S afety iS pecific
Safety
is
Specific
guidelines for the
safe operation of
widely used portable
and stationary
power tools
Danger
Warning
Caution
Presented by the manufacturer members of the
NOTICE
The contents of this brochure are not meant to be, nor should they be considered, an absolute or complete presentation
of the safety measures and procedures that relate to using the power tools covered. Obviously every possible application
cannot be foreseen. This brochure’s purpose is to highlight only some important safety and safety related information
compiled from the experience of Institute members and other reliable safety oriented sources. Individual manufacturers’
tool operator’s manuals, shipped with tools and accessories, are recommended as a final source for proper procedures for
specific tool usage.
INTRODUCTION
Power tools are ‘good friends’ that require operator respect in specific ways. They must be used carefully and kept in
safe operating condition, whether they are in the hands of a professional tradesman, a beginning do-it-yourselfer or a
vocational student. The demands of safety apply to all. The material presented here is a compilation of carefully selected
safe use precautions as they relate to specific electric power tool CAUTIONS, WARNINGS and DANGERS. The purpose
is to highlight the safe use of specific tools that have a high potential of causing injury if ignored. The General Safety
precautions and the tool-specific safety precautions offer a basis for safety. The warnings and instructions on the power
tool and in its operator’s manual provide the best source of safety information for the tool.
Read and understand the contents and follow the advisements of operator’s manuals on each specific power tool and all
related accessories. This is considered essential to the safe operation of any power tool.
For more information:
The purpose of the Power Tool Institute is to educate the public as to the usefulness and importance of power tools; to
encourage high standards of safety and quality control in the manufacture of power tools; and to prepare and distribute
information about safe use of power tools. The following is a list of other agencies offering safety guidelines and
regulations:
Safety Organizations & Agencies
National Safety Council Occupational Safety & Health Agency Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Electrical Safety Foundation International
CSA International National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health U.S.D.A. Extension Services Consumer Product Safety Commission
www.nsc.org
www.osha.gov
www.ul.com
www.esfi.org
www.csa-international.org
www.cdc.gov/niosh
www.csrees.usda.gov
www.cpsc.gov
Standards Organizations
American National Standards Institute International Electrotechnical Commission www.ansi.org
www.iec.ch
Related Industry Groups
Compressed Air and Gas Institute International Staple, Nail and Tool Association Unified Abrasives Manufacturers’ Association Outdoor Power Equipment Institute.
The American Hardware Manufacturers Association
SkillsUSA
National Electric Contractors Association
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
National FFA Organization
www.cagi.org
www.isanta.org
www.uama.org
www.opei.org
www.ahma.org
www.skillsusa.org
www.necanet.org
www.ibew.org
www.ffa.org
Battery Recycling Information
Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corp. (RBRC) www.prba.org
www.rbrc.org
2
SAFETY PROGRAM MATERIALS
The following is a list of safety information to meet the needs of professional tradesmen, consumers, vocation students,
educators and do-it-yourselfers. Visit www.powertoolinstitute.com to order or download these materials.
Literature
“On the Job Power Tool Safety Maintenance Check List”
A check list of 11 items including operator’s manual,
cord sets and extension cords, switches, tool holding
devices, guards, housings, adjustments, blades and bits,
maintenance, mechanical operation and electrical safety.
“Power Tool Safety”
A cartooned brochure consisting of recommendations
for the safe use of portable, stationary, lawn and garden
power tools on the job or at home.
“Safety Poster”
Mr. Power Tool Safety Says “Prepare for the job, dress
for the job and perform the job with SAFETY in mind!”
“A Teacher’s Reference Guide to Power Tool Safety”
(Includes a copy of “Safety Is Specific”)
Provides lesson plans, student activities and quizzes,
support materials, and references to additional
information on each power tool category.
“Safety Is Specific”
An illustrated brochure which includes a straightforward
compilation of rules and safe practices for each category
of power tool use (Specific cautions, warnings and
dangers). The guidelines discuss the safe operation of
widely used portable and stationary tools.
Videos
All Safety programs are available on one DVD in English
or Spanish.
“Power Tool Accidents — They Can Be Prevented”
A 19-minute DVD which addresses the importance of
keeping the work area safe, electrical safety, developing
good personal work habits and proper tool use and care.
Includes interviews with emergency room physicians,
people injured while using power tools and PTI safety
experts.
“Circular Saw Safety”
A 25-minute DVD which addresses the importance of
keeping the work area safe, developing good personal
work habits while using circular saws.
“Table Saw Safety”
A 19-minute DVD which addresses proper workspace
setup, the basics of making cuts, general safety
procedures and proper maintenance when using table
saws.
“Miter Saw Safety”
A 15-minute DVD which addresses safety procedures
when using a miter saw.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOOL
PAGE
General Safety 4-5
Abrasive Cut-Off Machines and
Dry-Cut Machines
6-7
Accessories
Band Saw (Portable and Stationary)
Circular Saws
Cordless
Coring Rigs and Motors
Drill Presses
TOOL
Impact Wrenches
PAGE
27
Jig Saws (Saber Saws)
28-29
Jointer/Planer
30-31
Metal Cutting Saws (Portable)
32-33
Miter Saws
34-35
Radial Arm Saws
36-37
14
Reciprocating Saws
38-39
15-16
Rotary Die Grinders
40-41
Routers
42-43
8
9-10
11-13
17
Drills, Hammer-Drills, Rotary Hammers,
Sanders (Stationary and Portable)
and Hammers
44-45
18-19
Shapers and Router Tables
Electric Chain Saws
46-47
20-21
Table Saws
Grinders (Portable and Bench)
48-49
22-24
Wood Lathes
Heat Guns
25-26
50
3
General Safety
All power tools can be dangerous if both general and tool specific safety instructions are not followed carefully. General
safety instructions apply to all power tools, both corded and cordless.
Start with a Safe Work Area
Keep your work area clean and well lit. Cluttered
benches and dark areas invite accidents.
Do not operate power tools in explosive atmospheres, near flammable liquids, gases, or dust.
Power tools create sparks, which may ignite the
dust or fumes.
• Keep bystanders, children, and visitors away
when using a power tool. Distractions can cause
you to lose control.
Electricity can be Dangerous
Grounded tools (three pronged cords) must
be plugged into a properly grounded installed outlet.
Never remove or cut off the grounding prong or modify
the plug in any way. Do not use any adapter plugs.
Double Insulated tools have a polarized plug
(one blade is wider than the other.) This plug will
fit into an outlet only one way. Do not change
the plug in any way.
Do not use AC only rated tools with a DC power
supply.
Store battery packs away from other metal objects like paper clips, coins, keys, nails, screws,
or other small metal objects. These things can
make a connection from one terminal to the
other, shorting the battery terminals together
and causing burns or fire.
• When using a power tool, don’t touch grounded
surfaces such as pipes, radiators, ranges and
refrigerators. There is a higher risk of electric
shock if your body is grounded.
In damp locations, only plug your tool into a
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). If the
work area does not have a permanent GFCI
on the outlet, use a plug-in GFCI. Wear rubber
gloves and footwear.
Don’t use or leave power tools in the rain or wet
conditions.
Do not abuse the cord, carry the tool by its cord,
or pull the cord to unplug it. Keep the cord away
from heat, oil, sharp edges or moving parts.
Replace damaged cords immediately.
Always hold the tool by the insulated gripping
surfaces. Contact with hidden wiring or its own
cord will make exposed metal parts of the tool
“live” and shock the operator.
4
Rules about Extension Cords
• When using a power tool outside, use an extension cord marked for outdoor use with “W-A” or
“W”. These cords are made for outdoor use.
• Extension cords with 3-prong grounding plugs
must be plugged into 3-prong outlets when using
grounded tools.
• Replace damaged or worn cords immediately.
The wire gauge and length of the extension cord
must be able to handle the amps of the tool.
Find the Amps (A) on the tool’s nameplate and
use the chart to determine the necessary wire
gauge for your extension cord length.
16
16
16
12
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using all power
tools is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all of
your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
• Stay alert, watch what you are doing and use
common sense when using a power tool.
Do not use tools when you are tired or under the
influence of drugs, alcohol, or medication.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Keep handles dry, clean and free from oil and
grease.
• Be sure the power tool’s switch is OFF before
plugging it in or inserting a battery pack. Do not
carry tools with your finger on the switch.
Remove adjusting keys and wrenches before
turning the tool ON.
• Always keep a firm footing when using power
tools. Be sure you have balance and control
before you start the job.
Use safety equipment. Always wear eye protection. A dust mask, non-skid safety shoes, hard
hat, or hearing protection must be used when
needed. The reference to “safety goggles” or
“safety glasses” in product specific sections
provides potential options - always refer to the
tool’s operator’s manual for the specific eye protection recommended, which should be marked
as complying with current national standards.
• Unplug tool/remove battery before changing
accessories.
Keep hands away from rotating or moving parts.
Do the Job Safely
• Use the power tool accessories only for the jobs
for which they were designed.
Secure and support the workpiece. Use clamps
and a stable work surface. Do not hold the work
by hand or against your body.
• Keep guards in place and working properly.
• Do not force the tool. Use the right tool for your
job. It will do the job better and safer.
• Use only accessories recommended by the tool
manufacturer. Accessories that may be suitable
for one tool may become hazardous when used
on another tool.
Do not touch the drill bit, blade, cutter or the
workpiece immediately after operation; they may
be very hot and may burn you.
• If a method of dust collection is available with
the power tool, it should be used to reduce the
risk of dust-related hazards.
Maintenance Keeps Tools Working Safely and
Effectively
• Do not use a tool if the switch does not turn it on
and off. It must be repaired.
Look at the tool before using it. Are moving parts
misaligned or binding? Is anything broken?
Damaged tools must be fixed before using them.
Develop a maintenance schedule for your tool.
• Maintain accessories carefully. Keep blades and
bits sharp and clean.
• Take your tool to be serviced by qualified repair
people. Service or maintenance performed by
unqualified personnel could result in a risk of
injury. For example: internal wires may be misplaced or pinched, safety guard return springs
may be improperly mounted.
• When servicing a tool, use only identical replacement parts. Follow instructions regarding
maintenance in the tool’s operator’s manual.
Use of unauthorized parts or failure to follow the
maintenance instructions may create a risk of
electric shock or injury.
• Clean and lubricate a tool only as directed in
its operator’s manuals. Certain cleaning agents
such as gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, ammonia, etc. may damage plastic parts.
• Maintain labels and nameplates. These carry
important information. If unreadable or missing,
contact the manufacturer for a replacement.
When Done, Store the Tools out of Harm’s Way
To avoid accidental starting, unplug the cord,
remove batteries or lock off the switch when the
tool is not being used, when changing accessories, and when adjusting or cleaning tools.
• Keep tools out of the reach of children and
people unfamiliar with the tools.
5
Abrasive Cut-Off Machines and Dry-Cut Machines
Abrasive cut-off machines and dry-cut machines are used to cut metal. Some machines are capable of cutting masonry
materials. Abrasive machines use abrasive wheels to grind through ferrous metals, while dry-cut machines use special
toothed saw blades to cut through ferrous and nonferrous metals.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using abrasive
cut-off machines and dry-cut machines is a must. Make
a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
Make sure the speed marked on the blade or
wheel is at least as high as the no load RPM on
the tool.
Use sharp blades and wheels. Damaged or dull
blades could throw teeth, posing a serious injury
risk. Damaged or dull wheels can create excessive friction, causing the wheel to warp or bind. A
sharp blade or wheel will tend to cut its way out
of a pinching condition.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
• Support long workpieces at the same height as
the machine.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never attempt to cut materials larger than the
rated capacity, as this may result in personal
injury.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
• Always place the workpiece securely between
the vise and fence when making cuts. Never
make freehand cuts. Holding the workpiece by
hand is unstable and may lead to loss of control.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade or Wheel
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Do not attempt to install a toothed blade on an
abrasive cut-off machine, or an abrasive wheel
on a dry-cut machine. The cut-off machine’s
guard will only protect the user when an abrasive wheel is used, and the dry-cut machine’s
guard will only protect the user when a toothed
blade is used. Never alter a guard or use the
machine with a guard missing.
Check this carefully: Does your blade or wheel
have the proper size and shape arbor hole?
Never force a blade or wheel onto an arbor or
alter the size of an arbor. Do not use a blade
or wheel that does not fit the arbor, as vibration
may result. If the blade or wheel doesn’t fit the
arbor, get one that does.
6
• Keep the arbor and blade or wheel clean.
Buildup on the surface of the arbor and blade or
wheel could cause excessive friction.
Never cut small workpieces that put fingers near
the cutting blade or wheel.
• Never try to remove or clamp the workpiece
while the blade or wheel is rotating.
Before Cutting...
Before working with an abrasive cut-off machine or
dry-cut machine, make sure the machine and its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do so can
increase your risk of injury and result in blade or wheel
pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of control.
• Set the machine securely on a flat, level surface.
Before installing a blade or wheel, always check
for damage. Check wheels for cracks and blade
teeth for damage. Replace cracked abrasive
wheels or damaged blades immediately.
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
the probability of binding. Some saw
blades have hollow ground sides
instead of blade set to provide clearance.
• Make sure that all mounting flanges, related
washers, fasteners and other mounting hardware are in good condition. Make sure this hardware is properly positioned and secured on the
arbor before each use. Always use the mounting
hardware supplied with the machine.
With the machine unplugged and the machine
head all the way down, manually spin the blade
or wheel to check for blade/wheel clearance
and alignment. The blade or wheel should rotate
freely and not contact the table.
• Be sure all guards are in place and working
properly before each use. Do not defeat guards.
