NEWS BRIEFS IN-DEPTH ARTICLE

NEWS BRIEFS IN-DEPTH ARTICLE
Volume Twenty-Nine
NEWS BRIEFS
Maxim Reports Record Revenues and Earnings for the First
Quarter of Fiscal 1998
2
IN-DEPTH ARTICLE
Silicon-bipolar IC facilitates VCO design
3
DESIGN SHOWCASE
SSB modulator draws only 5mA at 2.7V
9
Adjustment-free inclinometer operates on +2.7V
Supply circuitry selects main/backup voltage and disconnects load
DAC-powered charge pump varies negative rail
Boost controller drives buck converter
NEW PRODUCTS
11
13
15
16
Data Converters
• IF undersampling CODEC combines digitizing ADC with
reconstruction DAC
• +2.7V, 12-bit/10-bit ADCs have internal reference
• 8-bit latched parallel DAC resides in 16-pin QSOP package
(MAX1005)
(MAX1240/1242)
(MAX5480)
17
17
17
(MAX4014/4017/4019/4022)
18
(MAX868)
18
(MAX869L)
(MAX1617)
18
19
(MAX1620/1621)
19
(MAX1636)
19
(MAX1658/1659)
(MAX1680/1681)
20
20
(MAX6501–6504)
20
(MAX3243E/3244E/3245E)
(MAX3320)
21
21
(MAX2102)
(MAX2420)
(MAX2511)
(MAX2601/2602)
(MAX2620)
22
23
22
21
23
(MAX3675)
23
High-Speed Buffers
• Low-cost, high-speed, single-supply SOT23 buffers
have rail-to-rail outputs
Power-Management ICs
• Regulated supply (3VIN, -5VOUT) is 0.06in2 by 1.11mm high
• High-accuracy, current-limited switch eases power-supply
requirement by 50%
• Remote/local temperature sensor has SMBus serial interface
• Switch-mode controllers provide digitally adjustable
LCD-bias voltage
• Precision PWM buck controller optimized for next-generation
notebook CPUs
• Low-dropout linear regulators generate 3.3V, 5V, or
adjustable outputs
• 1MHz charge pumps generate 125mA
µP Supervisors
• Low-cost, SOT temperature switches feature logic outputs
Interface ICs
• 1Mbps RS-232 transceiver has AutoShutdown and ±15kV
ESD protection
• 250kbps RS-232 transceiver adds power-on reset function
Wireless ICs
•
•
•
•
•
Direct-conversion IC tunes DBS television signals
Image-reject RF transceiver ideal for low-cost 900MHz radios
Low-voltage IF transceiver includes limiter and RSSI
+3V, 1W RF power transistors ideal for 900MHz applications
Lowest phase-noise RF oscillator replaces VCO modules
Fiber Optic IC
• +3.3V clock-recovery/data-retiming IC suits 622kbps
SDH/SONET receivers
News Briefs
MAXIM REPORTS RECORD REVENUES AND EARNINGS FOR THE FIRST
QUARTER OF FISCAL 1998
Maxim Integrated Products, Inc., reported record net revenues of $125 million for the first quarter of fiscal
1998 ending September 27, 1997, compared to $101 million for the same quarter in fiscal 1997. Net income
increased to $40 million compared to $31.4 million for the first quarter of fiscal 1997. Income per share was
$0.53 per share for the quarter compared to $0.45 per share for the same period a year ago.
During the quarter, Maxim’s cash and short-term investments increased $51.4 million after purchasing
$10.6 million of common stock and $10.5 million of capital equipment. Total cash and short-term investments at
the end of Q198 equaled $275.3 million. Annualized return on average stockholders’ equity for the quarter was
32%, one of the highest in the industry today.
During Q198, backlog shippable within the next 12 months increased to $182 million from the
$152 million reported at the end of Q497. Approximately 80% of the Q198 backlog consists of orders that were
requested for shipment in Q298 or earlier.
Turns orders received in Q198 were $50.7 million. (Turns orders are customer orders that are for delivery
within the same quarter and may result in revenue within the quarter if the Company has available inventory that
matches those orders.)
Worldwide net bookings were higher in Q198 than in Q497, with net bookings in the Pacific Rim and
Europe showing the greatest increase. Net bookings for all product areas continue to be strong, particularly for
those products based on the Company’s high-frequency bipolar technology. In addition, net bookings for product
lines focused on our broadest markets (instrumentation and process control) continue to be strong.
Gross margins for the first quarter increased slightly to 66.8% compared to 66.4% in Q497. Increases in
production volume and manufacturing productivity continued in Q198. Research and development expense
increased to $15.5 million, 12.4% of net revenues, due to the Company’s continued investment in new product
development.
In July, Forbes Magazine listed Maxim as one of the top ten new issues of the decade. Maxim ranked
number seven on this elite list. In September, Fortune Magazine featured Maxim as one of the top 100 fastest
growing companies in the United States. Maxim was ranked 48th out of the top 100, based on earnings per share
annual growth rate. Maxim ranked 8th out of the Fortune top 100 companies in terms of net income for a fourquarter period and had the 16th best one-year share price performance of the group.
Jack Gifford, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, commented on the quarter: “During
Q198, Maxim continued to see very broad demand for its products. Demand from the Pacific Rim and Europe
was particularly strong. Although some parts of Asia are experiencing recessionary problems, Asian customers
are demanding Maxim products at a high rate. We attribute this demand to the fact that Maxim ICs are used
mainly in such Asian exports as computers and electronic instruments and are not intended for internal consumption. Maxim sales continue to be well balanced with 14% derived from customers located in the Pacific Rim,
17% from Japan, and 25% from Europe. We believe that the consumption of Maxim products by its customers is
at record levels worldwide.”
Gifford continued: “We are pleased to see the continued recognition of Maxim by the financial
community, including recent articles in Forbes and Fortune. I was particularly proud to see Maxim ranked one of
the top ten new IPOs of the decade, considering the stiff competition. This coming year will mark Maxim’s first
decade as a publicly traded company. During our second decade, we will continue to work hard to outperform
our competition through strong management, engineering ingenuity, and high productivity in hopes of continuing
recognition by stockholders.”
The following paragraphs discuss each parameter in turn.
Silicon-bipolar IC
facilitates VCO
design
Output level
In typical superheterodyne receivers, the VCO output
must drive a mixer as well as a PLL synthesizer’s RF
prescaler. This requirement is commonly met with a
buffer amplifier, which provides load isolation as well as
greater drive capability.
The frequency of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)
varies with the voltage applied to its tuning port. Operating
in a phase-locked loop (PLL), the VCO provides a stable
local oscillator (LO) for frequency conversion in superheterodyne receivers. VCOs are also used in transmit
chains, where they upconvert the baseband signal to a
radio frequency (RF) suitable for transmission over the
airwaves (Figure 1).
Output harmonic level
• Output level in dBm (dB relative to 1mW)
Output harmonic level is a measure of the VCO energy
at harmonics of the oscillation frequency. These
harmonics, common at levels below -15dBc, are
generated by the nonlinear self-limiting of active devices
in the oscillator. Oscillators with large amounts of
excess gain (greater than the amount necessary to offset
all losses at resonance) will limit more severely, thereby
generating a greater harmonic content in the output
waveform. The designer must balance the need to keep
harmonic levels low with the need for enough excess
gain to ensure oscillator start-up.
• Output harmonic level in dBc (dB relative to carrier
power)
Tuning sensitivity
Design considerations
The VCO designer must consider several important
performance parameters:
• Frequency pushing, in Hz/V, of bias-supply change
Tuning sensitivity is a system-level parameter that relates
the maximum available tuning voltage to the required
tuning-frequency range, in units of Hz/V. It is inversely
proportional to the loaded Q, which is the loaded oscillator tank’s quality factor. Higher tuning sensitivities
require oscillators with lower loaded Qs.
• VCO phase noise, in dBc/Hz, at a given offset
frequency
The variation of tuning sensitivity over the tuningfrequency range is another important consideration. If a
• Tuning sensitivity in Hz/V
• Load pulling of oscillation frequency in Hz p-p (for a
given load voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR)
rotated through 360°)
LOW-NOISE
AMPLIFIER
IMAGE
FILTER
FIRST
MIXER
FIRST
IF FILTER
SECOND SECOND
MIXER IF FILTER
IF GAIN
STRIP
IF VGA
DEMODULATOR
RF VCO
(MAX2620)
ANTENNA
IF VCO
DUAL PLL
SYNTHESIZER
DUPLEXER
CRYSTAL
REFERENCE
OSCILLATOR
MODULATOR
POWER-AMPLIFIER
(MAX2601/
MAX2602)
POWER-AMPLIFIER
DRIVER
(MAX2430)
SECOND
IF FILTER
SECOND
MIXER
FIRST
IF FILTER
Figure 1. VCOs appear as part of the PLLs in this typical superheterodyne receiver.
3
FIRST
MIXER
VCO’s tuning sensitivity varies dramatically over the
tuning band, the PLL synthesizer’s performance suffers.
The VCO is the highest gain device in a typical PLL,
with tuning sensitivities in the tens of MHz/V. This
amount of gain can cause unwanted modulation sidebands in response to noise at the tuning port; therefore,
tuning-port noise must be minimized.
VCO phase noise
Phase noise in a free-running VCO relates the noise-sideband
level to the carrier-power level. In a typical measurement,
observe the VCO output on a spectrum analyzer while
measuring the noise level in a 1Hz bandwidth at a given
frequency offset from the carrier. Modern spectrum
analyzers equipped with a particular firmware option can
generate a graph showing single-sideband phase noise versus
offset frequency by taking multiple measurements with
various offsets, and making appropriate changes to the
internal IF bandwidth in each case.
Load pulling
Load pulling measures the sensitivity of a free-running
VCO to load variations at the VCO output. Measurement
requires a load-impedance mismatch and a variable-length
transmission line. Connect the VCO to the mismatched
load, and vary the phase angle (between VCO and load)
through 360° by changing the length of the transmission
line. Measure the resulting peak-to-peak frequency
change. VCO load pulling is specified as the maximum
peak-to-peak frequency shift at a given load VSWR,
rotated through 360°. Equation 1 shows the relationship
between load VSWR and load-impedance mismatch:
Oscillators with very low phase noise (crystal oscillators,
for example) cannot be measured by a spectrum analyzer
because the phase-noise limit for its LO is too high. The
8561 RF spectrum analyzer from Hewlett Packard, for
instance, specifies phase-noise limits of -80dBc/Hz at
100Hz, -97dBc/Hz at 1kHz, -113dBc at 10kHz, -113dBc
at 30kHz, and -113dBc at 100kHz. A typical crystal oscillator, on the other hand, has 30dB to 40dB less phase
noise at each of these offset frequencies. For such highquality oscillators, an accurate phase-noise measurement
requires more sophisticated techniques.
Equation 1:
VSWR =
1 +
Γ0
1−
Γ0
, where Γ0 =
ZL − Z0
ZL + Z0
Several key factors affect a free-running VCO’s phase
noise. All are included in Equation 2, a formula for estimating an oscillator’s single-sideband noise.
where:
VSWR = voltage standing-wave ratio
Γ0
= load-reflection coefficient: the ratio (at
the load) of the incident voltage wave to the
reflected wave
ZL
= load impedance
Z0
= the transmission line’s characteristic
impedance
Equation 2:
2
 

