Bioenergy Training Needs

Bioenergy Training Needs
Bioenergy Training and Education Needs
Bioenergy Training and Education Needs
June 2005
Report prepared for Sustainable Energy Ireland by:
Kevin Healion, Study Team leader (Tipperary Institute)
Clifford Guest (Tipperary Institute)
Tom Bruton (Bruton Bioenergy)
Tom Kent (Waterford Institute of Technology)
Seamus Hoyne (Tipperary Institute)
Dr. Julije Domac (Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar)
Jean-Marc Jossart (AEBIOM - European Biomass Association)
Katharina Krell (EUREC Agency)
Executive Summary
Study Objectives
Three types of resources are required to develop and run a bioenergy project – physical resources such
as biomass fuel and a conversion plant, financial resources to develop the project, and human resources
at all stages. This Study focuses on the human resources required in the bioenergy sector, specifically the
number of people that will be employed and how their training and education needs will be met. The
specific objectives of this Study are to assess the training and education needs of the bioenergy sector in
the Republic of Ireland, and to make proposals to fill any gaps identified in training and education service
provision.
Consultation
The input of the bioenergy industry and of training and education providers was an important feature of
the Study – over 60 people kindly provided information, opinion, assistance or comment to the Study
Team. (see Acknowledgements). Consultations and discussions held during the Study raised the general
level of awareness of activity in bioenergy training and education.
Bioenergy Subsectors
The six bioenergy subsectors examined are anaerobic digestion, dry agricultural residues (poultry litter,
straw and spent mushroom compost), energy crops, landfill gas, liquid biofuels and wood (including
waste wood). These resources can provide thermal, electrical and transport energy, resulting in a
complex network with many potential combinations of resources, supply systems, pre-processing
options, conversion technologies, distribution channels and market segments.
Scenario for Bioenergy to 2020
The potential demand for bioenergy training and education in Ireland was assessed, taking future direct
employment in construction, installation, operation and maintenance as the indicator for training and
education demand. In order to estimate future employment, a scenario for bioenergy development to
2020 was defined, based on potential Government targets where possible. The scenario shows that
wood heating produces the most energy at present, with landfill gas also contributing. Wood for
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) could become significant by 2010, with other bioenergy applications
also emerging. By 2020 energy crops for CHP could provide a substantial energy output. Dry agricultural
residues for CHP, liquid biofuels and anaerobic digestion could also have developed into important
energy producers. Overall, it can be concluded that wood is likely to continue to dominate the
bioenergy sector in the medium term.
Potential Direct Employment
Based on the bioenergy development scenario used in this Study, it is estimated that over 1,600 people
could be employed full time directly in bioenergy projects by 2010, rising to over 2,500 by 2020. This
total is subdivided into two categories: construction and installation; and operation and maintenance.
250 to 350 Full-Time Equivalents (FTEs) could be sustained in construction and installation to 2020, and
over 1,300 FTEs in operation and maintenance by 2010, increasing to almost 2,300 by 2020.
Needs Analysis
A training and education needs analysis for the Irish bioenergy sector was completed, informed by a
review of existing training and education practice in selected European countries. The needs analysis
revealed that there are many needs which are independent of bioenergy subsector. A single widelyavailable programme could therefore meet many of these needs.
Training and Education Supply
The supply of bioenergy training and education was assessed. In total over 90 initiatives are reviewed in
detail (33 from Ireland), with outlines included on over 70 more (see Appendix 1). The detailed review
was limited to those training and education courses that had specific content on bioenergy.
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There are quite a number of training and continuing professional development services available in
Ireland, ranging in duration from seminars of a few hours to a course of one night a week for one
academic year. There is only one undergraduate course which deals specifically with renewable energy,
due to commence in autumn 2005. However, a number of other undergraduate courses do include
components on bioenergy, including courses in the agriculture, engineering and forestry disciplines.
Taught postgraduate courses on sustainable energy or bioenergy are available via distance or online
modes – full time or part time courses will commence in autumn 2005 in Cork and Dundalk.
Gap Analysis
Having estimated the potential future direct employment in the bioenergy sector, examined the
associated needs, and reviewed the existing supply of bioenergy training and education, a “gap analysis”
was then completed. This analysis identified whether needs were or were not being met. It was found
that there are 56 gaps in the provision of bioenergy training and education in Ireland, 95% of the
potential maximum of 59. There are however significant initiatives which if developed further should
meet over half (31) of the gaps identified. There are 15 gaps (25% of the potential number) for which no
initiatives were apparent.
There are substantial gaps for five of the six bioenergy subsectors, landfill gas being the one exception.
Most of the widest gaps are in the training system. There are also gaps in the CPD system. Within the
education system, it is important that existing initiatives are developed to ensure needs are met.
Nine key gaps have been consolidated from the gap analysis. In the training system the gaps are: for
plant operatives (anaerobic digestion and wood); in agriculture (all subsectors except landfill gas); in
forestry (energy crops and wood); in engineering (wood). In the educational system there are gaps in all
disciplines (including in agricultural education on dry agricultural residues and wood). The gaps in the
CPD system are: in agriculture (all subsectors except landfill gas); in forestry (energy crops and wood); in
engineering (all subsectors except landfill gas); and in other disciplines (wood). Nineteen proposals are
made to address these gaps. Eight proposals are made for the training sector, four for education, and
seven for CPD.
Proposals for Addressing Gaps
Five of the proposals for the training sector involve development of existing initiatives. It was also felt
necessary to present three proposals in more detail (on anaerobic digestion, and agricultural and forestry
training).
There are a significant number of educational programmes in Ireland that already contain content on
bioenergy. It was not felt necessary therefore to make specific detailed proposals. Replication around
Ireland of the existing initiatives is however required.
Of the seven proposals put forward in the CPD sector, it was considered necessary to provide detail on
five. One of the proposals is for “training of trainers” – to implement the proposals made in this Study
will require a substantial pool of people with expertise on bioenergy, and the skills in training and
education with which to share that expertise to best effect.
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Recommendations
A number of recommendations are made related to bioenergy training and education. Three of these
recommendations are considered key:
1. Publish a comprehensive set of targets to 2020 or beyond on heat, liquid biofuels and electricity from
biomass.
2. Provide a single point of contact for those seeking information on training and education services on
bioenergy (and perhaps other aspects of sustainable energy) in Ireland. Publicise that this service is
available.
3. Hold a networking event entitled the “National Forum for Bioenergy Training and Education”. The
forum would include a plenary session followed by parallel themed workshops (e.g. wood heating
training, engineering design of large bioenergy plants). Opportunities should be given for
stakeholders (providers and industry) to meet by geographical area (to allow for example discussions
on: possible local synergies and regional clusters; detailed needs) and time and space should be
made available for provider-to-provider meetings (to allow discussions on franchising out of existing
courses for example). Copies of this Study should be sent to key stakeholders in advance of the
event.
This Study Report
This Study establishes a baseline for bioenergy training and education in Ireland, against which future
progress can be measured. Both the needs analysis (Chapter 2) and the review of bioenergy training and
education (Appendix 1) are substantial resources for existing or intending service providers. These are
supplemented by extensive cross-referencing between the sections of the report and a comprehensive
list of references.
Vision
Implementation of the proposals in this Study will help achieve the vision of a world class bioenergy
sector in Ireland, with high quality installations that are designed, built, managed, operated and fuelled
by knowledgeable and skilled personnel in a safe and profitable manner, with wider economic,
environmental and social benefits.
iii
Acknowledgements
The following people provided information, opinion, assistance or comment to the Study Team. Their
inputs are very gratefully acknowledged.
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Greg Arrowsmith, EUREC Agency
Lis Broome, ECOTEC Research & Consulting Ltd.
Anthony Browne, Biogreen Energy Products Ltd.
Paddy Browne, Teagasc
Stephen Butler, Action Renewables
Michael Chesshire, Greenfinch Ltd.
Terry Cunningham, Teagasc (Clonmel)
Dr Claudius da Costa Gomez, German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas)
Dr Eamonn Darcy, FÁS
Malcolm Dawson, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland)
Simon Dick, Clearpower Ltd.
Xavier DuBuisson, Renewable Energy Information Office of SEI
Gerry Duggan, Institution of Engineers of Ireland
Mark Dwan, Camphill Community Ballytobin
Garret Fallon, Irish Power Systems Ltd.
Camilla Fanning, Institute of Public Administration
Dr Billy Fitzgerald, Institute of Technology, Sligo
James Fitzgerald, Agricultural scientist
Professor Paul Fleming, De Montfort University
Jim Gannon, RPS-MCOS Ltd.
Raffaello Garofalo, European Biodiesel Board
Roy Goodwin, Napier University
Bruno Grano, Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux
Vicky Heslop, Methan O Gen Ltd.
Joe Hogan, Miscanthus for Ireland
Josie Hughes, Teagasc (Clonmel)
Dr Raida Jirjis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Tony Kay, University of Limerick
Peter Keavney, Galway Energy Agency
Seamus Kelly, Earth Tech Ireland Ltd.
James Kennedy, Natural Power Supply Ltd.
David Kidney, Balcas Ltd.
Dr Ger Kiely, University College Cork
Jimmy Kinahan, Institution of Engineers of Ireland
Michael Köttner, IBBK Germany (biogas)
Dr Clare Lukehurst, Biogas consultant
John Lynch, Bord na Móna
Kevin Lynch, Institute of Technology Tralee
Noeleen Maher, Water Services National Training Group
Patrick Mangan, Letterkenny Institute of Technology
George McCarthy, Coillte
Arja Maunumaki, Oulu Polytechnic, Finland
Seán Molloy, PricewaterhouseCoopers
Nessa Moyles, Irish Business and Employers Confederation
Dr Jerry Murphy, Cork Institute of Technology
Professor Maarten Nieuwenhuis, University College Dublin
Dr Nuala Ní Fhlatharta, Teagasc (Forestry Development Unit)
Professor Åke Nordberg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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Joe O’Carroll, COFORD (National Council for Forest Research and Development)
Kevin O’Connell, Teagasc (Ballyhaise Agricultural College)
Jack O’Connor, Biomass Heating Solutions Ltd.
Margaret O’Flanagan, Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland
Ger O’Sullivan, Office of Public Works
Dr Christian Rakos, formerly Austrian Energy Agency (EVA)
Todd Redmond, Dublin Institute of Technology
Bernard Rice, Teagasc
Áine Ryan, Architect and planner
Róisín Ryan, Teacher at second level
Larry Staudt, Dundalk Institute of Technology
Patrick Stephens, Association of Energy Professionals of Ireland
Sarah Wall, Galway Mayo Institute of Technology
Dick Whelan, Renewable Energy Skillnet
Donal Whelan, Irish Timber Growers’ Association
Within Tipperary Institute, assistance was provided by Tina Coman, Kate Dwyer, Kathleen Fanning, Dr
James Griffin, Paul Keating (Irish LEADER Support Unit), Eugene Kelly, Sean Lydon, Ciarán Lynch, Ann
McBride, Sheila McCarthy, Sinead McMahon (who developed a set of criteria for educational programme
review which provided the basis of the review criteria used in the Study), Mathew Mather, Michael
Maunsell, Thomas Mawe, Edel O’Grady, Professor Gary Prosser, Maureen Ryan, Tara Ryan and Laura
Sheppard.
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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................i
Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................................................... iv
Table of Contents........................................................................................................................................................................ vi
List of Figures .............................................................................................................................................................................. vii
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................ vii
1.
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1
Objectives and Scope of Study ....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2
Projected Employment in Renewable Energy .......................................................................................... 2
1.3
Energy Context and Scenario for Bioenergy Development ................................................................ 3
2.
Potential Demand and Needs Analysis for Bioenergy Training and Education ...................................... 7
2.1
Perspective on Bioenergy Employment Potential .................................................................................. 7
2.2
Needs Analysis.....................................................................................................................................................14
3.
Existing Supply of Bioenergy Training and Education ....................................................................................23
3.1
Ireland.....................................................................................................................................................................23
3.2
International Case Studies..............................................................................................................................24
3.3
Training and Education - Delivery Modes and Quality Control........................................................25
4.
Gap Analysis of Bioenergy Training and Education .........................................................................................29
5.
Proposals to Fill Gaps....................................................................................................................................................36
5.1
Proposals on Training.......................................................................................................................................36
5.2
Proposals on Third Level Education............................................................................................................39
5.3
Proposals on Continuing Professional Development..........................................................................41
6.
Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................................45
6.1
Recommendations on Demand-side..........................................................................................................45
6.2
Recommendations on Supply-side.............................................................................................................46
6.3
Other Recommendations................................................................................................................................46
Appendix 1.
Review of Bioenergy Training and Education .............................................................................47
Republic of Ireland ..............................................................................................................................................................55
Austria ......................................................................................................................................................................................81
Denmark..................................................................................................................................................................................86
Finland......................................................................................................................................................................................87
France .......................................................................................................................................................................................91
Germany ..................................................................................................................................................................................97
Sweden ................................................................................................................................................................................. 100
United Kingdom ................................................................................................................................................................ 104
Other Countries ................................................................................................................................................................. 119
Appendix 2.
The Study Team ................................................................................................................................... 123
Appendix 3.
Other Suggestions Made During the Study.............................................................................. 125
Appendix 4.
List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................... 126
References ................................................................................................................................................................................. 128
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................................. 134
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List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
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Figure 26
The Six Bioenergy Subsectors Examined in this Study
Projected Employment by Renewable Energy Technology in the Former EU15
Breakdown of Total Primary Energy Requirement 2003, ROI
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Energy Produced
The Bioenergy Supply Pathway and Associated Employment Sectors
Production Functions for Construction and Installation Direct Employment
Production Functions for Operation and Maintenance Direct Employment
Potential Bioenergy Construction and Installation Employment to 2020, ROI
Breakdown of Average Construction and Installation Employment to 2020, ROI
Potential Bioenergy Operation and Maintenance Employment to 2020, ROI
Breakdown of Average Operation and Maintenance Employment to 2020, ROI
Potential Bioenergy C+I and O+M Employment to 2020, ROI
Breakdown of Average C+I and O+M Employment to 2020, ROI
Overview of Needs Analysis
Summary of Gap Analysis for Bioenergy Training and Education in ROI
Gap Analysis by Employment Sector
Gap Analysis by Bioenergy Subsector
Gap Analysis Classified by Training, Education or CPD
Renewable Energy and Bioenergy in TPER of Selected Countries, 2002
Bioenergy Utilisation by Resource in Selected Countries, 2002
Landuse in the Selected Countries
Agricultural and Forestry Landuse in the Selected Countries
Participation by ISCED Education Level in Selected EU Countries, 2001
Education Expectancy and Median Age in Tertiary Education, 2002
Enrolment in Selected Course Areas in Tertiary Education, 2001
Enterprises Giving Training by Type as Percentage of all Enterprises, 1999
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List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
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Table 8
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Table 13
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Table 15
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Table 26
Energy Crops in the DCMNR 2003 Consultation Document
Biofuels in the ROI – Status and Indicative Targets
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Energy Produced
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Installed Capacity
Capital Costs of Bioenergy Applications
General Needs for All Bioenergy Pathway Links and Subsectors
Link-Specific Needs in the Bioenergy Pathway
Roles Shared Across Bioenergy Subsectors
Specific Roles and Needs for Anaerobic Digestion Subsector
Specific Roles and Needs for Dry Agricultural Residues Subsector
Specific Roles and Needs for Energy Crops Subsector (Including SRC)
Specific Roles and Needs for Landfill Gas Subsector
Specific Roles and Needs for Liquid Biofuels Subsector
Specific Roles and Needs for Wood Subsector (including Waste Wood)
Possible Training and Education Delivery Modes
Advantages and Disadvantages of Delivery Modes
Detailed Gap Analysis for Bioenergy Training and Education in ROI
Gap Analysis – Existing and Proposed Programmes
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in Training
Proposed Training for Operatives on Anaerobic Digestion
Proposed Agricultural and Forestry Training on Bioenergy
Proposed Forestry Training on Wood Energy Development
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in Education
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in CPD
Proposed Agriculture CPD on Bioenergy
Proposed Forestry CPD on Wood Energy
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Proposed Engineering CPD on Bioenergy Plant Design and Construction
Proposed Architects CPD on Wood Heating
Proposed Training of Trainers on Bioenergy
Training and Education Systems in Selected Countries
Action Renewables and SEI, Renewable Energy Academy
BNS Rural Development, Renewable Energy Training Course
COFORD, Wood Biomass Harvesting
FÁS, Waste Management Training Programme
Galway Energy Agency (as LEA Example), Small-Scale Renewable Energy
IEI CPD
Natural Power Supply and FÁS South East, Training on Wood Heating
Northeast LEADER Companies, Introduction to Renewable Energy
OPW CPD
Renewable Energy Skillnet, Training on Renewable Energy
RIAI CPD
SEI, Wood Heating Training
Teagasc South Tipperary, Renewable Energy Component in 180 Hour Course
Tipperary Institute, Certificate in Renewable Energy
WIT, Wood Energy Supply Systems Training Project
WORD and Teagasc, Agricultural Slurry and Wind Training Course
Notes on Other Training and CPD Programmes in the ROI
CIT, Degree in Structural Engineering
DCU, Module on Chemistry of Energy Production and Waste
DKIT, Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics - Product Development
LIT, Bachelor of Science in Renewable and Electrical Energy Systems
Open University, Energy for a Sustainable Future
Tipperary Institute, Sustainable Energy in Rural Development
UCC, Unit on Energy and the Environment
UCD, Alternative Crop Development
UCD, Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Forestry)
UCD, Unit on Power and Machinery
UCD, Unit on Renewable Energy Systems
UCD, Unit on Waste Management
UL, Bioenergy in BSc in Food Science and Health
WIT, Bachelor of Science in Forestry
Notes on Other Undergraduate Programmes in the ROI
DIT, Faculty of the Built Environment
DKIT, MSc in Renewable Energy Systems Technology
UCC, Masters in Engineering Science in Sustainable Energy
Notes on Other Postgraduate Programmes in the ROI
Austrian Biofuels Institute, Biodiesel Training
Austrian Biomass Association, Bioheat Installer
EVA, Development and Operation of Medium Scale Biomass Heating Projects
Notes on Other Training and CPD in Austria
Fachhochschule Pinkafeld, Energy and Environmental Management
Fachhochschule Wels, Eco-Energy Engineering
Notes on Other Undergraduate Courses in Austria
Notes on Training and CPD Programmes in Denmark
Danish Technical University, Anaerobic Biotechnology
Notes on Other Postgraduate Courses in Denmark
Jyväskylä Polytechnic, Use of Wood Fuel for Heat Production
Savonlinna Vocational College, Forest Worker
North Karelia Polytechnic, Bachelor of Science in Forestry
Oulu Polytechnic, Degree Programme in Agricultural and Rural Industries
University of Joensuu, Production and Energy Use of Wood Biomass
ASDER Savoy, Renewable Energy, Waste Separation and Valorisation
ITEBE, Firewood Club
ITEBE, Wood Chip Club
ITEBE, Wood Energy Training
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Table 136
ITEBE and ASDER, Wood Pellet Club
Notes on Other Training and CPD in France
IUT Tarbes, Science and Technology of Renewable Energy
Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, Clean Energy From Biomass and Waste
ENSAM Corsica, Renewable Energies and Their Production Systems
University of Montpellier, Energy Economics and Law
EBA-Zentrum Triesdorf, Biogas Basic Seminar
IBBK, Biogas Seminars
LEB, Biogas Plant Operator Seminar
ZNR, Biogas Programmes
Notes on Other Training and CPD Programmes in Germany
UAS Berlin, Mechanical Engineering – Renewable Energies
Notes on Other Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in Germany
Notes on Training and CPD Programmes in Sweden
Linköping University, The Biogas Process
Växjö University, Bioenergy Technology via Distance Learning
SLU, Bioenergy Technology and Systems
University College of Borås, Modules on Energy Recovery
University of Uppsala and SLU, Master of Science in Renewable Energy
Notes on Other Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in Sweden
ADER, Renewables Seminar
CAT, Introduction to Small-scale Wood Fuel Systems
CAT, Make Your Own Biodiesel
CIWM, Introduction to the Management of Wastes
Clear Skies Programme
(Former) Landfill Gas Association, Landfill Gas Courses
John Amos & Co., Advice and Training on Energy Crops
Loyton Renewable Energy Centre, Introduction to Wood Heating
NPTC, Brushwood Chipper Operations
University of Wales, Introduction to Renewable Energy
Notes on Other Training and CPD Courses in the UK
Napier University, Energy and Environmental Engineering
Queen’s University Belfast, Advanced Crop Science
UMIST, Architectural and Environmental Services Engineering
University of Edinburgh, Mechanical Engineering with Renewable Energy
University of Exeter Cornwall, BSc Renewable Energy
University of Glamorgan, Energy and Environmental Technology
University of Leeds, Environmental/Energy Technology
University of Staffordshire, Design Technology for Renewable Energy
Notes on Other Undergraduate Programmes in the UK
De Montfort University, Climate Change and Sustainable Development
Loughborough University, Renewable Energy Systems Technology
University of Durham, MSc in New and Renewable Energy
University of Reading, Renewable Energy and the Environment
University of Ulster, Postgraduate Diploma/MSc Renewable Energy
Notes on Other Postgraduate Programmes in the UK
INFORSE, Internet Education on Renewable Energy
Natural Resources Canada, Training on RETScreen Software
EUREC, European Master in Renewable Energy
IMES EU-USA, Masters in Bioenergy and Environment
University of Zagreb, International MSc in Sustainable Energy Engineering
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1.
Introduction
1.1
Objectives and Scope of Study
The objectives of this Study are to assess the training and education needs of the bioenergy sector in the
Republic of Ireland, and to make proposals to fill any gaps identified in training and education service
provision. Lack of training and education opportunities is one of the key non-technical barriers to the
further development of the bioenergy sector. In this Study, both the analysis of needs and the making of
proposals were assisted by input from the bioenergy industry and from training and education providers.
A review of bioenergy training and education in selected European countries helped to highlight gaps in
Irish provision, and suggested ways in which those gaps could be filled.
In this Study, the term “training” is used to refer to programmes for the development of specific practical
skills (for example, how to operate a timber harvester to produce wood fuel, or how to size and install a
wood-fuelled heating system). The term “education” is used to refer to formal, accredited programmes
of broad knowledge development (e.g. a degree in engineering). The term “CPD” refers to programmes
designed to upgrade the skills or knowledge of a person who has previously completed training or
education, or has substantial work experience. CPD is often linked to professional associations (e.g. of
architects, engineers, foresters). While the distinctions between education, training and CPD are not
always clear-cut, the definitions given in this paragraph guided the Study team in their analysis (for
example, training programmes will involve knowledge development, and students in education will also
learn skills).
