Specifications I2C ( PDF
THE I2C-BUS SPECIFICATION
VERSION 2.1
JANUARY 2000
document order number: 9398 393 40011
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
13.4
13.5
CONTENTS
1
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Version 1.0 - 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 2.0 - 198. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 2.1 - 1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purchase of Philips I2C-bus components . .
3
3
3
3
13.5.1
2
THE I2C-BUS BENEFITS DESIGNERS
AND MANUFACTURERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
13.5.3
2.1
2.2
Designer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Manufacturer benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
13.5.2
I2C-BUS
Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes . . 24
Mixed speed modes on one serial bus
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
F/S-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Timing requirements for the bridge in a
mixed-speed bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
14
10-BIT ADDRESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
14.1
14.2
14.3
Definition of bits in the first two bytes. . . . . 27
Formats with 10-bit addresses. . . . . . . . . . 27
General call address and start byte with
10-bit addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
15
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
AND TIMING FOR I/O STAGES
AND BUS LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3
INTRODUCTION TO THE
SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
4
THE I2C-BUS CONCEPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . .8
6
BIT TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
6.1
6.2
Data validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
START and STOP conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 9
15.1
15.2
Standard- and Fast-mode devices. . . . . . . 30
Hs-mode devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7
TRANSFERRING DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
16
7.1
7.2
Byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Acknowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS OF
I2C-BUS DEVICES TO THE BUS LINES . 37
16.1
8
ARBITRATION AND CLOCK
GENERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Maximum and minimum values of
resistors Rp and Rs for Standard-mode
I2C-bus devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.1
8.2
8.3
Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Use of the clock synchronizing
mechanism as a handshake . . . . . . . . . . . 13
17
APPLICATION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . 41
17.1
Slope-controlled output stages of
Fast-mode I2C-bus devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Switched pull-up circuit for Fast-mode
I2C-bus devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Wiring pattern of the bus lines . . . . . . . . . . 42
Maximum and minimum values of
resistors Rp and Rs for Fast-mode
I2C-bus devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Maximum and minimum values of
resistors Rp and Rs for Hs-mode
I2C-bus devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9
FORMATS WITH 7-BIT ADDRESSES . . . .13
10
7-BIT ADDRESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
Definition of bits in the first byte . . . . . . . .
General call address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
START byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CBUS compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
EXTENSIONS TO THE STANDARDMODE I2C-BUS SPECIFICATION . . . . . . .19
17.2
17.3
17.4
15
16
17
18
12
FAST-MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
13
Hs-MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
13.1
13.2
13.3
High speed transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Serial data transfer format in Hs-mode . . . 21
Switching from F/S- to Hs-mode and
back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
17.5
18
BI-DIRECTIONAL LEVEL SHIFTER
FOR F/S-MODE I2C-BUS SYSTEMS . . . . 42
18.1
Connecting devices with different
logic levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Operation of the level shifter . . . . . . . . . . . 44
18.1.1
2
19
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AVAILABLE
FROM PHILIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
20
SUPPORT LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
1
1.1
voltages. This updated version of the I2C-bus specification
meets those requirements and includes the following
modifications:
PREFACE
Version 1.0 - 1992
This version of the 1992 I2C-bus specification includes the
following modifications:
• The High-speed mode (Hs-mode) is added. This allows
an increase in the bit rate up to 3.4 Mbit/s. Hs-mode
devices can be mixed with Fast- and Standard-mode
devices on the one I2C-bus system with bit rates from 0
to 3.4 Mbit/s.
• Programming of a slave address by software has been
omitted. The realization of this feature is rather
complicated and has not been used.
• The low output level and hysteresis of devices with a
supply voltage of 2 V and below has been adapted to
meet the required noise margins and to remain
compatible with higher supply voltage devices.
• The “low-speed mode” has been omitted. This mode is,
in fact, a subset of the total I2C-bus specification and
need not be specified explicitly.
• The Fast-mode is added. This allows a fourfold increase
of the bit rate up to 400 kbit/s. Fast-mode devices are
downwards compatible i.e. they can be used in a 0 to
100 kbit/s I2C-bus system.
• The 0.6 V at 6 mA requirement for the output stages of
Fast-mode devices has been omitted.
• The fixed input levels for new devices are replaced by
bus voltage-related levels.
• 10-bit addressing is added. This allows 1024 additional
slave addresses.
• Application information for bi-directional level shifter is
added.
• Slope control and input filtering for Fast-mode devices is
specified to improve the EMC behaviour.
1.3
NOTE: Neither the 100 kbit/s I2C-bus system nor the
100 kbit/s devices have been changed.
1.2
Version 2.1 of the I2C-bus specification includes the
following minor modifications:
Version 2.0 - 1998
• After a repeated START condition in Hs-mode, it is
possible to stretch the clock signal SCLH (see
Section 13.2 and Figs 22, 25 and 32).
I2C-bus
has become a de facto world standard that is
The
now implemented in over 1000 different ICs and licensed
to more than 50 companies. Many of today’s applications,
however, require higher bus speeds and lower supply
1.4
Version 2.1 - 2000
• Some timing parameters in Hs-mode have been relaxed
(see Tables 6 and 7).
Purchase of Philips I2C-bus components
Purchase of Philips I2C components conveys a license under the Philips’ I2C patent to use the
components in the I2C system provided the system conforms to the I2C specification defined by
Philips.
3
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
2
• The number of ICs that can be connected to the same
bus is limited only by a maximum bus capacitance of
400 pF.
THE I2C-BUS BENEFITS DESIGNERS AND
MANUFACTURERS
In consumer electronics, telecommunications and
industrial electronics, there are often many similarities
between seemingly unrelated designs. For example,
nearly every system includes:
Figure 1 shows two examples of I2C-bus applications.
2.1
• Some intelligent control, usually a single-chip
microcontroller
Designer benefits
I2C-bus compatible ICs allow a system design to rapidly
progress directly from a functional block diagram to a
prototype. Moreover, since they ‘clip’ directly onto the
I2C-bus without any additional external interfacing, they
allow a prototype system to be modified or upgraded
simply by ‘clipping’ or ‘unclipping’ ICs to or from the bus.
• General-purpose circuits like LCD drivers, remote I/O
ports, RAM, EEPROM, or data converters
• Application-oriented circuits such as digital tuning and
signal processing circuits for radio and video systems, or
DTMF generators for telephones with tone dialling.
Here are some of the features of I2C-bus compatible ICs
which are particularly attractive to designers:
To exploit these similarities to the benefit of both systems
designers and equipment manufacturers, as well as to
maximize hardware efficiency and circuit simplicity, Philips
developed a simple bi-directional 2-wire bus for efficient
inter-IC control. This bus is called the Inter IC or I2C-bus.
At present, Philips’ IC range includes more than 150
CMOS and bipolar I2C-bus compatible types for
performing functions in all three of the previously
mentioned categories. All I2C-bus compatible devices
incorporate an on-chip interface which allows them to
communicate directly with each other via the I2C-bus. This
design concept solves the many interfacing problems
encountered when designing digital control circuits.
• Functional blocks on the block diagram correspond with
the actual ICs; designs proceed rapidly from block
diagram to final schematic.
• No need to design bus interfaces because the I2C-bus
interface is already integrated on-chip.
• Integrated addressing and data-transfer protocol allow
systems to be completely software-defined
• The same IC types can often be used in many different
applications
• Design-time reduces as designers quickly become
familiar with the frequently used functional blocks
represented by I2C-bus compatible ICs
Here are some of the features of the I2C-bus:
• ICs can be added to or removed from a system without
affecting any other circuits on the bus
• Only two bus lines are required; a serial data line (SDA)
and a serial clock line (SCL)
• Fault diagnosis and debugging are simple; malfunctions
can be immediately traced
• Each device connected to the bus is software
addressable by a unique address and simple
master/slave relationships exist at all times; masters can
operate as master-transmitters or as master-receivers
• Software development time can be reduced by
assembling a library of reusable software modules.
• It’s a true multi-master bus including collision detection
and arbitration to prevent data corruption if two or more
masters simultaneously initiate data transfer
In addition to these advantages, the CMOS ICs in the
I2C-bus compatible range offer designers special features
which are particularly attractive for portable equipment and
battery-backed systems.
• Serial, 8-bit oriented, bi-directional data transfers can be
made at up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to
400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the
High-speed mode
They all have:
• Extremely low current consumption
• High noise immunity
• On-chip filtering rejects spikes on the bus data line to
preserve data integrity
• Wide supply voltage range
• Wide operating temperature range.
4
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
SDA
SCL
MICROCONTROLLER
PCB83C528
PLL
SYNTHESIZER
TSA5512
NON-VOLATILE
MEMORY
PCF8582E
M/S COLOUR
DECODER
TDA9160A
STEREO / DUAL
SOUND
DECODER
SDA
TDA9840
PICTURE
SIGNAL
IMPROVEMENT
SCL
DTMF
GENERATOR
TDA4670
PCD3311
LINE
INTERFACE
HI-FI
AUDIO
PROCESSOR
TDA9860
PCA1070
VIDEO
PROCESSOR
ADPCM
TDA4685
PCD5032
BURST MODE
CONTROLLER
SINGLE-CHIP
TEXT
SAA52XX
PCD5042
ON-SCREEN
DISPLAY
MICROCONTROLLER
PCA8510
P80CLXXX
MSB575
(a)
(b)
Fig.1 Two examples of I2C-bus applications: (a) a high performance highly-integrated TV set
(b) DECT cordless phone base-station.
5
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
2.2
• A system that performs a control function doesn’t
require high-speed data transfer
Manufacturer benefits
I2C-bus compatible ICs don’t only assist designers, they
also give a wide range of benefits to equipment
manufacturers because:
• Overall efficiency depends on the devices chosen and
the nature of the interconnecting bus structure.
• The simple 2-wire serial I2C-bus minimizes
interconnections so ICs have fewer pins and there are
not so many PCB tracks; result - smaller and less
expensive PCBs
To produce a system to satisfy these criteria, a serial bus
structure is needed. Although serial buses don’t have the
throughput capability of parallel buses, they do require
less wiring and fewer IC connecting pins. However, a bus
is not merely an interconnecting wire, it embodies all the
formats and procedures for communication within the
system.
• The completely integrated I2C-bus protocol eliminates
the need for address decoders and other ‘glue logic’
• The multi-master capability of the I2C-bus allows rapid
testing and alignment of end-user equipment via
external connections to an assembly-line
Devices communicating with each other on a serial bus
must have some form of protocol which avoids all
possibilities of confusion, data loss and blockage of
information. Fast devices must be able to communicate
with slow devices. The system must not be dependent on
the devices connected to it, otherwise modifications or
improvements would be impossible. A procedure has also
to be devised to decide which device will be in control of
the bus and when. And, if different devices with different
clock speeds are connected to the bus, the bus clock
source must be defined. All these criteria are involved in
the specification of the I2C-bus.
• The availability of I2C-bus compatible ICs in SO (small
outline), VSO (very small outline) as well as DIL
packages reduces space requirements even more.
These are just some of the benefits. In addition, I2C-bus
compatible ICs increase system design flexibility by
allowing simple construction of equipment variants and
easy upgrading to keep designs up-to-date. In this way, an
entire family of equipment can be developed around a
basic model. Upgrades for new equipment, or
enhanced-feature models (i.e. extended memory, remote
control, etc.) can then be produced simply by clipping the
appropriate ICs onto the bus. If a larger ROM is needed,
it’s simply a matter of selecting a micro-controller with a
larger ROM from our comprehensive range. As new ICs
supersede older ones, it’s easy to add new features to
equipment or to increase its performance by simply
unclipping the outdated IC from the bus and clipping on its
successor.
3
4
THE I2C-BUS CONCEPT
The I2C-bus supports any IC fabrication process (NMOS,
CMOS, bipolar). Two wires, serial data (SDA) and serial
clock (SCL), carry information between the devices
connected to the bus. Each device is recognized by a
unique address (whether it’s a microcontroller, LCD driver,
memory or keyboard interface) and can operate as either
a transmitter or receiver, depending on the function of the
device. Obviously an LCD driver is only a receiver,
whereas a memory can both receive and transmit data. In
addition to transmitters and receivers, devices can also be
considered as masters or slaves when performing data
transfers (see Table 1). A master is the device which
initiates a data transfer on the bus and generates the clock
signals to permit that transfer. At that time, any device
addressed is considered a slave.