 f
 FkT 
1  fO 
L(f M ) = 10 log  
+ 1  C + 1

 2  2Q L f M 
  fM
 PS 


 
where:
L(fM) = single-sideband phase noise in dBc/Hz, as a
function of offset frequency from the carrier
Using buffer amplifiers is the most common technique for
reducing a free-running VCO’s sensitivity to load variations.
fO
= output frequency in Hz
QL
= loaded resonator Q (resonator tank circuit
with active load and all parasitic elements)
fC
= corner frequency in Hz for flicker noise in the
active oscillation device
fM
= offset from the carrier in Hz
PS
= the active oscillation device’s oscillationsignal power, in watts
F
= the active device’s in-circuit noise factor
(with the resonator tank and all parasitic
elements)
k
= Boltzmann’s constant: ~1.38 x 10-23 J/°K
T
= temperature in degrees Kelvin (°K)
Frequency pushing
Frequency pushing measures a free-running VCO’s sensitivity to variations in its bias-supply voltage. To measure
the VCO’s sensitivity, vary the supply voltage over a
given range while measuring the VCO frequency. Divide
this frequency shift by the voltage change to determine
sensitivity in Hz/V. Well-designed VCOs have pushing
factors between 5% and 10% of the main tuning-line
sensitivity. An example of a device with excellent pushing
performance is Maxim’s MAX2620 VCO, which has a
tuning-port sensitivity of 10.4MHz/V and a pushing sensitivity of only 71kHz/V. Pushing sensitivity for the
MAX2620 is less than 1% of the tuning-port sensitivity.
4
In this formula, loaded-resonator Q is the dominant
design parameter affecting phase noise. Low-noise
design dictates that this parameter be maximized to meet
tuneability requirements. A high loaded-resonator Q
requires the use of resonant-tank components with high
unloaded Q. Under these conditions, the tank’s load
should couple just enough energy to the rest of the circuit
to start and sustain oscillations. The resonator’s loaded Q
can easily be less than a tenth of its unloaded Q.
Adding equations 2, 3, and 4 results in equation 5, an
estimate of the VCO’s total single-sideband phase noise:
Equation 5:
2
 

 f

 1  fO 

FkT 
C
 + 1 
+ 1
 

 P 
 2  2Q1f M 
  f M

S

 



2
2
K PUSH VN BIAS (f )


L
= 10 log +

2
TOTAL( fm )
f
2


M




K 2TUNE VN 2TUNE (f )
+

2


2f
M




The corner frequency for flicker noise is device dependent; low-noise design demands devices with a low
flicker corner. The flicker-noise corner makes bipolar
processes the best choice for low-noise oscillator design.
GaAs devices cannot compete because their noise corner
is from two to three orders of magnitude greater than
that of Si-bipolar devices.
Equation 4:
L
(
)(
) 
)(
) 
 2
K PUSH VN 2BIAS (f )
= 10 log 
PUSH( fm )

2f 2

M
(


 2
K TUNE VN 2TUNE (f )
= 10 log 
MOD( fm )

2f 2

M
(
)(
)
)
Another problem is the drastic change in supply current
caused by the PA’s off/on cycling. Typical PAs for
GSM, DCS1800, and DCS1900 handsets can draw over
1A, and the current switching causes voltage changes on
the VCO’s bias line. The result of these bias-voltage
changes and the pushing factor is unwanted modulation
sidebands that fall outside of the PLL synthesizer’s loop
bandwidth. The VCO’s bias voltage must be stabilized
to eliminate this problem.
Equation 3 describes phase noise intrinsic to the oscillator. Adding to this are the modulation-noise sidebands
produced by noise on the tuning line (see Equation 4).
L
)(
Limitations in the previously mentioned VCO parameters can lead to degradation of system-level performance. For example, the power amplifier (PA) in a
cellular phone is activated only when a voice signal is
present. This switching causes the PA’s input impedance
to vary considerably, which in turn presents a problem
for the RF VCO driving the transmit chain. Unless the
VCO is isolated from the load variations (typically by a
load buffer), its frequency variations can cause the PLL
to slip cycles or even lose phase lock.
Because the value of the in-circuit noise factor depends
on the device as well as its external circuit, low-noise
design requires that both be optimized. Adjusting the
oscillation-signal power allows some control over phase
noise, but the premium on bias current in today’s handheld wireless phones usually prohibits large changes in
the oscillator section’s current drain.
Equation 3:
(
The unfaded bit-error rate (BER) in digitally modulated
systems is limited by the net phase noise of all signal
generators in the transmit and receive paths, with the RF
VCO in the PLL synthesizer (usually) as the dominant
contributor. The classic waterfall curve in Figure 2
shows the effect of phase noise. Beyond a certain level