The bioenergy sector has been divided into six subsectors for the purposes of this Study, as follows:
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Anaerobic digestion
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Dry agricultural residues (poultry litter, straw and spent mushroom compost)
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Energy crops
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Landfill gas
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Liquid biofuels
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Wood (including waste wood)
Figure 1
The Six Bioenergy Subsectors Examined in this Study
Anaerobic Digestion
Dry Agricultural Residues
Energy Crops
Landfill Gas
Liquid Biofuels
Wood
Anaerobic digestion plant in Denmark. Straw photograph courtesy of Mr. Seamus Tynan. Miscanthus harvesting in
Co. Tipperary. Dunsink landfill gas photograph provided by Irish Power Systems Ltd. Pure plant oil production in Co.
Wexford. Wood Combined Heat and Power (CHP) in Co. Cork.
1
There is some overlap between the energy crop and wood subsectors, as one of the energy crops with
most potential is short rotation coppice (SRC), a source of wood fuel. For the purposes of the needs
analysis undertaken during this Study, SRC is included in the “Energy crops” subsector.
The bioenergy sector is complex, with many potential combinations of resources, supply systems, preprocessing options, conversion technologies, distribution channels and market segments (see for
example: “Biomass Production Processes” diagram in SEI, 2002; and SEI, 2003). It must always be borne
in mind that bioenergy can provide for all three forms of energy use – thermal, electrical and transport.
1.2
Projected Employment in Renewable Energy
In discussions on employment, the terms “direct”, “indirect” and “induced” are used. In the context of
this Study, direct employment relates to those working in bioenergy projects (including fuel supply),
indirect employment relates to sectors serving the bioenergy projects, and induced employment relates
to jobs created by the stimulation of general economic activity. Direct employment is the focus in this
Study.
ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. (with a number of other organisations) undertook a
comprehensive study during 1998 and 1999 to quantify the employment and economic impacts of
renewable energy in the former EU15 (ECOTEC et al., 1999). The study investigated direct, indirect and
subsidy impacts. It found that net job creation was greatest from bioenergy, from among the
renewables examined (assuming that existing employment in the agriculture and forestry sectors was
not displaced). It estimated that net new employment in the Republic of Ireland from renewables would
be over 11,000 full-time-equivalents (FTEs) by 2020 (relative to a 1995 baseline). One FTE is equivalent to
more than 30 hours of work per week all year round. EREC (2003) have produced more recent estimates
of net direct and indirect employment creation from renewables, which again show the very significant
job creation potential of bioenergy (see Figure 2). Bioenergy (“biomass” and “biofuels”) accounts for 71%
of the one million jobs created by 2010, and 57% of the two million jobs in 2020.
Figure 2
Projected Employment by Renewable Energy Technology in the Former EU15
2,500,000
Solar Thermal
Employment as Full-Time Equivalents
Geothermal
2,000,000
Small Hydro
Biofuels
Biomass (excl. Biofuels)
1,500,000
Photovoltaic
614,000
Wind
1,000,000
528,000
424,000
500,000
338,000
0
2010
2020
EREC, 2003
2
A recent study in the United Kingdom (DTI, 2004a) estimated that there were 8,000 UK jobs sustained by
the renewables industry in 2003. This estimate includes direct, indirect and induced employment, in
renewable energy project development, manufacture, construction and operation. This could rise to
between 17,000 and 35,000 by 2020, depending on the mix of renewable energy technologies deployed.
Based on the results of the study it was concluded that “Such is the scale of the expected boom in green
energy technology that there could actually be a shortfall in suitably trained staff.”, and the need for
expansion of related training and education was identified (DTI, 2004b).
It has been estimated that the development of renewable energy heating systems in Northern Ireland
and border counties in the Republic of Ireland (the INTERREG Region) could result in a “… total of 1,650
new full time local jobs for the installation, operation and maintenance of RE heating systems: 650 for wood
heating (300 Installers, Technicians & Engineers, plus 350 Farm, Transport and Contract Workers to Supply the
Wood Fuel); 500 for heat pumps (Installers, Technicians and Engineers); 100 for solar thermal systems
(Installers, Technicians and Engineers); 400 jobs in associated construction and installation activities.” (Action
Renewables and SEI, 2004, p4).
1.3
Energy Context and Scenario for Bioenergy Development
Figure 3 shows the breakdown of the Republic of Ireland’s (ROI) Total Primary Energy Requirement (TPER)
into the three forms of energy use - electricity, thermal and transport. The chart shows that the thermal
and transport sectors are as significant as electricity. Biomass resources can contribute to all three forms
of energy use. Using indigenous biomass resources can reduce the country’s 89% reliance on imported
fuels and increase the current 2% contribution of renewables to TPER (figures from SEI, 2005).
Figure 3
Breakdown of Total Primary Energy Requirement 2003, ROI
Transport
31%
Thermal
35%
Electricity
34%
SEI, 2004a
In order to estimate future employment in the bioenergy sector, a scenario for bioenergy development
to 2020 had to be defined for this Study. It was considered appropriate to base the scenario on potential
or indicative Government targets where possible. Documents from the Department of Communications,
Marine and Natural Resources (DCMNR) thus provided the scenario’s basis. The more recent work of the
Bioenergy Strategy Group was not available at the time of writing.
The DCMNR (2003) consultation document Options for Future Renewable Energy Policy, Targets and
Programmes sets out the “Estimated Medium Term Development Potential” for renewable energy
(electricity-only, CHP and heat-only), and presents alternative potential targets for electricity from
renewables. For 2010 three alternative targets are given, representing 13.2%, 15% and 20% shares of
renewables in electricity supply. For 2020 four alternative targets are given, representing 15%, 20%, 25%
and 30% shares of renewables in electricity supply. DCMNR (2003) also breaks down the potential
targets into different renewables. For bioenergy the potential targets for 20% renewable electricity in
2010 and 2020 correspond to bioenergy’s “Estimated Medium Term Development Potential” for
electricity-only and electricity from CHP, except for energy crops (see Table 1). The figures are presented
in TeraWatthours (TWh) (one TWh is one billon “units” or kWhs).
3
Table 1
Energy Crops in the DCMNR 2003 Consultation Document
Estimated Medium Term
Development Potential
Contribution under 30%
potential
electricity
target
Contribution under 20%
potential
electricity
target
2010
Electricity output in TWh
2020
Electricity output in TWh
0.04
4.16
Not applicable
3.26
0.00
0.60
For electricity, the scenario used in this Study is based on the DCMNR’s potential targets for 20%
renewable electricity in 2010 and 2020, except for energy crops in 2010. For energy crops in 2010 the
scenario uses the Estimated Medium Term Development Potential of 0.04 TWh of electricity output,
rather than the 0 TWh under the DCMNR potential 20% target.
For heat-only and the heat production associated with electricity generation in CHP plants, the DCMNR’s
Estimated Medium Term Development Potential figures are used (no potential targets have been set by
DCMNR for heat-only).
Directive 2003/30/EC on the promotion of the use of biofuels (European Parliament and Council, 2003)
sets a reference percentage for 5.75% of the EU’s petrol and diesel for transport use to be replaced by
renewable resources by 2010. The DCMNR reported progress as required under the Directive, and
proposed initial indicative targets (DCMNR, 2004). Table 2 shows the status and indicative targets for the
Republic of Ireland, and the EU reference percentages.
Table 2
Biofuels in the ROI – Status and Indicative Targets
Date
Status
2004
Indicative Target
2005
Indicative Target
2006
Percentage Replacement of Petrol and Diesel Energy
Reference Percentage for EU
Republic of Ireland
in Biofuels Directive
0.0003%
0.06%
2%
0.13%
2010
5.75%
European Parliament and Council, 2003; DCMNR, 2004.
The Liquid Biofuels Strategy Study for Ireland (SEI, 2004b) estimates that the Republic of Ireland could fulfil
up to 23% of the 2010 reference percentage (of 5.75%) from indigenous biomass (i.e. 1.32% of the energy
in petrol and diesel for transport in the ROI could be replaced by biofuels produced from resources from
the ROI). The bioenergy development scenario for this Study therefore uses this 1.32% figure for both
2010 and 2020. This represents an increase in the absolute quantity of liquid biofuels produced from
indigenous biomass, due to the projected growth in transport energy requirement. Data on transport
energy for 2003 was taken from SEI (2005). The projection for transport energy in 2010 was calculated
from SEI (2004b). Linear extrapolation from 2003 through 2010 was used to generate the 2020
projection for transport energy. It is acknowledged that imports of biofuels or raw material for their
production would also generate employment in the country. However, it was considered more
appropriate to focus on the employment generated by indigenous production and processing of raw
material.
4
The bioenergy development scenario for this study is set out in Table 3 and Figure 4, as energy produced
from the various bioenergy options. The scenario is also presented as installed capacity in Table 4.
Table 3
Electricity
Heat
Transport
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Energy Produced
(Energy produced in TWh)
Anaerobic digestion for CHP
Dry agricultural residues for CHP
Energy crops for CHP
Landfill gas
Wood residues for CHP
Anaerobic digestion (heat from CHP)
Dry agricultural residues (heat from CHP)
Energy crops (heat from CHP)
Wood residues (heat from CHP)
Wood heating
Liquid biofuels
Total
2003
*
0.00
0.00
0.12
*
*
0.00
0.00
*
1.81
0.00
1.93
2010
0.12
0.16
0.04
0.24
0.52
0.12
0.26
0.06
0.83
2.69
0.76
5.80
2020
0.28
0.40
0.60
0.32
0.68
0.28
0.64
0.96
1.09
4.32
1.05
10.61
Notes on Table 3:
• Asterisk (*) indicates that no energy production is listed in DCMNR, 2003. However projects in these categories are now
operational.
• There is also use of anaerobic digestion in heat-only applications, and flaring of biogas from anaerobic digestion plants and
landfills.
• Heat output from CHP calculated where necessary using a heat to power ratio of 1.6 to 1, after DCMNR (2003).
• DCMNR (2003) states that 2,600 hectares of energy crops would be required to supply an energy crop electricity output of 0.04
TWh in 2010 (at 10 oven dry tonnes per hectare per annum). For 2020 DCMNR assume increased yields of 15 oven dry tonnes per
hectare per annum, requiring 30,188 hectares of energy crops to produce the 0.60 TWh in the table. Over 164,000 hectares
would be required to meet the 2020 “30%” potential target for energy crops of 3.26 TWh (Table 1). The DCMNR assumptions are
18 GigaJoules of energy per tonne of crop, 30% electrical conversion efficiency and conversion plant availability of 8,000 hours.
• DCMNR (2003) does not list co-firing as an option for the generation of electricity from biomass, despite its technical and
economic potential (as reported for example in: ECN et al., 1995; van den Broek, 2000; van den Broek et al., 2001; ElectrowattEkono and Tipperary Institute, 2003; SEI, 2004c).
• To convert from TWh to million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE), divide by 11.63.
• To convert from TWh to PetaJoules (PJ), multiply by 3.6.
• External factors could require more ambitious targets for renewable energy, including bioenergy. These external factors include:
greenhouse gas abatement; security of energy supply (see for example Douthwaite, 2003); impacts of agricultural policy reform;
impacts of rural development policy; and environmental considerations (for example water quality and emissions to air).
The scenario shows that wood heating contributes the most energy at present, with landfill gas also
playing a role. Wood for CHP could become significant by 2010, with other bioenergy applications also
emerging. By 2020 energy crops for CHP could provide a substantial energy output. Dry agricultural
residues for CHP, liquid biofuels and anaerobic digestion could also have developed into important
energy producers. Overall, it can be concluded that wood is likely to continue to dominate the
bioenergy sector – especially if a large proportion of the 2020 energy crop for CHP production was
provided by Short Rotation Coppice (a source of wood fuel). The role of agriculture and the involvement
of landowners will assume more importance in the bioenergy sector as energy crops develop.
5
Figure 4
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Energy Produced
12
Landfill gas
Anaerobic digestion for CHP
10
Liquid biofuels
TWh of Energy Produced
Dry agricultural residues for CHP
8
Energy crops for CHP
Wood residues for CHP
Wood heating
6
4
2
0
2004
Table 4
2010
2020
Scenario for Bioenergy Development to 2020, ROI – Installed Capacity
Bioenergy Option
Anaerobic digestion for CHP
Dry agricultural residues for CHP
Energy crops for CHP
Landfill gas
Wood residues for CHP
Total Electricity & CHP
Unit
MWe
MWe
MWe
MWe
MWe
MWe
2003
*
0
0
15
*
15
Heat
Wood heating
MWth
603
Transport
Liquid biofuels
Million litres
per year
Electricity & CHP
0.01
2010
15
20
5
30
65
135
2020
35
50
75
40
85
285
897
1,440
78
107
Notes:
• MWe is MegaWatt electrical (one thousand kilowatts – one million Watts). MWth is MegaWatt thermal.
• Asterisk (*) indicates that no capacity is listed in DCMNR, 2003. However projects in these categories are now operational.
• Capacity for electricity and CHP calculated from Table 3 on the basis of 8,000 hours of full load operation per annum (DCMNR,
2003).
• Capacity for wood heating calculated from Table 3 on the basis of 3,000 hours of full load operation per annum (after EVA,
2003). However certain wood heating systems could have significantly less hours of full load operation per annum –
Nemestothy (2004) gives an example of a 15 kWth system with 1,400 hours of full load operation per annum.
• Capacity for liquid biofuels calculated from Table 3 on the basis of 102 million litres of liquid biofuels per TWh (ECOTEC et al.,
1999; Healion, 2005).
6
2.
Potential Demand and Needs Analysis for Bioenergy Training
and Education
The potential demand for bioenergy training and education in Ireland has been assessed, taking
potential direct employment as the indicator for training and education demand. An employment
estimate is generated using a production function methodology applied to the bioenergy development
scenario (Table 3 and Table 4). Needs have been analysed, guided by consideration of the links in the
bioenergy supply pathway, and the employment sectors most closely associated with each link (Figure
5). Four employment sectors are shown - agriculture, forestry, engineering and “other” (including for
example architecture, business, environmental science, legal, physical planning, policy, rural
development, science, sustainable development). The international review of bioenergy training and
education showed agriculture, forestry and engineering to be dominant relevant sectors (see Chapter 3).
The most relevant engineering disciplines are considered to be agricultural, chemical, electrical, energy,
environmental, mechanical and process.
Figure 5
The Bioenergy Supply Pathway and Associated Employment Sectors
Resources and
Logistics
Fuels
Agriculture
Forestry
Engineering
Conversion
Distribution
Engineering
Engineering
Other
Heat
Electricit
Transpor
Support Services
Agriculture, Forestry, Engineering, Other
2.1
Perspective on Bioenergy Employment Potential
There are various possible approaches to estimations of employment potential: general equilibrium
models; input-output analysis; multiplier methodology; and production functions. The production
function approach was deemed the most appropriate for this Study, as it is the least complex and can
provide detail on that employment most directly connected with bioenergy projects.
A production function expresses the employment associated with an activity, usually expressed as FullTime Equivalents. In the context of this study, the production function can be expressed on a number of
bases, for example: FTEs per PetaJoule of primary energy used; FTEs per thousand cubic metres of wood
fuel used; FTEs per MegaWatt of capacity installed; FTEs per GigaWatthour (GWh) of energy produced.
It has been commented that “The literature pertaining to bioenergy technology is huge. However, this is not
the case when it comes to topics like employment, socio-economics of bioenergy and related themes. There is
a dearth of critically formulated and substantially analysed information.” (Remedio, 2000). Following a
review of literature with data on production functions (including ACIL, no date; Remedio, 2000; van den
Broek, 2000; Roy and Mawer, 2002; ADAS, 2003; IEA Bioenergy, 2003; Brook Lyndhurst, 2004), those
developed by ECOTEC et al. (1999) were deemed the most comprehensive and appropriate for
application in this Study. However, due to limitations in the production function methodology, the
results should be treated as indicative of the likely scale of labour required, rather than as exact
predictions.
7
The Renewable Energy Information Office (REIO) of Sustainable Energy Ireland has developed a
spreadsheet-based tool which uses the ECOTEC et al. production functions to estimate employment
(Almer, 2003).
ECOTEC et al. developed production functions for the number of direct jobs created in both construction
and installation (C+I), and operation and maintenance (O+M) of bioenergy applications (i.e. people
required on-site to build and install the plant, or directly employed to operate and maintain the plant –
off-site manufacturing of equipment is not included). The C+I production functions are applied per
million euro of capital investment. The O+M production functions are on the basis of GigaWatthours
(one million kWhs) of energy delivered. The C+I production functions are presented in Figure 6, and
those for O+M in Figure 7.
Figure 6
Production Functions for Construction and Installation Direct Employment
Full-Time Equivalent per Million Euro Capital Investment
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Fuel production energy crops
Biomass anaerobic
Biomass liquid
Biomass combustion
(electricity, CHP, heat)
ECOTEC et al., 1999.
Notes:
• The “fuel production energy crops” production function encompasses the labour required in the establishment of energy crop
plantations (e.g. fencing, ground preparation, planting, etc.)
• Landfill gas is covered under the “biomass anaerobic” production function.
• Ethanol and biodiesel are the liquid biofuels listed under “biomass liquid” by ECOTEC et al..
• One production function covers the combustion applications of heat-only, Combined Heat and Power, and electricity-only.
Figure 6 shows that the establishment of energy crops is the application requiring most labour at the
“construction and installation” phase, per unit investment. As shown in Figure 7, liquid biofuel plants
require significantly more labour per unit of energy delivered than other applications during the
operation and maintenance phase (including raw material supply).
ECOTEC et al. noted that the O+M production functions for liquid biofuels, energy crops and agricultural
wastes were high compared to other production functions, stressed that few data were available on
which to base them, and advised that they be treated with more caution than the other production
functions.
8
Figure 7
Production Functions for Operation and Maintenance Direct Employment
Full-Time Equivalents per GWh Energy Delivered
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
Biomass liquid
Fuel production
energy crops
Fuel production Biomass anaerobic
agricultural wastes
Fuel production
forest residues
Biomass
combustion
ECOTEC et al., 1999
Notes on Figure 7:
• Ethanol and biodiesel are the liquid biofuels listed under “biomass liquid” by ECOTEC et al.
• The “Biomass liquid” O+M production function includes liquid biofuel “growth” (ECOTEC et al., chapter 4, p28), i.e. agricultural
production of the required raw materials.
• One production function covers the combustion applications of heat-only, Combined Heat and Power, and electricity-only.
• Landfill gas is covered under the “biomass anaerobic” production function.
The C+I employment is driven by the amount of capital investment in a particular technology in a
particular year. The capital costs presented in Table 5 were applied to the study’s bioenergy
development scenario in order to estimate the new investments made each year to 2020. It was
assumed that new capital investment was distributed evenly over the years to 2010, in order to achieve
the 2010 capacity scenario, and was again distributed evenly over the years from 2011 to 2020 to achieve
the 2020 capacity scenario. This means that there is a jump to be made from the present situation to the
scenario where substantial capital investments are being made every year to 2020. In reality there will be
a more gradual take off to capital investment, and more peaks and troughs over the timescale to 2020 as
individual large projects are built. However, the “smoothed” capital investment assumption made in this
study is considered adequate to gain an insight into the possible employment potential of bioenergy.
The employment production functions were then applied to the capital investment estimates. The
results are presented in Figure 8.
Table 5
Capital Costs of Bioenergy Applications
Application
Landfill Gas
CHP
Anaerobic Digestion
Wood heating
Liquid biofuels
Energy crop establishment
Basis
€ per MWe
€ per MWe
€ per MWe
€ per MWth
€ per 1,000,000 litres capacity
€ per hectare
Cost
2005-2010
925,000
1,500,000
4,000,000
563,000
211,000
2,700
Cost
2010-2020
771,000
1,250,000
3,333,000
469,000
176,000
2,250
Notes:
• Costs for 2005-2010 for: landfill gas, CHP and anaerobic digestion from SEI (2002) (capital cost projections for 2005); wood
heating is the average of costs for six different systems from SEI (2002) (capital cost projections for 2005); liquid biofuels based
on an Irish pure plant oil project case study (Healion, 2005); energy crop establishment is for short rotation coppice willow
(DARD, 2002). It is acknowledged that these capital costs will not apply to all bioenergy energy technologies and all scales.
They are however considered adequate for the purposes of this Study.
9
•
Costs for 2010-2020 reduced by 17%, the average cost reduction from 2010 to 2020 in DCMNR (2003) for “biomass residuals”
and “biomass energy crops”. As stated by DTI (2004a, p33) there are “expected downward trends in cost per MW installed arising
from accumulated experience with the various technologies, and from economies of scale in manufacture.”
Figure 8
Potential Bioenergy Construction and Installation Employment to 2020, ROI
350
17
17
17
17
17
13
13
13
13
118
118
118
118
13
Employment as Full-Time Equivalents
300
121
250
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
67
1
Liquid biofuels
67
Fuel production energy crops
200
Wood heating
150
99
97
97
97
97
17
17
17
17
77
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
56
56
56
56
56
56
56
56
56
57
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
47
Combined Heat and Power
100
Landfill gas
18
Anaerobic digestion
50
73
73
73
73
80
0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Notes:
• The “Combined Heat and Power” element of the graph above includes the categories “dry agricultural residues for CHP”,
“energy crops for CHP” and “wood residues for CHP” from Table 3.
It is estimated that, based on this Study’s scenario, employment of 250 to 350 Full-Time Equivalents
could be sustained in the construction and installation of bioenergy technologies to 2020. Note that if
these FTEs are input by people working 50% of their time in the bioenergy industry, this implies that 500
to 600 persons would be involved directly in bioenergy, and so on for other possible percentage inputs.
As noted in UK research (DTI, 2004a), a significant pipeline of new projects is required to sustain C+I jobs,
as work on any one project is relatively short-lived. It is partially for this reason that the C+I employment
from 2011 onwards is reduced – the rate of addition of new capacity is less than for the period to 2010
(see the bioenergy development scenario in Table 4). Also, it is assumed that capital costs will reduce
over time (see Table 5). As the C+I production function is applied to the new investment in a particular
year, reduced capital costs result in lower employment.
It should be noted for energy crops that were the 2020 potential 30% target (3.26 TWh) or Estimated
Medium Term Development Potential (4.16 TWh) used in this Study’s scenario, the employment
associated with energy crops would increase pro rata in comparison to the target used in this Study’s
scenario (0.60 TWh) – that is by a factor of five to seven (see Table 1).
As shown in Figure 9, it appears that there will be a substantial demand for C+I expertise in wood
heating and Combined Heat and Power. CHP could be the conversion technology chosen for energy
production from wood residues, energy crops and dry agricultural residues, in addition to anaerobic
digestion.