INTRODUCTION TO THE I2C-BUS SPECIFICATION
For 8-bit oriented digital control applications, such as those
requiring microcontrollers, certain design criteria can be
established:
• A complete system usually consists of at least one
microcontroller and other peripheral devices such as
memories and I/O expanders
• The cost of connecting the various devices within the
system must be minimized
6
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 1
1) Suppose microcontroller A wants to send information to
microcontroller B:
Definition of I2C-bus terminology
TERM
DESCRIPTION
Transmitter
The device which sends data to the
bus
Receiver
The device which receives data from
the bus
Master
The device which initiates a transfer,
generates clock signals and
terminates a transfer
Slave
The device addressed by a master
Multi-master
More than one master can attempt to
control the bus at the same time
without corrupting the message
Arbitration
Procedure to ensure that, if more
than one master simultaneously tries
to control the bus, only one is allowed
to do so and the winning message is
not corrupted
Synchronization
• microcontroller A (master), addresses microcontroller B
(slave)
• microcontroller A (master-transmitter), sends data to
microcontroller B (slave- receiver)
• microcontroller A terminates the transfer
2) If microcontroller A wants to receive information from
microcontroller B:
• microcontroller A (master) addresses microcontroller B
(slave)
• microcontroller A (master- receiver) receives data from
microcontroller B (slave- transmitter)
• microcontroller A terminates the transfer.
Even in this case, the master (microcontroller A) generates
the timing and terminates the transfer.
The possibility of connecting more than one
microcontroller to the I2C-bus means that more than one
master could try to initiate a data transfer at the same time.
To avoid the chaos that might ensue from such an event an arbitration procedure has been developed. This
procedure relies on the wired-AND connection of all I2C
interfaces to the I2C-bus.
Procedure to synchronize the clock
signals of two or more devices
The I2C-bus is a multi-master bus. This means that more
than one device capable of controlling the bus can be
connected to it. As masters are usually micro-controllers,
let’s consider the case of a data transfer between two
microcontrollers connected to the I2C-bus (see Fig.2).
If two or more masters try to put information onto the bus,
the first to produce a ‘one’ when the other produces a
‘zero’ will lose the arbitration. The clock signals during
arbitration are a synchronized combination of the clocks
generated by the masters using the wired-AND connection
to the SCL line (for more detailed information concerning
arbitration see Section 8).
This highlights the master-slave and receiver-transmitter
relationships to be found on the I2C-bus. It should be noted
that these relationships are not permanent, but only
depend on the direction of data transfer at that time. The
transfer of data would proceed as follows:
LCD
DRIVER
MICRO CONTROLLER
A
STATIC
RAM OR
EEPROM
SDA
SCL
GATE
ARRAY
MICRO CONTROLLER
B
ADC
MBC645
Fig.2 Example of an I2C-bus configuration using two microcontrollers.
7
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Generation of clock signals on the I2C-bus is always the
responsibility of master devices; each master generates its
own clock signals when transferring data on the bus. Bus
clock signals from a master can only be altered when they
are stretched by a slow-slave device holding-down the
clock line, or by another master when arbitration occurs.
5
6
BIT TRANSFER
Due to the variety of different technology devices (CMOS,
NMOS, bipolar) which can be connected to the I2C-bus,
the levels of the logical ‘0’ (LOW) and ‘1’ (HIGH) are not
fixed and depend on the associated level of VDD (see
Section 15 for electrical specifications). One clock pulse is
generated for each data bit transferred.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
6.1
Both SDA and SCL are bi-directional lines, connected to a
positive supply voltage via a current-source or pull-up
resistor (see Fig.3). When the bus is free, both lines are
HIGH. The output stages of devices connected to the bus
must have an open-drain or open-collector to perform the
wired-AND function. Data on the I2C-bus can be
transferred at rates of up to 100 kbit/s in the
Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, or up to
3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. The number of
interfaces connected to the bus is solely dependent on the
bus capacitance limit of 400 pF. For information on
High-speed mode master devices, see Section 13.
Data validity
The data on the SDA line must be stable during the HIGH
period of the clock. The HIGH or LOW state of the data line
can only change when the clock signal on the SCL line is
LOW (see Fig.4).
VDD
pull-up
resistors
Rp
Rp
SDA (Serial Data Line)
SCL (Serial Clock Line)
SCLK
SCLK
SCLKN1
OUT
DATAN1
OUT
SCLKN2
OUT
DATAN2
OUT
SCLK
IN
DATA
IN
SCLK
IN
DATA
IN
DEVICE 1
DEVICE 2
MBC631
Fig.3 Connection of Standard- and Fast-mode devices to the I2C-bus.
8
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
SDA
SCL
data line
stable;
data valid
change
of data
allowed
MBC621
Fig.4 Bit transfer on the I2C-bus.
6.2
START and STOP conditions
The bus stays busy if a repeated START (Sr) is generated
instead of a STOP condition. In this respect, the START
(S) and repeated START (Sr) conditions are functionally
identical (see Fig. 10). For the remainder of this document,
therefore, the S symbol will be used as a generic term to
represent both the START and repeated START
conditions, unless Sr is particularly relevant.
Within the procedure of the I2C-bus, unique situations
arise which are defined as START (S) and STOP (P)
conditions (see Fig.5).
A HIGH to LOW transition on the SDA line while SCL is
HIGH is one such unique case. This situation indicates a
START condition.
Detection of START and STOP conditions by devices
connected to the bus is easy if they incorporate the
necessary interfacing hardware. However,
microcontrollers with no such interface have to sample the
SDA line at least twice per clock period to sense the
transition.
A LOW to HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL is
HIGH defines a STOP condition.
START and STOP conditions are always generated by the
master. The bus is considered to be busy after the START
condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain
time after the STOP condition. This bus free situation is
specified in Section 15.
handbook, full pagewidth
SDA
SDA
SCL
SCL
S
P
START condition
STOP condition
Fig.5 START and STOP conditions.
9
MBC622
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
7
7.1
during the HIGH period of this clock pulse (see Fig.7). Of
course, set-up and hold times (specified in Section 15)
must also be taken into account.
TRANSFERRING DATA
Byte format
Every byte put on the SDA line must be 8-bits long. The
number of bytes that can be transmitted per transfer is
unrestricted. Each byte has to be followed by an
acknowledge bit. Data is transferred with the most
significant bit (MSB) first (see Fig.6). If a slave can’t
receive or transmit another complete byte of data until it
has performed some other function, for example servicing
an internal interrupt, it can hold the clock line SCL LOW to
force the master into a wait state. Data transfer then
continues when the slave is ready for another byte of data
and releases clock line SCL.
Usually, a receiver which has been addressed is obliged to
generate an acknowledge after each byte has been
received, except when the message starts with a CBUS
address (see Section 10.1.3).
When a slave doesn’t acknowledge the slave address (for
example, it’s unable to receive or transmit because it’s
performing some real-time function), the data line must be
left HIGH by the slave. The master can then generate
either a STOP condition to abort the transfer, or a repeated
START condition to start a new transfer.
If a slave-receiver does acknowledge the slave address
but, some time later in the transfer cannot receive any
more data bytes, the master must again abort the transfer.
This is indicated by the slave generating the
not-acknowledge on the first byte to follow. The slave
leaves the data line HIGH and the master generates a
STOP or a repeated START condition.
In some cases, it’s permitted to use a different format from
the I2C-bus format (for CBUS compatible devices for
example). A message which starts with such an address
can be terminated by generation of a STOP condition,
even during the transmission of a byte. In this case, no
acknowledge is generated (see Section 10.1.3).
7.2
Acknowledge
If a master-receiver is involved in a transfer, it must signal
the end of data to the slave- transmitter by not generating
an acknowledge on the last byte that was clocked out of
the slave. The slave-transmitter must release the data line
to allow the master to generate a STOP or repeated
START condition.
Data transfer with acknowledge is obligatory. The
acknowledge-related clock pulse is generated by the
master. The transmitter releases the SDA line (HIGH)
during the acknowledge clock pulse.
The receiver must pull down the SDA line during the
acknowledge clock pulse so that it remains stable LOW
handbook, full pagewidth
P
SDA
acknowledgement
signal from slave
MSB
acknowledgement
signal from receiver
Sr
byte complete,
interrupt within slave
clock line held low while
interrupts are serviced
SCL
S
or
Sr
1
2
7
8
9
1
ACK
START or
repeated START
condition
2
3-8
9
ACK
Sr
or
P
STOP or
repeated START
condition
MSC608
Fig.6 Data transfer on the I2C-bus.
10
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
DATA OUTPUT
BY TRANSMITTER
not acknowledge
DATA OUTPUT
BY RECEIVER
acknowledge
SCL FROM
MASTER
1
2
8
9
S
clock pulse for
acknowledgement
START
condition
MBC602
Fig.7 Acknowledge on the I2C-bus.
8
8.1
that a HIGH to LOW transition on the SCL line will cause
the devices concerned to start counting off their LOW
period and, once a device clock has gone LOW, it will hold
the SCL line in that state until the clock HIGH state is
reached (see Fig.8). However, the LOW to HIGH transition
of this clock may not change the state of the SCL line if
another clock is still within its LOW period. The SCL line
will therefore be held LOW by the device with the longest
LOW period. Devices with shorter LOW periods enter a
HIGH wait-state during this time.
ARBITRATION AND CLOCK GENERATION
Synchronization
All masters generate their own clock on the SCL line to
transfer messages on the I2C-bus. Data is only valid during
the HIGH period of the clock. A defined clock is therefore
needed for the bit-by-bit arbitration procedure to take
place.
Clock synchronization is performed using the wired-AND
connection of I2C interfaces to the SCL line. This means
wait
state
start counting
HIGH period
CLK
1
CLK
2
counter
reset
SCL
MBC632
Fig.8 Clock synchronization during the arbitration procedure.
11
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
When all devices concerned have counted off their LOW
period, the clock line will be released and go HIGH. There
will then be no difference between the device clocks and
the state of the SCL line, and all the devices will start
counting their HIGH periods. The first device to complete
its HIGH period will again pull the SCL line LOW.
to address the same device, arbitration continues with
comparison of the data-bits if they are master-transmitter,
or acknowledge-bits if they are master-receiver. Because
address and data information on the I2C-bus is determined
by the winning master, no information is lost during the
arbitration process.
In this way, a synchronized SCL clock is generated with its
LOW period determined by the device with the longest
clock LOW period, and its HIGH period determined by the
one with the shortest clock HIGH period.
A master that loses the arbitration can generate clock
pulses until the end of the byte in which it loses the
arbitration.
8.2
As an Hs-mode master has a unique 8-bit master code, it
will always finish the arbitration during the first byte (see
Section 13).
Arbitration
A master may start a transfer only if the bus is free. Two or
more masters may generate a START condition within the
minimum hold time (tHD;STA) of the START condition which
results in a defined START condition to the bus.
If a master also incorporates a slave function and it loses
arbitration during the addressing stage, it’s possible that
the winning master is trying to address it. The losing
master must therefore switch over immediately to its slave
mode.
Arbitration takes place on the SDA line, while the SCL line
is at the HIGH level, in such a way that the master which
transmits a HIGH level, while another master is
transmitting a LOW level will switch off its DATA output
stage because the level on the bus doesn’t correspond to
its own level.
Figure 9 shows the arbitration procedure for two masters.
Of course, more may be involved (depending on how
many masters are connected to the bus). The moment
there is a difference between the internal data level of the
master generating DATA 1 and the actual level on the SDA
line, its data output is switched off, which means that a
HIGH output level is then connected to the bus. This will
not affect the data transfer initiated by the winning master.
Arbitration can continue for many bits. Its first stage is
comparison of the address bits (addressing information is
given in Sections 10 and 14). If the masters are each trying
master 1 loses arbitration
DATA 1 SDA
handbook, full pagewidth
DATA
1
DATA
2
SDA
SCL
S
MSC609
Fig.9 Arbitration procedure of two masters.
12
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Since control of the I2C-bus is decided solely on the
address or master code and data sent by competing
masters, there is no central master, nor any order of
priority on the bus.
then hold the SCL line LOW after reception and
acknowledgment of a byte to force the master into a wait
state until the slave is ready for the next byte transfer in a
type of handshake procedure (see Fig.6).
