.
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ADV_TDS.4.10C
The mapping shall demonstrate that all behaviour described in the TOE
design is mapped to the TSFIs that invoke it.
ADV_TDS.4-15
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it contains a
complete and accurate mapping from the TSFI described in the functional
specification to the modules of the TSF described in the TOE design.
880
The modules described in the TOE design provide a description of the
implementation of the TSF. The TSFI provide a description of how the
implementation is exercised. The evidence from the developer identifies the
module that is initially invoked when an operation is requested at the TSFI,
and identify the chain of modules invoked up to the module that is primarily
responsible for implementing the functionality. However, a complete call
tree for each TSFI is not required for this work unit. The cases in which more
than one module would have to be identified are where there are “entry
point” modules or wrapper modules that have no functionality other than
conditioning inputs or de-multiplexing an input. Mapping to one of these
modules would not provide any useful information to the evaluator.
881
The evaluator assesses the completeness of the mapping by ensuring that all
of the TSFI map to at least one module. The verification of accuracy is more
complex.
882
The first aspect of accuracy is that each TSFI is mapped to a module at the
TSF boundary. This determination can be made by reviewing the module
description and its interfaces/interactions. The next aspect of accuracy is that
each TSFI identifies a chain of modules between the initial module identified
and a module that is primarily responsible for implementing the function
presented at the TSF. Note that this may be the initial module, or there may
be several modules, depending on how much pre-conditioning of the inputs
is done. It should be noted that one indicator of a pre-conditioning module is
that it is invoked for a large number of the TSFI, where the TSFI are all of
similar type (e.g., system call). The final aspect of accuracy is that the
mapping makes sense. For instance, mapping a TSFI dealing with access
control to a module that checks passwords is not accurate. The evaluator
should again use judgement in making this determination. The goal is that
this information aids the evaluator in understanding the system and
implementation of the SFRs, and ways in which entities at the TSF boundary
can interact with the TSF. The bulk of the assessment of whether the SFRs
are described accurately by the modules is performed in other work units.
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11.8.4.5
Action ADV_TDS.4.2E
ADV_TDS.4-16
The evaluator shall examine the TOE security functional requirements and
the TOE design, to determine that all ST security functional requirements are
covered by the TOE design.
883
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems, and later to modules. Note that this map
may have to be at a level of detail below the component or even element
level of the requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements,
selections) performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
884
For example, the FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control component contains an
element with assignments. If the ST contained, for instance, ten rules in the
FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control assignment, and these ten rules were
implemented in specific places within fifteen modules, it would be
inadequate for the evaluator to map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control to
one subsystem and claim the work unit had been completed. Instead, the
evaluator would map FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 1) to modules
x, y and z of subsystem A; FDP_ACC.1 Subset access control (rule 2) to x,
p, and q of subsystem A; etc.
ADV_TDS.4-17
The evaluator shall examine the TOE design to determine that it is an
accurate instantiation of all security functional requirements.
885
The evaluator may construct a map between the TOE security functional
requirements and the TOE design. This map will likely be from a functional
requirement to a set of subsystems and modules. Note that this map may
have to be at a level of detail below the component or even element level of
the requirements, because of operations (assignments, refinements,
selections) performed on the functional requirement by the ST author.
886
As an example, if the ST requirements specified a role-based access control
mechanism, the evaluator would first identify the subsystems, and modules
that contribute to this mechanism's implementation. This could be done by
in-depth knowledge or understanding of the TOE design or by work done in
the previous work unit. Note that this trace is only to identify the subsystems,
and modules, and is not the complete analysis.
887
The next step would be to understand what mechanism the subsystems, and
modules implemented. For instance, if the design described an
implementation of access control based on UNIX-style protection bits, the
design would not be an accurate instantiation of those access control
requirements present in the ST example used above. If the evaluator could
not determine that the mechanism was accurately implemented because of a
lack of detail, the evaluator would have to assess whether all of the SFRenforcing subsystems and modules have been identified, or if adequate detail
had been provided for those subsystems and modules.
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11.8.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.5)
888
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
11.8.6
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.6)
889
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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12
Class AGD: Guidance documents
12.1
Introduction
890
The purpose of the guidance document activity is to judge the adequacy of
the documentation describing how the user can handle the TOE in a secure
manner. Such documentation should take into account the various types of
users (e.g. those who accept, install, administrate or operate the TOE) whose
incorrect actions could adversely affect the security of the TOE or of their
own data.
891
The guidance documents class is subdivided into two families which are
concerned firstly with the preparative user guidance (all that has to be done
to transform the delivered TOE into its evaluated configuration in the
environment as described in the ST, i.e. accepting and installing the TOE)
and secondly with the operational user guidance (all that has to be done
during the operation of the TOE in its evaluated configuration, i.e. operation
and administration).
12.2
Application notes
892
The guidance documents activity applies to those functions and interfaces
which are related to the security of the TOE. The secure configuration of the
TOE is described in the ST.
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12.3
Operational user guidance (AGD_OPE)
12.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_OPE.1)
12.3.1.1
Objectives
893
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the user
guidance describes for each user role the security functionality and interfaces
provided by the TSF, provides instructions and guidelines for the secure use
of the TOE, addresses secure procedures for all modes of operation,
facilitates prevention and detection of insecure TOE states, or whether it is
misleading or unreasonable.
12.3.1.2
Input
894
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design, if applicable;
d)
the user guidance;
12.3.1.3
Action AGD_OPE.1.1E
AGD_OPE.1.1C
The operational user guidance shall describe, for each user role, the useraccessible functions and privileges that should be controlled in a secure
processing environment, including appropriate warnings.
AGD_OPE.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it describes, for each user role, the user-accessible functions and privileges
that should be controlled in a secure processing environment, including
appropriate warnings.
895
The configuration of the TOE may allow different user roles to have
dissimilar privileges in making use of the different functions of the TOE.
This means that some users are authorised to perform certain functions,
while other users may not be so authorised. These functions and privileges
should be described, for each user role, by the user guidance.
896
The user guidance identifies, for each user role, the functions and privileges
that must be controlled, the types of commands required for them, and the
reasons for such commands. The user guidance should contain warnings
regarding the use of these functions and privileges. Warnings should address
expected effects, possible side effects, and possible interactions with other
functions and privileges.
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AGD_OPE.1.2C
The operational user guidance shall describe, for each user role, how to
use the available interfaces provided by the TOE in a secure manner.
AGD_OPE.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it describes, for each user role, the secure use of the available interfaces
provided by the TOE.
897
The user guidance should provide advice regarding effective use of the TSF
(e.g. reviewing password composition practises, suggested frequency of user
file backups, discussion on the effects of changing user access privileges).
AGD_OPE.1.3C
The operational user guidance shall describe, for each user role, the
available functions and interfaces, in particular all security parameters
under the control of the user, indicating secure values as appropriate.
AGD_OPE.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it describes, for each user role, the available security functionality and
interfaces, in particular all security parameters under the control of the user,
indicating secure values as appropriate.
898
The user guidance should contain an overview of the security functionality
that is visible at the user interfaces.
899
The user guidance should identify and describe the purpose, behaviour, and
interrelationships of the security interfaces and functionality.
900
For each user-accessible interface, the user guidance should:
901
a)
describe the method(s) by which the interface is invoked (e.g.
command-line, programming-language system call, menu selection,
command button);
b)
describe the parameters to be set by the user, their particular
purposes, valid and default values, and secure and insecure use
settings of such parameters, both individually or in combination;
c)
describe the immediate TSF response, message, or code returned.
The evaluator should consider the functional specification and the ST to
determine that the TSF described in these documents is consistent to the
operational user guidance. The evaluator has to ensure that the operational
user guidance is complete to allow the secure use through the TSFI available
to all types of human users. The evaluator may, as an aid, prepare an
informal mapping between the guidance and these documents. Any
omissions in this mapping may indicate incompleteness.
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AGD_OPE.1.4C
The operational user guidance shall, for each user role, clearly present
each type of security-relevant event relative to the user-accessible functions
that need to be performed, including changing the security characteristics
of entities under the control of the TSF.
AGD_OPE.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it describes, for each user role, each type of security-relevant event relative
to the user functions that need to be performed, including changing the
security characteristics of entities under the control of the TSF and operation
following failure or operational error.
902
All types of security-relevant events are detailed for each user role, such that
each user knows what events may occur and what action (if any) he may
have to take in order to maintain security. Security-relevant events that may
occur during operation of the TOE (e.g. audit trail overflow, system crash,
updates to user records, such as when a user account is removed when the
user leaves the organisation) are adequately defined to allow user
intervention to maintain secure operation.
AGD_OPE.1.5C
The operational user guidance shall identify all possible modes of
operation of the TOE (including operation following failure or operational
error), their consequences and implications for maintaining secure
operation.
AGD_OPE.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance and other
evaluation evidence to determine that the guidance identifies all possible
modes of operation of the TOE (including, if applicable, operation following
failure or operational error), their consequences and implications for
maintaining secure operation.
903
Other evaluation evidence, particularly the functional specification, provide
an information source that the evaluator should use to determine that the
guidance contains sufficient guidance information.
904
If test documentation is included in the assurance package, then the
information provided in this evidence can also be used to determine that the
guidance contains sufficient guidance documentation. The detail provided in
the test steps can be used to confirm that the guidance provided is sufficient
for the use and administration of the TOE.
905
The evaluator should focus on a single human visible TSFI at a time,
comparing the guidance for securely using the TSFI with other evaluation
evidence, to determine that the guidance related to the TSFI is sufficient for
the secure usage (i.e. consistent with the SFRs) of that TSFI. The evaluator
should also consider the relationships between interfaces, searching for
potential conflicts.
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AGD_OPE.1.6C
The operational user guidance shall, for each user role, describe the
security measures to be followed in order to fulfil the security objectives for
the operational environment as described in the ST.
AGD_OPE.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it describes, for each user role, the security measures to be followed in order
to fulfil the security objectives for the operational environment as described
in the ST.
906
The evaluator analyses the security objectives for the operational
environment in the ST and determines that for each user role, the relevant
security measures are described appropriately in the user guidance.
907
The security measures described in the user guidance should include all
relevant external procedural, physical, personnel and connectivity measures.
908
Note that those measures relevant for secure installation of the TOE are
examined in Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE).
AGD_OPE.1.7C
The operational user guidance shall be clear and reasonable.
AGD_OPE.1-7
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it is clear.
909
The guidance is unclear if it can reasonably be misconstrued by an
administrator or user, and used in a way detrimental to the TOE, or to the
security provided by the TOE.
AGD_OPE.1-8
The evaluator shall examine the operational user guidance to determine that
it is reasonable.
910
The guidance is unreasonable if it makes demands on the TOE's usage or
operational environment that are inconsistent with the ST or unduly onerous
to maintain security.
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12.4
Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE)
12.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1)
12.4.1.1
Objectives
911
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the procedures and
steps for the secure preparation of the TOE have been documented and result
in a secure configuration.
12.4.1.2
Input
912
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE including its preparative procedures;
c)
the description of developer's delivery procedures, if applicable;
12.4.1.3
Application notes
913
The preparative procedures refer to all acceptance and installation
procedures, that are necessary to progress the TOE to the secure
configuration as described in the ST.
12.4.1.4
Action AGD_PRE.1.1E
AGD_PRE.1.1C
The preparative procedures shall describe all the steps necessary for secure
acceptance of the delivered TOE in accordance with the developer's
delivery procedures.
AGD_PRE.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the provided acceptance procedures to
determine that they describe the steps necessary for secure acceptance of the
TOE in accordance with the developer's delivery procedures.
914
If it is not anticipated by the developer's delivery procedures that acceptance
procedures will or can be applied, this work unit is not applicable, and is
therefore considered to be satisfied.
915
The acceptance procedures should include as a minimum, that the user has to
check that all parts of the TOE as indicated in the ST have been delivered in
the correct version.
916
The acceptance procedures should reflect the steps the user has to perform in
order to accept the delivered TOE that are implied by the developer's
delivery procedures.
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917
The acceptance procedures should provide detailed information about the
following, if applicable:
a)
making sure that the delivered TOE is the complete evaluated
instance;
b)
detecting modification/masquerading of the delivered TOE.
AGD_PRE.1.2C
The preparative procedures shall describe all the steps necessary for secure
installation of the TOE and for the secure preparation of the operational
environment in accordance with the security objectives for the operational
environment as described in the ST.
AGD_PRE.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the provided installation procedures to
determine that they describe the steps necessary for secure installation of the
TOE and the secure preparation of the operational environment in
accordance with the security objectives in the ST.
918
If it is not anticipated that installation procedures will or can be applied for
the TOE and the operational environment (e.g. because the TOE may already
be delivered in an operational state and there are no requirements for the
environment) this work unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to
be satisfied.
919
If it is not anticipated that installation procedures will or can be applied (e.g.
because the TOE may already be delivered in an operational state), this work
unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
920
The installation procedures should provide detailed information about the
following, if applicable:
a)
minimum system requirements for secure installation;
b)
requirements for the operational environment in accordance with the
security objectives provided by the ST;
c)
the steps the user has to perform in order to get to an operational TOE
being commensurate with its evaluated configuration. Such a
description shall include - for each step - a clear scheme for the
decision on the next step depended on success, failure or problems at
the current step;
d)
changing the installation specific security characteristics of entities
under the control of the TSF (for example parameters, settings,
passwords);
e)
handling exceptions and problems.
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12.4.1.5
Action AGD_PRE.1.2E
AGD_PRE.1-3
The evaluator shall perform all user procedures necessary to prepare the
TOE to determine that the TOE and its operational environment can be
prepared securely using only the supplied preparative user guidance.
921
Preparation requires the evaluator to advance the TOE from a deliverable
state to the state in which it is operational, including acceptance and
installation of the TOE, and enforcing the SFRs consistent with the security
objectives for the TOE specified in the ST.
922
The evaluator should follow only the developer's procedures and may
perform the activities that customers are usually expected to perform to
accept and install the TOE, using the supplied preparative guidance
documentation only. Any difficulties encountered during such an exercise
may be indicative of incomplete, unclear or unreasonable guidance.
923
This work unit may be performed in conjunction with the evaluation
activities under Independent testing (ATE_IND).
924
If it is known that the TOE will be used as a dependent component for a
composed TOE evaluation, then the evaluator should ensure that the
operational environment is satisfied by the base component used in the
composed TOE.
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13
Class ALC: Life-cycle support
13.1
Introduction
925
The purpose of the life-cycle support activity is to determine the adequacy of
the security procedures that the developer uses during the development and
maintenance of the TOE. These procedures include the life-cycle model used
by the developer, the configuration management, the security measures used
throughout TOE development, the tools used by the developer throughout
the life-cycle of the TOE, the handling of security flaws, and the delivery
activity.
926
Poorly controlled development and maintenance of the TOE can result in
vulnerabilities in the implementation. Conformance to a defined life-cycle
model can help to improve controls in this area. A measurable life-cycle
model used for the TOE can remove ambiguity in assessing the development
progress of the TOE.
927
The purpose of the configuration management activity is to assist the
consumer in identifying the evaluated TOE, to ensure that configuration
items are uniquely identified, and the adequacy of the procedures that are
used by the developer to control and track changes that are made to the TOE.
This includes details on what changes are tracked, how potential changes are
incorporated, and the degree to which automation is used to reduce the scope
for error.
928
Developer security procedures are intended to protect the TOE and its
associated design information from interference or disclosure. Interference in
the development process may allow the deliberate introduction of
vulnerabilities. Disclosure of design information may allow vulnerabilities to
be more easily exploited. The adequacy of the procedures will depend on the
nature of the TOE and the development process.
929
The use of well-defined development tools and the application of
implementation standards by the developer and by third parties involved in
the development process help to ensure that vulnerabilities are not
inadvertently introduced during refinement.
930
The flaw remediation activity is intended to track security flaws, to identify
corrective actions, and to distribute the corrective action information to TOE
users.
931
The purpose of the delivery activity is to judge the adequacy of the
documentation of the procedures used to ensure that the TOE is delivered to
the consumer without modification.
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13.2
CM capabilities (ALC_CMC)
13.2.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.1)
13.2.1.1
Objectives
932
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer
has clearly identified the TOE.
13.2.1.2
Input
933
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE suitable for testing.
13.2.1.3
Action ALC_CMC.1.1E
ALC_CMC.1.1C
The TOE shall be labelled with its unique reference.
ALC_CMC.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the TOE provided for evaluation is labelled
with its reference.
934
The evaluator should ensure that the TOE contains the unique reference
which is stated in the ST. This could be achieved through labelled packaging
or media, or by a label displayed by the operational TOE. This is to ensure
that it would be possible for consumers to identify the TOE (e.g. at the point
of purchase or use).
935
The TOE may provide a method by which it can be easily identified. For
example, a software TOE may display its name and version number during
the start up routine, or in response to a command line entry. A hardware or
firmware TOE may be identified by a part number physically stamped on the
TOE.
936
Alternatively, the unique reference provided for the TOE may be the
combination of the unique reference of each component from which the TOE
is comprised (e.g. in the case of a composed TOE).
ALC_CMC.1-2
The evaluator shall check that the TOE references used are consistent.
937
If the TOE is labelled more than once then the labels have to be consistent.
For example, it should be possible to relate any labelled guidance
documentation supplied as part of the TOE to the evaluated operational TOE.
This ensures that consumers can be confident that they have purchased the
evaluated version of the TOE, that they have installed this version, and that
they have the correct version of the guidance to operate the TOE in
accordance with its ST.
938
The evaluator also verifies that the TOE reference is consistent with the ST.
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939
If this work unit is applied to a composed TOE, the following will apply. The
composed IT TOE will not be labelled with its unique (composite) reference,
but only the individual components will be labelled with their appropriate
TOE reference. It would require further development for the IT TOE to be
labelled, i.e. during start-up and/or operation, with the composite reference.
If the composed TOE is delivered as the constituent component TOEs, then
the TOE items delivered will not contain the composite reference. However,
the composed TOE ST will include the unique reference for the composed
TOE and will identify the components comprising the composed TOE
through which the consumers will be able to determine whether they have
the appropriate items.
13.2.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.2)
13.2.2.1
Objectives
940
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer
uses a CM system that uniquely identifies all configuration items.
13.2.2.2
Input
941
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE suitable for testing;
c)
the configuration management documentation.
13.2.2.3
Application notes
942
This component contains an implicit evaluator action to determine that the
CM system is being used. As the requirements here are limited to
identification of the TOE and provision of a configuration list, this action is
already covered by, and limited to, the existing work units. At Evaluation of
sub-activity (ALC_CMC.3) the requirements are expanded beyond these two
items, and more explicit evidence of operation is required.
13.2.2.4
Action ALC_CMC.2.1E
ALC_CMC.2.1C
The TOE shall be labelled with its unique reference.
ALC_CMC.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the TOE provided for evaluation is labelled
with its reference.
943
The evaluator should ensure that the TOE contains the unique reference
which is stated in the ST. This could be achieved through labelled packaging
or media, or by a label displayed by the operational TOE. This is to ensure
that it would be possible for consumers to identify the TOE (e.g. at the point
of purchase or use).
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944
The TOE may provide a method by which it can be easily identified. For
example, a software TOE may display its name and version number during
the start up routine, or in response to a command line entry. A hardware or
firmware TOE may be identified by a part number physically stamped on the
TOE.
945
Alternatively, the unique reference provided for the TOE may be the
combination of the unique reference of each component from which the TOE
is comprised (e.g. in the case of a composed TOE).
ALC_CMC.2-2
The evaluator shall check that the TOE references used are consistent.
946
If the TOE is labelled more than once then the labels have to be consistent.
For example, it should be possible to relate any labelled guidance
documentation supplied as part of the TOE to the evaluated operational TOE.
This ensures that consumers can be confident that they have purchased the
evaluated version of the TOE, that they have installed this version, and that
they have the correct version of the guidance to operate the TOE in
accordance with its ST.
947
The evaluator also verifies that the TOE reference is consistent with the ST.
948
If this work unit is applied to a composed TOE, the following will apply. The
composed IT TOE will not be labelled with its unique (composite) reference,
but only the individual components will be labelled with their appropriate
TOE reference. It would require further development for the IT TOE to be
labelled, i.e. during start-up and/or operation, with the composite reference.
If the composed TOE is delivered as the constituent component TOEs, then
the TOE items delivered will not contain the composite reference. However,
the composed TOE ST will include the unique reference for the composed
TOE and will identify the components comprising the composed TOE
through which the consumers will be able to determine whether they have
the appropriate items.
ALC_CMC.2.2C
The CM documentation shall describe the method used to uniquely identify
the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the method of identifying configuration items
to determine that it describes how configuration items are uniquely
identified.
949
Procedures should describe how the status of each configuration item can be
tracked throughout the life-cycle of the TOE. The procedures may be
detailed in the CM plan or throughout the CM documentation. The
information included should describe:
a)
the method how each configuration item is uniquely identified, such
that it is possible to track versions of the same configuration item;
b)
the method how configuration items are assigned unique identifiers
and how they are entered into the CM system;
c)
the method to be used to identify superseded versions of a
configuration item.
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ALC_CMC.2.3C
The CM system shall uniquely identify all configuration items.
ALC_CMC.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the configuration items to determine that they
are identified in a way that is consistent with the CM documentation.
950
Assurance that the CM system uniquely identifies all configuration items is
gained by examining the identifiers for the configuration items. For both
configuration items that comprise the TOE, and drafts of configuration items
that are submitted by the developer as evaluation evidence, the evaluator
confirms that each configuration item possesses a unique identifier in a
manner consistent with the unique identification method that is described in
the CM documentation.
13.2.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.3)
13.2.3.1
Objectives
951
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer
uses a CM system that uniquely identifies all configuration items, and
whether the ability to modify these items is properly controlled.
13.2.3.2
Input
952
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE suitable for testing;
c)
the configuration management documentation.
13.2.3.3
Action ALC_CMC.3.1E
ALC_CMC.3.1C
The TOE shall be labelled with its unique reference.
ALC_CMC.3-1
The evaluator shall check that the TOE provided for evaluation is labelled
with its reference.
953
The evaluator should ensure that the TOE contains the unique reference
which is stated in the ST. This could be achieved through labelled packaging
or media, or by a label displayed by the operational TOE. This is to ensure
that it would be possible for consumers to identify the TOE (e.g. at the point
of purchase or use).
954
The TOE may provide a method by which it can be easily identified. For
example, a software TOE may display its name and version number during
the start up routine, or in response to a command line entry. A hardware or
firmware TOE may be identified by a part number physically stamped on the
TOE.
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955
Alternatively, the unique reference provided for the TOE may be the
combination of the unique reference of each component from which the TOE
is comprised (e.g. in the case of a composed TOE).
ALC_CMC.3-2
The evaluator shall check that the TOE references used are consistent.
956
If the TOE is labelled more than once then the labels have to be consistent.
For example, it should be possible to relate any labelled guidance
documentation supplied as part of the TOE to the evaluated operational TOE.
This ensures that consumers can be confident that they have purchased the
evaluated version of the TOE, that they have installed this version, and that
they have the correct version of the guidance to operate the TOE in
accordance with its ST.
957
The evaluator also verifies that the TOE reference is consistent with the ST.
958
If this work unit is applied to a composed TOE, the following will apply. The
composed IT TOE will not be labelled with its unique (composite) reference,
but only the individual components will be labelled with their appropriate
TOE reference. It would require further development for the IT TOE to be
labelled, i.e. during start-up and/or operation, with the composite reference.
If the composed TOE is delivered as the constituent component TOEs, then
the TOE items delivered will not contain the composite reference. However,
the composed TOE ST will include the unique reference for the composed
TOE and will identify the components comprising the composed TOE
through which the consumers will be able to determine whether they have
the appropriate items.
ALC_CMC.3.2C
The CM documentation shall describe the method used to uniquely identify
the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the method of identifying configuration items
to determine that it describes how configuration items are uniquely
identified.
959
Procedures should describe how the status of each configuration item can be
tracked throughout the life-cycle of the TOE. The procedures may be
detailed in the CM plan or throughout the CM documentation. The
information included should describe:
a)
the method how each configuration item is uniquely identified, such
that it is possible to track versions of the same configuration item;
b)
the method how configuration items are assigned unique identifiers
and how they are entered into the CM system;
c)
the method to be used to identify superseded versions of a
configuration item.
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ALC_CMC.3.3C
The CM system shall uniquely identify all configuration items.
ALC_CMC.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the configuration items to determine that they
are identified in a way that is consistent with the CM documentation.
960
Assurance that the CM system uniquely identifies all configuration items is
gained by examining the identifiers for the configuration items. For both
configuration items that comprise the TOE, and drafts of configuration items
that are submitted by the developer as evaluation evidence, the evaluator
confirms that each configuration item possesses a unique identifier in a
manner consistent with the unique identification method that is described in
the CM documentation.
ALC_CMC.3.4C
The CM system shall provide measures such that only authorised changes
are made to the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the CM access control measures described in
the CM plan to determine that they are effective in preventing unauthorised
access to the configuration items.
961
The evaluator may use a number of methods to determine that the CM access
control measures are effective. For example, the evaluator may exercise the
access control measures to ensure that the procedures could not be bypassed.
The evaluator may use the outputs generated by the CM system procedures
required by ALC_CMC.3.8C. The evaluator may also witness a
demonstration of the CM system to ensure that the access control measures
employed are operating effectively.
ALC_CMC.3.5C
The CM documentation shall include a CM plan.
ALC_CMC.3-6
The evaluator shall check that the CM documentation provided includes a
CM plan.
962
The CM plan needs not to be a connected document, but it is recommended
that there is a single document that describes where the various parts of the
CM plan can be found. If the CM plan is no single document, the list in the
following work unit gives hints regarding which context is expected.
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ALC_CMC.3.6C
The CM plan shall describe how the CM system is used for the
development of the TOE.
ALC_CMC.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the CM plan to determine that it describes how
the CM system is used for the development of the TOE.
963
The descriptions contained in a CM plan include, if applicable:
a)
all activities performed in the TOE development that are subject to
configuration management procedures (e.g. creation, modification or
deletion of a configuration item, data-backup, archiving);
b)
which means (e.g. CM tools, forms) have to be made available;
c)
the usage of the CM tools: the necessary details for a user of the CM
system to be able to operate the CM tools correctly in order to
maintain the integrity of the TOE;
d)
which other objects (development components, tools, assessment
environments, etc) are taken under CM control;
e)
the roles and responsibilities of individuals required to perform
operations on individual configuration items (different roles may be
identified for different types of configuration items (e.g. design
documentation or source code));
f)
how CM instances (e.g. change control boards, interface control
working groups) are introduced and staffed;
g)
the description of the change management;
h)
the procedures that are used to ensure that only authorised individuals
can make changes to configuration items;
i)
the procedures that are used to ensure that concurrency problems do
not occur as a result of simultaneous changes to configuration items;
j)
the evidence that is generated as a result of application of the
procedures. For example, for a change to a configuration item, the
CM system might record a description of the change, accountability
for the change, identification of all configuration items affected,
status (e.g. pending or completed), and date and time of the change.
This might be recorded in an audit trail of changes made or change
control records;
k)
the approach to version control and unique referencing of TOE
versions (e.g. covering the release of patches in operating systems,
and the subsequent detection of their application).
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ALC_CMC.3.7C
The evidence shall demonstrate that all configuration items are being
maintained under the CM system.
ALC_CMC.3-8
The evaluator shall check that the configuration items identified in the
configuration list are being maintained by the CM system.
964
The CM system employed by the developer should maintain the integrity of
the TOE. The evaluator should check that for each type of configuration item
(e.g. design documents or source code modules) contained in the
configuration list there are examples of the evidence generated by the
procedures described in the CM plan. In this case, the approach to sampling
will depend upon the level of granularity used in the CM system to control
CM items. Where, for example, 10,000 source code modules are identified in
the configuration list, a different sampling strategy needs to be applied
compared to the case in which there are only 5, or even 1. The emphasis of
this activity should be on ensuring that the CM system is being operated
correctly, rather than on the detection of any minor error.
965
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
ALC_CMC.3.8C
The evidence shall demonstrate that the CM system is being operated in
accordance with the CM plan.
ALC_CMC.3-9
The evaluator shall check the CM documentation to ascertain that it includes
the CM system records identified by the CM plan.
966
The output produced by the CM system should provide the evidence that the
evaluator needs to be confident that the CM plan is being applied, and also
that all configuration items are being maintained by the CM system as
required by ALC_CMC.3.7C. Example output could include change control
forms, or configuration item access approval forms.
ALC_CMC.3-10
The evaluator shall examine the evidence to determine that the CM system
is being operated in accordance with the CM plan.
967
The evaluator should select and examine a sample of evidence covering each
type of CM-relevant operation that has been performed on a configuration
item (e.g. creation, modification, deletion, reversion to an earlier version) to
confirm that all operations of the CM system have been carried out in line
with documented procedures. The evaluator confirms that the evidence
includes all the information identified for that operation in the CM plan.
Examination of the evidence may require access to a CM tool that is used.
The evaluator may choose to sample the evidence.
968
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
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969
Further confidence in the correct operation of the CM system and the
effective maintenance of configuration items may be established by means of
interviews with selected development staff. In conducting such interviews,
the evaluator aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the CM system is
used in practise as well as to confirm that the CM procedures are being
applied as described in the CM documentation. Note that such interviews
should complement rather than replace the examination of documentary
evidence, and may not be necessary if the documentary evidence alone
satisfies the requirement. However, given the wide scope of the CM plan it is
possible that some aspects (e.g. roles and responsibilities) may not be clear
from the CM plan and records alone. This is one case where clarification
may be necessary through interviews.
970
It is expected that the evaluator will visit the development site in support of
this activity.
971
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
13.2.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.4)
13.2.4.1
Objectives
972
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer
has clearly identified the TOE and its associated configuration items, and
whether the ability to modify these items is properly controlled by automated
tools, thus making the CM system less susceptible to human error or
negligence.
13.2.4.2
Input
973
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE suitable for testing;
c)
the configuration management documentation.
13.2.4.3
Action ALC_CMC.4.1E
ALC_CMC.4.1C
The TOE shall be labelled with its unique reference.
ALC_CMC.4-1
The evaluator shall check that the TOE provided for evaluation is labelled
with its reference.
974
The evaluator should ensure that the TOE contains the unique reference
which is stated in the ST. This could be achieved through labelled packaging
or media, or by a label displayed by the operational TOE. This is to ensure
that it would be possible for consumers to identify the TOE (e.g. at the point
of purchase or use).
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975
The TOE may provide a method by which it can be easily identified. For
example, a software TOE may display its name and version number during
the start up routine, or in response to a command line entry. A hardware or
firmware TOE may be identified by a part number physically stamped on the
TOE.
976
Alternatively, the unique reference provided for the TOE may be the
combination of the unique reference of each component from which the TOE
is comprised (e.g. in the case of a composed TOE).
ALC_CMC.4-2
The evaluator shall check that the TOE references used are consistent.
977
If the TOE is labelled more than once then the labels have to be consistent.
For example, it should be possible to relate any labelled guidance
documentation supplied as part of the TOE to the evaluated operational TOE.
This ensures that consumers can be confident that they have purchased the
evaluated version of the TOE, that they have installed this version, and that
they have the correct version of the guidance to operate the TOE in
accordance with its ST.
978
The evaluator also verifies that the TOE reference is consistent with the ST.
979
If this work unit is applied to a composed TOE, the following will apply. The
composed IT TOE will not be labelled with its unique (composite) reference,
but only the individual components will be labelled with their appropriate
TOE reference. It would require further development for the IT TOE to be
labelled, i.e. during start-up and/or operation, with the composite reference.
If the composed TOE is delivered as the constituent component TOEs, then
the TOE items delivered will not contain the composite reference. However,
the composed TOE ST will include the unique reference for the composed
TOE and will identify the components comprising the composed TOE
through which the consumers will be able to determine whether they have
the appropriate items.
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ALC_CMC.4.2C
The CM documentation shall describe the method used to uniquely identify
the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.4-3
The evaluator shall examine the method of identifying configuration items
to determine that it describes how configuration items are uniquely
identified.
980
Procedures should describe how the status of each configuration item can be
tracked throughout the life-cycle of the TOE. The procedures may be
detailed in the CM plan or throughout the CM documentation. The
information included should describe:
a)
the method how each configuration item is uniquely identified, such
that it is possible to track versions of the same configuration item;
b)
the method how configuration items are assigned unique identifiers
and how they are entered into the CM system;
c)
the method to be used to identify superseded versions of a
configuration item.
ALC_CMC.4.3C
The CM system shall uniquely identify all configuration items.
ALC_CMC.4-4
The evaluator shall examine the configuration items to determine that they
are identified in a way that is consistent with the CM documentation.
981
Assurance that the CM system uniquely identifies all configuration items is
gained by examining the identifiers for the configuration items. For both
configuration items that comprise the TOE, and drafts of configuration items
that are submitted by the developer as evaluation evidence, the evaluator
confirms that each configuration item possesses a unique identifier in a
manner consistent with the unique identification method that is described in
the CM documentation.
ALC_CMC.4.4C
The CM system shall provide automated measures such that only
authorised changes are made to the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.4-5
The evaluator shall examine the CM access control measures described in
the CM plan (cf. ALC_CMC.4.6C) to determine that they are automated and
effective in preventing unauthorised access to the configuration items.
982
The evaluator may use a number of methods to determine that the CM access
control measures are effective. For example, the evaluator may exercise the
access control measures to ensure that the procedures could not be bypassed.
The evaluator may use the outputs generated by the CM system procedures
required by ALC_CMC.4.10C. The evaluator may also witness a
demonstration of the CM system to ensure that the access control measures
employed are operating effectively.
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ALC_CMC.4.5C
The CM system shall support the production of the TOE by automated
means.
ALC_CMC.4-6
The evaluator shall check the CM plan (cf. ALC_CMC.4.6C) for automated
procedures for supporting the production of the TOE.
983
The term “production” applies to those processes adopted by the developer to
progress the TOE from the implementation representation to a state
acceptable for delivery to the end customer.
984
The evaluator verifies the existence of automated production support
procedures within the CM plan.
985
The following are examples for automated means supporting the production
of the TOE:

a “make” tool (as provided with many software development tools) in
the case of a software TOE;

a tool ensuring automatically (for example by means of bar codes)
that only parts are combined which indeed belong together in the case
of a hardware TOE.
ALC_CMC.4-7
The evaluator shall examine the TOE production support procedures to
determine that they are effective in ensuring that a TOE is generated that
reflects its implementation representation.
986
The production support procedures should describe which tools have to be
used to produce the final TOE from the implementation representation in a
clearly defined way. The conventions, directives, or other necessary
constructs are described under ALC_TAT.
987
The evaluator determines that by following the production support
procedures the correct configuration items would be used to generate the
TOE. For example, in a software TOE this may include checking that the
automated production procedures ensure that all source files and related
libraries are included in the compiled object code. Moreover, the procedures
should ensure that compiler options and comparable other options are
defined uniquely. For a hardware TOE, this work unit may include checking
that the automatic production procedures ensure that the belonging parts are
built together and no parts are missing.
988
The customer can then be confident that the version of the TOE delivered for
installation is derived from the implementation representation in an
unambiguous way and implements the SFRs as described in the ST.
989
The evaluator should bear in mind that the CM system need not necessarily
possess the capability to produce the TOE, but should provide support for the
process that will help reduce the probability of human error.
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ALC_CMC.4.6C
The CM documentation shall include a CM plan.
ALC_CMC.4-8
The evaluator shall check that the CM documentation provided includes a
CM plan.
990
The CM plan does not need to be contained within a single document, but it
is recommended that there is a separate document that describes where the
various parts of the CM plan can be found. If the CM plan is provided by a
set of documents, the list in the following work unit gives guidance
regarding the required content.
ALC_CMC.4.7C
The CM plan shall describe how the CM system is used for the
development of the TOE.
ALC_CMC.4-9
The evaluator shall examine the CM plan to determine that it describes how
the CM system is used for the development of the TOE.
991
The descriptions contained in a CM plan include, if applicable:
a)
all activities performed in the TOE development that are subject to
configuration management procedures (e.g. creation, modification or
deletion of a configuration item, data-backup, archiving);
b)
which means (e.g. CM tools, forms) have to be made available;
c)
the usage of the CM tools: the necessary details for a user of the CM
system to be able to operate the CM tools correctly in order to
maintain the integrity of the TOE;
d)
the production support procedures;
e)
which other objects (development components, tools, assessment
environments, etc) are taken under CM control;
f)
the roles and responsibilities of individuals required to perform
operations on individual configuration items (different roles may be
identified for different types of configuration items (e.g. design
documentation or source code));
g)
how CM instances (e.g. change control boards, interface control
working groups) are introduced and staffed;
h)
the description of the change management;
i)
the procedures that are used to ensure that only authorised individuals
can make changes to configuration items;
j)
the procedures that are used to ensure that concurrency problems do
not occur as a result of simultaneous changes to configuration items;
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k)
the evidence that is generated as a result of application of the
procedures. For example, for a change to a configuration item, the
CM system might record a description of the change, accountability
for the change, identification of all configuration items affected,
status (e.g. pending or completed), and date and time of the change.
This might be recorded in an audit trail of changes made or change
control records;
l)
the approach to version control and unique referencing of TOE
versions (e.g. covering the release of patches in operating systems,
and the subsequent detection of their application).
ALC_CMC.4.8C
The CM plan shall describe the procedures used to accept modified or
newly created configuration items as part of the TOE.
ALC_CMC.4-10
The evaluator shall examine the CM plan to determine that it describes the
procedures used to accept modified or newly created configuration items as
parts of the TOE.
992
The descriptions of the acceptance procedures in the CM plan should include
the developer roles or individuals responsible for the acceptance and the
criteria to be used for acceptance. They should take into account all
acceptance situations that may occur, in particular:
a)
accepting an item into the CM system for the first time, in particular
inclusion of software, firmware and hardware components from other
manufacturers into the TOE (“integration”);
b)
moving configuration items to the next life-cycle phase at each stage
of the construction of the TOE (e.g. module, subsystem, system);
c)
subsequent to transports between different development sites.
993
If this work unit is applied to a dependent component that is going to be
integrated in a composed TOE, the CM plan should consider the control of
base components obtained by the dependent TOE developer.
994
When obtaining the components the evaluators are to verify the following:
a)
Transfer of each base component from the base component developer
to the integrator (dependent TOE developer) was performed in
accordance with the base component TOE's secure delivery
procedures, as reported in the base component TOE certification
report.
b)
The component received has the same identifiers as those stated in
the ST and Certification Report for the component TOE.
c)
All additional material required by a developer for composition
(integration) is provided. This is to include the necessary extract of
the component TOE's functional specification.
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ALC_CMC.4.9C
The evidence shall demonstrate that all configuration items are being
maintained under the CM system.
ALC_CMC.4-11
The evaluator shall check that the configuration items identified in the
configuration list are being maintained by the CM system.
995
The CM system employed by the developer should maintain the integrity of
the TOE. The evaluator should check that for each type of configuration item
(e.g. design documents or source code modules) contained in the
configuration list there are examples of the evidence generated by the
procedures described in the CM plan. In this case, the approach to sampling
will depend upon the level of granularity used in the CM system to control
CM items. Where, for example, 10,000 source code modules are identified in
the configuration list, a different sampling strategy needs to be applied
compared to the case in which there are only 5, or even 1. The emphasis of
this activity should be on ensuring that the CM system is being operated
correctly, rather than on the detection of any minor error.
996
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
ALC_CMC.4.10C
The evidence shall demonstrate that the CM system is being operated in
accordance with the CM plan.
ALC_CMC.4-12
The evaluator shall check the CM documentation to ascertain that it includes
the CM system records identified by the CM plan.
997
The output produced by the CM system should provide the evidence that the
evaluator needs to be confident that the CM plan is being applied, and also
that all configuration items are being maintained by the CM system as
required by ALC_CMC.4.9C. Example output could include change control
forms, or configuration item access approval forms.
ALC_CMC.4-13
The evaluator shall examine the evidence to determine that the CM system
is being operated in accordance with the CM plan.
998
The evaluator should select and examine a sample of evidence covering each
type of CM-relevant operation that has been performed on a configuration
item (e.g. creation, modification, deletion, reversion to an earlier version) to
confirm that all operations of the CM system have been carried out in line
with documented procedures. The evaluator confirms that the evidence
includes all the information identified for that operation in the CM plan.
Examination of the evidence may require access to a CM tool that is used.
The evaluator may choose to sample the evidence.
999
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
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1000
Further confidence in the correct operation of the CM system and the
effective maintenance of configuration items may be established by means of
interviews with selected development staff. In conducting such interviews,
the evaluator aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the CM system is
used in practise as well as to confirm that the CM procedures are being
applied as described in the CM documentation. Note that such interviews
should complement rather than replace the examination of documentary
evidence, and may not be necessary if the documentary evidence alone
satisfies the requirement. However, given the wide scope of the CM plan it is
possible that some aspects (e.g. roles and responsibilities) may not be clear
from the CM plan and records alone. This is one case where clarification
may be necessary through interviews.
1001
It is expected that the evaluator will visit the development site in support of
this activity.
1002
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
13.2.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.5)
13.2.5.1
Objectives
1003
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer
has clearly identified the TOE and its associated configuration items, and
whether the ability to modify these items is properly controlled by automated
tools, thus making the CM system less susceptible to human error or
negligence.
13.2.5.2
Input
1004
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the TOE suitable for testing;
c)
the configuration management documentation.
13.2.5.3
Action ALC_CMC.5.1E
ALC_CMC.5.1C
The TOE shall be labelled with its unique reference.
ALC_CMC.5-1
The evaluator shall check that the TOE provided for evaluation is labelled
with its reference.
1005
The evaluator should ensure that the TOE contains the unique reference
which is stated in the ST. This could be achieved through labelled packaging
or media, or by a label displayed by the operational TOE. This is to ensure
that it would be possible for consumers to identify the TOE (e.g. at the point
of purchase or use).
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1006
The TOE may provide a method by which it can be easily identified. For
example, a software TOE may display its name and version number during
the start up routine, or in response to a command line entry. A hardware or
firmware TOE may be identified by a part number physically stamped on the
TOE.
1007
Alternatively, the unique reference provided for the TOE may be the
combination of the unique reference of each component from which the TOE
is comprised (e.g. in the case of a composed TOE).
ALC_CMC.5-2
The evaluator shall check that the TOE references used are consistent.
1008
If the TOE is labelled more than once then the labels have to be consistent.
For example, it should be possible to relate any labelled guidance
documentation supplied as part of the TOE to the evaluated operational TOE.
This ensures that consumers can be confident that they have purchased the
evaluated version of the TOE, that they have installed this version, and that
they have the correct version of the guidance to operate the TOE in
accordance with its ST.
1009
The evaluator also verifies that the TOE reference is consistent with the ST.
1010
If this work unit is applied to a composed TOE, the following will apply. The
composed IT TOE will not be labelled with its unique (composite) reference,
but only the individual components will be labelled with their appropriate
TOE reference. It would require further development for the IT TOE to be
labelled, i.e. during start-up and/or operation, with the composite reference.
If the composed TOE is delivered as the constituent component TOEs, then
the TOE items delivered will not contain the composite reference. However,
the composed TOE ST will include the unique reference for the composed
TOE and will identify the components comprising the composed TOE
through which the consumers will be able to determine whether they have
the appropriate items.
ALC_CMC.5.2C
The CM documentation shall describe the method used to uniquely identify
the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.5-3
The evaluator shall examine the method of identifying configuration items
to determine that it describes how configuration items are uniquely
identified.
1011
Procedures should describe how the status of each configuration item can be
tracked throughout the life-cycle of the TOE. The procedures may be
detailed in the CM plan or throughout the CM documentation. The
information included should describe:
a)
the method how each configuration item is uniquely identified, such
that it is possible to track versions of the same configuration item;
b)
the method how configuration items are assigned unique identifiers
and how they are entered into the CM system;
c)
the method to be used to identify superseded versions of a
configuration item.
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ALC_CMC.5.3C
The CM documentation shall justify that the acceptance procedures
provide for an adequate and appropriate review of changes to all
configuration items.
ALC_CMC.5-4
The evaluator shall examine the CM documentation to determine that it
justifies that the acceptance procedures provide for an adequate and
appropriate review of changes to all configuration items.
1012
The CM documentation should make it sufficiently clear that by following
the acceptance procedures only parts of adequate quality are incorporated
into the TOE.
ALC_CMC.5.4C
The CM system shall uniquely identify all configuration items.
ALC_CMC.5-5
The evaluator shall examine the configuration items to determine that they
are identified in a way that is consistent with the CM documentation.
1013
Assurance that the CM system uniquely identifies all configuration items is
gained by examining the identifiers for the configuration items. For both
configuration items that comprise the TOE, and drafts of configuration items
that are submitted by the developer as evaluation evidence, the evaluator
confirms that each configuration item possesses a unique identifier in a
manner consistent with the unique identification method that is described in
the CM documentation.
ALC_CMC.5.5C
The CM system shall provide automated measures such that only
authorised changes are made to the configuration items.
ALC_CMC.5-6
The evaluator shall examine the CM access control measures described in
the CM plan (cf. ALC_CMC.5.12C) to determine that they are automated
and effective in preventing unauthorised access to the configuration items.
1014
The evaluator may use a number of methods to determine that the CM access
control measures are effective. For example, the evaluator may exercise the
access control measures to ensure that the procedures could not be bypassed.
The evaluator may use the outputs generated by the CM system procedures
required by ALC_CMC.5.16C. The evaluator may also witness a
demonstration of the CM system to ensure that the access control measures
employed are operating effectively.
ALC_CMC.5.6C
The CM system shall support the production of the TOE by automated
means.
ALC_CMC.5-7
The evaluator shall check the CM plan (cf. ALC_CMC.5.12C) for
automated procedures for supporting the production of the TOE.
1015
The term “production” applies to those processes adopted by the developer to
progress the TOE from the implementation representation to a state
acceptable for delivery to the end customer.
1016
The evaluator verifies the existence of automated production support
procedures within the CM plan.
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1017
The following are examples for automated means supporting the production
of the TOE:

a “make” tool (as provided with many software development tools) in
the case of a software TOE;

a tool ensuring automatically (for example by means of bar codes)
that only parts are combined which indeed belong together in the case
of a hardware TOE.
ALC_CMC.5-8
The evaluator shall examine the TOE production support procedures to
determine that they are effective in ensuring that a TOE is generated that
reflects its implementation representation.
1018
The production support procedures should describe which tools have to be
used to produce the final TOE from the implementation representation in a
clearly defined way. The conventions, directives, or other necessary
constructs are described under ALC_TAT.
1019
The evaluator determines that by following the production support
procedures the correct configuration items would be used to generate the
TOE. For example, in a software TOE this may include checking that the
automated production procedures ensure that all source files and related
libraries are included in the compiled object code. Moreover, the procedures
should ensure that compiler options and comparable other options are
defined uniquely. For a hardware TOE, this work unit may include checking
that the automatic production procedures ensure that the belonging parts are
built together and no parts are missing.
1020
The customer can then be confident that the version of the TOE delivered for
installation is derived from the implementation representation in an
unambiguous way and implements the SFRs as described in the ST.
1021
The evaluator should bear in mind that the CM system need not necessarily
possess the capability to produce the TOE, but should provide support for the
process that will help reduce the probability of human error.
ALC_CMC.5.7C
The CM system shall ensure that the person responsible for accepting a
configuration item into CM is not the person who developed it.
ALC_CMC.5-9
The evaluator shall examine the CM system to determine that it ensures that
the person responsible for accepting a configuration item is not the person
who developed it.
1022
The acceptance procedures describe who is responsible for accepting a
configuration item. From these descriptions, the evaluator should be able to
determine that the person who developed a configuration item is in no case
responsible for its acceptance.
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ALC_CMC.5.8C
The CM system shall identify the configuration items that comprise the
TSF.
ALC_CMC.5-10
The evaluator shall examine the CM system to determine that it identifies
the configuration items that comprise the TSF.
1023
The CM documentation should describe how the CM system identifies the
configuration items that comprise the TSF. The evaluator should select a
sample of configuration items covering each type of items, particularly
containing TSF and non-TSF items, and check that they are correctly
classified by the CM system.
1024
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
ALC_CMC.5.9C
The CM system shall support the audit of all changes to the TOE by
automated means, including the originator, date, and time in the audit
trail.
ALC_CMC.5-11
The evaluator shall examine the CM system to determine that it supports the
audit of all changes to the TOE by automated means, including the
originator, date, and time in the audit trail.
1025
The evaluator should inspect a sample of audit trails and check, if they
contain the minimum information.
ALC_CMC.5.10C
The CM system shall provide an automated means to identify all other
configuration items that are affected by the change of a given
configuration item.
ALC_CMC.5-12
The evaluator shall examine the CM system to determine that it provides an
automated means to identify all other configuration items that are affected by
the change of a given configuration item.
1026
The CM documentation should describe how the CM system identifies all
other configuration items that are affected by the change of a given
configuration item. The evaluator should select a sample of configuration
items, covering all types of items, and exercise the automated means to
determine that it identifies all items that are affected by the change of the
selected item.
1027
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
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ALC_CMC.5.11C
The CM system shall be able to identify the version of the implementation
representation from which the TOE is generated.
ALC_CMC.5-13
The evaluator shall examine the CM system to determine that it is able to
identify the version of the implementation representation from which the
TOE is generated.
1028
The CM documentation should describe how the CM system identifies the
version of the implementation representation from which the TOE is
generated. The evaluator should select a sample of the parts used to produce
the TOE and should apply the CM system to verify that it identifies the
corresponding implementation representation in the correct version.
1029
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
ALC_CMC.5.12C
The CM documentation shall include a CM plan.
ALC_CMC.5-14
The evaluator shall check that the CM documentation provided includes a
CM plan.
1030
The CM plan needs not to be a connected document, but it is recommended
that there is a single document that describes where the various parts of the
CM plan can be found. If the CM plan is no single document, the list in the
following work unit gives hints regarding which context is expected.
ALC_CMC.5.13C
The CM plan shall describe how the CM system is used for the
development of the TOE.
ALC_CMC.5-15
The evaluator shall examine the CM plan to determine that it describes how
the CM system is used for the development of the TOE.
1031
The descriptions contained in a CM plan include, if applicable:
a)
all activities performed in the TOE development that are subject to
configuration management procedures (e.g. creation, modification or
deletion of a configuration item, data-backup, archiving);
b)
which means (e.g. CM tools, forms) have to be made available;
c)
the usage of the CM tools: the necessary details for a user of the CM
system to be able to operate the CM tools correctly in order to
maintain the integrity of the TOE;
d)
the production support procedures;
e)
which other objects (development components, tools, assessment
environments, etc) are taken under CM control;
f)
the roles and responsibilities of individuals required to perform
operations on individual configuration items (different roles may be
identified for different types of configuration items (e.g. design
documentation or source code));
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g)
how CM instances (e.g. change control boards, interface control
working groups) are introduced and staffed;
h)
the description of the change management;
i)
the procedures that are used to ensure that only authorised individuals
can make changes to configuration items;
j)
the procedures that are used to ensure that concurrency problems do
not occur as a result of simultaneous changes to configuration items;
k)
the evidence that is generated as a result of application of the
procedures. For example, for a change to a configuration item, the
CM system might record a description of the change, accountability
for the change, identification of all configuration items affected,
status (e.g. pending or completed), and date and time of the change.
This might be recorded in an audit trail of changes made or change
control records;
l)
the approach to version control and unique referencing of TOE
versions (e.g. covering the release of patches in operating systems,
and the subsequent detection of their application).
ALC_CMC.5.14C
The CM plan shall describe the procedures used to accept modified or
newly created configuration items as part of the TOE.
ALC_CMC.5-16
The evaluator shall examine the CM plan to determine that it describes the
procedures used to accept modified or newly created configuration items as
parts of the TOE.
1032
The descriptions of the acceptance procedures in the CM plan should include
the developer roles or individuals responsible for the acceptance and the
criteria to be used for acceptance. They should take into account all
acceptance situations that may occur, in particular:
a)
accepting an item into the CM system for the first time, in particular
inclusion of software, firmware and hardware components from other
manufacturers into the TOE (“integration”);
b)
moving configuration items to the next life-cycle phase at each stage
of the construction of the TOE (e.g. module, subsystem, system);
c)
subsequent to transports between different development sites.
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ALC_CMC.5.15C
The evidence shall demonstrate that all configuration items are being
maintained under the CM system.
ALC_CMC.5-17
The evaluator shall check that the configuration items identified in the
configuration list are being maintained by the CM system.
1033
The CM system employed by the developer should maintain the integrity of
the TOE. The evaluator should check that for each type of configuration item
(e.g. design documents or source code modules) contained in the
configuration list there are examples of the evidence generated by the
procedures described in the CM plan. In this case, the approach to sampling
will depend upon the level of granularity used in the CM system to control
CM items. Where, for example, 10,000 source code modules are identified in
the configuration list, a different sampling strategy needs to be applied
compared to the case in which there are only 5, or even 1. The emphasis of
this activity should be on ensuring that the CM system is being operated
correctly, rather than on the detection of any minor error.
1034
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
ALC_CMC.5.16C
The evidence shall demonstrate that the CM system is being operated in
accordance with the CM plan.
ALC_CMC.5-18
The evaluator shall check the CM documentation to ascertain that it includes
the CM system records identified by the CM plan.
1035
The output produced by the CM system should provide the evidence that the
evaluator needs to be confident that the CM plan is being applied, and also
that all configuration items are being maintained by the CM system as
required by ALC_CMC.5.15C. Example output could include change control
forms, or configuration item access approval forms.
ALC_CMC.5-19
The evaluator shall examine the evidence to determine that the CM system
is being operated in accordance with the CM plan.
1036
The evaluator should select and examine a sample of evidence covering each
type of CM-relevant operation that has been performed on a configuration
item (e.g. creation, modification, deletion, reversion to an earlier version) to
confirm that all operations of the CM system have been carried out in line
with documented procedures. The evaluator confirms that the evidence
includes all the information identified for that operation in the CM plan.
Examination of the evidence may require access to a CM tool that is used.
The evaluator may choose to sample the evidence.
1037
For guidance on sampling see A.2, Sampling.
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1038
Further confidence in the correct operation of the CM system and the
effective maintenance of configuration items may be established by means of
interviews with selected development staff. In conducting such interviews,
the evaluator aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the CM system is
used in practise as well as to confirm that the CM procedures are being
applied as described in the CM documentation. Note that such interviews
should complement rather than replace the examination of documentary
evidence, and may not be necessary if the documentary evidence alone
satisfies the requirement. However, given the wide scope of the CM plan it is
possible that some aspects (e.g. roles and responsibilities) may not be clear
from the CM plan and records alone. This is one case where clarification
may be necessary through interviews.
1039
It is expected that the evaluator will visit the development site in support of
this activity.
1040
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
13.2.5.4
Action ALC_CMC.5.2E
ALC_CMC.5-20
The evaluator shall examine the production support procedures to determine
that by following these procedures a TOE would be produced like that one
provided by the developer for testing activities.
1041
If the TOE is a small software TOE and production consists of compiling
and linking, the evaluator might confirm the adequacy of the production
support procedures by reapplying them himself.
1042
If the production process of the TOE is more complicated (as for example in
the case of a smart card), but has already started, the evaluator should inspect
the application of the production support procedures during a visit of the
development site. He might compare a copy of the TOE produced in his
presence with the samples used for his testing activities.
1043
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
1044
Otherwise the evaluator's determination should be based on the documentary
evidence provided by the developer.
1045
This work unit may be performed in conjunction with the evaluation
activities under Implementation representation (ADV_IMP).
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13.3
CM scope (ALC_CMS)
13.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.1)
13.3.1.1
Objectives
1046
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer
performs configuration management on the TOE and the evaluation
evidence. These configuration items are controlled in accordance with CM
capabilities (ALC_CMC).
13.3.1.2
Input
1047
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the configuration list.
13.3.1.3
Action ALC_CMS.1.1E
ALC_CMS.1.1C
The configuration list shall include the following: the TOE itself; and the
evaluation evidence required by the SARs.
ALC_CMS.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list includes the following
set of items:
a)
the TOE itself;
b)
the evaluation evidence required by the SARs in the ST.
ALC_CMS.1.2C
The configuration list shall uniquely identify the configuration items.
ALC_CMS.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the configuration list to determine that it
uniquely identifies each configuration item.
1048
The configuration list contains sufficient information to uniquely identify
which version of each item has been used (typically a version number). Use
of this list will enable the evaluator to check that the correct configuration
items, and the correct version of each item, have been used during the
evaluation.
13.3.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.2)
13.3.2.1
Objectives
1049
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the configuration
list includes the TOE, the parts that comprise the TOE, and the evaluation
evidence. These configuration items are controlled in accordance with CM
capabilities (ALC_CMC).
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13.3.2.2
Input
1050
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the configuration list.
13.3.2.3
Action ALC_CMS.2.1E
ALC_CMS.2.1C
The configuration list shall include the following: the TOE itself; the
evaluation evidence required by the SARs; and the parts that comprise the
TOE.
ALC_CMS.2-1
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list includes the following
set of items:
a)
the TOE itself;
b)
the parts that comprise the TOE;
c)
the evaluation evidence required by the SARs.
ALC_CMS.2.2C
The configuration list shall uniquely identify the configuration items.
ALC_CMS.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the configuration list to determine that it
uniquely identifies each configuration item.
1051
The configuration list contains sufficient information to uniquely identify
which version of each item has been used (typically a version number). Use
of this list will enable the evaluator to check that the correct configuration
items, and the correct version of each item, have been used during the
evaluation.
ALC_CMS.2.3C
For each TSF relevant configuration item, the configuration list shall
indicate the developer of the item.
ALC_CMS.2-3
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list indicates the developer
of each TSF relevant configuration item.
1052
If only one developer is involved in the development of the TOE, this work
unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
13.3.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.3)
13.3.3.1
Objectives
1053
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the configuration
list includes the TOE, the parts that comprise the TOE, the TOE
implementation representation, and the evaluation evidence. These
configuration items are controlled in accordance with CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC).
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13.3.3.2
Input
1054
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the configuration list.
13.3.3.3
Action ALC_CMS.3.1E
ALC_CMS.3.1C
The configuration list shall include the following: the TOE itself; the
evaluation evidence required by the SARs; the parts that comprise the
TOE; and the implementation representation.
ALC_CMS.3-1
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list includes the following
set of items:
a)
the TOE itself;
b)
the parts that comprise the TOE;
c)
the TOE implementation representation;
d)
the evaluation evidence required by the SARs in the ST.
ALC_CMS.3.2C
The configuration list shall uniquely identify the configuration items.
ALC_CMS.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the configuration list to determine that it
uniquely identifies each configuration item.
1055
The configuration list contains sufficient information to uniquely identify
which version of each item has been used (typically a version number). Use
of this list will enable the evaluator to check that the correct configuration
items, and the correct version of each item, have been used during the
evaluation.
ALC_CMS.3.3C
For each TSF relevant configuration item, the configuration list shall
indicate the developer of the item.
ALC_CMS.3-3
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list indicates the developer
of each TSF relevant configuration item.
1056
If only one developer is involved in the development of the TOE, this work
unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
13.3.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.4)
13.3.4.1
Objectives
1057
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the configuration
list includes the TOE, the parts that comprise the TOE, the TOE
implementation representation, security flaws, and the evaluation evidence.
These configuration items are controlled in accordance with CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC).
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13.3.4.2
Input
1058
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the configuration list.
13.3.4.3
Action ALC_CMS.4.1E
ALC_CMS.4.1C
The configuration list shall include the following: the TOE itself; the
evaluation evidence required by the SARs; the parts that comprise the
TOE; the implementation representation; and security flaw reports and
resolution status.
ALC_CMS.4-1
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list includes the following
set of items:
a)
the TOE itself;
b)
the parts that comprise the TOE;
c)
the TOE implementation representation;
d)
the evaluation evidence required by the SARs in the ST;
e)
the documentation used to record details of reported security flaws
associated with the implementation (e.g., problem status reports
derived from a developer's problem database).
ALC_CMS.4.2C
The configuration list shall uniquely identify the configuration items.
ALC_CMS.4-2
The evaluator shall examine the configuration list to determine that it
uniquely identifies each configuration item.
1059
The configuration list contains sufficient information to uniquely identify
which version of each item has been used (typically a version number). Use
of this list will enable the evaluator to check that the correct configuration
items, and the correct version of each item, have been used during the
evaluation.
ALC_CMS.4.3C
For each TSF relevant configuration item, the configuration list shall
indicate the developer of the item.
ALC_CMS.4-3
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list indicates the developer
of each TSF relevant configuration item.
1060
If only one developer is involved in the development of the TOE, this work
unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
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13.3.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.5)
13.3.5.1
Objectives
1061
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the configuration
list includes the TOE, the parts that comprise the TOE, the TOE
implementation representation, security flaws, development tools and related
information, and the evaluation evidence. These configuration items are
controlled in accordance with CM capabilities (ALC_CMC).
13.3.5.2
Input
1062
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the configuration list.
13.3.5.3
Action ALC_CMS.5.1E
ALC_CMS.5.1C
The configuration list shall include the following: the TOE itself; the
evaluation evidence required by the SARs; the parts that comprise the
TOE; the implementation representation; security flaw reports and
resolution status; and development tools and related information.
ALC_CMS.5-1
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list includes the following
set of items:
1063
a)
the TOE itself;
b)
the parts that comprise the TOE;
c)
the TOE implementation representation;
d)
the evaluation evidence required by the SARs in the ST;
e)
the documentation used to record details of reported security flaws
associated with the implementation (e.g., problem status reports
derived from a developer's problem database);
f)
all tools (incl. test software, if applicable) involved in the
development and production of the TOE including the names,
versions, configurations and roles of each development tool, and
related documentation.
For a software TOE, “development tools” are usually programming
languages and compiler and “related documentation” comprises compiler
and linker options. For a hardware TOE, “development tools” might be
hardware design languages, simulation and synthesis tools, compilers, and
“related documentation” might comprise compiler options again.
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ALC_CMS.5.2C
The configuration list shall uniquely identify the configuration items.
ALC_CMS.5-2
The evaluator shall examine the configuration list to determine that it
uniquely identifies each configuration item.
1064
The configuration list contains sufficient information to uniquely identify
which version of each item has been used (typically a version number). Use
of this list will enable the evaluator to check that the correct configuration
items, and the correct version of each item, have been used during the
evaluation.
ALC_CMS.5.3C
For each TSF relevant configuration item, the configuration list shall
indicate the developer of the item.
ALC_CMS.5-3
The evaluator shall check that the configuration list indicates the developer
of each TSF relevant configuration item.
1065
If only one developer is involved in the development of the TOE, this work
unit is not applicable, and is therefore considered to be satisfied.
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13.4
Delivery (ALC_DEL)
13.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DEL.1)
13.4.1.1
Objectives
1066
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the delivery
documentation describes all procedures used to maintain security of the TOE
when distributing the TOE to the user.
13.4.1.2
Input
1067
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the delivery documentation.
13.4.1.3
Action ALC_DEL.1.1E
ALC_DEL.1.1C
The delivery documentation shall describe all procedures that are
necessary to maintain security when distributing versions of the TOE to
the consumer.
ALC_DEL.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the delivery documentation to determine that it
describes all procedures that are necessary to maintain security when
distributing versions of the TOE or parts of it to the consumer.
1068
The delivery documentation describes proper procedures to maintain security
of the TOE during transfer of the TOE or its component parts and to
determine the identification of the TOE.
1069
The delivery documentation should cover the entire TOE, but may contain
different procedures for different parts of the TOE. The evaluation should
consider the totality of procedures.
1070
The delivery procedures should be applicable across all phases of delivery
from the production environment to the installation environment (e.g.
packaging, storage and distribution). Standard commercial practise for
packaging and delivery may be acceptable. This includes shrink wrapped
packaging, a security tape or a sealed envelope. For the distribution, physical
(e.g. public mail or a private distribution service) or electronic (e.g.
electronic mail or downloading off the Internet) procedures may be used.
1071
Cryptographic checksums or a software signature may be used by the
developer to ensure that tampering or masquerading can be detected. Tamper
proof seals additionally indicate if the confidentiality has been broken. For
software TOEs, confidentiality might be assured by using encryption. If
availability is of concern, a secure transportation might be required.
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1072
Interpretation of the term “necessary to maintain security” will need to
consider:

The nature of the TOE (e.g. whether it is software or hardware).

The overall security level stated for the TOE by the chosen level of
the Vulnerability Assessment. If the TOE is required to be resistant
against attackers of a certain potential in its intended environment,
this should also apply to the delivery of the TOE. The evaluator
should determine that a balanced approach has been taken, such that
delivery does not present a weak point in an otherwise secure
development process.

The security objectives provided by the ST. The emphasis in the
delivery documentation is likely to be on measures related to
integrity, as integrity of the TOE is always important. However,
confidentiality and availability of the delivery will be of concern in
the delivery of some TOEs; procedures relating to these aspects of the
secure delivery should also be discussed in the procedures.
13.4.1.4
Implied evaluator action
ALC_DEL.1.2D
The developer shall use the delivery procedures.
ALC_DEL.1-2
The evaluator shall examine aspects of the delivery process to determine that
the delivery procedures are used.
1073
The approach taken by the evaluator to check the application of delivery
procedures will depend on the nature of the TOE, and the delivery process
itself. In addition to examination of the procedures themselves, the evaluator
seeks some assurance that they are applied in practise. Some possible
approaches are:
a)
a visit to the distribution site(s) where practical application of the
procedures may be observed;
b)
examination of the TOE at some stage during delivery, or after the
user has received it (e.g. checking for tamper proof seals);
c)
observing that the process is applied in practise when the evaluator
obtains the TOE through regular channels;
d)
questioning end users as to how the TOE was delivered.
1074
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
1075
It may be the case of a newly developed TOE that the delivery procedures
have yet to be exercised. In these cases, the evaluator has to be satisfied that
appropriate procedures and facilities are in place for future deliveries and
that all personnel involved are aware of their responsibilities. The evaluator
may request a “dry run” of a delivery if this is practical. If the developer has
produced other similar products, then an examination of procedures in their
use may be useful in providing assurance.
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13.5
Development security (ALC_DVS)
13.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DVS.1)
13.5.1.1
Objectives
1076
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer's
security controls on the development environment are adequate to provide
the confidentiality and integrity of the TOE design and implementation that
is necessary to ensure that secure operation of the TOE is not compromised.
13.5.1.2
Input
1077
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the development security documentation.
1078
In addition, the evaluator may need to examine other deliverables to
determine that the security controls are well-defined and followed.
Specifically, the evaluator may need to examine the developer's
configuration management documentation (the input for the Evaluation of
sub-activity (ALC_CMC.4) “Production support and acceptance procedures”
and the Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.4) “Problem tracking CM
coverage”). Evidence that the procedures are being applied is also required.
13.5.1.3
Action ALC_DVS.1.1E
ALC_DVS.1.1C
The development security documentation shall describe all the physical,
procedural, personnel, and other security measures that are necessary to
protect the confidentiality and integrity of the TOE design and
implementation in its development environment.
ALC_DVS.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the development security documentation to
determine that it details all security measures used in the development
environment that are necessary to protect the confidentiality and integrity of
the TOE design and implementation.
1079
The evaluator determines what is necessary by first referring to the ST for
any information that may assist in the determination of necessary protection.
1080
If no explicit information is available from the ST the evaluator will need to
make a determination of the necessary measures. In cases where the
developer's measures are considered less than what is necessary, a clear
justification should be provided for the assessment, based on a potential
exploitable vulnerability.
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1081
The following types of security measures are considered by the evaluator
when examining the documentation:
a)
physical, for example physical access controls used to prevent
unauthorised access to the TOE development environment (during
normal working hours and at other times);
b)
procedural, for example covering:

granting of access to the development environment or to
specific parts of the environment such as development
machines

revocation of access rights when a person leaves the
development team

transfer of protected material within and out of the
development environment and between different development
sites in accordance with defined acceptance procedures

admitting and escorting visitors to the development
environment

roles and responsibilities in ensuring the continued
application of security measures, and the detection of security
breaches.
c)
personnel, for example any controls or checks made to establish the
trustworthiness of new development staff;
d)
other security measures, for example the logical protections on any
development machines.
1082
The development security documentation should identify the locations at
which development occurs, and describe the aspects of development
performed, along with the security measures applied at each location and for
transports between different locations. For example, development could
occur at multiple facilities within a single building, multiple buildings at the
same site, or at multiple sites. Transports of parts of the TOE or the
unfinished TOE between different development sites are to be covered by
Development security (ALC_DVS), whereas the transport of the finished
TOE to the consumer is dealt with in Delivery (ALC_DEL).
1083
Development includes the production of the TOE.
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ALC_DVS.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the development confidentiality and integrity
policies in order to determine the sufficiency of the security measures
employed.
1084
The evaluator should examine whether the following is included in the
policies:
a)
what information relating to the TOE development needs to be kept
confidential, and which members of the development staff are
allowed to access such material;
b)
what material must be protected from unauthorised modification in
order to preserve the integrity of the TOE, and which members of the
development staff are allowed to modify such material.
1085
The evaluator should determine that these policies are described in the
development security documentation, that the security measures employed
are consistent with the policies, and that they are complete.
1086
It should be noted that configuration management procedures will help
protect the integrity of the TOE and the evaluator should avoid overlap with
the work-units conducted for the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC). For
example, the CM documentation may describe the security procedures
necessary for controlling the roles or individuals who should have access to
the development environment and who may modify the TOE.
1087
Whereas the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) requirements are fixed, those for
the Development security (ALC_DVS), mandating only necessary measures,
are dependent on the nature of the TOE, and on information that may be
provided in the ST. For example, the ST may identify a security objective for
the development environment that requires the TOE to be developed by staff
that has security clearance. The evaluators would then determine that such a
policy had been applied under this sub-activity.
13.5.1.4
Action ALC_DVS.1.2E
ALC_DVS.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the development security documentation and
associated evidence to determine that the security measures are being
applied.
1088
This work unit requires the evaluator to determine that the security measures
described in the development security documentation are being followed,
such that the integrity of the TOE and the confidentiality of associated
documentation is being adequately protected. For example, this could be
determined by examination of the documentary evidence provided.
Documentary evidence should be supplemented by visiting the development
environment. A visit to the development environment will allow the
evaluator to:
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a)
observe the application of security measures (e.g. physical measures);
b)
examine documentary evidence of application of procedures;
c)
interview development staff to check awareness of the development
security policies and procedures, and their responsibilities.
1089
A development site visit is a useful means of gaining confidence in the
measures being used. Any decision not to make such a visit should be
determined in consultation with the evaluation authority.
1090
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
13.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_DVS.2)
13.5.2.1
Objectives
1091
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer's
security controls on the development environment are adequate to provide
the confidentiality and integrity of the TOE design and implementation that
is necessary to ensure that secure operation of the TOE is not compromised.
Additionally, sufficiency of the measures as applied is intended be justified.
13.5.2.2
Input
1092
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the development security documentation.
1093
In addition, the evaluator may need to examine other deliverables to
determine that the security controls are well-defined and followed.
Specifically, the evaluator may need to examine the developer's
configuration management documentation (the input for the Evaluation of
sub-activity (ALC_CMC.4) “Production support and acceptance procedures”
and the Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.4) “Problem tracking CM
coverage”). Evidence that the procedures are being applied is also required.
13.5.2.3
Action ALC_DVS.2.1E
ALC_DVS.2.1C
The development security documentation shall describe all the physical,
procedural, personnel, and other security measures that are necessary to
protect the confidentiality and integrity of the TOE design and
implementation in its development environment.
ALC_DVS.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the development security documentation to
determine that it details all security measures used in the development
environment that are necessary to protect the confidentiality and integrity of
the TOE design and implementation.
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1094
The evaluator determines what is necessary by first referring to the ST for
any information that may assist in the determination of necessary protection.
1095
If no explicit information is available from the ST the evaluator will need to
make a determination of the necessary measures. In cases where the
developer's measures are considered less than what is necessary, a clear
justification should be provided for the assessment, based on a potential
exploitable vulnerability.
1096
The following types of security measures are considered by the evaluator
when examining the documentation:
1097
a)
physical, for example physical access controls used to prevent
unauthorised access to the TOE development environment (during
normal working hours and at other times);
b)
procedural, for example covering:

granting of access to the development environment or to
specific parts of the environment such as development
machines

revocation of access rights when a person leaves the
development team

transfer of protected material out of the development
environment and between different development sites in
accordance with defined acceptance procedures

admitting and escorting visitors to the development
environment

roles and responsibilities in ensuring the continued
application of security measures, and the detection of security
breaches.
c)
personnel, for example any controls or checks made to establish the
trustworthiness of new development staff;
d)
other security measures, for example the logical protections on any
development machines.
The development security documentation should identify the locations at
which development occurs, and describe the aspects of development
performed, along with the security measures applied at each location and for
transports between different locations. For example, development could
occur at multiple facilities within a single building, multiple buildings at the
same site, or at multiple sites. Transports of parts of the TOE or the
unfinished TOE between different development sites are to be covered by the
Development security (ALC_DVS), whereas the transport of the finished
TOE to the consumer is dealt with in the Delivery (ALC_DEL).
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1098
Development includes the production of the TOE.
ALC_DVS.2.2C
The development security documentation shall justify that the security
measures provide the necessary level of protection to maintain the
confidentiality and integrity of the TOE.
ALC_DVS.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the development security documentation to
determine that an appropriate justification is given why the security measures
provide the necessary level of protection to maintain the confidentiality and
integrity of the TOE.
1099
Since attacks on the TOE or its related information are assumed in different
design and production stages, measures and procedures need to have an
appropriate level necessary to prevent those attacks or to make them more
difficult.
1100
Since this level depends on the overall attack potential claimed for the TOE
(cf. the Vulnerability analysis (AVA_VAN) component chosen), the
development security documentation should justify the necessary level of
protection to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of the TOE. This level
has to be achieved by the security measures applied.
1101
The concept of protection measures should be consistent, and the
justification should include an analysis of how the measures are mutually
supportive. All aspects of development and production on all the different
sites with all roles involved up to delivery of the TOE should be analysed.
1102
Justification may include an analysis of potential vulnerabilities taking the
applied security measures into account.
1103
There may be a convincing argument showing that e.g.

The technical measures and mechanisms of the developer's
infrastructure are sufficient for keeping the appropriate security level
(e.g. cryptographic mechanisms as well as physical protection
mechanisms, properties of the CM system (cf. ALC_CMC.4-5));

The system containing the implementation representation of the TOE
(including concerning guidance documents) provides effective
protection against logical attacks e.g. by “Trojan” code or viruses. It
might be adequate, if the implementation representation is kept on an
isolated system where only the software necessary to maintain it is
installed and where no additional software is installed afterwards.

Data brought into this system need to be carefully considered to
prevent the installation of hidden functionality onto the system. The
effectiveness of these measures need to be tested, e.g. by
independently trying to get access to the machine, install some
additional executable (program, macro etc.) or get some information
out of the machine using logical attacks.