where:
LPUSH(fm) = single-sideband phase noise (in dBc/Hz)
due to noise voltage modulating the
VCO through the bias line
2
KPUSH
= supply-pushing sensitivity, in Hz/V
2
KTUNE
= oscillator tuning gain, in Hz/V
BER
LMOD(fm) = single-sideband phase noise (in dBc/Hz)
due to noise voltage modulating the
VCO through the tuning line
WITHOUT PHASE NOISE
2
VNBIAS
(f) = noise-voltage density on the bias line as
a function of frequency (nV/√Hz)
VN2
TUNE
WITH PHASE NOISE
Eb/NO
(f) = noise-voltage density on the tuning line
as a function of frequency (nV/√Hz)
Figure 2. For higher values of energy per bit divided by additive white
Gaussian noise density (Eb/NO), the bit-error rate (BER) is
essentially constant.
5
of Eb/NO (Eb is energy per bit; NO is additive white
Gaussian noise density), the BER remains essentially
constant. For a more robust communication link, lower
the unfaded BER by reducing phase noise in the PLL
synthesizer’s RF VCO.
communication link. Equation 6 shows the relationship
between integrated phase variance and phase noise:
Equation 6:
f2
σ2φ = ∫
Sφ(f )df
f1
Phase noise is a primary concern for digital-modulation
techniques in which information is encoded by modulating the carrier phase. One such technique is quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK). Analogous to
in-phase/quadrature modulation in the analog domain,
QPSK allows transmission of a given bit stream at half
the data rate by encoding pairs of bits at each of four
different phases. Each phase (π/4, 3π/4, 5π/4, and 7π/4
in Figure 3a) is represented as a point in signal space
that is spread into a cloud by the presence of additive
white Gaussian noise (AWGN) in the system.
√σ2φ = integrated RMS phase error, in radians
Figure 3b shows the same QPSK constellation with the
same AWGN, but with 5° of RMS phase variance
added. Phase variance deforms the four constellation
regions into arcs that reduce the distance between
regions. This effect increases the probability of a symbol
error at the demodulator, and an increase in symbol
errors increases the BER. Thus, the amount of phase
variance that can be tolerated depends on the demodulator design and on the performance required in the
Perhaps the most stringent restraint on an LO’s phase
noise is imposed by receiver desensitization. This effect
occurs in cellular phones and other environments in
which the receiver must detect a weak signal in the
presence of a strong interferer. In Figure 4, a strong
nearby interferer mixes with the LO’s phase noise to
produce noise sidebands that reduce the signal-to-noise
ratio at the IF, thus desensitizing the receiver’s ability to
detect weak signals.
where:
f1, f2 = frequencies over which the integral is evaluated (usually determined by the demodulator
design)
σ2φ
= integrated phase variance in radians squared
Sφ(f) = phase-power spectral density in radians
squared/Hz (twice the single-sideband phase
noise for small angles)
(a)
(b)
1
1
Q
Q
-1
-1
-1
0
I
-1
1
0
I
1
Figure 3. The signal constellation for a QPSK signal with Gaussian noise (a) is degraded by the addition of 5° of RMS phase variance (b), producing
a distortion that can raise the BER.
6
Besides the low-noise transistor, the MAX2620 includes
a double buffer with two outputs (for load isolation), a
bias generator, and convenient shutdown capability. This
device operates from a +2.7V to +5.5V single supply
and dissipates only 27mW at 3V. When operating at
900MHz, a load VSWR of 1.75:1 rotated over 360°
produces a frequency shift of less than 163kHz. The
MAX2620’s internal bias-voltage generator greatly
reduces the effect of bias-voltage variation on the oscillation frequency. At a 900MHz center frequency and a
3V to 4V supply-voltage change, the device achieves a
71kHz/V pushing sensitivity.
B
A
WEAK
SIGNAL + STRONG
INTERFERER
NOISY LO
AT POINT A
AT POINT B
STRONG
INTERFERER
DESIRED
SIGNAL
LO PHASE NOISE
MIXING WITH STRONG
INTERFERER
LOW SIGNAL-TO-NOISE
RATIO CAUSED BY
LO PHASE NOISE MIXING
WITH STRONG INTERFERER
IF
The MAX2620 has two outputs. One output, which
generates -2dBm into a 50Ω load, typically drives a
mixer’s LO input. The other generates -12.5dBm into a
50Ω load and typically drives an integrated PLL synthesizer’s RF prescaler input. Operating at 900MHz with a
high-Q external tank circuit, the MAX2620 and its lownoise internal transistor produce low phase noise:
-110dBc/Hz at 25kHz and -132dBc/Hz at 300kHz. The
external tank allows designers to optimize tuneability
and single-sideband phase noise for a given application.
Figure 4. By mixing with the local-oscillator signal, a strong interfering
signal generates noise sidebands that mask the signal of
interest.
Earlier versions of the low-noise VCO were composed
of discrete components: a specialized bipolar transistor
with low corner frequency for flicker noise, a biasvoltage supply, and buffer amplifiers to provide load
isolation and added output drive. The many passive chip
components in the discrete circuit required a lot of PC
board space, which is at a premium in today’s small
wireless handsets.
To ensure oscillation start-up, the tank circuit’s realimpedance magnitude should equal one-third to one-half
of the oscillator device’s negative real-impedance
magnitude, and the tank’s reactive component should be
opposite in sign to that of the oscillator device. After
start-up, gain compression lowers the oscillator’s
negative resistance until it achieves equilibrium with
that of the resonant tank circuit.
An integrated solution
Maxim’s MAX2620 (Figure 5) integrates all the active
functions of a discrete-component approach into a tiny,
8-pin µMAX package. It includes a critical bipolar transistor with low corner frequency for flicker noise, fabricated in Maxim’s exclusive Si-bipolar process featuring
a 27GHz fT. The PC board area saved by higher-level
integration simplifies PC board layout and shielding.
Adding a varactor diode (voltage-tuned variable capacitor) to the tank circuit enables oscillator-frequency
VCC
VCC
10Ω
1000pF
10nH
1000pF
1.5pF
8
1
C17
1.5pF
C5
1.5pF
VTUNE
C3
2.7pF
1k
D1
ALPHA
SMV1204-34
CERAMIC
RESONATOR
L1
TO MIXER
MAX2620
2
7
3
6
VCC
0.1µF
C6
C4
1pF
4
BIAS
SUPPLY
1000pF
5
TO SYNTHESIZER
51Ω
SHDN
VCC
1000pF
Figure 5. This typical operating circuit shows the use of a MAX2620 in building a VCO.
7
tuning, as long as the oscillator device exhibits an
adequate negative resistance over the desired tuning
range. The MAX2620 design is optimized in this respect.
Figure 5. The inductor circuit’s open-collector output
impedance should be matched to the desired load
impedance through an appropriate matching network.
The MAX2620 oscillator is also optimized for operation
with low phase noise. Achieving the lowest phase noise
possible requires the use of high-Q components such as
ceramic transmission-line resonators (typical unloaded
Q of 400) and high-Q inductors (typical unloaded Q of
180). To maximize the loaded Q in Figure 5, C5 and
C17 should have the lowest value compatible with the
desired frequency and tuning range. For 900MHz
operation, C6 should be 1pF for the ceramic-resonator
circuit and 1.5pF for the inductor circuit. Because a
high-Q inductor’s unloaded Q is lower than that of a
ceramic resonator, the use of high-Q inductors (versus
ceramic resonators) tends to degrade phase noise slightly. Phase noise for an inductor-based tank is -107dBc/Hz
at 25kHz and -127dBc/Hz at 300kHz.
A key factor in achieving optimum oscillator performance is the PC board layout. To minimize the effect of
parasitic elements, remove the PC board ground plane
under and around components that make up the resonant
circuit. To minimize parasitic inductance, keep trace
lengths as short as possible. Connect the decoupling
capacitors (pins 1, 4, and 7 to ground) as close as
possible to the MAX2620 package, with direct connections to the ground plane. The capacitors in Figure 5
must have an 0805 or smaller footprint.
As a cost-effective, low-power oscillator for the RF
VCO in today’s wireless headsets, the MAX2620
provides features that once required many discrete parts.
Its double-buffered outputs provide load isolation, and
its internal regulation cell provides isolation from
power-supply fluctuations. Power dissipation with a
+3V supply is just 27mW. The MAX2620 achieves very
low phase noise, and its external tank lets the designer
tailor an oscillator circuit to a given application.
Both MAX2620 outputs have open collectors that require
external components for pull-up to the supply voltage.
Resistors of 50Ω match the outputs to a 50Ω system, but
resistors rob output power. For maximum output power,
use a pull-up inductor as shown at the buffer output in
References
1. Boyles, John W. “The Oscillator as a Reflection
Amplifier: an Intuitive Approach to Oscillator
Design,” Microwave Journal, June 1986,
pp 83–98.
5. MAX2620 Data Sheet, Rev. 0, July 1997,
Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
6. Rhea, Randall W. Oscillator Design and
Computer Simulation, Second Edition. Atlanta:
Noble Publishing, 1995.
2. Crawford, James A. Frequency Synthesizer
Design Handbook, MA: Artech House, Inc.,
1994.
7. Temple, R. “Choosing a Phase Noise Measurement
Technique—Concepts and Implementations,” HP
RF and Microwave Measurement Symposium,
February, 1983.
3. Egan, W. Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1981.
4. Leeson, D. B. “A Simple Model of Feedback
Oscillator Noise Spectrum,” Proceedings of the
IEEE, February 1966, pp 329–330.
8
DESIGN SHOWCASE
SSB modulator
draws only 5mA at 2.7V
Single-sideband modulation (SSB) is more efficient
than full-amplitude modulation in its use of the
frequency spectrum and in its generation of output
power. Though not used for data transmission, SSB
is still popular for voice transmission at HF and low
VHF. The circuit shown in Figure 1 generates SSB
signals from 35MHz to 80MHz by combining
wideband, low-voltage op amps with an IC that integrates all the necessary functions. All ICs shown are