Special attention must be paid if, during a serial transfer,
the arbitration procedure is still in progress at the moment
when a repeated START condition or a STOP condition is
transmitted to the I2C-bus. If it’s possible for such a
situation to occur, the masters involved must send this
repeated START condition or STOP condition at the same
position in the format frame. In other words, arbitration isn’t
allowed between:
On the bit level, a device such as a microcontroller with or
without limited hardware for the I2C-bus, can slow down
the bus clock by extending each clock LOW period. The
speed of any master is thereby adapted to the internal
operating rate of this device.
In Hs-mode, this handshake feature can only be used on
byte level (see Section 13).
• A repeated START condition and a data bit
• A STOP condition and a data bit
9
• A repeated START condition and a STOP condition.
Data transfers follow the format shown in Fig.10. After the
START condition (S), a slave address is sent. This
address is 7 bits long followed by an eighth bit which is a
data direction bit (R/W) - a ‘zero’ indicates a transmission
(WRITE), a ‘one’ indicates a request for data (READ). A
data transfer is always terminated by a STOP condition (P)
generated by the master. However, if a master still wishes
to communicate on the bus, it can generate a repeated
START condition (Sr) and address another slave without
first generating a STOP condition. Various combinations of
read/write formats are then possible within such a transfer.
Slaves are not involved in the arbitration procedure.
8.3
Use of the clock synchronizing mechanism as
a handshake
In addition to being used during the arbitration procedure,
the clock synchronization mechanism can be used to
enable receivers to cope with fast data transfers, on either
a byte level or a bit level.
FORMATS WITH 7-BIT ADDRESSES
On the byte level, a device may be able to receive bytes of
data at a fast rate, but needs more time to store a received
byte or prepare another byte to be transmitted. Slaves can
handbook, full pagewidth
SDA
SCL
1–7
8
9
1–7
8
9
1–7
8
9
P
S
START
condition
ADDRESS
R/W
ACK
DATA
ACK
DATA
ACK
STOP
condition
MBC604
Fig.10 A complete data transfer.
13
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Possible data transfer formats are:
NOTES:
• Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver. The
transfer direction is not changed (see Fig.11).
1. Combined formats can be used, for example, to
control a serial memory. During the first data byte, the
internal memory location has to be written. After the
START condition and slave address is repeated, data
can be transferred.
• Master reads slave immediately after first byte (see
Fig.12). At the moment of the first acknowledge, the
master- transmitter becomes a master- receiver and the
slave-receiver becomes a slave-transmitter. This first
acknowledge is still generated by the slave. The STOP
condition is generated by the master, which has
previously sent a not-acknowledge (A).
2. All decisions on auto-increment or decrement of
previously accessed memory locations etc. are taken
by the designer of the device.
3. Each byte is followed by an acknowledgment bit as
indicated by the A or A blocks in the sequence.
• Combined format (see Fig.13). During a change of
direction within a transfer, the START condition and the
slave address are both repeated, but with the R/W bit
reversed. If a master receiver sends a repeated START
condition, it has previously sent a not-acknowledge (A).
4. I2C-bus compatible devices must reset their bus logic
on receipt of a START or repeated START condition
such that they all anticipate the sending of a slave
address, even if these START conditions are not
positioned according to the proper format.
5. A START condition immediately followed by a STOP
condition (void message) is an illegal format.
handbook, full pagewidth
,,,,,,
,,,
,,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
,,
S
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
A
DATA
A
DATA
A/A
P
data transferred
(n bytes + acknowledge)
'0' (write)
from master to slave
A = acknowledge (SDA LOW)
A = not acknowledge (SDA HIGH)
S = START condition
from slave to master
MBC605
P = STOP condition
Fig.11 A master-transmitter addressing a slave receiver with a 7-bit address.
The transfer direction is not changed.
handbook, full pagewidth
,,,,,,
,,
,,
,,,,,, ,,,,
1
S
MBC606
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
A
(read)
DATA
A
DATA
A
P
data transferred
(n bytes + acknowledge)
Fig.12 A master reads a slave immediately after the first byte.
14
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
,,,,,
handbook, full pagewidth
S
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W
A
read or write
,,,,, ,
DATA A/A Sr SLAVE ADDRESS
(n bytes
+ ack.) *
R/W
transfer direction of
data and acknowledge bits
depends on R/W bits.
DATA A/A
P
(n bytes
+ ack.) *
read or write
* not shaded because
A
Sr = repeated START condition
direction
of transfer
may change
at this point.
MBC607
Fig.13 Combined format.
10 7-BIT ADDRESSING
The addressing procedure for the I2C-bus is such that the
first byte after the START condition usually determines
which slave will be selected by the master. The exception
is the ‘general call’ address which can address all devices.
When this address is used, all devices should, in theory,
respond with an acknowledge. However, devices can be
made to ignore this address. The second byte of the
general call address then defines the action to be taken.
This procedure is explained in more detail in
Section 10.1.1. For information on 10-bit addressing, see
Section 14
10.1
MSB
handbook, halfpage
LSB
R/W
slave address
MBC608
Fig.14 The first byte after the START procedure.
A slave address can be made-up of a fixed and a
programmable part. Since it’s likely that there will be
several identical devices in a system, the programmable
part of the slave address enables the maximum possible
number of such devices to be connected to the I2C-bus.
The number of programmable address bits of a device
depends on the number of pins available. For example, if
a device has 4 fixed and 3 programmable address bits, a
total of 8 identical devices can be connected to the same
bus.
Definition of bits in the first byte
The first seven bits of the first byte make up the slave
address (see Fig.14). The eighth bit is the LSB (least
significant bit). It determines the direction of the message.
A ‘zero’ in the least significant position of the first byte
means that the master will write information to a selected
slave. A ‘one’ in this position means that the master will
read information from the slave.
When an address is sent, each device in a system
compares the first seven bits after the START condition
with its address. If they match, the device considers itself
addressed by the master as a slave-receiver or
slave-transmitter, depending on the R/W bit.
The I2C-bus committee coordinates allocation of I2C
addresses. Further information can be obtained from the
Philips representatives listed on the back cover. Two
groups of eight addresses (0000XXX and 1111XXX) are
reserved for the purposes shown in Table 2. The bit
combination 11110XX of the slave address is reserved for
10-bit addressing (see Section 14).
15
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 2
Definition of bits in the first byte
SLAVE
R/W BIT
ADDRESS
LSB
DESCRIPTION
0
0000 000
0
General call address
0000 000
1
START byte(1)
0000 001
X
CBUS address(2)
0000 010
X
Reserved for different bus
format(3)
0000 011
X
Reserved for future purposes
0000 1XX
X
Hs-mode master code
1111 1XX
X
Reserved for future purposes
1111 0XX
X
10-bit slave addressing
0
0
0
0
0
A X X X X X X X B
A
second byte
MBC623
Fig.15 General call address format.
When bit B is a ‘zero’; the second byte has the following
definition:
• 00000110 (H‘06’). Reset and write programmable part
of slave address by hardware. On receiving this 2-byte
sequence, all devices designed to respond to the
general call address will reset and take in the
programmable part of their address. Pre-cautions have
to be taken to ensure that a device is not pulling down
the SDA or SCL line after applying the supply voltage,
since these low levels would block the bus.
No device is allowed to acknowledge at the reception
of the START byte.
2. The CBUS address has been reserved to enable the
inter-mixing of CBUS compatible and I2C-bus
compatible devices in the same system. I2C-bus
compatible devices are not allowed to respond on
reception of this address.
• 00000100 (H‘04’). Write programmable part of slave
address by hardware. All devices which define the
programmable part of their address by hardware (and
which respond to the general call address) will latch this
programmable part at the reception of this two byte
sequence. The device will not reset.
3. The address reserved for a different bus format is
included to enable I2C and other protocols to be mixed.
Only I2C-bus compatible devices that can work with
such formats and protocols are allowed to respond to
this address.
10.1.1
0
first byte
(general call address)
Notes
1.
0
• 00000000 (H‘00’). This code is not allowed to be used as
the second byte.
GENERAL CALL ADDRESS
Sequences of programming procedure are published in
the appropriate device data sheets.
The general call address is for addressing every device
connected to the I2C-bus. However, if a device doesn’t
need any of the data supplied within the general call
structure, it can ignore this address by not issuing an
acknowledgment. If a device does require data from a
general call address, it will acknowledge this address and
behave as a slave- receiver. The second and following
bytes will be acknowledged by every slave- receiver
capable of handling this data. A slave which cannot
process one of these bytes must ignore it by
not-acknowledging. The meaning of the general call
address is always specified in the second byte (see
Fig.15).
The remaining codes have not been fixed and devices
must ignore them.
When bit B is a ‘one’; the 2-byte sequence is a ‘hardware
general call’. This means that the sequence is transmitted
by a hardware master device, such as a keyboard
scanner, which cannot be programmed to transmit a
desired slave address. Since a hardware master doesn’t
know in advance to which device the message has to be
transferred, it can only generate this hardware general call
and its own address - identifying itself to the system (see
Fig.16).
There are two cases to consider:
The seven bits remaining in the second byte contain the
address of the hardware master. This address is
recognized by an intelligent device (e.g. a microcontroller)
connected to the bus which will then direct the information
from the hardware master. If the hardware master can also
act as a slave, the slave address is identical to the master
address.
• When the least significant bit B is a ‘zero’.
• When the least significant bit B is a ‘one’.
16
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
,,,,,,,,,,,,
handbook, full pagewidth
S
00000000 A MASTER ADDRESS
1
A DATA A DATA A
P
(B)
general
call address
second
byte
(n bytes + ack.)
MBC624
Fig.16 Data transfer from a hardware master-transmitter.
an interface, it must constantly monitor the bus via
software. Obviously, the more times the microcontroller
monitors, or polls the bus, the less time it can spend
carrying out its intended function.
In some systems, an alternative could be that the
hardware master transmitter is set in the slave-receiver
mode after the system reset. In this way, a system
configuring master can tell the hardware mastertransmitter (which is now in slave-receiver mode) to which
address data must be sent (see Fig.17). After this
programming procedure, the hardware master remains in
the master-transmitter mode.
10.1.2
There is therefore a speed difference between fast
hardware devices and a relatively slow microcontroller
which relies on software polling.
In this case, data transfer can be preceded by a start
procedure which is much longer than normal (see Fig.18).
The start procedure consists of:
START BYTE
Microcontrollers can be connected to the I2C-bus in two
ways. A microcontroller with an on-chip hardware I2C-bus
interface can be programmed to be only interrupted by
requests from the bus. When the device doesn’t have such
• A START condition (S)
• A START byte (00000001)
• An acknowledge clock pulse (ACK)
• A repeated START condition (Sr).
handbook, full pagewidth
,,,,,,
,,,,,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,
,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,
S
SLAVE ADDR. H/W MASTER R/W A
DUMP ADDR. FOR H/W MASTER X A
P
write
(a)
S
DUMP ADDR. FROM H/W MASTER R/W A DATA A DATA A/A
P
MBC609
write
(n bytes + ack.)
(b)
Fig.17 Data transfer by a hardware-transmitter capable of dumping data directly to slave devices.
(a) Configuring master sends dump address to hardware master
(b) Hardware master dumps data to selected slave.
17
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
dummy
acknowledge
(HIGH)
SDA
1
SCL
2
7
8
9
ACK
S
start byte 00000001
Sr
MBC633
Fig.18 START byte procedure.
10.1.3
After the START condition S has been transmitted by a
master which requires bus access, the START byte
(00000001) is transmitted. Another microcontroller can
therefore sample the SDA line at a low sampling rate until
one of the seven zeros in the START byte is detected.
After detection of this LOW level on the SDA line, the
microcontroller can switch to a higher sampling rate to find
the repeated START condition Sr which is then used for
synchronization.
CBUS COMPATIBILITY
CBUS receivers can be connected to the Standard-mode
I2C-bus. However, a third bus line called DLEN must then
be connected and the acknowledge bit omitted. Normally,
I2C transmissions are sequences of 8-bit bytes; CBUS
compatible devices have different formats.
In a mixed bus structure, I2C-bus devices must not
respond to the CBUS message. For this reason, a special
CBUS address (0000001X) to which no I2C-bus
compatible device will respond, has been reserved. After
transmission of the CBUS address, the DLEN line can be
made active and a CBUS-format transmission sent (see
Fig.19). After the STOP condition, all devices are again
ready to accept data.
A hardware receiver will reset on receipt of the repeated
START condition Sr and will therefore ignore the START
byte.
An acknowledge-related clock pulse is generated after the
START byte. This is present only to conform with the byte
handling format used on the bus. No device is allowed to
acknowledge the START byte.