10
Figure 9
Breakdown of Average Construction and Installation Employment to 2020, ROI
Liquid biofuels
3%
Fuel production
energy crops
17%
Anaerobic
digestion
20%
Landfill gas
3%
Wood heating
32%
Combined Heat
and Power
25%
It should be borne in mind that not all of the C+I jobs would accrue to workers based in Ireland. Large
items of plant are likely to be imported, and installed by the suppliers’ staff. This was identified as an
issue in the UK: “Main plant equipment, such as boilers and steam turbines, for larger biomass projects is
imported due to lack of capability in the UK.” (DTI, 2004a, p50) - it was estimated that about 25% of the C+I
employment could accrue to workers outside the UK.
The O+M employment is driven by the amount of energy produced by a particular technology in a
particular year. Linear interpolation was applied to the scenario for bioenergy development to estimate
the energy output for each technology to 2020. The production functions were then applied to those
energy output estimates. The results are presented in Figure 10.
It is estimated that over 1,300 Full-Time Equivalents could be employed in the operation and
maintenance of bioenergy projects by 2010, increasing to almost 2,300 by 2020. As shown in Figure 11,
it appears that liquid biofuels, fuel production (energy crops, dry agricultural residues and forest
residues) and wood heating will be the sectors generating the largest employment.
As per C+I jobs, all of the O+M jobs are unlikely to accrue to workers based in Ireland. Maintenance of
large items of plant could be undertaken by staff of the original equipment supplier. Again, this was
seen as an issue in the UK bioenergy sector: “Strong equipment guarantees provided by non-UK
manufacturers may lead to a proportion of the maintenance jobs being tied to non-UK contractors.” (DTI,
2004a, p50). Based on the UK research, the leakage of bioenergy O+M jobs outside Ireland could be
expected to be 15 to 20%.
11
Figure 10
Potential Bioenergy Operation and Maintenance Employment to 2020, ROI
2,400
Liquid biofuels
2,200
Other fuel production
Wood heating
Employment as Full-Time Equivalents
2,000
Combined Heat and Power
1,800
899
Landfill gas
875
Anaerobic digestion
851
1,600
826
802
778
1,400
754
730
1,200
706
682
1,000
657
548
800
438
329
600
219
400
160
200
192
224
288
256
192
203
168
180
2006
2007
2008
2009
335
382
430
477
228
254
215
241
267
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
524
572
619
666
714
761
346
306
333
293
320
280
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
0
Notes on Figure 10:
• The “Combined Heat and Power” element of the graph includes the categories “dry agricultural residues for CHP”, “energy
crops for CHP” and “wood residues for CHP” from Table 3.
• The “Other fuel production” element of the graph includes agricultural wastes, energy crops and forest residues.
• For energy conversion applications, the relevant production functions were applied to the energy output. For CHP
applications, the production function was applied only to the electrical output.
• For “fuel production energy crops” the relevant production function was applied to the electrical output of “energy crops for
CHP”.
• For “fuel production forest residues” the relevant production function was applied to 53% of the electrical output of “wood
residues for CHP” and 53% of the heat output of “wood heating”. This reflects the ratio of available wood fuel resource given in
Electrowatt-Ekono and Tipperary Institute (2003) between existing forest or wood processing products (pulpwood and sawmill
residues) and new wood fuel products (forest residues).
• For “fuel production agricultural wastes” the relevant production function was applied to the electrical output of “anaerobic
digestion” and “dry agricultural residues for CHP”.
Figure 11
Breakdown of Average Operation and Maintenance Employment to 2020, ROI
Anaerobic
digestion
2%
Landfill gas
4%
Combined Heat
and Power
5%
Wood heating
17%
Liquid biofuels
43%
Other fuel
production
29%
12
The projected employment for both C+I and O+M under this Study’s bioenergy development scenario is
presented in Figure 12, with a breakdown of the average employment given in Figure 13. Over 1,600
people could be employed full time directly in bioenergy projects by 2010, rising to over 2,500 by 2020.
Cross-checks based on other sources (including SEI, 2002; Brook Lyndhurst, 2004; SEI, 2004b) suggests
that these employment projections are reasonable.
It must be emphasised that employment depends directly on the bioenergy scenario adopted – more
ambitious potential targets would result in higher employment.
Figure 12
Potential Bioenergy C+I and O+M Employment to 2020, ROI
2,750
Employment as Full-Time Equivalents
2,500
2,250
900
2,000
876
852
Liquid biofuels
828
1,750
804
780
Other fuel production
755
1,500
731
707
674
1,250
Wood heating
683
565
455
1,000
345
301
236
750
173
237
205
500
250
0
402
269
450
322
286
310
125
57
87
135
145
157
116
52
82
61
91
65
95
76
109
592
686
734
781
Combined Heat and Power
Landfill gas
408
423
369
382
395
330
356
316
343
303
152
160
175
192
137
144
183
129
167
121
62
78
64
82
66
86
68
89
70
93
72
97
74
101
75
105
77
109
114
337
298
497
544
639
828
Anaerobic digestion
79
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Figure 13
Breakdown of Average C+I and O+M Employment to 2020, ROI
Anaerobic
digestion
5%
Landfill gas
4%
Combined Heat
and Power
8%
Liquid biofuels
37%
Wood heating
19%
Other fuel
production
27%
13
2.2
Needs Analysis
The analysis of the training and education needs of the Irish bioenergy sector was informed by industry
consultation, the review of existing training and education practice in selected European countries (as
detailed in Chapter 3 and Appendix 1), literature review and the knowledge of the Study Team. Needs
have been analysed according to bioenergy subsector (anaerobic digestion, etc.) and by each link in the
bioenergy pathway (“Resources and Logistics”, etc. - see Figure 5). The analysis has shown that there are
many needs which are shared across bioenergy subsector and pathway link. These needs are therefore
referred to as “general needs”. For example, DTI (2004a, p67) found “a surprisingly common shortage” in
general management and project management skills in the UK renewable energy industry. Also, FÁS
(2005) have identified “finance, legislation (health, safety, employee) and sales/marketing” as the most
common needs for Irish small and medium-sized enterprises. The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
(2003) identified “interpersonal and intrapersonal skills” as increasingly important for organisational
success. This need for business skills was echoed in industry consultations during this Study. Health and
safety is another general need. The importance of health and safety cannot be overemphasised – the
Irish bioenergy industry should aim to be exemplary in this regard. Also, achieving and maintaining high
quality standards in all aspects of the industry is very important for a sustainable bioenergy sector.
In addition to the general needs, there are needs which are common to a particular link in the bioenergy
pathway – for example, an understanding of combustion technology is required for those involved in the
“Conversion” link, irrespective of bioenergy subsector. These needs are referred to as “link-specific”
needs. Finally, there are “subsector-specific” needs across each link in the bioenergy pathway. The
situation is represented graphically in Figure 14.
Wood
Liquid Biofuels
Landfill Gas
Energy Crops
Subsectorspecific
Needs →
Dry Agricultural
Residues
Overview of Needs Analysis
Anaerobic
Digestion
Figure 14
Link-specific
Needs ↓
Resources and
Logistics
Conversion
Distribution
Support
Services
General
Needs
The needs analysis is presented in the form of tables, first listing the general needs (Table 6) and the linkspecific needs (Table 7). Table 8 lists roles (e.g. “Architects”) that are involved in each link across the six
subsectors. The subsector-specific needs are then presented in tables as follows: Anaerobic digestion
(Table 9); Dry agricultural residues (Table 10); Energy crops (Table 11); Landfill gas (Table 12); Liquid
biofuels (Table 13); and Wood (Table 14). The subsector-specific tables also list any additional roles (to
those in Table 8) associated with that particular resource (e.g. “Sawmillers” for the wood subsector).
14
Table 6
General Needs for All Bioenergy Pathway Links and Subsectors
Category
Business Planning
and Management,
Project
Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Concepts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Health and Safety
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental
•
•
•
•
•
Context
Logistics
•
•
•
•
•
Markets
•
Legal
•
Needs
Business plans
Business risk assessment
Characteristics of bioenergy markets
Communications and interpersonal skills
Contract management
Contract negotiation
Contractor management
Critical success factors of countries with successful bioenergy sectors
Customer service skills
Drivers and opportunities for bioenergy development
Due diligence
Economics of bioenergy (including carbon emissions trading)
Financial appraisal and modelling, including sensitivity analysis on key
assumptions
Financial management
Funding sources, support mechanisms and grant applications
Human resource management
Insurance
Information technology
Key technical, economic, social and environmental features of “state of the
art” bioenergy systems, with case studies relevant to Ireland
Procurement
Project development
Project management
Sales and marketing
Supply chain management
Systems analysis
Basic concepts and terminology in energy (e.g. units of energy, power,
capacity)
Basic concepts in heating and electricity supply
Agricultural context
Energy context (including security of supply aspects)
Environment (including climate change)
Forestry context
Socio-economic aspects (e.g. rural development)
Identification of potential hazards (including electrical equipment, hazardous
chemicals, fire, moving or high pressure equipment, respiratory health
hazards)
Manual handling
Risk assessment
Safety statements
Safety precautions
Environmental benefits and impacts of bioenergy (including fuel production,
conversion plant operation, energy and carbon balances)
Contracts
Legal structures (including co-operatives)
Permissions, permits and licences (e.g. local authority, EPA)
Relevant legislation and regulations
Handling, transport and storage of biomass, bioenergy products and byproducts
Biomass, heat, electricity and transport fuel markets (e.g. Alternative Energy
Requirement)
Benefits of bioenergy
15
Table 6, continued.
Planning
and
consultation
•
•
Policy
•
•
•
•
•
•
Quality
Table 7
Planning policy
Planning process, planning applications and Environmental Impact
Assessments (if relevant)
Stakeholder consultation
Existing policies (including agriculture, energy, environment and forestry at
global, EU, national, regional and local levels)
Influencing policy
“Best practice” guidelines (from Ireland and abroad)
Quality control procedures
Relevant national and international (CEN) standards (e.g. for compost, liquid
biofuels, wood fuel)
Link-Specific Needs in the Bioenergy Pathway
Link
Resource and Logistics
Conversion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distribution
Support Services
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Needs
Basics of bioenergy conversion technologies (including combustion)
Overview of bioenergy resources (global, EU, national, local), including
consideration of existing uses (if applicable)
Supply contracts
Alternative conversion technologies including gasification and
pyrolysis
Automation and control systems
Bioenergy conversion technologies, including best practice
combustion (for heating, electricity generation and CHP)
Choosing types and sizes of prime movers for electricity generation
Combustion characteristics of biomass and thermodynamics
Connection with the electricity grid (if applicable)
Design of bioenergy systems (including site layout)
Environmental considerations including control, monitoring and
testing of emissions (to air and water) and management of ash and
other residues
Fuel supply risk management
Heat and electricity supply mechanisms and contracts
Installation and commissioning of bioenergy plant
Linking bioenergy plants to heating and electrical systems
Planning considerations including site selection, scale and local
context
Plant operation (including documentation of operating procedures)
and maintenance (including service support)
Process monitoring, including maintenance of operational logbooks
Process technology (as appropriate to the plant)
Procurement of biomass, including supply contracts
Site location considerations, including supply of biomass resources
Heat and power supply management
Marketing renewable heat, power and transport fuels
Needs of personnel involved will depend on area of specialisation
16
Table 8
Roles Shared Across Bioenergy Subsectors
Link
Resource and Logistics
Conversion
Distribution
Support Services
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Shared Roles
Contract negotiators
• Transport personnel
Fuel purchasers
Architects
• Maintenance technicians
Construction personnel
• Planners
Designers
• Plant managers
Engineers
• Plant operators
Equipment suppliers
• Project developers
Installers
• Project promoters
Laboratory and Quality
• Utilities personnel
Assurance personnel
Energy suppliers
• Transport personnel
Marketing and sales personnel
Accountants
• Legal advisers
Agricultural advisors
• Local authority personnel
Consultants
• Media personnel
Educators
• Multi-disciplinary professionals
Facilitators (e.g. to bring
• People with a general interest
together people involved in the
• Policymakers
supply chain)
• Politicians
Financiers
• Trainers
Forestry advisors
Insurers
17
Table 9
Specific Roles and Needs for Anaerobic Digestion Subsector
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Agricultural contractors
• Bulk liquid transporters
• Farmers
• Industry personnel
• Local authority staff
• Plant (transport) operatives
• Waste managers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conversion
• Farmers (for on-farm biogas
plants)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distribution
• Farmers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Needs
Animal by-products legislation
Best practice for ensuring hygiene in handling, processing,
transport and delivery
Biohazards and precautions
Energy crops for anaerobic digestion, including grass and maize
(see also Table 11). Storage for energy crops
Farm building design and construction in the context of using
agricultural slurry for biogas production
Feedstock conditioning (e.g. chopping)
On-site familiarisation with delivery arrangements at biogas
plants
Operation of transport and unloading machinery
Pathogen reduction, including heat treatment (e.g.
pasteurisation)
Resource assessment for biogas plants
Source-separated municipal solid waste for biogas production
Transport vehicles for biogas feedstocks
Bunding of tanks
Characteristics of feedstocks (including gas yield and gas quality)
Control of emissions, odours, leachate (if relevant) and vermin
Deciding on feedstock types, quantities (including seasonal
variation) and proportions
Department of Agriculture regulations on biogas plants
Design of reception areas for unloading of feedstocks
Digestate volume reduction options (e.g. evaporation)
Digester heating options
Digester mixing options and impact on foam formation
Digester sizing
Digester start-up (including testing) and shutdown
Evaluation of different digester types, operating temperatures
(e.g. mesophillic or thermophillic) and plant configurations
Feedstock addition methods and rates
Fibre separation options and composting
Gas flares
Gas storage and transport
Microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process
Pre-treatment of biogas (e.g. desulphurisation)
Requirements for materials in contact with biogas
Sensitivity analysis on gate fees for organic residues
Typical conversion efficiencies
Biogas for heat, electricity and transport markets
Codes of practice on the use of organic materials in agriculture
Compost standards and markets
Digestate spreading options (including measures to minimise
nutrient loss and odour production)
Digestate storage (including measures to minimise ammonia
loss to the atmosphere)
Nutrient content of digestate
Soil science, nutrient management planning and sustainable
agriculture
Securing and managing a landbank for digestate spreading
Upgrading to natural gas pipeline quality
Facilitating planning for biogas projects
Support Services
• Agricultural advisers
With reference to: Al Seadi, 2000; British BioGen, 1997; Engcotec and Fachverband Biogas, 1998;
German Biogas Association, 2004; Heslop, 2004; Hjort-Gregersen, 1999; Holm-Nielsen et al., 1997.
18
Table 10
Specific Roles and Needs for Dry Agricultural Residues Subsector
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Agricultural contractors
• Farm suppliers
• Farmers
Conversion
Needs
Sustainable agricultural practices for bioenergy production
Quantities of residues produced (per hectare or per production cycle as
relevant)
• Existing non-energy uses of dry agricultural residues
• Characteristics (including variability) of dry agricultural residues
• Impact on equipment and emissions of residue composition
• Pre-treatment (e.g. removal of plastic from bags of spent mushroom
compost)
• Technology options for conversion of residues to energy
• Markets for poultry litter ash including fertiliser
Distribution
• Markets for ash from spent mushroom compost and straw
With reference to: B9 Energy Biomass and UAOS, 1997; Centre for Biomass Technology, 1998; SEI,
2004d; Fibrominn, no date.
Table 11
•
•
Specific Roles and Needs for Energy Crops Subsector (Including SRC)
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Agricultural and
specialist contractors
• Farm suppliers
• Farmers
Needs
Alternative (non-energy) markets for non-food crops
Appraisal of energy crops as a farm business opportunity, including
cashflow profiles and financial supports available. Energy crops under
farm payment schemes (including set-aside)
• Characteristics (including yields) and requirements of energy crops
• Comparison of different energy crops, including financial appraisal
• Cutting cycles and harvesting options, including baling, bundling or
chipping as appropriate
• Establishment requirements for cuttings, rhizomes and seeds
• Establishment, including choice and handling of planting material,
monoclonal versus polyclonal plantations (if applicable), ground
preparation (control of weeds and pests, fencing, planting machinery)
• Logistics of supply following harvesting, including immediate use or
drying and storage
• Machinery, labour and inputs requirements and scheduling
• Management, including weed control, control of pests and diseases,
cutback (if applicable) and fertilisation (including options for inorganic
fertiliser, organic materials, wood ash)
• Organisation of harvesting, including timing, impacts and safety
• Plantation design, layout and spacings, including considerations on
harvesting, landscape, ecology, water quality and archaeology
• Potential role of energy crops
• Reinstatement of energy crop plantations
• Site selection, including soil type, climate, altitude, exposure, frost,
coastal locations, water availability, slope, rockiness
• Stakeholder consultations in plantation design
• Value-adding options, including biofiltration and amenity uses
• Yield measurement in standing energy crops
• Health, safety and environmental issues in use of energy crop
Conversion
plantations for biofiltration
• Generally as per Wood subsector, or as per Anaerobic Digestion
subsector for grass, maize or other energy crops for biogas production
• As per Wood subsector (or Anaerobic Digestion subsector if relevant)
Distribution
• Nutrient management planning
Support Services
• As per Wood subsector (or Anaerobic Digestion subsector if relevant)
• Agricultural Advisers
With reference to: Armstrong, 1999; Bical, 2004; British BioGen, 1996; Danfors, Ledin and Rosenqvist,
1998; Forest Research, 2005; Hilton, 2002; John Amos & Co., 2005; Nixon and Bullard, 2001; Tipperary
Institute et al., 1998; Turton, 2002; University of Technology Vienna, 2000; Walsh, 1997.
•
•
19
Table 12
Specific Roles and Needs for Landfill Gas Subsector
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Local authority staff
• Waste managers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conversion
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distribution
Support Services
• Specialist Health and
Safety consultant
•
•
•
•
•
Needs
Background to waste management, including the waste management
hierarchy
Types and composition of wastes landfilled
Principles of landfill gas production, management and use
Overview of landfill gas management systems
Gas production rates, profile over time and influencing factors
(quantity of waste in place, waste composition, timing of deposits, site
conditions, landfill management)
Use of trial wells in assessing the landfill gas resource
Reasons for landfill gas management (to minimise: risk of migration,
risk of fire, damage to soils and vegetation, negative impact on air
quality including climate change)
Abstraction - gas wells (types: vertical and horizontal, number
required, installation)
Design of well heads, and factors to be considered (vandalism, landfill
settlement, sampling and monitoring points, flow control)
Design and installation of collection pipe work (pipe specifications,
minimum falls, minimum cover)
Gas blowers
Pre-treatment including condensate removal (dewatering), dust
removal, and other measures
Monitoring of landfill gas quality
Constituents and quality of landfill gas
Hazards associated with landfill gas (flammable, asphyxiant)
Markets and associated processing options (heat-only, electricity-only,
Combined Heat and Power, transport fuel, upgrading to pipeline
quality)
Technical feasibility of power generation and influencing factors
(methane content of the gas)
Types of prime mover plant for power generation (spark ignition
engines, dual fuel engines, gas turbines)
Influencing factors on choice of primer mover (landfill gas resource,
capital cost, maintenance requirements, plant lifetime, efficiency,
operator’s experience)
Choice of size(s) of prime mover plant (e.g. to allow moving capacity to
another site as landfill gas resource declines)
Engine maintenance, including oil sampling and testing
Engine emissions: constituents, monitoring
Gas flares
Upgrading to natural gas pipeline quality
Health and safety in the landfill gas industry, including hygiene,
personal protective equipment and electrical safety.
With reference to: DTI, no date; Fallon, 2003; Guest and Fallon, 2003.
20
Table 13
Specific Roles and Needs for Liquid Biofuels Subsector
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Agricultural contractors
• Farm suppliers
• Farmers
• Meat processors
• Restaurateurs
• Waste managers
Conversion
Needs
Biofuel types and raw materials
Engine performance and warranties
Existing non-energy uses
Feedstock availability (including imports) and suitability
Production of crops for liquid biofuel production
Quality standards for blends, and different types of biofuel
Sustainable agricultural production
Biofuels process technology (as appropriate to the feedstock(s) and
processing plant, generally biodiesel or ethanol currently. In the
future other forms of liquid biofuels are likely).
• Standards e.g. EN 14214
• Biofuel markets (including exports)
Distribution
• Biofuel promotion and sales
• Fuel oil distributors
• Blending of biofuels
• Fuel oil purchasers
• Engine modification (if required), engine performance (including
• Mechanics
emissions) and warranties
• Fleet managers
• Quality standards for blends, and different types of biofuel
• Traffic managers
With reference to: SEI, 2003; SEI, 2004b; Austrian Biofuels Institute, 2005.
Table 14
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Specific Roles and Needs for Wood Subsector (including Waste Wood)
Roles
Resources and Logistics
• Existing and potential
forestry plantation owners
• Forest consultants
• Forest managers
• Forest Service inspectorate
• Forestry contractors
(plant/harvest/transport)
• Forestry equipment suppliers
• Sawmillers and other wood
processors
• Timber traders
• Waste wood managers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Needs
Best practice harvesting, processing and drying of wood fuels
Best practice sustainable forest management for wood fuel
production (including consideration of nutrient removal and
possible biodiversity impacts)
Business models for wood energy companies (e.g. forest
entrepreneurship, energy service company)
Consideration in return of wood ash to land
Existing non-energy uses
Forms of wood fuel (logs, chips, pellets, briquettes)
Logistics of sustainable secure supply of fuel of homogenous
quality
Policy and legislation regarding waste wood, including EU
directives on packaging waste
Quantification of wood resource and conversion between volume,
weight and energy content
Segregation of waste wood from other waste streams
Terminology of wood energy
21
Table 14, continued.
Conversion
• Domestic wood fuel users
• Housing associations
• Local authority personnel
• Office of Public Works
• Property developers
• Self-builders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Design of safe and efficient best practice wood energy systems
including selection of wood fuel type(s) and quality, rational use of
energy and system sizing, boiler room, backup systems, buffer heat
storage tanks, wood fuel store, fuel transfer system, chimney or
flue design, supply of combustion air, heating circuit water
temperature and treatment, noise prevention, site access
Drying of wood fuels (if required)
Energy content of wood fuel in relation to moisture content
Integration of wood energy with the energy systems of buildings,
including energy management
Operation and maintenance of small, medium and large-scale
wood energy conversion equipment (stoves, boilers, CHP plants,
electricity generating stations), to ensure safety, efficiency and
minimise emissions (including chimney inspection and cleaning,
emissions monitoring and control)
Procurement of wood fuels on an energy content basis
Selection of wood heating appliances for domestic wood fuel users
Specification and selection of appropriate wood energy
equipment
Waste permits, licences or Integrated Pollution Control licences (if
relevant)
Distribution
• Solid fuel distributors
With reference to ETSU, 1998; EVA, 2004; Serup, Kofman et al., 2005.