specified for operation at 3V ±10%.
The traditional method for producing SSB is to
modulate a carrier, and then filter the output to
remove the unwanted sideband and carrier frequencies. This method is sometimes considered wasteful,
because it dumps as much as two-thirds of the
generated power into a filter. (However, because
filtering is not always performed at the output stage,
the system doesn’t necessarily waste two-thirds of its
transmitted power.)
2.5pF TO 4.0pF
33pF
33pF
8
fOSC = 100kHz
100nH
9
11, 14
2.7V
100nF
2, 15, 10
100k
2.7V
100k
TO
1A
C1
1/4
C2
R
C1
MAX494
C1
10k
C1
10k
R
R
A1
1/4
TO
3C
TO
4D
C3
C4
C5
R
C2
R
TO
2B
C2
C2
R
C3
R
R
R
B2
C3
C3
R
C4
R
R
R
C3
C4
C4
TO
5E
R
R
R
D4
C5
C5
R
R
E5
C6
C6
÷2
÷8
TO PLL
(IF REQUIRED)
R
V/2
100k
3 I
R
16
100k
R
F6
100nF
1/4
1
5 Q
MAX494
MAX494
V/2
C7
100nF
100k
V/2
100k
GAIN = 100
4
I
6
Q
IC1
MAX2452
100k
V/2
1k
C8
100nF
1/2
MICROPHONE
MAX492
2.7V
1k
100k
2.7V
47k
8
1/2
47k
MAX492
12
100k
100k
R
C6
R
100nF
1/4
MAX494
C6
C5
R
TO
6F
V/2
(LOW-IMPEDANCE HALF-RAIL)
4
NOTES:
R = 12k ±10%
C1 = 0.044µF (2 x 0.022µF)
C2 = 0.033µF
C3 = 0.02µF
C4 = 0.01µF
C5 = 5600pF
C6 = 100nF
Figure 1. This SSB modulator generates the lower sideband of a high-frequency carrier modulated by an applied audio signal.
9
OUTPUT
50MHz
Note that the lower sideband, which appears as
cos(ωM - ω C )t at IC1’s output, is the sum of these
two modulator outputs. The upper sideband, which
appears as cos(ωM + ω C )t, is the difference between
the modulator outputs.
An alternative method for generating SSB is to use
the phasing (algebraic) method. In this approach, two
modulators (mixers) produce the desired sideband
while suppressing the unwanted carrier and other
sideband. Two modulators for this purpose, normally
used for in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) modulation
in a QAM signal, are available in IC1. The resulting
circuit offers several advantages:
The RC phasing network was chosen for simplicity,
rather than low component count. Using 5% components, the network produces a response of 300Hz to
3500Hz with <1° of phase-shift error and <0.2dB of
magnitude error. IC1’s suppression of unwanted
carrier and sideband frequencies (-35dB) is about
5dB less than expected when using commercial
equipment, but is not unreasonable for output power
levels below 5W. This suppression performance
depends somewhat on the presence of capacitive
terminations (C4 and C5) for the unused modulator
inputs I and Q. The output stage (not shown) can be
a single-transistor buffer, a class C power amplifier,
or whatever the application requires.
• Low-power, low-cost operation
• Output signal (35MHz to 80MHz) includes the
4m and 6m amateur radio bands
• User can shift from upper- to lower-sideband
operation by reversing two pairs of connections
(rather than changing a filter)
• No filter required
• One IC provides the required tank oscillator, two
modulators, and a summing amplifier
The circuit requires no filter for carrier and sidebandfrequency suppression because frequency cancellation is inherent in the modulation process. Suppose,
for example (ignoring signal magnitudes), that the
carrier signal is sinω C t and the modulating signal is
sinωMt. Modulation (mixing) means multiplying the
carrier and modulating signals, as follows:
For simplicity, the circuit is shown operating with
IC1’s internal free-running oscillator. This arrangement is insufficiently stable; to compensate for this
instability, either provide an external source, or
connect the oscillator as part of an external phaselocked loop, as explained in the data sheet for the IC
(in this case, the MAX2452). An external source can
greatly extend the transmit-frequency range.
[sinω M t] [sinω C t] = 0.5cos(ω M - ω C )t - 0.5cos
(ωM + ω C )t
The circuit was measured while operating with a
142MHz oscillator frequency and a 71MHz carrier. Its
-27dB carrier suppression is 8dB short of the typical
suppression specified in the MAX2452 data sheet, but
is acceptable for a circuit that drives IC1’s I and Q
inputs in single-ended mode. (Driving them differentially improves performance.) Sideband suppression
was at least -36dB (the test setup’s noise floor).
Adding 90° of phase shift to either quantity produces the cosine: sin(ω C + 90°)t = cosω C t, and
sin(ωM + 90°)t = cosωMt. Shifting each of these
inputs (sinωMt and sinωCt) by 90° and then multiplying them in a separate modulator results in the
following:
[cosω M t] [cosω C t] = 0.5cos(ω M - ω C )t +
0.5cos(ω M + ω C )t
A related idea appeared in the 6/5/97 issue of EDN.
10
DESIGN SHOWCASE
Adjustment-free inclinometer
operates on +2.7V
Figure 1 is an inclinometer (tilt-measuring circuit)
whose sensor (SN1) is filled with liquid electrolyte.
Acting as a potentiometer, the inclinometer produces a
voltage proportional to tilt on its center electrode.
Because the liquid is subject to electrolysis, the
sensor’s forcing voltage must be AC with an average
DC component of zero. IC1 is an 8-channel, 12-bit
analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that digitizes the
sensor output for use by IC2, the microcontroller (µC).
eliminates the need for calibration, but it also operates
from a single-supply voltage as low as +2.7V.
Two CMOS port pins on the µC generate 50Hz
square waves, 180° out-of-phase, as an AC drive for
the sensor. When the sensor is level, its centerelectrode voltage (filtered by R3/C4 and fed to the
ADC) is midway between these drive-electrode
voltages, which are approximately V CC and 0V.
Each port pin has a finite resistance and resultant
voltage drop. To compensate for the resulting inaccuracies, voltage divider R4/R5 samples the drive
signal’s mid-level voltage and feeds it to channel 2
on the ADC. This voltage remains constant, but the
center-electrode signal varies above or below midlevel according to the direction of tilt.
Conditioning circuitry for this sensor type usually
includes op amps, analog switches, and potentiometers. Because potentiometer settings drift with time
and temperature, such systems require periodic recalibrations based on a precise and tedious procedure. The
synchronous approach shown in Figure 1 not only
VCC
2
R4
10k
VDD
VCC
R5
10k
7 D0
8
D1
9 D2
10
D3
11 D4
LCD1
DISPLAY MODULE
12
D5
13 D6
14
D7
6 EN
4
RS
SN1
C3
0.1µF
ELECTROLYTIC
TILT SENSOR
SPECTRON: L-211
FREDRICKS: 0725-5006
C2
0.1µF
C1
10µF
14 V
CC
RB6
RB7
RB0
3 RICC
4
MCLR
R3
2.7k
1
C2
0.1µF
VCC
R6
47Ω
C5
0.1µF
CH0
2 CH1
3
CH2
4 CH3
5
CH4
6
CH5
7
CH6
8 CH7
VDD
VDD
DIN
IC1
MAX147
DOUT
SCLK
CS
STRB
20
9
COM
13
AGND
14 DGND
SHDN
RB3
RB4
12
2 RA3
1 RA2
18
RA1
17
RA0
17
15
19
18
16
11 VREF
10
RB1
RB2
IC2
16C54-ALT RB5
PIC
µC
OSC1
N.C.
Figure 1. This tilt sensor is simple, accurate, inexpensive, and adjustment free.
11
13
6
7
8
9
10
11
16
Y1
2M
R/W
GND
5
OSC2
GND
N.C.
12
15
5
CERAMIC
RESONATOR
1
VCC
R2
3.3k
V0
3
R1
1k
CONTRAST
The tilt signal on one channel and the reference
(mid-level) signal on another are digitized by the
ADC and fed to the µC. The AC drive dwells 10ms
on each polarity, allowing about nine time constants
for 12-bit settling before the A/D conversion. The
converter’s pseudo-differential input negates the
absolute value of these signals (~1/2VCC). Thus, the
magnitude and polarity of channel 0 (with respect to
channel 1) indicate the magnitude and direction of
tilt. The tilt measurement is ratiometric and therefore
relatively immune to large variations in the supply
voltage (typically 0.2% of full scale per volt of
supply change).
state, it draws only 10µA. While IC1 is shut down,
pins 12 and 13 on the µC port should be written low
to prevent DC current from damaging the sensor
(consult the sensor’s data sheet for the maximum DC
current allowed). The µC’s internal watchdog can be
set to wake up every second or so for a new measurement. Operating at a few measurements per second
and replacing the LCD with Maxim’s MAX7211 can
lower the overall supply current to 100µA.
The techniques previously described are compatible
with most µCs and microprocessors (µPs), but the
output structures of some µPs are unlike that of the
Microchip PIC™. Most variants of the 8051, for
example, have an open-drain output and pull-up
resistor that exhibit unequal source and sink currents
at the port pins. Ensure reliable operation for these
variants by providing external CMOS inverters
between the port pins and sensor. Design the powerup initialization and power-down conditions
carefully to minimize DC current through the sensor.
A measurement comprises two consecutive halfcycles: the µC first calculates the sensor-minusreference value; it then applies an opposite-phase
drive signal and calculates the reference-minus-sensor
value. Subtracting these values produces twice the
desired tilt value and negates the need for null adjustment by canceling any systematic offsets. The
values are handled in software (see the software listing
called “Adjustment-Free Inclinometer” under the
Other Software category on Maxim’s website at
www.maxim-ic.com) as two’s-complement quantities,
and displayed on the liquid-crystal display (LCD) as
integers. (The display in this system is included
mainly for demonstrations.)
Finally, these techniques can be expanded to accommodate dual-axis sensors by dedicating two more
port pins for a second pair of force electrodes. The
measurement procedure is nearly identical, except
that the sensor pins for each axis must be alternately
three-stated while making measurements on the other
axis. This provision minimizes cross-axis interactions, which is a difficult task to accomplish with the
more common analog techniques.
Miscellaneous observations
Though not implemented by the software provided,
this system is capable of very-low-power operation.
IC1 can be shut down between conversions; in this
A related idea appeared in the 4/24/97 issue of EDN.
PIC is a trademark of Microchip Technology, Inc.
12
DESIGN SHOWCASE