If the lower guard appears loose or if it does not
move to cover the blade or wheel when the head
is up, take the machine to an authorized service
center for repairs.
While Cutting …
• Do not use cutting fluids on the blade, wheel or
workpiece.
• Allow the motor to reach full speed before contacting the workpiece.
Never place your body or fingers in line with the
blade or wheel while cutting.
• Use only the edge (not the sides) of the abrasive wheel for cutting. Do not allow the abrasive
wheel to twist or bind.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Store blades and wheels with care. Do not drop
them or subject them to excessive heat, cold or
humidity.
Always Remember…
• Be alert at all times, especially during repetitive
operations. Don’t be tempted into carelessness
due to a false sense of security. Blades are
extremely unforgiving.
When cutting metals, sparks or hot fragments
could cause fires or burns. Never touch a work
piece until it cools. Let the blade or wheel cool
properly before changing.
When starting the machine after an idle period,
always let the machine run with the blade or
wheel completely recessed into the guard for
one full minute before making a cut. If an abrasive wheel wobbles or vibrates, discard it and
replace immediately.
• To reduce the risk of injury, always unplug the
machine when leaving a workstation. Lock machines in the down position before transporting
or when not in use.
• Do not force cutting. Always start the cut gently.
Do not bump or bang an abrasive wheel or blade
down on the work piece to start a cut. Excessive
force only causes operator fatigue, increased
wear and reduced control.
• Make sure the blade or wheel contacts the center of the workpiece for the safest, most efficient
cutting.
• If the blade or wheel binds or stops rotating, or
the motor sounds like it is straining, release the
switch immediately to reduce the risk of damage
to the machine.
Never reach under the machine or workpiece.
The blade is exposed under the workpiece and
the guard cannot protect your body here.
• Never remove the machine from a cut while the
wheel or blade is rotating. When making a partial
cut, or if power is interrupted, release the switch
immediately. Don’t remove the machine from the
workpiece until the wheel or blade has come to
a complete stop.
• Release the switch immediately if the wheel or
blade binds or the machine stalls.
• Turn off the machine after a cut is complete, and
keep the blade or wheel away from your body
until it has stopped. Be aware that blades and
wheels may coast after the machine is turned
off.
7
Accessories
A wide variety of accessories is available for use with power tools. However, the fact that an accessory will fit a tool does
not automatically mean it is safe to use with that tool. Caution must be used when selecting and using any accessory with
any power tool. Using an inappropriate accessory, or the incorrect accessory, can result in serious injury.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using power tools
and their accessories is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the right tool and accessory for your job can
reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to
the manufacturer’s instructions, they will do the job safer
and faster.
Only use accessories that:
• Are specifically recommended by the power tool
manufacturer.
• Are right for the job.
• Have specifications that match those of the
power tool (for example, speed, size, mounting and guarding requirements, power requirements, etc.). Refer to the power tool markings
and operator’s manual.
• Fit the power tool without modification. Accessories should not require the removal, modification or bypassing of any guard, barrier, or other
safety device on the power tool, unless another
means of protection is used as recommended
by the tool manufacturer. If another means of
protection is used, the original equipment and
safety devices should be reinstalled once the
accessory is removed.
8
Before Installing Accessories...
Always unplug the tool, remove the battery pack,
or lock off the trigger before installing, adjusting,
and changing any accessory.
Band Saws (Portable and Stationary)
Band saws can be found in most professional tradesman and student vocational work shops. Band saws cut fast and
accurately due to continuous tooth blade action and a slow moving blade, which allows for more finesse and control.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using band saws
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Use sharp blades. Damaged or dull blades could
throw teeth, posing a serious injury risk. A sharp
blade will tend to cut its way out of a pinching
condition.
• When installing or changing a blade, be sure
the blade is aligned properly and the teeth
are running in the right direction. Check blade
tension regularly and carefully. This helps
prevent blade breakage.
• Be sure the blade is properly seated on the
pulleys of the band saw before starting.
• Use clean blades. Buildup on the surface of
the blade increases blade thickness and also
increases blade friction.
• Support long workpieces at the same height as
the saw.
Always place the workpiece securely in a vise or
clamp when making cuts. Never make freehand
cuts. Holding the workpiece by hand is unstable
and may lead to loss of control.
• Never try to remove or clamp the workpiece
while the blade is rotating.
Before Cutting...
Before working with a bandsaw, make sure the machine
and its accessories are in proper working order. Failure
to do so can increase your risk of injury and result in
blade or wheel pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of
control.
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
the probability of binding. Some saw
blades have hollow ground sides
instead of blade set to provide clearance.
• Be sure all guards are in place and working
properly before each use. Do not defeat guards.
• Never attempt to cut materials larger than the
rated capacity listed in the band saw operator’s
manual, as this may result in personal injury. Always check maximum operating speeds established for blades against band saw speed.
9
Stationary Band Saw:
• Adjust the blade guard,
upper blade guide,
and thrust bearings
so only the necessary
length of the blade is
exposed. The upper
blade guide should just
clear your workpiece.
This will prevent blade
breakage and assure a smooth cut.
• Hold the band saw straight in the cut. Any twisting or cocking of the blade results in shorter
blade life. If the blade makes a clicking sound as
it passes through the workpiece, it is probably
defective. Stop the saw; inspect and replace the
blade if necessary.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled tool to lift up and out of the
workpiece toward the operator and is the result of tool
misuse and/or incorrect operating procedures or conditions. Take these specific precautions to help prevent
kickback when using any type of band saw:
NEVER overreach! Always, hold the saw firmly
with both hands after securing the workpiece.
• When you start the saw, allow the blade to reach
full speed before the workpiece is contacted.
Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
• Keep your hands away from all cutting edges
and moving parts.
Never reach under the saw or workpiece. The
blade is exposed under the workpiece and the
saw guard cannot protect your body here.
• Keep hands and body away from and to the side
of the blade. Contact with blade will result in
serious injury.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the
blade is rotating. When making a partial cut, or if
power is interrupted, release the switch immediately and don’t remove the saw from the workpiece until the blade has come to a complete
stop. A saw tooth could grab the workpiece,
causing loss of control.
• Release the switch immediately if the blade
binds or the saw stalls.
• Switch the tool off after a cut is completed, and
keep the saw away from your body until the
blade stops. The blade may coast for a time,
posing the risk of serious cuts.
• Overheating a saw blade can cause it to warp
and result in kickback. Buildup of sap on the
blade, insufficient blade set, dullness, and unguided cuts, can all cause an overheated blade
and kickback.
10
Portable Band Saw:
• Do not bear down on the blade while cutting.
The weight of the band saw will supply adequate
pressure for the fastest cutting. Too much pressure will slow down the speed of the blade and
reduce cutting efficiency.
Stationary Band Saw:
• Do not make curved cuts with too small a radius
for the width of blade being used. This can also
cause unnecessary binding and possible blade
breakage. Be attentive to thin cut-off pieces hitting the end of the slot in the table, or jamming
in the slot. Use a push stick to free workpieces.
Never place your fingers in line with the blade.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Always Remember…
Be alert at all times, especially during repetitive operations.
Don’t be tempted into carelessness due to a false sense
of security. Blades are extremely unforgiving.
Be aware that workpieces and other work
fragments are hot and could cause fires or
burns. Never touch a workpiece until it cools. Let
the blade cool properly before changing.
• To reduce the risk of injury, always unplug the
saw when moving from a workstation.
• Never use liquid coolants to lubricate your band
saw. Liquid coolants can increase the risk of
electric shock and may cause damage to the
saw.
• Do not overfill the gear chamber with lubricant.
Any excess pressure in the chamber will force
lubricant into the motor, and may result in damage to the band saw.
Circular Saws
Among professional tradesmen, on the farm, around the house and in the vocational shop, the circular saw is probably the
most commonly used power saw and perhaps the most commonly abused. Familiarity should not lead to carelessness.
The following are specific safety ‘musts’ when using any portable circular saw. Failure to follow these safety rules can
result in serious injury.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using circular
saws is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all
your activities.
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making a
cut. Circular saws are used to cut a variety of materials,
each having its own specific setup requirements.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
• Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper saw blade
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Do not use a circular saw that is too heavy for
you to easily control.
Use sharp blades. Damaged or dull blades could
throw teeth, posing a serious injury risk. A sharp
blade will tend to cut its way out of a pinching
condition.
Use the correct blade for your tool. Check this
carefully: Does it have the proper size and
shape arbor hole?
Make sure the speed marked on the blade is at
least as high as the no load RPM marked on the
tool.
• Use clean saw blades. A buildup of pitch or sap
on the surface of the saw blade increases blade
thickness and also increases blade friction and
the likelihood of kickback.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
• Support large panels (as illustrated) so they will not pinch
the blade.
• Use a straight edge
or rip fence as a
guide for ripping.
• Avoid cutting small workpieces that can’t be
properly secured, and workpieces on which the
base of the saw (shoe) can not properly rest. Injury could result from small pieces being thrown
back at the operator if the blade pinches and
binds.
Portable circular saws are not designed for cutting logs, roots, trimming trees or shrubs.
Be very cautious of stock which is pitchy, knotty
or warped. These are most likely to create pinching conditions and possible kickback.
Before Cutting...
Before working with a circular saw, make sure the tool
and its accessories are in proper working order. Failure
to do so can increase your risk of injury and result in
blade pinching, binding or stalling, kickback and loss
of control. These situations can cause the saw to jump
back at the operator and result in a serious injury.
Check blades carefully before each use for
proper alignment and possible defects. Never
use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
• Make sure the blade has adequate blade set. Blade set
provides clearance between
the sides of the blade and the
workpiece, thus minimizing the
probability of binding. Some saw
blades have hollow ground sides
instead of blade set to provide
clearance.
11
• Be sure the blade flanges (washers) or bolt are
correctly assembled on the shaft and installed in
accordance with the tool manufactuer’s instructions.
• Never hold a workpiece in your hand or across
your leg when sawing.
• Check for proper blade
guard operation before
each cut. Never use a
tool with a guard missing. The guards should
return to their normal
position quickly. If a
guard seems slow to
return or “hangs up”,
repair or adjust it immediately. Never alter or
defeat the guard (e.g., tying back or removing
the guard).
Keep hands and body away from and to the side
of the blade. Contact with blade will result in
serious injury.
• The lower guard should be pulled back manually
only for special cuts such as “Pocket Cuts” and
“Compound Cuts”. Raise the lower guard using
the lower guard lever. As soon as blade enters
the material, release the lower guard.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
• Tighten depth and bevel levers securely.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled tool to lift up and out
of the workpiece toward the
operator and is the result of
tool misuse and/or incorrect
operating procedures or conditions. Take these specific precautions to help prevent
kickback when using any type of circular saw:
Before starting a circular saw, be sure the power
cord and extension cord are out of the blade
path and are long enough to freely complete the
cut. A sudden jerk or pull on the cord can cause
loss of control of the saw and a serious accident.
Clamp workpieces securely. Check frequently
to be sure clamps remain secure. A moving
workpiece can cause loss of control and result in
injury.
NEVER overreach! Always, hold the saw firmly
with both hands after securing the workpiece.
• Set blade depth to no
more than 1/8 in. to
1/4 in. greater than
the thickness of the
material being cut.
Less than a full tooth
should be visible below the workpiece.
• Minimize blade pinching by placing the saw
shoe on the clamped, supported portion of the
workpiece, and allowing the cut off piece to fall
away freely.
• When you start your saw allow the blade to
reach full speed before contacting the workpiece.
Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring. Hold the saw with two
hands and position your arms to resist kickback.
If a fence or guide board is used, be certain the
blade is kept parallel with it.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the
blade is rotating. When making a partial cut, or if
power is interrupted, release the switch immediately and don’t remove the saw from the workpiece until the blade has come to a complete
stop. Removing the saw with a rotating blade
could result in a saw tooth grabbing the workpiece, causing loss of control.
Never reach under the saw or workpiece. The
blade is exposed under the workpiece and the
saw guard cannot protect your body here.
• Release the switch immediately if the blade
binds or the saw stalls.
• When restarting a saw in the workpiece, center
the saw blade in the kerf and check that saw
teeth are not touching the material when the saw
is turned on.
• Turn off the tool after
a cut is completed and
keep the saw away
from your body until the
blade stops. The blade
may coast for a time,
posing the risk of serious cuts.
Overheating a saw
blade can cause it to warp and result in kickback. Buildup of sap on the blades, insufficient
blade set, dullness, and unguided cuts, can all
cause an overheated blade and kickback.
12
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Always Remember…
Wear safety glasses
Tighten depth
levers securely
Grip saw with both hands, keeping
hands away from the blade.
No loose clothing
Set the depth of cut
1/8” to 1/4” greater
than the thickness of
the stock
Secure the workpiece
to sturdy supports
Always rest the larger
portion of the saw’s baseplate on the supported
portion of the workpiece.
Allow the unsupported
portion to fall away.
Keep the cord away from
the blade and kerf.
Firm footing in a clean area
13
Cordless
Cordless tools get their electrical power from batteries. They demand the same respect that corded tools demand. Remember, cordless tools are very capable of causing injury if all safety precautions are not followed. Cordless tools come
in many types; read and understand the section of this booklet for the type of cordless tool you are using, as well as the
operator’s manual provided with the tool.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using cordless
tools is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all
your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Cordless tools may create sparks, so do not use
them in an explosive atmosphere, near flammable liquids, gases or dust.
• To avoid accidental starting, remove batteries
or lock off the switch when the tool is not being
used, when changing accessories, and when
adjusting or cleaning tools.
• Keep hands away from rotating or moving parts.
• Broken or abused battery packs can leak chemicals that can cause irritation or burns. If you
come into contact with these chemicals, flush
the area with water. If it contacts the eyes, flush
with water and seek medical help.