22
3.
Existing Supply of Bioenergy Training and Education
A review was completed of the supply of training and education on the topic of bioenergy in Ireland and
selected European countries. The scope of the review was generally limited to those training and
education courses that had specific content on bioenergy. There were a number of objectives in the
international review, including:
•
To highlight the gaps in the supply of bioenergy training and education in Ireland, through
comparison with international best practice.
•
To provide ideas for proposals to meet Irish needs.
•
To provide an information resource for Irish training and education providers by describing the
programmes reviewed (see Appendix 1).
Criteria for the selection of European countries for further study were developed. It was decided that the
key criterion was “recognised for excellence in bioenergy” (as reflected in the percentage contribution of
bioenergy to a country’s energy requirement). Other important criteria were activity and excellence in
relevant training and education programmes, and “proximity to Ireland”. On the basis of these criteria,
the following seven countries were reviewed:
1.
Austria
2.
Denmark
3.
Finland
4.
France
5.
Germany
6.
Sweden
7.
United Kingdom
Sources of data for the international review included knowledge of the Study Team, input from
international contacts, CLER/Predac (2003) and Écosystèmes (no date). The review of supply in Ireland
also involved examining the prospectuses of Irish training and education providers, and direct
consultation.
Appendix 1 gives a list of programmes available at various levels for each country. The criteria under
which the courses were reviewed are based on ones developed in Tipperary Institute. The courses in
each country are categorised into Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Training, or
Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education. Programmes are listed in alphabetical order of the
providers’ names. For postgraduate courses the focus is on those with a taught element, as many third
level institutions offer the possibility of postgraduate research degrees on bioenergy.
3.1
Ireland
There are quite a number of training and continuing professional development services available in
Ireland, ranging in duration from seminars of a few hours to a course of one night a week for one
academic year. The Local Energy Agencies and LEADER companies play important roles. There are at
least three new initiatives on training of installers of wood heating systems and other domestic
renewable energy systems. At least one of these initiatives (Table 31) involves accreditation of installers
and quality control on their work. Several professional organisations have extensive CPD programmes
(e.g. Table 36), a number of which have addressed the topics of sustainable energy and bioenergy
previously. Existing training on wastewater treatment includes a bioenergy element (Table 34).
Suppliers of bioenergy products and services play an important role in upskilling clients (for example, the
commissioning of a large bioenergy plant generally includes staff training and the provision of operating
manuals).
There is only one undergraduate course which deals specifically with renewable energy (for electricity
production), due to commence in Limerick Institute of Technology in autumn 2005 (Table 51). However,
a number of other undergraduate courses do include components on bioenergy, including courses in
the agriculture, engineering and forestry disciplines. Postgraduate courses with bioenergy content are
available via distance or online modes. Two taught courses on sustainable or renewable energy will
commence in autumn 2005 in Cork (Table 65) and Dundalk (Table 64) (with a linkage to a UK university).
23
3.2
International Case Studies
All of the countries studied except the United Kingdom have a greater contribution to energy supply
from renewable energy and bioenergy than Ireland (see Appendix 1). The contexts of the countries
studied vary significantly as illustrated by comparisons on energy supply, landuse, and training and
education systems ((see Appendix 1)).
The programmes identified cover all of the bioenergy subsectors considered in the study (anaerobic
digestion; dry agricultural residues; energy crops; landfill gas; liquid biofuels; and wood including
waste wood), at all levels of training and education (undergraduate, postgraduate, training and
continuing professional development). In terms of absolute student numbers, France, Germany and the
United Kingdom dominate the selected countries and this is reflected in the number and variety of
courses available in those countries.
The review has found that education on bioenergy at undergraduate and postgraduate levels is often a
component in a sustainable energy specialisation in engineering disciplines. However, many of these
engineering courses also include broader aspects such as economics, environment and policy. A number
of courses were identified which focus on non-engineering aspects of sustainable energy or bioenergy,
including agriculture, building services, climate change, design, economics, forestry, law, rural
development, sustainable development and waste management. Sweden’s third level programmes
differ from those of the other countries studied, in that they are based on combining a number of
modules. Modules specifically on bioenergy are available. A difference was noted between programmes
offered in universities, where teaching was based on research conducted in the university, and
programmes offered in non-university “colleges”, where teaching was industry-focused. A number of
programmes identified had strong links with professional institutions.
Training and continuing professional development (CPD) courses on most bioenergy subsectors are also
available in the selected countries. Training and CPD programmes tend to be short in duration (i.e. up to
two days), and on specific topics. However longer programmes are available – up to five months.
A summary of bioenergy training and education in each of the countries studied is given in the following
paragraphs.
The Austrian Biofuels Institute is a very prominent research centre for biofuels and offers training in this
field (Table 67). The Austrian Biomass Association has run a very successful training programme for
wood heating system installers (Table 68). The Austrian Energy Agency (EVA) offers a one week course
on wood heating systems which is taught in English and highly regarded (Table 69). Austria has at least
four prominent undergraduate engineering degrees which offer a specialisation in renewable energy,
including the four year Eco-Energy Engineering degree taught at the Fachhochschule (University of
Applied Sciences) Wels (Table 72) and the Engineering degree in Energy and Environmental
Management at Fachhochschule Pinkafeld (Table 71).
The Danish Technical University (Table 75) offers an interesting postgraduate course on anaerobic
biotechnology, including biogas, bioethanol and biological hydrogen production. The Nordic
Folkecenter in north-east Denmark holds training programmes and workshops on all aspects of
renewable energy, varying from one day to two weeks’ duration (Table 74). The University of Southern
Denmark has long been involved in servicing the biogas sector (Table 74).
Finland has strengths on wood fuel production and use, including a significant CPD programme on
wood energy, combining distance learning with block release (Table 77) and skills training in timber
harvesting techniques for wood fuel production (Table 78). Wood energy is also included in a rural
business development degree (Table 80).
France has a variety of training and CPD programmes on bioenergy, with ITEBE prominent on wood
energy (Table 83 to Table 86). ASDER offers a five-month course plus internship on renewable energy
with a particular focus on Waste Separation and Valorisation (energy recovery). There is a broad range of
French undergraduate renewable energy courses. There is also a good variety of postgraduate courses
(at least seven different Masters programmes in the field of sustainable energy), including the EUREC
24
European Masters in Renewable Energy Technology (Table 134), which offers the possibility to specialise
in biomass technology. The Clean Energy from Biomass and Waste (CEBW) Masters (Table 89) is a good
example of a programme with an applied research focus and strong industrial linkages. There is an
interesting course on energy economics and law in liberalised gas and electricity markets, which is
targeted at graduates in economics, management, law and political science (Table 91).
Germany has interesting training programmes on biogas, reflecting the recent rapid development of that
subsector (Table 92 to Table 95). The IBBK biogas training (Table 93) is closely linked to a quality control
programme. There are at least ten engineering degrees offered in Germany with a specialisation in
either renewable energy or energy conservation. An example is the four year Mechanical Engineering Renewable Energies degree taught at the University of Applied Sciences Berlin (Table 97). Germany
offers at least three Masters programmes in the field of sustainable energy. All are taught in English.
Sweden’s Växjö University has a course on bioenergy via distance learning mode (Table 101). There are
at least two undergraduate programmes on the topic of sustainable energy in Sweden. There are a
number of postgraduate courses on sustainable energy including bioenergy and short rotation coppice
(reflecting Sweden’s dominance in that enterprise). The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences has
an important short rotation forestry department (Table 99).
In the United Kingdom the Clear Skies grant programme (Table 110) is developing associated training
and accreditation. There is training available on biodiesel and wood heating. A course on landfill gas is
significant in the training of personnel from Ireland working in that sector (Table 111). There are at least
seven undergraduate degrees on the topic of energy and environment / renewable energy. Renewable
energy appears in degrees in mechanical engineering, design / architecture and building services. There
are a number of long established and well recognised postgraduate courses - at least eight have been
identified. Of particular relevance is the Renewable Energy Masters taught at the University of Ulster in
Northern Ireland, which is available online (Table 130). The Masters taught at CREST in Loughborough
(Table 127) is long-established, has a strong connection to a professional body and a linkage with
Dundalk Institute of Technology (Table 64). Loughborough also teaches the EUREC European Master in
Renewable Energy which offers a specialisation in biomass (Table 134). The Climate Change and
Sustainable Development Masters offered at De Montfort is targeted at all professional graduates as
opposed to graduates of engineering and science disciplines (Table 126). It is also offered through parttime and distance learning modes. Some degrees are available on a modular basis.
A number of programmes from other countries were also noted, including a Masters in Bioenergy and
the Environment, based at the University of Florence, Italy (Table 135). A free online course in renewable
energy is available (Table 132), as is training to support the use of the free Canadian pre-feasibility
software RETScreen (Table 133).
3.3
Training and Education - Delivery Modes and Quality Control
The delivery modes which will be appropriate for bioenergy training and education will vary
considerably depending on the target audiences, the learning outcomes desired, and the level of award.
However, efforts should be made to ensure that the range of delivery modes share some common
principles, namely:
•
Consistency and accuracy: all training and education programmes must provide consistent and
accurate information. This can be assisted by the use of published data on equipment, processes,
resources etc.
•
Quality of delivery: all organisations which are involved in education and training must deliver the
programmes to the highest quality. Formal quality control mechanisms exist for university, DIT
(Dublin Institute of Technology), HETAC (Higher Education and Training Awards Council) and
FETAC (Further Education and Training Awards Council) programmes but these mechanisms will
not cover all programmes that will be delivered. Quality control should be ensured for
programmes which fall outside established quality control structures.
•
Links to best practice: all education and training programmes should be linked in some way to
best practice nationally and internationally. This can be achieved through demonstrations, site
visits, use of guest speakers etc.
25
The following are the definitions which have been used for this Study. Where possible formal referenced
definitions have been utilised (however reviews of Higher Education Authority (HEA), HETAC and FETAC
policies failed to reveal formal Irish definitions of the delivery modes reviewed). Each of the modes is
described in Table 15 and analysed in Table 16 to determine potential advantages and disadvantages.
Table 15
Possible Training and Education Delivery Modes
Mode
Full-Time
Part-Time
Description
A programme of study that is completed in one (or more) training/education
institutes that requires full time attendance by the student over the
programme period i.e. five days per week. The programme could have a
short, medium or long time frame. The programme could have phases of
both on the job and off the job training or education (for example
apprenticeships).
A number of different modes are available for part-time programmes:
Part-time Day: These are defined as programmes where students attend
during the day for part of the week over the programme period e.g. one day
per week or four hours for two days per week.
Part-time Night: These are defined as programmes where students attend
during the night for part of the week over the programme period e.g. one
night per week.
Distance Learning
Electronic Learning (ELearning)
Mixed Mode
Seminars/Conferences
Part-time block-release: These are defined as programmes where students
attend for a defined block of time per month (for example) to complete a
programme of study (Tipperary Institute, 2002). A summer school is a type of
block-release mode.
Generally this term is used to define programmes where students learn at a
place and time of their own choosing rather than attending a particular venue
on a regular basis. Sometimes referred to as “Correspondence” (University of
Central Lancashire, 2004)
This is generally defined as the use of network technology to design, deliver,
administer and extend learning. A number of different technologies are
available e.g. WebCT, Blackboard, Moodle etc. (University of Central
Lancashire, 2004)
This has been defined as programmes where a number of modes of delivery
may be used during a programme e.g. combination of block release and
distance learning.
Topic specific, generally one to two day events.
26
Table 16
Advantages and Disadvantages of Delivery Modes
Mode
Full-Time Programmes
Part-time Day
Part-time Night
Part-time block-release
Distance Learning
E-Learning
Seminars/Conferences
Advantages
Typically delivered in established
organisations/institutes.
Quality control in many cases
through established procedures.
Part or all of individual modules
within programmes can be modified
to include appropriate content.
Wider variety of organisations can
provide such training.
Can be designed to allow for
accumulation of credits.
Generally suited to those in
employment.
Existing programmes in place with
experience.
Can occur in different locations.
Can be designed to allow for
accumulation of credits.
Specific topics can be covered in
intense sessions.
Suits those currently in employment.
Can be designed to allow for
accumulation of credits.
Suits those who are restricted from
travelling to a particular venue for
regular classes.
Provides flexibility for students in
terms of time, venues, commitments
etc.
In principle provides wider access to
programmes.
Some existing programmes in place
e.g. Teagasc On-Line.
A developing area, with further
improvements likely.
Short time scale provides greater
flexibility.
Focused topic areas.
Can be linked into a range of other
programmes e.g. IEI CPD (Table 36).
Good networking opportunities for
industry.
27
Disadvantages
Requires significant commitment on
the part of the learner.
Programmes can be difficult to
modify to respond to market needs.
Significant resources required to
develop new programmes.
Long time commitment for learner
to achieve higher level awards e.g.
Bachelor Degree.
May not suit those currently in
employment.
Resource implications for service
provider.
Long time commitment for learners
to achieve higher level awards.
Resource implications for service
provider.
Long time commitment for learners
to achieve higher level awards.
Requires focus and dedication by
student.
Can result in isolation of students.
Can restrict opportunities for group
learning.
Requires Information Technology
skills, technology and connectivity.
Variety of technologies available
mean standardisation of training and
education products difficult.
Limited time for detail.
Managing
quality
challenging.
is
more
The universities, DIT, FETAC and HETAC control the validation and quality control of many formal
education and training programmes in Ireland. These bodies have defined policies for validation, quality
control and certification of programmes. The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) was
established by the Irish Government in June 2001. Its main task has been to develop the National
Framework of Qualifications which was launched in October 2003. This Framework defines the standards
which people who undertake programmes have to achieve to receive an award. The Framework should
be used as the benchmark for modification and development of new education and training
programmes. The key standards in a module (in an education or training programme) are expressed
principally in terms of specific learning outcomes, i.e. what the learner will be able to do on successful
completion of the module. The other elements of the module - the purpose, general aims, assessment
details and assessment criteria - combine with the learning outcomes to state the standards in a holistic
way (HETAC, 2004). In general training and education providers are required to have quality assurances
policies and procedures in place for their programmes. With regard to the duration, content and delivery
of learning programmes these should be appropriate to the learners’ needs and interests, and should
enable the learners to reach the standard as described in the modules (FETAC, 2004).
Each programme of study may use a range of different methodologies of delivery. This may include
some or all of the following:
•
Lectures: the provision of information and perspectives by training or education professionals, or
invited experts.
•
Tutorials: small groups which facilitate discussion, evaluation and expansion of material obtained
in lectures.
•
Research: can include learning through experimentation, survey or case studies.
•
Laboratory/Practical: completion of specific scientific, technical tasks in a controlled environment.
•
Modelling/Simulation: Use of computer and other models to analyse systems and processes.
•
Field/Study Trips: supervised and structured visits to appropriate sites for active discussion,
investigation and analysis.
•
Apprenticeships: provides the student with the opportunity to utilise skills taught in the class
room in a working environment and to learn from practitioners.
•
Audio-visual: the use of pictures, diagrams or films.
It is important that training and education providers carefully consider the most appropriate delivery
modes and methodologies for the needs of students, in addition to the content of training and
education.
28
4.
Gap Analysis of Bioenergy Training and Education
A gap analysis was completed which compared the needs for bioenergy training and education in the
Republic of Ireland (Chapter 2) with the indigenous supply available (Chapter 3). The analysis began by
generating twelve categories which combine employment sector (agriculture, forestry, engineering or
“other”) with training, education or CPD. The only exception combination is “Technical Operative”, which
is included under training but is not associated with a particular employment sector (these people may
be associated with agriculture, forestry or engineering).
The six bioenergy subsectors were then examined under each of these twelve categories, generating 72
possible category / subsector combinations. Thirteen combinations were deemed invalid (e.g. forestry
training does not combine with the landfill gas sector), thus leaving 59 valid combinations. Each of these
59 combinations was then placed into one of six possible classifications, based on a comparison of needs
with the supply available. The classification was informed by consultation with representatives from the
Irish bioenergy industry (see Acknowledgements). The six classifications are:
•
The needs of the combination regarding bioenergy are generally being met satisfactorily.
•
One or more significant initiatives exist which are partially meeting the needs of the combination,
but provision in other locations around Ireland is desirable (“roll out”).
•
One or more significant initiatives exist which are partially meeting the needs of the combination,
but greater levels of detail on one or more aspects of bioenergy are desirable (“deepening”).
•
One or more significant initiatives exist which are partially meeting the needs of the combination,
but deepening with subsequent roll out is desirable.
•
The needs of the combination are not generally being met, but one or more initiatives do exist.
These initiatives would require substantial development and replication in order to meet the
needs of the combination.
•
The needs of the combination regarding bioenergy are not being met, and no initiatives were
revealed in the course of the Study.
The term “initiative” is used to indicate the current provision of a training, education or CPD service, or a
definite time-bound plan to provide such as service in 2005 or 2006 (as distinct from possible interest in
providing such a service at some unspecified date in the future). This definition of “initiative” guided the
classification of the 59 combinations. A summary of the results of the gap analysis is presented in Figure
15. There are 56 gaps, 95% of the potential maximum of 59. There are however significant initiatives
which if developed further (by deepening and/or roll out) should meet over half (31) of the gaps
identified. There are 15 gaps (25% of the potential number) for which no initiatives were apparent. The
detailed results are presented in Table 17.
Figure 15
Summary of Gap Analysis for Bioenergy Training and Education in ROI
No Initiative
Apparent
15
25%
Some Initiative
10
17%
Needs Met
3
5%
Roll Out and/or
Deepen
31
53%
29
Table 17
Detailed Gap Analysis for Bioenergy Training and Education in ROI
Bioenergy Subsector →
Anaerobic
digestion
Dry
agricultural
residues
Energy
crops
Landfill
gas
Liquid
biofuels
X
~1
Training - Forestry
N/A
N/A
Training - Engineering
↔
~
~1
~2
X
N/A
Training - Agriculture
X
~1
X
~1
X3
X
N/A
√
↔
↔3
↔
↓ Category
Training - Operative
N/A
N/A
~
~1
~
↓, ↔
X
Education - Agriculture
↔
X
X
Education -Forestry
N/A
N/A
Education - Engineering
↔
↔
↔
↔
↓, ↔
Education -Other
↔
↔
↔
↔
↔
↓, ↔
CPD - Agriculture
X
X
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
X
X3
X5
CPD - Forestry
X
~2
CPD - Engineering
↓
↓
↓
√
↓
↓
CPD - Other
↔
↔
↔
↔
↔
↓, ↔
Notes:
1.
2.
5
5
5
√
Wood
N/A
5
↔
↓, ↔
↓
Teagasc is in the process of reviewing its training and education services.
It could be debated that energy crops are not relevant to “Training – Forestry” or “CPD – Forestry”. However, foresters
have been strongly associated with the development of short rotation willow and poplar coppice in Ireland to date.
Wood can be converted to “bio-oil” via pyrolysis (or ethanol via fermentation in the future), hence the relevance to this
combination.
The Agricultural Science Association is currently assessing the CPD needs of its members as part of the Agrilink project
with the Northern Ireland Institute of Agricultural Science.
3.
5.
Symbol
√
↔
↓
↓, ↔
~
X
N/A
Meaning
Needs on bioenergy are generally being met.
Needs are being partially met, but roll out of existing significant initiative(s) is
desirable.
Needs are being partially met, but deepening of existing significant initiative(s) is
desirable.
Needs are being partially met, but deepening of existing significant initiative(s) with
subsequent roll out is desirable.
Needs on bioenergy are not generally being met, but some initiative(s) exist(s).
Needs on bioenergy are not being met, and no initiatives are apparent.
Not applicable to this combination of training and education and resource.
Table 18 gives an index to the existing training, education and CPD programmes available in the ROI
under each of the combinations in the table above. A summary on training, education and CPD supply is
given in Chapter 3, with further details on programmes given in Appendix 1. Table 18 also points to the
proposals made in Chapter 5 to address the gaps identified. The gap analysis is then presented by
employment sector in Figure 16.
30
Table 18
Gap Analysis – Existing and Proposed Programmes
Bioenergy Subsector →
↓ Category
Anaerobic
digestion
Dry
agricultural
residues
Energy
crops
Landfill
gas
Liquid
biofuels
Table 45
Table 45
Training - Operative
Table 20
Table 19 (1)
Table 43
Table 43
Table 19 (1)
Table 43
Table 45
Training - Agriculture
Table 43
N/A
Table 21
Training - Engineering
N/A
Table 45
Table 21,
Table 22
Table 34
Table 21, Table 22
Table 111
Table 19 (4)
Table 19 (2,
3)
Table 43
Table 45
Table 21
Table 45
Training - Forestry
Wood
Table 19 (1)
Table 59
Table 19 (1)
None
Table 19 (1)
Table 55
Table 31
Table 37
Table 40
Table 19 (5)
Table 57
Education - Agriculture
Table 23 (1, 2, 4)
Table 23 (1, 2, 4)
N/A
Table 61
Table 61
Education -Forestry
N/A
Table 23 (1,
2, 4)
Table 61
Table 23 (1, 2, 4)
Table 48, Table 50, Table 51, Table 57, Table 58, Table 65
Education - Engineering
Table 23 (1, 2, 3, 4)
Table 49, Table 52, Table 53, Table 54, Table 60, Table 64
Education -Other
Table 23 (1, 2, 4)
CPD - Agriculture
Table 25
Table 25
N/A
Table 33
Table 45
Table 45
CPD - Forestry
N/A
Table 26
Table 26
Table 31
Table 36
Table 42
Table 36
CPD - Engineering
Table 27
CPD - Other
Table 32, Table 35, Table 38, Table 39, Table 44, Table 46
(these programmes also cover wood)
Table 24 (1) (and covering liquid biofuels and wood)
Table 24 (2)
Table 31
Table 42
Table 28
Notes:
• Where a table reference is followed by a number in brackets - for example Table 19 (1) – it indicates a
specific numbered item in that table.
Key
Appendix 1 tables in which existing programmes are described
Chapter 5 tables in which proposed programmes are outlined or described
31
Figure 16
Gap Analysis by Employment Sector
20
No. of Bioenergy and Category Combinations
No Initiative Apparent
18
Some Initiative
Roll Out and/or Deepen
16
Needs Met
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Operative
Agriculture
Forestry
Engineering
Other
Employment Sector
Figure 16 shows that the gaps are widest for operatives, and the agriculture and forestry sectors. There
are significant initiatives in the engineering and “other” sectors which, with further development, should
meet the relevant needs. Gaps in the forestry sector are of particular concern – wood fuel is presently the
dominant source of bioenergy, and the amount of energy produced from wood is planned to grow
strongly to 2020 (see Figure 4). Much of the wood fuel required will come directly from forests in the
form of firewood, small diameter roundwood or forest residues, or from the processing of trees into
timber and wood products (wood industry residues) (Electrowatt-Ekono and Tipperary Institute, 2003). It
is therefore essential that remaining gaps in the forestry sector relating to bioenergy are filled.