Supply circuitry selects main/backup voltage
and disconnects load
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a complete
portable-equipment power supply suitable for
systems that can be plugged into a docking station.
When the main supply is removed or falls out of
regulation, selector circuitry automatically switches
the load to a regulated switch-mode supply powered
by a backup battery. The system flags a controlling
processor when this switchover occurs, and it also
issues a warning when the backup-battery voltage
falls below a programmable threshold.
(IC1 and associated components). This converter
produces a pin-selectable 5V or 3.3V output voltage
with a 200mA output current. The presence of the
main supply voltage (+5V) deactivates the backup
supply: the output of an ultra-low-power comparator/reference device (IC2) is low in the presence of
the +5V supply, and it connects the load and supply
by turning on p-channel MOSFET Q3. IC2’s low
output also places IC1 in shutdown and turns off
n-channel MOSFET Q2. C3 is charged by the main
supply via the parasitic diode in Q1, so R5 pulls the
Q1 gate high, turning off that device as well.
Two discharged alkaline or nickel-cadmium cells are
sufficient to operate the DC-DC backup converter
+5V
(MAIN SUPPLY)
VBATT
POWER
ON
Q3
1/2 SI4539
R3
750k
IC2
4
R4
249k
C2
68µF
2-CELL
ALKALINE
BATTERY
6
REF
L1
47µH
LX
MAX756
OUT
R1
226k
SHDN
LBI
LBO
REF
R2
100k
IN+
V-
IC1
5
3
3
GND
7
8
6
V+
7
OUT
8
MAX981
IN-
GND
2
R6
100k
1
D1
1N5817
C3
68µF
Q1
1/2 SI4539
R5
100k
C4
470µF
RLOAD
1
Q2
SI9435
4
3/5
2
C1
100nF
ON/OFF
RESET/ALARM
TO
µP
Figure 1. This power supply makes VBATT available to power the load until the main +5V supply is connected. It then automatically
disconnects the load from VBATT and connects it to the +5V supply.
13
If the +5V supply fails or falls out of regulation (as
defined by a 4.75V threshold determined by R3 and
R4), the IC2 output goes high, disconnects the main
supply by turning off Q3, turns on the backup supply
by pulling IC1 out of shutdown, and connects the
backup voltage and load by turning on Q1 and Q2.
Q1 is chosen for low RDS(ON) (to minimize power
dissipation), and Q2 is chosen for its ultra-low VGS
threshold (to ensure a reliable switchover to VBATT
when the main supply fails). The charge on C3
(present at all times, as mentioned previously)
ensures a quick turn-on of the backup supply, and the
charge on C4 supports the output voltage during
switchovers between the +5V supply and VBATT.
pushbutton. (A connection from this switch to an I/O
line gives on/off control to the processor and also
allows the supply to send on/off signals to the
processor.) Pressing the pushbutton turns on Q1, Q2,
and IC1, enabling C4 to charge. When the pushbutton
is released, R6’s pull-up/latching effect takes over.
Q3’s connection makes the drain more positive than
the source. This unusual orientation allows the
internal parasitic diode to conduct current when the
+5V supply is connected, quickly charging C4 and
providing power to IC2. (When IC2’s output goes
low, Q3 turns on, and its R DS(ON) shunts the
parasitic diode.) Q3’s low forward drop has a negligible effect on the main supply-voltage tolerance.
When the system is off (backup converter shut down
and +5V supply absent), you can turn on the backup
supply by momentarily pressing the “POWER ON”
A related idea appeared in the 7/21/97 issue of
Electronic Design.
14
DESIGN SHOWCASE
DAC-powered charge pump
varies negative rail
The circuit shown in Figure 1 provides a lowcurrent, adjustable negative supply rail suitable for
use as a sensor bias, liquid-crystal-display (LCD)
contrast bias, or voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO)
tuning supply. By operating a charge-pump doubler
from the output of a buffered digital-to-analog
converter (DAC), the circuit avoids the customary
approach involving clumsy level shifters based on op
amps and discrete components.
terminal, producing ±3V to ±12V as its input ranges
from 1.5V to 6V. (The positive and negative outputs
can be used simultaneously.) The main power can go
as low as 2.7V, producing a negative output slightly
over -5V. The minimum code for this condition is
about 140 (decimal).
To shut down the supply, simply write zeros to the
DAC. The DAC itself has a shutdown mode that
draws only 1µA. To ensure a reliable start-up when
bringing the system out of shutdown, write a value
that powers the charge pump with a minimum of 2V.
Note that a microcontroller (µC) with a pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) output can eliminate the DAC
altogether. For example, you can provide a variable
VCC to the charge pump by filtering a 20kHz PWM
signal with a 270Ω/3.3µF lowpass network. Be sure
the µC’s port pin can supply the current with an
acceptable voltage drop; if not, buffer it with a
CMOS buffer or inverter such as the 74HC04.
IC1 is a dual, 8-bit DAC with serial input and
buffered voltage outputs. Output impedances are
50Ω; therefore, the DAC output in use drops about
50mV while providing the 1.1mA typically drawn by
the IC2 charge pump. As the input code varies from
0 to 255, the DAC output ranges Rail-to-Rail ® ,
changing approximately 40mV per step.
With a +5V input (VCC) applied to IC1 and a -3V
output from IC2, the code that produces the
minimum allowable voltage to the charge pump
(1.5V) is 80 (decimal). The charge pump draws
0.6mA and generates ±2 times the voltage at its VCC
A related idea appeared in the 7/21/97 issue of
Electronic Design.
VCC
2.7V TO 6V
C5
0.1µF
DATA
SPI/MICROWIRECLOCK
COMPATIBLE
INTERFACE*
CS
3
V+
8
DIN
2
1
4
SCLK
CS
IC1
MAX522 VO1 5
1.5V TO 5V
6
SPARE
VO2
REF
7
C3
3.3µF
6
VCC
VCC
8
C1
3.3µF 1
GND
2
C2
3.3µF 3
C1+
C1C2+
V+
3V TO 10V
AUXILIARY
POSITIVE OUTPUT
IC2
MAX865
C2-
VGND
2
*FOR 2-WIRE (I C-COMPATIBLE) INTERFACE,
USE THE MAX518 DAC (VCC > 4.5V).
7
4
NEGATIVE LCD CONTRAST
MAIN OUTPUT
-3V TO -10V
C4
3.3µF
5
Figure 1. This adjustable negative supply consists of an inverting-doubler charge pump controlled by an 8-bit, serial-input DAC.
Rail-to-Rail is a registered trademark of Nippon Motorola Ltd.
15
DESIGN SHOWCASE
Boost controller drives buck converter
The usual way to step down from a low voltage to an
even lower one is with a low-dropout (LDO) linear
regulator. But in battery-powered systems, the LDO
probably won’t deliver the maximum energy
available. A cell count chosen for near-dropout
operation when the battery is empty applies too much
voltage over most of the battery’s discharge, and a cell
count chosen for maximum efficiency over that range
allows dropout well before the battery is empty.
LX floats. The R1 and R2 values are chosen for
maximum efficiency at light loads (1mA to 10mA),
which limits the maximum available output current.
Lower values for R1 and R2 allow higher output
current, but cause the circuit to draw higher levels of
quiescent current.
R3 and R4 determine output voltage, as shown in the
following equation:
VOUT = VREF (R3 + R4) / R4
One solution to this problem is the highly efficient
buck DC-DC converter (Figure 1). This circuit can
step down inputs as low as 2V to outputs as low as
1.25V, with efficiencies as high as 80% (Figure 2).
Like an LDO, it works well at low input voltages.
Unlike an LDO, its efficiency remains fairly high
with inputs up to the allowable maximum (6.5V).
where VREF = 1.25V.
The minimum output voltage is 1.25V (with R3 = 0 and
R4 absent). R5 and R6 determine the threshold for low
battery voltage in a similar manner. Input and output
capacitors can be inexpensive electrolytic or tantalum
types. For greatest efficiency, the inductor should be
rated in excess of the desired output current, and it
should have a reasonably low series resistance. Diode
D1 should be a Schottky type, because losses are
proportional to the diode’s forward voltage, and this
voltage is a substantial fraction of the output voltage.
A step-up switching regulator (IC1) is made to step
down with the addition of an external switching transistor (Q1). Via LX (pin 8), Q1 is driven by the IC’s
internal switching transistor: an open-drain,
n-channel power MOSFET connected to ground. R2
limits the Q1 base current, and R1 turns Q1 off when
A related idea appeared in the 6/5/97 issue of EDN.
VIN
10µF
1
SHDN
MINIMUM
OFF-TIME
ONE-SHOT
6
OUT
R1
7.5k
TRIG
Q
POWER EFFICIENCY
vs. OUTPUT CURRENT
ONE-SHOT
LX
F/F
S
8
R2
4.7k
N
Q
R
85
COILCRAFT
DO1608C-334
330µH
VOUT
D1
10µF
80
VIN = +2.0V
75
Q
TRIG
ONE-SHOT
IC1
CURRENT-LIMIT
COMPARATOR
R3*
MAX867
FB
2
VIN
EFFICIENCY (%)
MAXIMUM
ON-TIME
ONE-SHOT
MOTOROLA
MBR0530L
Q1
2N3906
70
VIN = +3.3V
65
VIN = +5.0V
60
55
4
REF
N
R5
270k
50
3
0.1
(1.25V)
5
R6
470k
R4*
ERROR COMPARATOR
1M
LOW
BATT
LBI COMPARATOR
GND
7
1
10
100
OUTPUT CURRENT (mA)
REFERENCE
0.1µF
*SEE TEXT
Figure 1. These external components enable a boost-controller IC
to implement a low-voltage buck-regulator circuit.
16
Figure 2. The conversion efficiency of the circuit
in Figure 1 varies with output current
as shown.
EWPRODUCT
PRODUCTSS
NNEW
dynamic range to minimize the transmission
of unwanted spurious signals.
IF undersampling
CODEC combines
digitizing ADC
with reconstruction
DAC
The MAX1005 can operate from either
a single power supply or from separate
analog and digital supplies, and with
independent voltages ranging from +2.7V
to +5.5V. These might include, for
example, an unregulated analog supply of
+5.5V and a regulated digital supply as low
as +2.7V. This flexibility allows operation
directly from a battery, even when the
battery is being charged, thereby eliminating the noise associated with switching
regulators and saving the power otherwise
lost in linear regulators.
The MAX1005 intermediate-frequency
(IF) undersampling CODEC provides an
interface between the analog and digital
portions of a PWT1900* communications
system. This device includes a 5-bit analogto-digital converter (ADC) for receiver-IF
bandpass sampling, a 7-bit digital-to-analog