The appropriate organisational (procedural and personal) measures
are unconditionally enforced.
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ALC_DVS.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the development confidentiality and integrity
policies in order to determine the sufficiency of the security measures
employed.
1104
The evaluator should examine whether the following is included in the
policies:
a)
what information relating to the TOE development needs to be kept
confidential, and which members of the development staff are
allowed to access such material;
b)
what material must be protected from unauthorised modification in
order to preserve the integrity of the TOE, and which members of the
development staff are allowed to modify such material.
1105
The evaluator should determine that these policies are described in the
development security documentation, that the security measures employed
are consistent with the policies, and that they are complete.
1106
It should be noted that configuration management procedures will help
protect the integrity of the TOE and the evaluator should avoid overlap with
the work-units conducted for the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC). For
example, the CM documentation may describe the security procedures
necessary for controlling the roles or individuals who should have access to
the development environment and who may modify the TOE.
1107
Whereas the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) requirements are fixed, those for
the Development security (ALC_DVS), mandating only necessary measures,
are dependent on the nature of the TOE, and on information that may be
provided in the ST. For example, the ST may identify a security objective for
the development environment that requires the TOE to be developed by staff
that has security clearance. The evaluators would then determine that such a
policy had been applied under this sub-activity.
13.5.2.4
Action ALC_DVS.2.2E
ALC_DVS.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the development security documentation and
associated evidence to determine that the security measures are being
applied.
1108
This work unit requires the evaluator to determine that the security measures
described in the development security documentation are being followed,
such that the integrity of the TOE and the confidentiality of associated
documentation is being adequately protected. For example, this could be
determined by examination of the documentary evidence provided.
Documentary evidence should be supplemented by visiting the development
environment. A visit to the development environment will allow the
evaluator to:
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a)
observe the application of security measures (e.g. physical measures);
b)
examine documentary evidence of application of procedures;
c)
interview development staff to check awareness of the development
security policies and procedures, and their responsibilities.
1109
A development site visit is a useful means of gaining confidence in the
measures being used. Any decision not to make such a visit should be
determined in consultation with the evaluation authority.
1110
For guidance on site visits see A.4, Site Visits.
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13.6
Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR)
13.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.1)
13.6.1.1
Objectives
1111
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
established flaw remediation procedures that describe the tracking of security
flaws, the identification of corrective actions, and the distribution of
corrective action information to TOE users.
13.6.1.2
Input
1112
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the flaw remediation procedures documentation.
13.6.1.3
Action ALC_FLR.1.1E
ALC_FLR.1.1C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
procedures used to track all reported security flaws in each release of the
TOE.
ALC_FLR.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes the procedures used to track all reported
security flaws in each release of the TOE.
1113
The procedures describe the actions that are taken by the developer from the
time each suspected security flaw is reported to the time that it is resolved.
This includes the flaw's entire time frame, from initial detection through
ascertaining that the flaw is a security flaw, to resolution of the security flaw.
1114
If a flaw is discovered not to be security-relevant, there is no need (for the
purposes of the Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR) requirements) for the flaw
remediation procedures to track it further; only that there be an explanation
of why the flaw is not security-relevant.
1115
While these requirements do not mandate that there be a publicised means
for TOE users to report security flaws, they do mandate that all security
flaws that are reported be tracked. That is, a reported security flaw cannot be
ignored simply because it comes from outside the developer's organisation.
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ALC_FLR.1.2C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that a description of the
nature and effect of each security flaw be provided, as well as the status of
finding a correction to that flaw.
ALC_FLR.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would produce a description of each
security flaw in terms of its nature and effects.
1116
The procedures identify the actions that are taken by the developer to
describe the nature and effects of each security flaw in sufficient detail to be
able to reproduce it. The description of the nature of a security flaw
addresses whether it is an error in the documentation, a flaw in the design of
the TSF, a flaw in the implementation of the TSF, etc. The description of the
security flaw's effects identifies the portions of the TSF that are affected and
how those portions are affected. For example, a security flaw in the
implementation might be found that affects the identification and
authentication enforced by the TSF by permitting authentication with the
password “BACK DOOR”.
ALC_FLR.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would identify the status of finding a
correction to each security flaw.
1117
The flaw remediation procedures identify the different stages of security
flaws. This differentiation includes at least: suspected security flaws that
have been reported, suspected security flaws that have been confirmed to be
security flaws, and security flaws whose solutions have been implemented. It
is permissible that additional stages (e.g. flaws that have been reported but
not yet investigated, flaws that are under investigation, security flaws for
which a solution has been found but not yet implemented) be included.
ALC_FLR.1.3C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that corrective actions be
identified for each of the security flaws.
ALC_FLR.1-4
The evaluator shall check the flaw remediation procedures to determine that
the application of these procedures would identify the corrective action for
each security flaw.
1118
Corrective action may consist of a repair to the hardware, firmware, or
software portions of the TOE, a modification of TOE guidance, or both.
Corrective action that constitutes modifications to TOE guidance (e.g. details
of procedural measures to be taken to obviate the security flaw) includes
both those measures serving as only an interim solution (until the repair is
issued) as well as those serving as a permanent solution (where it is
determined that the procedural measure is the best solution).
1119
If the source of the security flaw is a documentation error, the corrective
action consists of an update of the affected TOE guidance. If the corrective
action is a procedural measure, this measure will include an update made to
the affected TOE guidance to reflect these corrective procedures.
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ALC_FLR.1.4C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
methods used to provide flaw information, corrections and guidance on
corrective actions to TOE users.
ALC_FLR.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes a means of providing the TOE users with the
necessary information on each security flaw.
1120
The necessary information about each security flaw consists of its
description (not necessarily at the same level of detail as that provided as part
of work unit ALC_FLR.1-2), the prescribed corrective action, and any
associated guidance on implementing the correction.
1121
TOE users may be provided with such information, correction, and
documentation updates in any of several ways, such as their posting to a
website, their being sent to TOE users, or arrangements made for the
developer to install the correction. In cases where the means of providing this
information requires action to be initiated by the TOE user, the evaluator
examines any TOE guidance to ensure that it contains instructions for
retrieving the information.
1122
The only metric for assessing the adequacy of the method used for providing
the information, corrections and guidance is that there be a reasonable
expectation that TOE users can obtain or receive it. For example, consider
the method of dissemination where the requisite data is posted to a website
for one month, and the TOE users know that this will happen and when this
will happen. This may not be especially reasonable or effective (as, say, a
permanent posting to the website), yet it is feasible that the TOE user could
obtain the necessary information. On the other hand, if the information were
posted to the website for only one hour, yet TOE users had no way of
knowing this or when it would be posted, it is infeasible that they would ever
get the necessary information.
13.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.2)
13.6.2.1
Objectives
1123
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
established flaw remediation procedures that describe the tracking of security
flaws, the identification of corrective actions, and the distribution of
corrective action information to TOE users. Additionally, this sub-activity
determines whether the developer's procedures provide for the corrections of
security flaws, for the receipt of flaw reports from TOE users, and for
assurance that the corrections introduce no new security flaws.
1124
In order for the developer to be able to act appropriately upon security flaw
reports from TOE users, TOE users need to understand how to submit
security flaw reports to the developer, and developers need to know how to
receive these reports. Flaw remediation guidance addressed to the TOE user
ensures that TOE users are aware of how to communicate with the
developer; flaw remediation procedures describe the developer's role is such
communication
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13.6.2.2
Input
1125
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the flaw remediation procedures documentation;
b)
flaw remediation guidance documentation.
13.6.2.3
Action ALC_FLR.2.1E
ALC_FLR.2.1C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
procedures used to track all reported security flaws in each release of the
TOE.
ALC_FLR.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes the procedures used to track all reported
security flaws in each release of the TOE.
1126
The procedures describe the actions that are taken by the developer from the
time each suspected security flaw is reported to the time that it is resolved.
This includes the flaw's entire time frame, from initial detection through
ascertaining that the flaw is a security flaw, to resolution of the security flaw.
1127
If a flaw is discovered not to be security-relevant, there is no need (for the
purposes of the Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR) requirements) for the flaw
remediation procedures to track it further; only that there be an explanation
of why the flaw is not security-relevant.
ALC_FLR.2.2C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that a description of the
nature and effect of each security flaw be provided, as well as the status of
finding a correction to that flaw.
ALC_FLR.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would produce a description of each
security flaw in terms of its nature and effects.
1128
The procedures identify the actions that are taken by the developer to
describe the nature and effects of each security flaw in sufficient detail to be
able to reproduce it. The description of the nature of a security flaw
addresses whether it is an error in the documentation, a flaw in the design of
the TSF, a flaw in the implementation of the TSF, etc. The description of the
security flaw's effects identifies the portions of the TSF that are affected and
how those portions are affected. For example, a security flaw in the
implementation might be found that affects the identification and
authentication enforced by the TSF by permitting authentication with the
password “BACKDOOR”.
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ALC_FLR.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would identify the status of finding a
correction to each security flaw.
1129
The flaw remediation procedures identify the different stages of security
flaws. This differentiation includes at least: suspected security flaws that
have been reported, suspected security flaws that have been confirmed to be
security flaws, and security flaws whose solutions have been implemented. It
is permissible that additional stages (e.g. flaws that have been reported but
not yet investigated, flaws that are under investigation, security flaws for
which a solution has been found but not yet implemented) be included.
ALC_FLR.2.3C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that corrective actions be
identified for each of the security flaws.
ALC_FLR.2-4
The evaluator shall check the flaw remediation procedures to determine that
the application of these procedures would identify the corrective action for
each security flaw.
1130
Corrective action may consist of a repair to the hardware, firmware, or
software portions of the TOE, a modification of TOE guidance, or both.
Corrective action that constitutes modifications to TOE guidance (e.g. details
of procedural measures to be taken to obviate the security flaw) includes
both those measures serving as only an interim solution (until the repair is
issued) as well as those serving as a permanent solution (where it is
determined that the procedural measure is the best solution).
1131
If the source of the security flaw is a documentation error, the corrective
action consists of an update of the affected TOE guidance. If the corrective
action is a procedural measure, this measure will include an update made to
the affected TOE guidance to reflect these corrective procedures.
ALC_FLR.2.4C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
methods used to provide flaw information, corrections and guidance on
corrective actions to TOE users.
ALC_FLR.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes a means of providing the TOE users with the
necessary information on each security flaw.
1132
The necessary information about each security flaw consists of its
description (not necessarily at the same level of detail as that provided as part
of work unit ALC_FLR.2-2), the prescribed corrective action, and any
associated guidance on implementing the correction.
1133
TOE users may be provided with such information, correction, and
documentation updates in any of several ways, such as their posting to a
website, their being sent to TOE users, or arrangements made for the
developer to install the correction. In cases where the means of providing this
information requires action to be initiated by the TOE user, the evaluator
examines any TOE guidance to ensure that it contains instructions for
retrieving the information.
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1134
The only metric for assessing the adequacy of the method used for providing
the information, corrections and guidance is that there be a reasonable
expectation that TOE users can obtain or receive it. For example, consider
the method of dissemination where the requisite data is posted to a website
for one month, and the TOE users know that this will happen and when this
will happen. This may not be especially reasonable or effective (as, say, a
permanent posting to the website), yet it is feasible that the TOE user could
obtain the necessary information. On the other hand, if the information were
posted to the website for only one hour, yet TOE users had no way of
knowing this or when it would be posted, it is infeasible that they would ever
get the necessary information.
ALC_FLR.2.5C
The flaw remediation procedures shall describe a means by which the
developer receives from TOE users reports and enquiries of suspected
security flaws in the TOE.
ALC_FLR.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that they describe procedures for the developer to accept reports of security
flaws or requests for corrections to such flaws.
1135
The procedures ensure that TOE users have a means by which they can
communicate with the TOE developer. By having a means of contact with
the developer, the user can report security flaws, enquire about the status of
security flaws, or request corrections to flaws. This means of contact may be
part of a more general contact facility for reporting non-security related
problems.
1136
The use of these procedures is not restricted to TOE users; however, only the
TOE users are actively supplied with the details of these procedures. Others
who might have access to or familiarity with the TOE can use the same
procedures to submit reports to the developer, who is then expected to
process them. Any means of submitting reports to the developer, other than
those identified by the developer, are beyond the scope of this work unit;
reports generated by other means need not be addressed.
ALC_FLR.2.6C
The procedures for processing reported security flaws shall ensure that any
reported flaws are remediated and the remediation procedures issued to
TOE users.
ALC_FLR.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would help to ensure every reported
flaw is corrected.
1137
The flaw remediation procedures cover not only those security flaws
discovered and reported by developer personnel, but also those reported by
TOE users. The procedures are sufficiently detailed so that they describe
how it is ensured that each reported security flaw is corrected. The
procedures contain reasonable steps that show progress leading to the
eventual, inevitable resolution.
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1138
The procedures describe the process that is taken from the point at which the
suspected security flaw is determined to be a security flaw to the point at
which it is resolved.
ALC_FLR.2-8
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would help to ensure that the TOE
users are issued remediation procedures for each security flaw.
1139
The procedures describe the process that is taken from the point at which a
security flaw is resolved to the point at which the remediation procedures are
provided. The procedures for delivering corrective actions should be
consistent with the security objectives; they need not necessarily be identical
to the procedures used for delivering the TOE, as documented to meet
ALC_DEL, if included in the assurance requirements. For example, if the
hardware portion of a TOE were originally delivered by bonded courier,
updates to hardware resulting from flaw remediation would likewise be
expected to be distributed by bonded courier. Updates unrelated to flaw
remediation would follow the procedures set forth in the documentation
meeting the Delivery (ALC_DEL) requirements.
ALC_FLR.2.7C
The procedures for processing reported security flaws shall provide
safeguards that any corrections to these security flaws do not introduce
any new flaws.
ALC_FLR.2-9
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would result in safeguards that the
potential correction contains no adverse effects.
1140
Through analysis, testing, or a combination of the two, the developer may
reduce the likelihood that adverse effects will be introduced when a security
flaw is corrected. The evaluator assesses whether the procedures provide
detail in how the necessary mix of analysis and testing actions is to be
determined for a given correction.
1141
The evaluator also determines that, for instances where the source of the
security flaw is a documentation problem, the procedures include the means
of safeguarding against the introduction of contradictions with other
documentation.
ALC_FLR.2.8C
The flaw remediation guidance shall describe a means by which TOE
users report to the developer any suspected security flaws in the TOE.
ALC_FLR.2-10
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation guidance to determine that
the application of these procedures would result in a means for the TOE user
to provide reports of suspected security flaws or requests for corrections to
such flaws.
1142
The guidance ensures that TOE users have a means by which they can
communicate with the TOE developer. By having a means of contact with
the developer, the user can report security flaws, enquire about the status of
security flaws, or request corrections to flaws.
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13.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_FLR.3)
13.6.3.1
Objectives
1143
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
established flaw remediation procedures that describe the tracking of security
flaws, the identification of corrective actions, and the distribution of
corrective action information to TOE users. Additionally, this sub-activity
determines whether the developer's procedures provide for the corrections of
security flaws, for the receipt of flaw reports from TOE users, for assurance
that the corrections introduce no new security flaws, for the establishment of
a point of contact for each TOE user, and for the timely issue of corrective
actions to TOE users.
1144
In order for the developer to be able to act appropriately upon security flaw
reports from TOE users, TOE users need to understand how to submit
security flaw reports to the developer, and developers need to know how to
receive these reports. Flaw remediation guidance addressed to the TOE user
ensures that TOE users are aware of how to communicate with the
developer; flaw remediation procedures describe the developer's role is such
communication.
13.6.3.2
Input
1145
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the flaw remediation procedures documentation;
b)
flaw remediation guidance documentation.
13.6.3.3
Action ALC_FLR.3.1E
ALC_FLR.3.1C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
procedures used to track all reported security flaws in each release of the
TOE.
ALC_FLR.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes the procedures used to track all reported
security flaws in each release of the TOE.
1146
The procedures describe the actions that are taken by the developer from the
time each suspected security flaw is reported to the time that it is resolved.
This includes the flaw's entire time frame, from initial detection through
ascertaining that the flaw is a security flaw, to resolution of the security flaw.
1147
If a flaw is discovered not to be security-relevant, there is no need (for the
purposes of the Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR) requirements) for the flaw
remediation procedures to track it further; only that there be an explanation
of why the flaw is not security-relevant.
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ALC_FLR.3.2C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that a description of the
nature and effect of each security flaw be provided, as well as the status of
finding a correction to that flaw.
ALC_FLR.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would produce a description of each
security flaw in terms of its nature and effects.
1148
The procedures identify the actions that are taken by the developer to
describe the nature and effects of each security flaw in sufficient detail to be
able to reproduce it. The description of the nature of a security flaw
addresses whether it is an error in the documentation, a flaw in the design of
the TSF, a flaw in the implementation of the TSF, etc. The description of the
security flaw's effects identifies the portions of the TSF that are affected and
how those portions are affected. For example, a security flaw in the
implementation might be found that affects the identification and
authentication enforced by the TSF by permitting authentication with the
password “BACKDOOR”.
ALC_FLR.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would identify the status of finding a
correction to each security flaw.
1149
The flaw remediation procedures identify the different stages of security
flaws. This differentiation includes at least: suspected security flaws that
have been reported, suspected security flaws that have been confirmed to be
security flaws, and security flaws whose solutions have been implemented. It
is permissible that additional stages (e.g. flaws that have been reported but
not yet investigated, flaws that are under investigation, security flaws for
which a solution has been found but not yet implemented) be included.
ALC_FLR.3.3C
The flaw remediation procedures shall require that corrective actions be
identified for each of the security flaws.
ALC_FLR.3-4
The evaluator shall check the flaw remediation procedures to determine that
the application of these procedures would identify the corrective action for
each security flaw.
1150
Corrective action may consist of a repair to the hardware, firmware, or
software portions of the TOE, a modification of TOE guidance, or both.
Corrective action that constitutes modifications to TOE guidance (e.g. details
of procedural measures to be taken to obviate the security flaw) includes
both those measures serving as only an interim solution (until the repair is
issued) as well as those serving as a permanent solution (where it is
determined that the procedural measure is the best solution).
1151
If the source of the security flaw is a documentation error, the corrective
action consists of an update of the affected TOE guidance. If the corrective
action is a procedural measure, this measure will include an update made to
the affected TOE guidance to reflect these corrective procedures.
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ALC_FLR.3.4C
The flaw remediation procedures documentation shall describe the
methods used to provide flaw information, corrections and guidance on
corrective actions to TOE users.
ALC_FLR.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures documentation
to determine that it describes a means of providing the TOE users with the
necessary information on each security flaw.
1152
The necessary information about each security flaw consists of its
description (not necessarily at the same level of detail as that provided as part
of work unit ALC_FLR.3-2), the prescribed corrective action, and any
associated guidance on implementing the correction.
1153
TOE users may be provided with such information, correction, and
documentation updates in any of several ways, such as their posting to a
website, their being sent to TOE users, or arrangements made for the
developer to install the correction. In cases where the means of providing this
information requires action to be initiated by the TOE user, the evaluator
examines any TOE guidance to ensure that it contains instructions for
retrieving the information.
1154
The only metric for assessing the adequacy of the method used for providing
the information, corrections and guidance is that there be a reasonable
expectation that TOE users can obtain or receive it. For example, consider
the method of dissemination where the requisite data is posted to a website
for one month, and the TOE users know that this will happen and when this
will happen. This may not be especially reasonable or effective (as, say, a
permanent posting to the website), yet it is feasible that the TOE user could
obtain the necessary information. On the other hand, if the information were
posted to the website for only one hour, yet TOE users had no way of
knowing this or when it would be posted, it is infeasible that they would ever
get the necessary information.
1155
For TOE users who register with the developer (see work unit ALC_FLR.312), the passive availability of this information is not sufficient. Developers
must actively send the information (or a notification of its availability) to
registered TOE users.
ALC_FLR.3.5C
The flaw remediation procedures shall describe a means by which the
developer receives from TOE users reports and enquiries of suspected
security flaws in the TOE.
ALC_FLR.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would result in a means for the
developer to receive from TOE user reports of suspected security flaws or
requests for corrections to such flaws.
1156
The procedures ensure that TOE users have a means by which they can
communicate with the TOE developer. By having a means of contact with
the developer, the user can report security flaws, enquire about the status of
security flaws, or request corrections to flaws. This means of contact may be
part of a more general contact facility for reporting non-security related
problems.
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1157
The use of these procedures is not restricted to TOE users; however, only the
TOE users are actively supplied with the details of these procedures. Others
who might have access to or familiarity with the TOE can use the same
procedures to submit reports to the developer, who is then expected to
process them. Any means of submitting reports to the developer, other than
those identified by the developer, are beyond the scope of this work unit;
reports generated by other means need not be addressed.
ALC_FLR.3.6C
The flaw remediation procedures shall include a procedure requiring
timely response and the automatic distribution of security flaw reports and
the associated corrections to registered users who might be affected by the
security flaw.
ALC_FLR.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would result in a timely means of
providing the registered TOE users who might be affected with reports
about, and associated corrections to, each security flaw.
1158
The issue of timeliness applies to the issuance of both security flaw reports
and the associated corrections. However, these need not be issued at the
same time. It is recognised that flaw reports should be generated and issued
as soon as an interim solution is found, even if that solution is as drastic as
turn off the TOE. Likewise, when a more permanent (and less drastic)
solution is found, it should be issued without undue delay.
1159
It is unnecessary to restrict the recipients of the reports and associated
corrections to only those TOE users who might be affected by the security
flaw; it is permissible that all TOE users be given such reports and
corrections for all security flaws, provided such is done in a timely manner.
ALC_FLR.3-8
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would result in automatic distribution
of the reports and associated corrections to the registered TOE users who
might be affected.
1160
Automatic distribution does not mean that human interaction with the
distribution method is not permitted. In fact, the distribution method could
consist entirely of manual procedures, perhaps through a closely monitored
procedure with prescribed escalation upon the lack of issue of reports or
corrections.
1161
It is unnecessary to restrict the recipients of the reports and associated
corrections to only those TOE users who might be affected by the security
flaw; it is permissible that all TOE users be given such reports and
corrections for all security flaws, provided such is done automatically.
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ALC_FLR.3.7C
The procedures for processing reported security flaws shall ensure that any
reported flaws are remediated and the remediation procedures issued to
TOE users.
ALC_FLR.3-9
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would help to ensure that every
reported flaw is corrected.
1162
The flaw remediation procedures cover not only those security flaws
discovered and reported by developer personnel, but also those reported by
TOE users. The procedures are sufficiently detailed so that they describe
how it is ensured that each reported security flaw is remediated. The
procedures contain reasonable steps that show progress leading to the
eventual, inevitable resolution.
1163
The procedures describe the process that is taken from the point at which the
suspected security flaw is determined to be a security flaw to the point at
which it is resolved.
ALC_FLR.3-10
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would help to ensure that the TOE
users are issued remediation procedures for each security flaw.
1164
The procedures describe the process that is taken from the point at which a
security flaw is resolved to the point at which the remediation procedures are
provided. The procedures for delivering remediation procedures should be
consistent with the security objectives; they need not necessarily be identical
to the procedures used for delivering the TOE, as documented to meet
Delivery (ALC_DEL), if included in the assurance requirements. For
example, if the hardware portion of a TOE were originally delivered by
bonded courier, updates to hardware resulting from flaw remediation would
likewise be expected to be distributed by bonded courier. Updates unrelated
to flaw remediation would follow the procedures set forth in the
documentation meeting the Delivery (ALC_DEL) requirements.
ALC_FLR.3.8C
The procedures for processing reported security flaws shall provide
safeguards that any corrections to these security flaws do not introduce
any new flaws.
ALC_FLR.3-11
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation procedures to determine
that the application of these procedures would result in safeguards that the
potential correction contains no adverse effects.
1165
Through analysis, testing, or a combination of the two, the developer may
reduce the likelihood that adverse effects will be introduced when a security
flaw is corrected. The evaluator assesses whether the procedures provide
detail in how the necessary mix of analysis and testing actions is to be
determined for a given correction.
1166
The evaluator also determines that, for instances where the source of the
security flaw is a documentation problem, the procedures include the means
of safeguarding against the introduction of contradictions with other
documentation.
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ALC_FLR.3.9C
The flaw remediation guidance shall describe a means by which TOE
users report to the developer any suspected security flaws in the TOE.
ALC_FLR.3-12
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation guidance to determine that
the application of these procedures would result in a means for the TOE user
to provide reports of suspected security flaws or requests for corrections to
such flaws.
1167
The guidance ensures that TOE users have a means by which they can
communicate with the TOE developer. By having a means of contact with
the developer, the user can report security flaws, enquire about the status of
security flaws, or request corrections to flaws.
ALC_FLR.3.10C
The flaw remediation guidance shall describe a means by which TOE
users may register with the developer, to be eligible to receive security flaw
reports and corrections.
ALC_FLR.3-13
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation guidance to determine that
it describes a means of enabling the TOE users to register with the developer.
1168
Enabling the TOE users to register with the developer simply means having
a way for each TOE user to provide the developer with a point of contact;
this point of contact is to be used to provide the TOE user with information
related to security flaws that might affect that TOE user, along with any
corrections to the security flaw. Registering the TOE user may be
accomplished as part of the standard procedures that TOE users undergo to
identify themselves to the developer, for the purposes of registering a
software licence, or for obtaining update and other useful information.
1169
There need not be one registered TOE user per installation of the TOE; it
would be sufficient if there were one registered TOE user for an
organisation. For example, a corporate TOE user might have a centralised
acquisition office for all of its sites. In this case, the acquisition office would
be a sufficient point of contact for all of that TOE user's sites, so that all of
the TOE user's installations of the TOE have a registered point of contact.
1170
In either case, it must be possible to associate each TOE that is delivered
with an organisation in order to ensure that there is a registered user for each
TOE. For organisations that have many different addresses, this assures that
there will be no user who is erroneously presumed to be covered by a
registered TOE user.
1171
It should be noted that TOE users need not register; they must only be
provided with a means of doing so. However, users who choose to register
must be directly sent the information (or a notification of its availability).
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ALC_FLR.3.11C
The flaw remediation guidance shall identify the specific points of contact
for all reports and enquiries about security issues involving the TOE.
ALC_FLR.3-14
The evaluator shall examine the flaw remediation guidance to determine that
it identifies specific points of contact for user reports and enquiries about
security issues involving the TOE.
1172
The guidance includes a means whereby registered TOE users can interact
with the developer to report discovered security flaws in the TOE or to make
enquiries regarding discovered security flaws in the TOE.
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13.7
Life-cycle definition (ALC_LCD)
13.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_LCD.1)
13.7.1.1
Objectives
1173
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
used a documented model of the TOE life-cycle.
13.7.1.2
Input
1174
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the life-cycle definition documentation.
13.7.1.3
Action ALC_LCD.1.1E
ALC_LCD.1.1C
The life-cycle definition documentation shall describe the model used to
develop and maintain the TOE.
ALC_LCD.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the documented description of the life-cycle
model used to determine that it covers the development and maintenance
process.
1175
The description of the life-cycle model should include:
1176
a)
information on the life-cycle phases of the TOE and the boundaries
between the subsequent phases;
b)
information on the procedures, tools and techniques used by the
developer (e.g. for design, coding, testing, bug-fixing);
c)
overall management structure governing the application of the
procedures (e.g. an identification and description of the individual
responsibilities for each of the procedures required by the
development and maintenance process covered by the life-cycle
model);
d)
information on which parts of the TOE are delivered by
subcontractors, if subcontractors are involved.
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_LCD.1) does not require the model used to
conform to any standard life-cycle model.
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ALC_LCD.1.2C
The life-cycle model shall provide for the necessary control over the
development and maintenance of the TOE.
ALC_LCD.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the life-cycle model to determine that use of the
procedures, tools and techniques described by the life-cycle model will make
the necessary positive contribution to the development and maintenance of
the TOE.
1177
The information provided in the life-cycle model gives the evaluator
assurance that the development and maintenance procedures adopted would
minimise the likelihood of security flaws. For example, if the life-cycle
model described the review process, but did not make provision for
recording changes to components, then the evaluator may be less confident
that errors will not be introduced into the TOE. The evaluator may gain
further assurance by comparing the description of the model against an
understanding of the development process gleaned from performing other
evaluator actions relating to the TOE development (e.g. those covered under
the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC)). Identified deficiencies in the life-cycle
model will be of concern if they might reasonably be expected to give rise to
the introduction of flaws into the TOE, either accidentally or deliberately.
1178
The CC does not mandate any particular development approach, and each
should be judged on merit. For example, spiral, rapid-prototyping and
waterfall approaches to design can all be used to produce a quality TOE if
applied in a controlled environment.
13.7.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_LCD.2)
13.7.2.1
Objectives
1179
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
used a documented and measurable model of the TOE life-cycle.
13.7.2.2
Input
1180
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the life-cycle definition documentation;
c)
information about the standard used;
d)
the life-cycle output documentation.
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13.7.2.3
Action ALC_LCD.2.1E
ALC_LCD.2.1C
The life-cycle definition documentation shall describe the model used to
develop and maintain the TOE, including the details of its arithmetic
parameters and/or metrics used to measure the quality of the TOE and/or
its development.
ALC_LCD.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the documented description of the life-cycle
model used to determine that it covers the development and maintenance
process, including the details of its arithmetic parameters and/or metrics used
to measure the TOE development.
1181
The description of the life-cycle model includes:
a)
information on the life-cycle phases of the TOE and the boundaries
between the subsequent phases;
b)
information on the procedures, tools and techniques used by the
developer (e.g. for design, coding, testing, bug-fixing);
c)
overall management structure governing the application of the
procedures (e.g. an identification and description of the individual
responsibilities for each of the procedures required by the
development and maintenance process covered by the life-cycle
model);
d)
information on which parts of the TOE are delivered by
subcontractors, if subcontractors are involved;
e)
information on the parameters/metrics that are used to measure the
TOE development. Metrics standards typically include guides for
measuring and producing reliable products and cover the aspects
reliability, quality, performance, complexity and cost. For the
evaluation all those metrics are of relevance, which are used to
increase quality by decreasing the probability of faults and thereby in
turn increase assurance in the security of the TOE.
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ALC_LCD.2.2C
The life-cycle model shall provide for the necessary control over the
development and maintenance of the TOE.
ALC_LCD.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the life-cycle model to determine that use of the
procedures, tools and techniques described by the life-cycle model will make
the necessary positive contribution to the development and maintenance of
the TOE.
1182
The information provided in the life-cycle model gives the evaluator
assurance that the development and maintenance procedures adopted would
minimise the likelihood of security flaws. For example, if the life-cycle
model described the review process, but did not make provision for
recording changes to components, then the evaluator may be less confident
that errors will not be introduced into the TOE. The evaluator may gain
further assurance by comparing the description of the model against an
understanding of the development process gleaned from performing other
evaluator actions relating to the TOE development (e.g. those covered under
the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC)). Identified deficiencies in the life-cycle
model will be of concern if they might reasonably be expected to give rise to
the introduction of flaws into the TOE, either accidentally or deliberately.
1183
The CC does not mandate any particular development approach, and each
should be judged on merit. For example, spiral, rapid-prototyping and
waterfall approaches to design can all be used to produce a quality TOE if
applied in a controlled environment.
1184
For the metrics/measurements used in the life-cycle model, evidence has to
be provided that shows how those metrics/measurements usefully contribute
to the minimisation of the likelihood of flaws. This can be viewed as the
overall goal for measurement in an ALC context. As a consequence the
metrics/measurements have to be selected based on their capability to
achieve that overall goal or contribute to that. In the first place a
metric/measure is suitable with respect to ALC if a correlation between the
metric/measure and the number of flaws can be stated with a certain degree
of reliability. But also a metric/measure useful for management purposes as
for planning and monitoring the TOE development are helpful since badly
managed projects are endangered to produce bad quality and to introduce
flaws.
1185
It may be possible to use metrics for quality improvement, for which this use
is not obvious. For example a metric to estimate the expected cost of a
product development may help quality, if the developer can show that this is
used to provide an adequate budget for development projects and that this
helps to avoid quality problems arising from resource shortages.
1186
It is not required that every single step in the life cycle of the TOE is
measurable. However the evaluator should see from the description of the
measures and procedures that the metrics are appropriate to control the
overall quality of the TOE and to minimise possible security flaws by this.
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ALC_LCD.2.3C
The life-cycle output documentation shall provide the results of the
measurements of the TOE development using the measurable life-cycle
model.
ALC_LCD.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the life-cycle output documentation to
determine that it provides the results of the measurements of the TOE
development using the measurable life-cycle model.
1187
The output documentation not only includes numeric values of the metrics
but also documents actions taken as a result of the measurements and in
accordance with the model. For example there may be a requirement that a
certain design phase needs to be repeated, if some error rates measured
during testing are outside of a defined threshold. In this case the
documentation should show that such action was taken, if indeed the
thresholds were not met.
1188
The output documentation should not only include numeric values of the
metrics but should also document actions taken as a result of the
measurements and in accordance with the model. For example there may be
a requirement that a certain design phase needs to be repeated, if some error
rates measured during testing are outside of a defined threshold. In this case
the documentation should show that such action was taken, if indeed the
thresholds were not met.
1189
If the evaluation is conducted in parallel with the development of the TOE it
may be possible that quality measurements have not been used in the past. In
this case the evaluator should use the documentation of the planned
procedures in order to gain confidence that corrective actions are defined if
results of quality measurements deviate from some threshold.
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13.8
Tools and techniques (ALC_TAT)
13.8.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.1)
13.8.1.1
Objectives
1190
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
used well-defined development tools (e.g. programming languages or
computer-aided design (CAD) systems) that yield consistent and predictable
results.
13.8.1.2
Input
1191
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the development tool documentation;
b)
the subset of the implementation representation.
13.8.1.3
Application notes
1192
This work may be performed in parallel with the evaluation activities under
Implementation representation (ADV_IMP), specifically with regard to
determining the use of features in the tools that will affect the object code
(e.g. compilation options).
13.8.1.4
Action ALC_TAT.1.1E
ALC_TAT.1.1C
Each development tool used for implementation shall be well-defined.
ALC_TAT.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation provided
to determine that each development tools is well-defined.
1193
For example, a well-defined language, compiler or CAD system may be
considered to be one that conforms to a recognised standard, such as the ISO
standards. A well-defined language is one that has a clear and complete
description of its syntax, and a detailed description of the semantics of each
construct.
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ALC_TAT.1.2C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all statements as well as all conventions and directives used
in the implementation.
ALC_TAT.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the documentation of each development tool to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all statements as
well as all conventions and directives used in the implementation.
1194
The development tool documentation (e.g. programming language
specifications and user manuals) should cover all statements used in the
implementation representation of the TOE, and for each such statement
should provide a clear and unambiguous definition of the purpose and effect
of that statement. This work may be performed in parallel with the
evaluator's examination of the implementation representation performed
during the ADV_IMP sub-activity. The key test the evaluator should apply is
whether or not the documentation is sufficiently clear for the evaluator to be
able to understand the implementation representation. The documentation
should not assume (for example) that the reader is an expert in the
programming language used.
1195
Reference to the use of a documented standard is an acceptable approach to
meet this requirement, provided that the standard is available to the
evaluator. Any differences from the standard should be documented.
1196
The critical test is whether the evaluator can understand the TOE source code
when performing source code analysis covered in the ADV_IMP subactivity. However, the following checklist can additionally be used in
searching for problem areas:
a)
In the language definition, phrases such as “the effect of this
construct is undefined” and terms such as “implementation
dependent” or “erroneous” may indicate ill-defined areas.
b)
Aliasing (allowing the same piece of memory to be referenced in
different ways) is a common source of ambiguity problems.
c)
Exception handling (e.g. what happens after memory exhaustion or
stack overflow) is often poorly defined.
1197
Most languages in common use, however well designed, will have some
problematic constructs. If the implementation language is mostly well
defined, but some problematic constructs exist, then an inconclusive verdict
should be assigned, pending examination of the source code.
1198
The evaluator should verify, during the examination of source code, that any
use of the problematic constructs does not introduce vulnerabilities. The
evaluator should also ensure that constructs precluded by the documented
standard are not used.
1199
The development tool documentation should define all conventions and
directives used in the implementation.
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ALC_TAT.1.3C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all implementation-dependent options.
ALC_TAT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all implementationdependent options.
1200
The documentation of software development tools should include definitions
of implementation-dependent options that may affect the meaning of the
executable code, and those that are different from the standard language as
documented. Where source code is provided to the evaluator, information
should also be provided on compilation and linking options used.
1201
The documentation for hardware design and development tools should
describe the use of all options that affect the output from the tools (e.g.
detailed hardware specifications, or actual hardware).
13.8.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.2)
13.8.2.1
Objectives
1202
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
used well-defined development tools (e.g. programming languages or
computer-aided design (CAD) systems) that yield consistent and predictable
results, and whether implementation standards have been applied.
13.8.2.2
Input
1203
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the development tool documentation;
b)
the implementation standards description;
c)
the provided implementation representation of the TSF.
13.8.2.3
Application notes
1204
This work may be performed in parallel with the evaluation activities under
ADV_IMP, specifically with regard to determining the use of features in the
tools that will affect the object code (e.g. compilation options).
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13.8.2.4
Action ALC_TAT.2.1E
ALC_TAT.2.1C
Each development tool used for implementation shall be well-defined.
ALC_TAT.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation provided
to determine that each development tool is well-defined.
1205
For example, a well-defined language, compiler or CAD system may be
considered to be one that conforms to a recognised standard, such as the ISO
standards. A well-defined language is one that has a clear and complete
description of its syntax, and a detailed description of the semantics of each
construct.
ALC_TAT.2.2C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all statements as well as all conventions and directives used
in the implementation.
ALC_TAT.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the documentation of each development tool to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all statements as
well as all conventions and directives used in the implementation.
1206
The development tool documentation (e.g. programming language
specifications and user manuals) should cover all statements used in the
implementation representation of the TOE, and for each such statement
should provide a clear and unambiguous definition of the purpose and effect
of that statement. This work may be performed in parallel with the
evaluator's examination of the implementation representation performed
during the ADV_IMP sub-activity. The key test the evaluator should apply is
whether or not the documentation is sufficiently clear for the evaluator to be
able to understand the implementation representation. The documentation
should not assume (for example) that the reader is an expert in the
programming language used.
1207
Reference to the use of a documented standard is an acceptable approach to
meet this requirement, provided that the standard is available to the
evaluator. Any differences from the standard should be documented.
1208
The critical test is whether the evaluator can understand the TOE source code
when performing source code analysis covered in the ADV_IMP subactivity. However, the following checklist can additionally be used in
searching for problem areas:
a)
In the language definition, phrases such as “the effect of this
construct is undefined” and terms such as “implementation
dependent” or “erroneous” may indicate ill-defined areas.
b)
Aliasing (allowing the same piece of memory to be referenced in
different ways) is a common source of ambiguity problems.
c)
Exception handling (e.g. what happens after memory exhaustion or
stack overflow) is often poorly defined.
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1209
Most languages in common use, however well designed, will have some
problematic constructs. If the implementation language is mostly well
defined, but some problematic constructs exist, then an inconclusive verdict
should be assigned, pending examination of the source code.
1210
The evaluator should verify, during the examination of source code, that any
use of the problematic constructs does not introduce vulnerabilities. The
evaluator should also ensure that constructs precluded by the documented
standard are not used.
1211
The development tool documentation should define all conventions and
directives used in the implementation.
ALC_TAT.2.3C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all implementation-dependent options.
ALC_TAT.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all implementationdependent options.
1212
The documentation of software development tools should include definitions
of implementation-dependent options that may affect the meaning of the
executable code, and those that are different from the standard language as
documented. Where source code is provided to the evaluator, information
should also be provided on compilation and linking options used.
1213
The documentation for hardware design and development tools should
describe the use of all options that affect the output from the tools (e.g.
detailed hardware specifications, or actual hardware).
13.8.2.5
Action ALC_TAT.2.2E
ALC_TAT.2-4
The evaluator shall examine aspects of the implementation process to
determine that documented implementation standards have been applied.
1214
This work unit requires the evaluator to analyse the provided implementation
representation of the TOE to determine whether the documented
implementation standards have been applied.
1215
The evaluator should verify that constructs excluded by the documented
standard are not used.
1216
Additionally, the evaluator should verify the developer's procedures which
ensure the application of the defined standards within the design and
implementation process of the TOE. Therefore, documentary evidence
should be supplemented by visiting the development environment. A visit to
the development environment will allow the evaluator to:
a)
observe the application of defined standards;
b)
examine documentary evidence of application of procedures
describing the use of defined standards;
c)
interview development staff to check awareness of the application of
defined standards and procedures.
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1217
A development site visit is a useful means of gaining confidence in the
procedures being used. Any decision not to make such a visit should be
determined in consultation with the evaluation authority.
1218
The evaluator compares the provided implementation representation with the
description of the applied implementation standards and verifies their use.
1219
At this level it is not required that the complete provided implementation
representation of the TSF is based on implementation standards, but only
those parts that are developed by the TOE developer himself. The evaluator
may consult the configuration list required by the CM scope (ALC_CMS) to
get the information which parts are developed by the TOE developer, and
which by third party developers.
1220
If the referenced implementation standards are not applied for at least parts
of the provided implementation representation, the evaluator action related to
this work unit is assigned a fail verdict.
1221
Note that parts of the TOE which are not TSF relevant do not need to be
examined.
1222
This work unit may be performed in conjunction with the evaluation
activities under ADV_IMP.
13.8.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_TAT.3)
13.8.3.1
Objectives
1223
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer and
his subcontractors have used well-defined development tools (e.g.
programming languages or computer-aided design (CAD) systems) that yield
consistent and predictable results, and whether implementation standards
have been applied.
13.8.3.2
Input
1224
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the development tool documentation;
b)
the implementation standards description;
c)
the provided implementation representation of the TSF.
13.8.3.3
Application notes
1225
This work may be performed in parallel with the evaluation activities under
ADV_IMP, specifically with regard to determining the use of features in the
tools that will affect the object code (e.g. compilation options).
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13.8.3.4
Action ALC_TAT.3.1E
ALC_TAT.3.1C
Each development tool used for implementation shall be well-defined.
ALC_TAT.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation provided
to determine that each development tool is well-defined.
1226
For example, a well-defined language, compiler or CAD system may be
considered to be one that conforms to a recognised standard, such as the ISO
standards. A well-defined language is one that has a clear and complete
description of its syntax, and a detailed description of the semantics of each
construct.
1227
At this level, the documentation of development tools used by third party
contributors to the TOE has to be included in the evaluator's examination.
ALC_TAT.3.2C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all statements as well as all conventions and directives used
in the implementation.
ALC_TAT.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the documentation of each development tool to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all statements as
well as all conventions and directives used in the implementation.
1228
The development tool documentation (e.g. programming language
specifications and user manuals) should cover all statements used in the
implementation representation of the TOE, and for each such statement
should provide a clear and unambiguous definition of the purpose and effect
of that statement. This work may be performed in parallel with the
evaluator's examination of the implementation representation performed
during the ADV_IMP sub-activity. The key test the evaluator should apply is
whether or not the documentation is sufficiently clear for the evaluator to be
able to understand the implementation representation. The documentation
should not assume (for example) that the reader is an expert in the
programming language used.
1229
Reference to the use of a documented standard is an acceptable approach to
meet this requirement, provided that the standard is available to the
evaluator. Any differences from the standard should be documented.
1230
The critical test is whether the evaluator can understand the TOE source code
when performing source code analysis covered in the ADV_IMP subactivity. However, the following checklist can additionally be used in
searching for problem areas:
a)
In the language definition, phrases such as “the effect of this
construct is undefined” and terms such as “implementation
dependent” or “erroneous” may indicate ill-defined areas.
b)
Aliasing (allowing the same piece of memory to be referenced in
different ways) is a common source of ambiguity problems.
c)
Exception handling (e.g. what happens after memory exhaustion or
stack overflow) is often poorly defined.
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1231
Most languages in common use, however well designed, will have some
problematic constructs. If the implementation language is mostly well
defined, but some problematic constructs exist, then an inconclusive verdict
should be assigned, pending examination of the source code.
1232
The evaluator should verify, during the examination of source code, that any
use of the problematic constructs does not introduce vulnerabilities. The
evaluator should also ensure that constructs precluded by the documented
standard are not used.
1233
The development tool documentation should define all conventions and
directives used in the implementation.
1234
At this level, the documentation of development tools used by third party
contributors to the TOE has to be included in the evaluator's examination.
ALC_TAT.3.3C
The documentation of each development tool shall unambiguously define
the meaning of all implementation-dependent options.
ALC_TAT.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the development tool documentation to
determine that it unambiguously defines the meaning of all implementationdependent options.
1235
The documentation of software development tools should include definitions
of implementation-dependent options that may affect the meaning of the
executable code, and those that are different from the standard language as
documented. Where source code is provided to the evaluator, information
should also be provided on compilation and linking options used.
1236
The documentation for hardware design and development tools should
describe the use of all options that affect the output from the tools (e.g.
detailed hardware specifications, or actual hardware).
1237
At this level, the documentation of development tools used by third party
contributors to the TOE has to be included in the evaluator's examination.
13.8.3.5
Action ALC_TAT.3.2E
ALC_TAT.3-4
The evaluator shall examine aspects of the implementation process to
determine that documented implementation standards have been applied.
1238
This work unit requires the evaluator to analyse the provided implementation
representation of the TOE to determine whether the documented
implementation standards have been applied.
1239
The evaluator should verify that constructs excluded by the documented
standard are not used.
1240
Additionally, the evaluator should verify the developer's procedures which
ensure the application of the defined standards within the design and
implementation process of the TOE. Therefore, documentary evidence
should be supplemented by visiting the development environment. A visit to
the development environment will allow the evaluator to:
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a)
observe the application of defined standards;
b)
examine documentary evidence of application of procedures
describing the use of defined standards;
c)
interview development staff to check awareness of the application of
defined standards and procedures.
1241
A development site visit is a useful means of gaining confidence in the
procedures being used. Any decision not to make such a visit should be
determined in consultation with the evaluation authority.
1242
The evaluator compares the provided implementation representation with the
description of the applied implementation standards and verifies their use.
1243
At this level it is required that the complete provided implementation
representation of the TSF is based on implementation standards, including
third party contributions. This may require the evaluator to visit the sites of
contributors. The evaluator may consult the configuration list required by the
CM scope (ALC_CMS) to see who has developed which part of the TOE.
1244
Note that parts of the TOE which are not TSF relevant do not need to be
examined.
1245
This work unit may be performed in conjunction with the evaluation
activities under ADV_IMP.
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14
Class ATE: Tests
14.1
Introduction
1246
The goal of this activity is to determine whether the TOE behaves as
described in the ST and as specified in the evaluation evidence (described in
the ADV class). This determination is achieved through some combination of
the developer's own functional testing of the TSF (Functional tests
(ATE_FUN)) and independent testing the TSF by the evaluator (Independent
testing (ATE_IND)). At the lowest level of assurance, there is no
requirement for developer involvement, so the only testing is conducted by
the evaluator, using the limited available information about the TOE.
Additional assurance is gained as the developer becomes increasingly
involved both in testing and in providing additional information about the
TOE, and as the evaluator increases the independent testing activities.
14.2
Application notes
1247
Testing of the TSF is conducted by the evaluator and, in most cases, by the
developer. The evaluator's testing efforts consist not only of creating and
running original tests, but also of assessing the adequacy of the developer's
tests and re-running a subset of them.
1248
The evaluator analyses the developer's tests to determine the extent to which
they are sufficient to demonstrate that TSFI (see Functional specification
(ADV_FSP)) perform as specified, and to understand the developer's
approach to testing. Similarly, the evaluator analyses the developer's tests to
determine the extent to which they are sufficient to demonstrate the internal
behaviour and properties of the TSF.
1249
The evaluator also executes a subset of the developer's tests as documented
to gain confidence in the developer's test results: the evaluator will use the
results of this analysis as an input to independently testing a subset of the
TSF. With respect to this subset, the evaluator takes a testing approach that is
different from that of the developer, particularly if the developer's tests have
shortcomings.
1250
To determine the adequacy of developer's test documentation or to create
new tests, the evaluator needs to understand the desired expected behaviour
of the TSF, both internally and as seen at the TSFI, in the context of the
SFRs it is to satisfy. The evaluator may choose to divide the TSF and TSFI
into subsets according to functional areas of the ST (audit subsystem, auditrelated TSFI, authentication module, authentication-related TSFI, etc.) if
they were not already divided in the ST, and focus on one subset of the TSF
and TSFI at a time, examining the ST requirement and the relevant parts of
the development and guidance documentation to gain an understanding of
the way the TOE is expected to behave. This reliance upon the development
documentation underscores the need for the dependencies on ADV by
Coverage (ATE_COV) and Depth (ATE_DPT).
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1251
The CC has separated coverage and depth from functional tests to increase
the flexibility when applying the components of the families. However, the
requirements of the families are intended to be applied together to confirm
that the TSF operates according to its specification. This tight coupling of
families has led to some duplication of evaluator work units across subactivities. These application notes are used to minimise duplication of text
between sub-activities.
14.2.1
Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
1252
Before the adequacy of test documentation can be accurately evaluated, or
before new tests can be created, the evaluator has to understand the desired
expected behaviour of a security function in the context of the requirements
it is to satisfy.
1253
As mentioned earlier, the evaluator may choose to subset the TSF and TSFI
according to SFRs (audit, authentication, etc.) in the ST and focus on one
subset at a time. The evaluator examines each ST requirement and the
relevant parts of the functional specification and guidance documentation to
gain an understanding of the way the related TSFI is expected to behave.
Similarly, the evaluator examines the relevant parts of the TOE design and
security architecture documentation to gain an understanding of the way the
related modules or subsystems of the TSF are expected to behave.
1254
With an understanding of the expected behaviour, the evaluator examines the
test plan to gain an understanding of the testing approach. In most cases, the
testing approach will entail a TSFI being stimulated and its responses
observed. Externally-visible functionality can be tested directly; however, in
cases where functionality is not visible external to the TOE (for example,
testing the residual information protection functionality), other means will
need to be employed.
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14.2.2
Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1255
In cases where it is impractical or inadequate to test specific functionality
(where it provides no externally-visible TSFI), the test plan should identify
the alternate approach to verify expected behaviour. It is the evaluator's
responsibility to determine the suitability of the alternate approach. However,
the following should be considered when assessing the suitability of alternate
approaches:
a)
an analysis of the implementation representation to determine that the
required behaviour should be exhibited by the TOE is an acceptable
alternate approach. This could mean a code inspection for a software
TOE or perhaps a chip mask inspection for a hardware TOE.
b)
it is acceptable to use evidence of developer integration or module
testing, even if the claimed assurance requirements do not include
availability of lower level descriptions of the TOE modules (e.g.
Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.3)) or implementation
(Implementation representation (ADV_IMP)). If evidence of
developer integration or module testing is used in verifying the
expected behaviour of a security functionality, care should be given
to confirm that the testing evidence reflects the current
implementation of the TOE. If the subsystems or modules have been
changed since testing occurred, evidence that the changes were
tracked and addressed by analysis or further testing will usually be
required.
1256
It should be emphasised that supplementing the testing effort with alternate
approaches should only be undertaken when both the developer and
evaluator determine that there exists no other practical means to test the
expected behaviour.
14.2.3
Verifying the adequacy of tests
1257
Test pre-requisites are necessary to establish the required initial conditions
for the test. They may be expressed in terms of parameters that must be set or
in terms of test ordering in cases where the completion of one test establishes
the necessary pre-requisites for another test. The evaluator must determine
that the pre-requisites are complete and appropriate in that they will not bias
the observed test results towards the expected test results.
1258
The test steps and expected results specify the actions and parameters to be
applied to the TSFI as well as how the expected results should be verified
and what they are. The evaluator must determine that the test steps and
expected results are consistent with the descriptions of the TSFI in the
functional specification. This means that each characteristic of the TSFI
behaviour explicitly described in the functional specification should have
tests and expected results to verify that behaviour.
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1259
The overall aim of this testing activity is to determine that each subsystem,
module, and TSFI has been sufficiently tested against the behavioural claims
in the functional specification, TOE design, and architecture description. At
the higher assurance levels, testing also includes bounds testing and negative
testing. The test procedures will provide insight as to how the TSFIs,
modules, and subsystems have been exercised by the developer during
testing. The evaluator uses this information when developing additional tests
to independently test the TSF.
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14.3
Coverage (ATE_COV)
14.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.1)
14.3.1.1
Objectives
1260
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
tested the TSFIs, and that the developer's test coverage evidence shows
correspondence between the tests identified in the test documentation and the
TSFIs described in the functional specification.