The gaps in the agriculture sector will need to be addressed in order to achieve the planned growth in
energy crops, dry agricultural residues, liquid biofuels and anaerobic digestion. There are particular gaps
in agricultural training on bioenergy, and in the provision of CPD for the agriculture sector. There is at
least one initiative incorporating content on bioenergy in agricultural training, however this would need
to be substantially developed in order to meet needs. However, there is a positive view on the potential
role of bioenergy in agriculture at a high level – “Alternative enterprises will continue to be important for the
farming sector. The advent of the Single Farm Payment is likely to increase the incentive for farmers to
investigate alternative enterprises, such as … on-farm energy production …” (Agri-Vision, 2004, quoted in
ITEBE, 2005). Also, as footnoted in Table 17, there is significant review work underway relevant to the
“Training – Agriculture” category - Teagasc are undertaking an Agricultural Education and Training
Review, facilitated by PricewaterhouseCoopers Strategy Advisory Consultants. A consultation process
solicited opinions from industry stakeholders on issues including: new areas of learning that should be
considered by Teagasc; how Teagasc might broaden the role of its college infrastructure; the potential
for further collaboration between Teagasc and other relevant State agencies in the area of education and
training (e.g. FÁS, Vocational Education Committees, Institutes of Technology); the integration of
training with Teagasc’s advisory and research roles; and the future direction/development of the 180
hour training course (see Table 43) (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). Independently, a needs assessment
on CPD for agricultural science professionals is underway by the Agricultural Science Association (ASA).
It is anticipated that bioenergy will be given higher priority as a result of both the Teagasc Review and
the ASA needs assessment.
The results of the gap analysis are presented by bioenergy subsector in Figure 17.
32
Figure 17
Gap Analysis by Bioenergy Subsector
No. of Bioenergy and Category Combinations
14
No Initiative Apparent
12
Some Initiative
Roll Out and/or Deepen
Needs Met
10
8
6
4
2
0
Anaerobic
digestion
Dry agricultural
residues
Energy crops
Landfill gas
Liquid biofuels
Wood
Bioenergy Subsector
Examination of Figure 17 shows that there are substantial gaps for five of the six subsectors, landfill gas
being the one exception. There are large gaps for dry agricultural residues, energy crops, liquid biofuels
and wood. As per previous comment, any gaps relating to wood could have a serious impact on the
future contribution of bioenergy to Irish energy supply. Liquid biofuels could sustain a particularly
substantial proportion of total employment in the operation and maintenance of bioenergy projects (see
Figure 11) and this alone provides a strong reason for ensuring gaps in that subsector are filled.
The present specialist needs of the landfill gas subsector are served by training sourced outside Ireland
(by engine suppliers in Austria and Germany, and a course in the UK – see Table 111). There is relatively
small potential for further development of landfill gas projects (see Figure 4). Industry opinion is that the
existing and future size of the landfill gas market in Ireland is insufficient to support the indigenous
provision of specialist training, in terms of both potential trainee numbers and a diversity of operational
projects from which instructors can draw training content. The landfill gas sector could in the future
provide experienced personnel for other renewable energy sectors, perhaps with appropriate CPD.
The allocation of gaps into training, education or CPD is shown in Figure 18.
33
Figure 18
Gap Analysis Classified by Training, Education or CPD
No. of Bioenergy and Category Combinations
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
No Initiative Apparent
Some Initiative
Roll Out and/or Deepen
8
Needs Met
6
4
2
0
Training
Education
CPD
Figure 18 shows that most of the principal gaps are in the training system (“training” is deemed to
include the “Technical – Operative” category). There are also gaps in the CPD system. Within the
education system, it is important that existing initiatives are developed to ensure needs are met.
There is an initiative for operatives on energy crop and wood fuel production and supply. This should be
encouraged, given the important role of wood in the overall supply of bioenergy, and the future
potential of energy crops. There are gaps in the provision of training for existing or potential operatives
of fuel supply systems and conversion plants for bioenergy projects.
As noted previously, developments in agricultural and forestry training are required to meet the needs of
the bioenergy industry.
There are at least four initiatives on engineering-related training on bioenergy. Three of these are in the
wood subsector, and one on anaerobic digestion. With roll out (and perhaps some deepening) such
initiatives could serve the AD and wood subsectors well. There does not however appear to be any
significant coverage of dry agricultural residues, energy crops or liquid biofuels in engineering-related
training, and these gaps should be addressed.
There is good provision for CPD in the engineering and “other” sectors. Some deepening may be
appropriate for engineering CPD, particularly on the design of bioenergy plants. Further development in
forestry CPD is required, with a focus on sustainable forest management for wood fuel production. As
noted previously, there are gaps in CPD provision for the agriculture sector. However, as per the
footnotes to Table 17, there is a needs assessment underway in this category. It is anticipated that the
needs of the bioenergy industry will be recognised in that work.
34
The needs analysis (Section 2.2) revealed that there are many needs which are independent of bioenergy
subsector (Table 6). A single programme could serve many of these needs. Such a programme could be
categorised under “CPD – Other”, as it would not be targeted at any particular employment sector. The
review has identified several initiatives in this “CPD – Other” category (see for example Tables 32, 35, 39,
44 and 46). It is important that such programmes are widely available to disseminate knowledge on all
six bioenergy subsectors. Some deepening of programmes in this category would be appropriate, in
particular regarding the building design requirements of wood heating systems (for architectural
technologists and architects).
While there is no gap that is not important if the full potential of bioenergy is to be developed, nine key
gaps have been consolidated from the gap analysis, taking the following into account:
•
The magnitude of the potential for the subsector, based on the Study’s scenario for bioenergy
development (Figure 4). This places emphasis on wood (for heating and CHP), liquid biofuels and
dry agricultural residues to 2010.
•
The expected timescale for the development of the subsector (Figure 4). The wood subsector has
immediate potential based on the use of existing resources. Energy crops will take time to
achieve substantial scale (but require attention now if their potential is to be harnessed).
•
The magnitude of the identified gap between training, education or CPD supply for the subsector,
and the demand for those services.
•
The importance of the discipline (e.g. agriculture, forestry, engineering) for project development
in the particular bioenergy subsector under consideration.
On this basis, the key gaps are:
1.
Training – Operative (anaerobic digestion and wood)
2.
Training – Agriculture (all subsectors except landfill gas)
3.
Training – Forestry (energy crops and wood)
4.
Training – Engineering (wood)
5.
Education – all disciplines (including agriculture on dry agricultural residues and wood)
6.
CPD – Agriculture (all subsectors except landfill gas)
7.
CPD – Forestry (energy crops and wood)
8.
CPD – Engineering (all subsectors except landfill gas)
9.
CPD – Other (wood)
The following chapter makes detailed proposals to address these gaps.
35
5.
Proposals to Fill Gaps
This chapter presents proposals to fill the gaps identified in Chapter 4. Eight proposals are made for the
training sector, four for education, and seven for CPD.
Detailed proposals for a specific training, education or CPD programme are generally made only where
there is an important gap that cannot be filled by the deepening or roll out of an existing initiative.
Where deepening or roll out of an existing initiative is proposed as the best way of filling a gap, a crossreference is given to the table in Appendix 1 describing the initiative. A proposal is also made for a “train
the trainers” programme.
The general and link-specific needs for bioenergy are likely to occur in other sustainable / renewable
energy sectors, and there could be synergies in meeting these needs on a renewables-wide basis. There
could be links to other SEI training and education initiatives including those on domestic heating and
renewables e.g. Energy Saver Course, Sustainable Energy Buildings Network (SEBNet). The general needs
could be met in some cases by service providers not specialising in renewable energy or bioenergy (for
example, on business management, health and safety, etc.). Bioenergy training and education service
providers should examine the possibilities for synergy with other (more general) training and education
providers in their catchment area.
5.1
Proposals on Training
A total of eight proposals are made for the training sector. Five of these proposals involve deeping
and/or roll out of existing initiatives. It was also felt necessary to present three proposals in more detail
(on anaerobic digestion, and agricultural and forestry training). Consultations during the Study
suggested that modification of existing apprenticeship programmes (e.g. for electricians, plumbers)
would not be a feasible route for providing bioenergy training at present. Apprenticeships do not
include the possibility for optional modules. Flexible programmes run on-demand were considered
preferable.
All bioenergy training programmes should outline the wider context of the specific topic, so that trainees
understand the importance of their role in implementing sustainability.
Table 19
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in Training
1
Development of “Training – Operative” and “Training – Engineering” on dry agricultural
residues, energy crops and liquid biofuels as the base of operating projects so requires.
2
Provision in Ireland of an existing UK course for operatives in the wood energy sector (see Table
114).
3
Development of existing initiative on training on wood energy (Table 45). This would provide
coverage of forestry harvesting for wood fuel production.
4
Consideration of providing existing course on waste management (including AD) in other
locations (Table 34). The importance of including bioenergy in waste management training and
education was emphasised by industry during the consultation for this Study.
5
Co-operation on further development among initiatives on design and installation training for
wood energy (Table 31, Table 37, Table 40). Consultations during the course of this Study with
the service providers involved have indicated a willingness to discuss areas of mutual interest.
36
Table 20
Proposed Training for Operatives on Anaerobic Digestion
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
&
Operation of Biogas Plants.
There could be linkages with the NPTC or FÁS.
People working or intending to work at operative level in biogas plants.
FÁS Safe Pass or other evidence of completion of a course on safety.
To produce skilled biogas operatives capable of operating biogas plants to
a high standard.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Understand the basics of a biogas plant
•
Recognise the hazards associated with a biogas plant
•
Be able to work under supervision to safely operate a biogas plant
•
Understand the wider renewable energy and environmental
context
70 hours, over a two week period.
Overview of biogas plants – technical, environmental, legal and social
aspects. Components of a biogas plant, associated hazards and safety
measures. Good practice in the operation of biogas plants including
operating procedures. Skills development in the application of operating
procedures at two working biogas plants. Renewable energy in Ireland
and the role of biogas in agriculture, energy and environment.
Two periods of at least three days each at different biogas plants. The
importance of practical work experience in operating biogas plants was
emphasised to the Study Team in consultations with industry.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and internship.
Written test and skills assessment at the end of the course.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, biogas plants.
Through biogas project developers, industry associations, FÁS, local
newspapers.
Industry consultation indicates that there will be a demand for skilled
operatives following the construction of the biogas plants that have
planning permission or are in the planning process.
37
Table 21
Proposed Agricultural and Forestry Training on Bioenergy
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
&
Modules on “Introduction to Bioenergy Development”.
Optional modules on existing FETAC-accredited and non-accredited
training and adult education courses.
Existing students on Teagasc courses, farmers, forestry personnel.
Participants would preferably have obtained, or be studying for, a
qualification in agriculture or forestry.
To illustrate opportunities for bioenergy as an alternative farm or forest
enterprise.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Understand the range of bioenergy resources, conversion
technologies and markets
•
Be able to identify which bioenergy pathways are most appropriate
for their own situation, technically and financially
Total of 50 hours in four 12.5 hour modules, delivered as appropriate to
local circumstance and target group needs.
Technical, business, environmental, policy and legal aspects of: Anaerobic
digestion; Dry agricultural residues (poultry litter, straw and spent
mushroom compost); Energy crops; Liquid biofuels; Wood. For details
see Table 6, and under the “Resource” heading in Table 7, Table 9, Table 10,
Table 11, Table 13 and Table 14. The four modules could be organised to
cover: Introduction to Bioenergy; Bioenergy from Agriculture; Bioenergy
from Forestry; and Implementing Bioenergy Projects. Opportunities could
be taken to provide specific content in the form or seminars or workshops
(e.g. “Short Rotation Coppice for Landowners”).
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and site visits.
Written test at the end of the course.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, bioenergy plants.
The four modules could be marketed singly or as a package, through
Teagasc, the farming unions and local newspapers. Changing farming
economics mean a demand for knowledge on alternative enterprises,
particularly on the use of land for energy production. There are currently
about 15,000 farmers involved in cereals production (of relevance to
potential market for training on energy crops and straw), out of a total of
over 130,00. Teagasc in partnership with the Institutes of Technology is
the major supplier of third level education programmes in agriculture.
Teagasc also offers a wide selection of vocational and adult education
courses covering many aspects of agriculture and rural development. In
2004, almost 700 people completed HETAC-accredited courses with
Teagasc, almost 3,500 completed FETAC-accredited courses, and over
9,000 completed adult education courses.
The modules could be preceded by a more general module giving an
introduction to sustainable energy / renewable energy. Consultations with
service providers undertaken during this Study have indicated that the
provision of optional modules is a feasible implementation route. Teagasc
courses are generally structured in the form of 12.5 or 25 hour modules.
38
Table 22
Proposed Forestry Training on Wood Energy Development
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
5.2
&
“Introduction to Wood Energy Development”.
Optional module on existing FETAC-accredited training courses and nonaccredited training and adult education courses.
Existing students on Teagasc courses (e.g. National Certificate in Forestry
at Ballyhaise Agricultural College), farmers, forestry personnel.
Participants would preferably have obtained, or be studying for, a
qualification in forestry, and have completed the “Introduction to
Bioenergy”, “Bioenergy from Forestry” and “Implementing Bioenergy
Projects” modules from the training described in Table 21.
To illustrate the opportunities for wood energy as a market for Irish
forestry.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Understand the range of forest wood energy resources, conversion
technologies and markets
•
Be able to identify which wood energy options are most
appropriate for their own situation, technically and financially
•
Have practical skills in forest fuel harvesting and chipping
25 hours, in two 12.5 hour modules, delivered as appropriate to local
circumstance and target group needs.
Particular focus on wood energy in the context of sustainable forest
management. See Needs Analysis in Table 7 and Table 14 under
“Resource” heading for further details. Practical work on wood fuel
harvesting and chipping. The content would also include a brief overview
of energy crops and the opportunities for conversion of wood to liquid
biofuels via pyrolysis or fermentation to ethanol
None.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals, site visits and practicals.
Written test at the end of the course.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, wood energy plants,
timber harvesting machinery, chipping equipment.
Through Teagasc, forestry organisations and the farming unions. There is
an existing training framework to which new optional modules could be
added. There are currently up to 24,000 people involved in the forestry
sector (including plantation owners), over 1,400 of whom are forestry
workers involved in harvesting and logistics (Bacon, 2004).
Proposals on Third Level Education
The incorporation of bioenergy in educational programmes is very important for the long term
development of the bioenergy sector. Four proposals are made regarding the inclusion of bioenergy
content in education. As can be seen from Table 18 there are a significant number of educational
programmes in Ireland that already contain content on bioenergy. It was not felt necessary therefore to
make specific detailed proposals. Deeping and/or roll out of existing initiatives is however required.
Consultations with third level education providers revealed long timeframes for the development and
accreditation of new educational programmes, or for major revisions of existing programmes. Therefore,
bioenergy content should be incorporated where practically possible at present (e.g. in an existing
relevant subject, or as an elective), and considered for inclusion when existing programmes are being
reviewed or new programmes are being developed.
The engineering sector is critical in the delivery of new energy infrastructure over the coming decades.
Industry feedback indicates that many of the existing staff employed in the bioenergy sector are
engineers and an engineering degree is a common requirement when recruiting new staff. It is
important that education on best practice in bioenergy be incorporated into relevant engineering
courses. It is also very important to integrate bioenergy into agriculture and forestry programmes, as
these sectors will supply most of the fuel or raw material for bioenergy plants. Students in other relevant
39
disciplines should also have the opportunity to gain knowledge on bioenergy, as they may have very
important roles to play (e.g. architects, scientists, planners).
The development of postgraduate programmes on sustainable energy should be encouraged. This is an
effective way to retrain skilled technical graduates from a variety of disciplines in a short time to service
the renewable energy industry. The Masters courses to be provided at Dundalk Institute of Technology
(Table 64) and UCC (Table 65) from autumn 2005 are positive developments in this regard.
Table 23
1
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in Education
Roll out of elective on “Introduction to Sustainable / Renewable Energy” in agriculture,
engineering (where relevant) and forestry degrees in the universities and Institutes of
Technology (see Table 48 and Table 58 for examples in the engineering discipline, and Table 49,
Table 52, Table 53 and Table 54 for examples in “other” disciplines). It is also desirable to have
the module available to students on other programmes (e.g. architecture, rural development,
science, and to a lesser extent commerce and law).
The module should provide students with an understanding of international and Irish energy
policy, the current status and future trends in Ireland’s energy requirement and the roles of
energy efficiency and renewable energy in securing energy supply. It should encourage
students to take leadership roles in developing sustainable energy, and personal responsibility
for their own actions.
As an indication of market size, about 4,000 engineering students receive a third level
qualification up to Bachelors level every year, over 200 Bachelors degrees in agriculture or
forestry are awarded, and about 100 architects graduate. There are over 100 Bachelor of
Engineering degrees (adding Ordinary and Honours degrees) taught in Ireland which are
approved by the IEI.
2
Provision of an elective on “Introduction to Bioenergy Development” in agriculture, engineering
(where relevant) and forestry degrees in the universities and Institutes of Technology. The
elective should have depth on the topics of energy crops and wood. For programmes in
agriculture there should be depth on dry agricultural residues and wood.
It is also desirable to have the module available to students on other programmes (e.g.
architecture, rural development, science). For architecture (and architectural technology) the
focus should be on the design and construction requirements of wood-fuelled heating systems.
Existing Irish examples of specific bioenergy content in undergraduate courses can be found in
agriculture (Table 55 and Table 59), engineering (Table 57), forestry (Table 61) and other
disciplines (Table 60).
3
The possibility for an engineering undergraduate course with a broad specialisation in
Sustainable Energy (covering heat, electricity and transport from all renewable energy
resources) could be explored by educational institutions in Ireland. The review of training and
education internationally has identified several such courses (e.g. Austria - Table 72, France Table 88, Germany - Table 97 and the UK - Table 117 and Table 123). There could be a demand
for such a product in distance / online mode.
4
The provision of a Masters degree in Bioenergy Development, comprising taught and thesis
components could be considered. The programme should be open to graduates in the
agriculture, engineering, forestry and “other” disciplines. The international review in Appendix
1 documents several postgraduate courses with a major focus on bioenergy (Denmark - Table
75, France - Table 89, Sweden - Table 102 and Table 103, several co-operating countries - Table
134 and Table 135).
Masters level graduates should be capable of leading the development of bioenergy projects.
40
5.3
Proposals on Continuing Professional Development
A total of seven proposals are put forward in the CPD sector. It was considered necessary to provide
detail on five of these. One of the proposals is for “training of trainers” – to implement the proposals
made in this Study will require a substantial pool of people with expertise on bioenergy, and the skills in
training and education with which to share that expertise to best effect.
CPD is a very important mechanism for upgrading the skills and knowledge of people involved with the
bioenergy industry. It is also a fast track mechanism for developing bioenergy expertise, as the people
undertaking CPD already have significant qualifications and/or work experience.
In consultations with the bioenergy industry during this Study, a significant knowledge gap on
bioenergy has been identified among Government Departments and state agencies. It was suggested
that policy makers on renewable energy and planners (e.g. in local authorities) should be encouraged to
undertake CPD on sustainable energy and bioenergy.
Table 24
1
Proposals For Deepening and/or Roll Out in CPD
Roll out of existing CPD “Other” initiatives, with deepening on the topic of wood for energy (e.g.
Table 32, Table 35 and Table 38 for shorter programmes, Table 44 for a longer programme).
This would serve a broad audience, including those wishing to move into or upwards in the
renewable energy sector. Consideration should be given to providing such programmes online.
2
The possibility of promoting CPD on biofuels through the IPIA (Irish Petroleum Industry
Association) could be explored. It is the representative body for over 95% of the current
transport fuel market.
Table 25
Proposed Agriculture CPD on Bioenergy
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
&
“Opportunities for Bioenergy Development in Agriculture”
Linked to any future initiative on accredited CPD for agriculturalists /
agricultural scientists / agricultural consultants.
Agricultural scientists, agricultural consultants and agricultural advisors
(from both the public and private sectors).
A qualification in agriculture, agricultural science or other relevant
discipline, or work experience deemed equivalent.
To provide a comprehensive overview of the bioenergy sector as an
alternative farm enterprise.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Understand the range of agricultural bioenergy resources,
conversion technologies and markets
•
Be able to advise clients on which bioenergy pathways are most
appropriate for their situation, technically and financially
35 hours, delivered as appropriate to local circumstance and target group
needs.
Technical, financial, business, environmental, policy and legal aspects of:
Anaerobic digestion; Dry agricultural residues (poultry litter, straw and
spent mushroom compost); Energy crops; Liquid biofuels; and Wood. For
details see the analysis of general needs in Table 6, the list of link-specific
needs in Table 7, and subsector-specific needs in Table 9, Table 10, Table
11, Table 13 and Table 14. There should be a focus on the financial
appraisal of bioenergy opportunities.
None.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and site visits.
As per the requirements of the relevant CPD programme.
41
Table 25, continued.
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Table 26
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, bioenergy plants.
Primarily via Teagasc, Agricultural Science Association (about 800
members), Agricultural Consultants Association and farm supplies
companies that provide agricultural advice. Teagasc alone employs about
500 agricultural advisors, about 70 of whom specialise in forestry, landuse
or tillage and provide in-service training for the other advisors.
Proposed Forestry CPD on Wood Energy
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
&
“Introduction to Wood Energy Development”.
Linked to any accredited CPD for foresters and forestry consultants, and to
existing initiatives (Table 33 and Table 45).
Foresters including forestry advisors and forestry consultants in the public
and private sectors.
A qualification in forestry, or work experience deemed equivalent.
To provide a comprehensive overview of wood energy as a market for Irish
forestry.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Understand the range of forest wood energy resources, conversion
technologies and markets
•
Be able to advise clients on which wood energy options are most
appropriate for their situation, technically and financially
15 hours, delivered as appropriate to local circumstance and target group
needs.
Overview of the technical, financial, business, environmental, policy and
legal aspects of wood energy, with a particular focus on wood energy in
the context of sustainable forest management. See Needs Analysis in
Table 7 and Table 14 under “Resource” heading for further details. The
content would also include a brief overview of energy crops and the
opportunities for conversion of wood to liquid biofuels via pyrolysis or
fermentation to ethanol. The clients of forestry advisors have particular
needs on the harvesting and marketing of first thinnings, and on Short
Rotation Coppice as an energy crop.
None.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and site visits.
As per the requirements of the relevant CPD programme.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, wood energy plants.
Teagasc, Society of Irish Foresters, Coillte, IFA, ITGA, private sector forestry
companies and other forestry-related organisations.