converter (DAC) for reconstructing an
analog IF subcarrier, and a separate, lownoise bandgap reference for each.
Operating modes include transmit
(DAC active), receive (ADC active), and
full shutdown, in which the supply current
drops below 1µA. Because the wake-up
time from partial shutdown is only 2.5µs,
the MAX1005 can save power during short
intervals of idle time.
The ADC’s 15Msps conversion rate
enables 10x oversampling of a 1.5MHz
signal. However, its wide input bandwidth
(15MHz) allows IF undersampling in
excess of 10.7MHz. The DAC has very low
glitch energy and high spurious-free
Specifications guaranteed over temperature include monotonicity, ± 1 / 2 LSB
linearity, and 2.5mW power consumption.
The MAX5480 operates from a single +5V
supply and draws maximum supply
currents of 100µA at +25°C and 500µA
over temperature. It offers both currentoutput and voltage-output operation.
8-bit latched
parallel DAC
resides in 16-pin
QSOP package
The MAX5480 is an 8-bit, parallelinput, CMOS DAC that interfaces directly
with most microprocessors. Its internal input
latches make the DAC interface similar to a
random-access-memory write cycle, in which
the only control inputs are CS and WR.
The MAX5480 is available in 16-pin
CERDIP and QSOP packages, and in
versions specified for three different
temperature grades. Prices start at $1.35
(1000 up, FOB USA).
VOLTAGE MODE
The MAX1005 is available in a tiny
16-pin QSOP package specified for the
commercial (0°C to +70°C) or extendedindustrial (-40°C to +85°C) temperature
range. Prices start at $2.96 (1000 up,
FOB USA).
*PWT1900 is a PCS air-interface standard for the
U.S. Based on the proven DECT technology,
the PWT1900 standard is suitable for use in tollquality wireless PBX, PCS, and WLL applications.
+2.7V, 12-bit/10-bit
ADCs have
internal reference
The MAX1240/MAX1242 12-bit/
10-bit ADCs feature low-power operation and an internal reference. Pin and
software compatible, they each combine a
track/hold, ADC, reference, clock, and
serial interface in an 8-pin SO package.
These converters operate from a +2.7V
to +3.6V single supply. They draw less
than 2mA (including reference current) at
a 73ksps (max) sampling rate. The supply
currents drop to only 2µA in shutdown.
The 3-wire serial interface is compatible
with SPI™/QSPI™ and Microwire™
synchronous-serial standards.
The MAX1240 (offered in three
grades) and MAX1242 (offered in two
grades) are available in 8-pin SO and DIP
packages. Prices start at $2.75 for the
MAX1242 and $3.85 for the MAX1240
(1000 up, FOB USA).
SPI and QSPI are trademarks of Motorola, Inc.
Microwire is a trademark of National
Semiconductor Corp.
CURRENT MODE
+5V
+5V
V REF
VREF
VOUT
CS
DATA WR
MAX5480
C
CS
WR MAX5480
DATA
MAX4330
SUPPLY
CURRENT
(µA)
250
mm
8
m
5480
4. 9
5480
L
TUA SI
ZE
AC
8
†V
220µA
200
150
100
50
0
8
Low Current†
10µA
24µA
300
1k
10k
SAMPLING RATE
(samples/sec)
REF = VDD. Using the internal reference,
the supply current at 1ksps is 139µA.
5480
m x 6. 2
17
NEW PRODUCTS
MAX4014 family buffers are well
suited for use in video, communications,
instrumentation, and other low-power/lowvoltage applications requiring wide
bandwidth. Operating from a +3.3V to
+10V single supply or a ±1.65V to ±5V dual
supply, they exhibit only 10nV/√Hz and
1.3pA/√Hz of input noise at the inverting or
noninverting input. The triple-buffer
MAX4019 has a disable feature that reduces
supply current to 350µA.
Low-cost, highspeed, singlesupply SOT23
buffers have railto-rail outputs
Members of the MAX4014 family of
precision, closed-loop, high-speed buffers
provide a high slew rate (600V/µs), wide
bandwidth (200MHz at -3dB), high output
current (±120mA), and low gain/phase
error (0.02%/0.02°), while drawing only
5.5mA of quiescent current per amplifier.
The outputs swing rail-to-rail, and the input
common-mode voltage ranges extend
200mV beyond the negative supply rail.
The MAX4014 (single), MAX4017
(dual), MAX4019 (triple), and MAX4022
(quad) are available in space-saving
SOT23-5, µMAX, or QSOP packages.
Prices start at $0.98 (1000 up, FOB USA).
Regulation is achieved by gating the
450kHz charge-pump oscillator to keep the
output voltage constant. This on-demand
switching scheme provides excellent lightload efficiency and generates output
currents as high as 30mA under full load.
For operation, the MAX868 requires four
ceramic capacitors and, to set the output
voltage, two external resistors. Optimized
for battery-operated equipment, the
MAX868 features a quiescent supply
current of only 30µA and a logiccontrolled shutdown pin that turns off the
charge pump and reduces the total current
to less than 1µA.
Regulated supply
(3VIN, -5VOUT) is
0.06in2 by 1.11mm
high
The MAX868 is an adjustable,
regulated, switched-capacitor voltage
converter that inverts, then doubles inputs
of 1.8V to 5.5V. As a compact, low-cost
means for generating negative supply
voltages equal to -2V IN , this 30mA
charge-pump device reduces cost, board
area, and height by replacing inductorbased DC-DC converters. Typical applications include cell phones, small LCD
panels, and PCMCIA cards.
POSITIVE
INPUT
1.8V TO 5.5V
The MAX868 is available in a 10-pin
µMAX package (only 1.11mm high,
covering half the area of an 8-pin SO).
Prices start at $1.75 (1000 up, FOB USA).
1µF
IN
ON
OFF
SHDN
R1
MAX868
C1+
FB
0.1µF
R2
C1C2+
OUT
REGULATED
NEGATIVE
OUTPUT
0V TO (-2 x VIN)
UP TO 30mA
0.1µF
FITS IN
0.18" x 0.33" = 0.06in2
= 40mm2
2.2µF
C2PGND
GND
18
High-accuracy,
current-limited
switch eases
power-supply
requirement by 50%
The MAX869L current-limited power
switch features low on-resistance (only
35mΩ at 5V) and a current limit that is
±20% accurate and adjustable from 400mA
to 2.5A. It protects systems from shortcircuit and overload faults. In Universal
Serial Bus (USB) applications, for example,
such faults at a card slot or plug-in port can
pull the main supply voltage below its
minimum operating level.
Tight tolerance on the output current
limit is critical to keeping the main power
supply simple and inexpensive. To ensure a
minimum continuous current of 2A, for
example, the MAX869L maintains a
nominal 2.5A with a maximum of 3A.
Similar parts from other suppliers can
guarantee only ±50% accuracy; therefore,
they must maintain a nominal 4A and a
maximum 6A. Thus, better accuracy in the
MAX869L reduces the power-supply
requirement by 50% (from 6A to 3A).
The MAX869L includes thermaloverload protection, and its current-limit
loop features a fast, 4µs response that
prevents system glitches and resets during
hot plug-ins, when heavy capacitive loads
can cause a momentary short circuit. When
the MAX869L goes into current limit or
thermal overload, its logic FAULT output
alerts a microprocessor.
A 2.7V to 5.5V input range makes the
MAX869L ideal for both 3V and 5V
systems. It features a very low quiescent
current (12µA) that drops to only 0.01µA
in the OFF state. Typical applications
include notebook and hand-held computers with slots and ports for the USB,
PCMCIA, and CardBus, as well as power
ports for peripheral devices.
The MAX869L is the newest member in
a family of high-side, p-channel, MOSFET
power switches (MAX890L–MAX895L).
The MAX869L is available in a 16-pin
QSOP package (same board area as an 8-pin
SO). Prices for the MAX869L start at $2.13
(1000 up, FOB USA).
NEW PRODUCTS
Precision PWM
buck controller
optimized for
next-generation
notebook CPUs
The low-voltage MAX1636 pulsewidth modulation (PWM) controller
generates precisely regulated CPU supply
voltages from the high-voltage battery in a
notebook computer. As a fixed-frequency,
current-mode PWM controller, the
MAX1636 provides fast transient
response, low supply current, tight load
regulation, and the tight output accuracy
required by today’s CPUs. Other applications include battery chargers, inverters,
and boost-topology circuits.
The MAX1636’s combination of a
low-drift reference, slow integrator loop,
and fast current-mode loop provides an
exceptional ±1% output accuracy,
including all conditions of line and load.
To protect the output from overvoltage, a
crowbar circuit turns on the low-side
MOSFET (in less than 1µs, with 100% duty
cycle) when the feedback signal goes high
by more than 7%. As additional fault
protection, a catastrophic undervoltage
detector shuts down the PWM if the output
Remote/local
temperature
sensor has SMBus
serial interface
The MAX1617 is a precise digital
thermometer that reports the temperature
of its own package in addition to that of a
remote sensor. The remote sensor—an
easily mounted, diode-connected npn transistor such as the low-cost 2N3904—can
replace a conventional thermistor or thermocouple. With Maxim’s patented
measurement circuitry, such transistors
from multiple manufacturers can provide
±3% accuracy without calibration. The
remote channel can also measure the
temperature of any IC (such as a microprocessor) that includes an accessible
diode-connected transistor.
fails to come into regulation within a preset
time. The quiescent power dissipation is
only 2mW (max).
The MAX1636 accepts 4.5V to 30V
inputs and generates a 1.1V to 5.5V
adjustable output voltage. It includes a
5V/25mA linear regulator (off in shutdown
but on in standby mode) that provides a
gate-drive supply for the low-side external
MOSFET. For a similar device that does
not include a linear regulator and comes in
a smaller, 16-pin package, refer to the
MAX1637.
The MAX1636 is available in a 20-pin
SSOP specified for the extended-industrial
temperature range (-40°C to +85°C).
Prices start at $3.95 (1000 up, FOB USA).
INPUT
VOUT
MAX1636
To read temperature data and program
the alarm thresholds, the MAX1617 accepts
standard write-byte, read-byte, and receivebyte commands via a 2-wire serial interface
called the System Management Bus
(SMBus™). The data format is seven bits
plus sign, twos-complement, in which each
LSB represents 1°C. Conversion rate (and
therefore current drain) is programmed by
the user, who also programs the under- and