Batteries may vent gas that can explode near
a source of ignition, like a pilot light. Never use
any cordless tool in the presence of open flame.
Do not place battery packs near fire or heat. The
battery packs could explode.
Choose the Right Battery Pack for the Tool
Use cordless tools only with their recommended battery packs. Other battery packs may create a risk of fire,
burns, and explosions.
Charge Battery Packs Safely
• Charge battery packs only with their recommended chargers.
Charge in a dry location.
• Do not charge near combustible materials.
• Do not use a charger or battery pack if it has
been hit, dropped or damaged.
• Do not take apart the charger or battery pack.
Take it to an authorized service center for all
repairs.
• Keep tools, battery packs and chargers out of
the reach of children and people unfamiliar with
the tools.
14
Maintain and Store Battery Packs Safely
Clean the contacts on the battery pack and tool
with a pencil eraser if the tool isn’t working at full
power with a fully charged battery pack.
• Take the tool, charger, and battery to an authorized service center for all repairs. Do not
attempt to repair them yourself.
Store battery packs away from other metal objects like paper clips, coins, keys, nails, screws,
or other small metal objects. These things can
make a connection from one terminal to the
other, shorting the battery terminals together and
causing burns or fire.
Store the battery pack away from extreme temperature conditions.
Disposing of Battery Packs
Properly dispose of battery packs to help protect our
environment.
Battery pack chemistries can be dangerous to
the environment under certain conditions. Recycle or dispose of properly.
Refer to the instructions included with your battery pack for proper disposal/recycling of the
battery packs. Local, state, or federal laws may
prohibit disposal of certain batteries in ordinary
trash.
• Place electrical tape over the battery pack’s
terminals before disposing/recycling.
Call 1-800-BATTERY for disposal information.
RBRC™ Battery Recycling Seal on a battery
pack indicates that the tool manufacturer has arranged for the recycling of that battery pack with
the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation
(RBRC). At the end of your battery pack’s useful
life, return the battery pack to the tool manufacturer’s branch office or service center or the
participating retailer nearest you. For more information, visit the RBRC web site at www.rbrc.org.
Do not incinerate a battery pack or throw it into
fire even if it is damaged or is completely worn
out. Battery packs can explode in a fire.
Portable, hand-held drills and hammers are undoubtedly
Coring Rigs and Motors
Portable coring rigs and motors, once considered a high-priced specialty tool, are becoming more economical and common on construction projects, as the demand for drilling larger-diameter holes through concrete, stone, asphalt, and other
similar base materials has increased. Available in many sizes and capacities, these coring rigs typically use a diamond
bit, and are designed for either dry or wet use. Whenever water is used near an electrical tool, it is extremely important to
follow the instructions provided in the tool’s operator’s manual.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Choose the Right Tool and Bit
Following good safety practices when using power tools
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• When coring with water, wear insulated boots
and gloves.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not core into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring may exist. If
this situation is unavoidable, disconnect all fuses
or circuit breakers feeding this work site.
• Use only the size and type of coring bits recommended for your tool in the operator’s manual or
on the tool.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before coring.
Securing Motor Base:
• Make sure the rig motor base is secured properly to the workpiece. An insecure rig can rotate
and cause serious personal injury.
• When securing the rig base to concrete using
anchors, check the operator’s manual for the
right size and type of anchor.
• When securing the coring rig using the vacuum
pad attachment, make sure the work surface
is clean and free from contaminants so a good
seal is created; and verify that a minimum recommended vacuum (typically measured in “psi”)
is developed before coring. Check the operator’s
manual for any special requirements whenever
using a vacuum pad.
• Do not use the vacuum for horizontal (wall) or
overhead coring jobs.
In damp locations, only plug your tool into a
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). If the
work area does not have a permanent GFCI
on the outlet, use a plug-in GFCI. Wear rubber
gloves and footwear.
15
Before Coring...
Before coring with a coring rig and motor, make sure
the tool and its accessories are in proper working order.
Failure to do so may increase your risk of injury and may
result in tool damage.
• Never core through a floor without first making
sure the area below is clear of people, and that
a falling core will not cause damage.
• Do not core through steel reinforcement without
first consulting the project engineer to ensure
that the integrity of the structure will not be damaged. Never core through tensioning cables.
• Always turn the tool off and unplug before
removing a core from the bit. Make sure the
carriage assembly is securely locked in place
before placing your hands under the core bit.
• Before coring, compare the data on the tool
nameplate with the voltage source and be sure
that the voltage and frequency are compatible.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
While Coring …
• Make sure the motor base is secured properly
with either anchors or a vacuum base, depending on the type of job.
• Always keep firm footing when using coring rigs.
Water may make the work area slippery. Use a
collection device to keep the work area dry.
• In a binding situation, the tool will react in the
opposite direction of the turning bit. When coring
into the workpiece (clockwise), the rig will try to
spin counterclockwise.
• Don’t force the tool – Apply enough pressure to
keep the bit coring smoothly. If the motor slows
down, relieve the pressure. Too much pressure
can damage the bit and cause you to lose control of the tool. Light pressure slows down coring
and dulls the bit.
• If the bit binds in the workpiece, release the on/
off switch immediately. Unplug the tool, then free
the bit from the workpiece. Do not use a lock-on
button in warped, pitched, knotty, or imbedded
materials where binding may be more common.
Do not try to free a jammed bit by starting and
stopping the tool.
• If the rig shifts (moves) at all during coring, turn
off the motor immediately and reposition the
base of the rig.
• As you get close to breaking through the workpiece, reduce pressure and allow the bit to pass
through the hole more easily.
16
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Drill Presses
Drill presses can be found in most professional and vocational work shops. Most wood or metal drilling jobs can be done
quickly and accurately with a drill press, but some basic safety rules still apply.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Before Drilling...
Following good safety practices when using drill presses
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Before working with a drill press, make sure the tool and
its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to
do so may increase your risk of injury and may result in
binding, stalling, and loss of control. These situations
may cause an accessory to break, causing an injury.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Choose the Right Tool and Bit
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Does the bit shank fit properly into the chuck?
Check the tool’s operator’s manual for the type
of shank necessary (e.g., SDS, Hex, Round,
Spline).
• Is the drill’s capacity adequate for the accessory? Make sure the size of the bit is equal to or
less than the capacity on the tool’s nameplate.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before drilling.
Never hold the work piece by hand. Secure the
work piece with a clamp or another appropriate fixture if it is not long enough to be braced
against the table column.
• Be sure belt guards are installed and working
properly.
• Be sure the chuck is tightly secured to the
spindle.
Tighten the bit securely in the chuck. Remove all
chuck keys or wrenches before starting the drill.
The key can be thrown at a high velocity if not
removed, causing risk for injury.
• Carefully set the drill press speed for both the
type of material and bit size you are using.
• Remove material or debris from the area that
might be ignited by hot chips.
When Drilling...
• To prevent the workpiece and backup material
from spinning, set them against the left side of
the drill support column.
• NEVER overreach! Never reach around or under the working head, or grab the chuck to stop
a drill press. This can result in hand puncture or
other serious injury.
• Don’t force drilling. The tool will do the job better
and safer at the rate for which it was intended.
• As you get close to breaking through the bottom
of the workpiece, reduce pressure and allow the
bit to pass through the hole easily. Set a piece
of scrap wood under your workpiece to reduce
splintering and to protect the bit tip.
• If the bit binds in the workpiece, release the on/
off switch immediately. Unplug the tool, then free
the bit from the workpiece. Do not try to free a
jammed bit by starting and stopping the tool.
When Done...
Don’t touch the drill bit or cuttings. The drill bit
and cuttings are hot immediately after drilling.
• Always shut off, unplug, and lock the drill press,
if a lock is available, and store the key.
Store drill bits with care. Do not drop them or
subject them to excessive heat, cold or humidity.
• Do not use bits with screw tips. These bits will
pull the workpiece up from the table and start to
spin, causing a serious risk of injury.
17
Drills, Hammer-Drills, Rotary Hammers and Hammers
the most widely used power tools in the world. They are grouped into three general categories: drills; hammer-drills/rotary
hammers; and hammers. They are used to drill holes and drive fasteners into a wide variety of materials.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using drills and
hammers is a must. Make a habit of including safety in
all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
What Type of Tool do you Have?
Using the right tool will get the job done faster and more
safely.
Drills are used to create a hole with a rotating
drill bit in wood, metal and plastics. Drills are
rated by the maximum bit capacity of their chuck
(1/2”, 3/8”, etc.). These tools are often well
suited for driving screws.
Hammer Drills and Rotary Hammers use impacting action in combination with rotation of the
specially designed “percussion bit” to drill holes
in masonry materials. In the rotary mode they
can also be used to drive fasteners into concrete, masonry, pavement, and similar materials. Often, these tools have different operating
modes; hammering with rotary motion, rotationonly, and hammering-only.
Hammers (also called breakers, chipping hammers or percussion hammers) have a back-and
forth hammering action, without rotation. They
are most often used for light-to-medium demolition or shaping of concrete, masonry, asphalt
and similar materials.
Choose the Right Tool and Bit
18
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Does the bit shank fit properly into the chuck?
Check the tool’s operator’s manual for the type
of shank necessary (e.g., SDS, Hex, Round,
Spline).
• Is the drill’s capacity adequate for the accessory? Make sure the size of the bit is equal to or
less than the capacity on the tool’s nameplate.
Know your Workpiece
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
Before Drilling or Hammering...
Before working, make sure the tool and its accessories
are in proper working order. Failure to do so may increase your risk of injury and may result in binding, stalling, and loss of control. These situations may cause the
tool to twist or an accessory to break, causing an injury.
• Be sure the trigger turns the tool “on” when it
is pulled and “off” when it is released. A trigger
“lock-on” and lock release must also work correctly.
Check carefully for loose power cord connections and frays or damage to the cord and plug.
Replace damaged tool /extension cords immediately. For grounded tools, equipped with a threeprong plug, make sure the grounding prong is in
good condition.
• For tools with a chuck, be sure the chuck is
tightly secured to the spindle. This is especially
important on reversible type drills. The chuck
could loosen and come off the drill.
Tighten the bit securely in the chuck. Remove all
chuck keys or wrenches before starting the drill.
• Tighten any auxiliary (side) handles provided
with the tool.
When Drilling or Hammering...
• Firmly grasp the trigger handle and auxiliary
handle (if provided) to maintain control.
• Always hold or brace the tool
securely. Brace against stationary things for maximum
control.
• In a binding situation, the tool
will react in the
opposite direction of
the turning bit. When drilling
into the workpiece (clockwise), the tool will try to spin
counterclockwise.
• Don’t force the tool– apply enough pressure to
keep the bit cutting or chipping smoothly. If the
motor slows down, relieve the pressure. Too
much pressure can damage the bit and cause
you to lose control of the tool.
• If the bit binds in the workpiece, release the trigger immediately. Unplug the tool, and then free
the bit from the workpiece. Do not use a lock-on
button when drilling in warped, pitched, knotty,
or imbedded materials (e.g., reinforcing bars in
concrete) where binding may be more common.
Do not try to free a jammed bit by starting and
stopping the tool.
• As you get close to breaking through the workpiece, reduce pressure and allow the bit to pass
through the hole easily.
• Always keep a firm footing when using power
tools. Be sure you have balance and control
before you start the job.
• Remove material or debris from the area, especially if it could be ignited by hot chips or friction.
When Done...
Unplug tool immediately after use, before removing or changing the bit and before performing
any service or maintenance on the tool.
Store the tool in a dry place.
19
Electric Chain Saws
An electric chain saw can be used to cut down small trees, trim and prune unwanted limbs and brush, and resize firewood
and lumber. Chain saws require strict adherence to important safety practices.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using power tools
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a safety device or use the tool with a
safety device missing. Be sure all safety devices
are in place and working properly before each
use. Do not defeat safety devices.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Use only chains specifically recommended for
your tool in the operator’s manual.
• Keep your chain sharp and clean from buildup
of pitch or sap on the surface, which increases
chain thickness and excessive chain friction.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
• Don’t use an electric chain saw for cutting plastics, masonry, metals or other non-wood building
materials, as this may result in personal injury or
damage to the tool. Cut wood and wood products only.
20
• Avoid cutting small pieces of material which can
not be properly secured. Injury could result from
small pieces being thrown back at the operator if
the chain pinches and binds.
Be very cautious of workpieces that are pitchy,
knotty or warped. These are most likely to create
pinching conditions and possible kickback.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring may exist. If
this situation is unavoidable, disconnect all fuses
or circuit breakers feeding this work site.
Before Cutting...
Before cutting with a chain saw, make sure the tool and
its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to
do so may increase your risk of injury and may result in
kickback, chain pinching, binding or stalling, and loss
of control. These situations may cause the saw to jump
back at the operator and can result in a serious injury.
Unplug electric chain saws when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories
and attachments, such as the saw chain and
guard.
• Do not use an electric chain saw if the switch
does not turn the saw on and off. Be sure the
chain stops moving when the switch is released
or the brake guard (lever) is pushed forward.
• Do not operate an electric chain saw that is
damaged, improperly adjusted, or is not completely and securely assembled. A handle, guard
or other part that is damaged should be properly
repaired or replaced by an authorized service
center.
• Do not attempt to disable the chain brake. If
kickback occurs, the chain brake will stop the
chain immediately, and may reduce the risk of
personal injury. The chain brake is engaged
manually when the handle guard is pushed
forward. Periodically test the brake. If the chain
brake doesn’t stop the chain immediately, the
brake needs to be repaired by an authorized
service center.