42
Table 27
Proposed Engineering CPD on Bioenergy Plant Design and Construction
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
&
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Table 28
Proposed Architects CPD on Wood Heating
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
“Bioenergy Plant Design and Construction”
Accredited for CPD purposes by the relevant professional associations.
Engineers involved or interested in the design, specification, manufacture,
construction or maintenance of bioenergy plants.
Have a recognised engineering qualification and be a member of the
relevant professional association.
To provide a comprehensive overview of the engineering issues associated
with bioenergy plants from design to operation.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Be aware of best international practice on bioenergy plant design,
construction and maintenance
•
Be able to apply best practice to the Irish context
35 hours, delivered as appropriate to local circumstance and target group
needs.
Engineering aspects of: Anaerobic digestion; Dry agricultural residues
(poultry litter, straw and spent mushroom compost); Energy crops; Liquid
biofuels; and Wood. For details see the analysis of general needs in Table
6 and needs under the “Conversion” heading in Table 7, Table 9, Table 10,
Table 11, Table 13 and Table 14.
None.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and site visits.
As per the requirements of the relevant CPD programme.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, bioenergy plants, guest
lecturers with appropriate international experience.
Via the IEI and other professional associations.
&
“Heating with Wood Fuel - Building Design Implications”
Accredited for CPD purposes by the relevant professional associations, and
linked to existing initiatives (Table 31 and Table 42).
Architects and architectural technologists involved or interested in the
design and specification of building projects incorporating wood-fuelled
heating systems.
Have a recognised architectural or architectural technology qualification.
To provide a comprehensive overview of the building design issues
associated with wood-fuelled heating systems.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Be aware of best international practice on building design for
incorporation of wood heating
•
Be able to apply best practice to the Irish context
6 hours, delivered as appropriate to local circumstance and target group
needs.
Design issues as listed in the Needs Analysis under the “Conversion”
heading in Table 7 and Table 14.
None.
Lectures, tutorials, audio-visuals and site visits.
As per the requirements of the relevant CPD programme.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video/DVD, wood heating plants,
guest lecturers with appropriate international experience.
Via the RIAI, AAI and other professional associations.
43
Table 29
Proposed Training of Trainers on Bioenergy
Title
Level of Award
Target group
Entry Requirements
Course Aim
Learning Outcomes
Structure, Duration
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Internship
Delivery Methodologies
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
&
“Training of Trainers on Bioenergy”
Accreditation by a national organisation or university is desirable.
Trainers and educators providing services in the bioenergy sector.
Experience in the bioenergy sector.
To provide guidance on the design and delivery of training and education
on bioenergy.
On completion of the course, participants will:
•
Be aware of good practice on training and education
•
Be able to apply good practice in their training and education
provision
15 hours, probably over two days full-time.
Revision of key technical, financial, business, environmental, policy and
legal aspects of all bioenergy subsectors. Best practice on the design and
implementation of adult learning programmes. Application of theory
through video-taped role played delivery of content to other course
participants.
None.
Lectures, tutorials, group discussion, role plays.
Evaluation by self, peers and course leaders.
Lecture and tutorial rooms, handouts, video recorder.
Via networks of training and education providers and industry
associations.
44
6.
Recommendations
This chapter sets out recommendations related to bioenergy training and education in Ireland,
categorised into demand-side, supply-side and “other”. The three key recommendations are highlighted.
Implementation of the proposals in this Study will help achieve the vision of a world class bioenergy
sector in Ireland, with high quality installations that are designed, built, managed, operated and fuelled
by knowledgeable and skilled personnel in a safe and profitable manner, with wider economic,
environmental and social benefits.
6.1
Recommendations on Demand-side
6.1.1
Targets
There is an increasing demand for training and education on all aspects of sustainable energy, including
bioenergy, and this Study shows that providers are responding to an extent. However, a strong policy
signal is also desirable. Modelling work undertaken in this Study, and industry feedback, indicate that
the potential level of future employment in bioenergy (and hence the training and education needs) is
highly dependant on national policy and targets.
Key Recommendation 1: A comprehensive set of targets to 2020 or beyond is needed on heat,
liquid biofuels and electricity from biomass.
6.1.2
Potential Employment and Skills Needs
The potential employment estimates for bioenergy contained in this Study should be updated as targets
for bioenergy development are revised or set, to ensure that up to date market information is available
to service providers. Potential employment and skills needs in the whole sustainable energy sector
should be examined, due to the sector’s strategic importance to the nation.
6.1.3
Information on Bioenergy Training and Education Services
Consultations during the Study made clear that it can be difficult for people to get information on what
bioenergy training and education services are available in Ireland.
Key Recommendation 2: Provide a single point of contact for those seeking information on
training and education services on bioenergy (and perhaps other aspects of sustainable energy) in
Ireland. Publicise that this service is available.
The data on bioenergy training and education services contained in this Study should be made available
online, and kept updated. This would facilitate people seeking services in Ireland, and in locating
programmes for which there is no supply in Ireland.
6.1.4
Awareness-raising and Support Activities
The continuation of awareness-raising activities on bioenergy is considered important. Publicity should
be generated from the successful completion of bioenergy training courses and completed installations
(see Table 68 for an example of this approach). A wood energy information pack should be provided to
all grant-aided forestry plantation owners, detailing available training and education on wood energy.
Awareness of bioenergy development opportunities should be promoted among the memberships of
professional, industry and trade associations. Postgraduate research in bioenergy should be supported.
45
6.2
Recommendations on Supply-side
6.2.1
“National Forum for Bioenergy Training and Education” Event
Consultations during this Study indicated that not all existing and intending training and education
providers were aware of other relevant initiatives. It is also highly desirable to maintain the momentum
of this Study and move to implementation of the proposals set out in Chapter 5.
Key Recommendation 3: Hold a networking event entitled the “National Forum for Bioenergy
Training and Education”. The Forum would include a plenary session followed by parallel themed
workshops (e.g. wood heating training, engineering design of large bioenergy plants).
Opportunities should be given for stakeholders (providers and industry) to meet by geographical
area (to allow for example discussions on: possible local synergies and regional clusters; detailed
needs) and time and space should be made available for provider-to-provider meetings (to allow
discussions on franchising out of existing courses for example). Copies of this Study should be
sent to key stakeholders in advance of the event.
6.2.2
Delivering Training and Education
Providers should draw on their undergraduate and postgraduate courses to provide CPD, as illustrated in
the international review (e.g. CREST in Table 116). Opportunities provided by programme reviews should
be taken to add bioenergy content to existing training and education. Students should be given
opportunities to develop practical skills, and for transfer and progression. Linkages to international best
practice should be further developed through networking, cooperation and partnerships, including
Republic of Ireland – Northern Ireland links. The valuable research on bioenergy that is undertaken
within Irish organisations should be widely disseminated through education and training programmes,
perhaps through partnership arrangements where resources in the research organisation do not allow
for engagement in training and education. Providers should examine innovative methods to manage
demand on the limited Irish pool of guest speakers and operating bioenergy projects e.g. the use of
published case studies, video recordings. Flexible modes of delivery should be implemented (e.g. block
release, e-learning). Educational programmes should consider how practical skills development can be
promoted.
6.3
Other Recommendations
6.3.1
Training, Education and Quality
The international review revealed several example of strong linkages between training and quality
assurance (e.g. Tables 31, 93 and 110). Ensuring high quality standards at all stages of the bioenergy
pathway (Figure 5) is vital for consumer confidence and safety. It is recommended that an overall coordinating framework be established to ensure the quality of training, equipment, installers, and those
undertaking feasibility studies and bioenergy plant design. Any support mechanisms for the supply side
of bioenergy (e.g. on energy crop production) could require certain training to be undertaken by the
recipient of the support. The bioenergy industry should always apply existing good practice guidelines
and codes in its business (e.g. British BioGen, 1996).
6.3.2
Additional Research
The production functions used in Chapter 2 of this Study have been very useful in estimating the
potential direct employment in the bioenergy sector to 2020. It would be beneficial to have
employment production functions tailored for the Irish bioenergy sector, and additional research on this
topic is recommended. More detailed consideration should be given to the impact on employment in
Ireland of imports and exports of bioenergy resources and technologies. The potential employment
associated with bioenergy equipment manufacture and the provision of support products and services
could usefully be examined.
Other valuable suggestions made during the course of the Study are recorded in Appendix 3.
46
Appendix 1.
Review of Bioenergy Training and Education
Notes:
1.
Some text within the following tables may be quoted directly from the websites of the institutions
offering the courses described. The normal convention of using quotation marks and italics for
direct quotations is not used to maximise readability.
2.
The inclusion or exclusion of a programme in this report does not imply a judgement on its quality
by the authors.
3.
For explanation of the country codes used in the graphs, see the list of abbreviations in Appendix
4.
Energy and Landuse Contexts
Data from Eurostat was analysed to compare the contexts of the seven selected countries with Ireland.
Figure 19 compares the contribution of renewable energy to the TPER of each country, and also shows
the contribution from the bioenergy sector. All of the countries studied except the United Kingdom
have a greater contribution from renewable energy and bioenergy than Ireland. In three of the countries
studied (Austria, Finland and Sweden) bioenergy contributes more than 10% of TPER. Figure 20 shows
that wood is the most important bioenergy subsector. The United Kingdom has a substantial energy
contribution in the Eurostat “biogas” category (mostly landfill gas). Municipal Solid Waste also
contributes significantly in a number of countries, but only the organic fraction of this can be defined as
bioenergy. Ireland, Denmark and the UK have similar percentage forest cover (about 10%), with the
other five countries having over 30% forest cover (see Figure 21). Figure 22 shows that Ireland and the
UK have the greatest proportion of grassland out of agricultural and forestry land. Thus the energy,
waste management and landuse contexts of the countries studied varies significantly.
Figure 19
Renewable Energy and Bioenergy in TPER of Selected Countries, 2002
1%
1%
UK
16%
SE
27%
20%
FI
22%
13%
AT
24%
1%
IE
2%
4%
FR
6%
2%
DE
Biomass Energy
3%
Renewable Energy
10%
DK
12%
4%
EU25
6%
0%
5%
10%
15%
Percentage of TPER
Except Liquid Biofuels. Based on Eurostat, 2004
47
20%
25%
30%
Figure 20
Bioenergy Utilisation by Resource in Selected Countries, 2002
12,000
Other Biomass
10,000
Organic MSW
Biogas
8,000
'000 TOE
Wood & Wood Waste
6,000
4,000
2,000
DK
DE
FR
IE
AT
FI
SE
UK
Except Liquid Biofuels. Based on Eurostat, 2004
Figure 21
Landuse in the Selected Countries
100%
90%
16
24
19
11
16
18
18
7
8
28
80%
70%
23
41
40
60%
50
52
Other land area (%)
50%
63
67
75
74
Forest and other wooded land (%)
30%
20%
Utilised agricultural area (%)
63
40%
48
44
31
31
10%
13
10
9
0%
EU15
DK
DE
FR
IE
AT
FI
Based on Eurostat, 2000.
48
SE
UK
Figure 22
Agricultural and Forestry Landuse in the Selected Countries
UK
33%
AT
20%
50%
1%
28%
18%
0%
50%
Arable land
Land under permanent
crops
21%
IE
0%
57%
9%
13%
Land under permanent
meadows and pasture
Other agricultural land
37%
FR
3%
20%
4%
36%
Land under forest and
other wooded land
73%
DK
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
0% 11% 0%
50%
60%
70%
80%
16%
90%
100%
Except Finland, Germany, Sweden. Based on Eurostat, 2002.
Training and Education Contexts
The Lisbon Strategy adopted at the European Council Spring Summit in 2000 set a new strategic goal for
the European Union: to become, by 2010, “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy
in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.”
(quoted in European Commission, 2004a). The Copenhagen Declaration (European Ministers and
Commission, 2002) states that “Over the years co-operation at European level within education and training
has come to play a decisive role in creating the future European society… Strategies for lifelong learning and
mobility are essential to promote employability, active citizenship, social inclusion and personal development.
Developing knowledge based Europe and ensuring that the European labour market is open to all is a major
challenge to the vocational educational and training systems in Europe and to all actors involved. The same is
true of the need for these systems to continuously adapt to new developments and changing demands of
society. An enhanced cooperation in vocational education and training will be an important contribution
towards ensuring a successful enlargement of the European Union and fulfilling the objectives identified by
the European Council in Lisbon.”
The Commission also recognises the importance of adult education and lifelong learning: “In the light of
continuously increasing life-expectancy, later retirement in the future, higher educational attainment levels
and a decreasing half-life of acquired knowledge, the importance of adult education is set to increase.”
(European Commission, 2004a). The Council of the European Union (2003) has adopted the following
benchmark: “By 2010, the EU-average level of participation in lifelong learning should be at least 12.5% of the
adult working age population (25-64 age group).”
49
Eurostat (2004) publish participation rates for each level of education according to the UN International
Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) framework (UNESCO, 1997). The six categories are:
•
Pre-primary education (ISCED level 0)
•
Primary education or first stage of basic education (ISCED level 1)
•
Lower secondary or second stage of basic education (ISCED level 2)
•
Upper secondary education (ISCED level 3)
•
Post-secondary non-tertiary education - pre-vocational and vocational programmes (ISCED level
4)
•
First stage of tertiary education - programmes with both academic or occupation orientation
(ISCED level 5)
•
Second stage of tertiary education leading to an advanced research qualification (ISCED level 6)
The numbers participating in the education system by ISCED level are shown in Figure 23. In terms of
absolute student numbers, France, Germany and the UK dominate the selected countries and this is
reflected in the number and variety of courses available in these countries. A unique aspect of Irish
education is the low graduation age of Irish students compared to our EU counterparts. Figure 24
represents this graphically. The Irish student leaves third level fully 2.5 years before the average Briton
and our median tertiary-level student is 5.3 years younger than his/her Swedish counterpart. However,
there may also be benefits from Irish graduates entering the workplace and building experience from an
earlier age. Figure 25 shows the strength of the Finnish third level education system in science and
technology. Ireland however compares favourably in this regard to the other countries studied.
The summary information on training and education systems for each country (Table 30) is based largely
on the CLER/Predac report (2003) and information from the European Commission’s (2004b) EURYDICE
database on education systems. The descriptions available through this database give a very succinct
presentation in English of the education systems of the European countries in the EURYDICE Network.
The European Commission (2004a) has identified deficiencies in the availability of data on vocational
training and adult education: “Although [vocational] training is a very complex, broad and multi-faceted
field of activity, much less statistical data, especially on an international level, is available for monitoring or for
policy development, in comparison with school level education. There is thus a need to develop more data
sets and indicators on vocational education and training and to integrate them better in Commission
reporting.” and “Data availability for adult education strongly lags behind that for formal education, even
though the importance of adult education is increasing. No specific surveys exist yet, but some of the existing
enquiries, like the Labour Force survey, provide some general data.” Some data on training is however
available from Eurostat. Figure 26 compares the training activity in business (enterprises) in the selected
countries. Ireland lags behind other countries in the percentage of enterprises providing training for
their employees.
50
Figure 23
Participation by ISCED Education Level in Selected EU Countries, 2001
Number of students
600,000
500,000
ISCED3 Upper secondary education - prevocational and vocational programmes
400,000
ISCED4 Post-secondary non-tertiary education pre-vocational and vocational programmes
ISCED5-6 Tertiary education
300,000
ISCED6 Second stage of tertiary education
leading to an advanced research qualification
200,000
100,000
DK
DE
FR
IE
AT
FI
SE
UK
Based on Eurostat, 2004. Some data not available.
Figure 24
Education Expectancy and Median Age in Tertiary Education, 2002
Education expectancy of pupils and students (ISCED 0-6)
30
Median age in tertiary education (ISCED 5-6)
24.8
25
25.3
24.2
24
23.5
22.9
22
20.6
20
Age
17.4
18
17.1
16.6
16.6
19.8
19.2
20
20.1
16
15
10
5
0
EU25
DK
DE
FR
IE
Based on Eurostat, 2004
51
AT
FI
SE
UK
Figure 25
Enrolment in Selected Course Areas in Tertiary Education, 2001
1%
UK
10%
26%
1%
SE
18%
29%
2%
FI
26%
2%
AT
37%
14%
26%
2%
IE
14%
34%
agriculture and veterinary field
1%
DE
15%
2%
DK
engineering, manufacturing and
construction field
10%
20%
2%
EU25
0%
30%
15%
5%
10%
15%
science, mathematics, computing,
engineering, manufacturing,
construction
26%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
Except France. Based on Eurostat, 2004. The “engineering, manufacturing and construction field” is a
subset of the broader “science, mathematics, computing, engineering, manufacturing, construction”
field.
Figure 26
Enterprises Giving Training by Type as Percentage of all Enterprises, 1999
13%
76%
UK
87%
9%
83%
SE
91%
18%
75%
FI
82%
28%
71%
72%
AT
No training
21%
56%
IE
79%
24%
Continuing Vocational
Training courses
71%
FR
76%
Any type of training
25%
67%
DE
75%
4%
88%
DK
96%
39%
53%
EU25
61%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Based on Eurostat, 2004
52
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Table 30
Training and Education Systems in Selected Countries
Country
Austria
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Outline Description of Training and Education System
At 14 years students move to upper second level where they can choose
an academic school or a technical or vocational school. After the age of
15 students may also attend vocational training part-time while
working. Austrian higher education has two kinds of systems:
Fachhochschulen (universities of applied sciences) offer a job-oriented
higher education with four years of study and universities provide more
academically-oriented education with five years of study.
Two or three year courses are taken at the end of compulsory secondlevel education to prepare for admission to higher education or for
occupational employment. Higher education institutions can be
classified into two sectors: college and university. Colleges offer short
and medium-term job oriented programs of higher education.
Universities award research-based degrees both at undergraduate and
graduate level. The Bachelorgrad is awarded following a fairly broad
program of studies lasting three years. The Kandidatgrad corresponds
roughly to a Master’s degree and is awarded after five years of study,
including both specialisation and in-depth study and a thesis. The
Magistergrad is a special research degree acquired after a total of six
years of study. The research-based Ph.D. degree is normally conferred
after eight years of study.
A three year academic or vocational course is taken at the end of
compulsory second-level education. The Finnish higher education
system comprises two parallel sectors: universities and polytechnics.
The mission of universities is to carry out research and provide
education based on it. All technical universities and faculties of
technology offer Master’s programmes of five years duration. There is
also an optional predoctoral postgraduate degree, which can be
completed in two years of full-time study after the Master’s degree. Fulltime studies for a doctorate take approximately four years following the
Master’s degree.
Polytechnic degrees are Bachelor-level higher
education degrees with a professional emphasis and take four years to
complete.
The high school Baccalauréat gives the right to enter the higher
education system. There are several kinds of third level organisations
including professional institutions, engineering schools and universities.
Students who wish to pursue postgraduate studies can take an industryoriented route or a research-oriented one. These can be followed by a
Doctorat.
From the age of 15 students can either attend a Gymnasium or various
vocationally-oriented upper-secondary school programmes, including
part-time attendance. Part-time education is compulsory until the age
of 18 for those who do not attend a full-time school. The DiplomIngenieur title is awarded by Fachhochschulen (universities of applied
sciences) for a practically oriented programme, usually of four years
duration.
53
Ireland
Sweden
United Kingdom
The senior cycle in second level schools is two or three years in duration
depending on whether students take the optional Transition Year.
During their last two years in second level schools students take the
Leaving Certificate, the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme or the
Leaving Certificate Applied.
Higher education takes place in
universities, institutes of technology, colleges of education or in private
institutions. After a higher-level award, students may follow a number
of postgraduate courses including Postgraduate Diplomas, taught
Master degrees or Master by research of one or two years duration.
Upon completion of an undergraduate programme and subject to the
student achieving an upper second or first class honours, a student can
undertake a three-year Doctoral programme.
Students usually remain in second level education until the age of 19.
To be admitted to higher level education, applicants must have a school
leaving certificate or work experience. Higher education institutions are
designated as either universitet or högskola. Higher education is
provided in the form of “courses” (modules). These may be linked to
constitute degree programmes with varying levels of individual choice.
Sweden has a system of credit points, with one academic year usually
yielding 40. A University Diploma may be granted after 80 credits, a
Bachelor degree requires at least 120 credits. A Master degree requires
160 credits. The Licenciate degree is awarded after postgraduate
studies of 80 credits with an academic essay or thesis. A Doctorate is
awarded after postgraduate studies of 160 credits with dissertation.
Systems differ across Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Secondary schools and sixth form colleges offer general education;
further education colleges offer largely vocational education although
many also offer general education; tertiary colleges offer both general
and vocational education. All major higher education institutions are
autonomous bodies. A three-year programme leads to a Bachelor
Degree. Upon completion of an undergraduate programme students
can undertake a postgraduate Masters programme, the duration of
which is usually one year full time. Masters degrees can be either taught
or by research. Upon completion of an undergraduate programme a
student can undertake a three-year Doctoral programme.
54
Republic of Ireland
Training and CPD
Table 31
Action Renewables and SEI, Renewable Energy Academy
Title
Location
Contact
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment
Method
Marketing
Renewable Energy Academy – training modules on wood energy in development.
Currently Northern Ireland and the border counties of the Republic of Ireland
(Cavan, Donegal, Leitrim, Louth, Monaghan and Sligo).
The partners in the project include Action Renewables (contacts Stephen Butler
and Trevor Johnston), SEI (contact Xavier DuBuisson), Dundalk Institute of
Technology, East Down Institute of Further and Higher Education, FÁS, North
West Institute of Further and Higher Education, Sligo Institute of Technology,
Arsenal Research Institute (Austria), the Danish Energy Authority, and the Austrian
Bioenergy Centre.
The Renewable Energy Academy project commenced in winter 2004 and
currently has EU INTERREG funding for a duration of three years. The Academy
will then be rolled out on an all-island basis.
Those responsible for the design, installation and maintenance of systems,
including engineers, specifiers, retailers and installers. It is expected that 90
people will be trained and certified in 2005, 150 in 2006 and over 200 in 2007.
The overall project aim is the establishment of a regionally accessible
infrastructure for training, certification and accreditation of priority renewable
energy system specifiers and installers to harmonised standards. The project is
seen as a pilot, appropriate for wider expansion within Ireland and the UK. The
project is designed to ensure compatibility with the existing framework of
training and certification of professional installers and specifiers, as well as quality
control.