Master-transmitters can send CBUS formats after sending
the CBUS address. The transmission is ended by a STOP
condition, recognized by all devices.
NOTE: If the CBUS configuration is known, and expansion
with CBUS compatible devices isn’t foreseen, the designer
is allowed to adapt the hold time to the specific
requirements of the device(s) used.
18
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
SDA
SCL
DLEN
S
START
condition
P
CBUS
address
R/W
bit
ACK
related
clock pulse
n - data bits
CBUS
load pulse
STOP
condition
MBC634
Fig.19 Data format of transmissions with CBUS transmitter/receiver.
apparent that more address combinations were required
to prevent problems with the allocation of slave
addresses for new devices. This problem was resolved
with the new 10-bit addressing scheme, which allowed
about a tenfold increase in available addresses.
11 EXTENSIONS TO THE STANDARD-MODE I2C-BUS
SPECIFICATION
The Standard-mode I2C-bus specification, with its data
transfer rate of up to 100 kbit/s and 7-bit addressing, has
been in existence since the beginning of the 1980’s. This
concept rapidly grew in popularity and is today accepted
worldwide as a de facto standard with several hundred
different compatible ICs on offer from Philips
Semiconductors and other suppliers. To meet the
demands for higher speeds, as well as make available
more slave address for the growing number of new
devices, the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification was
upgraded over the years and today is available with the
following extensions:
New slave devices with a Fast- or Hs-mode I2C-bus
interface can have a 7- or a 10-bit slave address. If
possible, a 7-bit address is preferred as it is the cheapest
hardware solution and results in the shortest message
length. Devices with 7- and 10-bit addresses can be mixed
in the same I2C-bus system regardless of whether it is an
F/S- or Hs-mode system. Both existing and future masters
can generate either 7- or 10-bit addresses.
• Fast-mode, with a bit rate up to 400 kbit/s.
12 FAST-MODE
• High-speed mode (Hs-mode), with a bit rate up to
3.4 Mbit/s.
With the Fast-mode I2C-bus specification, the protocol,
format, logic levels and maximum capacitive load for the
SDA and SCL lines quoted in the Standard-mode I2C-bus
specification are unchanged. New devices with an I2C-bus
interface must meet at least the minimum requirements of
the Fast- or Hs-mode specification (see Section 13).
• 10-bit addressing, which allows the use of up to 1024
additional slave addresses.
There are two main reasons for extending the regular
I2C-bus specification:
Fast-mode devices can receive and transmit at up to
400 kbit/s. The minimum requirement is that they can
synchronize with a 400 kbit/s transfer; they can then
prolong the LOW period of the SCL signal to slow down the
transfer. Fast-mode devices are downward-compatible
and can communicate with Standard-mode devices in a
0 to 100 kbit/s I2C-bus system. As Standard-mode
devices, however, are not upward compatible, they should
not be incorporated in a Fast-mode I2C-bus system as
they cannot follow the higher transfer rate and
unpredictable states would occur.
• Many of today’s applications need to transfer large
amounts of serial data and require bit rates far in excess
of 100 kbit/s (Standard-mode), or even 400 kbit/s
(Fast-mode). As a result of continuing improvements in
semiconductor technologies, I2C-bus devices are now
available with bit rates of up to 3.4 Mbit/s (Hs-mode)
without any noticeable increases in the manufacturing
cost of the interface circuitry.
• As most of the 112 addresses available with the 7-bit
addressing scheme were soon allocated, it became
19
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
The Fast-mode I2C-bus specification has the following
additional features compared with the Standard-mode:
current-source of one master is enabled at any one time,
and only during Hs-mode.
• No arbitration or clock synchronization is performed
during Hs-mode transfer in multi-master systems, which
speeds-up bit handling capabilities. The arbitration
procedure always finishes after a preceding master
code transmission in F/S-mode.
• The maximum bit rate is increased to 400 kbit/s.
• Timing of the serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL)
signals has been adapted. There is no need for
compatibility with other bus systems such as CBUS
because they cannot operate at the increased bit rate.
• Hs-mode master devices generate a serial clock signal
with a HIGH to LOW ratio of 1 to 2. This relieves the
timing requirements for set-up and hold times.
• The inputs of Fast-mode devices incorporate spike
suppression and a Schmitt trigger at the SDA and SCL
inputs.
• As an option, Hs-mode master devices can have a
built-in bridge(1). During Hs-mode transfer, the high
speed data (SDAH) and high-speed serial clock (SCLH)
lines of Hs-mode devices are separated by this bridge
from the SDA and SCL lines of F/S-mode devices. This
reduces the capacitive load of the SDAH and SCLH
lines resulting in faster rise and fall times.
• The output buffers of Fast-mode devices incorporate
slope control of the falling edges of the SDA and SCL
signals.
• If the power supply to a Fast-mode device is switched
off, the SDA and SCL I/O pins must be floating so that
they don’t obstruct the bus lines.
• The external pull-up devices connected to the bus lines
must be adapted to accommodate the shorter maximum
permissible rise time for the Fast-mode I2C-bus. For bus
loads up to 200 pF, the pull-up device for each bus line
can be a resistor; for bus loads between 200 pF and
400 pF, the pull-up device can be a current source
(3 mA max.) or a switched resistor circuit (see Fig.43).
• The only difference between Hs-mode slave devices
and F/S-mode slave devices is the speed at which they
operate. Hs-mode slaves have open-drain output buffers
on the SCLH and SDAH outputs. Optional pull-down
transistors on the SCLH pin can be used to stretch the
LOW level of the SCLH signal, although this is only
allowed after the acknowledge bit in Hs-mode transfers.
13 Hs-MODE
• The inputs of Hs-mode devices incorporate spike
suppression and a Schmitt trigger at the SDAH and
SCLH inputs.
High-speed mode (Hs-mode) devices offer a quantum
leap in I2C-bus transfer speeds. Hs-mode devices can
transfer information at bit rates of up to 3.4 Mbit/s, yet they
remain fully downward compatible with Fast- or
Standard-mode (F/S-mode) devices for bi-directional
communication in a mixed-speed bus system. With the
exception that arbitration and clock synchronization is not
performed during the Hs-mode transfer, the same serial
bus protocol and data format is maintained as with the
F/S-mode system. Depending on the application, new
devices may have a Fast or Hs-mode I2C-bus interface,
although Hs-mode devices are preferred as they can be
designed-in to a greater number of applications.
13.1
• The output buffers of Hs-mode devices incorporate
slope control of the falling edges of the SDAH and SCLH
signals.
Figure 20 shows the physical I2C-bus configuration in a
system with only Hs-mode devices. Pins SDA and SCL on
the master devices are only used in mixed-speed bus
systems and are not connected in an Hs-mode only
system. In such cases, these pins can be used for other
functions.
Optional series resistors Rs protect the I/O stages of the
I2C-bus devices from high-voltage spikes on the bus lines
and minimize ringing and interference.
High speed transfer
Pull-up resistors Rp maintain the SDAH and SCLH lines at
a HIGH level when the bus is free and ensure the signals
are pulled up from a LOW to a HIGH level within the
required rise time. For higher capacitive bus-line loads
(>100 pF), the resistor Rp can be replaced by external
current source pull-ups to meet the rise time requirements.
Unless proceeded by an acknowledge bit, the rise time of
the SCLH clock pulses in Hs-mode transfers is shortened
by the internal current-source pull-up circuit MCS of the
active master.
To achieve a bit transfer of up to 3.4 Mbit/s the following
improvements have been made to the regular I2C-bus
specification:
• Hs-mode master devices have an open-drain output
buffer for the SDAH signal and a combination of an
open-drain pull-down and current-source pull-up circuit
on the SCLH output(1). This current-source circuit
shortens the rise time of the SCLH signal. Only the
(1) Patent application pending.
20
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
VDD
handbook, full pagewidth
Rp
Rp
SDAH
SCLH
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
(1)
SDAH
(2)
SCLH
(2)
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
SDA
(1)
SCL
(1)
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
MCS
(4)
(4)
VSS
VSS
SLAVE
VSS
SLAVE
Rs
SDA
(1)
SCL
MCS
(3)
(3)
VDD
VDD
VSS
MASTER/SLAVE
MASTER/SLAVE
MSC612
(1) SDA and SCL are not used here but may be used for other functions.
(2) To input filter.
(3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCLH.
Fig.20 I2C-bus configuration with Hs-mode devices only.
13.2
master code for an Hs-mode master device is software
programmable and is chosen by the System Designer.
Serial data transfer format in Hs-mode
Serial data transfer format in Hs-mode meets the
Standard-mode I2C-bus specification. Hs-mode can only
commence after the following conditions (all of which are
in F/S-mode):
Arbitration and clock synchronization only take place
during the transmission of the master code and
not-acknowledge bit (A), after which one winning master
remains active. The master code indicates to other devices
that an Hs-mode transfer is to begin and the connected
devices must meet the Hs-mode specification. As no
device is allowed to acknowledge the master code, the
master code is followed by a not-acknowledge (A).
1. START condition (S)
2. 8-bit master code (00001XXX)
3. not-acknowledge bit (A)
Figures 21 and 22 show this in more detail. This master
code has two main functions:
After the not-acknowledge bit (A), and the SCLH line has
been pulled-up to a HIGH level, the active master switches
to Hs-mode and enables (at time tH, see Fig.22) the
current-source pull-up circuit for the SCLH signal. As other
devices can delay the serial transfer before tH by stretching
the LOW period of the SCLH signal, the active master will
enable its current-source pull-up circuit when all devices
have released the SCLH line and the SCLH signal has
reached a HIGH level, thus speeding up the last part of the
rise time of the SCLH signal.
• It allows arbitration and synchronization between
competing masters at F/S-mode speeds, resulting in
one winning master.
• It indicates the beginning of an Hs-mode transfer.
Hs-mode master codes are reserved 8-bit codes, which
are not used for slave addressing or other purposes.
Furthermore, as each master has its own unique master
code, up to eight Hs-mode masters can be present on the
one I2C-bus system (although master code 0000 1000
should be reserved for test and diagnostic purposes). The
The active master then sends a repeated START condition
(Sr) followed by a 7-bit slave address (or 10-bit slave
21
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
when all devices have released and the SCLH signal
reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of
the SCLH signal’s rise time.
address, see Section 14) with a R/W bit address, and
receives an acknowledge bit (A) from the selected slave.
After a repeated START condition and after each
acknowledge bit (A) or not-acknowledge bit (A), the active
master disables its current-source pull-up circuit. This
enables other devices to delay the serial transfer by
stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The active
master re-enables its current-source pull-up circuit again
Data transfer continues in Hs-mode after the next
repeated START (Sr), and only switches back to
F/S-mode after a STOP condition (P). To reduce the
overhead of the master code, it’s possible that a master
links a number of Hs-mode transfers, separated by
repeated START conditions (Sr).
,,,,,
,,,,,
,,,,,,,,,,
handbook, full pagewidth
Hs-mode (current-source for SCLH enabled)
F/S-mode
S
MASTER CODE
A
Sr
SLAVE ADD. R/W
A
DATA
,,
,,
,,,,
,,,,
F/S-mode
A/A P
(n bytes + ack.)
Hs-mode continues
Sr SLAVE ADD.
MSC616
Fig.21 Data transfer format in Hs-mode.
handbook, full pagewidth
8-bit Master code 00001xxx
S
A
t1
tH
SDAH
SCLH
1
6
2 to 5
7
8
9
F/S mode
R/W
7-bit SLA
Sr
n × (8-bit DATA
A
+
A/A)
Sr P
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
If P then
F/S mode
Hs-mode
If Sr (dotted lines)
then Hs-mode
tH
tFS
= MCS current source pull-up
= Rp resistor pull-up
Fig.22 A complete Hs-mode transfer.
22
MSC618
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
13.3
The non-active, or losing masters:
Switching from F/S- to Hs-mode and back
After reset and initialization, Hs-mode devices must be in
Fast-mode (which is in effect F/S-mode as Fast-mode is
downward compatible with Standard-mode). Each
Hs-mode device can switch from Fast- to Hs-mode and
back and is controlled by the serial transfer on the I2C-bus.
1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to
the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode.
Before time t1 in Fig.22, each connected device operates
in Fast-mode. Between times t1 and tH (this time interval
can be stretched by any device) each connected device
must recognize the “S 00001XXX A” sequence and has to
switch its internal circuit from the Fast-mode setting to the
Hs-mode setting. Between times t1 and tH the connected
master and slave devices perform this switching by the
following actions.