14.3.1.2
Input
1261
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the test documentation;
d)
the test coverage evidence.
14.3.1.3
Application notes
1262
The coverage analysis provided by the developer is required to show the
correspondence between the tests provided as evaluation evidence and the
functional specification. However, the coverage analysis need not
demonstrate that all TSFI have been tested, or that all externally-visible
interfaces to the TOE have been tested. Such shortcomings are considered by
the evaluator during the independent testing (Evaluation of sub-activity
(ATE_IND.2)) sub-activity.
14.3.1.4
Action ATE_COV.1.1E
ATE_COV.1.1C
The evidence of the test coverage shall show the correspondence between
the tests in the test documentation and the TSFIs in the functional
specification.
ATE_COV.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the test coverage evidence to determine that the
correspondence between the tests identified in the test documentation and the
TSFIs described in the functional specification is accurate.
1263
Correspondence may take the form of a table or matrix. The coverage
evidence required for this component will reveal the extent of coverage,
rather than to show complete coverage. In cases where coverage is shown to
be poor the evaluator should increase the level of independent testing to
compensate.
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14.3.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.2)
14.3.2.1
Objectives
1264
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
tested all of the TSFIs, and that the developer's test coverage evidence shows
correspondence between the tests identified in the test documentation and the
TSFIs described in the functional specification.
14.3.2.2
Input
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the test documentation;
d)
the test coverage analysis.
14.3.2.3
Action ATE_COV.2.1E
ATE_COV.2.1C
The analysis of the test coverage shall demonstrate the correspondence
between the tests in the test documentation and the TSFIs in the functional
specification.
ATE_COV.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the test coverage analysis to determine that the
correspondence between the tests in the test documentation and the interfaces
in the functional specification is accurate.
1265
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of the tests and the interfaces presented in the test coverage
analysis has to be unambiguous.
1266
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to interfaces in the functional specification.
ATE_COV.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the test plan to determine that the testing
approach for each interface demonstrates the expected behaviour of that
interface.
1267
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
ATE_COV.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that the test
prerequisites, test steps and expected result(s) adequately test each interface.
1268
Guidance on this work units, as it pertains to the functional specification, can
be found in:
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a)
14.2.3, Verifying the adequacy of tests
ATE_COV.2.2C
The analysis of the test coverage shall demonstrate that all TSFIs in the
functional specification have been tested.
ATE_COV.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the test coverage analysis to determine that the
correspondence between the interfaces in the functional specification and the
tests in the test documentation is complete.
1269
All TSFIs that are described in the functional specification have to be present
in the test coverage analysis and mapped to tests in order for completeness to
be claimed, although exhaustive specification testing of interfaces is not
required. Incomplete coverage would be evident if an interface was identified
in the functional specification and no test was mapped to it.
1270
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to interfaces in the functional specification.
14.3.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.3)
1271
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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14.4
Depth (ATE_DPT)
14.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.1)
14.4.1.1
Objectives
1272
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
tested the TSF subsystems against the TOE design and the security
architecture description.
14.4.1.2
Input
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the test documentation;
f)
the depth of testing analysis.
14.4.1.3
Action ATE_DPT.1.1E
ATE_DPT.1.1C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate the correspondence
between the tests in the test documentation and the TSF subsystems in the
TOE design.
ATE_DPT.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the depth of testing analysis to determine that
the descriptions of the behaviour of TSF subsystems and of their interactions
is included within the test documentation.
1273
This work unit verifies the content of the correspondence between the tests
and the descriptions in the TOE design. In cases where the description of the
TSF's architectural soundness (in Security Architecture (ADV_ARC)) cites
specific mechanisms, this work unit also verifies the correspondence
between the tests and the descriptions of the behaviour of such mechanisms.
1274
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of the tests and the behaviour/interaction presented in the
depth-of coverage analysis has to be unambiguous.
1275
The evaluator is reminded that not all tests in the test documentation must
map to a subsystem behaviour or interaction description.
ATE_DPT.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the behaviour of that subsystem as described in the
TOE design.
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1276
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1277
If TSF subsystem interfaces are described, the behaviour of those subsystems
may be tested directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the behaviour of
those subsystems is tested from the TSFI interfaces. Or a combination of the
two may be employed. Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider
its appropriateness for adequately testing the behaviour that is described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the interactions among subsystems as described in
the TOE design.
1278
While the previous work unit addresses behaviour of subsystems, this work
unit addresses the interactions among subsystems.
1279
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1280
If TSF subsystem interfaces are described, the interactions with other
subsystems may be tested directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the
interactions among subsystems must be inferred from the TSFI interfaces.
Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider its appropriateness for
adequately testing the interactions among subsystems that are described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.1.2C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate that all TSF
subsystems in the TOE design have been tested.
ATE_DPT.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that all
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and interaction are tested.
1281
This work unit verifies the completeness of work unit ATE_DPT.1-1. All
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and of interactions among TSF
subsystems that are provided in the TOE design have to be tested.
Incomplete depth of testing would be evident if a description of TSF
subsystem behaviour or of interactions among TSF subsystems was
identified in the TOE design and no tests could be attributed to it.
1282
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to subsystem interfaces in the TOE design.
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14.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.2)
14.4.2.1
Objectives
1283
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
tested all the TSF subsystems and SFR-enforcing modules against the TOE
design and the security architecture description.
14.4.2.2
Input
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the test documentation;
f)
the depth of testing analysis.
14.4.2.3
Action ATE_DPT.2.1E
ATE_DPT.2.1C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate the correspondence
between the tests in the test documentation and the TSF subsystems and
SFR-enforcing modules in the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the depth of testing analysis to determine that
descriptions of the behaviour of TSF subsystems and of their interactions are
included within the test documentation.
1284
This work unit verifies the content of the correspondence between the tests
and the descriptions in the TOE design. In cases where the description of the
TSF's architectural soundness (in Security Architecture (ADV_ARC)) cites
specific mechanisms, this work unit also verifies the correspondence
between the tests and the descriptions of the behaviour of such mechanisms.
1285
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of the tests and the behaviour/interaction presented in the
depth-of coverage analysis has to be unambiguous.
1286
The evaluator is reminded that not all tests in the test documentation must
map to a subsystem behaviour or interaction description.
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ATE_DPT.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the behaviour of that subsystem as described in the
TOE design.
1287
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1288
If TSF subsystem interfaces are described, the behaviour of those subsystems
may be tested directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the behaviour of
those subsystems is tested from the TSFI interfaces. Or a combination of the
two may be employed. Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider
its appropriateness for adequately testing the behaviour that is described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the interactions among subsystems as described in
the TOE design.
1289
While the previous work unit addresses behaviour of subsystems, this work
unit addresses the interactions among subsystems.
1290
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1291
If TSF subsystem interfaces are described, the interactions with other
subsystems may be tested directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the
interactions among subsystems must be inferred from the TSFI interfaces.
Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider its appropriateness for
adequately testing the interactions among subsystems that are described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the depth of testing analysis to determine that
the interfaces of SFR-enforcing modules are included within the test
documentation.
1292
This work unit verifies the content of the correspondence between the tests
and the descriptions in the TOE design. In cases where the description of the
TSF's architectural soundness (in Security Architecture (ADV_ARC)) cites
specific mechanisms at the modular level, this work unit also verifies the
correspondence between the tests and the descriptions of the behaviour of
such mechanisms.
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1293
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of the tests and the behaviour/interaction presented in the
depth-of coverage analysis has to be unambiguous.
1294
The evaluator is reminded that not all tests in the test documentation must
map to a subsystem behaviour or interaction description.
ATE_DPT.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for each SFRenforcing module interface demonstrates the expected behaviour of that
interface.
1295
While work unit ATE_DPT.2-1 addresses expected behaviour of subsystems,
this work unit addresses expected behaviour of the SFR-enforcing module
interfaces that are covered by ATE_DPT.2-4.
1296
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1297
Testing of an interface may be performed directly at that interface, or at the
external interfaces, or a combination of both. Whatever strategy is used the
evaluator will consider its appropriateness for adequately testing the
interfaces. Specifically the evaluator determines whether testing at the
internal interfaces is necessary or whether these internal interfaces can be
adequately tested (albeit implicitly) by exercising the external interfaces.
This determination is left to the evaluator, as is its justification.
ATE_DPT.2.2C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate that all TSF
subsystems in the TOE design have been tested.
ATE_DPT.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that all
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and interaction are tested.
1298
This work unit verifies the completeness of work unit ATE_DPT.2-1. All
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and of interactions among TSF
subsystems that are provided in the TOE design have to be tested.
Incomplete depth of testing would be evident if a description of TSF
subsystem behaviour or of interactions among TSF subsystems was
identified in the TOE design and no tests could be attributed to it.
1299
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to subsystem interfaces in the TOE design.
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ATE_DPT.2.3C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate that the SFRenforcing modules in the TOE design have been tested.
ATE_DPT.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that all
interfaces of SFR-enforcing modules are tested.
1300
This work unit verifies the completeness of work unit ATE_DPT.2-4. All
interfaces of SFR-enforcing modules that are provided in the TOE design
have to be tested. Incomplete depth of testing would be evident if any
interface of any SFR-enforcing modules was identified in the TOE design
and no tests could be attributed to it.
1301
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to an interface of an SFR-enforcing module in the
TOE design.
14.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.3)
14.4.3.1
Objectives
1302
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer has
tested the all the TSF subsystems and modules against the TOE design and
the security architecture description.
14.4.3.2
Input
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the test documentation;
f)
the depth of testing analysis.
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14.4.3.3
Action ATE_DPT.3.1E
ATE_DPT.3.1C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate the correspondence
between the tests in the test documentation and the TSF subsystems and
modules in the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the depth of testing analysis to determine that
descriptions of the behaviour of TSF subsystems and of their interactions are
included within the test documentation.
1303
This work unit verifies the content of the correspondence between the tests
and the descriptions in the TOE design. A simple cross-table may be
sufficient to show test correspondence. The identification of the tests and the
behaviour/interaction presented in the depth-of coverage analysis has to be
unambiguous.
1304
The evaluator is reminded that not all tests in the test documentation must
map to a subsystem behaviour or interaction description.
ATE_DPT.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the behaviour of that subsystem as described in the
TOE design.
1305
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1306
If TSF subsystem interfaces are provided, the behaviour of those subsystems
may be performed directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the behaviour of
those subsystems is tested from the TSFI interfaces. Or a combination of the
two may be employed. Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider
its appropriateness for adequately testing the behaviour that is described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for the behaviour
description demonstrates the interactions among subsystems as described in
the TOE design.
1307
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
1308
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
While the previous work unit addresses behaviour of subsystems, this work
unit addresses the interactions among subsystems.
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1309
If TSF subsystem interfaces are provided, the interactions with other
subsystems may be performed directly from those interfaces. Otherwise, the
interactions among subsystems must be inferred from the TSFI interfaces.
Whatever strategy is used the evaluator will consider its appropriateness for
adequately testing the interactions among subsystems that are described in
the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the depth of testing analysis to determine that
the interfaces of TSF modules are included within the test documentation.
1310
This work unit verifies the content of the correspondence between the tests
and the descriptions in the TOE design. A simple cross-table may be
sufficient to show test correspondence. The identification of the tests and the
behaviour/interaction presented in the depth-of coverage analysis has to be
unambiguous.
1311
The evaluator is reminded that not all tests in the test documentation must
map to a subsystem behaviour or interaction description.
ATE_DPT.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the test plan, test prerequisites, test steps and
expected result(s) to determine that the testing approach for each TSF
module interface demonstrates the expected behaviour of that interface.
1312
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
14.2.1, Understanding the expected behaviour of the TOE
b)
14.2.2, Testing vs. alternate approaches to verify the expected
behaviour of functionality
1313
Testing of an interface may be performed directly at that interface, or at the
external interfaces, or a combination of both. Whatever strategy is used the
evaluator will consider its appropriateness for adequately testing the
interfaces. Specifically the evaluator determines whether testing at the
internal interfaces is necessary or whether these internal interfaces can be
adequately tested (albeit implicitly) by exercising the external interfaces.
This determination is left to the evaluator, as is its justification.
ATE_DPT.3.2C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate that all TSF
subsystems in the TOE design have been tested.
ATE_DPT.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that all
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and interaction are tested.
1314
This work unit verifies the completeness of work unit ATE_DPT.3-1. All
descriptions of TSF subsystem behaviour and of interactions among TSF
subsystems that are provided in the TOE design have to be tested.
Incomplete depth of testing would be evident if a description of TSF
subsystem behaviour or of interactions among TSF subsystems was
identified in the TOE design and no tests could be attributed to it.
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1315
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to subsystem interfaces in the TOE design.
ATE_DPT.3.3C
The analysis of the depth of testing shall demonstrate that all TSF modules
in the TOE design have been tested.
ATE_DPT.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the test procedures to determine that all
interfaces of all TSF modules are tested.
1316
This work unit verifies the completeness of work unit ATE_DPT.3-4. All
interfaces of TSF modules that are provided in the TOE design have to be
tested. Incomplete depth of testing would be evident if any interface of any
TSF module was identified in the TOE design and no tests could be
attributed to it.
1317
The evaluator is reminded that this does not imply that all tests in the test
documentation must map to an interface of a TSF module in the TOE design.
14.4.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_DPT.4)
1318
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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14.5
Functional tests (ATE_FUN)
14.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_FUN.1)
14.5.1.1
Objectives
1319
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer
correctly performed and documented the tests in the test documentation.
14.5.1.2
Input
1320
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the test documentation.
14.5.1.3
Application notes
1321
The extent to which the test documentation is required to cover the TSF is
dependent upon the coverage assurance component.
1322
For the developer tests provided, the evaluator determines whether the tests
are repeatable, and the extent to which the developer's tests can be used for
the evaluator's independent testing effort. Any TSFI for which the
developer's test results indicate that it might not perform as specified should
be tested independently by the evaluator to determine whether or not it does.
14.5.1.4
Action ATE_FUN.1.1E
ATE_FUN.1.1C
The test documentation shall consist of test plans, expected test results and
actual test results.
ATE_FUN.1-1
The evaluator shall check that the test documentation includes test plans,
expected test results and actual test results.
1323
The evaluator checks that test plans, expected tests results and actual test
results are included in the test documentation.
ATE_FUN.1.2C
The test plans shall identify the tests to be performed and describe the
scenarios for performing each test. These scenarios shall include any
ordering dependencies on the results of other tests.
ATE_FUN.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the test plan to determine that it describes the
scenarios for performing each test.
1324
The evaluator determines that the test plan provides information about the
test configuration being used: both on the configuration of the TOE and on
any test equipment being used. This information should be detailed enough
to ensure that the test configuration is reproducible.
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1325
The evaluator also determines that the test plan provides information about
how to execute the test: any necessary automated set-up procedures (and
whether they require privilege to run), inputs to be applied, how these inputs
are applied, how output is obtained, any automated clean-up procedures (and
whether they require privilege to run), etc. This information should be
detailed enough to ensure that the test is reproducible.
1326
The evaluator may wish to employ a sampling strategy when performing this
work unit.
ATE_FUN.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the test plan to determine that the TOE test
configuration is consistent with the ST.
1327
The TOE referred to in the developer's test plan should have the same unique
reference as established by the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) sub-activities
and identified in the ST introduction.
1328
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The evaluator verifies that all test configurations identified in the
developer test documentation are consistent with the ST. For example, the
ST might define configuration options that must be set, which could have an
impact upon what constitutes the TOE by including or excluding additional
portions. The evaluator verifies that all such variations of the TOE are
considered.
1329
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment.
There may be some objectives for the operational environment that do not
apply to the test environment. For example, an objective about user
clearances may not apply; however, an objective about a single point of
connection to a network would apply.
1330
The evaluator may wish to employ a sampling strategy when performing this
work unit.
1331
If this work unit is applied to a component TOE that might be
used/integrated in a composed TOE (see Class ACO: Composition), the
following will apply. In the instances that the component TOE under
evaluation depends on other components in the operational environment to
support their operation, the developer may wish to consider using the other
component(s) that will be used in the composed TOE to fulfil the
requirements of the operational environment as one of the test
configurations. This will reduce the amount an additional testing that will be
required for the composed TOE evaluation.
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ATE_FUN.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the test plans to determine that sufficient
instructions are provided for any ordering dependencies.
1332
Some steps may have to be performed to establish initial conditions. For
example, user accounts need to be added before they can be deleted. An
example of ordering dependencies on the results of other tests is the need to
perform actions in a test that will result in the generation of audit records,
before performing a test to consider the searching and sorting of those audit
records. Another example of an ordering dependency would be where one
test case generates a file of data to be used as input for another test case.
1333
The evaluator may wish to employ a sampling strategy when performing this
work unit.
ATE_FUN.1.3C
The expected test results shall show the anticipated outputs from a
successful execution of the tests.
ATE_FUN.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that all
expected tests results are included.
1334
The expected test results are needed to determine whether or not a test has
been successfully performed. Expected test results are sufficient if they are
unambiguous and consistent with expected behaviour given the testing
approach.
1335
The evaluator may wish to employ a sampling strategy when performing this
work unit.
ATE_FUN.1.4C
The actual test results shall be consistent with the expected test results.
ATE_FUN.1-6
The evaluator shall check that the actual test results in the test
documentation are consistent with the expected test results in the test
documentation.
1336
A comparison of the actual and expected test results provided by the
developer will reveal any inconsistencies between the results. It may be that
a direct comparison of actual results cannot be made until some data
reduction or synthesis has been first performed. In such cases, the
developer's test documentation should describe the process to reduce or
synthesise the actual data.
1337
For example, the developer may need to test the contents of a message buffer
after a network connection has occurred to determine the contents of the
buffer. The message buffer will contain a binary number. This binary number
would have to be converted to another form of data representation in order to
make the test more meaningful. The conversion of this binary representation
of data into a higher-level representation will have to be described by the
developer in enough detail to allow an evaluator to perform the conversion
process (i.e. synchronous or asynchronous transmission, number of stop bits,
parity, etc.).
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1338
It should be noted that the description of the process used to reduce or
synthesise the actual data is used by the evaluator not to actually perform the
necessary modification but to assess whether this process is correct. It is up
to the developer to transform the expected test results into a format that
allows an easy comparison with the actual test results.
1339
The evaluator may wish to employ a sampling strategy when performing this
work unit.
ATE_FUN.1-7
The evaluator shall report the developer testing effort, outlining the testing
approach, configuration, depth and results.
1340
The developer testing information recorded in the ETR allows the evaluator
to convey the overall testing approach and effort expended on the testing of
the TOE by the developer. The intent of providing this information is to give
a meaningful overview of the developer testing effort. It is not intended that
the information regarding developer testing in the ETR be an exact
reproduction of specific test steps or results of individual tests. The intention
is to provide enough detail to allow other evaluators and evaluation
authorities to gain some insight about the developer's testing approach,
amount of testing performed, TOE test configurations, and the overall results
of the developer testing.
1341
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding the
developer testing effort is:
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were tested, including whether any privileged code was required
to set up the test or clean up afterwards;
b)
testing approach. An account of the overall developer testing strategy
employed;
c)
testing results. A description of the overall developer testing results.
1342
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the developer testing effort.
14.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_FUN.2)
1343
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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14.6
Independent testing (ATE_IND)
14.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.1)
14.6.1.1
Objectives
1344
The goal of this activity is to determine, by independently testing a subset of
the TSFI, whether the TOE behaves as specified in the functional
specification and guidance documentation.
14.6.1.2
Input
1345
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the operational user guidance;
d)
the preparative user guidance;
e)
the TOE suitable for testing.
14.6.1.3
Action ATE_IND.1.1E
ATE_IND.1.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
ATE_IND.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1346
The TOE provided by the developer should have the same unique reference
as established by the CM capabilities (ALC_CMC) sub-activities and
identified in the ST introduction.
1347
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1348
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
1349
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
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ATE_IND.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state.
1350
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
1351
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
14.6.1.4
Action ATE_IND.1.2E
ATE_IND.1-3
The evaluator shall devise a test subset.
1352
The evaluator selects a test subset and testing strategy that is appropriate for
the TOE. One extreme testing strategy would be to have the test subset
contain as many interfaces as possible tested with little rigour. Another
testing strategy would be to have the test subset contain a few interfaces
based on their perceived relevance and rigorously test these interfaces.
1353
Typically the testing approach taken by the evaluator should fall somewhere
between these two extremes. The evaluator should exercise most of the
interfaces using at least one test, but testing need not demonstrate exhaustive
specification testing.
1354
The evaluator, when selecting the subset of the interfaces to be tested, should
consider the following factors:
a)
The number of interfaces from which to draw upon for the test subset.
Where the TSF includes only a small number of relatively simple
interfaces, it may be practical to rigorously test all of the interfaces.
In other cases this may not be cost-effective, and sampling is
required.
b)
Maintaining a balance of evaluation activities. The evaluator effort
expended on the test activity should be commensurate with that
expended on any other evaluation activity.
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1355
1356
The evaluator selects the interfaces to compose the subset. This selection will
depend on a number of factors, and consideration of these factors may also
influence the choice of test subset size:
a)
Significance of interfaces. Those interfaces more significant than
others should be included in the test subset. One major factor of
“significance” is the security-relevance (SFR-enforcing interfaces
would be more significant than SFR-supporting interfaces, which are
more significant than SFR-non-interfering interfaces; see CC Part 3
Section Functional specification (ADV_FSP)). The other major factor
of “significance” is the number of SFRs mapping to this interface (as
determined when identifying the correspondence between levels of
abstraction in ADV).
b)
Complexity of the interface. Complex interfaces may require
complex tests that impose onerous requirements on the developer or
evaluator, which may not be conducive to cost-effective evaluations.
Conversely, they are a likely area to find errors and are good
candidates for the subset. The evaluator will need to strike a balance
between these considerations.
c)
Implicit testing. Testing some interfaces may often implicitly test
other interfaces, and their inclusion in the subset may maximise the
number of interfaces tested (albeit implicitly). Certain interfaces will
typically be used to provide a variety of security functionality, and
will tend to be the target of an effective testing approach.
d)
Types of interfaces (e.g. programmatic, command-line, protocol).
The evaluator should consider including tests for all different types of
interfaces that the TOE supports.
e)
Interfaces that give rise to features that are innovative or unusual.
Where the TOE contains innovative or unusual features, which may
feature strongly in marketing literature and guidance documents, the
corresponding interfaces should be strong candidates for testing.
This guidance articulates factors to consider during the selection process of
an appropriate test subset, but these are by no means exhaustive.
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ATE_IND.1-4
The evaluator shall produce test documentation for the test subset that is
sufficiently detailed to enable the tests to be reproducible.
1357
With an understanding of the expected behaviour of the TSF, from the ST
and the functional specification, the evaluator has to determine the most
feasible way to test the interface. Specifically the evaluator considers:
a)
the approach that will be used, for instance, whether an external
interface will be tested, or an internal interface using a test harness, or
will an alternate test approach be employed (e.g. in exceptional
circumstances, a code inspection, if the implementation
representation is available);
b)
the interface(s) that will be used to test and observe responses;
c)
the initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any
particular objects or subjects that will need to exist and security
attributes they will need to have);
d)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate an
interface (e.g. packet generators) or make observations of an interface
(e.g. network analysers).
1358
The evaluator may find it practical to test each interface using a series of test
cases, where each test case will test a very specific aspect of expected
behaviour.
1359
The evaluator's test documentation should specify the derivation of each test,
tracing it back to the relevant interface(s).
ATE_IND.1-5
The evaluator shall conduct testing.
1360
The evaluator uses the test documentation developed as a basis for executing
tests on the TOE. The test documentation is used as a basis for testing but
this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc tests.
The evaluator may devise new tests based on behaviour of the TOE
discovered during testing. These new tests are recorded in the test
documentation.
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ATE_IND.1-6
The evaluator shall record the following information about the tests that
compose the test subset:
a)
identification of the interface behaviour to be tested;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the test;
c)
instructions to establish all prerequisite test conditions;
d)
instructions to stimulate the interface;
e)
instructions for observing the behaviour of the interface;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE;
h)
actual test results.
1361
The level of detail should be such that another evaluator could repeat the
tests and obtain an equivalent result. While some specific details of the test
results may be different (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the
overall result should be identical.
1362
There may be instances when it is unnecessary to provide all the information
presented in this work unit (e.g. the actual test results of a test may not
require any analysis before a comparison between the expected results can be
made). The determination to omit this information is left to the evaluator, as
is the justification.
ATE_IND.1-7
The evaluator shall check that all actual test results are consistent with the
expected test results.
1363
Any differences in the actual and expected test results may indicate that the
TOE does not perform as specified or that the evaluator test documentation
may be incorrect. Unexpected actual results may require corrective
maintenance to the TOE or test documentation and perhaps require rerunning of impacted tests and modifying the test sample size and
composition. This determination is left to the evaluator, as is its justification.
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ATE_IND.1-8
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator testing effort, outlining
the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1364
The evaluator testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator to
convey the overall testing approach and effort expended on the testing
activity during the evaluation. The intent of providing this information is to
give a meaningful overview of the testing effort. It is not intended that the
information regarding testing in the ETR be an exact reproduction of specific
test instructions or results of individual tests. The intention is to provide
enough detail to allow other evaluators and evaluation authorities to gain
some insight about the testing approach chosen, amount of testing
performed, TOE test configurations, and the overall results of the testing
activity.
1365
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding the
evaluator testing effort is:
1366
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were tested;
b)
subset size chosen. The amount of interfaces that were tested during
the evaluation and a justification for the size;
c)
selection criteria for the interfaces that compose the subset. Brief
statements about the factors considered when selecting interfaces for
inclusion in the subset;
d)
interfaces tested. A brief listing of the interfaces that merited
inclusion in the subset;
e)
verdict for the activity. The overall judgement on the results of
testing during the evaluation.
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the testing the evaluator performed during the evaluation.
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14.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.2)
14.6.2.1
Objectives
1367
The goal of this activity is to determine, by independently testing a subset of
the TSF, whether the TOE behaves as specified in the design documentation,
and to gain confidence in the developer's test results by performing a sample
of the developer's tests.
14.6.2.2
Input
1368
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design description;
d)
the operational user guidance;
e)
the preparative user guidance;
f)
the configuration management documentation;
g)
the test documentation;
h)
the TOE suitable for testing.
14.6.2.3
Action ATE_IND.2.1E
ATE_IND.2.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
ATE_IND.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1369
The TOE provided by the developer and identified in the test plan should
have the same unique reference as established by the CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC) sub-activities and identified in the ST introduction.
1370
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1371
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
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1372
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
ATE_IND.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state
1373
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
1374
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
ATE_IND.2.2C
The developer shall provide an equivalent set of resources to those that
were used in the developer's functional testing of the TSF.
ATE_IND.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the set of resources provided by the developer
to determine that they are equivalent to the set of resources used by the
developer to functionally test the TSF
1375
The set of resource used by the developer is documented in the developer test
plan, as considered in the Functional tests (ATE_FUN) family. The resource
set may include laboratory access and special test equipment, among others.
Resources that are not identical to those used by the developer need to be
equivalent in terms of any impact they may have on test results.
14.6.2.4
Action ATE_IND.2.2E
ATE_IND.2-4
The evaluator shall conduct testing using a sample of tests found in the
developer test plan and procedures.
1376
The overall aim of this work unit is to perform a sufficient number of the
developer tests to confirm the validity of the developer's test results. The
evaluator has to decide on the size of the sample, and the developer tests that
will compose the sample (see A.2).
1377
All the developer tests can be traced back to specific interfaces. Therefore,
the factors to consider in the selection of the tests to compose the sample are
similar to those listed for subset selection in work-unit ATE_IND.2-6.
Additionally, the evaluator may wish to employ a random sampling method
to select developer tests to include in the sample.
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ATE_IND.2-5
The evaluator shall check that all the actual test results are consistent with
the expected test results.
1378
Inconsistencies between the developer's expected test results and actual test
results will compel the evaluator to resolve the discrepancies. Inconsistencies
encountered by the evaluator could be resolved by a valid explanation and
resolution of the inconsistencies by the developer.
1379
If a satisfactory explanation or resolution can not be reached, the evaluator's
confidence in the developer's test results may be lessened and it may be
necessary for the evaluator to increase the sample size to the extent that the
subset identified in work unit ATE_IND.2-4 is adequately tested:
deficiencies with the developer's tests need to result in either corrective
action to the developer's tests or in the production of new tests by the
evaluator.
14.6.2.5
Action ATE_IND.2.3E
ATE_IND.2-6
The evaluator shall devise a test subset.
1380
The evaluator selects a test subset and testing strategy that is appropriate for
the TOE. One extreme testing strategy would be to have the test subset
contain as many interfaces as possible tested with little rigour. Another
testing strategy would be to have the test subset contain a few interfaces
based on their perceived relevance and rigorously test these interfaces.
1381
Typically the testing approach taken by the evaluator should fall somewhere
between these two extremes. The evaluator should exercise most of the
interfaces using at least one test, but testing need not demonstrate exhaustive
specification testing.
1382
The evaluator, when selecting the subset of the interfaces to be tested, should
consider the following factors:
a)
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The developer test evidence. The developer test evidence consists of:
the test documentation, the available test coverage analysis, and the
available depth of testing analysis. The developer test evidence will
provide insight as to how the TSF has been exercised by the
developer during testing. The evaluator applies this information when
developing new tests to independently test the TOE. Specifically the
evaluator should consider:
1)
augmentation of developer testing for interfaces. The
evaluator may wish to perform more of the same type of tests
by varying parameters to more rigorously test the interface.
2)
supplementation of developer testing strategy for interfaces.
The evaluator may wish to vary the testing approach of a
specific interface by testing it using another test strategy.
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1383
b)
The number of interfaces from which to draw upon for the test subset.
Where the TSF includes only a small number of relatively simple
interfaces, it may be practical to rigorously test all of them. In other
cases this may not be cost-effective, and sampling is required.
c)
Maintaining a balance of evaluation activities. The evaluator effort
expended on the test activity should be commensurate with that
expended on any other evaluation activity.
The evaluator selects the interfaces to compose the subset. This selection will
depend on a number of factors, and consideration of these factors may also
influence the choice of test subset size:
a)
Rigour of developer testing of the interfaces. Those interfaces that the
evaluator determines require additional testing should be included in
the test subset.
b)
Developer test results. If the results of developer tests cause the
evaluator to doubt that an interface is not properly implemented, then
the evaluator should include such interfaces in the test subset.
c)
Significance of interfaces. Those interfaces more significant than
others should be included in the test subset. One major factor of
“significance” is the security-relevance (SFR-enforcing interfaces
would be more significant than SFR-supporting interfaces, which are
more significant than SFR-non-interfering interfaces; see CC Part 3
Section ADV_FSP). The other major factor of “significance” is the
number of SFRs mapping to this interface (as determined when
identifying the correspondence between levels of abstraction in
ADV).
d)
Complexity of interfaces. Interfaces that require complex
implementation may require complex tests that impose onerous
requirements on the developer or evaluator, which may not be
conducive to cost-effective evaluations. Conversely, they are a likely
area to find errors and are good candidates for the subset. The
evaluator will need to strike a balance between these considerations.
e)
Implicit testing. Testing some interfaces may often implicitly test
other interfaces, and their inclusion in the subset may maximise the
number of interfaces tested (albeit implicitly). Certain interfaces will
typically be used to provide a variety of security functionality, and
will tend to be the target of an effective testing approach.
f)
Types of interfaces (e.g. programmatic, command-line, protocol).
The evaluator should consider including tests for all different types of
interfaces that the TOE supports.
g)
Interfaces that give rise to features that are innovative or unusual.
Where the TOE contains innovative or unusual features, which may
feature strongly in marketing literature and guidance documents, the
corresponding interfaces should be strong candidates for testing.
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1384
This guidance articulates factors to consider during the selection process of
an appropriate test subset, but these are by no means exhaustive.
ATE_IND.2-7
The evaluator shall produce test documentation for the test subset that is
sufficiently detailed to enable the tests to be reproducible.
1385
With an understanding of the expected behaviour of the TSF, from the ST,
the functional specification, and the TOE design description, the evaluator
has to determine the most feasible way to test the interface. Specifically the
evaluator considers:
a)
the approach that will be used, for instance, whether an external
interface will be tested, or an internal interface using a test harness, or
will an alternate test approach be employed (e.g. in exceptional
circumstances, a code inspection);
b)
the interface(s) that will be used to test and observe responses;
c)
the initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any
particular objects or subjects that will need to exist and security
attributes they will need to have);
d)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate an
interface (e.g. packet generators) or make observations of an interface
(e.g. network analysers).
1386
The evaluator may find it practical to test each interface using a series of test
cases, where each test case will test a very specific aspect of expected
behaviour of that interface.
1387
The evaluator's test documentation should specify the derivation of each test,
tracing it back to the relevant interface(s).
ATE_IND.2-8
The evaluator shall conduct testing.
1388
The evaluator uses the test documentation developed as a basis for executing
tests on the TOE. The test documentation is used as a basis for testing but
this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc tests.
The evaluator may devise new tests based on behaviour of the TOE
discovered during testing. These new tests are recorded in the test
documentation.
ATE_IND.2-9
The evaluator shall record the following information about the tests that
compose the test subset:
a)
identification of the interface behaviour to be tested;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the test;
c)
instructions to establish all prerequisite test conditions;
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d)
instructions to stimulate the interface;
e)
instructions for observing the interface;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE;
h)
actual test results.
1389
The level of detail should be such that another evaluator could repeat the
tests and obtain an equivalent result. While some specific details of the test
results may be different (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the
overall result should be identical.
1390
There may be instances when it is unnecessary to provide all the information
presented in this work unit (e.g. the actual test results of a test may not
require any analysis before a comparison between the expected results can be
made). The determination to omit this information is left to the evaluator, as
is the justification.
ATE_IND.2-10
The evaluator shall check that all actual test results are consistent with the
expected test results.
1391
Any differences in the actual and expected test results may indicate that the
TOE does not perform as specified or that the evaluator test documentation
may be incorrect. Unexpected actual results may require corrective
maintenance to the TOE or test documentation and perhaps require rerunning of impacted tests and modifying the test sample size and
composition. This determination is left to the evaluator, as is its justification.
ATE_IND.2-11
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator testing effort, outlining
the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1392
The evaluator testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator to
convey the overall testing approach and effort expended on the testing
activity during the evaluation. The intent of providing this information is to
give a meaningful overview of the testing effort. It is not intended that the
information regarding testing in the ETR be an exact reproduction of specific
test instructions or results of individual tests. The intention is to provide
enough detail to allow other evaluators and evaluation authorities to gain
some insight about the testing approach chosen, amount of evaluator testing
performed, amount of developer tests performed, TOE test configurations,
and the overall results of the testing activity.
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1393
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding the
evaluator testing effort is:
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were tested.
b)
subset size chosen. The amount of interfaces that were tested during
the evaluation and a justification for the size.
c)
selection criteria for the interfaces that compose the subset. Brief
statements about the factors considered when selecting interfaces for
inclusion in the subset.
d)
Interfaces tested. A brief listing of the interfaces that merited
inclusion in the subset.
e)
developer tests performed. The amount of developer tests performed
and a brief description of the criteria used to select the tests.
f)
verdict for the activity. The overall judgement on the results of
testing during the evaluation.
1394
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the testing the evaluator performed during the evaluation.
14.6.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_IND.3)
1395
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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15
Class AVA: Vulnerability assessment
15.1
Introduction
1396
The purpose of the vulnerability assessment activity is to determine the
exploitability of flaws or weaknesses in the TOE in the operational
environment. This determination is based upon analysis of the evaluation
evidence and a search of publicly available material by the evaluator and is
supported by evaluator penetration testing.
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15.2
Vulnerability analysis (AVA_VAN)
15.2.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.1)
15.2.1.1
Objectives
1397
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE, in its
operational environment, has easily identifiable exploitable vulnerabilities.
15.2.1.2
Input
1398
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
1399
a)
the ST;
b)
the guidance documentation;
c)
the TOE suitable for testing;
d)
information publicly available to support the identification of
potential vulnerabilities.
Other input for this sub-activity is:
a)
current information regarding potential vulnerabilities (e.g. from an
evaluation authority).
15.2.1.3
Application notes
1400
The evaluator should consider performing additional tests as a result of
potential vulnerabilities encountered during the conduct of other parts of the
evaluation.
1401
The use of the term guidance in this sub-activity refers to the operational
guidance and the preparative guidance.
1402
Potential vulnerabilities may be in information that is publicly available, or
not, and may require skill to exploit, or not. These two aspects are related,
but are distinct. It should not be assumed that, simply because a potential
vulnerability is identifiable from information that is publicly available, it can
be easily exploited.
15.2.1.4
Action AVA_VAN.1.1E
AVA_VAN.1.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
AVA_VAN.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1403
The TOE provided by the developer and identified in the test plan should
have the same unique reference as established by the CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC) sub-activities and identified in the ST introduction.
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1404
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1405
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
1406
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
AVA_VAN.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state
1407
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
1408
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
15.2.1.5
Action AVA_VAN.1.2E
AVA_VAN.1-3
The evaluator shall examine sources of information publicly available to
identify potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1409
The evaluator examines the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
There are many sources of publicly available information, which should be
considered, e.g. mailing lists and security forums on the world wide web that
report known vulnerabilities in specified technologies.
1410
The evaluator should not constrain their consideration of publicly available
information to the above, but should consider any other relevant information
available.
1411
While examining the evidence provided the evaluator will use the
information in the public domain to further search for potential
vulnerabilities. Where the evaluators have identified areas of concern, the
evaluator should consider information publicly available that relate to those
areas of concern.
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1412
The availability of information that may be readily available to an attacker
that helps to identify and facilitate attacks effectively operates to
substantially enhance the attack potential of a given attacker. The
accessibility of vulnerability information and sophisticated attack tools on
the Internet makes it more likely that this information will be used in
attempts to identify potential vulnerabilities in the TOE and exploit them.
Modern search tools make such information easily available to the evaluator,
and the determination of resistance to published potential vulnerabilities and
well known generic attacks can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.
1413
The search of the information publicly available should be focused on those
sources that refer specifically to the product from which the TOE is derived.
The extensiveness of this search should consider the following factors: TOE
type, evaluator experience in this TOE type, expected attack potential and the
level of ADV evidence available.
1414
The identification process is iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
1415
The evaluator will report what actions were taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the information publicly available. However, in this type of
search, the evaluator may not be able to describe the steps in identifying
potential vulnerabilities before the outset of the examination, as the approach
may evolve as a result of findings during the search.
1416
The evaluator will report the evidence examined in completing the search for
potential vulnerabilities.
AVA_VAN.1-4
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential vulnerabilities
that are candidates for testing and applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment.
1417
It may be identified that no further consideration of the potential
vulnerability is required if for example the evaluator identifies that measures
in the operational environment, either IT or non-IT, prevent exploitation of
the potential vulnerability in that operational environment. For instance,
restricting physical access to the TOE to authorised users only may
effectively render a potential vulnerability to tampering unexploitable.
1418
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of potential vulnerabilities
from further consideration if the evaluator determines that the potential
vulnerability is not applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the
evaluator records the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1419
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment, which can be used as an input into penetration testing
activities, shall be reported in the ETR by the evaluators.
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15.2.1.6
Action AVA_VAN.1.3E
AVA_VAN.1-5
The evaluator shall devise penetration tests, based on the independent search
for potential vulnerabilities.
1420
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing as necessary to determine the
susceptibility of the TOE, in its operational environment, to the potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the sources of information
publicly available. Any current information provided to the evaluator by a
third party (e.g. evaluation authority) regarding known potential
vulnerabilities will be considered by the evaluator, together with any
encountered potential vulnerabilities resulting from the performance of other
evaluation activities.
1421
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration test
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1422
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Basic attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers a potential vulnerability that is beyond
Basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual vulnerability.
AVA_VAN.1-6
The evaluator shall produce penetration test documentation for the tests
based on the list of potential vulnerabilities in sufficient detail to enable the
tests to be repeatable. The test documentation shall include:
1423
a)
identification of the potential vulnerability the TOE is being tested
for;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the penetration test;
c)
instructions to establish all penetration test prerequisite initial
conditions;
d)
instructions to stimulate the TSF;
e)
instructions for observing the behaviour of the TSF;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE.
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing based on the list of potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the public domain.
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1424
The evaluator is not expected to determine the exploitability for potential
vulnerabilities beyond those for which a Basic attack potential is required to
effect an attack. However, as a result of evaluation expertise, the evaluator
may discover a potential vulnerability that is exploitable only by an attacker
with greater than Basic attack potential. Such vulnerabilities are to be
reported in the ETR as residual vulnerabilities.
1425
With an understanding of the potential vulnerability, the evaluator
determines the most feasible way to test for the TOE's susceptibility.
Specifically the evaluator considers:
a)
the TSFI or other TOE interface that will be used to stimulate the
TSF and observe responses;
b)
initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any particular
objects or subjects that will need to exist and security attributes they
will need to have);
c)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate a TSFI
or make observations of a TSFI (although it is unlikely that specialist
equipment would be required to exploit a potential vulnerability
assuming a Basic attack potential);
d)
whether theoretical analysis should replace physical testing,
particularly relevant where the results of an initial test can be
extrapolated to demonstrate that repeated attempts of an attack are
likely to succeed after a given number of attempts.
1426
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration testing
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1427
The intent of specifying this level of detail in the test documentation is to
allow another evaluator to repeat the tests and obtain an equivalent result.
AVA_VAN.1-7
The evaluator shall conduct penetration testing.
1428
The evaluator uses the penetration test documentation resulting from work
unit AVA_VAN.1-5 as a basis for executing penetration tests on the TOE,
but this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc
penetration tests. If required, the evaluator may devise ad hoc tests as a result
of information learnt during penetration testing that, if performed by the
evaluator, are to be recorded in the penetration test documentation. Such tests
may be required to follow up unexpected results or observations, or to
investigate potential vulnerabilities suggested to the evaluator during the preplanned testing.
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1429
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Basic attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers a potential vulnerability that is beyond
Basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual vulnerability.
AVA_VAN.1-8
The evaluator shall record the actual results of the penetration tests.
1430
While some specific details of the actual test results may be different from
those expected (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the overall result
should be identical. Any unexpected test results should be investigated. The
impact on the evaluation should be stated and justified.
AVA_VAN.1-9
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator penetration testing effort,
outlining the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1431
The penetration testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator
to convey the overall penetration testing approach and effort expended on
this sub-activity. The intent of providing this information is to give a
meaningful overview of the evaluator's penetration testing effort. It is not
intended that the information regarding penetration testing in the ETR be an
exact reproduction of specific test steps or results of individual penetration
tests. The intention is to provide enough detail to allow other evaluators and
evaluation authorities to gain some insight about the penetration testing
approach chosen, amount of penetration testing performed, TOE test
configurations, and the overall results of the penetration testing activity.
1432
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding
evaluator penetration testing efforts is:
1433
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were penetration tested;
b)
TSFI penetration tested. A brief listing of the TSFI and other TOE
interfaces that were the focus of the penetration testing;
c)
verdict for the sub-activity. The overall judgement on the results of
penetration testing.
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the penetration testing the evaluator performed during the
evaluation.
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AVA_VAN.1-10
The evaluator shall examine the results of all penetration testing to
determine that the TOE, in its operational environment, is resistant to an
attacker possessing a Basic attack potential.
1434
If the results reveal that the TOE, in its operational environment, has
vulnerabilities exploitable by an attacker possessing less than EnhancedBasic attack potential, then this evaluator action fails.
1435
The guidance in B.4 should be used to determine the attack potential required
to exploit a particular vulnerability and whether it can therefore be exploited
in the intended environment. It may not be necessary for the attack potential
to be calculated in every instance, only if there is some doubt as to whether
or not the vulnerability can be exploited by an attacker possessing an attack
potential less than Enhanced-Basic.
AVA_VAN.1-11
The evaluator shall report in the ETR all exploitable vulnerabilities and
residual vulnerabilities, detailing for each:
a)
its source (e.g. CEM activity being undertaken when it was
conceived, known to the evaluator, read in a publication);
b)
the SFR(s) not met;
c)
a description;
d)
whether it is exploitable in its operational environment or not (i.e.
exploitable or residual).
e)
the amount of time, level of expertise, level of knowledge of the
TOE, level of opportunity and the equipment required to perform the
identified vulnerabilities, and the corresponding values using the
tables 3 and 4 of Annex B.4.
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15.2.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.2)
15.2.2.1
Objectives
1436
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE, in its
operational environment, has vulnerabilities exploitable by attackers
possessing Basic attack potential.
15.2.2.2
Input
1437
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the guidance documentation;
f)
the TOE suitable for testing;
g)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible potential vulnerabilities.
1438
The remaining implicit evaluation evidence for this sub-activity depends on
the components that have been included in the assurance package. The
evidence provided for each component is to be used as input in this subactivity.
1439
Other input for this sub-activity is:
a)
current information regarding public domain potential vulnerabilities
and attacks (e.g. from an evaluation authority).
15.2.2.3
Application notes
1440
The evaluator should consider performing additional tests as a result of
potential vulnerabilities encountered during other parts of the evaluation.
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15.2.2.4
Action AVA_VAN.2.1E
AVA_VAN.2.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
AVA_VAN.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1441
The TOE provided by the developer and identified in the test plan should
have the same unique reference as established by the CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC) sub-activities and identified in the ST introduction.
1442
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1443
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
1444
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
AVA_VAN.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state
1445
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
1446
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
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15.2.2.5
Action AVA_VAN.2.2E
AVA_VAN.2-3
The evaluator shall examine sources of information publicly available to
identify potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1447
The evaluator examines the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
There are many sources of publicly available information which the
evaluator should consider using items such as those available on the world
wide web, including:
a)
specialist publications (magazines, books);
b)
research papers.
1448
The evaluator should not constrain their consideration of publicly available
information to the above, but should consider any other relevant information
available.
1449
While examining the evidence provided the evaluator will use the
information in the public domain to further search for potential
vulnerabilities. Where the evaluators have identified areas of concern, the
evaluator should consider information publicly available that relate to those
areas of concern.
1450
The availability of information that may be readily available to an attacker
that helps to identify and facilitate attacks may substantially enhance the
attack potential of a given attacker. The accessibility of vulnerability
information and sophisticated attack tools on the Internet makes it more
likely that this information will be used in attempts to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE and exploit them. Modern search tools make such
information easily available to the evaluator, and the determination of
resistance to published potential vulnerabilities and well known generic
attacks can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.
1451
The search of the information publicly available should be focused on those
sources that refer specifically to the product from which the TOE is derived.
The extensiveness of this search should consider the following factors: TOE
type, evaluator experience in this TOE type, expected attack potential and the
level of ADV evidence available.
1452
The identification process is iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
1453
The evaluator will report what actions were taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the evidence. However, in this type of search, the evaluator
may not be able to describe the steps in identifying potential vulnerabilities
before the outset of the examination, as the approach may evolve as a result
of findings during the search.
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1454
The evaluator will report the evidence examined in completing the search for
potential vulnerabilities. This selection of evidence may be derived from
those areas of concern identified by the evaluator, linked to the evidence the
attacker is assumed to be able to obtain, or according to another rationale
provided by the evaluator.
15.2.2.6
Action AVA_VAN.2.3E
AVA_VAN.2-4
The evaluator shall conduct a search of ST, guidance documentation,
functional specification, TOE design and security architecture description
evidence to identify possible potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1455
A search of the evidence should be completed whereby specifications and
documentation for the TOE are analysed and then potential vulnerabilities in
the TOE are hypothesised, or speculated. The list of hypothesised potential
vulnerabilities is then prioritised on the basis of the estimated probability that
a potential vulnerability exists and, assuming an exploitable vulnerability
does exist the attack potential required to exploit it, and on the extent of
control or compromise it would provide. The prioritised list of potential
vulnerabilities is used to direct penetration testing against the TOE.
1456
The security architecture description provides the developer vulnerability
analysis, as it documents how the TSF protects itself from interference from
untrusted subjects and prevents the bypass of security enforcement
functionality. Therefore, the evaluator should use this description of the
protection of the TSF as a basis for the search for possible ways to
undermine the TSF.
1457
Subject to the SFRs the TOE is to meet in the operational environment, the
evaluator's independent vulnerability analysis should consider generic
potential vulnerabilities under each of the following headings:
a)
generic potential vulnerabilities relevant for the type of TOE being
evaluated, as may be supplied by the evaluation authority;
b)
bypassing;
c)
tampering;
d)
direct attacks;
e)
monitoring;
f)
misuse.
1458
Items b) - f) are explained in greater detail in Annex B.
1459
The security architecture description should be considered in light of each of
the above generic potential vulnerabilities. Each potential vulnerability
should be considered to search for possible ways in which to defeat the TSF
protection and undermine the TSF.
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AVA_VAN.2-5
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential vulnerabilities
that are candidates for testing and applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment.
1460
It may be identified that no further consideration of the potential
vulnerability is required if for example the evaluator identifies that measures
in the operational environment, either IT or non-IT, prevent exploitation of
the potential vulnerability in that operational environment. For instance,
restricting physical access to the TOE to authorised users only may
effectively render a potential vulnerability to tampering unexploitable.
1461
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of potential vulnerabilities
from further consideration if the evaluator determines that the potential
vulnerability is not applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the
evaluator records the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1462
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment, which can be used as an input into penetration testing
activities, shall be reported in the ETR by the evaluators.
15.2.2.7
Action AVA_VAN.2.4E
AVA_VAN.2-6
The evaluator shall devise penetration tests, based on the independent search
for potential vulnerabilities.
1463
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing as necessary to determine the
susceptibility of the TOE, in its operational environment, to the potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the sources of information
publicly available. Any current information provided to the evaluator by a
third party (e.g. evaluation authority) regarding known potential
vulnerabilities will be considered by the evaluator, together with any
encountered potential vulnerabilities resulting from the performance of other
evaluation activities.
1464
The evaluator is reminded that, as for considering the security architecture
description in the search for vulnerabilities (as detailed in AVA_VAN.2-4),
testing should be performed to confirm the architectural properties. This is
likely to require negative tests attempting to disprove the properties of the
security architecture. In developing the strategy for penetration testing, the
evaluator will ensure that each of the major characteristics of the security
architecture description are tested, either in functional testing (as considered
in 14) or evaluator penetration testing.
1465