The project addresses wood boilers and stoves, solar water and space heating,
heat pumps, photovoltaics, small hydro and small scale wind generators. The
actions in the project include: preparation of training material; set-up of training
laboratory; training of trainers; testing and subsequent revision of training
courses; delivery of training; examination of trainees; establishment of
certification scheme; certification of trainees; establishment of a quality label for
equipment; promotion of the Academy; promotion of certified professionals;
and establishment and operation of a quality control scheme. Two different
training schemes will be offered – one for those involved in installation and
maintenance, targeting plumbers, heating contractors, electricians, and
refrigeration contractors. The other scheme will target those involved in the
design, feasibility study and management of projects, including Heating,
Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) engineers, architects, energy consultants
and utilities. Courses will be composed of a core module on general renewable
energy issues (one to two days) and specialised modules on specific technologies
(four to five days, including theoretical and practical sessions).
Trainees who have passed their theoretical and practical examination will be
required to present their first project (installation or project design report) for
inspection. They will be required to sign a certification contract, including a code
of practice, before they are awarded their certificate.
The project was the subject of a press release from the Department of
Communications, Marine and Natural Resources: “Minister Dempsey continued:
"There is a critical and growing need in Ireland for trained installers of renewable
energy technologies. This initiative will enhance consumer confidence and ultimately
make renewable technologies more widely available to the general public.” A
Renewable Energy Academy Congress is planned for 2007 to present the results
of the project to all stakeholders and a wider audience.
55
Comments
Table 32
The provider for the wood energy element of the project had not been decided at
the time of writing of this Study. It is intended that other education providers
would be involved in later stages of the project. The involvement of experienced,
independent advisors from Austria and Denmark is an important feature of the
project. It is expected that the professionals that complete training and
certification will be involved in about 4,000 renewable energy installations in the
border region by the end of 2007 (Action Renewables and SEI, 2004; DuBuisson,
2005; Butler, 2005).
BNS Rural Development, Renewable Energy Training Course
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Renewable Energy Training Course
Barrow Nore Suir (BNS) Rural Development Ltd. (a LEADER company), in
co-operation with Carlow Kilkenny Energy Agency.
www.bnsrd.com
Declan Rice, BNS Rural Development, 42 Parliament Street, Kilkenny City.
Tel. +353 56 7752111, Fax +353 56 7752333, Email [email protected]
Certificate of completion.
Part-time, total of 30 hours. Delivered on one night per week (three
hours) over five weeks with three five-hour field trips.
Spring and autumn 2003.
People from the BNS Rural Development catchment area who have an
interest in developing renewable energy projects.
To provide students with basic skills which will allow them to investigate
the development of renewable energy projects at a small or large scale.
To provide students with an overview of the technical aspects of
particular renewable energy technologies and provide practical
examples of these. To provide students with introductory knowledge to
allow them to understand the policy, planning and financial aspects of
renewable energy projects. To give students a basic understanding of
renewable energy development.
Introduction to renewable energy. Overview of renewable energy
technologies – wind, solar, hydro, anaerobic digestion, wood fuel, liquid
biofuels. Business planning and finance, policy and legislation. Field
trips: wood fuel, short rotation coppice and anaerobic digestion; liquid
biofuels; small scale hydro. Planning and consultation.
In-class test, optional assignment.
Developed and delivered off-campus by Tipperary Institute, with guest
lecturers and site visits. Lecture notes, videos and information
brochures used in class.
Advertised by BNS Rural Development in local newspapers, and direct
mail to interested people. Certificates of completion presented at a
ceremony in Tipperary Institute. Exemptions and discounted fee for
those who wished to progress to the TI Certificate in Renewable Energy
(see Table 44).
BNS Rural Development and Carlow Kilkenny Energy Agency
subsequently developed and ran a follow-up course on renewable
energy targeted at architects and engineers. BNS Rural Development
offers grants for renewable energy technologies.
Tipperary Institute delivered a renewable energy course similar to the
above for West Limerick Resources, a LEADER company in Newcastle
West, Co. Limerick. The Irish LEADER Support Unit (ILSU) is assisting
LEADER companies to specifying their training and education needs in
the area of renewable energy.
56
Table 33
COFORD, Wood Biomass Harvesting
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Table 34
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
€100
Delivered May 20th 2005.
About 30.
Those with an interest in becoming actively involved in wood biomass
supply chain development.
None.
Wood energy basics, harvesting, storage, wood fuel supply contracts,
case study and exercise.
Self-test exercise.
Training room, PowerPoint presentations, CD-ROM with spreadsheet
tool, folder with handouts and exercise.
Delivered as part of the Wood Energy 2005 event organised by COFORD
and SEI.
It is intended to offer an extended programme later in 2005.
FÁS, Waste Management Training Programme
Title
Web
Cost
Wood Biomass Harvesting Workshop
Druid’s Glen, Co. Wicklow.
www.coford.ie
Mr. Joe O’Carroll, COFORD, Dublin. Tel. +353 1 213 0725, email
[email protected] Delivered by Pieter Kofman, Danish Forestry
Extension and Tom Kent, Waterford Institute of Technology.
Recognised as CPD for members of the Society of Irish Foresters (SIF).
Four hour workshop.
Waste Management Training Programme
www.fas.ie/environmental_training_unit/
waste_management/index.html
Contact: Pat Keelan, FÁS Environmental Training Unit, Baggot Street,
Dublin 4.
Tel. +353 1 6070500, Fax +353 1 6070618, Email
[email protected]
Further Education and Training Awards Council (FETAC) Certificate in
Waste Management in accordance with the Environmental Protection
Agency’s Integrated Pollution Control licensing requirements.
Certification will also be issued to successful participants undertaking
specific modules of the programme.
The programme is based on a series of eight training modules and
assessment is an integral part of each module. Total duration of the
course is eleven days, and the 'site specific' competency assessment will
require an additional day.
The fee for the total of eight modules (11 days) is €3,490 including
manuals and modular certification. For individual modules, the fee is
€340 per training day. A separate fee will be charged for the 'sitespecific' assessment.
Management at all levels involved in the operation of waste facilities
and those with a primary responsibility for complying with EPA waste
licensing requirements and conditions. Senior managers, engineers,
technicians and supervisory staff involved in waste management in both
the public and private sector.
57
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Introduction to Policy and Legislation. Waste Management Planning.
Waste Minimisation and Recycling. Biological and Thermal Treatment
(including anaerobic digestion). Management of Recovery and Disposal
Facilities (including anaerobic digestion). Role of Regulatory Authorities.
Communication and Public Consultation. Environmental Management
Systems. Site Competency Assessment.
The modular assessments, together with a 'site specific' competency
assessment, comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
requirement for an 'experienced and competent manager' to operate a
licensed waste facility.
Specialist guest speakers, training manual and relevant legislation
accompanies each module and contains the detailed information
relating to the topic together with a reading and reference list and a
glossary.
The Waste Management Training Programme was developed by FÁS in
association with South Tipperary County Council (acting on behalf of all
local authorities), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the
Department of the Environment and Local Government. The FÁS
Environmental Training Unit also runs the “Construction & Demolition
Waste
National
Awareness
Programme”
(www.fas.ie/environmental_training_unit/National_Awareness.html).
This consists of half day seminars for Construction and Demolition (C&D)
contractors, sub-contractors, site managers and developers. The
programme would also be of interest to local authority personnel, waste
management contractors, architects, engineers and surveyors. A
handbook covering all aspects of C&D Waste Management has been
developed to accompany the programme, which was developed by FÁS
in association with the Construction Industry Federation.
The
programme is in response to recommendations in the report of the
Forum for the Construction Industry on the Recycling of C&D Waste.
FÁS also offer an eight day course on “Water and Waste Water
Treatment Plant Operation”. The course is aimed at local authority water
and wastewater plant operational personnel, engineers, technicians and
craftspersons. The content includes plant maintenance; safety, health
and welfare; and quality systems. The development of the programme
was a collaborative process involving FÁS, North Tipperary County
Council (acting on behalf of all local authorities), the EPA and the
Department of the Environment and Local Government. Programme
development
was
funded
by
FÁS.
See
www.fas.ie/environmental_training_unit/
treatment_plant_operation.html.
58
Table 35
Galway Energy Agency (as LEA Example), Small-Scale Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Table 36
Small-Scale Renewable Energy
Galway Energy Agency, delivered three times in Co. Galway and once in
Co. Clare.
www.aiea.ie
Peter Keavney, Galway Energy Agency Limited, City Hall, College Road,
Galway. Tel. + 353 91 566954, Fax + 353 91 567493, Email
[email protected]
Five to six days, depending on requirements of client. The course is also
suitable for evening delivery.
20
Those interested in developing small-scale renewable energy projects.
To create awareness of the development opportunities presented by
renewable energy, to provide participants with an introduction to the
key technical, financial, environmental and policy issues, and to show
where further information and assistance are available.
One day on each of the following: Policy (Global, EU, Irish) and Strategy
Development; Wind; Solar and Geothermal; Biomass (other than AD);
Anaerobic Digestion; Case Studies.
Comprehensive set of detailed notes developed by Galway Energy
Agency, PowerPoint presentations, guest lecturers.
The courses have been held in conjunction with LEADER companies in
Co. Galway and Co. Clare. It is intended to deliver the course in Co.
Mayo. Peter Keavney is Training Officer for the Association of Irish
Energy Agencies (AIEA) for 2005 – see www.aiea.ie. The Local Energy
Agencies (LEAs) could serve as a target group for piloting of training
programmes (as was done for training on home energy rating). Out of
12 LEAs in the Republic of Ireland, at least eight list training and
education among their areas of activity. For example, Cork City Energy
Agency are involved in SolaCert – training for installers of solar energy
systems. See Table 32 for details of training in which Carlow/Kilkenny
Energy Agency was involved.
IEI CPD
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
The Institution of Engineers of Ireland (IEI) CPD Programme
Dublin and locations throughout Ireland.
www.iei.ie
Jimmy Kinahan, Head of CPD, Tel. +353 1 6090227. Gerry Duggan, Chair
of Energy Division, Tel. +353 1 8460433.
Varies. Events generally organised through CPD in conjunction with
Energy Division.
Varies depending on structure and content.
On demand but also through recognised providers e.g. Project
Management provided through University of Limerick.
IEI Members only.
Information provision and upskilling.
Sustainable energy, including bioenergy, has featured regularly in the IEI
programme.
Training rooms, meeting rooms, regional meetings, guest lecturers.
Through IEI website, newsletters and E-News.
59
Comments
Table 37
The IEI promotes the art and science of engineering in Ireland. It is the
largest professional body in Ireland representing over 22,000 members.
The Institution organises a comprehensive national and regional
programme of papers, lectures, talks, discussions, seminars, conferences,
courses, site visits and social activities to enable members to keep up to
date with all aspects of their profession and to do so in a congenial
social atmosphere. The IEI has a strong CPD programme – the staff of IEI
corporate members are obliged to undertake a minimum of five CPD
days per annum. For events or training to be added to the CPD
programme it is necessary to agree the relevance and practical and
technical content with the IEI. A seminar in March 2005 examined short
rotation coppice and dry agricultural residues.
Natural Power Supply and FÁS South East, Training on Wood Heating
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Installation and Maintenance of Wood Heating Systems
Natural Power Supply and FÁS South East, Waterford.
www.nps.ie and www.fas.ie
James Kennedy, Natural Power Supply, Ballymountain, Waterford. Tel.
+353 51 832777, Fax: +353 51 832942, Email [email protected]
Three days in Waterford and three days with a wood heating system
manufacturer in Austria.
The programme is planned for summer 2005.
Plumbers and installers of heating systems.
Overview of renewable energy; health and safety; sizing of heating
systems; installation of wood heating systems; maintenance of wood
heating systems.
The course may use the FÁS training centre in Waterford, which has a
workshop with a central heating system to which different boiler
systems can be connected. The centre has a geothermal heat pump
system at present. The second part of the course will take place in a
manufacturers premises in Austria.
Natural Power Supply sell wood heating systems and wood fuel, and
have a wood-fired boiler at their offices. As an equipment supplier, they
provide training support to clients and interested parties. Staff from the
company have received training in Austria from wood-fuelled boiler
manufacturers. The company is examining the provision of an
“Introduction to Renewable Energy” course in the south east.
60
Table 38
Northeast LEADER Companies, Introduction to Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Marketing
Comments
Introduction to Renewable Energy
Network of Northeast LEADER Companies - Louth, Meath,
Cavan/Monaghan
www.louthleader.com (No course info available)
Maureen Ward, Administration, Louth LEADER, Ardee, Co Louth. Tel.
+353 41 6857375, email [email protected] Teaching: Peter
Schneider, Natural Energy/Solar Energy Systems, Toberscarden,
Tobercurry, Co. Sligo.
Tel & Fax +353 71 9185595, email
[email protected], www.naturalenergy.freeservers.com.
No accreditation, certificate of attendance issued.
1 day per week for 4 weeks, taught modules, run in three separate
locations.
Approximately €280 per participant, however the cost was met entirely
by LEADER.
January 2005
25 x 3 = 75 total
Rural and farming community in North East LEADER region.
No special entry requirements, first-come, first-served.
To give a broad introduction to renewable energy and to help define
further training requirements.
Day 1:
Introduction to renewable energy. Irish potential with
geographical and seasonal spread, short-term fluctuations. Typical
applications. Solar heating: water/air/solar building design. Details of
solar water heating systems: Domestic Hot Water (DHW)/space heating,
collector details, circulation options (gravity, photovoltaic (PV) pumped,
mains electric pumped), open and pressurized systems. Benefits,
drawbacks, maintenance, economics of solar heating.
Outside
demonstration of a solar water heater. Photovoltaic (solar electric)
systems – stand-alone and grid-connected. Outside demonstration of a
PV panel. Day 2: Small wind systems - stand-alone, grid-connected,
direct heating. Wood pellet stoves/boilers. Ground source heat pumps.
Day 3: Site visits Dunleer: PV/ wind / solar water heating. Day 4: Small
hydro systems - stand-alone DC, stand-alone AC, grid-connected, direct
heating. Viable applications of small renewable systems, useful
combinations. Energy efficiency and energy conservation, potential and
reality. ‘Old wife’s tales’ about energy issues versus reality. Discussion.
Successful attendance and completion of course
Local newspaper advertisements and radio. Courses were fully
subscribed. The Network held a renewable energy conference in
February 2005, with involvement from SEI.
Future cycles of the course will likely put more greater emphasis on
wood fuel, biodiesel and anaerobic digestion. The LEADER companies
involved have ring-fenced funds for project development proposals,
which are now more likely following the course. Co-ordination with SEI
regarding funding has been discussed. LEADER companies in the southeast are considering similar ring-fencing.
61
Table 39
OPW CPD
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Table 40
Free of charge.
On demand.
10-25.
OPW employees.
None.
Upskilling of OPW staff on relevant issues.
A previous CPD event on energy (with UCD Energy Research Group)
addressed a variety of areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
None
Meeting and training rooms.
Internal communications, email.
The OPW provides suitable accommodation for Government services
and manages and maintains the State's property portfolio. The OPW
also has the largest architectural practice in the country. The OPW’s
Architectural and Mechanical and Electrical Sections work together to
hold relevant training. The CPD programme for 2005 will cover the topic
of sustainability (including energy). An interest in receiving training on
bioenergy was expressed. The OPW is also involved in the Energy
Management Bureau programme (funded by SEI), and internal training
is planned on this in the near future. The OPW also has a Graduate
Training Programme.
Renewable Energy Skillnet, Training on Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
OPW (Office of Public Works)
Dublin
www.opw.ie
Ger O’Sullivan (Architectural Services)
None
Generally lectures, information sessions.
Renewable Energy Skillnet
Tralee, Ennis, Limerick and others
www.renewableenergy.ie
Mr Dick Whelan, Network Manager, Renewable Energy Skillnet, 11 An
Moinear, Meelick, Co Clare. Tel. +353 61 329744, email [email protected]
Skillnets Certificate for industry training. FETAC accreditation is being
sought.
Courses from one to two days in duration.
Two day introductory course €400 (including membership of €200).
Single day courses €100 for members, €250 for non-members.
Discounts available for members undertaking eight days of additional
training.
January 2004
Currently 37 members in network (four charters). Typically six to eight
people per training course.
Plumbing contractors, heating contractors and related trades.
Be a member of the Renewable Energy Skillnet and a professional
working in the field of heating systems.
The training programmes are designed to develop skills and knowledge
in all aspects of renewable energy and energy saving.
62
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Table 41
Courses on offer include: Understanding and Marketing Renewable
Energy Heating Systems (introductory two day course); Heat Pumps
(two single day courses – basic and advanced); Solar Thermal (two
single day courses – basic and advanced); Combustion Systems (single
day course including wood pellet systems); Heat Distribution; Climate
Control; and Design and Specification of Renewable Energy Heating
Systems. Courses are proposed by members of Skillnet and developed
under the guidance of national and international experts.
Participants who attend all six days and meet course criteria will be
issued with a certificate.
Substantial support is available through Skillnets, a company wholly
owned and funded by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and
Employment.
Marketing is undertaken via the website, press coverage, information
evenings (including one in Tipperary Institute) and a Renewable Heating
Conference (held in Limerick Institute of Technology in February 2005).
The purpose of the conference was to provide an opportunity for those
in the renewable energy heating sector to share information and
exchange ideas on technology trends and best practices in specification
and installation. Another conference is planned for autumn 2005.
Demonstration days are also planned.
Evening courses and seminars are also planned, which would be
available to non-members.
RIAI CPD
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure
Cost
Startup
Target group
Entry requirements
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
RIAI (Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland)
Dublin
www.riai.ie
Margaret O’Flanagan
Varies considerably depending on subject.
Varies from free to €200.
On demand.
RIAI members.
Generally open.
A previous CPD event was “Design and Deliver Sustainable Architecture:
Preparing to Meet the New Standards” held in the School of
Architecture, University College Dublin (UCD). The RIAI also recognise
relevant events run by the IEI, Society of Chartered Surveyors (SCS) and
other professional organisations, all Architecture Association of Ireland
(AAI) lectures and site visits (www.irish-architecture.com/aai), relevant
courses run by recognised educational institutions, and appropriate
conferences and workshops.
Training rooms, meeting facilities.
Through RIAI website and RIAI newsletters to members.
The representative body for professionally qualified architects in Ireland.
The RIAI is linked to the Architects Council of Europe and the
International Union of Architects. There are rigorous requirements on
members to engage in CPD. Organisations can join the RIAI CPD
Providers' Network. The RIAI expressed an interest in holding CPD
events on bioenergy. This could be done in a number of ways:
publication of articles in Architecture Ireland; through the CPD
Providers' Network; provision by RIAI; provision in collaboration with
others; or RIAI-recommended CPD opportunities provided by other
reputable bodies. For the short term it was suggested that bioenergy
content could be delivered in a stand-alone seminar.
63
Table 42
SEI, Wood Heating Training
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Entry requirements
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Comments
Wood Heating Training – Design and Specification of Wood Heating
Systems for Large Buildings and Industry.
Druid’s Glen, Co. Wicklow.
www.sei.ie
Delivered by Dr. Friedrich Biedermann of BIOS Bioenergiesysteme
GmbH.
7.5 hour workshop, held over two days.
€100
Delivered May 20th 2005.
None.
Design and specification of wood heating for large buildings and
industry – procurement guidelines, tools and working examples.
Delivered as part of the Wood Energy 2005 event organised by COFORD
and SEI.
Dr. Biedermann is one of the international experts involved in the
Renewable Energy Installers Academy project (see Table 31).
SEI organise other courses, such as the three day Energy Saver Course,
which includes an element on renewables, and a one day Boiler
Efficiency Training Course.
Table 43
Teagasc South Tipperary, Renewable Energy Component in 180 Hour Course
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Number of places
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Renewable Energy Component in 180 Hour Course
Teagasc, South Tipperary Tipperary Town
www.teagasc.ie
Terry Cunningham, Teagasc, Carrigeen, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary.
The “180 hour” course is for people with existing third level
qualifications to qualify them for Stamp Duty Exemption and a range of
other entitlements. It consists of a 100 hours Basic Agriculture Course
and an 80 hours Introductory Management Course. Teagasc South
Tipperary have included renewable energy content in the “Start Your
Own Business” module of the Introductory Management Course.
An hour and a half guest lecture.
25
To give participants an insight into the opportunities presented for
agriculturally-based enterprise development in the renewable energy
sector.
The renewable energy content is delivered as part of the alternative
enterprise module. The content includes: discussion on experience of
renewable energy among participants; overview of energy supply in
Ireland, including use of fossil fuels in comparison to renewable energy,
and energy imports compared to indigenous supplies; renewable
energy opportunities for farmers - wind, solar, bioenergy (biogas, liquid
biofuels, Miscanthus, straw, wood including coppice).
Clifford Guest of Tipperary Institute has delivered the content on a guest
lecturer basis on three separate occasions.
64
Table 44
Tipperary Institute, Certificate in Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aims
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Certificate in Renewable Energy
Tipperary Institute, Thurles, Co. Tipperary.
www.tippinst.ie/courses/srd/courses_cert_renew_energy.htm
Maureen Ryan, Administrator, Certificate in Renewable Energy, Rural
Development Department, Tel: 0504 28112, Fax: 0504 28111, E-mail:
[email protected]
The course is quality-controlled by Tipperary Institute with the
assistance of an external examiner from the University of Ulster (see
Table 130). It is not formally accredited.
The course is offered on a part-time basis with a total of 135 hours, one
night per week (Wednesday – 3 hour lectures/tutorials), and one
Saturday per month, from September to April inclusive.
€550
September 2001. Four cycles completed.
25
Successful applicants are typically actively involved or interested in the
renewable energy sector at a project development, strategic or
commercial level.
No formal entry requirements. A selection process applies and may
include an interview.
To provide students with: a range of skills which will allow them to seek
to develop renewable energy projects, at a small or large scale; an
overview of the technical aspects of each renewable energy source and
provide practical examples of these; the knowledge to understand the
policy, planning, financial and project management aspects of
renewable energy projects; an understanding of renewable energy
development; skills in renewable energy project implementation. The
course also aims to create synergies between project developers and
development professionals.
None
Introduction to Renewable Energy; Renewable Energy Technologies
(including anaerobic digestion, landfill gas, liquid biofuels, wood – total
of nine hours); Policy and Legislation; Planning and Consultation;
Project Finance; Project Management.
There is no final examination with assessment carried out through the
completion of a number of specific assignments (including a group
project, and individual projects) and tests. These assignments require a
significant time input.
Guest lecturers, site visits, pre-feasibility software, paper and online
information sources.
Direct mail, prospectus, newspaper advertising, email newsletters, word
of mouth, linked courses.
Tipperary Institute is developing a parallel certificate course on
Domestic Sustainable Energy, including building design and
construction, renewable heating and small-scale renewable electricity
production. The electricity module has been piloted successfully in TI
Clonmel from September to November 2004, and was franchised to
Limerick Institute of Technology, where it was delivered in spring 2005.
The renewable heating module will include the use of wood fuel in
domestic applications.