• Before use, check for the misalignment, binding or breakage of moving parts, improper saw
chain tension and mounting, and any other conditions that may affect saw operation. Too much
tension in the saw chain will burn the guide bar
and damage the chain. Too little tension in the
saw chain will allow the chain to leave the guide
bar, and may cause personal injury. A new chain
will stretch when used and will require readjustments later.
• Keep handles dry, clean, and free from oil and
grease. Greasy, oily handles are slippery and
will cause a loss of control.
• Before starting an electric chain saw, make sure
the saw chain is not contacting anything. Do not
cut until you have a clear work area, secure footing and a planned retreat path, if cutting down a
tree.
• Do not operate an electric chain saw while in a
tree unless specifically trained to do so. Improper
operation of a chain saw may result in personal
injury.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or jammed chain). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled tool to rotate the bar toward
the operator or push or pull the tool, depending on the
location along the periphery of the guide bar where the
jamming of the chain occurs. Kickback is the result of
incorrect operating procedures or conditions. Take these
specific precautions to help prevent kickback when using
an electric chain saw:
• Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
• Firmly control the chain saw when the motor is
running. Do not stand in line with the guide bar
in case kickback occurs.
• Be aware of rotational
kickback, which may
occur when the rotating chain at the nose
or tip of the guide bar
touches an object. This action frequently causes
a fast reverse reaction, kicking the guide bar
up and back, essentially rotating the chain saw
towards the operator. This reaction may cause
you to lose control of the saw, which could result
in serious injury.
• Linear or “pinch” kickback may occur when
the wood closes in and
pinches the chain in
the cut. Pinching the chain along the top of the
guide bar may push the guide bar rapidly back
toward the operator. Pinching the chain along
the bottom of the guide bar may pull the guide
bar rapidly away from the operator. This reaction
may cause you to lose control of the saw, which
could result in serious injury.
• Maintain a firm grip with
thumbs and fingers around
the chain saw handles,
and your body and arms
positioned to resist kickback forces. Do not cut
above shoulder height.
• NEVER overreach! Keep proper footing and
balance at all times.
• Use devices such as low kickback chains, guide
bar nose guards, chain brakes and special guide
bars that reduce the risks associated with kickback.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the chain
is rotating. When making a partial cut, or if power is interrupted, release the trigger immediately
and don’t remove the saw from the workpiece
until the chain has come to a complete stop. A
chain link could grab the workpiece, causing a
loss of control.
Never reach under the chain saw or workpiece.
The chain is exposed under the workpiece and
the saw guard cannot protect your body here.
• Release the switch immediately if the chain
binds or the saw stalls.
• Turn the tool off after a cut is completed, and
keep the saw away from your body until the
chain stops.
• Do not force a saw chain into the material being
cut. Allow the saw to reach full speed, then use
a controlled motion while making the cut.
• Use extreme caution when cutting small size
brush and saplings. The slender material may
catch the saw chain and be whipped toward
you or pull you off balance. When cutting a limb
that is under tension, be alert for spring back so
that you will not be struck when the wood fibers
release.
When Done...
• When storing or transporting an electric chain
saw, use a scabbard or carrying case to cover
the guide bar and saw chain.
Always Remember...
• Do not operate an electric chain saw when you
are tired. Be alert at all times, especially during repetitive operations. Don’t be tempted into
carelessness due to a false sense of security.
Saw chains are extremely unforgiving.
21
Grinders (Portable and Bench)
Grinders and sanders are highly versatile tools capable of accepting a variety of attachments and accessories that allow
the tool to be used for grinding, sanding, polishing, wire brushing or cutting-off operations. The proper guarding and safety
devices must be used with the accessories (e.g., the proper type of guard used with a certain grinding wheel).
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using a grinder is a
must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Wear gloves and a shop apron capable of stopping small abrasive or workpiece fragments.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry,
or long hair can be caught in moving parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Do not operate the power tool near flammable
materials. Sparks could ignite these materials.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Always use undamaged wheel flanges that are
the correct size and shape to properly support
your accessory.
Make sure the speed marked on the accessory
is at least as high as the no load RPM marked
on the tool. Accessories running faster than their
rated speed can fly apart.
Do not use accessories that require liquid
coolant, unless your tool has been specifically
designed for operations with liquid coolant. Using water or other liquid coolants may result in
electrocution or shock.
Portable Grinders:
• Determine the type of tool needed for the job.
Portable grinders come in various types, such
as: “straight” grinders, “vertical” grinders or
“angle” grinders.
• Do not use a grinder that is too heavy for you to
easily control.
• When sanding, do not use excessively oversized
sanding disc paper. Follow tool manufacturer’s
recommendations when selecting sanding
paper.
Know your Workpiece
When it is recommended to use a guard with a
wire brush, do not allow the wire brush to rub
against the guard. The wire wheel or brush may
expand in diameter due to work load and spinning.
• Avoid working on small pieces of material which
can’t be properly secured. Injury could result
from small pieces being thrown by the spinning
accessory.
• Wheels must be used only for their recommended jobs. For example, do not grind with the side
of a cut-off wheel. It will shatter.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
• The outside diameter and the thickness of your
accessory must be within the capacity rating of
your power tool (e.g., don’t use an 8” wheel on a
7” grinder). Incorrectly sized accessories cannot
be adequately guarded or controlled.
22
• Use the correct accessory for your tool. Check
this carefully: Does it fit the spindle of the power
tool. Be careful not to over-tighten the spindle
nut. Too much pressure will deform the flanges
and stress the wheel. Accessories with arbor
holes that do not match the tool will wobble, vibrate excessively and may cause loss of control.
Portable Grinders:
Before Grinding...
Before working with a grinder, make sure the tool and its
accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do so
may increase your risk of injury.
• Handle accessories carefully to prevent damage
or cracking. Do not use a damaged accessory.
• Before each use, inspect
• abrasive wheels for chips and cracks
• backing pad for cracks, tear or excess
wear
• wire brush for loose or cracked wires.
• Test grinding wheels before
mounting. Tap the wheel lightly
with a nonmetallic implement
such as the handle of a
screwdriver. If it produces a
ringing sound, it is in good
condition. If it sounds dull,
replace the wheel. DO NOT
USE A CRACKED WHEEL.
• Bench grinder wheels should be trued and
dressed when worn out of round, or the surface
face is clogged or worn smooth. This provides a
clean sharp grinding surface and rebalancing of
the wheel.
New bench grinder wheels should be balanced
by dressing and truing to eliminate vibration and
possible mishap. Check your operator’s manual.
Don’t operate a grinder unless you are certain
the grinder, its base and/or stand are securely
mounted.
While Grinding...
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched or snagged accessory). Pinching or
snagging causes rapid stalling of the rotating
accessory. This forces the uncontrolled power tool in the
direction opposite the accessory’s rotation at the point of
binding. It can also cause an uncontrolled workpiece to
be thrown.
After inspecting and installing an accessory,
position yourself and bystanders away from the
rotating accessory and run the power tool at
maximum no load speed for one minute. Damaged accessories will normally break apart during this test time.
• For example, when using a portable grinder,
if an abrasive wheel is snagged or pinched by
the workpiece, the edge of the wheel entering
the pinch point can dig into the surface of the
material causing the wheel to climb or kick out
of the workpiece. The wheel may either jump
toward or away from the operator, depending on
direction of the wheel’s movement at the point of
pinching. Abrasive wheels may also break under
these conditions.
• Keep bystanders a safe distance away from the
work area. Anyone entering the work area must
wear personal protective equipment. Pieces of a
workpiece or a broken accessory may fly away.
• Kickback is the result of power tool misuse and/
or incorrect operating procedures or conditions,
and can be avoided by taking proper precautions.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
Never place your hand near the rotating accessory. The tool may kick back.
• Tuck away or trim any loose
portion of a polishing bonnet or its attachment
strings.
Portable Grinders:
• Be sure the guard is
securely attached to the
tool and positioned for
maximum safety, so the
least amount of wheel is
exposed toward the operator during use.
• Position the cord away from the spinning accessory. If you lose control, the cord may be cut or
snagged and your hand or arm may be pulled
into the spinning accessory.
• Use special care when working on corners,
sharp edges, etc. Avoid bouncing and snagging
the accessory. Corners, sharp edges or bouncing have a tendency to snag the rotating accessory and cause loss of control or kickback.
Do not attach a saw chain, woodcarving blade,
or toothed saw blade. Grinders are not designed
for these types of blades.
• Do not “jam” a cut-off wheel or apply excessive
pressure. Do not attempt to make an excessive
depth of cut.
When using wire brushes, wire bristles are
thrown during ordinary operation. Do not overstress the wires by applying excessive load to
the brush.
23
• When stopping a cut, switch off the tool and hold
the tool motionless until the wheel comes to a
complete stop. Never attempt to remove the
cutoff wheel from the cut while the wheel is in
motion.
• Do not restart the cut in the workpiece. Let the
wheel reach full speed and then carefully reenter the cut.
Portable Grinders:
• Maintain a
firm grip
on the power
tool and position
your body
and arms
to allow you to
resist kickback forces.
Always use an auxiliary
(side) handle, if provided, for maximum control
over kickback or a torque reaction during startup. The operator can control torque reactions or
kickback forces, if proper precautions are taken.
• Do not position your body in the area where the
power tool will move if kickback occurs. Kickback will propel the tool in the direction opposite
to the wheel’s movement at the point of snagging.
• Support panels or any oversized workpiece to
minimize the risk of wheel pinching and kickback. Large workpieces tend to sag under their
own weight. Supports must be placed under the
workpiece near the line of cut and near the edge
of the workpiece on both sides of the wheel.
• When it is recommended to use a guard with a
wire brush, do not allow the wire brush to rub
against the guard. The wire wheel or brush may
expand in diameter due to work load and spinning.
24
Bench Grinders:
• On bench grinders, tool rests and spark guards
are adjustable to compensate
for wheel wear. They
must be reset when a
new wheel is installed or
after a wheel has been
worn or dressed. The distance between
the spark guard and the wheel should be
within 1/16”. The tool rest
should be slightly below
the center of the wheel
with 1/8” or less clearance from the wheel. This prevents accidental
jamming between tool rest and the wheel.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Never lay the power tool down until the accessory has come to a complete stop. The spinning
accessory may grab the surface and pull the
power tool out of your control.
• Do not run the power tool while carrying it at
your side. Accidental contact with the spinning
accessory could snag your clothing, pulling the
accessory into your body.
Regularly clean the power tool’s air vents. The
motor’s fan will draw the dust inside the housing
and excessive accumulation of powdered metal
may cause electrical hazards.
• Store accessories with care. Do not drop them
or subject them to excessive heat, cold or humidity.
Heat Guns
Heat guns have a variety of uses, such as removing paint, creating bends and welding plastics, cutting Styrofoam, soldering, heat shrinking, and thawing water pipes. The extreme temperatures that make heat guns so useful also make them
very dangerous.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using a heat gun is a
must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Always wear the appropriate mask or respirator.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Do not point the heat gun at clothing, hair or
other body parts. Do not use as a hair dryer.
Heat guns can produce 1000°F (540°C) or more
of flameless heat at the nozzle. Contact with
the air stream will result in serious burns and
personal injury.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry,
or long hair can contact the air stream or nozzle,
causing burns or fire.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
There are hundreds of nozzles and accessories for heat
guns. Use only those specifically recommended by the
heat gun manufacturer. Others may not fit right or be
able to handle the heat generated by the heat gun.
Know your Work Environment
Do not use near flammable liquids or in explosive atmospheres, such as near fumes, gases or
dust. The flameless heat from the heat gun may
ignite the dust or fumes. Remove materials or
debris that may become ignited from work area.
• Hidden areas such as behind walls, ceilings,
floors, soffit boards and other panels may contain flammable materials that may ignite when
using the heat gun in these locations. Ignition of
these materials may not be readily apparent and
could result in property damage and personal
injury. Check these areas before applying heat.
If in doubt, use a different method.
Before Using the Heat Gun...
Shield materials around the heated area to prevent property damage or fire. Keep a fire extinguisher nearby.
When Using the Heat Gun...
• Always hold the heat gun by the plastic enclosure.
• Do not touch nozzle or accessory tips, or store
heat gun until the nozzle has cooled to room
temperature. The metal nozzle requires approximately 20 minutes to cool before it can be
touched. Contact with the nozzle or accessory
tip could result in personal injury. Place the
heat gun in a clear area away from combustible
materials while cooling to prevent materials from
igniting.
• Keep heat gun moving to avoid excessive
temperatures. Pausing or lingering in one spot
may ignite or melt the workpiece or the material
behind it.
• Do not cut off air flow by placing nozzle too close
to workpiece. Keep intake vents clean and clear
of obstructions. Restricting air flow may cause
the heat gun to overheat.
• Place the heat gun on a stable, level surface
when not hand held. Use the support pads or
support stand. Place cord in a position that won’t
cause the heat gun to tip over.
• Do not leave the heat gun unattended while running or cooling down. It could tip, causing fire or
burns.
• Do not apply airflow directly on glass. The glass
may crack or shatter, resulting in property damage or personal injury.
• The proper amount of heat for each job depends
on the temperature range selected, distance between the nozzle and workpiece, and the length
of time heat is applied. Experiment with scrap
materials and start with lowest temperature
range. Be careful when working until the proper
combination of heat, distance and time of application has been obtained. Use a back and forth
motion when applying heat unless concentrated
heat is desirable.
25
When Done...
Unplug tool immediately after use, before removing or changing the nozzle and before performing any service or maintenance on the tool.
Store the tool in a dry place.
Special Considerations for Removing Paint
Use extreme care when stripping paint.