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration test
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1466
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Basic attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that is beyond
Basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual vulnerability.
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1467
Guidance on determining the necessary attack potential to exploit a potential
vulnerability can be found in Annex B.4.
1468
Potential vulnerabilities hypothesised as exploitable only by attackers
possessing Enhanced-Basic, Moderate or High attack potential do not result
in a failure of this evaluator action. Where analysis supports the hypothesis,
these need not be considered further as an input to penetration testing.
However, such vulnerabilities are reported in the ETR as residual
vulnerabilities.
1469
Potential vulnerabilities hypothesised as exploitable by an attacker
possessing a Basic attack potential and resulting in a violation of the security
objectives should be the highest priority potential vulnerabilities comprising
the list used to direct penetration testing against the TOE.
AVA_VAN.2-7
The evaluator shall produce penetration test documentation for the tests
based on the list of potential vulnerabilities in sufficient detail to enable the
tests to be repeatable. The test documentation shall include:
a)
identification of the potential vulnerability the TOE is being tested
for;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the penetration test;
c)
instructions to establish all penetration test prerequisite initial
conditions;
d)
instructions to stimulate the TSF;
e)
instructions for observing the behaviour of the TSF;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE.
1470
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing based on the list of potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the public domain and the
analysis of the evaluation evidence.
1471
The evaluator is not expected to determine the exploitability for potential
vulnerabilities beyond those for which a Basic attack potential is required to
effect an attack. However, as a result of evaluation expertise, the evaluator
may discover a potential vulnerability that is exploitable only by an attacker
with greater than Basic attack potential. Such vulnerabilities are to be
reported in the ETR as residual vulnerabilities.
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1472
With an understanding of the potential vulnerability, the evaluator
determines the most feasible way to test for the TOE's susceptibility.
Specifically the evaluator considers:
a)
the TSFI or other TOE interface that will be used to stimulate the
TSF and observe responses (It is possible that the evaluator will need
to use an interface to the TOE other than the TSFI to demonstrate
properties of the TSF such as those described in the security
architecture description (as required by ADV_ARC). It should the
noted, that although these TOE interfaces provide a means of testing
the TSF properties, they are not the subject of the test.);
b)
initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any particular
objects or subjects that will need to exist and security attributes they
will need to have);
c)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate a TSFI
or make observations of a TSFI (although it is unlikely that specialist
equipment would be required to exploit a potential vulnerability
assuming a Basic attack potential);
d)
whether theoretical analysis should replace physical testing,
particularly relevant where the results of an initial test can be
extrapolated to demonstrate that repeated attempts of an attack are
likely to succeed after a given number of attempts.
1473
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration testing
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1474
The intent of specifying this level of detail in the test documentation is to
allow another evaluator to repeat the tests and obtain an equivalent result.
AVA_VAN.2-8
The evaluator shall conduct penetration testing.
1475
The evaluator uses the penetration test documentation resulting from work
unit AVA_VAN.2-6 as a basis for executing penetration tests on the TOE,
but this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc
penetration tests. If required, the evaluator may devise ad hoc tests as a result
of information learnt during penetration testing that, if performed by the
evaluator, are to be recorded in the penetration test documentation. Such tests
may be required to follow up unexpected results or observations, or to
investigate potential vulnerabilities suggested to the evaluator during the preplanned testing.
1476
Should penetration testing show that a hypothesised potential vulnerability
does not exist, then the evaluator should determine whether or not the
evaluator's own analysis was incorrect, or if evaluation deliverables are
incorrect or incomplete.
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1477
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Basic attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that is beyond
basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual vulnerability.
AVA_VAN.2-9
The evaluator shall record the actual results of the penetration tests.
1478
While some specific details of the actual test results may be different from
those expected (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the overall result
should be identical. Any unexpected test results should be investigated. The
impact on the evaluation should be stated and justified.
AVA_VAN.2-10
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator penetration testing effort,
outlining the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1479
The penetration testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator
to convey the overall penetration testing approach and effort expended on
this sub-activity. The intent of providing this information is to give a
meaningful overview of the evaluator's penetration testing effort. It is not
intended that the information regarding penetration testing in the ETR be an
exact reproduction of specific test steps or results of individual penetration
tests. The intention is to provide enough detail to allow other evaluators and
evaluation authorities to gain some insight about the penetration testing
approach chosen, amount of penetration testing performed, TOE test
configurations, and the overall results of the penetration testing activity.
1480
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding
evaluator penetration testing efforts is:
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were penetration tested;
b)
TSFI penetration tested. A brief listing of the TSFI and other TOE
interfaces that were the focus of the penetration testing;
c)
Verdict for the sub-activity. The overall judgement on the results of
penetration testing.
1481
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the penetration testing the evaluator performed during the
evaluation.
AVA_VAN.2-11
The evaluator shall examine the results of all penetration testing to
determine that the TOE, in its operational environment, is resistant to an
attacker possessing a Basic attack potential.
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1482
If the results reveal that the TOE, in its operational environment, has
vulnerabilities exploitable by an attacker possessing less than an EnhancedBasic attack potential, then this evaluator action fails.
1483
The guidance in B.4 should be used to determine the attack potential required
to exploit a particular vulnerability and whether it can therefore be exploited
in the intended environment. It may not be necessary for the attack potential
to be calculated in every instance, only if there is some doubt as to whether
or not the vulnerability can be exploited by an attacker possessing an attack
potential less than Enhanced-Basic.
AVA_VAN.2-12
The evaluator shall report in the ETR all exploitable vulnerabilities and
residual vulnerabilities, detailing for each:
a)
its source (e.g. CEM activity being undertaken when it was
conceived, known to the evaluator, read in a publication);
b)
the SFR(s) not met;
c)
a description;
d)
whether it is exploitable in its operational environment or not (i.e.
exploitable or residual).
e)
the amount of time, level of expertise, level of knowledge of the
TOE, level of opportunity and the equipment required to perform the
identified vulnerabilities, and the corresponding values using the
tables 3 and 4 of Annex B.4.
15.2.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.3)
15.2.3.1
Objectives
1484
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE, in its
operational environment, has vulnerabilities exploitable by attackers
possessing Enhanced-Basic attack potential.
15.2.3.2
Input
1485
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the implementation subset selected;
f)
the guidance documentation;
g)
the TOE suitable for testing;
h)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible potential vulnerabilities.
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1486
The remaining implicit evaluation evidence for this sub-activity depends on
the components that have been included in the assurance package. The
evidence provided for each component is to be used as input in this subactivity.
1487
Other input for this sub-activity is:
a)
current information regarding public domain potential vulnerabilities
and attacks (e.g. from an evaluation authority).
15.2.3.3
Application notes
1488
During the conduct of evaluation activities the evaluator may also identify
areas of concern. These are specific portions of the TOE evidence that the
evaluator has some reservation about, although the evidence meets the
requirements for the activity with which the evidence is associated. For
example, a particular interface specification looks particularly complex, and
therefore may be prone to error either in the development of the TOE or in
the operation of the TOE. There is no potential vulnerability apparent at this
stage, further investigation is required. This is beyond the bounds of
encountered, as further investigation is required.
1489
The focused approach to the identification of potential vulnerabilities is an
analysis of the evidence with the aim of identifying any potential
vulnerabilities evident through the contained information. It is an
unstructured analysis, as the approach is not predetermined. Further guidance
on focused vulnerability analysis can be found in Annex B.2.2.2.2.
15.2.3.4
Action AVA_VAN.3.1E
AVA_VAN.3.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
AVA_VAN.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1490
The TOE provided by the developer and identified in the test plan should
have the same unique reference as established by the CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC) sub-activities and identified in the ST introduction.
1491
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1492
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
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1493
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
AVA_VAN.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state
1494
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
1495
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
15.2.3.5
Action AVA_VAN.3.2E
AVA_VAN.3-3
The evaluator shall examine sources of information publicly available to
identify potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1496
The evaluator examines the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
There are many sources of publicly available information which the
evaluator should consider using items such as those available on the world
wide web, including:
a)
specialist publications (magazines, books);
b)
research papers;
c)
conference proceedings.
1497
The evaluator should not constrain their consideration of publicly available
information to the above, but should consider any other relevant information
available.
1498
While examining the evidence provided the evaluator will use the
information in the public domain to further search for potential
vulnerabilities. Where the evaluators have identified areas of concern, the
evaluator should consider information publicly available that relate to those
areas of concern.
1499
The availability of information that may be readily available to an attacker
that helps to identify and facilitate attacks may substantially enhance the
attack potential of a given attacker. The accessibility of vulnerability
information and sophisticated attack tools on the Internet makes it more
likely that this information will be used in attempts to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE and exploit them. Modern search tools make such
information easily available to the evaluator, and the determination of
resistance to published potential vulnerabilities and well known generic
attacks can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.
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1500
The search of the information publicly available should be focused on those
sources that refer to the technologies used in the development of the product
from which the TOE is derived. The extensiveness of this search should
consider the following factors: TOE type, evaluator experience in this TOE
type, expected attack potential and the level of ADV evidence available.
1501
The identification process is iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
1502
The evaluator will report what actions were taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the evidence. However, in this type of search, the evaluator
may not be able to describe the steps in identifying potential vulnerabilities
before the outset of the examination, as the approach may evolve as a result
of findings during the search.
1503
The evaluator will report the evidence examined in completing the search for
potential vulnerabilities. This selection of evidence may be derived from
those areas of concern identified by the evaluator, linked to the evidence the
attacker is assumed to be able to obtain, or according to another rationale
provided by the evaluator.
15.2.3.6
Action AVA_VAN.3.3E
AVA_VAN.3-4
The evaluator shall conduct a focused search of ST, guidance
documentation, functional specification, TOE design, security architecture
description and implementation representation to identify possible potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1504
A flaw hypothesis methodology needs to be used whereby specifications and
development and guidance evidence are analysed and then potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE are hypothesised, or speculated.
1505
The evaluator uses the knowledge of the TOE design and operation gained
from the TOE deliverables to conduct a flaw hypothesis to identify potential
flaws in the development of the TOE and potential errors in the specified
method of operation of the TOE.
1506
The security architecture description provides the developer vulnerability
analysis, as it documents how the TSF protects itself from interference from
untrusted subjects and prevents the bypass of security enforcement
functionality. Therefore, the evaluator should build upon the understanding
of the TSF protection gained from the analysis of this evidence and then
develop this in the knowledge gained from other development ADV
evidence.
1507
The approach taken is directed by areas of concern identified during
examination of the evidence during the conduct of evaluation activities and
ensuring a representative sample of the development and guidance evidence
provided for the evaluation is searched.
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1508
For guidance on sampling see Annex A.2. This guidance should be
considered when selecting the subset, giving reasons for:
a)
the approach used in selection;
b)
qualification that the evidence to be examined supports that approach.
1509
The areas of concern may relate to the sufficiency of specific protection
features detailed in the security architecture description.
1510
The evidence to be considered during the vulnerability analysis may be
linked to the evidence the attacker is assumed to be able to obtain. For
example, the developer may protect the TOE design and implementation
representations, so the only information assumed to be available to an
attacker is the functional specification and guidance (publicly available). So,
although the objectives for assurance in the TOE ensure the TOE design and
implementation representation requirements are met, these design
representations may only be searched to further investigate areas of concerns.
1511
On the other hand, if the source is publicly available it would be reasonable
to assume that the attacker has access to the source and can use this in
attempts to attack the TOE. Therefore, the source should be considered in the
focused examination approach.
1512
The following indicates examples for the selection of the subset of evidence
to be considered:
a)
For an evaluation where all levels of design abstraction from
functional specification to implementation representation are
provided, examination of information in the functional specification
and the implementation representation may be selected, as the
functional specification provides detail of interfaces available to an
attacker, and the implementation representation incorporates the
design decisions made at all other design abstractions. Therefore, the
TOE design information will be considered as part of the
implementation representation.
b)
Examination of a particular subset of information in each of the
design representations provided for the evaluation.
c)
Coverage of particular SFRs through each of the design
representations provided for the evaluation.
d)
Examination of each of the design representations provided for the
evaluation, considering different SFRs within each design
representations.
e)
Examination of aspects of the evidence provided for the evaluation
relating to current potential vulnerability information the evaluator
has received (e.g. from a scheme).
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1513
This approach to identification of potential vulnerabilities is to take an
ordered and planned approach; applying a system to the examination. The
evaluator is to describe the method to be used in terms of what evidence will
be considered, the information within the evidence that is to be examined,
the manner in which this information is to be considered and the hypothesis
that is to be created.
1514
The following provide some examples that a hypothesis may take:
a)
consideration of malformed input for interfaces available to an
attacker at the external interfaces;
b)
examination of a key security mechanism cited in the security
architecture description, such as process separation, hypothesising
internal buffer overflows that may lead to degradation of separation;
c)
search to identify any objects created in the TOE implementation
representation that are then not fully controlled by the TSF, and could
be used by an attacker to undermine SFRs.
1515
For example, the evaluator may identify that interfaces are a potential area of
weakness in the TOE and specify an approach to the search that “all interface
specifications provided in the functional specification and TOE design will
be searched to hypothesise potential vulnerabilities” and go on to explain the
methods used in the hypothesis.
1516
The identification process is iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
1517
The evaluator will report what actions were taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the evidence. However, in this type of search, the evaluator
may not be able to describe the steps in identifying potential vulnerabilities
before the outset of the examination, as the approach may evolve as a result
of findings during the search.
1518
The evaluator will report the evidence examine in completing the search for
potential vulnerabilities. This selection of evidence may be derived from
those areas of concern identified by the evaluator, linked to the evidence the
attacker is assumed to be able to obtain, or according to another rationale
provided by the evaluator.
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1519
Subject to the SFRs the TOE is to meet in the operational environment, the
evaluator's independent vulnerability analysis should consider generic
potential vulnerabilities under each of the following headings:
a)
generic potential vulnerabilities relevant for the type of TOE being
evaluated, as may be supplied by the evaluation authority;
b)
bypassing;
c)
tampering;
d)
direct attacks;
e)
monitoring;
f)
misuse.
1520
Items b) - f) are explained in greater detail in Annex B.
1521
The security architecture description should be considered in light of each of
the above generic potential vulnerabilities. Each potential vulnerability
should be considered to search for possible ways in which to defeat the TSF
protection and undermine the TSF.
AVA_VAN.3-5
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential vulnerabilities
that are candidates for testing and applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment.
1522
It may be identified that no further consideration of the potential
vulnerability is required if for example the evaluator identifies that measures
in the operational environment, either IT or non-IT, prevent exploitation of
the potential vulnerability in that operational environment. For instance,
restricting physical access to the TOE to authorised users only may
effectively render a potential vulnerability to tampering unexploitable.
1523
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of potential vulnerabilities
from further consideration if the evaluator determines that the potential
vulnerability is not applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the
evaluator records the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1524
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment, which can be used as an input into penetration testing
activities, shall be reported in the ETR by the evaluators.
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15.2.3.7
Action AVA_VAN.3.4E
AVA_VAN.3-6
The evaluator shall devise penetration tests, based on the independent search
for potential vulnerabilities.
1525
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing as necessary to determine the
susceptibility of the TOE, in its operational environment, to the potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the sources of information
publicly available. Any current information provided to the evaluator by a
third party (e.g. evaluation authority) regarding known potential
vulnerabilities will be considered by the evaluator, together with any
encountered potential vulnerabilities resulting from the performance of other
evaluation activities.
1526
The evaluator is reminded that, as for considering the security architecture
description in the search for vulnerabilities (as detailed in AVA_VAN.3-4),
testing should be performed to confirm the architectural properties. If
requirements from ATE_DPT are included in the SARs, the developer
testing evidence will include testing performed to confirm the correct
implementation of any specific mechanisms detailed in the security
architecture description. However, the developer testing will not necessarily
include testing of all aspects of the architectural properties that protect the
TSF, as much of this testing will be negative testing in nature, attempting to
disprove the properties. In developing the strategy for penetration testing, the
evaluator will ensure that all aspects of the security architecture description
are tested, either in functional testing (as considered in 14) or evaluator
penetration testing.
1527
It will probably be practical to carry out penetration test using a series of test
cases, where each test case will test for a specific potential vulnerability.
1528
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required an Enhanced-Basic
attack potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a
test before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of
evaluation expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that
is beyond Enhanced-Basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a
residual vulnerability.
1529
Guidance on determining the necessary attack potential to exploit a potential
vulnerability can be found in Annex B.4.
1530
Potential vulnerabilities hypothesised as exploitable only by attackers
possessing Moderate or High attack potential do not result in a failure of this
evaluator action. Where analysis supports the hypothesis, these need not be
considered further as an input to penetration testing. However, such
vulnerabilities are reported in the ETR as residual vulnerabilities.
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1531
Potential vulnerabilities hypothesised as exploitable by an attacker
possessing a Basic or Enhanced-Basic attack potential and resulting in a
violation of the security objectives should be the highest priority potential
vulnerabilities comprising the list used to direct penetration testing against
the TOE.
AVA_VAN.3-7
The evaluator shall produce penetration test documentation for the tests
based on the list of potential vulnerabilities in sufficient detail to enable the
tests to be repeatable. The test documentation shall include:
a)
identification of the potential vulnerability the TOE is being tested
for;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the penetration test;
c)
instructions to establish all penetration test prerequisite initial
conditions;
d)
instructions to stimulate the TSF;
e)
instructions for observing the behaviour of the TSF;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE.
1532
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing based on the list of potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the public domain and the
analysis of the evaluation evidence.
1533
The evaluator is not expected to determine the exploitability for potential
vulnerabilities beyond those for which an Enhanced-Basic attack potential is
required to effect an attack. However, as a result of evaluation expertise, the
evaluator may discover a potential vulnerability that is exploitable only by an
attacker with greater than Enhanced-Basic attack potential. Such
vulnerabilities are to be reported in the ETR as residual vulnerabilities.
1534
With an understanding of the potential vulnerability, the evaluator
determines the most feasible way to test for the TOE's susceptibility.
Specifically the evaluator considers:
a)
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the TSFI or other TOE interface that will be used to stimulate the
TSF and observe responses (It is possible that the evaluator will need
to use an interface to the TOE other than the TSFI to demonstrate
properties of the TSF such as those described in the security
architecture description (as required by ADV_ARC). It should the
noted, that although these TOE interfaces provide a means of testing
the TSF properties, they are not the subject of the test.);
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b)
initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any particular
objects or subjects that will need to exist and security attributes they
will need to have);
c)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate a TSFI
or make observations of a TSFI (although it is unlikely that specialist
equipment would be required to exploit a potential vulnerability
assuming an Enhanced-Basic attack potential);
d)
whether theoretical analysis should replace physical testing,
particularly relevant where the results of an initial test can be
extrapolated to demonstrate that repeated attempts of an attack are
likely to succeed after a given number of attempts.
1535
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration testing
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1536
The intent of specifying this level of detail in the test documentation is to
allow another evaluator to repeat the tests and obtain an equivalent result.
AVA_VAN.3-8
The evaluator shall conduct penetration testing.
1537
The evaluator uses the penetration test documentation resulting from work
unit AVA_VAN.3-6 as a basis for executing penetration tests on the TOE,
but this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc
penetration tests. If required, the evaluator may devise ad hoc tests as a result
of information learnt during penetration testing that, if performed by the
evaluator, are to be recorded in the penetration test documentation. Such tests
may be required to follow up unexpected results or observations, or to
investigate potential vulnerabilities suggested to the evaluator during the preplanned testing.
1538
Should penetration testing show that a hypothesised potential vulnerability
does not exist, then the evaluator should determine whether or not the
evaluator's own analysis was incorrect, or if evaluation deliverables are
incorrect or incomplete.
1539
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required an Enhanced-Basic
attack potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a
test before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of
evaluation expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that
is beyond Enhanced-Basic attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a
residual vulnerability.
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AVA_VAN.3-9
The evaluator shall record the actual results of the penetration tests.
1540
While some specific details of the actual test results may be different from
those expected (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the overall result
should be identical. Any unexpected test results should be investigated. The
impact on the evaluation should be stated and justified.
AVA_VAN.3-10
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator penetration testing effort,
outlining the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1541
The penetration testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator
to convey the overall penetration testing approach and effort expended on
this sub-activity. The intent of providing this information is to give a
meaningful overview of the evaluator's penetration testing effort. It is not
intended that the information regarding penetration testing in the ETR be an
exact reproduction of specific test steps or results of individual penetration
tests. The intention is to provide enough detail to allow other evaluators and
evaluation authorities to gain some insight about the penetration testing
approach chosen, amount of penetration testing performed, TOE test
configurations, and the overall results of the penetration testing activity.
1542
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding
evaluator penetration testing efforts is:
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were penetration tested;
b)
TSFI penetration tested. A brief listing of the TSFI and other TOE
interfaces that were the focus of the penetration testing;
c)
Verdict for the sub-activity. The overall judgement on the results of
penetration testing.
1543
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the penetration testing the evaluator performed during the
evaluation.
AVA_VAN.3-11
The evaluator shall examine the results of all penetration testing to
determine that the TOE, in its operational environment, is resistant to an
attacker possessing an Enhanced-Basic attack potential.
1544
If the results reveal that the TOE, in its operational environment, has
vulnerabilities exploitable by an attacker possessing less than Moderate
attack potential, then this evaluator action fails.
1545
The guidance in B.4 should be used to determine the attack potential required
to exploit a particular vulnerability and whether it can therefore be exploited
in the intended environment. It may not be necessary for the attack potential
to be calculated in every instance, only if there is some doubt as to whether
or not the vulnerability can be exploited by an attacker possessing an attack
potential less than Moderate.
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AVA_VAN.3-12
The evaluator shall report in the ETR all exploitable vulnerabilities and
residual vulnerabilities, detailing for each:
a)
its source (e.g. CEM activity being undertaken when it was
conceived, known to the evaluator, read in a publication);
b)
the SFR(s) not met;
c)
a description;
d)
whether it is exploitable in its operational environment or not (i.e.
exploitable or residual).
e)
the amount of time, level of expertise, level of knowledge of the
TOE, level of opportunity and the equipment required to perform the
identified vulnerabilities, and the corresponding values using the
tables 3 and 4 of Annex B.4.
15.2.4
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.4)
15.2.4.1
Objectives
1546
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the TOE, in its
operational environment, has vulnerabilities exploitable by attackers
possessing Moderate attack potential.
15.2.4.2
Input
1547
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
1548
a)
the ST;
b)
the functional specification;
c)
the TOE design;
d)
the security architecture description;
e)
the implementation representation;
f)
the guidance documentation;
g)
the TOE suitable for testing;
h)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible potential vulnerabilities.
The remaining implicit evaluation evidence for this sub-activity depends on
the components that have been included in the assurance package. The
evidence provided for each component is to be used as input in this subactivity.
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1549
Other input for this sub-activity is:
a)
current information regarding public domain potential vulnerabilities
and attacks (e.g. from an evaluation authority).
15.2.4.3
Application notes
1550
The methodical analysis approach takes the form of a structured examination
of the evidence. This method requires the evaluator to specify the structure
and form the analysis will take (i.e. the manner in which the analysis is
performed is predetermined, unlike the focused analysis). The method is
specified in terms of the information that will be considered and how/why it
will be considered. Further guidance on methodical vulnerability analysis
can be found in Annex B.2.2.2.3.
15.2.4.4
Action AVA_VAN.4.1E
AVA_VAN.4.1C
The TOE shall be suitable for testing.
AVA_VAN.4-1
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that the test configuration
is consistent with the configuration under evaluation as specified in the ST.
1551
The TOE provided by the developer and identified in the test plan should
have the same unique reference as established by the CM capabilities
(ALC_CMC) sub-activities and identified in the ST introduction.
1552
It is possible for the ST to specify more than one configuration for
evaluation. The TOE may comprise a number of distinct hardware and
software entities that need to be tested in accordance with the ST. The
evaluator verifies that all test configurations are consistent with the ST.
1553
The evaluator should consider the security objectives for the operational
environment described in the ST that may apply to the test environment and
ensure they are met in the testing environment. There may be some
objectives for the operational environment that do not apply to the test
environment. For example, an objective about user clearances may not apply;
however, an objective about a single point of connection to a network would
apply.
1554
If any test resources are used (e.g. meters, analysers) it will be the evaluator's
responsibility to ensure that these resources are calibrated correctly.
AVA_VAN.4-2
The evaluator shall examine the TOE to determine that it has been installed
properly and is in a known state
1555
It is possible for the evaluator to determine the state of the TOE in a number
of ways. For example, previous successful completion of the Evaluation of
sub-activity (AGD_PRE.1) sub-activity will satisfy this work unit if the
evaluator still has confidence that the TOE being used for testing was
installed properly and is in a known state. If this is not the case, then the
evaluator should follow the developer's procedures to install and start up the
TOE, using the supplied guidance only.
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1556
If the evaluator has to perform the installation procedures because the TOE is
in an unknown state, this work unit when successfully completed could
satisfy work unit AGD_PRE.1-3.
15.2.4.5
Action AVA_VAN.4.2E
AVA_VAN.4-3
The evaluator shall examine sources of information publicly available to
identify potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1557
The evaluator examines the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible potential vulnerabilities in the TOE.
There are many sources of publicly available information which the
evaluator should consider using items such as those available on the world
wide web, including:
a)
specialist publications (magazines, books);
b)
research papers;
c)
conference proceedings.
1558
The evaluator should not constrain their consideration of publicly available
information to the above, but should consider any other relevant information
available.
1559
While examining the evidence provided the evaluator will use the
information in the public domain to further search for potential
vulnerabilities. Where the evaluators have identified areas of concern, the
evaluator should consider information publicly available that relate to those
areas of concern.
1560
The availability of information that may be readily available to an attacker
that helps to identify and facilitate attacks may substantially enhance the
attack potential of a given attacker. The accessibility of vulnerability
information and sophisticated attack tools on the Internet makes it more
likely that this information will be used in attempts to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE and exploit them. Modern search tools make such
information easily available to the evaluator, and the determination of
resistance to published potential vulnerabilities and well known generic
attacks can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.
1561
The search of the information publicly available should be focused on those
sources that refer to the technologies used in the development of the product
from which the TOE is derived. The extensiveness of this search should
consider the following factors: TOE type, evaluator experience in this TOE
type, expected attack potential and the level of ADV evidence available.
1562
The identification process is iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
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1563
The evaluator will describe the approach to be taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the publicly available material, detailing the search to be
performed. This may be driven by factors such as areas of concern identified
by the evaluator, linked to the evidence the attacker is assumed to be able to
obtain. However, it is recognised that in this type of search the approach may
further evolve as a result of findings during the search. Therefore, the
evaluator will also report any actions taken in addition to those described in
the approach to further investigate issues thought to lead to potential
vulnerabilities, and will report the evidence examined in completing the
search for potential vulnerabilities.
15.2.4.6
Action AVA_VAN.4.3E
AVA_VAN.4-4
The evaluator shall conduct a methodical analysis of ST, guidance
documentation, functional specification, TOE design, security architecture
description and implementation representation to identify possible potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1564
Guidance on methodical vulnerability analysis is provided in Annex
B.2.2.2.3.
1565
This approach to identification of potential vulnerabilities is to take an
ordered and planned approach. A system is to be applied in the examination.
The evaluator is to describe the method to be used in terms of the manner in
which this information is to be considered and the hypothesis that is to be
created.
1566
A flaw hypothesis methodology needs to be used whereby the ST,
development (functional specification, TOE design and implementation
representation) and guidance evidence are analysed and then vulnerabilities
in the TOE are hypothesised, or speculated.
1567
The evaluator uses the knowledge of the TOE design and operation gained
from the TOE deliverables to conduct a flaw hypothesis to identify potential
flaws in the development of the TOE and potential errors in the specified
method of operation of the TOE.
1568
The security architecture description provides the developer vulnerability
analysis, as it documents how the TSF protects itself from interference from
untrusted subjects and prevents the bypass of security enforcement
functionality. Therefore, the evaluator should build upon the understanding
of the TSF protection gained from the analysis of this evidence and then
develop this in the knowledge gained from other development ADV
evidence.
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1569
The approach taken to the methodical search for vulnerabilities is to consider
any areas of concern identified in the results of the evaluator's assessment of
the development and guidance evidence. However, the evaluator should also
consider each aspect of the security architecture analysis to search for any
ways in which the protection of the TSF can be undermined. It may be
helpful to structure the methodical analysis on the basis of the material
presented in the security architecture description, introducing concerns from
other ADV evidence as appropriate. The analysis can then be further
developed to ensure all other material from the ADV evidence is considered.
1570
The following provide some examples of hypotheses that may be created
when examining the evidence:
a)
consideration of malformed input for interfaces available to an
attacker at the external interfaces;
b)
examination of a key security mechanism cited in the security
architecture description, such as process separation, hypothesising
internal buffer overflows that may lead to degradation of separation;
c)
search to identify any objects created in the TOE implementation
representation that are then not fully controlled by the TSF, and could
be used by an attacker to undermine SFRs.
1571
For example, the evaluator may identify that interfaces are a potential area of
weakness in the TOE and specify an approach to the search that 'all interface
specifications in the evidence provided will be searched to hypothesise
potential vulnerabilities' and go on to explain the methods used in the
hypothesis.
1572
In addition, areas of concern the evaluator has identified during examination
of the evidence during the conduct of evaluation activities. Areas of concern
may also be identified during the conduct of other work units associated with
this component, in particular AVA_VAN.4-7, AVA_VAN.4-5 and
AVA_VAN.4-6 where the development and conduct of penetration tests may
identify further areas of concerns for investigation, or potential
vulnerabilities.
1573
However, examination of only a subset of the development and guidance
evidence or their contents is not permitted in this level of rigour. The
approach description should provide a demonstration that the methodical
approach used is complete, providing confidence that the approach used to
search the deliverables has considered all of the information provided in
those deliverables.
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1574
This approach to identification of potential vulnerabilities is to take an
ordered and planned approach; applying a system to the examination. The
evaluator is to describe the method to be used in terms of how the evidence
will be considered; the manner in which this information is to be considered
and the hypothesis that is to be created. This approach should be agreed with
the evaluation authority, and the evaluation authority may provide detail of
any additional approaches the evaluator should take to the vulnerability
analysis and identify any additional information that should be considered by
the evaluator.
1575
Although a system to identifying potential vulnerabilities is predefined, the
identification process may still be iterative, where the identification of one
potential vulnerability may lead to identifying another area of concern that
requires further investigation.
1576
Subject to the SFRs the TOE is to meet in the operational environment, the
evaluator's independent vulnerability analysis should consider generic
potential vulnerabilities under each of the following headings:
a)
generic potential vulnerabilities relevant for the type of TOE being
evaluated, as may be supplied by the evaluation authority;
b)
bypassing;
c)
tampering;
d)
direct attacks;
e)
monitoring;
f)
misuse.
1577
Items b) - f) are explained in greater detail in Annex B.
1578
The security architecture description should be considered in light of each of
the above generic potential vulnerabilities. Each potential vulnerability
should be considered to search for possible ways in which to defeat the TSF
protection and undermine the TSF.
AVA_VAN.4-5
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential vulnerabilities
that are candidates for testing and applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment.
1579
It may be identified that no further consideration of the potential
vulnerability is required if for example the evaluator identifies that measures
in the operational environment, either IT or non-IT, prevent exploitation of
the potential vulnerability in that operational environment. For instance,
restricting physical access to the TOE to authorised users only may
effectively render a potential vulnerability to tampering unexploitable.
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1580
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of potential vulnerabilities
from further consideration if the evaluator determines that the potential
vulnerability is not applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the
evaluator records the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1581
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the TOE in its operational
environment, which can be used as an input into penetration testing
activities, shall be reported in the ETR by the evaluators.
15.2.4.7
Action AVA_VAN.4.4E
AVA_VAN.4-6
The evaluator shall devise penetration tests, based on the independent search
for potential vulnerabilities.
1582
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing as necessary to determine the
susceptibility of the TOE, in its operational environment, to the potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the sources of information
publicly available. Any current information provided to the evaluator by a
third party (e.g. evaluation authority) regarding known potential
vulnerabilities will be considered by the evaluator, together with any
encountered potential vulnerabilities resulting from the performance of other
evaluation activities.
1583
The evaluator is reminded that, as for considering the security architecture
description in the search for vulnerabilities (as detailed in AVA_VAN.4-3),
testing should be performed to confirm the architectural properties. If
requirements from ATE_DPT are included in the SARs, the developer
testing evidence will include testing performed to confirm the correct
implementation of any specific mechanisms detailed in the security
architecture description. However, the developer testing will not necessarily
include testing of all aspects of the architectural properties that protect the
TSF, as much of this testing will be negative testing in nature, attempting to
disprove the properties. In developing the strategy for penetration testing, the
evaluator will ensure that all aspects of the security architecture description
are tested, either in functional testing (as considered in 14) or evaluator
penetration testing.
1584
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration test
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1585
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Moderate attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that is beyond
Moderate attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual
vulnerability.
1586
Guidance on determining the necessary attack potential to exploit a potential
vulnerability can be found in Annex B.4.
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1587
Potential vulnerabilities hypothesised as exploitable by an attacker
possessing a Moderate (or less) attack potential and resulting in a violation of
the security objectives should be the highest priority potential vulnerabilities
comprising the list used to direct penetration testing against the TOE.
AVA_VAN.4-7
The evaluator shall produce penetration test documentation for the tests
based on the list of potential vulnerabilities in sufficient detail to enable the
tests to be repeatable. The test documentation shall include:
a)
identification of the potential vulnerability the TOE is being tested
for;
b)
instructions to connect and setup all required test equipment as
required to conduct the penetration test;
c)
instructions to establish all penetration test prerequisite initial
conditions;
d)
instructions to stimulate the TSF;
e)
instructions for observing the behaviour of the TSF;
f)
descriptions of all expected results and the necessary analysis to be
performed on the observed behaviour for comparison against
expected results;
g)
instructions to conclude the test and establish the necessary post-test
state for the TOE.
1588
The evaluator prepares for penetration testing based on the list of potential
vulnerabilities identified during the search of the public domain and the
analysis of the evaluation evidence.
1589
The evaluator is not expected to determine the exploitability for potential
vulnerabilities beyond those for which a Moderate attack potential is
required to effect an attack. However, as a result of evaluation expertise, the
evaluator may discover a potential vulnerability that is exploitable only by an
attacker with greater than Moderate attack potential. Such vulnerabilities are
to be reported in the ETR as residual vulnerabilities.
1590
With an understanding of the potential vulnerability, the evaluator
determines the most feasible way to test for the TOE's susceptibility.
Specifically the evaluator considers:
a)
September 2007
the TSFI or other TOE interface that will be used to stimulate the
TSF and observe responses (It is possible that the evaluator will need
to use an interface to the TOE other than the TSFI to demonstrate
properties of the TSF such as those described in the security
architecture description (as required by ADV_ARC). It should the
noted, that although these TOE interfaces provide a means of testing
the TSF properties, they are not the subject of the test.);
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b)
initial conditions that will need to exist for the test (i.e. any particular
objects or subjects that will need to exist and security attributes they
will need to have);
c)
special test equipment that will be required to either stimulate a TSFI
or make observations of a TSFI;
d)
whether theoretical analysis should replace physical testing,
particularly relevant where the results of an initial test can be
extrapolated to demonstrate that repeated attempts of an attack are
likely to succeed after a given number of attempts.
1591
The evaluator will probably find it practical to carry out penetration testing
using a series of test cases, where each test case will test for a specific
potential vulnerability.
1592
The intent of specifying this level of detail in the test documentation is to
allow another evaluator to repeat the tests and obtain an equivalent result.
AVA_VAN.4-8
The evaluator shall conduct penetration testing.
1593
The evaluator uses the penetration test documentation resulting from work
unit AVA_VAN.4-6 as a basis for executing penetration tests on the TOE,
but this does not preclude the evaluator from performing additional ad hoc
penetration tests. If required, the evaluator may devise ad hoc tests as a result
of information learnt during penetration testing that, if performed by the
evaluator, are to be recorded in the penetration test documentation. Such tests
may be required to follow up unexpected results or observations, or to
investigate potential vulnerabilities suggested to the evaluator during the preplanned testing.
1594
Should penetration testing show that a hypothesised potential vulnerability
does not exist, then the evaluator should determine whether or not the
evaluator's own analysis was incorrect, or if evaluation deliverables are
incorrect or incomplete.
1595
The evaluator is not expected to test for potential vulnerabilities (including
those in the public domain) beyond those which required a Moderate attack
potential. In some cases, however, it will be necessary to carry out a test
before the exploitability can be determined. Where, as a result of evaluation
expertise, the evaluator discovers an exploitable vulnerability that is beyond
Moderate attack potential, this is reported in the ETR as a residual
vulnerability.
AVA_VAN.4-9
The evaluator shall record the actual results of the penetration tests.
1596
While some specific details of the actual test results may be different from
those expected (e.g. time and date fields in an audit record) the overall result
should be identical. Any unexpected test results should be investigated. The
impact on the evaluation should be stated and justified.
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AVA_VAN.4-10
The evaluator shall report in the ETR the evaluator penetration testing effort,
outlining the testing approach, configuration, depth and results.
1597
The penetration testing information reported in the ETR allows the evaluator
to convey the overall penetration testing approach and effort expended on
this sub-activity. The intent of providing this information is to give a
meaningful overview of the evaluator's penetration testing effort. It is not
intended that the information regarding penetration testing in the ETR be an
exact reproduction of specific test steps or results of individual penetration
tests. The intention is to provide enough detail to allow other evaluators and
evaluation authorities to gain some insight about the penetration testing
approach chosen, amount of penetration testing performed, TOE test
configurations, and the overall results of the penetration testing activity.
1598
Information that would typically be found in the ETR section regarding
evaluator penetration testing efforts is:
a)
TOE test configurations. The particular configurations of the TOE
that were penetration tested;
b)
TSFI penetration tested. A brief listing of the TSFI and other TOE
interfaces that were the focus of the penetration testing;
c)
Verdict for the sub-activity. The overall judgement on the results of
penetration testing.
1599
This list is by no means exhaustive and is only intended to provide some
context as to the type of information that should be present in the ETR
concerning the penetration testing the evaluator performed during the
evaluation.
AVA_VAN.4-11
The evaluator shall examine the results of all penetration testing to
determine that the TOE, in its operational environment, is resistant to an
attacker possessing a Moderate attack potential.
1600
If the results reveal that the TOE, in its operational environment, has
vulnerabilities exploitable by an attacker possessing less than a High attack
potential, then this evaluator action fails.
1601
The guidance in B.4 should be used to determine the attack potential required
to exploit a particular vulnerability and whether it can therefore be exploited
in the intended environment. It may not be necessary for the attack potential
to be calculated in every instance, only if there is some doubt as to whether
or not the vulnerability can be exploited by an attacker possessing an attack
potential less than High.
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AVA_VAN.4-12
The evaluator shall report in the ETR all exploitable vulnerabilities and
residual vulnerabilities, detailing for each:
a)
its source (e.g. CEM activity being undertaken when it was
conceived, known to the evaluator, read in a publication);
b)
the SFR(s) not met;
c)
a description;
d)
whether it is exploitable in its operational environment or not (i.e.
exploitable or residual).
e)
the amount of time, level of expertise, level of knowledge of the
TOE, level of opportunity and the equipment required to perform the
identified vulnerabilities, and the corresponding values using the
tables 3 and 4 of Annex B.4.
15.2.5
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.5)
1602
There is no general guidance; the scheme should be consulted for guidance
on this sub-activity.
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16
Class ACO: Composition
16.1
Introduction
1603
The goal of this activity is to determine whether the components can be
integrated in a secure manner, as defined in the ST for the composed TOE.
This is achieved through examination and testing of the interfaces between
the components, supported by examination of the design of the components
and the conduct of vulnerability analysis.
16.2
Application notes
1604
The Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL) family identifies where
the dependent component is reliant upon IT in its operational environment
(satisfied by a base component in the composed TOE evaluation) in order to
provide its own security services. This reliance is identified in terms of the
interfaces expected by the dependent component to be provided by the base
component. Development evidence (ACO_DEV) then determines which
interfaces of the base component were considered (as TSFI) during the
component evaluation of the base component.
1605
It should be noted that Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL) does
not cover other evidence that may be needed to address the technical
integration problem of composing components (e.g. descriptions of non-TSF
interfaces of the operating system, rules for integration, etc.). This is outside
the security assessment of the composition and is a functional composition
issue.
1606
As part of Composed TOE testing (ACO_CTT) the evaluator will perform
testing of the composed TOE SFRs at the composed TOE interfaces and of
the interfaces of the base component relied upon by the dependent
component to confirm they operate as specified. The subset selected will
consider the possible effects of changes to the configuration/use of the base
component as used in the composed TOE. These changes are identified from
the configuration of the base component determined during the base
component evaluation. The developer will provide test evidence for each of
the base component interfaces (the requirements for coverage are consistent
with those applied to the evaluation of the base component).
1607
Composition rationale (ACO_COR) requires the evaluator to determine
whether the appropriate assurance measures have been applied to the base
component, and whether the base component is being used in its evaluated
configuration. This includes determination of whether all security
functionality required by the dependent component was within the TSF of
the base component. The Composition rationale (ACO_COR) requirement
may be met through the production of evidence that each of these is
demonstrated to be upheld. This evidence may be in the form of the security
target and a public report of the component evaluation (e.g. certification
report).
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1608
If, on the other hand, one of the above have not been upheld, then it may be
possible that an argument can be made as to why the assurance gained during
an original evaluation is unaffected. If this is not possible then additional
evaluation evidence for those aspects of the base component not covered
may have to be provided. This material is then assessed in Development
evidence (ACO_DEV).
1609
For example, it may be the case as described in the Interactions between
entities (see Annex B.3, Interactions between composed IT entities in CC
Part 3) that the dependent component requires the base component to provide
more security functionality in the composed TOE than included in the base
component evaluation. This would be determined during the application of
the Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL) and Development
evidence (ACO_DEV) families. In this case the composition rationale
evidence provided for Composition rationale (ACO_COR) would
demonstrate that the assurance gained from the base component evaluation is
unaffected. This may be achieved by means including:
a)
Performing a re-evaluation of the base component focusing on the
evidence relating to the extended part of the TSF;
b)
Demonstrating that the extended part of the TSF cannot affect other
portions of the TSF, and providing evidence that the extended part of
the TSF provides the necessary security functionality.
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16.3
Composition rationale (ACO_COR)
16.3.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_COR.1)
16.3.1.1
Input
1610
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the composition rationale;
c)
the reliance information;
d)
the development information;
e)
unique identifier.
16.3.1.2
Action ACO_COR.1.1E
ACO_COR.1.1C
The composition rationale shall demonstrate that a level of assurance at
least as high as that of the dependent component has been obtained for the
support functionality of the base component, when the base component is
configured as required to support the TSF of the dependent component.
ACO_COR.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the correspondence analysis with the
development information and the reliance information to identify the
interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent component which are not
detailed in the development information.
1611
The evaluator's goal in this work unit is two fold:
a)
to determine which interfaces relied upon by the dependent
component have had the appropriate assurance measures applied.
b)
to determine that the assurance package applied to the base
component during the base component evaluation contained either
the same assurance requirements as those in the package applied to
the dependent component during its' evaluation, or hierarchically
higher assurance requirements.
1612
The evaluator may use the correspondence tracing in the development
information developed during the Development evidence (ACO_DEV)
activities (e.g. ACO_DEV.1-2, ACO_DEV.2-4, ACO_DEV.3-6) to help
identify the interfaces identified in the reliance information that are not
considered in the development information.
1613
The evaluator will record the SFR-enforcing interfaces described in the
reliance information that are not included in the development information.
These will provide input to ACO_COR.1-3 work unit, helping to identify the
portions of the base component in which further assurance is required.
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1614
If the both the base and dependent components were evaluated against the
same assurance package, then the determination of whether the level of
assurance in the portions within the base component evaluation is at least as
high as that of the dependent component is trivial. If however, the assurance
packages applied to the components during the component evaluations differ,
the evaluator needs to determine that the assurance requirements applied to
the base component are all hierarchically higher to the assurance
requirements applied to the dependent component.
ACO_COR.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the composition rationale to determine, for
those included base component interfaces on which the dependent TSF
relies, whether the interface was considered during the evaluation of the base
component.
1615
The ST, component public evaluation report (e.g. certification report) and
guidance documents for the base component all provide information on the
scope and boundary of the base component. The ST provides details of the
logical scope and boundary of the composed TOE, allowing the evaluator to
determine whether an interface relates to a portion of the product that was
within the scope of the evaluation. The guidance documentation provides
details of use of all interfaces for the composed TOE. Although the guidance
documentation may include details of interfaces in the product that are not
within the scope of the evaluation, any such interfaces should be identifiable,
either from the scoping information in the ST or through a portion of the
guidance that deals with the evaluated configuration. The public evaluation
report may provide any additional constraints on the use of the composed
TOE that are necessary.
1616
Therefore, the combination of these inputs allows the evaluator to determine
whether an interface described in the composition rationale has the necessary
assurance associated with it, or whether further assurance is required. The
evaluator will record those interfaces of the base component for which
additional assurance is required, for consideration during ACO_COR.1-3.
ACO_COR.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the composition rationale to determine that the
necessary assurance measures have been applied to the base component.
1617
The evaluation verdicts, and resultant assurance, for the base component can
be reused provided the same portions of the base component are used in the
composed TOE and they are used in a consistent manner.
1618
In order to determine whether the necessary assurance measures have already
been applied to the component, and the portions of the component for which
assurance measures still need to be applied, the evaluator should use the
output of the ACO_DEV.*.2E action and the work units ACO_COR.1-1 and
ACO_COR.1-2:
a)
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For those interfaces identified in the reliance information (Reliance of
dependent component (ACO_REL)), but not discussed in
development information (Development evidence (ACO_DEV)),
additional information is required. (Identified in ACO_COR.1-1.)
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b)
For those interfaces used inconsistently in the composed TOE from
the base component (difference between the information provided in
Development evidence (ACO_DEV) and Reliance of dependent
component (ACO_REL) the impact of the differences in use need to
be considered. (Identified in ACO_DEV.*.2E.)
c)
For those interfaces identified in composition rationale for which no
assurance has previously been gained, additional information is
required. (Identified in ACO_COR.1-2.)
d)
For those interfaces consistently described in the reliance
information, composition rationale and the development information,
no further action is required as the results from the base component
evaluation can be re-used.
1619
The interfaces of the base component reported to be required by the reliance
information but not included in the development information indicate the
portions of the base component where further assurance is required. The
interfaces identify the entry points into the base component.
1620
For those interfaces included in both the development information and
reliance information, the evaluator is to determine whether the interfaces are
being used in the composed TOE in a manner that is consistent with the base
component evaluation. The method of use of the interface will be considered
during the Development evidence (ACO_DEV) activities to determine that
the use of the interface is consistent in both the base component and the
composed TOE. The remaining consideration is the determination of whether
the configurations of the base component and the composed TOE are
consistent. To determine this, the evaluator will consider the guidance
documentation of each to ensure they are consistent (see further guidance
below regarding consistent guidance documentation). Any deviation in the
documentation will be further analysed by the evaluation to determine the
possible effects.
1621
For those interfaces that are consistently described in the reliance
information and development information, and for which the guidance is
consistent for the base component and the composed TOE, the required level
of assurance has been provided.
1622
The following subsections provide guidance on how to determine
consistency between assurance gained in the base component, the evidence
provided for the composed TOE, and the analysis performed by the evaluator
in the instances where inconsistencies are identified.
16.3.1.2.1
Development
1623
The reliance information identifies the interfaces in the dependent
component that are to be matched by the base component. If an interface
identified in the reliance information is not identified in the development
information, then the composition rationale is to provide a justification of
how the base component provides the required interfaces.
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1624
If an interface identified in the reliance information is identified in the
development information, but there are inconsistencies between the
descriptions, further analysis is required. The evaluator identifies the
differences in use of the base component as considered in the base
component evaluation and the composed TOE evaluation. The evaluator will
devise testing to be performed (during the conduct of Composed TOE testing
(ACO_CTT)) to test the interface.
1625
The patch status of the base and dependent components as used in the
composed TOE should be compared to the patch status of the components
during the component evaluations. If any patches have been applied to the
components, the composition rationale is to include details of the patches,
including any potential impact to the SFRs of the evaluated component. The
evaluator should consider the details of the changes provided and verify the
accuracy of the potential impact of the change on the component SFRs. The
evaluator should then consider whether the changes made by the patch
should be verified through testing, and will identify the necessary testing
approach. The testing may take the form of repeating the applicable
evaluator/developer testing performed for the component evaluation of the
component or it may be necessary for the evaluator to devise new tests to
confirm the modified component.
1626
If any of the individual components have been the subject of assurance
continuity activities since the completion of the component evaluation, the
evaluator will consider the changes assessed in the assurance continuity
activities during the independent vulnerability analysis activity for the
composed TOE (in Composition vulnerability analysis (ACO_VUL)).
16.3.1.2.2
Guidance
1627
The guidance for the composed TOE is likely to make substantial reference
out to the guidance for the individual components. The minimal guidance
expected to be necessary is the identification of any ordering dependencies in
the application of guidance for the dependent and base components,
particularly during the preparation (installation) of the composed TOE.
1628
In addition to the application of the Preparative procedures (AGD_PRE) and
Operational user guidance (AGD_OPE) families to the guidance for the
composed TOE, it is necessary to analyse the consistency between the
guidance for the components and the composed TOE, to identify any
deviations.
1629
If the composed TOE guidance refers out to the base component and
dependent component guidance, then the consideration for consistency is
limited to consistency between the guidance documentation provided for
each of the components (i.e. consistency between the base component
guidance and the dependent component guidance). However, if additional
guidance is provided for the composed TOE, to that provided for the
components, greater analysis is required, as consistency is also required
between the guidance documentation for the components and guidance
documentation for the composed TOE.
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1630
Consistent in this instance is understood to mean that either the guidance is
the same or it places additional constraints on the operation of the individual
components when combined, in a similar manner to refinement of
functional/assurance components.
1631
With the information available (that used as input for Development evidence
(ACO_DEV) or the development aspects discussed above) the evaluator may
be able to determine all possible impacts of the deviation from the
configuration of the base component specified in the component evaluation.
However, for high EALs (where evaluation of the base component included
TOE design (ADV_TDS) requirements) it is possible that, unless detailed
design abstractions for the base component are delivered as part of the
development information for the composed TOE, the possible impacts of the
modification to the guidance cannot be fully determined as the internals are
unknown. In this case the evaluator will report the residual risk of the
analysis.
1632
These residual risks are to be included in any public evaluation report for the
composed TOE.
1633
The evaluator will note these variances in the guidance for input into
evaluator independent testing activities (Composed TOE testing
(ACO_CTT)).
1634
The guidance for the composed TOE may add to the guidance for the
components, particularly in terms of installation and the ordering of
installation steps for the base component in relation to the installation steps
for the dependent component. The ordering of the steps for the installation of
the individual components should not change, however they may need to be
interleaved. The evaluator will examine this guidance to ensure that it still
meets the requirement of the AGD_PRE activity performed during the
evaluations of the components.
1635
It may be the case that the reliance information identifies that interfaces of
the base component, in addition to those identified as TSFIs of the base
component, are relied upon by the dependent component are identified in the
reliance information. It may be necessary for guidance to be provided for the
use of any such additional interfaces in the base component. Provided the
consumer of the composed TOE is to receive the guidance documentation for
the base component, then the results of the AGD_PRE and AGD_OPE
verdicts for the base component can be reused for those interfaces considered
in the evaluation of the base component. However, for the additional
interfaces relied upon by the dependent component, the evaluator will need
to determine that the guidance documentation for the base component meets
the requirements of AGD_PRE and AGD_OPE, as applied in the base
component evaluations.
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1636
For those interfaces considered during the base component evaluation, and
therefore, for which assurance has already been gained, the evaluator will
ensure that the guidance for the use of each interface for the composed TOE
is consistent with that provided for the base component. To determine the
guidance for the composed TOE is consistent with that for the base
component, the evaluator should perform a mapping for each interface to the
guidance provided for both the composed TOE and the base component. The
evaluator then compares the guidance to determine consistency.
1637
Examples of additional constraints provided in composed TOE guidance that
would be considered to be consistent with component guidance are (guidance
for a component is given followed by an example of guidance for a
composed TOE that would be considered to provide additional constraints):
1638