1. Adapt their SDAH and SCLH input filters according to
the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode.
2. Wait for a STOP condition to detect when the bus is
free again.
All slaves:
2. Adapt the set-up and hold times according to the
Hs-mode requirements. This requirement may already
be fulfilled by the adaptation of the input filters.
3. Adapt the slope control of their SDAH output stages, if
necessary. For slave devices, slope control is
applicable for the SDAH output stage only and,
depending on circuit tolerances, both the Fast- and
Hs-mode requirements may be fulfilled without
switching its internal circuit.
The active (winning) master:
1. Adapts its SDAH and SCLH input filters according to
the spike suppression requirement in Hs-mode.
2. Adapts the set-up and hold times according to the
Hs-mode requirements.
At time tFS in Fig.22, each connected device must
recognize the STOP condition (P) and switch its internal
circuit from the Hs-mode setting back to the Fast-mode
setting as present before time t1. This must be completed
within the minimum bus free time as specified in Table 5
according to the Fast-mode specification.
3. Adapts the slope control of its SDAH and SCLH output
stages according to the Hs-mode requirement.
4. Switches to the Hs-mode bit-rate, which is required
after time tH.
5. Enables the current source pull-up circuit of its SCLH
output stage at time tH.
23
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
13.4
F/S-mode and communicate at F/S-mode speeds with
their current-source disabled. The SDAH and SCLH pins
are used to connect to the F/S-mode bus system, allowing
the SDA and SCL pins (if present) on the Hs-mode master
device to be used for other functions.
Hs-mode devices at lower speed modes
Hs-mode devices are fully downwards compatible, and
can be connected to an F/S-mode I2C-bus system (see
Fig.23). As no master code will be transmitted in such a
configuration, all Hs-mode master devices stay in
VDD
handbook, full pagewidth
Rp
Rp
SDA
SCL
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
(1)
SDAH
(2)
SCLH
SDAH
(2)
(2)
SCLH
SDAH
(2)
(4)
(2)
SDA
SCLH
Rs
Rs
SCL
(2)
SDA
(2)
SCL
(2)
SDA
(2)
SCL
(2)
(3)
(4)
Rs
(1)
(4)
VDD
VSS
VSS
Hs-mode
SLAVE
Hs-mode
SLAVE
VSS
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
F/S-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
F/S-mode
SLAVE
MSC613
(1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function.
(2) To input filter.
(3) The current-source pull-up circuit stays disabled.
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL.
Fig.23 Hs-mode devices at F/S-mode speed.
13.5
a high impedance between the drain and source of each
switched on transistor. In the latter case, the transistors will
act as a level shifter as SDAH and SCLH will be pulled-up
to VDD1 and SDA and SCL will be pulled-up to VDD2
Mixed speed modes on one serial bus system
If a system has a combination of Hs-, Fast- and/or
Standard-mode devices, it’s possible, by using an
interconnection bridge, to have different bit rates between
different devices (see Figs 24 and 25).
During F/S-mode speed, a bridge on one of the Hs-mode
masters connects the SDAH and SCLH lines to the
corresponding SDA and SCL lines thus permitting
Hs-mode devices to communicate with F/S-mode devices
at slower speeds. Arbitration and synchronization is
possible during the total F/S-mode transfer between all
connected devices as described in Section 8. During
Hs-mode transfer, however, the bridge opens to separate
the two bus sections and allows Hs-mode devices to
communicate with each other at 3.4 Mbit/s. Arbitration
between Hs-mode devices and F/S-mode devices is only
performed during the master code (00001XXX), and
normally won by one Hs-mode master as no slave address
has four leading zeros. Other masters can win the
arbitration only if they send a reserved 8-bit code
(00000XXX). In such cases, the bridge remains closed and
the transfer proceeds in F/S-mode. Table 3 gives the
possible communication speeds in such a system.
One bridge is required to connect/disconnect an Hs-mode
section to/from an F/S-mode section at the appropriate
time. This bridge includes a level shift function that allows
devices with different supply voltages to be connected. For
example F/S-mode devices with a VDD2 of 5 V can be
connected to Hs-mode devices with a VDD1 of 3 V or less
(i.e. where VDD2 ≥ VDD1), provided SDA and SCL pins are
5 V tolerant. This bridge is incorporated in Hs-mode
master devices and is completely controlled by the serial
signals SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL. Such a bridge can be
implemented in any IC as an autonomous circuit.
TR1, TR2 and TR3 are N-channel transistors. TR1 and
TR2 have a transfer gate function, and TR3 is an opendrain pull-down stage. If TR1 or TR2 are switched on they
transfer a LOW level in both directions, otherwise when
both the drain and source rise to a HIGH level there will be
24
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
VDD2
VDD1
Rp
Rp
Rp
BRIDGE
SDAH
Rs
SDAH
TR1
SDA
SCLH
Rs
SCLH
TR2
SCL
(1)
(1)
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
Rs
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
SDAH
SCLH
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Rs
SDA
VSS
SCL
(2)
(4)
SDA
(2)
(2)
MCS
(4)
VSS
Hs-mode
SLAVE
Hs-mode
SLAVE
Rs
SCL
(2)
Rs
SDA
(2)
Rs
SCL
(2)
MCS
(3)
(4)
(3)
VDD
VSS
Rs
TR3
Rp
VDD
VSS
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
Hs-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
F/S-mode
MASTER/SLAVE
VSS
F/S-mode
SLAVE
MSC614
(1) Bridge not used. SDA and SCL may have an alternative function.
(2) To input filter.
(3) Only the active master can enable its current-source pull-up circuit.
(4) Dotted transistors are optional open-drain outputs which can stretch the serial clock signal SCL or SCLH.
Fig.24 Bus system with transfer at Hs- and F/S-mode speeds.
Table 3
Communication bit-rates in a mixed speed bus system
SERIAL BUS SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
TRANSFER
BETWEEN
Hs + FAST +
STANDARD
Hs + FAST
Hs + STANDARD
FAST +
STANDARD
Hs <–> Hs
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
0 to 3.4 Mbit/s
–
Hs <–> Fast
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 400 kbit/s
–
–
Hs <–> Standard
0 to 100 kbit/s
–
0 to 100 kbit/s
–
Fast <–> Standard
0 to 100 kbit/s
–
–
0 to 100 kbit/s
Fast <–> Fast
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 400 kbit/s
–
0 to 100 kbit/s
Standard <–> Standard
0 to 100 kbit/s
–
0 to 100 kbit/s
0 to 100 kbit/s
13.5.1
13.5.2
F/S-MODE TRANSFER IN A MIXED-SPEED BUS
SYSTEM
HS-MODE TRANSFER IN A MIXED-SPEED BUS
SYSTEM
The bridge shown in Fig.24 interconnects corresponding
serial bus lines, forming one serial bus system. As no
master code (00001XXX) is transmitted, the
current-source pull-up circuits stay disabled and all output
stages are open-drain. All devices, including Hs-mode
devices, communicate with each other according the
protocol, format and speed of the F/S-mode I2C-bus
specification.
Figure 25 shows the timing diagram of a complete
Hs-mode transfer, which is invoked by a START condition,
a master code, and a not-acknowledge A (at F/S-mode
speed). Although this timing diagram is split in two parts, it
should be viewed as one timing diagram were time point tH
is a common point for both parts.
25
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
8-bit Master code 00001xxx
S
A
t1
tH
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
F/S mode
R/W
7-bit SLA
Sr
n × (8-bit DATA
A
+
A/A)
Sr P
SDAH
SCLH
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
1
2 to 5
6
7
8
9
P
SDA
t2
SCL
If P then
F/S mode
Hs-mode
If Sr (dotted lines)
then Hs-mode
tH
tFS
MSC611
= MCS current source pull-up
= Rp resistor pull-up
Fig.25 A complete Hs-mode transfer in a mixed-speed bus system.
2. When both SCLH and SCL become HIGH (tH in
Fig.25), transistor TR2 opens to separate the SCLH
and SCL lines. TR2 must be opened before SCLH
goes LOW after Sr.
The master code is recognized by the bridge in the active
or non-active master (see Fig.24). The bridge performs the
following actions:
1. Between t1 and tH (see Fig.25), transistor TR1 opens
to separate the SDAH and SDA lines, after which
transistor TR3 closes to pull-down the SDA line to VSS.
Hs-mode transfer starts after tH with a repeated START
condition (Sr). During Hs-mode transfer, the SCL line stays
at a HIGH and the SDA line at a LOW steady-state level,
and so is prepared for the transfer of a STOP condition (P).
26
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
seven bits of the first byte following a START (S) or
repeated START (Sr) condition as explained in Section
10.1. The 10-bit addressing does not affect the existing
7-bit addressing. Devices with 7-bit and 10-bit addresses
can be connected to the same I2C-bus, and both 7-bit and
10-bit addressing can be used in F/S-mode and Hs-mode
systems.
After each acknowledge (A) or not-acknowledge bit (A) the
active master disables its current-source pull-up circuit.
This enables other devices to delay the serial transfer by
stretching the LOW period of the SCLH signal. The active
master re-enables its current-source pull-up circuit again
when all devices are released and the SCLH signal
reaches a HIGH level, and so speeds up the last part of the
SCLH signal’s rise time. In irregular situations, F/S-mode
devices can close the bridge (TR1 and TR2 closed, TR3
open) at any time by pulling down the SCL line for at least
1 µs, e.g. to recover from a bus hang-up.
Although there are eight possible combinations of the
reserved address bits 1111XXX, only the four
combinations 11110XX are used for 10-bit addressing.
The remaining four combinations 11111XX are reserved
for future I2C-bus enhancements.
Hs-mode finishes with a STOP condition and brings the
bus system back into the F/S-mode. The active master
disables its current-source MCS when the STOP condition
(P) at SDAH is detected (tFS in Fig.25). The bridge also
recognizes this STOP condition and takes the following
actions:
14.1
The 10-bit slave address is formed from the first two bytes
following a START condition (S) or a repeated START
condition (Sr).
1. Transistor TR2 closes after tFS to connect SCLH with
SCL; both of which are HIGH at this time. Transistor
TR3 opens after tFS, which releases the SDA line and
allows it to be pulled HIGH by the pull-up resister Rp.
This is the STOP condition for the F/S-mode devices.
TR3 must open fast enough to ensure the bus free
time between the STOP condition and the earliest next
START condition is according to the Fast-mode
specification (see tBUF in Table 5).
The first seven bits of the first byte are the combination
11110XX of which the last two bits (XX) are the two
most-significant bits (MSBs) of the 10-bit address; the
eighth bit of the first byte is the R/W bit that determines the
direction of the message. A ‘zero’ in the least significant
position of the first byte means that the master will write
information to a selected slave. A ‘one’ in this position
means that the master will read information from the slave.
If the R/W bit is ‘zero’, then the second byte contains the
remaining 8 bits (XXXXXXXX) of the 10-bit address. If the
R/W bit is ‘one’, then the next byte contains data
transmitted from a slave to a master.
2. When SDA reaches a HIGH (t2 in Fig.25) transistor
TR1 closes to connect SDAH with SDA. (Note:
interconnections are made when all lines are HIGH,
thus preventing spikes on the bus lines). TR1 and TR2
must be closed within the minimum bus free time
according to the Fast-mode specification (see tBUF in
Table 5).
13.5.3
Definition of bits in the first two bytes
14.2
Formats with 10-bit addresses
Various combinations of read/write formats are possible
within a transfer that includes 10-bit addressing. Possible
data transfer formats are:
TIMING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BRIDGE IN A
MIXED-SPEED BUS SYSTEM
• Master-transmitter transmits to slave-receiver with a
10-bit slave address.
The transfer direction is not changed (see Fig.26). When
a 10-bit address follows a START condition, each slave
compares the first seven bits of the first byte of the slave
address (11110XX) with its own address and tests if the
eighth bit (R/W direction bit) is 0. It is possible that more
than one device will find a match and generate an
acknowledge (A1). All slaves that found a match will
compare the eight bits of the second byte of the slave
address (XXXXXXXX) with their own addresses, but
only one slave will find a match and generate an
acknowledge (A2). The matching slave will remain
addressed by the master until it receives a STOP
It can be seen from Fig.25 that the actions of the bridge at
t1, tH and tFS must be so fast that it does not affect the
SDAH and SCLH lines. Furthermore the bridge must meet
the related timing requirements of the Fast-mode
specification for the SDA and SCL lines.