Peelings, residue and vapors of paint
may contain lead, which is POISONOUS. Pre-1977 paint may contain lead
and paint made before 1950 is likely to
contain lead. Hand to mouth contact with
paint peelings or residue from pre-1977 paint may result
in lead ingestion. Exposure to even low levels of lead
can cause irreversible brain and nervous system damage. Young and unborn children are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning. DO NOT REMOVE LEAD-BASED
PAINT WITH A HEAT GUN. Before beginning your work,
determine whether the paint you are removing contains lead. A local health department or a professional
who uses a paint analyzer can check the paint for lead
content. LEAD-BASED PAINT SHOULD BE REMOVED
ONLY BY A PROFESSIONAL.
• Work in a well ventilated area. If possible, move
the workpiece outside. If working indoors, open
windows and put an exhaust fan in a window. Be
sure the fan is moving air from inside to outside.
Proper ventilation will reduce the risk of inhaling
chemicals found in the fumes or dust created by
using a heat gun.
• Remove or protect any carpets, rugs, furniture,
clothing, cooking utensils and air ducts to prevent contamination and property damage from
the paint peelings. Paint scrapings may ignite if
too close to the heat gun nozzle.
Keep food and drink away from work area. Wash
hands, arms and face and rinse mouth after
leaving the work area and before eating and
drinking. Do not smoke, or chew gum or tobacco
in the work area.
• Place drop cloths in the work area to catch paint
scrapings. Wear protective clothing such as
hats, extra work shirts and overalls. Paint scrapings may contain chemicals that are hazardous.
• Work in one room at a time. Remove furnishings or cover them and place in the center of the
room. Seal doorways with drop cloths to seal
work area from the rest of the building.
• Children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers should not be near work area until all work is
26
completed and work area is cleaned thoroughly.
• Wear a dust respirator mask or a dual filter (dust
and fume) respirator mask which has been approved by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), the National Institute of
Safety and Health (NIOSH), or the United States
Bureau of Mines. These masks and replaceable filters are readily available at major hardware stores or industrial distributors. Be sure
the mask fits. Beards and facial hair may keep
masks from sealing properly. Change filters often. Disposable paper masks are not adequate.
• Clean up all paint scrapings and dust. Do not
sweep, dry dust or vacuum; the paint dust will be
thrown up into the air where it can be inhaled or
contaminate other areas. Wet mop floors. Use
a wet cloth to clean all walls, sills and other surfaces where paint and dust have accumulated.
Use a high phosphate detergent, trisodium
phosphate (TSP), or a trisodium phosphate
substitute to clean and mop the work area.
Dispose of paint scrapings properly. Following
each work session, place paint scrapings in a
double plastic bag, close it with tape or twist ties
and dispose.
• Remove protective clothing and work shoes in
the work area to avoid transferring dust to other
parts of the building. Wash work clothes separately. Wipe shoes off with a wet rag that is then
washed with the work clothes. Wash hair and
body thoroughly with soap and water.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas can cause
tripping or loss of balance and are particularly
dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Impact Wrenches
Impact wrenches are used for tightening and loosening nuts and bolts, and sometimes for light drilling. The tool’s high
torque output is preferred to many other tools (such as a standard drill) because it minimizes torque reaction. Impact
wrenches do, however, pose some risks that require your attention.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
• Always be sure you have firm footing.
Following good safety practices when using power tools
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
• Be sure no one is below you when using the tool
in high locations.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Use only sockets that are specifically designated
“impact wrench sockets”. Other sockets which
are made for hand tool use will not withstand impact wrench use. They are subject to premature
failure, breaking and possibly causing injury.
• Always check the socket carefully for wear,
cracks or damage before use.
• Other accessories for impact wrenches are
available, such as chucks, drill bits and driver
bits. Be sure the accessory is specifically made
for your job.
Before Impacting...
Never use a wire, soft pin or nail to hold the
socket onto the square anvil of the impact
wrench. If the proper retaining device on the tool
is broken, have the tool repaired before use.
While Impacting...
• NEVER overreach! For maximum control, hold
the impact wrench firmly with both hands after
securing the workpiece.
• Don’t force the impact wrench. It will do the
job better and safer at the rate for which it was
intended. Always check maximum operating
speeds established for sockets used on your
impact wrench.
• Avoid over-impacting, particularly on small bolt
sizes. Small bolts could easily be broken or the
threads stripped. Over-impacting can cause
early failure of fasteners or other damage, and
can lead to accidents.
• On jobs where a low or critical level of torque
is required, impact each fastener lightly, and
then do the final tightening with a hand torque
wrench. The proper torque may differ depending
upon the kind or size of the bolt.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the impact wrench in a
safe, dry place after use.
Store sockets with care. Do not drop them or
subject them to excessive heat, cold or humidity.
Always Remember...
• To reduce the risk of injury, unplug the impact
wrench before changing sockets or other accessories.
• Do not use an impact wrench in wet or damp
environments.
Before working with an impact wrench, make sure the
tool and its accessories are in proper working order.
Failure to do so may increase your risk of injury.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
27
Jig Saws (Saber Saws)
Jig saws, also know as saber saws, are light weight and generally easy to handle. For this reason, carelessness can easily enter into tool operation.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using jig saws is a
must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards. Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Unplug the tool before checking or installing
blades or accessories.
Use sharp blades. Dull blades can produce
excessive heat, make cutting difficult, result in
forcing the saw, and possibly cause an accident.
• Make sure the blade is clean. Buildup on the
surface of the blade could cause excessive friction.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring may exist. If
this situation is unavoidable, disconnect all fuses
or circuit breakers feeding this work site.
• Support long workpieces at the same height as
the saw.
Always place the workpiece securely in a vise or
clamp when making cuts. Never make freehand
cuts.
• Holding the workpiece by hand is unstable and
may lead to loss of control.
• Never try to remove or clamp the workpiece
while the blade is moving.
Before Cutting...
Before cutting with a jig saw, make sure the tool and its
accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do so
may increase your risk of injury, blade pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of control. These situations may
result in an injury.
• Check blades carefully before each use for
proper alignment and possible defects. Never
use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
• Never attempt to cut materials larger than the
rated capacity listed in the jig saw operator’s
manual, as this may result in personal injury.
• Never unplug the tool with the trigger locked on.
Before plugging in the tool, be sure the “lock-on”
switch is off. Accidental start-ups could cause
injury.
• If the “lock-on” switch cannot be turned off with
the trigger while the tool is running, unplug it and
have it repaired by a qualified service technician.
• Be sure all guards are in place and working
properly before each use. Do not defeat guards.
• Be sure all adjusting screws (knobs) and the
blade clamp are tight before making a cut.
Loose adjusting screws and blade clamps can
cause the saw or blade to slip and
loss of control may result.
28
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
binding. Some saw blades have
hollow ground sides instead of blade
set to provide clearance.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled tool to lift up and out
of the workpiece toward the operator and is the result
of tool misuse and/or incorrect operating procedures or
conditions. Take these specific precautions to help prevent kickback when using a jig saw:
• NEVER overreach! For maximum control, hold
the saw firmly after securing the workpiece.
• Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Always Remember...
• Be alert at all times, especially during repetitive
operations. Don’t be tempted into carelessness
due to a false sense of security. Blades are
extremely unforgiving.
• To reduce the risk of injury, always unplug the
saw when moving from a workstation.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the
blade is moving. When making a partial cut, or if
power is interrupted, release the trigger immediately and don’t remove the saw from the work
piece until the blade has come to a complete
stop. A saw tooth could grab the work piece,
causing loss of control.
• Never reach under the saw or workpiece. The
blade is exposed under the work piece and the
saw guard cannot protect your body here.
• Release the trigger immediately if the blade
binds or the saw stalls.
Overheating a saw blade can cause it to warp
and result in kickback. Buildup of sap on the
blade, insufficient blade set, dullness, and unguided cuts, can all cause an overheated blade
and kickback.
• When starting the cut, firmly position the saw
plate/shoe on the workpiece before turning on
the tool. Always keep firm contact between the
plate/shoe and the workpiece. Small or thin material may flex or vibrate with the blade, causing
loss of control.
• Before starting a cut, turn the tool “ON” and
allow the blade to reach full speed. The saw can
chatter or vibrate if the blade speed is too slow
when beginning the cut and kickback may occur.
• Keep your hands away from all cutting edges
and moving parts. Never place your fingers in
line with the blade.
• When plunge (pocket) cutting, use a blade
designed for that purpose and follow the tool
manufacturer’s instructions.
• Pinch Points! Keep hands from between the
gear housing and saw blade clamp (plunger).
The reciprocating blade clamp (blade plunger)
can pinch your fingers.
• Switch the tool off after a cut is completed, and
keep the saw away from your body until the
blade stops. The blade may coast for a time,
posing the risk of serious cuts.
29
Jointer/Planer
Jointers/planers are used to resurface wood and like materials to provide a straight, smooth surface.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using a power
tool is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Do not attempt to sharpen blades while they are
installed in the cutter head unless a proper blade
sharpening attachment is provided.
• Do not use cracked or damaged blades. Check
blades for cracks or damage before use. Replace cracked or damaged blades immediately.
• Make sure that the blade flange fits in the arbor
hole when installing the blade.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry,
or long hair can be caught in moving parts.
Examine the workpiece carefully before cutting.
Do not joint or plane chipboard, panel board or
any stock containing nails, paint or varnish.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Be cautious of knots in wood. Knots can be
thrown out of the work piece or cause kickback.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
• Always use push blocks/sticks when jointing or
beveling wood or when planing.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of
serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, the proper tool and accessory will
do the job safer and faster.
• Always keep cutter blades (knives) sharp and
clean of rust and pitch to avoid excessive blade
friction.
• Use only cutter blades (knives) recommended
by the tool manufacturer. This is extremely
important for your personal safety.
30
• Never operate the tool without the cutter blade
(knife) cover securely in position.
• Properly support long lengths of material to
maintain control. Use work supports or stands
as needed.
• Never joint or plane wood narrower than ¾ inch
or thinner than ¾ inch. Never joint or plane wood
shorter than 12 inches.
When using a portable jointer/planer, always
place the workpiece on a stable workbench and
secure it firmly with a clamp or vise to avoid
losing control.
Before Cutting...
Before cutting with a jointer/planer, make sure the tool
and its accessories are in proper working order. Failure
to do so may increase your risk of injury, and may result
in tool damage.
• Obtain advice from a qualified person if you are
not thoroughly familiar with the operation of this
tool.
• Do not operate the tool until it is completely assembled and installed according to the manufacturer instructions.
• Check that all guards are in place and return
quickly to normal rest positions. If a guard
seems slow to return or “hangs up”, have it adjusted, repaired or replaced immediately. Never
use a tool without a properly operating guard.
• Set up and secure blades and worktables according to the operator’s manual.
• Make sure blades are securely locked in the
cutter head and that the unused portion of the
blade is covered with the guard before tool use.
• Maintain proper adjustment of infeed and outfeed tables.
• Avoid awkward operations and hand positions
where a sudden slip could cause a hand to
move into the blade.
• Hold the tool firmly with both hands.
• Run the tool for a while without the blade pointing toward anybody. Check for vibration or
wobbling that could indicate poor installation or a
poorly balanced blade.
While Cutting …
• Never make freehand cuts. Holding the work
piece by hand is unstable and may lead to loss
of control.
• Keep your hands, fingers and body away from
the cutting area. Contact with a blade will cause
serious injury.
• Don’t try to remove too much material in one
pass. Never remove more than 1/8 inch per
pass.
• Keep the exhaust port pointed away from yourself and bystanders.
• Don’t reach into the exhaust chute to unclog
chips. Stop the tool and unplug it from the
power source. After making sure that blade has
stopped, clear the chute with something other
than your bare hand.
• Always be sure that the tool is switched off and
unplugged before making any adjustments.
Never feed the workpiece in the direction of
cutting blade rotation. It can cause the cutter
blade to grab and pull the workpiece.
• Use push blocks to hold down the work piece to
protect your hands and fingers. Your hands and
fingers should never pass directly over the cutter
head when feeding a workpiece.
When Done…
• When done, lock the switch in the “off” position
to prevent unauthorized use.
• Never reach your hands underneath the work
piece while the blade is rotating.
31
Metal Cutting Saws (Portable)
Hand-held metal cutting saws take chips or shavings out of metal workpieces. Metal cutting saws are not recommended
for all types of metals and metal thicknesses. Refer to the saw’s operator’s manual for specific recommended applications.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using metal cutting saws is a must. Make a habit of including safety in
all your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Wear gloves when handling the workpiece after
the cut. The workpiece may be hot and have
sharp edges.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry, or
long hair can be caught in moving parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Do not use near flammable liquids or in explosive atmospheres, near fumes, gases or dust.
The hot chips or shavings and sparks may ignite
the dust or fumes. Remove materials or debris
that may become ignited from work area.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions for use, the proper tool and accessory will do
the job safer and faster.
• Do not use a metal cutting saw that is too heavy
for you to easily control.
Use sharp blades. Damaged or dull blades could
throw teeth, posing a serious injury risk. A sharp
blade will tend to cut its way out of a pinching
condition.
Use the correct blade for your tool. Check this
carefully: Does it have the proper size and
shape arbor hole?
Make sure the speed marked on the blade is at
least as high as the no load RPM marked on the
tool.
32
• Never use damaged or incorrect blade flanges
or bolts.
Do not use any type of abrasive cut-off wheel or
dry diamond cutting blades.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making a
cut. Metal cutting saws are used to cut a variety of materials, each having its own specific setup requirements.
• Support large panels (as illustrated) so they will not pinch
the blade.