over-temperature alarms and sets the device
for single-shot or continuous measurements.
The MAX1617 operates from a +3V to
+5.5V supply and draws only 3µA (typ) in
standby mode. It comes in a 16-pin QSOP
package specified for the military temperature range (-55°C to +125°C). Contact the
factory for pricing.
SMBus is a trademark of Intel Corp.
19
Switch-mode
controllers provide
digitally adjustable
LCD-bias voltage
The MAX1620/MAX1621 digitally
adjustable LCD-bias supplies come in
ultra-small QSOP packages and operate
with small, low-profile external components. Each is suitable for use in notebook
and palmtop computers, personal digital
assistants, and portable data-collection
terminals. Operating from +1.8V to +20V
battery voltages, they produce positive or
negative output voltages of ±27V.
External resistors set the desired
maximum and minimum output voltages,
and a high or low connection at the POL
terminal sets the output polarity. To adjust
over this range, employ either an external
potentiometer or digital software control
via the internal 5-bit digital-to-analog
converter. The MAX1620 allows up/down
digital signaling for this purpose; the
MAX1621 provides an interface for control
via the 2-wire-serial SMBus.
In typical applications, the MAX1620/
MAX1621 are powered from the display’s
+3V to +5.5V logic supply and draw
150µA (250µA max). Connecting the
SHDN input to this supply protects the
display: a loss of supply voltage triggers
shutdown, which removes bias voltage
from the display and drops the chip’s
quiescent current to 10µA (max). The
external power switch can be an n-channel
MOSFET or a low-cost npn transistor.
The MAX1620/MAX1621 are available
in 16-pin QSOP packages specified for the
extended-industrial temperature range
(-40°C to +85°C). Prices start at $1.99 (1000
up, FOB USA).
NEW PRODUCTS
Internal p-channel MOSFET pass transistors enable each device to maintain a low
quiescent supply current (30µA) while
providing output currents from zero to
350mA, even in dropout. Maximum
supply current in shutdown is 1µA. Other
MAX1658/MAX1659 features include
reverse-battery protection, short-circuit
protection, and thermal shutdown.
Low-dropout
linear regulators
generate 3.3V, 5V,
or adjustable
outputs
The MAX1658/MAX1659 linear regulators have ultra-low supply currents and
low dropout voltages that maximize
battery life. Their Dual Mode™ operation
provides either preset outputs of 3.3V
(MAX1658) or 5V (MAX1659), or
adjustable outputs from 1.25V to 16V. The
input voltage range is from 2.7V to 16.5V.
The MAX1658/MAX1659 are available in a special 8-pin SO package,
specified for the extended-industrial
temperature range (-40°C to +85°C), with
a high power rating (1.8W) that supports
compact applications. Prices start at $1.95
(1000 up, FOB USA).
Output current capability is 350mA,
with typical dropout voltages of 650mV
(MAX1658) and 490mV (MAX1659).
Dual Mode is a trademark of Maxim Integrated
Products.
400
1659
MAXIMUM OUTPUT
CURRENT ( mA)
500
5VOUT MAX1659 IN 1.2W
HIGH POWER SOIC
300
WIDER
OPERATING
RANGE
200
100
0
STANDARD
SOIC
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
All of the MAX6501–MAX6504 lowcost temperature switches include a
comparator with two temperature-dependent
voltage references. They draw 30µA
(typical) from a single supply voltage of
+2.7V to +5.5V. The internal temperaturetrip thresholds (designated by the part
number suffix) are factory set in 10°C increments from -45°C to +115°C. Accuracy is
±0.5°C typical (±4°C max) over the
specified temperature range, and hysteresis
is pin-selectable as +2°C or +10°C. No
external components are required.
The MAX6501/MAX6503 have activelow, open-drain outputs suitable for driving
a microprocessor’s reset input, and the
MAX6502/MAX6504 have active-high,
push/pull outputs suitable for driving fancontrol logic. All devices assert a logic
output when the measured temperature
crosses the factory-set threshold for hot
temperature (MAX6501/MAX6503) or cold
temperature (MAX6502/MAX6504).
MAX6501–MAX6504 monitors are
available in 5-pin SOT23 packages specified
for the military temperature range (-55°C to
+125°C). Prices start at $0.50 (10,000 up,
FOB USA).
The MAX1680/MAX1681 are highfrequency, switched-capacitor voltage
converters that supply up to 125mA of
output current when doubling or inverting
2.0V to 5.5V inputs. They offer the most
compact method available for doubling
an input voltage or generating a negative supply for amplifier and analogmeasurement circuits. By replacing
inductor-based DC-DC converters, the
MAX1680/MAX1681 reduce cost, board
area, and height.
The MAX1681 allows users to select a
500kHz or 1MHz operating frequency, and
the MAX1680 allows a choice between
125kHz and 250kHz. These four frequencies enable the designer to adjust quiescent
supply current versus external capacitor
size at a given output current.
At 1MHz, the MAX1681 exhibits only
3.5Ω of output resistance when operating
with 1µF external capacitors. The
MAX1680 requires 10µF capacitors to
maintain this output resistance. Using
1206-size 1µF capacitors, the MAX1681
circuit’s board area is only 0.06in 2
(40mm 2). Both devices feature a logiccontrolled shutdown that turns off the
charge pump and lowers the quiescent
current to less than 1µA.
The MAX1680/MAX1681 are available
in an 8-pin SO package with prices starting
at $2.05 (1000 up, FOB USA).
INPUT
+2.0V TO +5.5V
OFF
IN
SHDN
ON
OUT
OUTPUT
-1 x VIN
125mA
CAP+
SHUTDOWN
1µF
PERCENTAGE OF PARTS SAMPLED (%)
Low-cost, SOT
temperature
switches feature
logic outputs
1MHz charge
pumps generate
125mA
TRIP THRESHOLD ACCURACY
1µF
MAX1681
CAP-
60
LO
SAMPLE SIZE = 300
FSEL
HI
LV
50
GND
FREQUENCY
SELECT
1681
40
AREA = 0.06in2
= (40mm2)
30
20
10
0
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
0
1
2
ACCURACY (°C)
20
3
4
5
NEW PRODUCTS
The MAX3320 is a dual RS-232
transceiver that provides supply-voltage
monitoring and automatic power-down
(after a 30-second interval with no valid
data transitions). Applications include
notebook and palmtop computers, highspeed modems, and printers.
The MAX3320’s power-on reset
function asserts an active-low reset when
VCC declines below a preset threshold. It
maintains the reset for at least 140ms after
V CC returns above the threshold. The
reset comparator ignores fast VCC transients, and the reset signals are guaranteed
correct for V CC levels down to 1V.
MAX3320 threshold variants (indicated
by suffix letter) accommodate a variety of
supply voltages.
The dual transceiver (two transmitters
and two receivers) includes a dual charge
pump and a proprietary transmitter output
stage whose low dropout enables valid
RS-232 levels for supply voltages
between +3V and +5.5V. It requires only
four small 0.1µF capacitors for operation
and guarantees data rates as high as
250kbps.
A shutdown mode reduces power
consumption and extends battery life in
portable systems by lowering the
MAX3320 supply current to 4µA. The
receivers and power-on-reset function
remain active in shutdown to monitor
modems and other external devices.
Maxim’s AutoShutdown Plus™ technology, when enabled, places the
MAX3320 in shutdown when 30 seconds
elapse without a valid signal transition on
the receiver-input lines.
The MAX3320 is available in a 20-pin
SSOP package, in versions specified for the
commercial (0°C to +70°C) or extendedindustrial temperature range (-40°C to
+85°C). Prices start at $1.85 (1000 up,
FOB USA).
AutoShutdown and AutoShutdown Plus are
trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products.
1Mbps RS-232
transceiver has
AutoShutdown
and ±15kV ESD
protection
The new MAX3243E/MAX3244E/
MAX3245E are 1Mbps, RS-232 communications transceivers. Each is a complete
serial port consisting of three drivers and
five receivers. These devices are intended
for use in notebook or subnotebook
computers, and are guaranteed to drive a
mouse. Features include automatic
shutdown and wake-up, high maximum
data rate, and enhanced protection from
electrostatic discharge (ESD). All transmitter outputs and receiver inputs are ESD
protected to ±15kV using the Human Body
Model or the IEC 1000-4-2 Air-Gap
Discharge method, and to ±8kV using the
IEC1000-4-2 Contact Discharge method.
The transceivers’ regulated dual charge
pump and proprietary low-dropout transmitter outputs enable true RS-232 performance while operating from a +3.0V to
+5.5V single supply. Supply current is only
300µA. RS-232 output levels are maintained
by the MAX3243E/MAX3244E at data
rates to 250kbps, and by the MAX3245E
(which includes Maxim’s Megabaud™
feature) to data rates as high as 1Mbps.
MAX3243E/MAX3244E/MAX3245E
logic-controlled shutdown lowers the supply
current to 1µA. AutoShutdown™ and
AutoShutdown Plus enable these systems to
save power automatically, without changing the BIOS or the operating system.
AutoShutdown, for example, shuts down the
MAX3243E if the RS-232 cable is disconnected or if any connected peripheral is turned
off. This device turns back on when a valid
level appears at any receiver input.
AutoShutdown Plus devices (MAX3244E/
MAX3245E) enter shutdown 30 seconds
after a cable is disconnected or a peripheral becomes idle, and they resume
operation when a valid edge appears at any
transmitter or receiver input.
MAX3243E/MAX3244E/MAX3245E
transceivers are available in 28-pin SO and
SSOP packages. Prices start at $3.82 (1000
up, FOB USA).
MegaBaud is a trademark of Maxim Integrated
Products.
21
+3V, 1W RF power
transistors ideal
for 900MHz
applications
The MAX2601/MAX2602 are lowvoltage bipolar power transistors. Their high
gain and efficiency make them ideal for the
final stage of a class-C or class-AB RF
amplifier, whether in discrete or module
form. They reduce cost and save space by
eliminating the need for drain switches and
negative-bias generators.
The MAX2601/MAX2602 exhibit
11.5dB gain while producing 1W of RF
power at 900MHz from a 3.6V supply