14 10-BIT ADDRESSING
This section describes 10-bit addressing and can be
disregarded if only 7-bit addressing is used.
10-bit addressing is compatible with, and can be combined
with, 7-bit addressing. Using 10 bits for addressing
exploits the reserved combination 1111XXX for the first
27
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
• Combined format. A master transmits data to one slave
and then transmits data to another slave (Fig.29). The
same master occupies the bus all the time.
condition (P) or a repeated START condition (Sr)
followed by a different slave address.
• Master-receiver reads slave- transmitter with a 10-bit
slave address.
The transfer direction is changed after the second R/W
bit (Fig.27). Up to and including acknowledge bit A2, the
procedure is the same as that described for a
master-transmitter addressing a slave-receiver. After
the repeated START condition (Sr), a matching slave
remembers that it was addressed before. This slave
then checks if the first seven bits of the first byte of the
slave address following Sr are the same as they were
after the START condition (S), and tests if the eighth
(R/W) bit is 1. If there is a match, the slave considers that
it has been addressed as a transmitter and generates
acknowledge A3. The slave-transmitter remains
addressed until it receives a STOP condition (P) or until
it receives another repeated START condition (Sr)
followed by a different slave address. After a repeated
START condition (Sr), all the other slave devices will
also compare the first seven bits of the first byte of the
slave address (11110XX) with their own addresses and
test the eighth (R/W) bit. However, none of them will be
addressed because R/W = 1 (for 10-bit devices), or the
11110XX slave address (for 7-bit devices) does not
match.
• Combined format. 10-bit and 7-bit addressing combined
in one serial transfer (Fig.30). After each START
condition (S), or each repeated START condition (Sr), a
10-bit or 7-bit slave address can be transmitted.
Figure 30 shows how a master transmits data to a slave
with a 7-bit address and then transmits data to a second
slave with a 10-bit address. The same master occupies
the bus all the time.
NOTES:
1. Combined formats can be used, for example, to
control a serial memory. During the first data byte, the
internal memory location has to be written. After the
START condition and slave address is repeated, data
can be transferred.
2. All decisions on auto-increment or decrement of
previously accessed memory locations etc. are taken
by the designer of the device.
3. Each byte is followed by an acknowledgment bit as
indicated by the A or blocks in the sequence.
4. I2C-bus compatible devices must reset their bus logic
on receipt of a START or repeated START condition
such that they all anticipate the sending of a slave
address.
• Combined format. A master transmits data to a slave
and then reads data from the same slave (Fig.28). The
same master occupies the bus all the time. The transfer
direction is changed after the second R/W bit.
handbook, full pagewidth
,,,,,
,,,,
,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,
1 1 1 1 0 X X
S
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W A1
A2 DATA
1st 7 BITS
2nd BYTE
A
DATA A/A P
MBC613
(write)
Fig.26 A master-transmitter addresses a slave-receiver with a 10-bit address.
,,,,,,,,,,,,, , ,,
handbook, full pagewidth1 1 1 1 0 X X
S
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W A1
A2
1st 7 BITS
2nd BYTE
1 1 1 1 0 X X
Sr
(write)
1
SLAVE ADDRESS
R/W A3 DATA A
1st 7 BITS
(read)
Fig.27 A master-receiver addresses a slave-transmitter with a 10-bit address.
28
DATA A
P
MBC614
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
,,,,,
,,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,, ,,
handbook, full pagewidth
1 1 1 1 0 X X
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
S
R/W A
1st 7 BITS
SLAVE ADDRESS
2nd BYTE
A
DATA
A
DATA A/A
(write)
1 1 1 1 0 X X
1
Sr SLAVE ADDRESS R/W A
1st 7 BITS
DATA A
DATA A
P
MBC615
(read)
Fig.28 Combined format. A master addresses a slave with a 10-bit address,
then transmits data to this slave and reads data from this slave.
,,,,,
,,,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,
,,,,
,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
handbook, full pagewidth 1 1 1 1 0 X X
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
S
R/W A
1st 7 BITS
SLAVE ADDRESS
2nd BYTE
DATA
A
A
DATA A/A
(write)
1 1 1 1 0 X X
0
SLAVE ADDRESS
Sr
R/W A
1st 7 BITS
SLAVE ADDRESS
A
2nd BYTE
DATA
A
DATA A/A
(write)
P
MBC616
Fig.29 Combined format. A master transmits data to two slaves, both with 10-bit addresses.
,,,,
,,
,,
,,,,,,,,
,,,,,
,,,,
,,
,,
,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
dbook, full pagewidth
S
0
7 - BIT
R/W A
SLAVE ADDRESS
DATA A
DATA A/A
(write)
1 1 1 1 0 X X
0
2nd BYTE OF 10-BIT
1st 7 BITS OF 10-BIT
Sr
R/W A SLAVE ADDRESS A
SLAVE ADDRESS
(write)
DATA A
DATA A/A
P
MBC617
Fig.30 Combined format. A master transmits data to two slaves, one with a 7-bit address,
and one with a 10-bit address.
29
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
14.3
15 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND TIMING FOR
I/O STAGES AND BUS LINES
General call address and start byte with 10-bit
addressing
The 10-bit addressing procedure for the I2C-bus is such
that the first two bytes after the START condition (S)
usually determine which slave will be selected by the
master. The exception is the “general call” address
00000000 (H‘00’). Slave devices with 10-bit addressing
will react to a “general call” in the same way as slave
devices with 7-bit addressing (see Section 10.1.1).
15.1
Standard- and Fast-mode devices
The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope
control and pin capacitance for F/S-mode I2C-bus devices
are given in Table 4. The I2C-bus timing characteristics,
bus-line capacitance and noise margin are given in
Table 5. Figure 31 shows the timing definitions for the
I2C-bus.
Hardware masters can transmit their 10-bit address after a
‘general call’. In this case, the ‘general call’ address byte is
followed by two successive bytes containing the 10-bit
address of the master-transmitter. The format is as shown
in Fig.10 where the first DATA byte contains the eight
least-significant bits of the master address.
The minimum HIGH and LOW periods of the SCL clock
specified in Table 5 determine the maximum bit transfer
rates of 100 kbit/s for Standard-mode devices and
400 kbit/s for Fast-mode devices. Standard-mode and
Fast-mode I2C-bus devices must be able to follow
transfers at their own maximum bit rates, either by being
able to transmit or receive at that speed or by applying the
clock synchronization procedure described in Section 8
which will force the master into a wait state and stretch the
LOW period of the SCL signal. Of course, in the latter case
the bit transfer rate is reduced.
The START byte 00000001 (H‘01’) can precede the 10-bit
addressing in the same way as for 7-bit addressing (see
Section 10.1.2).
30
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 4
Characteristics of the SDA and SCL I/O stages for F/S-mode I2C-bus devices
STANDARD-MODE
PARAMETER
FAST-MODE
SYMBOL
UNIT
MIN.
LOW level input voltage:
fixed input levels
VDD-related input levels
VIL
HIGH level input voltage:
fixed input levels
VDD-related input levels
VIH
Hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs:
VDD > 2 V
VDD < 2 V
Vhys
MAX.
MIN.
MAX.
−0.5
−0.5
1.5
0.3VDD
n/a
−0.5
n/a
0.3VDD (1)
V
V
3.0
0.7VDD
(2)
n/a
0.7VDD(1)
n/a
(2)
(2)
V
V
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
0.05VDD
0.1VDD
–
–
V
V
LOW level output voltage (open drain or
open collector) at 3 mA sink current:
VDD > 2 V
VDD < 2 V
VOL1
VOL3
0
n/a
0.4
n/a
0
0
0.4
0.2VDD
V
V
Output fall time from VIHmin to VILmax with
a bus capacitance from 10 pF to 400 pF
tof
–
250(4)
20 + 0.1Cb(3)
250(4)
ns
Pulse width of spikes which must be
suppressed by the input filter
tSP
n/a
n/a
0
50
ns
Input current each I/O pin with an input
voltage between 0.1VDD and 0.9VDDmax
Ii
−10
10
−10(5)
10(5)
µA
Capacitance for each I/O pin
Ci
−
10
−
10
pF
Notes
1. Devices that use non-standard supply voltages which do not conform to the intended I2C-bus system levels must
relate their input levels to the VDD voltage to which the pull-up resistors Rp are connected.
2. Maximum VIH = VDDmax + 0.5 V.
3. Cb = capacitance of one bus line in pF.
4. The maximum tf for the SDA and SCL bus lines quoted in Table 5 (300 ns) is longer than the specified maximum tof
for the output stages (250 ns). This allows series protection resistors (Rs) to be connected between the SDA/SCL
pins and the SDA/SCL bus lines as shown in Fig.36 without exceeding the maximum specified tf.
5. I/O pins of Fast-mode devices must not obstruct the SDA and SCL lines if VDD is switched off.
n/a = not applicable
31
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 5
Characteristics of the SDA and SCL bus lines for F/S-mode I2C-bus devices(1)
STANDARD-MODE
PARAMETER
FAST-MODE
SYMBOL
UNIT
MIN.
MAX.
MIN.
MAX.
SCL clock frequency
fSCL
0
100
0
400
kHz
Hold time (repeated) START condition.
After this period, the first clock pulse is
generated
tHD;STA
4.0
–
0.6
−
µs
LOW period of the SCL clock
tLOW
4.7
–
1.3
–
µs
HIGH period of the SCL clock
tHIGH
4.0
–
0.6
–
µs
Set-up time for a repeated START
condition
tSU;STA
4.7
–
0.6
–
µs
tHD;DAT
Data hold time:
for CBUS compatible masters (see NOTE,
Section 10.1.3)
for I2C-bus devices
5.0
0(2)
–
3.45(3)
–
0(2)
–
0.9(3)
µs
µs
Data set-up time
tSU;DAT
250
−
100(4)
–
ns
Rise time of both SDA and SCL signals
tr
–
1000
20 + 0.1Cb(5)
300
ns
(5)
300
ns
Fall time of both SDA and SCL signals
tf
–
300
20 + 0.1Cb
Set-up time for STOP condition
tSU;STO
4.0
–
0.6
–
µs
Bus free time between a STOP and
START condition
tBUF
4.7
–
1.3
–
µs
Capacitive load for each bus line
Cb
–
400
–
400
pF
Noise margin at the LOW level for each
connected device (including hysteresis)
VnL
0.1VDD
–
0.1VDD
–
V
Noise margin at the HIGH level for each
connected device (including hysteresis)
VnH
0.2VDD
–
0.2VDD
–
V
Notes
1. All values referred to VIHmin and VILmax levels (see Table 4).
2. A device must internally provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the SDA signal (referred to the VIHmin of the SCL
signal) to bridge the undefined region of the falling edge of SCL.
3. The maximum tHD;DAT has only to be met if the device does not stretch the LOW period (tLOW) of the SCL signal.
4. A Fast-mode I2C-bus device can be used in a Standard-mode I2C-bus system, but the requirement tSU;DAT ≥ 250 ns
must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal.
If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line tr max
+ tSU;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the Standard-mode I2C-bus specification) before the SCL line is
released.
5. Cb = total capacitance of one bus line in pF. If mixed with Hs-mode devices, faster fall-times according to Table 6 are
allowed.
n/a = not applicable
32
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
SDA
tLOW
tf
tr
tSU;DAT
tf
tHD;STA
tSP
tr
tBUF
SCL
S
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tHIGH
tSU;STA
Sr
tSU;STO
P
S
MSC610
Fig.31 Definition of timing for F/S-mode devices on the I2C-bus.
33
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
15.2
With an internally generated SCLH signal with LOW and
HIGH level periods of 200 ns and 100 ns respectively, an
Hs-mode master can fulfil the timing requirements for the
external SCLH clock pulses (taking the rise and fall times
into account) for the maximum bit rate of 3.4 Mbit/s. So a
basic frequency of 10 MHz, or a multiple of 10 MHz, can
be used by an Hs-mode master to generate the SCLH
signal. There are no limits for maximum HIGH and LOW
periods of the SCLH clock, and there is no limit for a lowest
bit rate.
Hs-mode devices
The I/O levels, I/O current, spike suppression, output slope
control and pin capacitance for I2C-bus Hs-mode devices
are given in Table 6. The noise margin for HIGH and LOW
levels on the bus lines are the same as specified for
F/S-mode I2C-bus devices.