• Avoid cutting small
workpieces that can’t
be properly secured, and workpieces on which
the base of the saw (shoe) cannot properly
rest. Injury could result from small pieces being
thrown back at the operator if the blade pinches
and binds.
Do not use cutting oils or lubricants. Liquids can
damage the saw, causing an electrical hazard.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
Before Cutting...
Before cutting with a metal cutting saw, make sure the
tool and its accessories are in proper working order.
Failure to do so may increase your risk of injury and may
result in kickback, blade pinching, binding or stalling,
and loss of control. These situations may cause the saw
to jump back at the operator and can result in a serious
injury.
Check blades carefully before each use for
proper alignment and possible defects. Never
use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
• Make sure the blade has adequate blade set.
Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade and the
workpiece, thus minimizing the probability of binding.
• Be sure the blade flanges (washers) are correctly assembled on the shaft and that the blade
is properly supported.
• Check for proper blade guard operation before
each cut. The guards should return to their
normal position quickly. If a guard seems slow to
return or “hangs up”, repair or adjust it immediately. Never alter or defeat the guard (e.g., tying
back or removing the guard).
• Set blade depth to no
more than 1/8 in. to
1/4 in. greater than
the thickness of the
material being cut.
• Minimize blade pinching by placing the saw
shoe on the clamped, supported portion of the
workpiece, and allowing the cut off piece to fall
away freely.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
• When you start your saw allow the blade to
reach full speed before the workpiece is contacted.
• Tighten depth levers securely.
Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
• The lower guard should be pulled back manually
only for special cuts such as “Pocket Cuts” and
“Compound Cuts”. Raise the lower guard using
the lower guard lever. As soon as blade enters
the material, release the lower guard.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a
sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or
misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled
tool to lift up and out of the
workpiece toward the operator and is the result of tool
misuse and/or incorrect operating procedures or conditions. Take these specific precautions to help prevent
kickback when using any type of metal cutting saw:
Before starting a metal cutting saw, be sure the
power cord and extension cord are out of the
blade path and are long enough to freely complete the cut. A sudden jerk or pull on the cord
can cause loss of control of the saw and a serious accident.
Clamp workpieces securely. Check frequently
to be sure clamps remain secure. A moving
workpiece can cause loss of control and result in
injury.
• Never hold a workpiece in your hand or across
your leg when sawing.
• Do not use cutting oil. The use of cutting oil may
cause a fire.
Keep hands away from cutting area and blade.
Keep your second hand on other saw handle
or motor housing. If both hands are holding the
saw, they cannot be cut by the blade.
• NEVER overreach! For maximum control, hold
the saw firmly with both hands after securing the
workpiece.
If a fence or guard board is used, be certain the
blade is kept parallel with it.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the
blade is rotating. When making a partial cut, or if
power is interrupted, release the switch immediately and don’t remove the saw from the workpiece until the blade has come to a complete
stop. A saw tooth could grab the workpiece,
causing loss of control.
Never reach under the saw or workpiece. The
blade is exposed under the workpiece and the
saw guard cannot protect your body here.
• Release the switch immediately if the blade
binds or the saw stalls.
• Turn off the tool after a cut is completed, and
keep the saw away from your body until the
blade stops. The blade may coast for a time,
posing the risk of serious cuts.
Overheating a saw blade can cause it to warp
and result in kickback. Insufficient blade set,
dullness, and unguided cuts, can all cause an
overheated blade and kickback.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Some metal cutting saws have chip or shaving collectors that must be emptied. Chips and
shavings will be hot immediately after being
cut. Wear gloves when handling. Always unplug
the saw before emptying the container. Do not
dispose of chips and shavings in receptacles
containing flammable materials such as paper
or wood. NEVER operate saw when guards and
chip container are not installed. Serious injury
may occur.
33
Miter Saws
Miter saws are used for crosscutting, mitering or beveling wood, nonferrous metals and plastics. These saws cut through
the work piece at a set miter angle. Some also can cut at both miter and a beveled angle.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using miter saws
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
• When installing or changing a blade, match
the direction of the arrow on the blade with the
direction of the arrow on the tool casting to be
sure you install it properly.
• Be sure the blade screw is tight to prevent slipping or loosening during use.
• Never attempt to cut materials larger than
the rated capacity listed in the saw operator’s
manual, as this may result in personal injury.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
• Support long workpieces at the same height as
the saw table.
• Always place the workpiece securely on the
table and against the fence when making cuts.
Never make freehand cuts. Holding the workpiece by hand is unstable and may lead to loss
of control.
Never cut small workpieces that would require
you to put fingers near the cutting blade.
• Use clamps to secure the workpiece to the table
and avoid injuries
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
• Never try to remove or clamp the workpiece to
the saw while the blade is rotating.
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Do not cut stone, brick, concrete, or ferrous metals (iron, steel, stainless steel, or alloys of these
metals) with a miter saw. Particles created by
cutting these materials can jam the blade guard
and possibly cause personal injury.
Check this carefully: Does your blade have the
proper size and shape arbor hole? Never force a
blade onto an arbor or alter the size of an arbor.
Do not use a blade that does not fit the arbor, as
vibration may result. If the blade doesn’t fit the
arbor, get one that does.
Use sharp blades. Damaged or dull blades could
throw teeth, posing a serious injury risk. A sharp
blade will tend to cut its way out of a pinching
condition.
• Make sure the arbor and blade are clean.
Buildup on the surface of the arbor and blade
will increase excessive friction.
Make sure the speed marked on the blade is at
least as high as the no load RPM marked on the
tool.
34
• Remove all nails from the workpiece before cutting, if present.
Before Cutting...
Before working with a miter saw, make sure the tool and
its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do
so can increase your risk of injury and result in kickback,
blade pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of control.
• Set the saw securely on a flat, level surface.
• Before installing a blade, always inspect it for
damage. Visually check blade teeth for damage.
Replace damaged blades immediately.
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
the probability of binding. Some saw
blades have hollow ground sides
instead of blade set to provide clearance.
• Make sure that all mounting flanges, related
washers, fasteners and other mounting hardware are in good condition and are properly
positioned and secured on the arbor before each
use. Always use mounting hardware supplied
with the saw.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
• If the lower guard appears loose or if it does not
move to cover the blade when the head is up,
take the saw to an authorized service center for
repairs. Clean the lower guard often to help visibility and movement.
• Be sure angle mechanisms are tightened securely before making a cut.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause the head of the tool to lift up and out
of the workpiece toward the operator and is the result
of tool misuse and/or incorrect operating procedures or
conditions. Take these specific precautions to help prevent kickback when using any type of miter saw:
Switch the tool off after completing a cut, and
keep your body away from the blade until it
stops. The blade may coast for a time, posing a
risk for serious cuts.
Overheating a saw blade can cause it to warp
and result in kickback. Buildup of sap on the
blades, insufficient blade set, dullness, and unguided cuts, can all cause an overheated blade
and kickback.
When Done...
To reduce the risk of injury, always unplug the
saw when moving from a workstation. Lock miter
saws in the down position before transporting or
when not in use.
• Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Always Remember...
• Be alert at all times, especially during repetitive
operations. Don’t be tempted into carelessness
due to a false sense of security. Blades are
extremely unforgiving.
• When you start your saw, allow the blade to
reach full speed before the workpiece is
contacted.
• Do not force cutting. Always start the cut gently.
Do not bump or bang a blade down on the work
piece. Your saw will perform best at the rate for
which it was designed. Excessive force only
causes operator fatigue, increased wear and
reduced control.
• If the blade stops rotating or if the motor sounds
like it is straining, release the trigger switch immediately to reduce the risk of damage to the
saw.
Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
• Never remove the saw from a cut while the
blade is rotating. When making a partial cut, or if
power is interrupted, release the trigger immediately. Don’t remove the saw from the workpiece
until the blade has come to a complete stop. A
saw tooth could grab the work piece, causing
loss of control.
• Release the switch immediately if the blade
binds or the saw stalls.
• Never reach under the saw blade or perform
“cross handed” operation, i.e. with your left hand
suporting the workpiece on the right side of the
blade (or vice versa)
35
Radial Arm Saws
Radial arm saws, because of their versatility, are widely used in home, professional, and vocational work shops. They
demand a thorough understanding by the operator of all procedures.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using a radial arm
saw is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Some accessories, such as a dado or molding
head, require special safety precautions and
equipment. Refer to the tool’s operator’s manual
and instructions that come with the accessory.
Do not use grinding or wire brush wheels on
your radial arm saw. Radial arm saws are not
equipped with the proper guards to use grinding
wheels or wire brush wheels.
Know your Workpiece
Radial arm saws are used to cut a variety of materials,
each having its own specific setup requirements. Take
the time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut.
• Do not cut wet wood. It produces higher friction
against the blade. The blade will also tend to
load up with wet sawdust increasing the risk of
kickback.
• Do not use the tool until it is completely assembled and installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Check adjustments often.
• Cut only wood, wood-like, or plastic materials.
Do not cut metal.
• Never operate a radial arm saw with tools, debris or loose objects on the table.
Be very cautious of stock which is pitchy, knotty
or warped. These are most likely to create pinching conditions and possible kickback.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Use sharp, clean blades. A sharp blade will
tend to cut its way out of a pinching condition. A
buildup of pitch or sap on the surface of the saw
blade increases blade thickness and friction.
• Do not cut more than one piece at a time.
Before Cutting...
Before using a radial arm saw, make sure the tool and
its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to
do so may increase your risk of injury and may result in
kickback, blade pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of
control. These situations may cause the workpiece and/
or the motor and carriage to jump and can result in an
injury.
Always unplug the tool before installing, adjusting, and changing any accessory.
Do not set up the work with the blade rotating.
Turn off and unplug the tool before making adjustments.
• Use the correct blade for your tool. The saw
blade should never extend beyond the saw table
in any operation you perform.
• Check blades carefully before each use for
proper alignment and possible defects. Never
use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
• Never use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
Throw it away immediately and get a new one.
Make sure the blade is installed to rotate in the
correct direction.
• Only use accessories specifically recommended
in the tool operator’s manual.
36
Make sure the speed marked on the blade is at
least as high as the no load RPM marked on the
tool.
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
the probability of binding. Some saw
blades have hollow ground sides
instead of blade set to provide clearance.
• Position the workpiece so the cut off piece falls
away from the table.
• Check for proper blade guard operation before each cut. The guards should
return to their normal position quickly. If a guard
seems slow to return or “hangs up”, repair or
adjust it immediately.
• A spreader should
always be used
when rip cutting. The
spreader must be
precisely lined up
with the blade.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
• When ripping, make sure the blade is exactly
parallel to the fence. If the fence closes in toward the rear of the blade, it will tend to wedge
the wood against the blade and may cause
kickback.
• Anti-kickback devices should be positioned to
just clear the workpiece.
• When ripping, the upper guard must be positioned to hold down the workpiece on the table.
Make certain that the anti-kickback device
fingers are sharp, free-moving and adjusted to
stop kickback and assure proper operation.
See your operator’s manual.
• Keep your radial arm saw in correct adjustment
and alignment. Use only sharp accessories
that were designed for your saw. Follow your
operator’s manual carefully.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction when a
workpiece binds between the saw blade and the
fence during a ripping operation). Kickback can cause
the workpiece to be thrown back toward the operator.
Kickback is the result of tool misuse and/or incorrect
operating procedures or conditions. Take these specific
precautions to help prevent kickback when using any
type of radial arm saw:
• Feeding a workpiece in the wrong direction
when ripping is extremely dangerous. Follow the
instructions provided with and on the saw very
carefully.
• Do not release your feed pressure on a workpiece when ripping until it clears the blade.
• If a guard jams, shut off tool power and allow the
blade to stop before freeing the guard.
• Anti-kickback devices may not work when cutting smooth, hard
surfaces. Always
cut with the smooth,
hard surface down,
on the table.
• For ripping short or narrow stock, always use a
pushstick between the blade and the fence. Do
not rip a workpiece that is shorter than the diameter of the saw blade.
• Do not cut freehand (failing to use
the fence to stabilize the workpiece.)
Free-handing a
workpiece can cause
crooked cuts and
potential kickback.
• Always hold the
workpiece firmly
against the fence when crosscutting. Pull the
saw toward you and through the workpiece just
far enough to complete the cut.
• When you start your saw allow the blade to
reach full speed before contacting the workpiece.
• Avoid standing or permitting others to stand
directly behind the workpiece when making a
ripping cut.
• Never reach near, along side, or around the saw
blade. This is particularly dangerous.
Never place arms, hands or fingers in the path
of the blade. This is especially dangerous during
a crosscutting job.
• Hold onto the saw handle until the blade comes
to a complete stop.
When Done...
• When a crosscut job is complete, return the carriage to the full rear position behind the fence.
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
37
Reciprocating Saws
The reciprocating saw can be used to cut metal, pipe, wood, nail-embedded wood and other materials. By design, it is a
simple tool to handle. Its few demands for safe use, however, are very important.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using reciprocating saws is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all
your activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
• To minimize blade flexing and provide a smooth
cut, use the shortest blade that will do the job
but will extend beyond the workpiece throughout
the stroke. Blades may shatter if they impact the
work or shoe. Do not use the saw without the
shoe for secure control and to avoid damage to
the tool and blade.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Use sharp blades. Dull blades can produce
excessive heat, make cutting difficult, result in
forcing the saw, and possibly cause an accident.
• When changing blades, be sure the spindle and
blade clamp areas are clean. Metal chips and
sawdust may prevent the blade from being held
securely.
• Blades can break. Use the blade and accessories recommended for the job being done. Check
your operator’s manual carefully about this.
• When cutting metal, choose a blade that will
allow for at least three blade teeth to be in the
material at all times. Less than three teeth will
result in teeth snagging and
breakage. However, using
blades with too fine a
tooth will slow your cut.