voltage. The collector efficiency is 58%,
and the second- and third-harmonic
suppression is 43dBc. These devices
withstand load mismatch conditions
(VSWR = 8:1 at all angles, with V CC =
5.5V) without exhibiting spurious oscillations or excessive power draw. In addition
to the power transistor, the MAX2602
also includes a thermal- and processmatched diode, which allows simple and
accurate biasing with just one external
resistor.
The MAX2601/MAX2602 are available in a thermally enhanced, 8-pin SO
package. Prices start at $2.32 for the
MAX2601 and $2.38 for the MAX2602
(1000 up, FOB USA).
TWO-TONE OUTPUT POWER
vs. INPUT POWER
35
POUT, IM3, IM5 (dBm)
250kbps RS-232
transceiver
adds power-on
reset function
POUT
25
IM3
15
MAX2601/2
IM5
5
-5
5
10
15
20
INPUT POWER (dBm)
25
NEW PRODUCTS
The MAX2102 downconverts 950MHz
to 2150MHz L-band signals to the desired
baseband. It includes a low-noise amplifier,
automatic gain control (AGC) amplifier,
two downconverter mixers, an oscillator
buffer with dual-modulus prescaler that
divides by 64 or 65, a 90° quadrature (Q)
generator, and separate baseband amplifiers
for the in-phase (I) and Q outputs.
At 1450MHz, the noise figure is
13.2dB, and the input third-order intercept
point (6.5dBm) enables a single discrete
preamplifier to serve as the interface to a
75Ω cable. Internal offset-correction
The MAX2102 was designed with
Maxim’s high-frequency bipolar process
(GST-2, with fT = 27GHz). It achieves
±3° Q phase accuracy and >0.5% gain
mismatch between I and Q channels over
Low-voltage
IF transceiver
includes limiter
and RSSI
The MAX2511 is an IF transceiver that
incorporates a multitude of radio functions
in an ultra-small package. Applications
include PCS systems such as PWT1900,
PACS, PHS, and DECT phones and base
stations. In these systems, the MAX2511
performs all transmit and receive functions
from first IF to a 10.7MHz second IF.
The MAX2511 also serves as a highly
integrated front-end radio transceiver for
use in applications with 200MHz to
440MHz carrier frequencies, such as ISM
transceivers.
The MAX2511 receiver section
features an image-reject downconverter
with 34dB of image suppression, followed
by a wide-dynamic-range IF buffer that
drives an off-chip IF filter. Next is a
limiting amplifier with differential outputs
that boosts the signal to 1Vp-p. The
amplifiers (when not disabled) automatically remove any DC offset present in the
baseband amplifiers. Channel selection in
the baseband is performed by discrete,
low-cost LC filters, typically with a 5th- or
7th-order lowpass response.
To support MAX2102 customers,
Maxim offers a preassembled evaluation
kit (MAX2102EVKIT) and tuner-design
assistance. The MAX2102 is available
from $5.00 (1000 up, FOB USA) in a
28-pin SO package.
I
MAX2102
The MAX2102 direct-conversion
tuner is intended for use in set-top boxes
for direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) digital
television. In comparison with intermediate-frequency (IF) architectures, this
device reduces cost by eliminating the IF
mixer, IF local oscillator, and SAW filter.
the entire frequency range. Operating
from a single +5V supply, it provides an
AGC control range of more than 50dB for
-19dBm to -69dBm input signals. This
large AGC range accommodates rainfall
attenuation effects, different cable lengths,
and less-than-perfect alignment of the
DBS parabolic dish antenna.
received-signal-strength indicator derived
from the limiting amplifier (RSSI output)
has more than 90dB dynamic range and
excellent linearity: its guaranteed maximum
relative error is ±2dB.
The transmitter section includes
image-reject upconversion and a variablegain, 0dBm output-buffer amplifier. To
extend battery life, the amplifier’s unique
biasing scheme adjusts current draw to
the minimum necessary to sustain the
desired output power level.
An external tank circuit completes the
internal voltage-controlled oscillator
(VCO), which includes a buffer for
driving an external phase-locked loop.
Power to the VCO is internally regulated
to ensure a constant-frequency output. The
MAX2511’s +2.7V to +5.5V operating
supply voltage enables direct connection
to a 3-cell battery, and four power-control
settings enable advanced system power
management. A shutdown mode lowers
the chip’s supply current to below 2µA.
Q
MAX1003
Dual
A/D
QPSK
Demodulator
As an alternative for applications that
do not require image rejection at the transmitter or receiver, Maxim will soon introduce the MAX2510*. It includes most of
the other features found in the MAX2511
(limiter, RSSI, control functions, etc.). The
MAX2511 comes in a 28-pin QSOP
package specified for the extendedindustrial temperature range (-40°C to
+85°C). Prices for the MAX2511 start at
$5.94 (1000 up, FOB USA).
*Future product—contact factory for availability.
RSSI RELATIVE ERROR
vs. LIMIN INPUT AND TEMPERATURE
5
4
TA = +85°C
3
RSSI ERROR (dB)
Direct-conversion
IC tunes DBS
television signals
1
251
MAX
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
TA = +25°C
TA = -40°C
-5
-90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20
PLIMIN (dBm, 50Ω)
22
NEW PRODUCTS
The MAX2420 is a highly integrated,
front-end IC designed to reduce cost in
900MHz cordless telephones, wireless
modems, and RF transceivers. Its directconversion image-reject mixers, which
eliminate external filters and extra
frequency conversion, save at least $2.00
per unit in each of these applications.
Unlike conventional RF transceivers,
the MAX2420 includes active image-reject
mixers. On the receiver side, image
rejection allows a very low IF without the
need for complex filters, which also eliminates the need for a second frequency
conversion. On the transmit side of a
frequency-hopping system, the imagereject mixer enables direct upconversion of
a digitally synthesized transmit signal.
This capability reduces cost and saves
space by eliminating trims and additional
frequency-conversion stages.
The MAX2420’s mixers have a 35dB
(typ) image rejection. The low-noise
amplifier with 1.8dB noise figure allows a
combined downconverter noise figure of
Lowest phasenoise RF oscillator
replaces VCO
modules
The MAX2620 is a low-noise oscillator
that operates from 10MHz to 1050MHz.
When the MAX2620 is properly mated
with an external varactor-tuned tank
circuit, its typical phase noise is only
-110dBc/Hz at 25kHz offset from a
900MHz carrier.
This low-noise capability, combined
with +2.7V to +5.25V single-supply
operation, makes the MAX2620 an ideal
choice for next-generation analog and
digital cellular phones, 900MHz cordless
phones, land-mobile radio, and narrowband
PCS systems that operate from three nickelcadmium/nickel-metal hydride cells or a
single lithium-ion cell.
just 4dB with an input third-order intercept
point (IP3) of -17dBm. Low-noise amplifier
gain is adjustable to increase the receiver
dynamic range (up to 2dBm input IP3).
The MAX2420 is optimized for
10.7MHz transmit and receive IFs; future
versions will be optimized for 45MHz,
70MHz, and 110MHz IFs. Future members
of this family will replace the transmit
image-reject mixer with a balanced mixer,
which can be used as a balanced modulator
or local-oscillator buffer. Receive-only versions will also be available.
The MAX2420 operates from a +2.7V
to +4.8V single supply. It is available in a
28-pin SSOP package, with prices starting
at $4.49 (1000 up, FOB USA).
TRANSMITTER OUTPUT SPECTRUM
+10
FUNDAMENTAL
0
-10
POWER (dBm)
Image-reject RF
transceiver ideal
for low-cost
900MHz radios
-20
LO
-30
IMAGE
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
875 885 895 905 915 925 935 945 955 965 975
FREQUENCY (MHz)
The MAX2620 includes a low-noise
transistor, two buffer amplifiers, biasing
circuitry, and a power-save capability that
lowers the supply current from 9mA
during operation to 0.1µA in shutdown
mode. Oscillation frequency is set by an
external varactor-controlled ceramic
resonator or LC tank. The MAX2620
boasts minimal frequency pushing—only
71kHz per volt of supply change—making
it less sensitive to the sudden supplyvoltage changes common in TDMA
systems.
The MAX2620 comes in an 8-pin
µMAX package specified for the extendedindustrial temperature range (-40°C to
+85°C). Prices start at $1.98 (1000 up,
FOB USA).
23
+3.3V clockrecovery/dataretiming IC suits
622Mbps SDH/
SONET receivers
The MAX3675 is a clock-recovery
and data-retiming IC for SDH/SONET
and ATM applications. Designed for use
in 622Mbps, NRZ-serial-data receivers, it
has selectable dual inputs that accept
either small-signal analog or differentialPECL data. A high-gain limiting amplifier
at the analog input accepts 3.6mVp-p to
1.2Vp-p signals.
Operating from a single +3.3V supply,
the MAX3675 consumes only 215mW. It
complies with ANSI, ITU, and Bellcore
specifications for Type-A regenerators.
No external reference clock is required. A
fully integrated phase-locked loop with
loss-of-lock monitor tracks the external
signal. Clock and data outputs are in
differential-PECL format. The limiting
amplifier generates a loss-of-power signal,
for which an internal bandgap reference
lets you set the trip point independently of
the supply voltage.
The limiting amplifier also includes
an extremely fast, logarithmic-signal
power detector that provides a receivedsignal-strength indicator (RSSI). The
power detector acts as a broadband power
meter, detecting the total RMS power of
all signals in the passband. Temperature
and power-supply independent, its RSSI
voltage varies linearly in decibels from
1.35V to 2.4V, for -50dBm to -10dBm
(2mVp-p to 200mVp-p) input power
levels. Also included is a fully integrated
input-offset correction loop that requires
no external filter components.
The MAX3675 is available in die
form and in a 32-pin TQFP package, both
specified for the extended-industrial
temperature range (-40°C to +85°C).
Pricing for the packaged part (1000 up,
FOB USA) starts at $44.39.
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