Figure 32 shows all timing parameters for the Hs-mode
timing.The “normal” START condition S does not exist in
Hs-mode. Timing parameters for Address bits, R/W bit,
Acknowledge bit and DATA bits are all the same. Only the
rising edge of the first SCLH clock signal after an
acknowledge bit has an larger value because the external
Rp has to pull-up SCLH without the help of the internal
current-source.
Timing parameters are independent for capacitive load up
to 100 pF for each bus line allowing the maximum possible
bit rate of 3.4 Mbit/s. At a higher capacitive load on the bus
lines, the bit rate decreases gradually. The timing
parameters for a capacitive bus load of 400 pF are
specified in Table 7, allowing a maximum bit rate of
1.7 Mbit/s. For capacitive bus loads between 100 pF and
400 pF, the timing parameters must be interpolated
linearly. Rise and fall times are in accordance with the
maximum propagation time of the transmission lines
SDAH and SCLH to prevent reflections of the open ends.
The Hs-mode timing parameters for the bus lines are
specified in Table 7. The minimum HIGH and LOW periods
and the maximum rise and fall times of the SCLH clock
signal determine the highest bit rate.
34
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 6
Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL I/O stages for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices
Hs-MODE
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
UNIT
MIN.
MAX.
VIL
−0.5
HIGH level input voltage
VIH
VDD +
Hysteresis of Schmitt trigger inputs
Vhys
0.7VDD(1)
0.1VDD(1)
–
V
LOW level output voltage (open drain) at 3 mA sink
current at SDAH, SDA and SCLH for:
VDD > 2 V
VDD < 2 V
VOL
0
0
0.4
0.2VDD
V
V
On resistance of the transfer gate, for both current
directions at VOL level between SDA and SDAH or
SCL and SCLH at 3 mA
RonL
−
50
Ω
On resistance of the transfer gate between SDA and
SDAH or SCL and SCLH if both are at VDD level
RonH(2)
50
–
kΩ
Pull-up current of the SCLH current-source. Applies for
SCLH output levels between 0.3VDD and 0.7VDD
ICS
3
12
mA
Output rise time (current-source enabled) and fall time
at SCLH with a capacitive load from 10 to 100 pF
trCL, tfCL
10
40
ns
Output rise time (current-source enabled) and fall time trCL(3), tfCL(3)
at SCLH with an external pull-up current source of 3 mA
and a capacitive load of 400 pF
20
80
ns
Output fall time at SDAH with a capacitive load from 10
to 100 pF
tfDA
10
80
ns
Output fall time at SDAH with a capacitive load of
400 pF
tfDA(3)
20
160
ns
Pulse width of spikes at SDAH and SCLH that must be
suppressed by the input filters
tSP
0
10
ns
Input current each I/O pin with an input voltage between
0.1VDD and 0.9VDD
Ii(4)
–
10
µA
Capacitance for each I/O pin
Ci
–
10
pF
LOW level input voltage
0.3VDD(1)
0.5(2)
V
V
Notes
1. Devices that use non-standard supply voltages which do not conform to the intended I2C-bus system levels must
relate their input levels to the VDD voltage to which the pull-up resistors Rp are connected.
2. Devices that offer the level shift function must tolerate a maximum input voltage of 5.5 V at SDA and SCL.
3. For capacitive bus loads between 100 and 400 pF, the rise and fall time values must be linearly interpolated.
4. SDAH and SCLH I/O stages of Hs-mode slave devices must have floating outputs if their supply voltage has been
switched off. Due to the current-source output circuit, which normally has a clipping diode to VDD, this requirement is
not mandatory for the SCLH or the SDAH I/O stage of Hs-mode master devices. This means that the supply voltage
of Hs-mode master devices cannot be switched off without affecting the SDAH and SCLH lines.
35
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
Table 7
Characteristics of the SDAH, SCLH, SDA and SCL bus lines for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices(1)
PARAMETER
Cb = 400 pF(2)
Cb = 100 pF MAX.
SYMBOL
MIN.
MAX.
MIN.
UNIT
MAX.
SCLH clock frequency
fSCLH
0
3.4
0
1.7
MHz
Set-up time (repeated) START condition
tSU;STA
160
−
160
−
ns
Hold time (repeated) START condition
tHD;STA
160
−
160
−
ns
LOW period of the SCLH clock
tLOW
160
−
320
−
ns
HIGH period of the SCLH clock
tHIGH
60
−
120
−
ns
Data set-up time
tSU;DAT
10
−
10
−
ns
Data hold time
tHD;DAT
0(3)
70
0(3)
150
ns
Rise time of SCLH signal
trCL
10
40
20
80
ns
Rise time of SCLH signal after a repeated
START condition and after an
acknowledge bit
trCL1
10
80
20
160
ns
Fall time of SCLH signal
tfCL
10
40
20
80
ns
Rise time of SDAH signal
trDA
10
80
20
160
ns
Fall time of SDAH signal
tfDA
10
80
20
160
ns
Set-up time for STOP condition
tSU;STO
160
−
160
−
ns
−
100
−
400
pF
Capacitive load for SDAH + SDA line and
SCLH + SCL line
Cb
−
400
−
400
pF
Noise margin at the LOW level for each
connected device (including hysteresis)
VnL
0.1VDD
−
0.1VDD
−
V
Noise margin at the HIGH level for each
connected device (including hysteresis)
VnH
0.2VDD
−
0.2VDD
−
V
Capacitive load for SDAH and SCLH lines Cb
(2)
Notes
1. All values referred to VIHmin and VILmax levels (see Table 6).
2. For bus line loads Cb between 100 and 400 pF the timing parameters must be linearly interpolated.
3. A device must internally provide a Data hold time to bridge the undefined part between VIH and VIL of the falling edge
of the SCLH signal. An input circuit with a threshold as low as possible for the falling edge of the SCLH signal
minimizes this hold time.
36
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
Sr
Sr
trDA
tfDA
P
SDAH
tSU;STA
tHD;DAT
tSU;STO
tHD;STA
tSU;DAT
SCLH
tfCL
trCL1
(1)
trCL1
trCL
tHIGH
tLOW
tLOW
(1)
tHIGH
MGK871
= MCS current source pull-up
= Rp resistor pull-up
(1) First rising edge of the SCLH signal after Sr and after each acknowledge bit.
Fig.32 Definition of timing for Hs-mode devices on the I2C-bus.
must be connected to one common supply line of
5 V ± 10% and must have pull-up resistors connected to
their SDA and SCL pins as shown in Fig.35.
16 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS OF I2C-BUS
DEVICES TO THE BUS LINES
The electrical specifications for the I/Os of I2C-bus devices
and the characteristics of the bus lines connected to them
are given in Section 15.
New Fast- and Hs-mode devices must have supply voltage
related input levels as specified in Tables 4 and 6.
Input levels are defined in such a way that:
I2C-bus devices with fixed input levels of 1.5 V and 3 V can
each have their own appropriate supply voltage. Pull-up
resistors must be connected to a 5 V ± 10% supply
(Fig.33). I2C-bus devices with input levels related to VDD
must have one common supply line to which the pull-up
resistor is also connected (Fig.34).
• The noise margin on the LOW level is 0.1VDD
• The noise margin on the HIGH level is 0.2VDD
• As shown in Fig.36, series resistors (RS) of e.g. 300 Ω
can be used for protection against high-voltage spikes
on the SDA and SCL lines (resulting from the flash-over
of a TV picture tube, for example).
When devices with fixed input levels are mixed with
devices with input levels related to VDD, the latter devices
37
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
VDD2 - 4 are device dependent (e.g. 12 V)
handbook, full pagewidth
V DD1 = 5 V
Rp
Rp
10 %
NMOS
V DD2
V DD3
V DD4
BiCMOS
CMOS
BIPOLAR
SDA
SCL
MBC610
Fig.33 Fixed input level devices connected to the I2C-bus.
V DD = e.g. 3 V
handbook, full pagewidth
Rp
Rp
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
SDA
SCL
MBC625
Fig.34 Devices with wide supply voltage range connected to the I2C-bus.
V DD2,3 are device dependent (e.g. 12 V)
handbook, full pagewidth
V DD1 =
5 V 10 %
Rp
Rp
CMOS
CMOS
V DD2
V DD3
NMOS
BIPOLAR
SDA
SCL
MBC626
Fig.35 Devices with input levels related to VDD (supply VDD1) mixed with fixed input level devices
(supply VDD2,3) on the I2C-bus.
38
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
handbook, full pagewidth
Rs
V DD
V DD
I2 C
DEVICE
I2 C
DEVICE
Rs
Rs
Rp
Rp
Rs
SDA
SCL
MBC627
Fig.36 Series resistors (Rs) for protection against high-voltage spikes.
16.1
Rp min is shown in Fig.37. The required noise margin of
0.1VDD for the LOW level, limits the maximum value of Rs.
Rs max as a function of Rp is shown in Fig.38.
Maximum and minimum values of resistors Rp
and Rs for Standard-mode I2C-bus devices
For Standard-mode I2C-bus systems, the values of
resistors Rp and Rs in Fig.33 depend on the following
parameters:
The bus capacitance is the total capacitance of wire,
connections and pins. This capacitance limits the
maximum value of Rp due to the specified rise time. Fig.39
shows Rp max as a function of bus capacitance.
• Supply voltage
• Bus capacitance
The maximum HIGH level input current of each
input/output connection has a specified maximum value of
10 µA. Due to the required noise margin of 0.2 VDD for the
HIGH level, this input current limits the maximum value of
Rp. This limit depends on VDD. The total HIGH level input
current is shown as a function of Rp max in Fig.40.
• Number of connected devices (input current + leakage
current).
The supply voltage limits the minimum value of resistor Rp
due to the specified minimum sink current of 3 mA at
VOLmax = 0.4 V for the output stages. VDD as a function of
39
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
6
handbook,
halfpage
minimum
value R p
(kΩ )
5
RS = 0
4
MBC635
20
maximum
value R p
(kΩ)
16
MBC628
12
3
RS = 0
8
max. R S
2
max. R S
@ V DD = 5 V
4
1
0
0
0
0
4
8
12
100
16
Fig.37 Minimum value of Rp as a function of supply
voltage with the value os Rs as a parameter.
MBC630
20
maximum
value R p
(kΩ )
16
10
5V
V DD = 2.5 V
400
Fig.39 Maximum value of Rp as a function of bus
capacitance for a Standard-mode I2C-bus.
MBC629
8
300
bus capacitance (pF)
V DD (V)
Rp
(kΩ )
200
12
6
VDD= 15 V
15 V
8
4
10 V
10 V
4
5V
2
2.5 V
0
0
0
0
400
800
1200
1600
40
80
120
160
200
total high level input current (µA)
maximum value R s (Ω)
Fig.40 Total HIGH level input current as a function
of the maximum value of Rp with supply voltage as
a parameter.
Fig.38 Maximum value of Rs as a function of the
value of Rp with supply voltage as a parameter.
40
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
17 APPLICATION INFORMATION
17.1
17.2
Slope-controlled output stages of Fast-mode
I2C-bus devices
The supply voltage (VDD) and the maximum output LOW
level determine the minimum value of pull-up resistor Rp
(see Section 16.1). For example, with a supply voltage of
VDD = 5 V ± 10% and VOLmax = 0.4 V at 3 mA, Rp min =
(5.5 − 0.4)/0.003 = 1.7 kΩ. As shown in Fig.33, this value
of Rp limits the maximum bus capacitance to about 200 pF
to meet the maximum tr requirement of 300 ns. If the bus
has a higher capacitance than this, a switched pull-up
circuit as shown in Fig.43 can be used.
The electrical specifications for the I/Os of I2C-bus devices
and the characteristics of the bus lines connected to them
are given in Section 15.
Figures 41 and 42 show examples of output stages with
slope control in CMOS and bipolar technology. The slope
of the falling edge is defined by a Miller capacitor (C1) and
a resistor (R1). The typical values for C1 and R1 are
indicated on the diagrams. The wide tolerance for output
fall time tof given in Table 4 means that the design is not
critical. The fall time is only slightly influenced by the
external bus load (Cb) and external pull-up resistor (Rp).
However, the rise time (tr) specified in Table 5 is mainly
determined by the bus load capacitance and the value of
the pull-up resistor.