• Use clean saw blades.
A buildup of pitch or sap
on the surface of the saw blade increases blade
thickness and blade friction.
Know your Workpiece
Take time to review your work and make sure that all
necessary precautions have been taken before making
a cut. Reciprocating saws are used to cut a variety of
materials, each having its own setup requirements.
Know what is behind a workpiece before you do
the job. Do not cut into existing walls or other
blind areas where electrical wiring, water, or gas
pipes may exist. If this situation is unavoidable,
disconnect all fuses/circuit breakers, and shut off
any water and gas lines feeding this work site.
• Support large workpieces so they will not pinch
the blade. Use a straight edge as a guide for ripping.
• Avoid cutting small workpieces that can’t be
properly secured, and workpieces on which the
base of the saw (shoe) can not properly rest. Injury could result from small pieces being thrown
at the operator if the blade pinches and binds.
• Be very cautious of stock which is pitchy, knotty
38
or warped. These
are most likely to
create pinching conditions.
• When possible,
avoid cutting above
shoulder height.
Before Cutting...
Before cutting with a reciprocating saw, make sure the tool and its accessories are in
proper working order. Failure to do so may increase your
risk of injury, blade pinching, binding or stalling, and loss
of control. These situations may result in an injury.
Unplug the saw before making any adjustments
or changing the blade.
Check blades carefully before each use for
proper alignment and possible defects. Never
use a bent, broken or warped saw blade.
• Make sure the blade has adequate blade set.
Blade set provides clearance between the sides
of the blade and the workpiece, thus
minimizing binding.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not use a tool if the switch does
not turn it off when returned to the off
position.
• When using a variable speed saw, use
higher speeds for soft materials and
lower speeds for harder materials to
avoid blade damage.
While Cutting …
• Position yourself to maintain full control of the
saw. When possible, avoid cutting above shoulder height.
Keep hands away from the blade and shoe.
Before starting, be sure the power cord and
extension cord are out of the blade path and are
long enough to freely complete the cut. A sudden
jerk or pull on the cord can cause loss of control
of the saw and a serious accident.
Clamp workpieces securely. Check frequently
to be sure clamps remain secure. A moving
workpiece can cause loss of control and result in
injury.
• Never hold a workpiece in your hand or across
your leg when sawing.
• NEVER overreach! For maximum control, hold
the saw firmly with both hands after securing the
workpiece.
• When you start your saw allow the blade to
reach full speed before contacting the workpiece.
• Always hold the shoe of the saw firmly against
the work to prevent operator injury and blade
breakage. Striking the blade end against the
workpiece can cause loss of control and damage to the saw.
• Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding.
• When making anything other than a through cut,
allow the saw to come to a complete stop before
removing the blade from the workpiece. This
prevents blade breaking and possible loss of
saw control.
• When plunge cutting, maintain firm contact between the saw’s shoe and the workpiece. Lower
the blade into the workpiece using the shoe as
a pivot. Once the shoe is flat against the workpiece, begin the desired cut.
• Do not plunge cut into a metal workpiece.
Instead, using a drill or chisel, make a pilot hole
larger than the widest portion of the blade. Insert
the blade, placing the shoe flat against the workpiece, and begin the desired cut.
When Done...
• Switch off the tool after a cut is completed, and
keep the saw away from your body until the
blade stops. The blade may coast for a time,
posing the risk of serious cuts.
Remember that the blade and blade clamp may
be hot immediately after cutting. Avoid contact
until they have cooled.
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
39
Die Grinders
Die grinders perform a wide variety of jobs, typically in a confined space. Die grinders are a special version of end grinders to be used with mounted wheels or accessories 2” or less in diameter. Due to the small accessory diameters, die
grinders are designed to work without a guard, therefore requiring a special attention while operating. You must have a
thorough understanding of all procedures for each job you perform.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using a die grinder
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
• Be sure to properly secure all die grinder
accessories that use a collet.
• Be careful not to over-tighten the spindle nut
of the tool. Too much pressure will deform the
flanges and stress the wheel.
Make sure the speed marked on the accessory
is at least as high as the no load RPM marked
on the tool. The wrong accessory can shatter
during use, possibly causing injury.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Know your Workpiece
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry,
or long hair can be caught in moving parts.
Take time to review your work piece and make sure that
all necessary precautions have been taken before grinding.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Use grinding wheels when working with hard
materials – such as steel. Use rotary cutters for
soft materials – such as aluminum, brass, copper and wood. If you use wheels on soft material, it will cause over loading, and could cause
the wheel to shatter or disintegrate. Dangerous
flying objects could result.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
• Do not operate the power tool near flammable
materials. Sparks could ignite these materials.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
• Use the correct accessory for your tool. Check
this carefully: Does it fit the spindle of the tool.
Accessories with spindles that do not match the
tool will wobble and vibrate and may cause loss
of control.
• Some die grinders are designed to be used with
wheel types that may require different guards.
Follow the tool and accessory manufacturers’
instructions for selecting guards and grinding
wheels. Just because an accessory can be
attached to a tool, does not mean it is safe to
do so.
40
• Accessories must be used only for recommended jobs. For example: do not grind with the
side of a cut-off wheel. It will shatter, causing a
serious risk for injury.
Always place the work piece securely in a vise
or clamp securely. Never make freehand cuts.
Holding the work piece by hand is unstable and
may lead to loss of control.
• Support panels or any oversized workpiece to
minimize the risk of wheel pinching and kickback. Large workpieces tend to sag under their
own weight. Supports must be placed under the
workpiece near the line of cut and near the edge
of the workpiece on both sides of the wheel.
Before Grinding...
Before working with a die grinder, make sure the tool
and its accessories are in proper working order. Failure
to do so may increase your risk of injury.
• Be sure the switch is in the “off” position before
plugging it in.
• Do not use a tool if the switch does not turn it off
when returned to the “off” position after release.
Always unplug the grinder before making accessory installations.
• When installing a mounted grinding wheel, burr
or cutter in the collet, keep distance between
the back of the wheel and the front of the collet
(overhang) at a maximum of ½ inch. This
prevents spindle bending and wheel damage
that could cause injury.
• Never use cracked or damaged accessories.
Carefully check them before each use.
• Always check accessory for tightness on the tool
before each use. A loose cutter or wheel can be
thrown from the rotary grinder and can cause
serious injury. If the grinder is dropped, inspect it
for damage, such as a cracked accessory, broken collet, or bent mandrel. Repair or replace
damaged parts to prevent further breakage and
thrown objects.
• Do not restart the cut in the work piece. Let the
cutter or wheel reach full speed and then carefully re-enter the cut.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
To avoid burns, wait before touching workpieces.
Allow time to cool.
Always Remember...
• Store tools and accessories with care. Do not
drop them or subject them to excessive heat,
cold or humidity.
• Never over-tighten a collet. It can damage the
cutter or wheel.
Allow new wheels to run for a minimum of 1
minute to check for proper balancing.
• For maximum control, hold the grinder firmly with
both hands.
• Always hold the accessory end of the tool away
from you and co-workers to prevent possible
injuries.
• Die grinders operate at high speeds. To avoid
injury, be very careful not to contact the accessory end or be hit by thrown objects.
• If the die grinder vibrates during use, stop immediately and check for the grinding points. Dull
grinding points could force the collet out of the
tool. Replace or sharpen the grinding accessory.
While Grinding...
• Too much pressure during use can bend or
break the collet, mandrel, or accessory. If the
grinder runs smoothly when not under load,
but does not run smoothly under load, then too
much pressure is being used.
• If the tool does not run smoothly when not under
load, the accessory may be bent or out of balance. Replace the accessory.
• Never use a rotary die grinder with the cutter
pointing toward you. If the grinder should slip,
the accessory could cause injury.
• Never hold the workpiece by hand. Keep your
hands and fingers away from the working area.
Contact with the cutter or wheel will cause injury.
• When stopping a cut, switch off the tool and hold
the tool motionless until the accessory comes
to a complete stop. Never attempt to remove a
wheel from the cut while the wheel is in motion
to avoid accidental contact.
41
Routers
The widespread use of routers is based on their ability to perform an extensive range of smooth finishing and decorative
cuts.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using routers is a
must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Take time to review your workpiece and make sure that
all necessary precautions have been taken before cutting.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always make sure the work surface is free from
nails and other foreign objects. Cutting into a
nail can cause the bit and the tool to jump and
damage the bit.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
• Never lay the workpiece on top of hard surfaces
like concrete, stone, etc. The bit may hit the
surface and cause the tool to jump up. This can
be very dangerous.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory for
your job can help to reduce the risk of serious injury.
When used according to the manufacturer’s instructions,
the proper tool and accessory will do the job safer and
faster.
Use only those accessories with speeds rated
at least as high as the no-load RPM on the tool.
The wrong accessory can shatter during use,
possibly causing injury.
• Never use dull or damaged bits. Sharp bits must
be handled with care. Damaged bits can snap
during use. Dull bits tend to over load, causing
possibility of bit breakage.
• Never use bits that have a cutting diameter
greater than the opening in the router base.
42
Always place the workpiece securely in a vise
or other recommended clamping device. Holding the work piece by hand is unstable and may
lead to loss of control.
Before Routing...
Before working with a router, make sure the tool and its
accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do so
may increase your risk of injury.
• After changing the bits or making any adjustments, make sure the collet nut and any other
adjustment devices are securely tightened.
Loose adjustment devices can unexpectedly
shift, causing loss of control; loose rotating components will be violently thrown. Install router
bits securely and according to the operator’s
manual.
• Always use the wrenches provided with the tool
to make adjustments. Using the correct wrench
enables a more secure grip on the tool and may
prevent slipping leading to potential injury.
While Routing…
• Never start the tool when the bit
is touching the workpiece. The
bit may grab the workpiece and
cause loss of control. Follow the
tool manufacturer’s procedure for
setting the depth of cut. Tighten
adjustment locks. Make certain
that the bit shaft is engaged in the
collet at least ½ inch.
• Always inspect the router bit before each use
and NEVER use a bit if the carbide is cracked or
appears damaged in any way.
• Never use a router with the bit pointing toward
you. If the router should slip, the bit could cause
serious injury. Always face the bit away from
your body.
• For maximum control, hold the router firmly with
both hands. The reaction torque of the motor
can cause the tool to twist.
Keep your hands and fingers away from the
work area. Contact with the bit will cause serious
injury.
• Always feed the bit into the workpiece in the
same direction as the bit rotation (same direction
as the chips are being thrown). When the router
is positioned between your body and the side of
the routed workpiece, the direction of the router
feed is to the right. If the router is positioned on
the side of the workpiece away from your body
the direction of the router feed is to the left.
• If the router does not run smoothly, the bit may
be bent or out of balance. Replace the bit immediately.
• Feeding the tool in the wrong direction causes
the cutting edge of the bit to climb out of the
work piece and pull the tool toward the operator,
and may result in loss of control and injury. Follow the instructions provided with and on the tool
very carefully.
When Done...
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Never touch the bit during or immediately after
use. The bit is too hot to be touched with bare
hands.
• Never lay the tool down until the motor and bit
have come to a complete standstill. The spinning
bit can grab a surface and pull the tool out of
your control.
Always Remember...
Store tools and bits with care. Do not drop them
or subject them to excessive heat, cold or
humidity.
43
Sanders (Stationary and Portable)
Sanders come in wide variety of designs, such as belt sanders, drum sanders, disc sanders, random orbit sanders or pad
sanders. Sanding is often a long job. For this reason, it is very important that you do not lose concentration and that your
working environment is set up correctly. If you use the sander unsafely or incorrectly, you could be injured.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using a sander is a
must. Make a habit of including safety in all your activities.
Take time to review your workpiece and make sure that
all necessary precautions have been taken before sanding.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
• Always support your workpiece on a stationary
sander with the table or backstop.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
• Never hold the workpiece by hand, as this is
unstable and may lead to loss of control.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions. Sanding dust may affect your
breathing and overcome you if you are not
protected against it – particularly when working
with many of the exotic (tropical) hardwoods or
products containing hazardous substances.
• Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Avoid working on small pieces of material which
can’t be properly secured. Injury could result
from small pieces being thrown by the spinning
sanding pad.
• Remove material or debris from the area that
might be ignited by sparks from sanding metal.
• On stationary sanders, maintain a 1/16 inch
maximum clearance between the table and the
sanding disc or belt.
• Dress right. Do not wear loose clothes or jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, jewelry,
or long hair can be caught in moving parts.
Before Sanding...
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
Before working with a sander, make sure the tool and its
accessories are in proper working order. Failure to do so
may increase your risk of injury.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Always unplug the sander before changing any
accessories.
• Stationary sanders may have multiple features,
such as belt and disc sanding. Portable sanders
are normally single feature sanders (disc, pad,
or belt). Exercise caution and alertness to avoid
injuries, such as skin abrasions or pinching, that
can result from contacting the sanding medium
or other moving parts – belts, pulleys, and arbors.
• Don’t use small sanders for big jobs or large
sanders for small jobs.
• Abrasive belts should be the width recommended by the manufacturer.
• Do not use excessively oversized sanding disc
paper. Follow tool manufacturer’s recommendations when selecting sanding paper.
44
Use jigs or fixtures to hold your workpiece in
position whenever possible.
• Adequate ventilation of your work area is very
important when using any type of sander. The
use of exhaust type systems or bag collection
is also recommended. Dust can explode if the
concentration becomes too great. Wood dust
and the finishes from woodwork are very
combustible.
Do not use the dust collection bag when sanding metal. Using the dust collection bag when
sanding metal creates a fire hazard, which could
damage the tool and lead to serious personal
injury.