Component: The password length must be set to a minimum of 8
characters length, including alphabetic and numeric characters.

Composed TOE: The password length must be set to a minimum of
10 characters in length, including alphabetic and numeric characters
and at least one of the following special characters: ( ) { } ^ < > - _

NOTE: It would only be acceptable to increase the password length
to [integer > 8] characters while removing the mandate for the
inclusion of both alphabetic and numeric characters for the composed
TOE, if the same or a higher metric was achieved for the strength
rating (taking into account the likelihood of the password being
guessed).

Component: The following services are to be disabled in the registry
settings: WWW Publishing Service and ICDBReporter service.

Composed TOE: The following services are to be disabled in the
registry settings: Publishing Service, ICDBReporter service, Remote
Procedure Call (RPC) Locator and Procedure Call (RPC) Service.

Component: Select the following attributes to be included in the
accounting log files: date, time, type of event, subject identity and
success/failure.

Composed TOE: Select the following attributes to be included in the
accounting log files: date, time, type of event, subject identity,
success/failure, event message and process thread.
If the guidance for the composed TOE deviates (is not a refinement) from
that provided for the base component, the evaluator will assess the potential
risks of the modification to the guidance. The evaluator will use the
information available (including that provided in the public domain, the
architectural description of the base component in the public evaluation
report (e.g. certification report), the context of the guidance from the
remainder of the guidance documentation) to identify likely impact of the
modification to the guidance on the SFRs of the composed TOE.
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1639
If during the dependent component evaluation the trial installation used the
base component to satisfy the environment requirements of the dependent
component this work unit for the composed TOE is considered to be
satisfied. If the base component was not used in satisfaction of the work unit
AGD_PRE.1-3 during the dependent component evaluation, the evaluator
will apply the user procedures provided for the composed TOE to prepare the
composed TOE, in accordance with the guidance specified in AGD_PRE.13. This will allow the evaluator to determine that the preparative guidance
provided for the composed TOE is sufficient to prepare the composed TOE
and its operational environment securely.
16.3.1.2.3
Life-cycle
Delivery
1640
If there is a different delivery mechanism used for the delivery of the
composed TOE (i.e. the components are not delivered to the consumer in
accordance with the secure delivery procedures defined and assessed during
the evaluation of the components), the delivery procedures for the composed
TOE will require evaluation against the Delivery (ALC_DEL) requirements
applied during the components evaluations.
1641
The composed TOE may be delivered as an integrated product or may
require the components to be delivered separately.
1642
If the components are delivered separately, the results of the delivery of the
base component and dependent component are reused. The delivery of the
base component is checked during the evaluator trial installation of the
dependent component, using the specified guidance and checking the aspects
of delivery that are the responsibility of the user, as described in the guidance
documentation for the base component.
1643
If the composed TOE is delivered as a new entity, then the method of
delivery of that entity must be considered in the composed TOE evaluation
activities.
1644
The assessment of the delivery procedures for composed TOE items is to be
performed in accordance with the methodology for Delivery (ALC_DEL) as
for any other [component] TOE, ensuring any additional items (e.g.
additional guidance documents for the composed TOE) are considered in the
delivery procedures.
CM Capabilities
1645
The unique identification of the composed TOE is considered during the
application of Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMC.1) and the items from
which that composed TOE is comprised are considered during the
application of Evaluation of sub-activity (ALC_CMS.2).
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1646
Although additional guidance may be produced for the composed TOE, the
unique identification of this guidance (considered as part of the unique
identification of the composed TOE during Evaluation of sub-activity
(ALC_CMC.1)) is considered sufficient control of the guidance.
1647
The verdicts of the remaining (not considered above) Class ALC: Life-cycle
support activities can be reused from the base component evaluation, as no
further development is performed during integration of the composed TOE.
1648
There are no additional considerations for development security as the
integration is assumed to take place at either the consumer's site or, in the
instance that the composed TOE is delivered as an integrated product, at the
site of the dependent component developer. Control at the consumer's site is
outside the consideration of the CC. No additional requirements or guidance
are necessary if integration is at the same site as that for the dependent
component, as all components are considered to be configuration items for
the composed TOE, and should therefore be considered under the dependent
component developer's security procedures anyway.
1649
Tools and techniques adopted during integration will be considered in the
evidence provided by the dependent component developer. Any
tools/techniques relevant to the base component will have been considered
during the evaluation of the base component. For example, if the base
component is delivered as source code and requires compilation by the
consumer (e.g. dependent component developer who is performing
integration) the compiler would have been specified and assessed, along with
the appropriate arguments, during evaluation of the base component.
1650
There is no life-cycle definition applicable to the composed TOE, as no
further development of items is taking place.
1651
The results of flaw remediation for a component are not applicable to the
composed TOE. If flaw remediation is included in the assurance package for
the composed TOE, then the Flaw remediation (ALC_FLR) requirements are
to be applied during the composed TOE evaluation (as for any
augmentation).
16.3.1.2.4
Tests
1652
The composed TOE will have been tested during the conduct of the Class
ATE: Tests activities for evaluation of the dependent component, as the
configurations used for testing of the dependent component should have
included the base component to satisfy the requirements for IT in the
operational environment. If the base component was not used in the testing
of the dependent component for the dependent component evaluation, or the
configuration of either component varied from their evaluated
configurations, then the developer testing performed for evaluation of the
dependent component to satisfy the Class ATE: Tests requirements is to be
repeated on the composed TOE.
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16.4
Development evidence (ACO_DEV)
16.4.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.1)
16.4.1.1
Objectives
1653
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the appropriate security
functionality is provided by the base component to support the dependent
component. This is achieved through examination of the interfaces of the
base component to determine that they are consistent with the interfaces
specified in the reliance information; those required by the dependent
component.
1654
The description of the interfaces into the base component is to be provided at
a level of detail consistent with Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_FSP.2)
although not all of the aspects necessary for satisfaction of Evaluation of
sub-activity (ADV_FSP.2) are required for Evaluation of sub-activity
(ACO_DEV.1), as once the interface has been identified and the purpose
described the remaining detail of the interface specification can be reused
from evaluation of the base component.
16.4.1.2
Input
1655
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the development information;
c)
the reliance information.
16.4.1.3
Action ACO_DEV.1.1E
ACO_DEV.1.1C
The development information shall describe the purpose of each interface
of the base component used in the composed TOE.
ACO_DEV.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the purpose of each interface.
1656
The base component provides interfaces to support interaction with the
dependent component in the provision of the dependent TSF. The purpose of
each interface is to be described at the same level as the description of the
interfaces to the dependent component TSF functionality, as would be
provided between subsystems in the TOE design (Evaluation of sub-activity
(ADV_TDS.1)). This description is to provide the reader with an
understanding of how the base component provides the services required by
the dependent component TSF.
1657
This work unit may be satisfied by the provision of the functional
specification for the base component for those interfaces that are TSFIs of
the base component.
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ACO_DEV.1.2C
The development information shall show correspondence between the
interfaces, used in the composed TOE, of the base component and the
dependent component to support the TSF of the dependent component.
ACO_DEV.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine the
correspondence, between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies, is accurate.
1658
The correspondence between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies may take the form of a
matrix or table. The interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent
component are identified in the reliance information (as examined during
Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL) activity).
1659
There is, during this activity, no requirement to determine completeness of
the coverage of interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent component,
only that the correspondence is correct and ensuring that interfaces of the
base component are mapped to interfaces required by the dependent
component wherever possible. The completeness of the coverage is
considered in Composition rationale (ACO_COR) activities.
16.4.1.4
Action ACO_DEV.1.2E
ACO_DEV.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the development information and the reliance
information to determine that the interfaces are described consistently.
1660
The evaluator's goal in this work unit is to determine that the interfaces
described in the development information for the base component and the
reliance information for the dependent component are represented
consistently.
16.4.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.2)
16.4.2.1
Objectives
1661
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the appropriate security
functionality is provided by the base component to support the dependent
component. This is achieved through examination of the interfaces and
associated security behaviour of the base component to determine that they
are consistent with the interfaces specified in the reliance information; those
required by the dependent component.
16.4.2.2
Input
1662
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the development information;
c)
reliance information.
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16.4.2.3
Action ACO_DEV.2.1E
ACO_DEV.2.1C
The development information shall describe the purpose and method of use
of each interface of the base component used in the composed TOE.
ACO_DEV.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the purpose of each interface.
1663
The base component provides interfaces to support interaction with the
dependent component in the provision of the dependent TSF. The purpose of
each interface is to be described at the same level as the description of the
interfaces to the dependent component TSF functionality, as would be
provided between subsystems in the TOE design (Evaluation of sub-activity
(ADV_TDS.1)). This description is to provide the reader with an
understanding of how the base component provides the services required by
the dependent component TSF.
1664
This work unit may be satisfied by the provision of the functional
specification for the base component for those interfaces that are TSFIs of
the base component.
ACO_DEV.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the method of use for each interface.
1665
The method of use for an interface summarises how the interface is
manipulated in order to invoke the operations and obtain results associated
with the interface. The evaluator should be able to determine from reading
this material in the development information how to use each interface. This
does not necessarily mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for
each interface, as it may be possible to describe in general how APIs are
invoked, for instance, and then identify each interface using that general
style.
1666
This work unit may be satisfied by the provision of the functional
specification for the base component for those interfaces that are TSFIs of
the base component.
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ACO_DEV.2.2C
The development information shall provide a high-level description of the
behaviour of the base component, which supports the enforcement of the
dependent component SFRs.
ACO_DEV.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the behaviour of the base component that supports the
enforcement of the dependent component SFRs.
1667
The dependent component invokes interfaces of the base component for the
provision of services by the base component. For the interfaces of the base
component that are invoked, the development information shall provide a
high-level description of the associated security behaviour of the base
component. The description of the base component security behaviour will
outline how the base component provides the necessary service when the call
to the interface is made. This description is to be at a level similar to that
provided for ADV_TDS.1.4C. Therefore, the provision of the TOE design
evidence from the base component evaluation would satisfy this work unit,
where the interfaces invoked by the dependent component are TSFI of the
base component. If the interfaces invoked by the dependent component are
not TSFIs of the base component it is the associated security behaviour will
not necessarily be described in the base component TOE design evidence.
ACO_DEV.2.3C
The development information shall show correspondence between the
interfaces, used in the composed TOE, of the base component and the
dependent component to support the TSF of the dependent component.
ACO_DEV.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine the
correspondence, between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies, is accurate.
1668
The correspondence between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies may take the form of a
matrix or table. The interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent
component are identified in the reliance information (as examined during
Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL)).
1669
There is, during this activity, no requirement to determine completeness of
the coverage of interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent component,
only that the correspondence is correct and ensuring that interfaces of the
base component are mapped to interfaces required by the dependent
component wherever possible. The completeness of the coverage is
considered in Composition rationale (ACO_COR) activities.
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16.4.2.4
Action ACO_DEV.2.2E
ACO_DEV.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the development information and the reliance
information to determine that the interfaces are described consistently.
1670
The evaluator's goal in this work unit is to determine that the interfaces
described in the development information for the base component and the
reliance information for the dependent component are represented
consistently.
16.4.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_DEV.3)
16.4.3.1
Objectives
1671
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine that the appropriate security
functionality is provided by the base component to support the dependent
component. This is achieved through examination of the interfaces and
associated security behaviour of the base component to determine that they
are consistent with the interfaces specified in the reliance information; those
required by the dependent component.
1672
In addition to the interface description, the subsystems of the base
component that provide the security functionality required by the dependent
component will be described to enable the evaluator to determine whether or
not that interface formed part of the TSF of the base component.
16.4.3.2
Input
1673
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the development information;
c)
reliance information.
16.4.3.3
Action ACO_DEV.3.1E
ACO_DEV.3.1C
The development information shall describe the purpose and method of use
of each interface of the base component used in the composed TOE.
ACO_DEV.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the purpose of each interface.
1674
The base component provides interfaces to support interaction with the
dependent component in the provision of the dependent TSF. The purpose of
each interface is to be described at the same level as the description of the
interfaces to the dependent component TSF functionality, as would be
provided between subsystems in the TOE design (Evaluation of sub-activity
(ADV_TDS.1)). This description is to provide the reader with an
understanding of how the base component provides the services required by
the dependent component TSF.
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1675
This work unit may be satisfied by the provision of the functional
specification for the base component for those interfaces that are TSFIs of
the base component.
ACO_DEV.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the method of use for each interface.
1676
The method of use for an interface summarises how the interface is
manipulated in order to invoke the operations and obtain results associated
with the interface. The evaluator should be able to determine from reading
this material in the development information how to use each interface. This
does not necessarily mean that there needs to be a separate method of use for
each interface, as it may be possible to describe in general how APIs are
invoked, for instance, and then identify each interface using that general
style.
1677
This work unit may be satisfied by the provision of the functional
specification for the base component for those interfaces that are TSFIs of
the base component.
ACO_DEV.3.2C
The development information shall identify the subsystems of the base
component that provide interfaces of the base component used in the
composed TOE.
ACO_DEV.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
all subsystems of the base component that provide interfaces to the
dependent component are identified.
1678
For those interfaces that are considered to form part of the TSFI of the base
component, the subsystems associated with the interface will be subsystems
considered in the TOE design (ADV_TDS) activity during the base
component evaluation. The interfaces on which the dependent component
relies that did not form part of the TSFI of the base component will map to
subsystems outside of the base component TSF.
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ACO_DEV.3.3C
The development information shall provide a high-level description of the
behaviour of the base component subsystems, which support the
enforcement of the dependent component SFRs.
ACO_DEV.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
it describes the behaviour of the base component subsystems that support the
enforcement of the dependent component SFRs.
1679
The dependent component invokes interfaces of the base component for the
provision of services by the base component. For the interfaces of the base
component that are invoked, the development information shall provide a
high-level description of the associated security behaviour of the base
component. The description of the base component security behaviour will
outline how the base component provides the necessary service when the call
to the interface is made. This description is to be at a level similar to that
provided for ADV_TDS.1.4C. Therefore, the provision of the TOE design
evidence from the base component evaluation would satisfy this work unit,
where the interfaces invoked by the dependent component are TSFI of the
base component. If the interfaces invoked by the dependent component are
not TSFIs of the base component it is the associated security behaviour will
not necessarily be described in the base component TOE design evidence.
ACO_DEV.3.4C
The development information shall provide a mapping from the interfaces
to the subsystems of the base component.
ACO_DEV.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine that
the correspondence between the interfaces and subsystems of the base
component is accurate.
1680
If the TOE design and functional specification evidence from the base
component evaluation is available, this can be used to verify the accuracy of
the correspondence between the interfaces and subsystems of the base
component as used in the composed TOE. Those interfaces of the base
component, which formed part of the base component TSFI will be described
in the base component functional specification, and the associated
subsystems will be described in the base component TOE design evidence.
The tracing between the two will be provided in the base component TOE
design evidence.
1681
If, however, the base component interface did not form part of the TSFI of
the base component, the description of the subsystem behaviour provided in
the development information will be used to verify the accuracy of the
correspondence.
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ACO_DEV.3.5C
The development information shall show correspondence between the
interfaces, used in the composed TOE, of the base component and the
dependent component to support the TSF of the dependent component.
ACO_DEV.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the development information to determine the
correspondence, between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies, is accurate.
1682
The correspondence between the interfaces of the base component and the
interfaces on which the dependent component relies may take the form of a
matrix or table. The interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent
component are identified in the reliance information (as examined during
Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL)).
1683
There is, during this activity, no requirement to determine completeness of
the coverage of interfaces that are relied upon by the dependent component,
only that the correspondence is correct and ensuring that interfaces of the
base component are mapped to interfaces required by the dependent
component wherever possible. The completeness of the coverage is
considered in Composition rationale (ACO_COR) activities.
16.4.3.4
Action ACO_DEV.3.2E
ACO_DEV.3-7
The evaluator shall examine the development information and the reliance
information to determine that the interfaces are described consistently.
1684
The evaluator's goal in this work unit is to determine that the interfaces
described in the development information for the base component and the
reliance information for the dependent component are represented
consistently.
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16.5
Reliance of dependent component (ACO_REL)
16.5.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_REL.1)
16.5.1.1
Objectives
1685
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer's
reliance evidence provides sufficient information to determine that the
necessary functionality is available in the base component, and the means by
which that functionality is invoked. These are provided in terms of a highlevel description.
16.5.1.2
Input
1686
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the dependent component functional specification;
c)
the dependent component design;
d)
the dependent component architectural design;
e)
the reliance information.
16.5.1.3
Application notes
1687
A dependent component whose TSF interacts with the base component
requires functionality provided by that base component (e.g., remote
authentication, remote audit data storage). In these cases, those invoked
services need to be described for those charged with configuring the
composed TOE for end users. The rationale for requiring this documentation
is to aid integrators of the composed TOE to determine what services in the
base component might have adverse effects on the dependent component,
and to provide information against which to determine the compatibility of
the components when applying the Development evidence (ACO_DEV)
family.
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16.5.1.4
Action ACO_REL.1.1E
ACO_REL.1.1C
The reliance information shall describe the functionality of the base
component hardware, firmware and/or software that is relied upon by the
dependent component TSF.
ACO_REL.1-1
The evaluator shall check the reliance information to determine that it
describes the functionality of the base dependent hardware, firmware and/or
software that is relied upon by the dependent component TSF.
1688
The evaluator assesses the description of the security functionality that the
dependent component TSF requires to be provided by the base component's
hardware, firmware and software. The emphasis of this work unit is on the
level of detail of this description, rather than on an assessment of the
information's accuracy. (The assessment of the accuracy of the information is
the focus of the next work unit.)
1689
This description of the base component's functionality need not be any more
detailed than the level of the description of a component of the TSF, as
would be provided in the TOE Design (TOE design (ADV_TDS))
ACO_REL.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
accurately reflects the objectives specified for the operational environment of
the dependent component.
1690
The reliance information contains the description of the base component's
security functionality relied upon by the dependent component. To ensure
that the reliance information is consistent with the expectations of the
operational environment of the dependent component, the evaluator
compares the reliance information with the statement of objectives for the
environment in the ST for the dependent component.
1691
For example, if the reliance information claims that the dependent
component TSF relies upon the base component to store and protect audit
data, yet other evaluation evidence (e.g. the dependent component design)
makes it clear that the dependent component TSF itself is storing and
protecting the audit data, this would indicate an inaccuracy.
1692
It should be noted that the objectives for the operational environment may
include objectives that can be met by non-IT measures. While the services
that the base component environment is expected to provide may be
described in the description of IT objectives for the operational environment
in the dependent component ST, it is not required that all such expectations
on the environment be described in the reliance information.
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ACO_REL.1.2C
The reliance information shall describe all interactions through which the
dependent component TSF requests services from the base component.
ACO_REL.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
describes all interactions between the dependent component and the base
component, through which the dependent component TSF requests services
from the base component.
1693
The dependent component TSF may request services of the base component
that were not within the TSF of the base component (see B.3, Interactions
between composed IT entities in CC Part 3).
1694
The interfaces to the base component's functionality are described at the
same level as the description of the interfaces to the dependent component
TSF functionality, as would be provided between subsystems in the TOE
design (Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.1)).
1695
The purpose of describing the interactions between the dependent component
and the base component is to provide an understanding of how the dependent
component TSF relies upon the base component for the provision of services
to support the operation of security functionality of the dependent
component. These interactions do not need to be characterised at the
implementation level (e.g. parameters passed from one routine in a
component to a routine in another component), but the data elements
identified for a particular component that are going to be used by another
component should be covered in this description. The statement should help
the reader understand in general why the interaction is necessary.
1696
Accuracy and completeness of the interfaces is based on the security
functionality that the TSF requires to be provided by the base component, as
assessed in work units ACO_REL.1-1 and ACO_REL.1-2. It should be
possible to map all of the functionality described in the earlier work units to
the interfaces identified in this work unit, and vice versa. An interface that
does not correspond to described functionality would also indicate an
inadequacy.
ACO_REL.1.3C
The reliance information shall describe how the dependent TSF protects
itself from interference and tampering by the base component.
ACO_REL.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
describes how the dependent TSF protects itself from interference and
tampering by the base component.
1697
The description of how the dependent component protects itself from
interference and tampering by the base component is to be provided at the
same level of detail as necessary for ADV_ARC.1-4.
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16.5.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_REL.2)
16.5.2.1
Objectives
1698
The objectives of this sub-activity are to determine whether the developer's
reliance evidence provides sufficient information to determine that the
necessary functionality is available in the base component, and the means by
which that functionality is invoked. This is provided in terms of the
interfaces between the dependent and base component and the return values
from those interfaces called by the dependent component.
16.5.2.2
Input
1699
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed ST;
b)
the dependent component functional specification;
c)
the dependent component design;
d)
the dependent component implementation representation;
e)
the dependent component architectural design;
f)
the reliance information.
16.5.2.3
Application notes
1700
A dependent component whose TSF interacts with the base component
requires functionality provided by that base component (e.g., remote
authentication, remote audit data storage). In these cases, those invoked
services need to be described for those charged with configuring the
composed TOE for end users. The rationale for requiring this documentation
is to aid integrators of the composed TOE to determine what services in the
base component might have adverse effects on the dependent component,
and to provide information against which to determine the compatibility of
the components when applying the Development evidence (ACO_DEV)
family.
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16.5.2.4
Action ACO_REL.2.1E
ACO_REL.2.1C
The reliance information shall describe the functionality of the base
component hardware, firmware and/or software that is relied upon by the
dependent component TSF.
ACO_REL.2-1
The evaluator shall check the reliance information to determine that it
describes the functionality of the base dependent hardware, firmware and/or
software that is relied upon by the dependent component TSF.
1701
The evaluator assesses the description of the security functionality that the
dependent component TSF requires to be provided by the base component's
hardware, firmware and software. The emphasis of this work unit is on the
level of detail of this description, rather than on an assessment of the
information's accuracy. (The assessment of the accuracy of the information is
the focus of the next work unit.)
1702
This description of the base component's functionality need not be any more
detailed than the level of the description of a component of the TSF, as
would be provided in the TOE Design (TOE design (ADV_TDS))
ACO_REL.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
accurately reflects the objectives specified for the operational environment of
the dependent component.
1703
The reliance information contains the description of the base component's
security functionality relied upon by the dependent component. To ensure
that the reliance information is consistent with the expectations of the
operational environment of the dependent component, the evaluator
compares the reliance information with the statement of objectives for the
environment in the ST for the dependent component.
1704
For example, if the reliance information claims that the dependent
component TSF relies upon the base component to store and protect audit
data, yet other evaluation evidence (e.g. the dependent component design)
makes it clear that the dependent component TSF itself is storing and
protecting the audit data, this would indicate an inaccuracy.
1705
It should be noted that the objectives for the operational environment may
include objectives that can be met by non-IT measures. While the services
that the base component environment is expected to provide may be
described in the description of IT objectives for the operational environment
in the dependent component ST, it is not required that all such expectations
on the environment be described in the reliance information.
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ACO_REL.2.2C
The reliance information shall describe all interactions through which the
dependent component TSF requests services from the base component.
ACO_REL.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
describes all interactions between the dependent component and the base
component, through which the dependent component TSF requests services
from the base component.
1706
The dependent component TSF may request services of the base component
that were not within the TSF of the base component (see Annex B.3,
Interactions between composed IT entities in CC Part 3).
1707
The interfaces to the base component's functionality are described at the
same level as the description of the interfaces to the dependent component
TSF functionality, as would be provided between subsystems in the TOE
design (Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_TDS.1)).
1708
The purpose of describing the interactions between the dependent component
and the base component is to provide an understanding of how the dependent
component TSF relies upon the base component for the provision of services
to support the operation of security functionality of the dependent
component. These interactions do not need to be characterised at the
implementation level (e.g. parameters passed from one routine in a
component to a routine in another component), but the data elements
identified for a particular component that are going to be used by another
component should be covered in this description. The statement should help
the reader understand in general why the interaction is necessary.
1709
Accuracy and completeness of the interfaces is based on the security
functionality that the TSF requires to be provided by the base component, as
assessed in work units ACO_REL.2-1 and ACO_REL.2-2. It should be
possible to map all of the functionality described in the earlier work units to
the interfaces identified in this work unit, and vice versa. An interface that
does not correspond to described functionality would also indicate an
inadequacy.
ACO_REL.2.3C
The reliance information shall describe each interaction in terms of the
interface used and the return values from those interfaces.
ACO_REL.2-4
The reliance information shall describe each interaction in terms of the
interface used and the return values from those interfaces.
1710
The identification of the interfaces used by the dependent component TSF
when making services requests of the base component allows an integrator to
determine whether the base component provides all the necessary
corresponding interfaces. This understanding is further gained through the
specification of the return values expected by the dependent component. The
evaluator ensures that interfaces are described for each interaction specified
(as analysed in ACO_REL.2-3).
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ACO_REL.2.4C
The reliance information shall describe how the dependent TSF protects
itself from interference and tampering by the base component.
ACO_REL.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the reliance information to determine that it
describes how the dependent TSF protects itself from interference and
tampering by the base component.
1711
The description of how the dependent component protects itself from
interference and tampering by the base component is to be provided at the
same level of detail as necessary for ADV_ARC.1-4.
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16.6
Composed TOE testing (ACO_CTT)
16.6.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_CTT.1)
16.6.1.1
Objectives
1712
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer
correctly performed and documented tests for each of the base component
interfaces on which the dependent component relies. As part of this
determination the evaluator repeats a sample of the tests performed by the
developer and performs any additional tests required to ensure the expected
behaviour of all composed TOE SFRs and interfaces of the base component
relied upon by the dependent component is demonstrated.
16.6.1.2
Input
1713
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed TOE suitable for testing;
b)
the composed TOE testing evidence;
c)
the reliance information;
d)
the development information.
16.6.1.3
Action ACO_CTT.1.1E
ACO_CTT.1.1C
The composed TOE and base component interface test documentation
shall consist of test plans, expected test results and actual test results.
ACO_CTT.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE test documentation to
determine that it consists of test plans, expected test results and actual test
results.
1714
This work unit may be satisfied by provision of the test evidence from the
evaluation of the dependent component if the base component was used to
satisfy the requirements for IT in the operational environment of the
dependent component.
1715
All work units necessary for the satisfaction of ATE_FUN.1.1E will be
applied to determine:
a)
that the test documentation consist of test plans expected test results
and actual test results;
b)
that the test documentation contains the information necessary to
ensure the tests are repeatable;
c)
the level of developer effort that was applied to testing of the base
component.
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ACO_CTT.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the base component interface test
documentation to determine that it consists of test plans, expected test results
and actual test results.
1716
This work unit may be satisfied by provision of the test evidence from the
evaluation of the base component for those interfaces relied upon in the
composed TOE by the dependent component are TSFIs of the successfully
evaluated base component. The determination of whether the interfaces of
the base component relied upon by the dependent component were in fact
TSFIs of the evaluated base component is made during the ACO_COR
activity.
1717
All work units necessary for the satisfaction of ATE_FUN.1.1E will be
applied to determine:
a)
that the test documentation consist of test plans expected test results
and actual test results;
b)
that the test documentation contains the information necessary to
ensure the tests are repeatable;
c)
the level of developer effort that was applied to testing of the base
component.
ACO_CTT.1.2C
The test documentation from the developer execution of the composed
TOE tests shall demonstrate that the TSF behaves as specified.
ACO_CTT.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that the
developer execution of the composed TOE tests shall demonstrate that the
TSF behaves as specified.
1718
The evaluator should construct a mapping between the tests described in the
test plan and the SFRs specified for the composed TOE to identify which
SFRs have been tested by the developer.
1719
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
1720
a)
Chapter 14.2.1.
b)
Chapter 14.2.2.
The outputs from the successful execution of the tests (as assessed for
ATE_FUN.1.3C can be compared with the mapping to determine that the
SFRs of the composed TOE, as tested by the developer, behave as expected.
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ACO_CTT.1.3C
The test documentation from the developer execution of the base
component interface tests shall demonstrate that the base component
interface relied upon by the dependent component behaves as specified.
ACO_CTT.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that the
developer execution of the base component interface tests shall demonstrate
that the base component interfaces relied upon by the dependent component
behave as specified.
1721
The evaluator should construct a mapping between the tests described in the
test plan and the interfaces of the base component relied upon by the
dependent component (as specified in the reliance information, examined
under ACO_REL) to identify which base component interfaces have been
tested by the developer.
1722
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
Chapter 14.2.1.
b)
Chapter 14.2.2.
1723
The outputs from the successful execution of the tests (as assessed for
ATE_FUN.1.3C can be compared with the mapping to determine that the
interfaces of the base component, as tested by the developer, behave as
expected.
ACO_CTT.1.4C
The base component shall be suitable for testing.
ACO_CTT.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE to determine that it has
been installed properly and is in a known state.
1724
To determine that the composed TOE has been installed properly and is in a
known state the ATE_IND.2-1 and ATE_IND.2-2 work units will be applied
to the TOE provided by the developer for testing.
ACO_CTT.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the set of resources provided by the developer
to determine that they are equivalent to the set of resources used by the base
component developer to functionally test the base component.
1725
To determine that the set of resources provided are equivalent to those used
to functionally test the base component as used in the composed TOE, the
ATE_IND.2-3 work unit will be applied.
16.6.1.4
Action ACO_CTT.1.2E
ACO_CTT.1-7
The evaluator shall perform testing in accordance with ATE_IND.2.2E, for a
subset of the SFRs specified in the composed security target, to verify the
developer test results.
1726
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
ATE_IND.2.2E, reporting in the ETR for the composed TOE all analysis,
results and verdicts as dictated by the associated work units.
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16.6.1.5
Action ACO_CTT.1.3E
ACO_CTT.1-8
The evaluator shall perform testing in accordance with ATE_IND.2.3E, for a
subset of the SFRs specified in the composed security target, to confirm that
the TSF operates as specified.
1727
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
ATE_IND.2.3E, reporting in the ETR for the composed TOE all analysis,
results and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1728
When selecting interfaces of the TSF of the composed TOE to test, the
evaluator should take into account any modifications to the components from
the evaluated version or configuration. Modifications to the component from
that evaluated may include patches introduced, a different configuration as a
result of modified guidance documentation, reliance an additional portion of
the component that was not within the TSF of the component. These
modifications will have been identified during the Composition rationale
(ACO_COR) activity.
16.6.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_CTT.2)
16.6.2.1
Objectives
1729
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the developer
correctly performed and documented tests for each of the base component
interfaces on which the dependent component relies. As part of this
determination the evaluator repeats a sample of the tests performed by the
developer and performs any additional tests required to fully demonstrate the
expected behaviour of the composed TOE and the interfaces of the base
component relied upon by the dependent component.
16.6.2.2
Input
1730
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed TOE suitable for testing;
b)
the composed TOE testing evidence;
c)
the reliance information;
d)
the development information.
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16.6.2.3
Action ACO_CTT.2.1E
ACO_CTT.2.1C
The composed TOE and base component interface test documentation
shall consist of test plans, expected test results and actual test results.
ACO_CTT.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE test documentation to
determine that it consists of test plans, expected test results and actual test
results.
1731
This work unit may be satisfied by provision of the test evidence from the
evaluation of the dependent component if the base component was used to
satisfy the requirements for IT in the operational environment of the
dependent component.
1732
All work units necessary for the satisfaction of ATE_FUN.1.1E will be
applied to determine:
a)
that the test documentation consist of test plans expected test results
and actual test results;
b)
that the test documentation contains the information necessary to
ensure the tests are repeatable;
c)
the level of developer effort that was applied to testing of the base
component.
ACO_CTT.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the base component interface test
documentation to determine that it consists of test plans, expected test results
and actual test results.
1733
This work unit may be satisfied by provision of the test evidence from the
evaluation of the base component for those interfaces relied upon in the
composed TOE by the dependent component are TSFIs of the successfully
evaluated base component. The determination of whether the interfaces of
the base component relied upon by the dependent component were in fact
TSFIs of the evaluated base component is made during the ACO_COR
activity.
1734
All work units necessary for the satisfaction of ATE_FUN.1.1E will be
applied to determine:
a)
that the test documentation consist of test plans expected test results
and actual test results;
b)
that the test documentation contains the information necessary to
ensure the tests are repeatable;
c)
the level of developer effort that was applied to testing of the base
component.
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ACO_CTT.2.2C
The test documentation from the developer execution of the composed
TOE tests shall demonstrate that the TSF behaves as specified and is
complete.
ACO_CTT.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that it
provides accurate correspondence between the tests in the test documentation
relating to the testing of the composed TOE and the composed TOE SFRs in
the composed TOE security target.
1735
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of correspondence between the tests and SFRs presented in the
test documentation has to be unambiguous.
ACO_CTT.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that the
developer execution of the composed TOE tests shall demonstrate that the
TSF behaves as specified.
1736
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
Chapter 14.2.1.
b)
Chapter 14.2.2.
1737
The outputs from the successful execution of the tests (as assessed for
ATE_FUN.1.3C can be compared with the mapping to determine that the
SFRs of the composed TOE, as tested by the developer, behave as expected.
ACO_CTT.2.3C
The test documentation from the developer execution of the base
component interface tests shall demonstrate that the base component
interface relied upon by the dependent component behaves as specified and
is complete.
ACO_CTT.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that it
provides accurate correspondence between the tests in the test documentation
relating to the testing of the base component interfaces relied upon by the
dependent component and the interfaces specified in the reliance
information.
1738
A simple cross-table may be sufficient to show test correspondence. The
identification of correspondence between the tests and interfaces presented in
the test documentation has to be unambiguous.
ACO_CTT.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the test documentation to determine that the
developer execution of the base component interface tests shall demonstrate
that the base component interfaces relied upon by the dependent component
behave as specified.
1739
Guidance on this work unit can be found in:
a)
Chapter 14.2.1.
b)
Chapter 14.2.2.
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1740
The outputs from the successful execution of the tests (as assessed for
ATE_FUN.1.3C can be compared with the mapping to determine that the
interfaces of the base component, as tested by the developer, behave as
expected.
ACO_CTT.2.4C
The base component shall be suitable for testing.
ACO_CTT.2-7
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE to determine that it has
been installed properly and is in a known state.
1741
To determine that the composed TOE has been installed properly and is in a
known state the ATE_IND.2-1 and ATE_IND.2-2 work units will be applied
to the TOE provided by the developer for testing.
ACO_CTT.2-8
The evaluator shall examine the set of resources provided by the developer
to determine that they are equivalent to the set of resources used by the base
component developer to functionally test the base component.
1742
To determine that the set of resources provided are equivalent to those used
to functionally test the base component as used in the composed TOE, the
ATE_IND.2-3 work unit will be applied.
16.6.2.4
Action ACO_CTT.2.2E
ACO_CTT.2-9
The tests are to be selected and executed in accordance with ATE_IND.2.2E,
to demonstrate the correct behaviour of the SFRs specified in the composed
TOE security target.
1743
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
ATE_IND.2.2E, reporting in the ETR for the composed TOE all analysis,
results and verdicts as dictated by the associated work units.
16.6.2.5
Action ACO_CTT.2.3E
ACO_CTT.2-10
The evaluator shall perform testing in accordance with ATE_IND.2.3E, for a
subset of the SFRs specified in the composed security target, to confirm that
the TSF operates as specified.
1744
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
ATE_IND.2.3E, reporting in the ETR for the composed TOE all analysis,
results and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1745
When selecting interfaces of the TSF of the composed TOE to test, the
evaluator should take into account any modifications to the components from
the evaluated version or configuration. Modifications to the component from
that evaluated may include patches introduced, a different configuration as a
result of modified guidance documentation, reliance an additional portion of
the component that was not within the TSF of the component. These
modifications will have been identified during the Composition rationale
(ACO_COR) activity.
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ACO_CTT.2-11
The evaluator shall perform testing, in accordance with Evaluation of subactivity (ATE_IND.2), for a subset of the interfaces to the base component to
confirm they operate as specified.
1746
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
ATE_IND.2.3E, reporting in the ETR for the composed TOE all analysis,
results and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1747
When selecting interfaces of the base component to test, the evaluator should
take into account any modifications to the base component from the
evaluated version or configuration. In particular, the evaluator should
consider the development of tests to demonstrate the correct behaviour of
interfaces of the base component that were not considered during the
evaluation of the base component. These additional interfaces and other
modifications to the base component will have been identified during the
Composition rationale (ACO_COR) activity.
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16.7
Composition vulnerability analysis (ACO_VUL)
16.7.1
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.1)
16.7.1.1
Objectives
1748
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the composed
TOE, in its operational environment, has easily exploitable vulnerabilities.
1749
The developer provides details of any residual vulnerabilities reported from
evaluation of the components. The evaluator performs an analysis of the
disposition the residual vulnerabilities reported and also performs a search of
the public domain, to identify any new potential vulnerabilities in the
components (i.e. those issues that have been reported in the public domain
since evaluation of the base component). The evaluator then performs
penetration testing to demonstrate that the potential vulnerabilities cannot be
exploited in the TOE, in its operational environment, by an attacker with
basic attack potential.
16.7.1.2
Input
1750
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed TOE suitable for testing;
b)
the composed ST;
c)
the composition rationale;
d)
the guidance documentation;
e)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible security vulnerabilities;
f)
residual vulnerabilities
component.
reported
during
evaluation
of
each
16.7.1.3
Application notes
1751
See the application notes for Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.1).
16.7.1.4
Action ACO_VUL.1.1E
ACO_VUL.1.1C
The composed TOE shall be suitable for testing.
ACO_VUL.1-1
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE to determine that it has
been installed properly and is in a known state.
1752
To determine that the composed TOE has been installed properly and is in a
known state the ATE_IND.2-1 and ATE_IND.2-2 work units will be applied
to the composed TOE.
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1753
If the assurance package includes a component from the ACO_CTT family,
then the evaluator may refer to the result of the work unit ACO_CTT*-1 to
demonstrate this has been satisfied.
ACO_VUL.1-2
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE configuration to determine
that any assumptions and objectives in the STs the components relating to IT
entities for are fulfilled by the other components.
1754
The STs for the component may include assumptions about other
components that may use the component to which the ST relates, e.g. the ST
for an operating system used as a base component may include an
assumption that any applications loaded on the operating system do not run
in privileged mode. These assumptions and objectives are to be fulfilled by
other components in the composed TOE.
16.7.1.5
Action ACO_VUL.1.2E
ACO_VUL.1-3
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the base
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1755
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the base component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in the
base component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The evaluator
will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was deemed to be
non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the combination
has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if during
evaluation of the base component it was assumed that a particular operating
system service was disabled, which is enabled in the composed TOE
evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities relating to that service previously
scoped out should now be considered.
1756
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the base component should be considered in the light of any
known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
dependent component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the
case where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
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ACO_VUL.1-4
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the dependent
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1757
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the dependent component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in
the dependent component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The
evaluator will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was
deemed to be non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the
combination has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if
during evaluation of the dependent component it was assumed that IT
meeting the operational environment requirements would not return a certain
value in response to a service request, which is provided by the base
component in the composed TOE evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities
relating to that return value previously scoped out should now be considered.
1758
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the dependent component should be considered in the light of
any known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
base component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the case
where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
16.7.1.6
Action ACO_VUL.1.3E
ACO_VUL.1-5
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the base
component that have become known since the completion of evaluation of
the base component.
1759
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.1-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the base component.
1760
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the base component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since the base
component evaluation that means the exploitation of the potential
vulnerability has been simplified.
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ACO_VUL.1-6
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the dependent
component that have become known since the completion of the dependent
component evaluation.
1761
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.1-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the dependent component.
1762
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the dependent component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since
evaluation of the dependent component that means the exploitation of the
potential vulnerability has been simplified.
ACO_VUL.1-7
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential security
vulnerabilities that are candidates for testing and applicable to the composed
TOE in its operational environment.
1763
The ST, guidance documentation and functional specification are used to
determine whether the vulnerabilities are relevant to the composed TOE in
its operational environment.
1764
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of vulnerabilities from
further consideration if the evaluator determines that the vulnerability is not
applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the evaluator records
the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1765
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the composed TOE in its
operational environment, which can be used as an input into penetration
testing activities (i.e. ACO_VUL.1.4E), shall be reported in the ETR by the
evaluators.
16.7.1.7
Action ACO_VUL.1.4E
ACO_VUL.1-8
The evaluator shall
AVA_VAN.1.3E.
1766
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
evaluator action AVA_VAN.1.3E, reporting in the ETR for the composed
TOE all analysis and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1767
The evaluator will also apply the work units for the evaluator action
AVA_VAN.1.1E to determine that the composed TOE provided by the
developer is suitable for testing.
September 2007
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Version 3.1
penetration
testing
as
detailed
for
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Class ACO: Composition
16.7.2
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.2)
16.7.2.1
Objectives
1768
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the composed
TOE, in its operational environment, has vulnerabilities exploitable by
attackers possessing basic attack potential.
1769
The developer provides an analysis of the disposition of any residual
vulnerabilities reported for the components and of any vulnerabilities
introduced through the combination of the base and dependent components.
The evaluator performs a search of the public domain to identify any new
potential vulnerabilities in the components (i.e. those issues that have been
reported in the public domain since the completion of the evaluation of the
components). The evaluator will also perform an independent vulnerability
analysis of the composed TOE and penetration testing.
16.7.2.2
Input
1770
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed TOE suitable for testing;
b)
the composed ST;
c)
the composition rationale;
d)
the reliance information;
e)
the guidance documentation;
f)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible security vulnerabilities.
g)
residual vulnerabilities
component.
reported
during
evaluation
of
each
16.7.2.3
Application notes
1771
See the application notes for Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.2).
16.7.2.4
Action ACO_VUL.2.1E
ACO_VUL.2.1C
The composed TOE shall be suitable for testing.
ACO_VUL.2-1
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE to determine that it has
been installed properly and is in a known state.
1772
To determine that the composed TOE has been installed properly and is in a
known state the ATE_IND.2-1 and ATE_IND.2-2 work units will be applied
to the composed TOE.
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1773
If the assurance package includes ACO_CTT family, then the evaluator may
refer to the result of the work unit Composed TOE testing (ACO_CTT)*-1 to
demonstrate this has been satisfied.
ACO_VUL.2-2
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE configuration to determine
that any assumptions and objectives in the STs the components relating to IT
entities for are fulfilled by the other components.
1774
The STs for the component may include assumptions about other
components that may use the component to which the ST relates, e.g. the ST
for an operating system used as a base component may include an
assumption that any applications loaded on the operating system do not run
in privileged mode. These assumptions and objectives are to be fulfilled by
other components in the composed TOE.
16.7.2.5
Action ACO_VUL.2.2E
ACO_VUL.2-3
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the base
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1775
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the base component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in the
base component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The evaluator
will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was deemed to be
non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the combination
has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if during
evaluation of the base component it was assumed that a particular operating
system service was disabled, which is enabled in the composed TOE
evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities relating to that service previously
scoped out should now be considered.
1776
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the base component should be considered in the light of any
known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
dependent component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the
case where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
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ACO_VUL.2-4
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the dependent
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1777
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the dependent component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in
the dependent component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The
evaluator will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was
deemed to be non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the
combination has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if
during evaluation of the dependent component it was assumed that IT
meeting the operational environment requirements would not return a certain
value in response to a service request, which is provided by the base
component in the composed TOE evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities
relating to that return value previously scoped out should now be considered.
1778
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the dependent component should be considered in the light of
any known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
base component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the case
where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
16.7.2.6
Action ACO_VUL.2.3E
ACO_VUL.2-5
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the base
component that have become known since the completion of the base
component evaluation.
1779
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.2-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the base component.
1780
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the base component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since the base
component evaluation that means the exploitation of the potential
vulnerability has been simplified.
ACO_VUL.2-6
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the dependent
component that have become known since the completion of the dependent
component evaluation.
1781
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.2-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the dependent component.
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1782
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the dependent component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since
evaluation of the dependent component that means the exploitation of the
potential vulnerability has been simplified.
ACO_VUL.2-7
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential security
vulnerabilities that are candidates for testing and applicable to the composed
TOE in its operational environment.
1783
The ST, guidance documentation and functional specification are used to
determine whether the vulnerabilities are relevant to the composed TOE in
its operational environment.
1784
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of vulnerabilities from
further consideration if the evaluator determines that the vulnerability is not
applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the evaluator records
the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1785
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the composed TOE in its
operational environment, which can be used as an input into penetration
testing activities (ACO_VUL.2.5E), shall be reported in the ETR by the
evaluators.
16.7.2.7
Action ACO_VUL.2.4E
ACO_VUL.2-8
The evaluator shall conduct a search of the composed TOE ST, guidance
documentation, reliance information and composition rationale to identify
possible security vulnerabilities in the composed TOE.
1786
The consideration of the components of the composed TOE in the
independent evaluator vulnerability analysis will take a slightly different
form to that documented in AVA_VAN.2.3E for a component evaluation, as
it will not necessarily consider all layers of design abstraction relevant to the
assurance package. These will have already been considered during the
evaluation of the components, but the evidence may not be available for the
composed TOE evaluation. However, the general approach described in the
work units associated with AVA_VAN.2.3E is applicable and should form
the basis of the evaluator's search for potential vulnerabilities in the
composed TOE.
1787
A vulnerability analysis of the individual components used in the composed
TOE will have already been performed during evaluation of the individual
components. The focus of the vulnerability analysis during the composed
TOE evaluation is to identify any vulnerabilities introduced as a result of the
integration of the components or due to any changes in the use of the
components between the evaluated component configuration to the
composed TOE configuration.
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1788
The evaluator will use the understanding of the component's construction as
detailed in the reliance information for the dependent component, and the
development information and composition rationale for the base component,
together with the dependent component design information. This information
will allow the evaluator to gain an understanding of how the base component
and dependent component interact and identify potential vulnerabilities that
may be introduced as a result of this interaction.
1789
The evaluator will consider any new guidance provided for the installation,
start-up and operation of the composed TOE to identify any potential
vulnerabilities introduced through this revised guidance.
1790
If any of the individual components have been through assurance continuity
activities since the completion of the component evaluation, the evaluator
will consider the patch(es) in the independent vulnerability analysis.
Information related to the change provided in a public report of the assurance
continuity activities (e.g. Maintenance Report) will be the main source of
input material of the change. This will be supplemented by any updates to
the guidance documentation resulting from the change and any information
regarding the change available in the public domain, e.g. vendor website.
1791
Any risks identified due to the lack of evidence to establish the full impact of
any patches or deviations in the configuration of a component from the
evaluated configuration are to be documented in the evaluator's vulnerability
analysis.
16.7.2.8
Action ACO_VUL.2.5E
ACO_VUL.2-9
The evaluator shall
AVA_VAN.2.4E.
1792
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
evaluator action AVA_VAN.2.4E, reporting in the ETR for the composed
TOE all analysis and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1793
The evaluator will also apply the work units for the evaluator action
AVA_VAN.2.1E to determine that the composed TOE provided by the
developer is suitable for testing.
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16.7.3
Evaluation of sub-activity (ACO_VUL.3)
16.7.3.1
Objectives
1794
The objective of this sub-activity is to determine whether the composed
TOE, in its operational environment, has vulnerabilities exploitable by
attackers possessing Enhanced-Basic attack potential.
1795
The developer provides an analysis of the disposition of any residual
vulnerabilities reported for the components and of any vulnerabilities
introduced through the combination of the base and dependent components.
The evaluator performs a search of the public domain to identify any new
potential vulnerabilities in the components (i.e. those issues that have been
reported in the public domain since the completion of the component
evaluations). The evaluator will also perform an independent vulnerability
analysis of the composed TOE and penetration testing.
16.7.3.2
Input
1796
The evaluation evidence for this sub-activity is:
a)
the composed TOE suitable for testing;
b)
the composed ST;
c)
the composition rationale;
d)
the reliance information;
e)
the guidance documentation;
f)
information publicly available to support the identification of
possible security vulnerabilities.
g)
residual vulnerabilities
component.
reported
during
evaluation
of
each
16.7.3.3
Application notes
1797
See the application notes for Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.3).
16.7.3.4
Action ACO_VUL.3.1E
ACO_VUL.3.1C
The composed TOE shall be suitable for testing.
ACO_VUL.3-1
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE to determine that it has
been installed properly and is in a known state.
1798
To determine that the composed TOE has been installed properly and is in a
known state the ATE_IND.2-1 and ATE_IND.2-2 work units will be applied
to the composed TOE.
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Class ACO: Composition
1799
If the assurance package includes ACO_CTT family, then the evaluator may
refer to the result of the work unit Composed TOE testing (ACO_CTT)*-1 to
demonstrate this has been satisfied.
ACO_VUL.3-2
The evaluator shall examine the composed TOE configuration to determine
that any assumptions and objectives in the STs the components relating to IT
entities for are fulfilled by the other components.
1800
The STs for the component may include assumptions about other
components that may use the component to which the ST relates, e.g. the ST
for an operating system used as a base component may include an
assumption that any applications loaded on the operating system do not run
in privileged mode. These assumptions and objectives are to be fulfilled by
other components in the composed TOE.
16.7.3.5
Action ACO_VUL.3.2E
ACO_VUL.3-3
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the base
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1801
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the base component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in the
base component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The evaluator
will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was deemed to be
non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the combination
has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if during
evaluation of the base component it was assumed that a particular operating
system service was disabled, which is enabled in the composed TOE
evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities relating to that service previously
scoped out should now be considered.
1802
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the base component should be considered in the light of any
known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
dependent component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the
case where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
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ACO_VUL.3-4
The evaluator shall examine the residual vulnerabilities from the dependent
component evaluation to determine that they are not exploitable in the
composed TOE in its operational environment.
1803
The list of vulnerabilities identified in the product during the evaluation of
the dependent component, which were demonstrated to be non-exploitable in
the dependent component, is to be used as an input into this activity. The
evaluator will determine that the premise(s) on which a vulnerability was
deemed to be non-exploitable is upheld in the composed TOE, or whether the
combination has re-introduced the potential vulnerability. For example, if
during evaluation of the dependent component it was assumed that IT
meeting the operational environment requirements would not return a certain
value in response to a service request, which is provided by the base
component in the composed TOE evaluation, any potential vulnerabilities
relating to that return value previously scoped out should now be considered.
1804
Also, this list of known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities resulting from the
evaluation of the dependent component should be considered in the light of
any known, non-exploitable vulnerabilities for the other components (e.g.
base component) within the composed TOE. This is to consider the case
where a potential vulnerability that is non-exploitable in isolation is
exploitable when integrated with an IT entity containing another potential
vulnerability.
16.7.3.6
Action ACO_VUL.3.3E
ACO_VUL.3-5
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the base
component that have become known since the completion of the base
component evaluation.
1805
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.3-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the base component.
1806
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the base component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since the base
component evaluation that means the exploitation of the potential
vulnerability has been simplified.
ACO_VUL.3-6
The evaluator shall examine the sources of information publicly available to
support the identification of possible security vulnerabilities in the dependent
component that have become known since completion of the dependent
component evaluation.
1807
The evaluator will use the information in the public domain as described in
AVA_VAN.3-2 to search for vulnerabilities in the dependent component.
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1808
Those potential vulnerabilities that were publicly available prior to the
evaluation of the dependent component do not have to be further investigated
unless it is apparent to the evaluator that the attack potential required by an
attacker to exploit the potential vulnerability has been significantly reduced.
This may be through the introduction of some new technology since
evaluation of the dependent component that means the exploitation of the
potential vulnerability has been simplified.
ACO_VUL.3-7
The evaluator shall record in the ETR the identified potential security
vulnerabilities that are candidates for testing and applicable to the composed
TOE in its operational environment.
1809
The ST, guidance documentation and functional specification are used to
determine whether the vulnerabilities are relevant to the composed TOE in
its operational environment.
1810
The evaluator records any reasons for exclusion of vulnerabilities from
further consideration if the evaluator determines that the vulnerability is not
applicable in the operational environment. Otherwise the evaluator records
the potential vulnerability for further consideration.
1811
A list of potential vulnerabilities applicable to the composed TOE in its
operational environment, which can be used as an input into penetration
testing activities (ACO_VUL.3.5E), shall be reported in the ETR by the
evaluators.
16.7.3.7
Action ACO_VUL.3.4E
ACO_VUL.3-8
The evaluator shall conduct a search of the composed TOE ST, guidance
documentation, reliance information and composition rationale to identify
possible security vulnerabilities in the composed TOE.
1812
The consideration of the components in the independent evaluator
vulnerability analysis will take a slightly different form to that documented
in AVA_VAN.3.3E for a component evaluation, as it will not necessarily
consider all layers of design abstraction relevant to the assurance package.
These will have already been considered during the evaluation of the base
component, but the evidence may not be available for the composed TOE
evaluation. However, the general approach described in the work units
associated with AVA_VAN.3.3E is applicable and should form the basis of
the evaluator's search for potential vulnerabilities in the composed TOE.
1813
A vulnerability analysis of the individual components used in the composed
TOE will have already been performed during evaluation of the components.
The focus of the vulnerability analysis during the composed TOE evaluation
is to identify any vulnerabilities introduced as a result of the integration of
the components or due to any changes in the use of the components between
the configuration of the component determined during the component
evaluation and the composed TOE configuration.
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1814
The evaluator will use the understanding of the component's construction as
detailed in the reliance information for the dependent component, and the
composition rationale and development information for the base component,
together with the dependent component design information. This information
will allow the evaluator to gain an understanding of how the base component
and dependent component interact.
1815
The evaluator will consider any new guidance provided for the installation,
start-up and operation of the composed TOE to identify any potential
vulnerabilities introduced through this revised guidance.
1816
If any of the individual components have been through assurance continuity
activities since the completion of the component evaluation, the evaluator
will consider the patch in the independent vulnerability analysis. Information
related to the change provided in a public report of the assurance continuity
activities (e.g. Maintenance Report). This will be supplemented by any
updates to the guidance documentation resulting from the change and any
information regarding the change available in the public domain, e.g. vendor
website.
1817
Any risks identified due to the lack of evidence to establish the full impact of
any patches or deviations in the configuration of a component from the
evaluated configuration are to be documented in the evaluator's vulnerability
analysis.
16.7.3.8
Action ACO_VUL.3.5E
ACO_VUL.3-9
The evaluator shall
AVA_VAN.3.4E.
1818
The evaluator will apply all work units necessary for the satisfaction of
evaluator action AVA_VAN.3.4E, reporting in the ETR for the composed
TOE all analysis and verdicts as dictated by the work units.
1819
The evaluator will also apply the work units for the evaluator action
AVA_VAN.3.1E to determine that the composed TOE provided by the
developer is suitable for testing.
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General evaluation guidance
A
General evaluation guidance
(informative)
A.1
Objectives
1820
The objective of this chapter is to cover general guidance used to provide
technical evidence of evaluation results. The use of such general guidance
helps in achieving objectivity, repeatability and reproducibility of the work
performed by the evaluator.
A.2
Sampling
1821
This Section provides general guidance on sampling. Specific and detailed
information is given in those work units under the specific evaluator action
elements where sampling has to be performed.
1822
Sampling is a defined procedure of an evaluator whereby some subset of a
required set of evaluation evidence is examined and assumed to be
representative for the entire set. It allows the evaluator to gain enough
confidence in the correctness of particular evaluation evidence without
analysing the whole evidence. The reason for sampling is to conserve
resources while maintaining an adequate level of assurance. Sampling of the
evidence can provide two possible outcomes:
1823
a)
The subset reveals no errors, allowing the evaluator to have some
confidence that the entire set is correct.
b)
The subset reveals errors and therefore the validity of the entire set is
called into question. Even the resolution of all errors that were found
may be insufficient to provide the evaluator the necessary confidence
and as a result the evaluator may have to increase the size of the
subset, or stop using sampling for this particular evidence.
Sampling is a technique which can be used to reach a reliable conclusion if a
set of evidence is relatively homogeneous in nature, e.g. if the evidence has
been produced during a well defined process.
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1824
Sampling in the cases identified in the CC, and in cases specifically covered
in CEM work items, is recognised as a cost-effective approach to performing
evaluator actions. Sampling in other areas is permitted only in exceptional
cases, where performance of a particular activity in its entirety would require
effort disproportionate to the other evaluation activities, and where this
would not add correspondingly to assurance. In such cases a rationale for the
use of sampling in that area will need to be made. Neither the fact that the
TOE is large and complex, nor that it has many security functional
requirements, is sufficient justification, since evaluations of large, complex
TOEs can be expected to require more effort. Rather it is intended that this
exception be limited to cases such as that where the TOE development
approach yields large quantities of material for a particular CC requirement
that would normally all need to be checked or examined, and where such an
action would not be expected to raise assurance correspondingly.
1825
Sampling needs to be justified taking into account the possible impact on the
security objectives and threats of the TOE. The impact depends on what
might be missed as a result of sampling. Consideration also needs to be given
to the nature of the evidence to be sampled, and the requirement not to
diminish or ignore any security functions.
1826
It should be recognised that sampling of evidence directly related to the
implementation of the TOE (e.g. developer test results) requires a different
approach to sampling, then sampling related to the determination of whether
a process is being followed. In many cases the evaluator is required to
determine that a process is being followed, and a sampling strategy is
recommended. The approach for sampling a developer's test results will
differ. This is because the former case is concerned with ensuring that a
process is in place, and the latter deals with determining correct
implementation of the TOE. Typically, larger sample sizes should be
analysed in cases related to the correct implementation of the TOE than
would be necessary to ensure that a process is in place.
1827
In certain cases it may be appropriate for the evaluator to give greater
emphasis to the repetition of developer testing. For example if the
independent tests left for the evaluator to perform would be only
superficially different from those included in an extensive developer test set
(possibly because the developer has performed more testing than necessary
to satisfy the Coverage (ATE_COV) and Depth (ATE_DPT) criteria) then it
would be appropriate for the evaluator to give greater focus to the repetition
of developer tests. Note that this does not necessarily imply a requirement for
a high percentage sample for repetition of developer tests; indeed, given an
extensive developer test set, the evaluator may be able to justify a low
percentage sample.
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1828
Where the developer has used an automated test suite to perform functional
testing, it will usually be easier for the evaluator to re-run the entire test suite
rather than repeat only a sample of developer tests. However the evaluator
does have an obligation to check that the automatic testing does not give
misrepresentative results. The implication is thus that this check must be
performed for a sample of the automatic test suite, with the principles for
selecting some tests in preference to others and ensuring a sufficient sample
size applying equally in this case.
1829
The following principles should be followed whenever sampling is
performed:
a)
Sampling should not be random, rather it should be chosen such that
it is representative of all of the evidence. The sample size and
composition must always be justified.
b)
When sampling relates to the correct implementation of the TOE, the
sample should be representative of all aspects relevant to the areas
that are sampled. In particular, the selection should cover a variety of
components, interfaces, developer and operational sites (if more than
one is involved) and hardware platform types (if more than one is
involved). The sample size should be commensurate with the cost
effectiveness of the evaluation and will depend on a number of TOE
dependent factors (e.g. the size and complexity of the TOE, the
amount of documentation).
c)
Also, when sampling relates to specifically gaining evidence that the
developer testing is repeatable and reproducible the sample used must
be sufficient to represent all distinct aspects of developer testing, such
as different test regimes. The sample used must be sufficient to detect
any systematic problem in the developer's functional testing process.
The evaluator contribution resulting from the combination of
repeating developer tests and performing independent tests must be
sufficient to address the major points of concern for the TOE.
d)
Where sampling relates to gaining evidence that a process (e.g.
visitor control or design review) the evaluator should sample
sufficient information to gain reasonable confidence that the
procedure is being followed.
e)
The sponsor and developer should not be informed in advance of the
exact composition of the sample, subject to ensuring timely delivery
of the sample and supporting deliverable, e.g. test harnesses and
equipment to the evaluator in accordance with the evaluation
schedule.
f)
The choice of the sample should be free from bias to the degree
possible (one should not always choose the first or last item). Ideally
the sample selection should be done by someone other than the
evaluator.
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1830
Errors found in the sample can be categorised as being either systematic or
sporadic. If the error is systematic, the problem should be corrected and a
complete new sample taken. If properly explained, sporadic errors might be
solved without the need for a new sample, although the explanation should
be confirmed. The evaluator should use judgement in determining whether to
increase the sample size or use a different sample.
A.3
Dependencies
1831
In general it is possible to perform the required evaluation activities, subactivities, and actions in any order or in parallel. However, there are different
kinds of dependencies which have to be considered by the evaluator. This
Section provides general guidance on dependencies between different
activities, sub-activities, and actions.
A.3.1
Dependencies between activities
1832
For some cases the different assurance classes may recommend or even
require a sequence for the related activities. A specific instance is the ST
activity. The ST evaluation activity is started prior to any TOE evaluation
activities since the ST provides the basis and context to perform them.
However, a final verdict on the ST evaluation may not be possible until the
TOE evaluation is complete, since changes to the ST may result from activity
findings during the TOE evaluation.
A.3.2
Dependencies between sub-activities
1833
Dependencies identified between components in CC Part 3 have to be
considered by the evaluator. Most dependencies are one way, e.g. Evaluation
of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.1) claims a dependency on Evaluation of subactivity (ADV_FSP.1) and Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_OPE.1). There
are also instances of mutual dependencies, where both components depend
on each other. An example of this is Evaluation of sub-activity
(ATE_FUN.1) and Evaluation of sub-activity (ATE_COV.1).
1834
A sub-activity can be assigned a pass verdict normally only if all those subactivities are successfully completed on which it has a one-way dependency.
For example, a pass verdict on Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.1) can
normally only be assigned if the sub-activities related to Evaluation of subactivity (ADV_FSP.1) and Evaluation of sub-activity (AGD_OPE.1) are
assigned a pass verdict too. In the case of mutual dependency the ordering of
these components is down to the evaluator deciding which sub-activity to
perform first. Note this indicates that pass verdicts can normally only be
assigned once both sub-activities have been successful.
1835
So when determining whether a sub-activity will impact another sub-activity,
the evaluator should consider whether this activity depends on potential
evaluation results from any dependent sub-activities. Indeed, it may be the
case that a dependent sub-activity will impact this sub-activity, requiring
previously completed evaluator actions to be performed again.
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1836
A significant dependency effect occurs in the case of evaluator-detected
flaws. If a flaw is identified as a result of conducting one sub-activity, the
assignment of a pass verdict to a dependent sub-activity may not be possible
until all flaws related to the sub-activity upon which it depends are resolved.
A.3.3
Dependencies between actions
1837
It may be the case, that results which are generated by the evaluator during
one action are used for performing another action. For example, actions for
completeness and consistency cannot be completed until the checks for
content and presentation have been completed. This means for example that
the evaluator is recommended to evaluate the PP/ST rationale after
evaluating the constituent parts of the PP/ST.
A.4
Site Visits
A.4.1
Introduction
1838
The assurance class ALC includes requirements for
a)
the application of configuration management, ensuring that the
integrity of the TOE is preserved;
b)
measures, procedures, and standards concerned with secure delivery
of the TOE, ensuring that the security protection offered by the TOE
is not compromised during the transfer to the user,
c)
security measures, used to protect the development environment.
1839
A development site visit is a useful means whereby the evaluator determines
whether procedures are being followed in a manner consistent with that
described in the documentation.
1840
Reasons for visiting sites include:
1841
a)
to observe the use of the CM system as described in the CM plan;
b)
to observe the practical application of delivery procedures as
described in the delivery documentation;
c)
to observe the application of security measures during development
and maintenance of the TOE as described in the development security
documentation.
Specific and detailed information is given in work units for those activities
where site visits are performed:
a)
CM capabilities (ALC_CMC).n with n>=3 (especially work unit
ALC_CMC.3-10 = ALC_CMC.4-13 = ALC_CMC.5-19);
b)
Delivery (ALC_DEL) (especially work unit ALC_DEL.1-2);
c)
Development security (ALC_DVS)
ALC_DVS.1-3 = ALC_DVS.2-4).
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A.4.2
General Approach
1842
During an evaluation it is often necessary that the evaluator will meet the
developer more than once and it is a question of good planning to combine
the site visit with another meeting to reduce costs. For example one might
combine the site visits for configuration management, for the developer's
security and for delivery. It may also be necessary to perform more than one
site visit to the same site to allow the checking of all development phases. It
should be considered that development could occur at multiple facilities
within a single building, multiple buildings at the same site, or at multiple
sites.
1843
The first site visit should be scheduled early during the evaluation. In the
case of an evaluation which starts during the development phase of the TOE,
this will allow corrective actions to be taken, if necessary. In the case of an
evaluation which starts after the development of the TOE, an early site visit
could allow corrective measures to be put in place if serious deficiencies in
the applied procedures emerge. This avoids unnecessary evaluation effort.
1844
Interviews are also a useful means of determining whether the written
procedures reflect what is done. In conducting such interviews, the evaluator
aims to gain a deeper understanding of the analysed procedures at the
development site, how they are used in practise and whether they are being
applied as described in the provided evaluation evidence. Such interviews
complement but do not replace the examination of evaluation evidence.
1845
As a first step preparing the site visits the evaluators should perform the
evaluator work units concerning the assurance class ALC excluding the
aspects describing the results of the site visit. Based on the information
provided by the relevant developer documentation and the remaining open
questions which were not answered by the documentation the evaluators
compile a check list of the questions which are to be resolved by the site
visits.
1846
The first version of the evaluation report concerning the ALC class and the
check list serves as input for the consultation with the evaluation authority
concerning the site visits.
1847
The check list serve as a guide line for the site visits, which questions are to
be answered by inspection of the relevant measures, their application and
results, and by interviews. Where appropriate, sampling is used for gaining
the required level of confidence (see Section A.2).
1848
The results of the site visits are recorded and serve as input for the final
version of the evaluation report concerning the assurance class ALC.
1849
Other approaches to gain confidence should be considered that provide an
equivalent level of assurance (e.g. to analyse evaluation evidence). Any
decision not to make a visit should be determined in consultation with the
evaluation authority. Appropriate security criteria and a methodology should
be based on other standards of the Information Security Management
Systems area.
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A.4.3
Orientation Guide for the Preparation of the Check List
1850
In the following some keywords are provided, which topics should be
checked during an audit.
A.4.3.1
Aspects of configuration management
1851
Basic
1852