VDD
to input
circuit
P1
R1
50 kΩ
N1
C1
2 pF
The switched pull-up circuit in Fig.43 is for a supply voltage
of VDD = 5 V ± 10% and a maximum capacitive load of
400 pF. Since it is controlled by the bus levels, it needs no
additional switching control signals. During the
rising/falling edges, the bilateral switch in the HCT4066
switches pull-up resistor Rp2 on/off at bus levels between
0.8 V and 2.0 V. Combined resistors Rp1 and Rp2 can
pull-up the bus line within the maximum specified rise time
(tr) of 300 ns.
Series resistors Rs are optional. They protect the I/O
stages of the I2C-bus devices from high-voltage spikes on
the bus lines, and minimize crosstalk and undershoot of
the bus line signals. The maximum value of Rs is
determined by the maximum permitted voltage drop
across this resistor when the bus line is switched to the
LOW level in order to switch off Rp2.
VDD
Rp
I/O
SDA or SCL
bus line
Cb
N2
VSS
Switched pull-up circuit for Fast-mode I2C-bus
devices
VSS
MBC618
Fig.41 Slope-controlled output stage in CMOS
technology.
nE
nZ
R1
20 kΩ
to input
circuit
C1
Rp
I/O
R p2
100 Ω
GND
1.7 kΩ
N
R p1
SDA or SCL
bus line
Rs
I/O
SDA or SCL
bus line
Cb
T2
Rs
I/O
5 pF
T1
100 Ω
Cb
400 pF
max.
N
VSS
MBC620
GND
VSS
FAST - MODE I 2 C BUS DEVICES
MBC619
Fig.42 Slope-controlled output stage in bipolar
technology.
Fig.43 Switched pull-up circuit.
41
10 %
N
1.3 kΩ
VDD
5V
VCC
P
Vp
VDD
nY
1/4 HCT4066
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
17.3
Wiring pattern of the bus lines
In general, the wiring must be so chosen that crosstalk and
interference to/from the bus lines is minimized. The bus
lines are most susceptible to crosstalk and interference at
the HIGH level because of the relatively high impedance of
the pull-up devices.
MBC612
7.5
maximum
value R p
(kΩ)
6.0
handbook, halfpage
If the length of the bus lines on a PCB or ribbon cable
exceeds 10 cm and includes the VDD and VSS lines, the
wiring pattern must be:
4.5
SDA
3.0
RS = 0
VDD
max. R S
@ V DD = 5 V
1.5
VSS
SCL
0
If only the VSS line is included, the wiring pattern must be:
0
200
300
400
bus capacitance (pF)
SDA
Fig.44 Maximum value of Rp as a function of bus
capacitance for meeting the tr max requirement for
a Fast-mode I2C-bus.
VSS
SCL
These wiring patterns also result in identical capacitive
loads for the SDA and SCL lines. The VSS and VDD lines
can be omitted if a PCB with a VSS and/or VDD layer is
used.
17.5
Maximum and minimum values of resistors Rp
and Rs for Hs-mode I2C-bus devices
The maximum and minimum values for resistors Rp and Rs
connected to an Hs-mode I2C-bus can be calculated from
the data in Tables 6 and 7. Many combinations of these
values are possible, owing to different rise and fall times,
bus line loads, supply voltages, mixed speed systems and
level shifting. Because of this, no further graphs are
included in this specification.
If the bus lines are twisted-pairs, each bus line must be
twisted with a VSS return. Alternatively, the SCL line can be
twisted with a VSS return, and the SDA line twisted with a
VDD return. In the latter case, capacitors must be used to
decouple the VDD line to the VSS line at both ends of the
twisted pairs.
If the bus lines are shielded (shield connected to VSS),
interference will be minimized. However, the shielded
cable must have low capacitive coupling between the SDA
and SCL lines to minimize crosstalk.
17.4
100
18 BI-DIRECTIONAL LEVEL SHIFTER FOR F/S-MODE
I2C-BUS SYSTEMS
Present technology processes for integrated circuits with
clearances of 0.5 µm and less limit the maximum supply
voltage and consequently the logic levels for the digital I/O
signals. To interface these lower voltage circuits with
existing 5 V devices, a level shifter is needed. For
bi-directional bus systems like the I2C-bus, such a level
shifter must also be bi-directional, without the need of a
direction control signal(1). The simplest way to solve this
problem is by connecting a discrete MOS-FET to each bus
line.
Maximum and minimum values of resistors Rp
and Rs for Fast-mode I2C-bus devices
The maximum and minimum values for resistors Rp and Rs
connected to a Fast-mode I2C-bus can be determined
from Figs 37, 38 and 40 in Section 16.1. Because a
Fast-mode I2C-bus has faster rise times (tr) the maximum
value of Rp as a function of bus capacitance is less than
that shown in Fig.39 The replacement graph for Fig.39
showing the maximum value of Rp as a function of bus
capacitance (Cb) for a Fast-mode I2C-bus is given in
Fig.44.
(1) US 5,689,196 granted; corresponding patent applications
pending.
42
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
interconnect two sections of an I2C-bus system, with each
section having a different supply voltage and different logic
levels. Such a configuration is shown in Fig.45. The left
“low-voltage” section has pull-up resistors and devices
connected to a 3.3 V supply voltage, the right
“high-voltage” section has pull-up resistors and devices
connected to a 5 V supply voltage. The devices of each
section have I/Os with supply voltage related logic input
levels and an open drain output configuration.
In spite of its surprising simplicity, such a solution not only
fulfils the requirement of bi-directional level shifting without
a direction control signal, it also:
• isolates a powered-down bus section from the rest of the
bus system
• protects the “lower voltage” side against high voltage
spikes from the “higher-voltage” side.
The bi-directional level shifter can be used for both
Standard-mode (up to100 kbit/s) or in Fast-mode (up to
400 kbit/s) I2C-bus systems. It is not intended for Hs-mode
systems, which may have a bridge with a level shifting
possibility (see Section 13.5)
18.1
The level shifter for each bus line is identical and consists
of one discrete N-channel enhancement MOS-FET; TR1
for the serial data line SDA and TR2 for the serial clock line
SCL. The gates (g) have to be connected to the lowest
supply voltage VDD1, the sources (s) to the bus lines of the
“lower-voltage” section, and the drains (d) to the bus lines
of the “higher-voltage” section. Many MOS-FETs have the
substrate internally connected with its source, if this is not
the case, an external connection should be made. Each
MOS-FET has an integral diode (n-p junction) between the
drain and substrate.
Connecting devices with different logic levels
Section 16 described how different voltage devices could
be connected to the same bus by using pull-up resistors to
the supply voltage line. Although this is the simplest
solution, the lower voltage devices must be 5 V tolerant,
which can make them more expensive to manufacture. By
using a bi-directional level shifter, however, it’s possible to
VDD2 = 5 V
VDD1 = 3.3 V
handbook, full pagewidth
Rp
SDA1
g
Rp
TR1
s
Rp
SCL1
3.3 V DEVICE
SDA2
d
g
s
TR2
SCL2
d
3.3 V DEVICE
Rp
5 V DEVICE
5 V DEVICE
MGK879
Fig.45 Bi-directional level shifter circuit connecting two different voltage sections in an I2C-bus system.
43
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
18.1.1
3. A 5 V device pulls down the bus line to a LOW level.
The drain-substrate diode of the MOS-FET the
“lower-voltage” section is pulled down until VGS
passes the threshold and the MOS-FET starts to
conduct. The bus line of the “lower-voltage” section is
then further pulled down to a LOW level by the 5 V
device via the conducting MOS-FET. So the bus lines
of both sections go LOW to the same voltage level.
OPERATION OF THE LEVEL SHIFTER
The following three states should be considered during the
operation of the level shifter:
1. No device is pulling down the bus line.
The bus line of the “lower-voltage” section is pulled up
by its pull-up resistors Rp to 3.3 V. The gate and the
source of the MOS-FET are both at 3.3 V, so its VGS is
below the threshold voltage and the MOS-FET is not
conducting. This allows the bus line at the
“higher-voltage” section to be pulled up by its pull-up
resistor Rp to 5 V. So the bus lines of both sections are
HIGH, but at a different voltage level.
The three states show that the logic levels are transferred
in both directions of the bus system, independent of the
driving section. State 1 performs the level shift function.
States 2 and 3 perform a “wired AND” function between
the bus lines of both sections as required by the I2C-bus
specification.
2. A 3.3 V device pulls down the bus line to a LOW level.
The source of the MOS-FET also becomes LOW,
while the gate stay at 3.3 V. VGS rises above the
threshold and the MOS-FET starts to conduct. The bus
line of the “higher-voltage” section is then also pulled
down to a LOW level by the 3.3 V device via the
conducting MOS-FET. So the bus lines of both
sections go LOW to the same voltage level.
Supply voltages other than 3.3 V for VDD1 and 5 V for VDD2
can also be applied, e.g. 2 V for VDD1 and 10 V for VDD2 is
feasible. In normal operation VDD2 must be equal to or
higher than VDD1 (VDD2 is allowed to fall below VDD1 during
switching power on/off).
44
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
19 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AVAILABLE FROM PHILIPS
Table 8
I2C evaluation boards
PRODUCT
DESCRIPTION
OM4151/
S87C00KSD
I2C-bus
OM5500
Demo kit for the PCF2166 LCD driver and PCD3756A telecom microcontroller
Table 9
evaluation board with microcontroller, LCD, LED, Par. I/O, SRAM, EEPROM, Clock, DTMF
generator, AD/DA conversion.
Development tools for 80C51-based systems
PRODUCT
PDS51
DESCRIPTION
A board-level, full featured, in-circuit emulator:
RS232 interface to PC, universal motherboard, controlled via terminal emulation
Table 10 Development tools for 68000-based systems
PRODUCT
DESCRIPTION
OM4160/2
Microcore-2 demonstration/evaluation board with SCC68070
OM4160/4
Microcore-4 demonstration/evaluation board with 90CE201
OM4160/5
Microcore-5 demonstration/evaluation board with 90CE301
Table 11 I2C analyzers
PRODUCT
DESCRIPTION
I2C-bus
OM1022
PC
analyzer with multi-master capability. Hardware and software (runs on IBM or
compatible PC) to experiment with and analyze the behaviour of the I2C-bus (includes
documentation)
OM4777
Similar to OM1022 but for single-master systems only
PF8681
I2C-bus analyzer support package for the PM3580 logic analyzer family
45
Philips Semiconductors
The I2C-bus specification
20 SUPPORT LITERATURE
Table 12 Data handbooks
TITLE
ORDERING CODE
IC01: Semiconductors for Radio, Audio and CD/DVD Systems
9397 750 02453
IC02: Semiconductors for Television and Video Systems
9397 750 01989
IC03: Semiconductors for Wired Telecom Systems (parts a & b)
9397 750 00839,
9397 750 00811
IC12: I2C Peripherals
9397 750 01647
IC14: 8048-based 8-bit microcontrollers
9398 652 40011
IC17: Semiconductors for wireless communications
9397 750 01002
IC18: Semiconductors for in-car electronics
9397 750 00418
IC19: ICs for data communications
9397 750 00138
IC20: 80C51-based 8-bit microcontrollers + Application notes and Development tools
9397 750 00963
IC22: Multimedia ICs
9397 750 02183
Table 13 Brochures/leaflets/lab. reports/books etc.
TITLE
Can you make the distance... with
extender IC)
I2C-bus
ORDERING CODE
(information about the P82B715
I2C-bus
9397 750 00008
I2C-bus multi-master & single-master controller kits
9397 750 00953
Desktop video (CD-ROM)
9397 750 00644
80C51 core instructions quick reference
9398 510 76011
80C51 microcontroller selection guide
9397 750 01587
OM5027
I2C-bus
P90CL301
I2C
evaluation board for low-voltage, low-power ICs & software
driver routines
9398 706 98011
AN94078
User manual of Microsoft Pascal I2C-bus driver (MICDRV4.OBJ)
ETV/IR8833
C routines for the PCF8584
AN95068
Using the PCF8584 with non-specified timings and other frequently asked questions
AN96040
User's guide to I2C-bus control programs
ETV8835
The I2C-bus from theory to practice (book and disk)
Author: D. Paret
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0-471-96268-6
Bi-directional level shifter for I2C-bus and other systems
AN97055
OM5500 demo kit for the PCF2166 LCD driver and PCD3756A telecom microcontroller 9397 750 00954
For more information about Philips Semiconductors and how we can help with your I2C-bus design, contact your nearest
Philips Semiconductors national organization from the address list of the back of this book, or visit our worldwide web
site at http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/i2c for the latest products, news and applications notes.
46
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