• Before connecting the sander to the power supply, be sure the switch and switch lock (if provided) are in the “OFF” position. If not, the sander
will start immediately and could result in injury.
Keep power supply and cords from entanglement with the moving parts of the sander. Damaged cords can result in an electrical shock.
• Do not work with a faulty tracking belt sander.
Stop using it until the problem is fixed.
• When adjusting the tracking of a portable belt
sander, be sure that the sander is supported and
positioned properly to avoid accidental contact
with yourself or nearby objects.
While Sanding...
• Always keep your body well clear of moving
parts such as belts, pads and pulleys.
• Hold portable sanders firmly with both hands.
Never lock a portable sander in the “ON” position when the job may require stopping the
sander quickly, such as using a sanding disc on
a car fender. The rotating disc could get jammed
and cause injury.
• It should never be necessary to force a portable
sander. The weight of the tool applies adequate
pressure. Forcing too much pressure can cause
stalling, overheating of the tool, burning of the
workpiece, and possible kickback of the tool or
workpiece.
If sander is equipped with a dust bag, empty
it frequently and when you are done sanding. Spontaneous combustion may result from
a mixture of some wood finishing chemicals
with dust particles. Be extremely careful of dust
disposal, as materials in fine dust may be explosive.
When Done...
• When you are done sanding, switch the tool to
the “OFF” position and hold the tool motionless
until the sanding disc comes to a complete stop.
Never try to remove sand paper while the sanding pad is still rotating.
• Never lay down the portable tool until the sanding pad or belt has come to a complete stop.
The spinning pad or belt may grab a work surface and pull the tool out of your control.
Unplug, clean and store the tool in a safe, dry
place after use.
Always Remember...
With portable sanders, be careful not to expose
the tool to liquids, or to use in damp, wet
locations.
45
Shapers and Router Tables
Shapers and router tables are used to create decorative surfaces in wood and wood like materials.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Know your Workpiece
Following good safety practices when using a shaper or
router table is a must. Make a habit of including safety in
all your activities.
Take time to review your workpiece and make sure that
all necessary precautions have been taken before shaping.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Choose the Right Tool and Accessory
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory for
your job can help to reduce the risk of serious injury.
When used according to the manufacturer’s instructions,
the proper tool and accessory will do the job safer and
faster.
• Use only the cutter recommended by the tool
manufacturer. This is extremely important for
your personal safety.
• Always keep cutters sharp and clean of rust and
pitch to avoid excessive blade friction.
• Do not attempt to sharpen cutters while they
are installed in the cutter head unless a proper
sharpening attachment is provided.
46
Examine the workpiece carefully before cutting.
Do not shape chipboard, panel board or any
stock containing nails, paint or varnish.
• Shaping narrow materials can be hazardous.
Always use fixtures, featherboards, push blocks
and/or other jigs to hold down the workpiece.
• Never make freehand cuts. Holding the work
piece by hand is unstable and may lead to loss
of control.
• Be cautious of knots in wood. Knots can be
thrown out of the workpiece or cause kickback.
• Properly support long lengths of material to
maintain control. Use work supports or stands
as needed.
Before Shaping...
Before working with a shaper or router table, make sure
the tool and its accessories are in proper working order.
Failure to do so may increase your risk of injury.
• Obtain advice from a qualified person if you are
not thoroughly familiar with the operation of this
tool.
• Do not operate the tool until it is completely assembled and installed according to the manufacturer instructions.
• Check that all guards are in place and return
quickly to normal rest positions. If a guard
seems slow to return or “hangs up”, have it adjusted, repaired or replaced immediately. Never
use a tool without a properly operating guard.
• Always use the guard as recommended by the
tool manufacturer.
• Set up and secure cutters and worktables according to the operator’s manual.
• Make sure cutters are securely locked in the
cutter head and that the unused portion of the
cutters are covered by the guard before tool use.
• Maintain proper adjustments for infeed and outfeed tables.
• Adjust the fence halves so the cutter opening is
more than is required to clear the cutter blade.
• Lock the fence into position after making fence
adjustments.
While Shaping…
• Avoid awkward operations and hand positions
where a sudden slip could cause a hand to
move into the cutter knives.
• Keep your hands, fingers and body away from
the cutting area. Contact with a knife will cause
serious injury.
• Never feed the workpiece in the direction of cutting blade rotation. Otherwise, the cutter blade
can grab and pull the workpiece.
Always use a miter gauge and clamp for “end
shaping” to maintain safe control of the work
piece.
• Keep the exhaust port pointed away from yourself.
• Don’t reach into the exhaust chute to unclog
chips. Stop the tool and unplug it from the
power source. After making sure that blade has
stopped, clear the chute with something other
than your bare hand.
• Never reach under the table while the tool is running to avoid personal injury.
• Always be sure that the tool is switched off and
unplugged before making any adjustments.
When Done...
• When done, lock the switch in the “off” position
to prevent unauthorized use.
Always Remember...
• Store cutters with care. Do not drop them or
subject them to excessive heat, cold or humidity.
47
Table Saws
Table Saws are one of the most commonly used stationary power tools in woodworking shops. To use them safely, they
must be properly set up, maintained with care, and specific operating procedures must be followed to prevent accidents.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using table saws
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly
dangerous.
• Keep the saw table clear of other tools, workpieces, and debris.
• Only use table saws that are completely assembled and secured according to their instructions.
A table saw should be equipped with a rip fence,
miter gage, blade guard, riving knife or spreader
and anti-kickback device.
• Children and onlookers should be kept out of the
work area. They may distract the operator leading to an accident.
• Never alter a guard or use the tool with a guard
missing. Be sure all guards are in place and
working properly before each use. Do not defeat
guards.
Choose the Right Tool and Blade
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory
for your application can help to reduce the risk of serious injury. When used according to the manufacturer’s
instructions, the proper tool and accessory will do the job
safer and faster.
Use sharp blades. Damaged or dull blades could
throw teeth, posing a serious injury risk. A sharp
blade will tend to cut its way out of a pinching
condition.
Use the correct blade for your tool. Check this
carefully: Does it have the proper size and
shape arbor hole?
48
• Use the proper blade for the job. Watch out for
overheating or vibrating blades.
• Use clean saw blades. A buildup of pitch or sap
on the surface of the saw blade increases blade
thickness and also increases blade friction.
Make sure the speed marked on the blade is at
least as high as the no load RPM marked on the
tool.
Know your Workpiece
• Use auxiliary work stand/tables to properly support and control long or wide workpieces.
• Cut only wood, wood-like, or plastic materials.
Do not cut metal.
• Avoid cutting small pieces of material which cannot be properly secured. Injury could result from
small pieces being thrown back at the operator if
the blade pinches and binds
• Be very cautious of stock that is pitchy, knotty or
warped. These are most likely to create pinching
conditions and possible kickback.
• Do not cut wet wood. It produces higher friction
against the blade. Also the blade tends to load
up with wet sawdust, creating a greater probability of kickback.
• Anti-kickback devices may not work when
cutting smooth, hard surfaces. Always cut with
the smooth, hard surface down, on the table.
• Check the workpiece for nails or other foreign
objects.
Before Cutting...
Before working with a table saw, make sure the tool and
its accessories are in proper working order. Failure to
do so may increase your risk of injury and may result in
kickback, blade pinching, binding or stalling, and loss of
control. These situations may cause the workpiece to
jump back at the operator that can result in an injury.
The saw should always be turned off and disconnected from its power source before making
adjustments, installing accessories or making
repairs.
Check blades carefully before each
use for proper alignment and possible defects. Never use a bent, broken
or warped saw blade.
• Make sure the blade has adequate
blade set. Blade set provides clearance between the sides of the blade
and the workpiece, thus minimizing
the probability of binding.
• Be sure the blade flanges (washers) are clean
and correctly assembled on the shaft and that
the blade is properly supported.
Be alert to the possibility of the blade binding
and kickback occurring.
• Check often to assure that the blade guard functions properly and returns quickly to its rest position. If a guard seems slow to return or “hangs
up”, adjust, repair or replace it immediately.
• Do not cut “freehand”. Always use
the miter gauge or rip fence
to ensure
a straight
cut.
• Be sure the tool switch works properly. Do not
use a tool if the switch does not turn it off when
returned to the off position.
• Use pushsticks to keep your fingers away from the
saw blade for short or narrow ripping operations.
• The rip fence must be parallel to the saw blade
to prevent binding and possible kickback.
• Use featherboards to firmly hold the
workpiece against the fence and
table when ripping narrow stock.
Make sure the blade is installed to rotate in the
proper direction – towards the front of the saw.
Do not use grinding wheels, wire brushes, or
abrasive wheels on a table saw.
While Cutting …
Concentrate on what you are doing and be
aware of kickback (a sudden reaction to a
pinched, bound or misaligned blade). Kickback
can cause an uncontrolled workpiece to be thrown toward the operator and is the result of tool misuse and/or
incorrect operating procedures or conditions. Take these
specific precautions to help prevent kickback:
• Always keep the fence parallel to the blade.
• Always push the workpiece through the cut.
• Set blade height to no
more than 1/8 in. to
1/4 in. greater than
the thickness of the
material being cut.
• Use the riving knife or the spreader for all
“through-sawing” operations (where the saw
blade cuts through the thickness of the workpiece).
• When using the table saw for non-through cutting operations, such as dadoing, grooving or
moding, use pushsticks, pushblocks, featherboards, jigs or fixtures to keep your hands and
fingers away from the saw blade.
• Do not use the fence as a cut-off stop when
cross-cutting.
• Always use the miter gauge when cross-cutting,
and hold the workpiece firmly against the miter
gauge to assure a straight and even cut.
• Always use a
spreader /splitter
for through-sawing.
This prevents the
kerf from closing and pinching
the blade. Make sure the
spreader is properly aligned with the blade.
• Always use the anti-kickback pawls /fingers. If
a kickback should occur, they are designed to
engage the workpiece and keep it from being
thrown back toward the operator. Keep the teeth
of the pawls /fingers sharp.
• Feeding work too aggressively can overheat a
saw blade causing it to bind or warp and create
a kickback. Buildup of sap on the blades, insufficient set, dullness, and “freehand” cuts can all
result in an overheated blade.
Never reach over or behind the saw. Keep arms,
hands and fingers away from the blade.
• The saw blade may coast after the saw is turned
off.
When Done...
• Turn off the saw after each completed job.
When done cutting, unplug the tool and lock the
switch in the “off” position to prevent unauthorized use.
Clean and store the tool in a safe, dry place after
use.
• When you start your saw, allow the blade to
reach full speed before contacting the workpiece.
49
Wood Lathes
Safe, effective use of a wood lathe requires detailed study and knowledge of all procedures for using this tool.
Good Personal Safety is a Must
Following good safety practices when using wood lathes
is a must. Make a habit of including safety in all your
activities.
Always read and understand the tool’s operator’s manual, tool markings and the instructions
packaged with the accessory before starting any
work.
Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses
with side shields complying with current national
standards, and a full face shield when needed.
Use the appropriate mask or respirator in dusty
work conditions.
Wear proper hearing protection, as needed.
• Dress right. Do not wear gloves, loose clothes or
jewelry. Contain long hair. Loose clothes, gloves,
jewelry, or long hair can be caught in moving
parts.
• Crowded, cluttered work areas that can cause
tripping or loss of balance are particularly dangerous.
• Do not use the tool until it is completely assembled and installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Check adjustments often.
Choose the Right Tools
Choosing the correct tool and the proper accessory for
your job can help to reduce the risk of serious injury.
When used according to the manufacturer’s instructions,
the proper tool and accessory will do the job safer and
faster.
• Check the operator’s manual for proper speed
recommendations for the intended purpose and
use.
• A lathe should not be altered in any way, or set
up to perform any operation not covered in the
operator’s manual.
• Keep accessories sharp. Dull accessories can
dig into the wood, causing the workpiece to be
thrown.
Know your Workpiece
• Use only defect-free stock, without cracks,
checks, knots and splits. Knots, for example,
can fly out and cause serious injury.
• It is recommended that you rough out faceplate
workpiece on a band saw or with hand tools
before installing them on the lathe faceplate to
prevent jams, slips, or thrown workpieces.
• Never remount a turned piece once it is removed
from the faceplate.
50
Before Cutting...
• Make certain that the belt guard or cover is
in place and the workpiece is free but firmly
mounted between centers. Check that all clamping devices (locks), such as on the tailstock and
tool rest, are tight and that the workpiece clears
the tool rest and other machine parts before
operating the tool.
Do not run a lathe in the wrong direction. This
can cause the turning tool to be thrown from
your hands. The lathe spindle must rotate so the
top of the workpiece turns toward you.
• The clearance between the workpiece
and the tool rest
should be only about
1/8”. Rotate the
workpiece by hand
to be sure it clears
the tool rest.
• Remove the tool rest before you sand a workpiece by hand.
• Clear the lathe bed of all objects before turning
on the tool.
While Cutting …
• Never adjust the tool rest with the lathe turned on.
• Hold turning chisels
securely on the tool
rest, and hold the
handle of the chisel
firmly.
• Always use the
lowest speed
when starting a
new workpiece.
Lathes should be operated at slow speeds until
the workpiece is cylindrical. This helps avoid the
possibility of an unbalanced piece jumping out at
high speed and striking the operator.
• Clamp workpieces securely. Check frequently
to be sure clamps remain secure. A moving
workpiece can cause loss of control and result in
injury.
When Done...
Unplug the lathe and lock the switch when not in
use. Make sure the switch is in the off position to
prevent accidental start-up.
Clean and store the tool in a safe, dry place.
NOTES
51
Revision 9/07 - 10m
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