Items of the configuration list, including TOE, source code, run time
libraries, design documentation, development tools (ALC_CMC.3-8).

Tracking of design documentation, source code, user guidance to
different versions of the TOE.

Integration of the configuration system in the design and
development process, test planning, test analysis and quality
management procedures.
Test analysis

1853
1854
Tracking of test plans and results to specific configurations and
versions of the TOE.
Access control to development systems

Policies for access control and logging.

Policies for project specific assignment and changing of access rights.
Clearance

Policies for clearance of the TOE and user guidance to the customer.

Policies for testing and approving of components and the TOE before
deployment.
A.4.3.2
Aspects of development security
1855
Infrastructure

1856
Security measures for physical access control to the development site
and rationale for the effectiveness of these measures.
Organisational measures

Organisational structure of the company in respect of the security of
the development environment.

Organisational separation between development, production, testing
and quality assurance.
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1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
Personal measures

Measures for education of the personnel in respect of development
security.

Measures and legal agreements of non disclosure of internal
information.
Access control

Assignment of secured objects (for instance TOE, source code, run
time libraries, design documentation, development tools, user
guidance) and security policies.

Policies and responsibilities concerning the access control and the
handling of authentication information.

Policies for logging of any kind access to the development site and
protection of the logging data.
Input, processing and output of data

Security measures for protection of output and output devices
(printer, plotter and displays).

Securing of local networks and communication connections.
Storage, transfer and destruction of documents and data media.

Policies for handling of documents and data media.

Policies and responsibilities for destruction of sorted out documents
and logging of these events.
Data protection

1862
Policies and responsibilities for data and information protection (e.g.
for performing backups).
Contingency plan

Practises in case of emergency and responsibilities.

Documentation of the contingency measures concerning access
control.

Information of the personnel about applicable practises in extreme
cases. protection (e.g. for performing backups).
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A.4.4
Example of a checklist
1863
The examples of checklists for site visits consist in tables for the preparation
of an audit and for the presentation of the results of an audit.
1864
The checklist structure given in the following is preliminary. Dependent on
the concrete contents of the new guideline, changes might become necessary.
1865
The checklist is divided into three sections according to the subjects
indicated in the introduction (Section A.4.1).
a)
Configuration management system.
b)
Delivery procedures.
c)
Security measures during development.
1866
These sections correspond to the actual CC class ALC, especially the
families CM capabilities (ALC_CMC).n with n>=3, Delivery (ALC_DEL)
and Development security (ALC_DVS).
1867
The sections are subdivided further into rows corresponding to the relevant
work units of the CEM.
1868
The columns of the checklist contain in turn
1869

a consecutive number,

the referenced work unit,

the references to the corresponding developer documentation,

the explicit reproduction of the developer measures,

special remarks and questions to be clarified on the visit (beyond the
standard evaluator task to verify the application of the indicated
measures),

the result of the examinations during the visit.
If it is decided to have separate checklists for preparation and reporting of the
audit, the result column is omitted in the preparation list and the remarks and
questions column is omitted in the reporting list. The remaining columns
should be identical in both lists.
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Table 1 Example of a checklist at EAL 4 (extract)
A. Examination of the CM system (ALC_CMC.4 and ALC_CMS.4)
Developer
No
Questions
Work Unit
Documentati Measures
Result
.
and Remarks
on
The system
automaticall
If a user
y managing
has not
the source
the right
code files is
Does reading to access
capable of
or updating
a
“Configurati administerin
ALC_CMC.
of a source
confidenti
on
g user
A. 4-11,
code file
al
Management profiles and
1
ALC_CMC.
require a
document,
System”, ch. graded
4-12
user
it is not
...
access
authenticatio even
rights, and
n?
displayed
of checking
to him in
identificatio
the file
n and
list.
authenticati
on of users.
... ...
...
...
...
...
B. Examination of the Delivery Procedures (ALC_DEL.1)
Questions
Developer
No. Work Unit
Measures
and
Result
Documentation
Remarks
The
evaluators
The
have
software is
checked the
ALC_DEL.1transmitted
“Delivery of
process and
1,
PGPB.1
the TOE”, ch.
--found it as
ALC_DEL.1signed and
...
described,
2
encrypted
additionally
to the
a checksum
customer.
is
transmitted.
...
...
...
...
...
...
C. Examination of the organisational and infrastructural developer security
(ALC_DVS.1, ALC_LCD.1, ALC_TAT.1)
Developer
Questions
No
Work Unit
Documentatio Measures
and
Result
.
n
Remarks
ALC_DVS.1 “Security of
The
Is the
The
C.
-1,
the
premises
fencing
evaluators
1
ALC_DVS.1 development
are
sufficientl considered
September 2007
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General evaluation guidance
C. Examination of the organisational and infrastructural developer security
(ALC_DVS.1, ALC_LCD.1, ALC_TAT.1)
Developer
Questions
No
Work Unit
Documentatio Measures
and
Result
.
n
Remarks
-2
environment”, protected
y strong
the fencing
ch. ...
by security and high to to be
(Premises)
fencing.
prevent an sufficiently
easy
strong and
intrusion
high.
into the
premises?
The
building
has the
following
Beyond the
access
indicated
possibilitie
access
s: The main
possibilitie
entrance
s, there is
which is
an
surveyed
emergency
“Security of
by the
Is the
exit that
ALC_DVS.1 the
reception
listing of
cannot be
C. -1,
development
and is
the access
opened
2
ALC_DVS.1 environment”, closed if
possibilitie
from the
-2
ch. ...
the
s
outside.
(Building)
reception is complete?
The roller
not
shutters
manned.
mentioned
And an
before can
access in
be operated
the goods
only from
reception
inside.
which is
secured by
two roller
shutters.
...
...
...
...
...
...
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General evaluation guidance
A.5
Scheme Responsibilities
1870
This CEM describes the minimum technical work that evaluations conducted
under oversight (scheme) bodies must perform. However, it also recognises
(both explicitly and implicitly) that there are activities or methods upon
which mutual recognition of evaluation results do not rely. For the purposes
of thoroughness and clarity, and to better delineate where the CEM ends and
an individual scheme's methodology begins, the following matters are left up
to the discretion of the schemes. Schemes may choose to provide the
following, although they may choose to leave some unspecified. (Every
effort has been made to ensure this list is complete; evaluators encountering
a subject neither listed here nor addressed in the CEM should consult with
their evaluation schemes to determine under whose auspices the subject
falls.)
1871
The matters that schemes may choose to specify include:
a)
what is required in ensuring that an evaluation was done sufficiently every scheme has a means of verifying the technical competence,
understanding of work and the work of its evaluators, whether by
requiring the evaluators to present their findings to the oversight
body, by requiring the oversight body to redo the evaluator's work, or
by some other means that assures the scheme that all evaluation
bodies are adequate and comparable;
b)
process for disposing of evaluation evidence upon completion of an
evaluation;
c)
any requirements for confidentiality (on the part of the evaluator and
the non-disclosure of information obtained during evaluation);
d)
the course of action to be taken if a problem is encountered during the
evaluation (whether the evaluation continues once the problem is
remedied, or the evaluation ends immediately and the remedied
product must be re-submitted for evaluation);
e)
any specific (natural) language in which documentation must be
provided;
f)
any recorded evidence that must be submitted in the ETR - this CEM
specifies the minimum to be reported in an ETR; however, individual
schemes may require additional information to be included;
g)
any additional reports (other than the ETR) required from the
evaluators -for example, testing reports;
h)
any specific ORs that may be required by the scheme, including the
structure, recipients, etc. of any such ORs;
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General evaluation guidance
i)
any specific content structure of any written report as a result from an
ST evaluation - a scheme may have a specific format for all of its
reports detailing results of an evaluation, be it the evaluation of a
TOE or of an ST;
j)
any additional PP/ST identification information required;
k)
any activities to determine the suitability of explicitly-stated
requirements in an ST;
l)
any requirements for provision of evaluator evidence to support reevaluation and re-use of evidence;
m)
any specific handling of scheme identifiers, logos, trademarks, etc.;
n)
any specific guidance in dealing with cryptography;
o)
handling and application of scheme, national and international
interpretations;
p)
a list or characterisations of suitable alternative approaches to testing
where testing is infeasible;
q)
the mechanism by which an evaluation authority can determine what
steps an evaluator took while testing;
r)
preferred test approach (if any): at internal interface or at external
interface;
s)
a list or characterisation of acceptable means of conducting the
evaluator's vulnerability analysis (e.g. flaw hypothesis methodology);
t)
information regarding any vulnerabilities and weaknesses to be
considered.
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Vulnerability Assessment (AVA)
B
Vulnerability Assessment (AVA)
(informative)
1872
This annex provides an explanation of the AVA_VAN criteria and examples
of their application. This annex does not define the AVA criteria; this
definition can be found in CC Part 3 Section Class AVA: Vulnerability
assessment.
1873
This annex consists of 2 major parts:
a)
Guidance for completing an independent vulnerability analysis. This
is summarised in section B.1, and described in more detail in section
B.2 . These sections describe how an evaluator should approach the
construction of an independent Vulnerability Analysis.
b)
How to characterise and use assumed Attack Potential of an attacker.
This is described in sections B.3 to B.5. These sections provide an
example of describe how an attack potential can be characterised and
should be used, and provide examples.
B.1
What is Vulnerability Analysis
1874
The purpose of the vulnerability assessment activity is to determine the
existence and exploitability of flaws or weaknesses in the TOE in the
operational environment. This determination is based upon analysis
performed by the evaluator, and is supported by evaluator testing.
1875
At the lowest levels of Vulnerability analysis (AVA_VAN) the evaluator
simply performs a search of publicly available information to identify any
known weaknesses in the TOE, while at the higher levels the evaluator
performs a structured analysis of the TOE evaluation evidence.
1876
There are three main factors in performing a vulnerability analysis, namely:
1877
a)
the identification of potential vulnerabilities;
b)
assessment to determine whether the identified potential
vulnerabilities could allow an attacker with the relevant attack
potential to violate the SFRs.
c)
penetration testing to determine whether the identified potential
vulnerabilities are exploitable in the operational environment of the
TOE.
The identification of vulnerabilities can be further decomposed into the
evidence to be searched and how hard to search that evidence to identify
potential vulnerabilities. In a similar manner, the penetration testing can be
further decomposed into analysis of the potential vulnerability to identify
attack methods and the demonstration of the attack methods.
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1878
These main factors are iterative in nature, i.e. penetration testing of potential
vulnerabilities may lead to the identification of further potential
vulnerabilities. Hence, these are performed as a single vulnerability analysis
activity.
B.2
Evaluator construction of a Vulnerability Analysis
1879
The evaluator vulnerability analysis is to determine that the TOE is resistant
to penetration attacks performed by an attacker possessing a Basic (for
AVA_VAN.1 and AVA_VAN.2), Enhanced-Basic (for AVA_VAN.3),
Moderate (for AVA_VAN.4) or High (for AVA_VAN.5) attack potential.
The evaluator first assesses the exploitability of all identified potential
vulnerabilities. This is accomplished by conducting penetration testing. The
evaluator should assume the role of an attacker with a Basic (for
AVA_VAN.1 and AVA_VAN.2), Enhanced-Basic (for AVA_VAN.3),
Moderate (for AVA_VAN.4) or High (for AVA_VAN.5) attack potential
when attempting to penetrate the TOE.
1880
The evaluator considers potential vulnerabilities encountered by the
evaluator during the conduct of other evaluation activities. The evaluator
penetration testing determining TOE resistance to these potential
vulnerabilities should be performed assuming the role of an attacker with a
Basic (for AVA_VAN.1 and AVA_VAN.2), Enhanced-Basic (for
AVA_VAN.3), Moderate (for AVA_VAN.4) or High (for AVA_VAN.5)
attack potential.
1881
However, vulnerability analysis should not be performed as an isolated
activity. It is closely linked with ADV and AGD. The evaluator performs
these other evaluation activities with a focus on identifying potential
vulnerabilities or “areas of concern”. Therefore, evaluator familiarity with
the generic vulnerability guidance (provided in Section B.2.1) is required.
B.2.1
Generic vulnerability guidance
1882
The following five categories provide discussion of generic vulnerabilities.
B.2.1.1
Bypassing
1883
Bypassing includes any means by which an attacker could avoid security
enforcement, by:
a)
exploiting the capabilities of interfaces to the TOE, or of utilities
which can interact with the TOE;
b)
inheriting privileges or other capabilities that should otherwise be
denied;
c)
(where confidentiality is a concern) reading sensitive data stored or
copied to inadequately protected areas.
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1884
Each of the following should be considered (where relevant) in the
evaluator's independent vulnerability analysis.
a)
Attacks based on exploiting the capabilities of interfaces or utilities
generally take advantage of the absence of the required security
enforcement on those interfaces. For example, gaining access to
functionality that is implemented at a lower level than that at which
access control is enforced. Relevant items include:
1)
changing the predefined sequence of invocation of TSFI;
2)
invoking an additional TSFI;
3)
using a component in an unexpected context or for an
unexpected purpose;
4)
using implementation detail introduced in less abstract
representations;
5)
using the delay between time of access check and time of use.
b)
Changing the predefined sequence of invocation of components
should be considered where there is an expected order in which
interfaces to the TOE (e.g. user commands) are called to invoke a
TSFI (e.g. opening a file for access and then reading data from it). If
a TSFI is invoked through one of the TOE interfaces (e.g. an access
control check), the evaluator should consider whether it is possible to
bypass the control by performing the call at a later point in the
sequence or by missing it out altogether.
c)
Executing an additional component (in the predefined sequence) is a
similar form of attack to the one described above, but involves the
calling of some other TOE interface at some point in the sequence. It
can also involve attacks based on interception of sensitive data passed
over a network by use of network traffic analysers (the additional
component here being the network traffic analyser).
d)
Using a component in an unexpected context or for an unexpected
purpose includes using an unrelated TOE interface to bypass the TSF
by using it to achieve a purpose that it was not designed or intended
to achieve. Covert channels are an example of this type of attack (see
B.2.1.4 for further discussion of covert channels). The use of
undocumented interfaces, which may be insecure, also falls into this
category. Such interfaces may include undocumented support and
help facilities.
e)
Using implementation detail introduced in lower representations may
allow an attacker to take advantage of additional functions, resources
or attributes that are introduced to the TOE as a consequence of the
refinement process. Additional functionality may include test harness
code contained in software modules and back-doors introduced
during the implementation process.
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f)
Using the delay between time of check and time of use includes
scenarios where an access control check is made and access granted,
and an attacker is subsequently able to create conditions in which,
had they applied at the time the access check was made, would have
caused the check to fail. An example would be a user creating a
background process to read and send highly sensitive data to the
user's terminal, and then logging out and logging back in again at a
lower sensitivity level. If the background process is not terminated
when the user logs off, the MAC checks would have been effectively
bypassed.
g)
Attacks based on inheriting privileges are generally based on illicitly
acquiring the privileges or capabilities of some privileged component,
usually by exiting from it in an uncontrolled or unexpected manner.
Relevant items include:
1)
executing data not intended to be executable, or making it
executable;
2)
generating unexpected input for a component;
3)
invalidating assumptions and properties on which lower-level
components rely.
h)
Executing data not intended to be executable, or making it executable
includes attacks involving viruses (e.g. putting executable code or
commands in a file which are automatically executed when the file is
edited or accessed, thus inheriting any privileges the owner of the file
has).
i)
Generating unexpected input for a component can have unexpected
effects which an attacker could take advantage of. For example, if the
TSF could be bypassed if a user gains access to the underlying
operating system, it may be possible to gain such access following
the login sequence by exploring the effect of hitting various control
or escape sequences whilst a password is being authenticated.
j)
Invalidating assumptions and properties on which lower level
components rely includes attacks based on breaking out of the
constraints of an application to gain access to an underlying operating
system in order to bypass the TSF of an application. In this case the
assumption being invalidated is that it is not possible for a user of the
application to gain such access. A similar attack can be envisaged
against an application on an underlying database management
system: again the TSF could be bypassed if an attacker can break out
of the constraints of the application.
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k)
Attacks based on reading sensitive data stored in inadequately
protected areas (applicable where confidentiality is a concern)
include the following issues which should be considered as possible
means of gaining access to sensitive data:
1)
disk scavenging;
2)
access to unprotected memory;
3)
exploiting access to shared writable files or other shared
resources (e.g. swap files);
4)
Activating error recovery to determine what access users can
obtain. For example, after a crash an automatic file recovery
system may employ a lost and found directory for headerless
files, which are on disk without labels. If the TOE implements
mandatory access controls, it is important to investigate at
what security level this directory is kept (e.g. at system high),
and who has access to this directory.
1885
There are a number of different methods through which an evaluator may
identify a back-door, including two main techniques. Firstly, by the evaluator
inadvertently identifying during testing an interface that can be misused.
Secondly, through testing each external interface of the TSF in a debugging
mode to identify any modules that are not called as a part of testing the
documented interfaces and then inspecting the code that is not called to
consider whether it is a back-door.
1886
For a software TOE where Evaluation of sub-activity (ADV_IMP.2) and
ALC_TAT.2 or higher components are included in the assurance package,
the evaluator may consider during their analysis of the tools the libraries and
packages that are linked by the compiler at compilation stage to determine
that back-doors are not introduced at this stage.
B.2.1.2
Tampering
1887
Tampering includes any attack based on an attacker attempting to influence
the behaviour of the TSF (i.e. corruption or de-activation), for example by:
a)
accessing data on whose confidentiality or integrity the TSF relies;
b)
forcing the TOE to cope with unusual or unexpected circumstances;
c)
disabling or delaying security enforcement;
d)
physical modification the TOE.
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1888
Each of the following should be considered (where relevant) in the
evaluator's independent vulnerability analysis.
a)
b)
Attacks based on accessing data, whose confidentiality or integrity
are protected, include:
1)
reading, writing or modifying internal data directly or
indirectly;
2)
using a component in an unexpected context or for an
unexpected purpose;
3)
using interfaces between components that are not visible at a
higher level of abstraction.
Reading, writing or modifying internal data directly or indirectly
includes the following types of attack which should be considered:
1)
reading “secrets” stored internally, such as user passwords;
2)
spoofing internal data that security enforcing mechanisms rely
upon;
3)
modifying environment variables (e.g. logical names), or data
in configuration files or temporary files.
c)
It may be possible to deceive a trusted process into modifying a
protected file that it wouldn't normally access.
d)
The evaluator should also consider the following “dangerous
features”:
e)
Page 406 of 430
1)
source code resident on the TOE along with a compiler (for
instance, it may be possible to modify the login source code);
2)
an interactive debugger and patch facility (for instance, it may
be possible to modify the executable image);
3)
the possibility of making changes at device controller level,
where file protection does not exist;
4)
diagnostic code which exists in the source code and that may
be optionally included;
5)
developer's tools left in the TOE.
Using a component in an unexpected context or for an unexpected
purpose includes (for example), where the TOE is an application built
upon an operating system, users exploiting knowledge of a word
processor package or other editor to modify their own command file
(e.g. to acquire greater privileges).
Version 3.1
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Vulnerability Assessment (AVA)
f)
Using interfaces between components which are not visible at a
higher level of abstraction includes attacks exploiting shared access
to resources, where modification of a resource by one component can
influence the behaviour of another (trusted) component, e.g. at source
code level, through the use of global data or indirect mechanisms
such as shared memory or semaphores.
g)
Attacks based on forcing the TOE to cope with unusual or
unexpected circumstances should always be considered. Relevant
items include:
h)
i)
September 2007
1)
generating unexpected input for a component;
2)
invalidating assumptions and properties on which lower-level
components rely.
Generating unexpected input for a component includes investigating
the behaviour of the TOE when:
1)
command input buffers overflow (possibly “crashing the
stack” or overwriting other storage, which an attacker may be
able to take advantage of, or forcing a crash dump that may
contain sensitive information such as clear-text passwords);
2)
invalid commands or parameters are entered (including
supplying a read-only parameter to an interface which expects
to return data via that parameter and supplying improperly
formatted input that should fail parsing such as SQLinjection, format strings);
3)
an end-of-file marker (e.g. CTRL-Z or CTRL-D) or null
character is inserted in an audit trail.
Invalidating assumptions and properties on which lower-level
components rely includes attacks taking advantage of errors in the
source code where the code assumes (explicitly or implicitly) that
security relevant data is in a particular format or has a particular
range of values. In these cases the evaluator should determine
whether they can invalidate such assumptions by causing the data to
be in a different format or to have different values, and if so whether
this could confer advantage to an attacker.
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j)
k)
l)
m)
Page 408 of 430
The correct behaviour of the TSF may be dependent on assumptions
that are invalidated under extreme circumstances where resource
limits are reached or parameters reach their maximum value. The
evaluator should consider (where practical) the behaviour of the TOE
when these limits are reached, for example:
1)
changing dates (e.g. examining how the TOE behaves when a
critical date threshold is passed);
2)
filling disks;
3)
exceeding the maximum number of users;
4)
filling the audit log;
5)
saturating security alarm queues at a console;
6)
overloading various parts of a multi-user TOE which relies
heavily upon communications components;
7)
swamping a network, or individual hosts, with traffic;
8)
filling buffers or fields.
Attacks based on disabling or delaying security enforcement include
the following items:
1)
using interrupts or scheduling functions to disrupt sequencing;
2)
disrupting concurrence;
3)
using interfaces between components which are not visible at
a higher level of abstraction.
Using interrupts or scheduling functions to disrupt sequencing
includes investigating the behaviour of the TOE when:
1)
a command is interrupted (with CTRL-C, CTRL-Y, etc.);
2)
a second interrupt is issued before the first is acknowledged.
The effects of terminating security critical processes (e.g. an audit
daemon) should be explored. Similarly, it may be possible to delay
the logging of audit records or the issuing or receipt of alarms such
that it is of no use to an administrator (since the attack may already
have succeeded).
Version 3.1
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Vulnerability Assessment (AVA)
n)
Disrupting concurrence includes investigating the behaviour of the
TOE when two or more subjects attempt simultaneous access. It may
be that the TOE can cope with the interlocking required when two
subjects attempt simultaneous access, but that the behaviour becomes
less well defined in the presence of further subjects. For example, a
critical security process could be put into a resource-wait state if two
other processes are accessing a resource which it requires.
o)
Using interfaces between components which are not visible at a
higher level of abstraction may provide a means of delaying a timecritical trusted process.
p)
Physical attacks can be categorised into physical probing, physical
manipulation, physical modification, and substitution.
September 2007
1)
Physical probing by penetrating the TOE targeting internals of
the TOE, e.g. reading at internal communication interfaces,
lines or memories.
2)
Physical manipulation can be with the TOE internals aiming
at internal modifications of the TOE (e.g. by using optical
fault induction as an interaction process), at the external
interfaces of the TOE (e.g. by power or clock glitches) and at
the TOE environment (e.g. by modifying temperature).
3)
Physical modification of TOE internal security enforcing
attributes to inherit privileges or other capabilities that should
be denied in regular operation. Such modifications can be
caused, e.g., by optical fault induction. Attacks based on
physical modification may also yield a modification of the
TSF itself, e.g. by causing faults at TOE internal program data
transfers before execution. Note, that such kind of bypassing
by modifying the TSF itself can jeopardise every TSF unless
there are other measures (possibly environmental measures)
that prevent an attacker from gaining physical access to the
TOE.
4)
Physical substitution to replace the TOE with another IT
entity, during delivery or operation of the TOE. Substitution
during delivery of the TOE from the development
environment to the user should be prevented through
application of secure delivery procedures (such as those
considered under Development security (ALC_DVS)).
Substitution of the TOE during operation may be considered
through a combination of user guidance and the operational
environment, such that the user is able to be confident that
they are interacting with the TOE.
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B.2.1.3
Direct attacks
1889
Direct attack includes the identification of any penetration tests necessary to
test the strength of permutational or probabilistic mechanism and other
mechanisms to ensure they withstand direct attack.
1890
For example, it may be a flawed assumption that a particular implementation
of a pseudo-random number generator will possess the required entropy
necessary to seed the security mechanism.
1891
Where a probabilistic or permutational mechanism relies on selection of
security attribute value (e.g. selection of password length) or entry of data by
a human user (e.g. choice of password), the assumptions made should reflect
the worst case.
1892
Probabilistic or permutational mechanisms should be identified during
examination of evaluation evidence required as input to this sub-activity
(security target, functional specification, TOE design and implementation
representation subset) and any other TOE (e.g. guidance) documentation may
identify additional probabilistic or permutational mechanisms.
1893
Where the design evidence or guidance includes assertions or assumptions
(e.g. about how many authentication attempts are possible per minute), the
evaluator should independently confirm that these are correct. This may be
achieved through testing or through independent analysis.
1894
Direct attacks reliant upon a weakness in a cryptographic algorithm should
not be considered under Vulnerability analysis (AVA_VAN), as this is
outside the scope of the CC. Correctness of the implementation of the
cryptographic algorithm is considered during the ADV and ATE activities.
B.2.1.4
Monitoring
1895
Information is an abstract view on relation between the properties of entities,
i.e. a signal contains information for a system, if the TOE is able to react to
this signal. The TOE resources processes and stores information represented
by user data. Therefore:
1896
a)
information may flow with the user data between subjects by internal
TOE transfer or export from the TOE;
b)
information may be generated and passed to other user data;
c)
information may be gained through monitoring the operations on data
representing the information.
The information represented by user data may be characterised by security
attributes like “classification level” having values, for example unclassified,
confidential, secret, top secret, to control operations to the data. This
information and therefore the security attributes may be changed by
operations e.g. FDP_ACC.2 may describe decrease of the level by
“sanitarisation” or increase of level by combination of data. This is one
aspects of an information flow analysis focused on controlled operations of
controlled subjects on controlled objects.
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1897
The other aspect is the analysis of illicit information flow. This aspect is
more general than the direct access to objects containing user data addressed
by the FDP_ACC family. An unenforced signalling channel carrying
information under control of the information flow control policy can also be
caused by monitoring of the processing of any object containing or related to
this information (e.g. side channels). An enforced signalling channels may
be identified in terms of the subjects manipulating resources and the subject
or user that observe such manipulation. Classically, covert channels have
been identified as timing or storage channels, according to the resource being
modified or modulated. As for other monitoring attacks, the use of the TOE
is in accordance with the SFRs.
1898
Covert channels are normally applicable in the case when the TOE has
unobservability AND multi-level separation policy requirements. Covert
channels may be routinely spotted during vulnerability analysis and design
activities, and should therefore be tested. However, generally such
monitoring attacks are only identified through specialised analysis
techniques commonly referred to as “covert channel analysis”. These
techniques have been the subject of much research and there are many papers
published on this subject. Guidance for the conduct of covert channel
analysis should be sought from the evaluation authority.
1899
Unenforced information flow monitoring attacks include passive analysis
techniques aiming at disclosure of sensitive internal data of the TOE by
operating the TOE in the way that corresponds to the guidance documents.
1900
Side Channel Analysis includes crypt analytical techniques based on physical
leakage of the TOE. Physical leakage can occur by timing information,
power consumption or power emanation during computation of a TSF.
Timing information can be collected also by a remote-attacker (having
network access to the TOE), power based information channels requires that
the attacker is in the near-by environment of the TOE.
1901
Eavesdropping techniques include interception of all forms of energy, e.g.,
electromagnetic or optical emanation of computer displays, not necessarily in
the near-field of the TOE.
1902
Monitoring also includes exploits of protocol flaws, e.g., an attack on SSL
implementation.
B.2.1.5
Misuse
1903
Misuse may arise from:
a)
incomplete guidance documentation;
b)
unreasonable guidance;
c)
unintended misconfiguration of the TOE;
d)
forced exception behaviour of the TOE.
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1904
If the guidance documentation is incomplete the user may not know how to
operate the TOE in accordance with the SFRs. The evaluator should apply
familiarity with the TOE gained from performing other evaluation activities
to determine that the guidance is complete. In particular, the evaluator should
consider the functional specification. The TSF described in this document
should be described in the guidance as required to permit secure
administration and use through the TSFI available to human users. In
addition, the different modes of operation should be considered to ensure that
guidance is provided for all modes of operation.
1905
The evaluator may, as an aid, prepare an informal mapping between the
guidance and these documents. Any omissions in this mapping may indicate
incompleteness.
1906
The guidance is considered to be unreasonable if it makes demands on the
TOE's usage or operational environment that are inconsistent with the ST or
unduly onerous to maintain security.
1907
A TOE may use a variety of ways to assist the consumer in effectively using
that TOE in accordance with the SFRs and prevent unintentional
misconfiguration. A TOE may employ functionality (features) to alert the
consumer when the TOE is in a state that is inconsistent with the SFRs,
whilst other TOEs may be delivered with enhanced guidance containing
suggestions, hints, procedures, etc. on using the existing security features
most effectively; for instance, guidance on using the audit feature as an aid
for detecting when the SFRs are being compromised; namely insecure.
1908
The evaluator considers the TOE's functionality, its purpose and security
objectives for the operational environment to arrive at a conclusion of
whether or not there is reasonable expectation that use of the guidance would
permit transition into an insecure state to be detected in a timely manner.
1909
The potential for the TOE to enter into insecure states may be determined
using the evaluation deliverables, such as the ST, the functional specification
and any other design representations provided as evidence for components
included in the assurance package for the TOE (e.g. the TOE/TSF design
specification if a component from TOE design (ADV_TDS) is included).
1910
Instances of forced exception behaviour of the TSF could include, but are not
limited to, the following:
a)
behaviour of the TOE when start-up, close-down or error recovery is
activated;
b)
behaviour of the TOE under extreme circumstances (sometimes
termed overload or asymptotic behaviour), particularly where this
could lead to the de-activation or disabling of parts of the TSF;
c)
any potential for unintentional misconfiguration or insecure use
arising from attacks noted in the section on tampering above.
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B.2.2
Identification of Potential Vulnerabilities
1911
Potential vulnerabilities may be identified by the evaluator during different
activities. They may become apparent during an evaluation activity or they
may be identified as a result of analysis of evidence to search for
vulnerabilities.
B.2.2.1
Encountered
1912
The encountered identification of vulnerabilities is where potential
vulnerabilities are identified by the evaluator during the conduct of
evaluation activities, i.e. the evidence are not being analysed with the express
aim of identifying potential vulnerabilities.
1913
The encountered method of identification is dependent on the evaluator's
experience and knowledge; which is monitored and controlled by the
evaluation authority. It is not reproducible in approach, but will be
documented to ensure repeatability of the conclusions from the reported
potential vulnerabilities.
1914
There are no formal analysis criteria required for this method. Potential
vulnerabilities are identified from the evidence provided as a result of
knowledge and experience. However, this method of identification is not
constrained to any particular subset of evidence.
1915
Evaluator is assumed to have knowledge of the TOE-type technology and
known security flaws as documented in the public domain. The level of
knowledge assumed is that which can be gained from a security e-mail list
relevant to the TOE type, the regular bulletins (bug, vulnerability and
security flaw lists) published by those organisations researching security
issues in products and technologies in widespread use. This knowledge is not
expected to extend to specific conference proceedings or detailed theses
produced by university research for AVA_VAN.1 or AVA_VAN.2.
However, to ensure the knowledge applied is up to date, the evaluator may
need to perform a search of public domain material.
1916
For AVA_VAN.3 to AVA_VAN.5 the search of publicly available
information is expected to include conference proceeding and theses
produced during research activities by universities and other relevant
organisations.
1917
Examples of how these may arise (how the evaluator may encounter
potential vulnerabilities):
a)
while the evaluator is examining some evidence, it sparks a memory
of a potential vulnerability identified in a similar product type, that
the evaluator believes to also be present in the TOE under evaluation;
b)
while examining some evidence, the evaluator spots a flaw in the
specification of an interface, that reflects a potential vulnerability.
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1918
This may include becoming aware of a potential vulnerability in a TOE
through reading about generic vulnerabilities in a particular product type in
an IT security publication or on a security e-mail list to which the evaluator
is subscribed.
1919
Attack methods can be developed directly from these potential
vulnerabilities. Therefore, the encountered potential vulnerabilities are
collated at the time of producing penetration tests based on the evaluator's
vulnerability analysis. There is no explicit action for the evaluator to
encounter potential vulnerabilities. Therefore, the evaluator is directed
through an implicit action specified in AVA_VAN.1.2E and
AVA_VAN.*.4E.
1920
Current information regarding public domain vulnerabilities and attacks may
be provided to the evaluator by, for example, an evaluation authority. This
information is to be taken into account by the evaluator when collating
encountered vulnerabilities and attack methods when developing penetration
tests.
B.2.2.2
Analysis
1921
The following types of analysis are presented in terms of the evaluator
actions.
B.2.2.2.1
Unstructured Analysis
1922
The unstructured analysis to be performed by the evaluator (for Evaluation of
sub-activity (AVA_VAN.2)) permits the evaluator to consider the generic
vulnerabilities (as discussed in B.2.1). The evaluator will also apply their
experience and knowledge of flaws in similar technology types.
B.2.2.2.2
Focused
1923
During the conduct of evaluation activities the evaluator may also identify
areas of concern. These are specific portions of the TOE evidence that the
evaluator has some reservation about, although the evidence meets the
requirements for the activity with which the evidence is associated. For
example, a particular interface specification looks particularly complex, and
therefore may be prone to error either in the development of the TOE or in
the operation of the TOE. There is no potential vulnerability apparent at this
stage, further investigation is required. This is beyond the bounds of
encountered, as further investigation is required.
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1924
Difference between potential vulnerability and area of concern:
a)
Potential vulnerability - The evaluator knows a method of attack that
can be used to exploit the weakness or the evaluator knows of
vulnerability information that is relevant to the TOE.
b)
Area of concern - The evaluator may be able to discount concern as a
potential vulnerability based on information provided elsewhere.
While reading interface specification, the evaluator identifies that due
to the extreme (unnecessary) complexity of an interface a potential
vulnerability may lay within that area, although it is not apparent
through this initial examination.
1925
The focused approach to the identification of vulnerabilities is an analysis of
the evidence with the aim of identifying any potential vulnerabilities evident
through the contained information. It is an unstructured analysis, as the
approach is not predetermined. This approach to the identification of
potential vulnerabilities can be used during the independent vulnerability
analysis required by Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.3).
1926
This analysis can be achieved through different approaches, that will lead to
commensurate levels of confidence. None of the approaches have a rigid
format for the examination of evidence to be performed.
1927
The approach taken is directed by the results of the evaluator's assessment of
the evidence to determine it meets the requirements of the AVA/AGD subactivities. Therefore, the investigation of the evidence for the existence of
potential vulnerabilities may be directed by any of the following:
a)
areas of concern identified during examination of the evidence during
the conduct of evaluation activities;
b)
reliance on particular functionality to provide separation, identified
during the analysis of the architectural design (as in Evaluation of
sub-activity (ADV_ARC.1)), requiring further analysis to determine
it cannot be bypassed;
c)
representative examination of the evidence to hypothesise potential
vulnerabilities in the TOE.
1928
The evaluator will report what actions were taken to identify potential
vulnerabilities in the evidence. However, the evaluator may not be able to
describe the steps in identifying potential vulnerabilities before the outset of
the examination. The approach will evolve as a result of the outcome of
evaluation activities.
1929
The areas of concern may arise from examination of any of the evidence
provided to satisfy the SARs specified for the TOE evaluation. The
information publicly accessible is also considered.
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1930
The activities performed by the evaluator can be repeated and the same
conclusions, in terms of the level of assurance in the TOE, can be reached
although the steps taken to achieve those conclusions may vary. As the
evaluator is documenting the form the analysis took, the actual steps taken to
achieve those conclusions are also reproducible.
B.2.2.2.3
Methodical
1931
The methodical analysis approach takes the form of a structured examination
of the evidence. This method requires the evaluator to specify the structure
and form the analysis will take (i.e. the manner in which the analysis is
performed is predetermined, unlike the focused identification method). The
method is specified in terms of the information that will be considered and
how/why it will be considered. This approach to the identification of
potential vulnerabilities can be used during the independent vulnerability
analysis required by Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.4) and
Evaluation of sub-activity (AVA_VAN.5).
1932
This analysis of the evidence is deliberate and pre-planned in approach,
considering all evidence identified as an input into the analysis.
1933
All evidence provided to satisfy the (ADV) assurance requirements specified
in the assurance package are used as input to the potential vulnerability
identification activity.
1934
The “methodical” descriptor for this analysis has been used in an attempt to
capture the characterisation that this identification of potential vulnerabilities
is to take an ordered and planned approach. A “method” or “system” is to be
applied in the examination. The evaluator is to describe the method to be
used in terms of what evidence will be considered, the information within the
evidence that is to be examined, the manner in which this information is to
be considered; and the hypothesis that is to be generated.
1935
The following provide some examples that a hypothesis may take:
1936
a)
consideration of malformed input for interfaces available to an
attacker at the external interfaces;
b)
examination of a security mechanism, such as domain separation,
hypothesising internal buffer overflows leading to degradation of
separation;
c)
analysis to identify any objects created in the TOE implementation
representation that are then not fully controlled by the TSF, and could
be used by an attacker to undermine the SFRs.
For example, the evaluator may identify that interfaces are a potential area of
weakness in the TOE and specify an approach to the analysis that “all
interface specifications provided in the functional specification and TOE
design will be analysed to hypothesise potential vulnerabilities” and go on to
explain the methods used in the hypothesis.
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1937
This identification method will provide a plan of attack of the TOE, that
would be performed by an evaluator completing penetration testing of
potential vulnerabilities in the TOE. The rationale for the method of
identification would provide the evidence for the coverage and depth of
exploitation determination that would be performed on the TOE.
B.3
When attack potential is used
B.3.1
Developer
1938
Attack potential is used by a PP/ST author during the development of the
PP/ST, in consideration of the threat environment and the selection of
assurance components. This may simply be a determination that the attack
potential possessed by the assumed attackers of the TOE is generically
characterised as Basic, Enhanced-Basic, Moderate or High. Alternatively, the
PP/ST may wish to specify particular levels of individual factors assumed to
be possessed by attackers. (e.g. the attackers are assumed to be experts in the
TOE technology type, with access to specialised equipment.)
1939
The PP/ST author considers the threat profile developed during a risk
assessment (outside the scope of the CC, but used as an input into the
development of the PP/ST in terms of the Security Problem Definition or in
the case of low assurance STs, the requirements statement). Consideration of
this threat profile in terms of one of the approaches discussed in the
following sections will permit the specification of the attack potential the
TOE is to resist.
B.3.2
Evaluator
1940
Attack potential is especially considered by the evaluator in two distinct
ways during the ST evaluation and the vulnerability assessment activities.
1941
Attack potential is used by an evaluator during the conduct of the
vulnerability analysis sub-activity to determine whether or not the TOE is
resistant to attacks assuming a specific attack potential of an attacker. If the
evaluator determines that a potential vulnerability is exploitable in the TOE,
they have to confirm that it is exploitable considering all aspects of the
intended environment, including the attack potential assumed by an attacker.
1942
Therefore, using the information provided in the threat statement of the
Security Target, the evaluator determines the minimum attack potential
required by an attacker to effect an attack, and arrives at some conclusion
about the TOE's resistance to attacks. Table 2 demonstrates the relationship
between this analysis and attack potential.
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Vulnerability
Component
VAN.5
VAN.4
VAN.3
VAN.2
VAN.1
TOE resistant to
attacker with attack
potential of:
High
Moderate
Enhanced-Basic
Basic
Basic
Residual vulnerabilities only
exploitable by attacker with
attack potential of:
Beyond High
High
Moderate
Enhanced-Basic
Enhanced-Basic
Table 2 Vulnerability testing and attack potential
1943
The “beyond high” entry in the residual vulnerabilities column of the above
table represents those potential vulnerabilities that would require an attacker
to have an attack potential greater than that of “high” in order to exploit the
potential vulnerability. A vulnerability classified as residual in this instance
reflects the fact that a known weakness exists in the TOE, but in the current
operational environment, with the assumed attack potential, the weakness
cannot be exploited.
1944
At any level of attack potential a potential vulnerability may be deemed
“infeasible” due to a countermeasure in the operational environment that
prevents the vulnerability from being exploited.
1945
A vulnerability analysis applies to all TSFI, including ones that access
probabilistic or permutational mechanisms. No assumptions are made
regarding the correctness of the design and implementation of the TSFI; nor
are constraints placed on the attack method or the attacker's interaction with
the TOE - if an attack is possible, then it is to be considered during the
vulnerability analysis. As shown in Table 2, successful evaluation against a
vulnerability assurance component reflects that the TSF is designed and
implemented to protect against the required level of threat.
1946
It is not necessary for an evaluator to perform an attack potential calculation
for each potential vulnerability. In some cases it is apparent when developing
the attack method whether or not the attack potential required to develop and
run the attack method is commensurate with that assumed of the attacker in
the operational environment. For any vulnerabilities for which an
exploitation is determined, the evaluator performs an attack potential
calculation to determine that the exploitation is appropriate to the level of
attack potential assumed for the attacker.
1947
The approach described below is to be applied whenever it is necessary to
calculate attack potential, unless the evaluation authority provides mandatory
guidance that an alternative approach is to be applied. The values given in
Tables 3 and 4 below are not mathematically proven. Therefore, the values
given in these example tables may need to be adjusted according to the
technology type and specific environments. The evaluator should seek
guidance from the evaluation authority.
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B.4
Calculating attack potential
B.4.1
Application of attack potential
1948
Attack potential is a function of expertise, resources and motivation. There
are multiple methods of representing and quantifying these factors. Also,
there may be other factors that are applicable for particular TOE types.
B.4.1.1
Treatment of motivation
1949
Motivation is an attack potential factor that can be used to describe several
aspects related to the attacker and the assets the attacker desires. Firstly,
motivation can imply the likelihood of an attack - one can infer from a threat
described as highly motivated that an attack is imminent, or that no attack is
anticipated from an un-motivated threat. However, except for the two
extreme levels of motivation, it is difficult to derive a probability of an attack
occurring from motivation.
1950
Secondly, motivation can imply the value of the asset, monetarily or
otherwise, to either the attacker or the asset holder. An asset of very high
value is more likely to motivate an attack compared to an asset of little value.
However, other than in a very general way, it is difficult to relate asset value
to motivation because the value of an asset is subjective - it depends largely
upon the value an asset holder places on it.
1951
Thirdly, motivation can imply the expertise and resources with which an
attacker is willing to effect an attack. One can infer that a highly motivated
attacker is likely to acquire sufficient expertise and resources to defeat the
measures protecting an asset. Conversely, one can infer that an attacker with
significant expertise and resources is not willing to effect an attack using
them if the attacker's motivation is low.
1952
During the course of preparing for and conducting an evaluation, all three
aspects of motivation are at some point considered. The first aspect,
likelihood of attack, is what may inspire a developer to pursue an evaluation.
If the developer believes that the attackers are sufficiently motivated to
mount an attack, then an evaluation can provide assurance of the ability of
the TOE to thwart the attacker's efforts. Where the operational environment
is well defined, for example in a system evaluation, the level of motivation
for an attack may be known, and will influence the selection of
countermeasures.
1953
Considering the second aspect, an asset holder may believe that the value of
the assets (however measured) is sufficient to motivate attack against them.
Once an evaluation is deemed necessary, the attacker's motivation is
considered to determine the methods of attack that may be attempted, as well
as the expertise and resources used in those attacks. Once examined, the
developer is able to choose the appropriate assurance level, in particular the
AVA requirement components, commensurate with the attack potential for
the threats. During the course of the evaluation, and in particular as a result
of completing the vulnerability assessment activity, the evaluator determines
whether or not the TOE, operating in its operational environment, is
sufficient to thwart attackers with the identified expertise and resources.
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1954
It may be possible for a PP author to quantify the motivation of an attacker,
as the PP author has greater knowledge of the operational environment in
which the TOE (conforming to the requirements of the PP) is to be placed.
Therefore, the motivation could form an explicit part of the expression of the
attack potential in the PP, along with the necessary methods and measures to
quantify the motivation.
B.4.2
Characterising attack potential
1955
This section examines the factors that determine attack potential, and
provides some guidelines to help remove some of the subjectivity from this
aspect of the evaluation process.
B.4.2.1
Determining the attack potential
1956
The determination of the attack potential for an attack corresponds to the
identification of the effort required to create the attack, and to demonstrate
that it can be successfully applied to the TOE (including setting up or
building any necessary test equipment), thereby exploiting the vulnerability
in the TOE. The demonstration that the attack can be successfully applied
needs to consider any difficulties in expanding a result shown in the
laboratory to create a useful attack. For example, where an experiment
reveals some bits or bytes of a confidential data item (such as a key), it is
necessary to consider how the remainder of the data item would be obtained
(in this example some bits might be measured directly by further
experiments, while others might be found by a different technique such as
exhaustive search). It may not be necessary to carry out all of the
experiments to identify the full attack, provided it is clear that the attack
actually proves that access has been gained to a TOE asset, and that the
complete attack could realistically be carried out in exploitation according to
the AVA_VAN component targeted. In some cases the only way to prove
that an attack can realistically be carried out in exploitation according to the
AVA_VAN component targeted is to perform completely the attack and then
rate it based upon the resources actually required. One of the outputs from
the identification of a potential vulnerability is assumed to be a script that
gives a step-by-step description of how to carry out the attack that can be
used in the exploitation of the vulnerability on another instance of the TOE.
1957
In many cases, the evaluators will estimate the parameters for exploitation,
rather than carry out the full exploitation. The estimates and their rationale
will be documented in the ETR.
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B.4.2.2
Factors to be considered
1958
The following factors should be considered during analysis of the attack
potential required to exploit a vulnerability:
a)
Time taken to identify and exploit (Elapsed Time);
b)
Specialist technical expertise required (Specialist Expertise);
c)
Knowledge of the TOE design and operation (Knowledge of the
TOE);
d)
Window of opportunity;
e)
IT hardware/software or other equipment required for exploitation.
1959
In many cases these factors are not independent, but may be substituted for
each other in varying degrees. For example, expertise or hardware/software
may be a substitute for time. A discussion of these factors follows. (The
levels of each factor are discussed in increasing order of magnitude.) When it
is the case, the less “expensive” combination is considered in the exploitation
phase.
1960
Elapsed time is the total amount of time taken by an attacker to identify that
a particular potential vulnerability may exist in the TOE, to develop an attack
method and to sustain effort required to mount the attack against the TOE.
When considering this factor, the worst case scenario is used to estimate the
amount of time required. The identified amount of time is as follows:
a)
less than one day;
b)
between one day and one week;
c)
between one week and two weeks;
d)
between two weeks and one month;
e)
each additional month up to 6 months leads to an increased value;
f)
more than 6 months.
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1961
Specialist expertise refers to the level of generic knowledge of the
underlying principles, product type or attack methods (e.g. Internet protocols,
Unix operating systems, buffer overflows). The identified levels are as
follows:
a)
Laymen are unknowledgeable compared to experts or proficient
persons, with no particular expertise;
b)
Proficient persons are knowledgeable in that they are familiar with
the security behaviour of the product or system type;
c)
Experts are familiar with the underlying algorithms, protocols,
hardware, structures, security behaviour, principles and concepts of
security employed, techniques and tools for the definition of new
attacks, cryptography, classical attacks for the product type, attack
methods, etc. implemented in the product or system type.
d)
The level “Multiple Expert” is introduced to allow for a situation,
where different fields of expertise are required at an Expert level for
distinct steps of an attack.
1962
It may occur that several types of expertise are required. By default, the
higher of the different expertises factors is chosen. In very specific cases, the
“multiple expert” level could be used but it should be noted that the expertise
must concern fields that are strictly different like for example HW
manipulation and cryptography.
1963
Knowledge of the TOE refers to specific expertise in relation to the TOE.
This is distinct from generic expertise, but not unrelated to it. Identified
levels are as follows:
1964
a)
Public information concerning the TOE (e.g. as gained from the
Internet);
b)
Restricted information concerning the TOE (e.g. knowledge that is
controlled within the developer organisation and shared with other
organisations under a non-disclosure agreement)
c)
Sensitive information about the TOE (e.g. knowledge that is shared
between discreet teams within the developer organisation, access to
which is constrained only to members of the specified teams);
d)
Critical information about the TOE (e.g. knowledge that is known by
only a few individuals, access to which is very tightly controlled on a
strict need to know basis and individual undertaking).
The knowledge of the TOE may graduate according to design abstraction,
although this can only be done on a TOE by TOE basis. Some TOE designs
may be public source (or heavily based on public source) and therefore even
the design representation would be classified as public or at most restricted,
while the implementation representation for other TOEs is very closely
controlled as it would give an attacker information that would aid an attack
and is therefore considered to be sensitive or even critical.
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1965
It may occur that several types of knowledge are required. In such cases, the
higher of the different knowledge factors is chosen.
1966
Window of opportunity (Opportunity) is also an important consideration, and
has a relationship to the Elapsed Time factor. Identification or exploitation
of a vulnerability may require considerable amounts of access to a TOE that
may increase the likelihood of detection. Some attack methods may require
considerable effort off-line, and only brief access to the TOE to exploit.
Access may also need to be continuous, or over a number of sessions.
1967
For some TOEs the Window of opportunity may equate to the number of
samples of the TOE that the attacker can obtain. This is particularly relevant
where attempts to penetrate the TOE and undermine the SFRs may result in
the destruction of the TOE preventing use of that TOE sample for further
testing, e.g. hardware devices. Often in these cases distribution of the TOE is
controlled and so the attacker must apply effort to obtain further samples of
the TOE.
1968
For the purposes of this discussion:
1969
a)
unnecessary/unlimited access means that the attack doesn't need any
kind of opportunity to be realised because there is no risk of being
detected during access to the TOE and it is no problem to access the
number of TOE samples for the attack;
b)
easy means that access is required for less than a day and that the
number of TOE samples required to perform the attack is less than
ten;
c)
moderate means that access is required for less than a month and that
the number of TOE samples required to perform the attack is less
than one hundred;
d)
difficult means that access is required for at least a month or that the
number of TOE samples required to perform the attack is at least one
hundred;
e)
none means that the opportunity window is not sufficient to perform
the attack (the length for which the asset to be exploited is available
or is sensitive is less than the opportunity length needed to perform
the attack - for example, if the asset key is changed each week and
the attack needs two weeks); another case is, that a sufficient number
of TOE samples needed to perform the attack is not accessible to the
attacker - for example if the TOE is a hardware and the probability to
destroy the TOE during the attack instead of being successful is very
high and the attacker has only access to one sample of the TOE.
Consideration of this factor may result in determining that it is not possible
to complete the exploit, due to requirements for time availability that are
greater than the opportunity time.
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1970
1971
IT hardware/software or other equipment refers to the equipment required
to identify or exploit a vulnerability.
a)
Standard equipment is readily available to the attacker, either for the
identification of a vulnerability or for an attack. This equipment may
be a part of the TOE itself (e.g. a debugger in an operating system),
or can be readily obtained (e.g. Internet downloads, protocol analyser
or simple attack scripts).
b)
Specialised equipment is not readily available to the attacker, but
could be acquired without undue effort. This could include purchase
of moderate amounts of equipment (e.g. power analysis tools, use of
hundreds of PCs linked across the Internet would fall into this
category), or development of more extensive attack scripts or
programs. If clearly different test benches consisting of specialised
equipment are required for distinct steps of an attack this would be
rated as bespoke.
c)
Bespoke equipment is not readily available to the public as it may
need to be specially produced (e.g. very sophisticated software), or
because the equipment is so specialised that its distribution is
controlled, possibly even restricted. Alternatively, the equipment may
be very expensive.
d)
The level “Multiple Bespoke” is introduced to allow for a situation,
where different types of bespoke equipment are required for distinct
steps of an attack.
Specialist expertise and Knowledge of the TOE are concerned with the
information required for persons to be able to attack a TOE. There is an
implicit relationship between an attacker's expertise (where the attacker may
be one or more persons with complementary areas of knowledge) and the
ability to effectively make use of equipment in an attack. The weaker the
attacker's expertise, the lower the potential to use equipment (IT
hardware/software or other equipment). Likewise, the greater the expertise,
the greater the potential for equipment to be used in the attack. Although
implicit, this relationship between expertise and the use of equipment does
not always apply, for instance, when environmental measures prevent an
expert attacker's use of equipment, or when, through the efforts of others,
attack tools requiring little expertise to be effectively used are created and
freely distributed (e.g. via the Internet).
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B.4.2.3
Calculation of attack potential
1972
Table 3 identifies the factors discussed in the previous section and associates
numeric values with the total value of each factor.
1973
Where a factor falls close to the boundary of a range the evaluator should
consider use of an intermediate value to those in the table. For example, if
twenty samples are required to perform the attack then a value between one
and four may be selected for that factor, or if the design is based on a
publicly available design but the developer has made some alterations then a
value between zero and three should be selected according to the evaluator's
view of the impact of those design changes. The table is intended as a guide.
1974
The “**” specification in the table in considering Window of Opportunity is
not to be seen as a natural progression from the timescales specified in the
preceding ranges associated with this factor. This specification identifies that
for a particular reason the potential vulnerability cannot be exploited in the
TOE in its intended operational environment. For example, access to the
TOE may be detected after a certain amount of time in a TOE with a known
environment (i.e. in the case of a system) where regular patrols are
completed, and the attacker could not gain access to the TOE for the required
two weeks undetected. However, this would not be applicable to a TOE
connected to the network where remote access is possible, or where the
physical environment of the TOE is unknown.
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Factor
Value
Elapsed Time
<= one day
<= one week
<= two weeks
<= one month
<= two months
<= three months
<= four months
<= five months
<= six months
> six months
Expertise
Layman
Proficient
Expert
Multiple experts
Knowledge of TOE
Public
Restricted
Sensitive
Critical
Window of Opportunity
Unnecessary / unlimited access
Easy
Moderate
Difficult
None
Equipment
Standard
Specialised
Bespoke
Multiple bespoke
0
1
2
4
7
10
13
15
17
19
0
3*(1)
6
8
0
3
7
11
0
1
4
10
**(2)
0
(3)
4
7
9
(1)
When several proficient persons are required to complete the attack path, the resulting
level of expertise still remains “proficient” (which leads to a 3 rating).
(2)
Indicates that the attack path is not exploitable due to other measures in the intended
operational environment of the TOE.
(3)
If clearly different test benches consisting of specialised equipment are required for
distinct steps of an attack, this should be rated as bespoke.
Table 3 Calculation of attack potential
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1975
1976
To determine the resistance of the TOE to the potential vulnerabilities
identified the following steps should be applied:
a)
Define the possible attack scenarios {AS1, AS2, ..., ASn} for the
TOE in the operational environment.
b)
For each attack scenario, perform a theoretical analysis and calculate
the relevant attack potential using Table 3.
c)
For each attack scenario, if necessary, perform penetration tests in
order to confirm or to disprove the theoretical analysis.
d)
Divide all attack scenarios {AS1, AS2, ..., ASn} into two groups:
1)
the attack scenarios having been successful (i.e. those that
have been used to successfully undermine the SFRs), and
2)
the attack scenarios that have been demonstrated to be
unsuccessful.
e)
For each successful attack scenario, apply Table 4 and determine,
whether there is a contradiction between the resistance of the TOE
and the chosen AVA_VAN assurance component, see the last column
of Table 4.
f)
Should one contradiction be found, the vulnerability assessment will
fail, e.g. the author of the ST chose the component AVA_VAN.5 and
an attack scenario with an attack potential of 21 points (high) has
broken the security of the TOE. In this case the TOE is resistant to
attacker with attack potential 'Moderate', this contradicts to
AVA_VAN.5, hence, the vulnerability assessment fails.
The “Values” column of Table 4 indicates the range of attack potential
values (calculated using Table 3) of an attack scenario that results in the
SFRs being undermined.
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Attack
potential
Values required to
exploit
scenario:
TOE
resistant to
attackers
with attack
potential
of:
Meets assurance
components::
0-9
Basic
No rating
-
10-13
EnhancedBasic
Basic
AVA_VAN.1,
AVA_VAN.2
14-19
Moderate
EnhancedBasic
20-24
High
Moderate
=>25
Beyond
High
High
AVA_VAN.1,
AVA_VAN.2,
AVA_VAN.3
AVA_VAN.1,
AVA_VAN.2,
AVA_VAN.3,
AVA_VAN.4
AVA_VAN.1,
AVA_VAN.2,
AVA_VAN.3,
AVA_VAN.4,
AVA_VAN.5
Failure of
components:
AVA_VAN.1,
AVA_VAN.2,
AVA_VAN.3,
AVA_VAN.4,
AVA_VAN.5
AVA_VAN.3,
AVA_VAN.4,
AVA_VAN.5
AVA_VAN.4,
AVA_VAN.5
AVA_VAN.5
-
Table 4 Rating of vulnerabilities and TOE resistance
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1977
An approach such as this cannot take account of every circumstance or
factor, but should give a better indication of the level of resistance to attack
required to achieve the standard ratings. Other factors, such as the reliance
on unlikely chance occurrences are not included in the basic model, but can
be used by an evaluator as justification for a rating other than those that the
basic model might indicate.
1978
It should be noted that whereas a number of vulnerabilities rated individually
may indicate high resistance to attack, collectively the combination of
vulnerabilities may indicate that overall a lower rating is applicable. The
presence of one vulnerability may make another easier to exploit.
1979
If a PP/ST author wants to use the attack potential table for the determination
of the level of attack the TOE should withstand (selection of Vulnerability
analysis (AVA_VAN) component), he should proceed as follows: For all
different attack scenarios (i.e. for all different types of attacker and/or
different types of attack the author has in mind) which must note violate the
SFRs, several passes through Table 3 should be made to determine the
different values of attack potential assumed for each such unsuccessful attack
scenario. The PP/ST author then chooses the highest value of them in order
to determine the level of the TOE resistance to be claimed from Table 4: the
TOE resistance must be at least equal to this highest value determined. For
example, the highest value of attack potentials of all attack scenarios, which
must not undermine the TOE security policy, determined in such a way is
Moderate; hence, the TOE resistance shall be at least Moderate (i.e.
Moderate or High); therefore, the PP/ST author can choose either
AVA_VAN.4 (for Moderate) or AVA_VAN.5 (for High) as the appropriate
assurance component.
B.5
Example calculation for direct attack
1980
Mechanisms subject to direct attack are often vital for system security and
developers often strengthen these mechanisms. As an example, a TOE might
use a simple pass number authentication mechanism that can be overcome by
an attacker who has the opportunity to repeatedly guess another user's pass
number. The system can strengthen this mechanism by restricting pass
numbers and their use in various ways. During the course of the evaluation
an analysis of this direct attack could proceed as follows:
1981
Information gleaned from the ST and design evidence reveals that
identification and authentication provides the basis upon which to control
access to network resources from widely distributed terminals. Physical
access to the terminals is not controlled by any effective means. The duration
of access to a terminal is not controlled by any effective means. Authorised
users of the system choose their own pass numbers when initially authorised
to use the system, and thereafter upon user request. The system places the
following restrictions on the pass numbers selected by the user:
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a)
the pass number must be at least four and no greater than six digits
long;
b)
consecutive numerical sequences are disallowed (such as 7,6,5,4,3);
c)
repeating digits is disallowed (each digit must be unique).
1982
Guidance provided to the users at the time of pass number selection is that
pass numbers should be as random as possible and should not be affiliated
with the user in some way - a date of birth, for instance.
1983
The pass number space is calculated as follows:
a)
Patterns of human usage are important considerations that can
influence the approach to searching a password space. Assuming the
worst case scenario and the user chooses a number comprising only
four digits, the number of pass number permutations assuming that
each digit must be unique is:
b)
The number of possible increasing sequences is seven, as is the
number of decreasing sequences. The pass number space after
disallowing sequences is:
1984
Based on further information gleaned from the design evidence, the pass
number mechanism is designed with a terminal locking feature. Upon the
sixth failed authentication attempt the terminal is locked for one hour. The
failed authentication count is reset after five minutes so that an attacker can
at best attempt five pass number entries every five minutes, or 60 pass
number entries every hour.
1985
On average, an attacker would have to enter 2513 pass numbers, over 2513
minutes, before entering the correct pass number. The average successful
attack would, as a result, occur in slightly less than:
1986
Using the approach to calculate the attack potential, described in the previous
section, identifies that it is possible that a layman can defeat the mechanism
within days (given easy access to the TOE), with the use of standard
equipment, and with no knowledge of the TOE, giving a value of 1. Given
the resulting sum, 1, the attack potential required to effect a successful attack
is not rated, as it falls below that considered to be Basic.
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