65
Table 45
WIT, Wood Energy Supply Systems Training Project
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Project Aim
Comments
Table 46
WORD and Teagasc, Agricultural Slurry and Wind Training Course
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
WESST (Wood Energy Supply Systems Training) Project
Waterford Institute of Technology (Co-ordinators)
www.wesst.com
Mr. Tom Kent, tel. +353 51-302646, email [email protected]
Pilot training project.
A key element of the course design will be the use of e-learning as a
delivery mechanism.
Training content should be available by Summer 2006. The project was
associated with a workshop on wood biomass harvesting (Table 33).
Further pilot training is planned.
Practitioners within the forestry, wood processing, energy and
agricultural sectors and students undertaking related courses.
To supply content for targeted short courses on the supply chain
involved in getting specific wood raw materials to the energy market.
The WESST project follows on from the EURIS (Europeans Using
Roundwood Innovatively and Sustainably) project. EURIS was an EU
Leonardo da Vinci-funded pilot training project (see www.euris.com). A
short module on wood energy, consisting of a PowerPoint presentation,
study manual and self-assessment test was developed, with input from
the two Irish partners (Waterford Institute of Technology and Sylviron
Ltd., a forest consultancy). WESST is funded under the same mechanism
and involves the same partnership.
Heat / Electricity Production from Agricultural Slurry and Renewable
Energy from Wind
Wexford Organisation for Rural Development (WORD) and Teagasc, Co.
Wexford
www. wexfordleader.ie
WORD, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford. Tel. 053 46453, Fax 053 46456,
Email [email protected]
Nine evenings, and two one day field trips.
€64 per participant.
Delivered in 1999.
Land owners and others in the agricultural sector, local businesses
examining investment opportunities, state agencies, community
development leaders, people interested in involvement in anaerobic
digestion or wind projects.
To provide an overview of renewable energy, to give international
perspectives on AD and wind, to examine in detail the potential and
viability of AD and wind in Co. Wexford, to give advice on sources of
grant aid, to give advice on planning and grid connection.
Potential of renewable energy (one evening); Wind (two evenings and
one field trip); Anaerobic Digestion (two evenings and one field trip);
Grid connection (one evening); Funding (one evening); Planning (one
evening); Summary and recommendations (one evening).
Guest lecturers, handouts with detailed information (including a
supplier agreement for a farmer supplying slurry to a centralised AD
plant), site visits.
Newspaper advertising, direct mail.
66
Comments
Table 47
Tipperary Institute assisted in the design and delivery of the course.
Following the course, Teagasc Wexford, WORD and IFA Wexford made a
submission to Government on renewable energy policy. Wexford
Energy Management Agency published a “Strategy for Anaerobic
Digestion in Co. Wexford” in 2003. An Alternative Energy Training Day
was held in New Ross in October 2004, organised by WORD in
conjunction with the LEADER companies of Wicklow, Waterford,
Tipperary and Kilkenny. The biomass content included AD. In March
2005 WORD invited tenders for the delivery of an On-Farm Energy
Training Programme and a Renewable Energy Training Programme.
Notes on Other Training and CPD Programmes in the ROI
Organisation
Bord Gáis
Bord na Móna
City and Guilds
Coillte Training
Safety Services
and
Conferences and other
events, internet
Conservation
Agriculture
Ireland
(CAIR)
CORE-Business Project
Note
Experienced in the distribution and use of gaseous fuels. Bord Gáis
employs 800 people and has an apprenticeship scheme.
Bord na Móna has much experience in production, processing,
distribution and use of solid fuels. It operates an apprenticeship
scheme.
City and Guilds is the leading provider of vocational qualifications in the
United Kingdom. It also accredits qualifications delivered in other
countries, including Ireland. Courses include: Construction and building
(including energy efficiency; heating and ventilation; plumbing);
Engineering (including Chartered Engineer, accessible worldwide);
Land-based industries (including agriculture, environment, forestry);
Processing and manufacturing (including oil and gas; wood). Some City
and Guilds courses in Ireland are delivered at Institutes of Technology
and Dublin Institute of Technology. See www.city-and-guilds.co.uk and
www.city-and-guilds.com.
Coillte Training and Safety Services offers a wide range of skills and
technical training under the Forest Industry Training Programme. These
courses cover all forest operations (establishment, forest maintenance,
resource management and timber harvesting). Particular topics include:
the safe use of chemicals (two or three day courses); chainsaw use (one
week); machinery and equipment. The Programme is supported by the
Forest Service of the Department of Communications, Marine and
Natural Resources. The Coillte National Training Centre is located in
Mountrath, Co. Laois, and is a NPTC Assessment Centre (see Table 114).
There are no courses on wood energy systems offered currently,
although relevant modules are offered in other NPTC Assessment
Centres internationally.
National and overseas conferences, seminars, site visits, demonstrations
and study tours play an important role in providing information to
people in the Irish bioenergy industry (including for example events
organised by COFORD and SEI). The internet was identified as an
important information source during industry consultations for this
Study.
A tillage farmers’ discussion group, formed to share information and
provide mutual support on the topic of minimum till agriculture. The
group also have an interest in energy crops.
An EU-supported project involving Moher Technologies, Shannon
Development (a state agency) and other partners. The project has
resulted in the formation of the Shannon Region Renewable Energy
Network. Project workshops have included presentations on various
bioenergy topics, including wood energy and energy crops. Training is
listed among the project’s areas of activity.
67
Table 47, continued
Defence
Forces,
including Air Corps
Electrical
Contractors
Safety and Standards
Association (ECSSA)
EIC (UK)
Enercomm International
Consultants
Equipment
manufacturers
suppliers
ESB
Farm Relief Services
and
The Defence Forces offer apprenticeships, recognised by FÁS. The
duration is four years, with alternating phases of on-the-job and off-thejob training. Topics include: Plumber; Electrician; Motor Mechanic;
Heavy Vehicle Mechanic; Airframe and Power Plant.
A regulatory body for electrical contractors in Ireland, with over 1,600
registered members. Training courses are provided. See www.ecssa.ie.
Delivered a training workshop on “Buying and Managing Energy” in
Dublin, in association with the Commission for Energy Regulation,
providing an introduction to electricity and gas procurement and the
current competitive utilities market. See www.eic.co.uk.
Enercomm International Consultants Ltd., Co. Longford provide training
on all aspects of the Irish electricity market including market
development, generation, transmission, distribution, supply, contractual
and regulatory issues.
Consultations with industry revealed that equipment manufacturers and
suppliers have an important role in training (especially on safe use of
their equipment). This applies to large items of stationary plant, to
machinery (e.g. timber harvesters) and to smaller equipment (e.g. wood
pellet domestic heating systems). Previous work by the Tipperary
Energy Agency (2002, p14) had identified this role: “The main concern of
all of these [wood pellet heating system] suppliers was the absence of
installers and maintenance personnel who specialise in this area, however
they would all be interested in the training of such people for the Irish
market.”
The ESB is a significant provider of training and CPD programmes, for
both its own staff of 8,500 and for others. It recruits approximately 100
apprentices every year. Electrical apprentices get on-the-job work
experience together with off-the-job courses in third-level colleges and
in the ESB Networks Training Centre in Portlaoise, Co. Laois, which has
had €5,000,000 invested recently (ESBI, 2003). ESB also provide a
distance learning package, combined with training in the Networks
Training Centre. Both the normal apprenticeship and the distance
learning package are approved and monitored by FÁS. ESB offers a third
level qualification for shift staff in power stations. The course is
competency based and was developed in close co-operation with DIT.
The programme is designed, delivered and assessed by industry.
Qualifications are awarded at two levels by DIT (ESB, 2003). Graduate
engineers recruited to ESB Networks undergo an extensive CPD
programme. The ESB has invested €10,000,000 in a Power Generation
Training Simulator. Through ESB Training and ESBI, training services to
third parties are provided on topics such as: safety; electrical skills;
mechanical skills; management and supervisory skills; interpersonal
skills; generation; transmission; distribution; training on training (ESBI,
2003). Customised training is available.
Farm Relief Services provides training on a number of topics, including
machinery safety and “Health and Safety in the Workplace” in
conjunction with FÁS.
68
Table 47, continued
FÁS
IBEC
Irish
Management
Energy
FÁS,
Irish
Forestry
Contractors Association
and Coillte
Irish
Farmers’
Association (IFA) Skillnet
Learning by doing
RECI
(Register
of
Electrical Contractors of
Ireland)
SIF (Society
Foresters)
of
Irish
SIMI (Society of the Irish
Motor Industry)
The apprenticeship system operated by FÁS is an important part of the
Irish training system. An apprenticeship is of four years duration, and
consists of seven phases of training, both on-the-job with an employer
and off-the-job in a FÁS Training Centre or college (for example DIT has
an enrolment of several thousand apprentices per year). All apprentices
must be registered with FÁS. On successful completion of the
apprenticeship, candidates receive a National Craft Certificate,
recognised in Ireland as well as other EU and non-EU countries. The
apprenticeship system is currently expanding: “record numbers of young
people are going on for apprenticeships” (Walshe and Flynn, 2004). FÁS is
considering the development of new apprenticeships, including in
topics more traditionally associated with third level education. There
were about 28,000 people in apprenticeships in 2004, including almost
4,000 plumbing and 7,500 electrician apprentices.
Intends to develop an energy training programme for its members. Has
working groups on Renewable Energy and CHP.
Irish Energy Management Ltd. of Cork provides tailored training
programmes to the industrial and commercial sectors. Topics include:
Practical Aspects of Power Engineering in the Deregulated Market;
Market Opportunities in the Deregulated Energy Market; Development
of the Irish Electricity Market; and Energy Management in the
Deregulated Market.
FÁS are delivering a pilot training scheme of Skilled Forest Workers,
developed in conjunction with the Irish Forestry Contractors Association
and Coillte, the Irish State Forest Company. A total of forty students are
undertaking the course, consisting of six months skills training in forest
operations, health and safety and basic information technology skills
and six months work placement with an approved forest contractor.
The IFA Skillnet covers the following producers - pig, poultry, nursery
stock, mushroom, aquaculture and fresh milk. Training courses have
included Business Management, Health and Safety, Information
Technology, Spraying and Integrated Pest Management, Effective Office
Management and Supervisory Management Training (among others).
The Business Management course requires participants to complete 10
of 14 possible modules. The topics covered are Financial & Business
Management, Marketing and Human Resource Management. The IFA
has a total membership of about 80,000. There are about 136,000 farms
in the Republic of Ireland (Agri-vision, 2004).
Industry consultations show that learning by doing has played an
important to date in developing skills in the bioenergy sector.
RECI is a self-regulatory body for the electrical contracting industry. It
has 2,000 registered contractors and provides training courses for
members (over 50 courses were delivered around Ireland in October and
November 2004). See www.reci.ie.
Represents the interests of over 700 members. Has a CPD programme in
which all members are expected to engage if they wish to continue to
use the designation MSIF. A COFORD-organised workshop on wood
biomass harvesting was recognised as CPD for SIF members (see Table
33). SIF has an Education Management Board whose brief is “to
establish, secure and monitor standards in forestry education”, and a
Professional Standards Board whose brief is “to establish, secure and
monitor standards in forestry professional practice” (Society of Irish
Foresters, 2005).
Has a programme for upskilling of technicians in new and developing
vehicle technology, in conjunction with FÁS.
69
Table 47, continued
SCS
(Society
of
Chartered Surveyors)
SEI
Self-organised training
Water Services National
Training Group
The professional body for Chartered Surveyors practicing in the Republic
of Ireland. The Society currently has over 1,400 qualified members. The
CPD programme of events has included “Sustainability and Energy
Efficiency. See www.scs.ie.
Sustainable Energy Ireland has engaged NIFES Consulting Group to run
a three day Energy Saver course exclusively for Irish companies. The SEI
Training Schedule also lists other courses on various energy topics,
ranging in duration from one to three days.
Consultations with industry revealed that a substantial number of
organisations have organised their own informal training and education,
often visiting experts and projects outside Ireland. Within Ireland,
Teagasc bioenergy experts have provided advice and support to many
individuals and organisations.
The Regional Training Centre in Roscrea, Co. Tipperary offers courses
including “Introduction to Wastewater Treatment” (including basic
sludge handling), “Waste Water Collection and Treatment”, “Pumps
Operation and Maintenance” and “Safety for Water/Wastewater
Workers”. See www.wsntg.ie.
Undergraduate Courses
Table 48
CIT, Degree in Structural Engineering
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Renewable energy content in the Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) in
Structural Engineering
Cork Institute of Technology
www.cit.ie/prospectus2004-05/HANDBOOK2005.pdf
Honours Bachelor Degree
Four years full-time degree. Renewable energy content one hour per
week for 30 weeks in final year, as part of a module on Environmental
Engineering, in the Infrastructural Engineering subject.
Bioenergy is one of the renewables covered, with content as follows:
Resources: agricultural residues; short rotation coppice; lignocellulosic
materials; organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Technologies:
anaerobic digestion; combustion and gasification. Applications: biogas
for transport; ethanol for transport; combined heat and power.
The course is examined by continuous assessment and mid and end of
year examinations, with an engineering project in the fourth year being
a major element.
CIT co-operate with UCC on bioenergy, and had an input to the
production of a CD-ROM with training material on renewable energy.
Possible topics on the CIT Master of Engineering (by research) include
the technical, economic and environmental analysis of biofuel
production from biomass. Enquiries to Dr Jerry D. Murphy, Department
of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Tel. +353 21 4326
745, email [email protected]
The Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering aims to produce
graduates that have the knowledge and competence to work as
professional engineers in the fields of generation and distribution of
electrical energy, including design and maintenance of power systems
for industry (including CHP) and renewable sources of electrical energy.
70
Table 49
DCU, Module on Chemistry of Energy Production and Waste
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Table 50
To develop an appreciation of the complexity of the energy question.
To introduce the student to the role of chemistry in the production and
use of energy. To provide the student with knowledge of the past,
modern and future methods of energy production. To provide the
student with an awareness of current ‘hot topics’ in energy.
Natural energy flows. Human energy consumption. Fossils fuels;
Origins, carbon cycle, coal, oil, gas. Introduction to nuclear energy;
Radioactivity, naturally occurring isotopes, fission, fission reactors,
hazards, fusion. Introduction to renewable energy; Solar heating, solar
electricity, biomass (energy agriculture), hydro, wind, ocean and
geothermal energy. Energy utilisation; Heat engine efficiencies entropy, fuel cells, electricity storage, systems efficiency - transport,
material and recycling, energy and well-being. Future clean energy; The
hydrogen economy.
DKIT, Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics - Product Development
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Comments
Chemistry of Energy Production and Waste
Dublin City University
www.dcu.ie
Dr Brett Paull, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University,
Dublin 9. Tel. +353 1 700 5000, Extension 118.
Year 2 core module (one semester, 5 credits) in BSc Environmental
Science & Health.
Approximately 75 hours' work including class contact time.
Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics - Product Development (Design,
Multimedia, Automative Control, Renewable Energy)
Dundalk Institute of Technology.
www.dkit.ie/electronics
Daniel O'Brien, Head of Electronics Department,. Tel. +353 42 937 0236,
email [email protected]
Ordinary Degree.
Three years full time.
To give the student broad experience of electronic and electrical
engineering technologies together with an underpinning of science and
mathematics and the people skills necessary in industry.
At least eight weeks in industry.
Core content covers: Electronic and electrical technology; Mathematical
and fundamental sciences; Computer and software application and
development;
Telecommunications and control;
Personal and
professional development. Electives are: Electronic design; Intelligent
automotive control systems; Multimedia engineering; Electricity;
Renewable energy.
Graduates are eligible for Associate Membership of the IEI.
Preparation for progression to DKIT’s Bachelor of Engineering (Honours)
in Product Design Engineering.
71
Table 51
LIT, Bachelor of Science in Renewable and Electrical Energy Systems
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Bachelor of Science in Renewable and Electrical Energy Systems
Limerick Institute of Technology
www.lit.ie/Departments/Electronic%20Eng/LC781.html
Joe Dunk, Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Limerick
Institute of Technology, Limerick. Tel: 061 208323, email [email protected]
Bachelor’s Degree (Ordinary) (Level 7) from the Higher Education and
Training Awards Council (HETAC)
Three years full-time. Also available part-time over a longer period
through Accumulation of Credits and Certification of Subjects (ACCS)
mode.
September 2005
The course aims to provide professional graduates, knowledgeable in all
aspects of renewable energy systems and capable of leading their
design and implementation.
Year 1: Electronics, Electrical Technology, Mathematics and Computing,
Business Environment.
Year 2: Renewable Energy Transfer, Computer Networks, Engineering,
Mathematics, Control Systems, Digital Systems.
Year 3: Renewable Energy Systems, Plant Information Systems,
Distributed Electrical Systems, Power Conversion, Applied Control
Systems.
There is a focus on wind energy, and on the electrical systems used to
connect renewable energy projects to electricity grids.
Job opportunities on graduation include design, installation and
maintenance of projects, consultancy, and Building Energy Management
Systems.
Marketing
Table 52
Open University, Energy for a Sustainable Future
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Energy for a Sustainable Future
Open University
www3.open.ac.uk/contact/query.aspx?contactid=192
The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK76AA, UK. Tel. +44
1908 653231.
60 points (about 16 hours of study each week)
9 months, distance education (online), with some group tutorials or day
schools.
£1,045 (Sterling)
Students from a wide range of backgrounds.
To study the sustainability problems of conventional fossil and nuclear
fuel use, and how they might be ameliorated; explore the technological
and social possibilities for using energy more efficiently; and investigate
various renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and biofuels.
72
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Table 53
Longer-term prospects for sustainable energy – trends in energy use,
energy scenarios.
Six tutor-marked assignments including a project, examination.
Illustrated textbook, video programmes, computer-based exercises, a
study guide, CD-ROM, online resources (e.g. course website, online
discussions and study groups).
People from the Republic of Ireland have taken this course and group
tutorials are provided in the country. The course textbook (Boyle, G.,
2004. Renewable Energy - Power for a Sustainable Future. Open University
Press.) is available for purchase independently of the course. It is used in
the Tipperary Institute Certificate in Renewable Energy.
Tipperary Institute, Sustainable Energy in Rural Development
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Conventional energy systems and their sustainability - basic energy
concepts, energy needs, fossil and nuclear-fuelled energy systems,
monetary costs of energy, sustainability problems. Renewable energy solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaics; bioenergy; hydroelectricity,
tidal and wave power; wind power; and geothermal energy. Energy
management and conservation - management of energy demand,
technological options for conserving energy, energy use in transport.
Module on Sustainable Energy in Rural Development as part of Current
Issues in Rural Development course.
Tipperary Institute, Thurles.
www.tippinst.ie
Mr. Clifford Guest
Element of fourth year of BA (Honours) in Rural Development.
Full-time four year programme. The Sustainable Energy in Rural
Development module is 20% of the Current Issues in Rural Development
course, which is 10 credits and runs for a full academic year. Contact
time on sustainable energy is about 20 hours.
The module has been delivered since 2002.
Energy concepts and terminology, rational use of energy, fuel poverty,
renewable energy including wind, hydro, solar, geothermal and
bioenergy (anaerobic digestion, energy crops, landfill gas, liquid
biofuels, wood), policy and legislation, planning and consultation.
Continuous assessment (40%) and final examination (60%) for the
overall course.
There is also some content on sustainable energy in the Sustainable
Rural Development I and II courses (first year and third year).
73
Table 54
UCC, Unit on Energy and the Environment
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Number of places
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 55
UCD, Alternative Crop Development
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 56
Entry requirements
Internship
Elective unit on Alternative Crop Development
UCD
www.ucd.ie
Elective unit in the BAgrSc Degree. Worth 4 credits.
To provide the student with the opportunity to study the production of
non-food industrial crops at farm level and also to study their role at
industry level.
Potential benefits of using crop-derived products as renewable raw
materials for manufacturing industry.
Unit reference CPSC 4112.
UCD, Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Forestry)
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Course Aim
Energy and the Environment
University College Cork, National University of Ireland
www.ucc.ie
Dr. T. Lewis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UCC.
Unit in the Degree in Environmental Science. 5 credits.
24 evening lectures (one hour each) and two field days, over the period
January to May.
Minimum of 12, maximum of 50.
To introduce the various sources of energy, their exploitation and
environmental impacts.
Traditional energy practices and their environmental impacts (wind,
water, peat, wood, coal, oil, natural gas). Nuclear energy and its
environmental impacts (fission, fusion, radiation, radon). Renewable
energy resources (solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power,
geothermal energy, tidal energy, wave energy, biomass energy).
Written examination and continuous assessment (field reports).
Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Forestry)
UCD
www.ucd.ie
Dr. Marten Nieuwenhuis
Honours degree
Four years full-time
The honours degree programme in Forestry is designed for aspiring
professional foresters who seek employment in the forestry sector both
in Ireland and abroad.
Irish, English, Mathematics, a third language, one laboratory science
subject.
To help the student develop an overall view of forests in regards to their
ecological, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and utilisation
functions; to provide the student with the scientific basis for the
balanced management of the forest resource that is consistent with the
principle of sustainability; to equip the student with skills in the areas of
computer applications, information technology, communications, and
professional development.
Yes (six months)
74
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 57
UCD, Unit on Power and Machinery
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 58
Unit “Power and Machinery I”
UCD
www.ucd.ie
Unit in third year of the Bachelor of Engineering degrees in Agricultural
and Food Engineering, and Biosystems Engineering. Similar content
also in the in the MSc(Agr)/HDip in Engineering Technology and the
BAgrSc Degree.
One semester of a four year (full-time) course.
Engines and fuels. Energy resources. Energy conversion systems.
Biofuels.
Unit reference AFEN 3002. Biofuels are also covered in the “Power and
Machinery I” unit (ENGT 3002) in the BAgrSc Degree and in the “Power
and Machinery” unit (ENGT P016) in the taught MSc(Agr)/HDip in
Engineering Technology.
UCD, Unit on Renewable Energy Systems
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Core science subjects. Soils, Forest Botany and Fundamentals of
Silviculture. Silviculture, Forest Protection and Wood Science, Forest
Management, Forest Inventory, Biometrics and Harvesting.
Familiarisation with a wide range of computer techniques. Individual
and group projects.
Written examinations, individual and group projects
The programme does not offer any specific module on bioenergy, but
includes aspects in lectures on Silviculture, Wood Science, Forest
Management and Harvesting.
Unit on Renewable Energy Systems
UCD
www.ucd.ie
Elective unit in fourth year of the Bachelor of Engineering degrees in
Agricultural and Food Engineering, Biosystems Engineering and
Electrical Engineering. The unit is worth 3 ECTS credits out of a total of
60 for fourth year (i.e. 5%)..
One semester.
Aspects of renewable energy systems (e.g. wind power, hydropower,
wave power, photovoltaic conversion, direct solar heating, biomass,
hydrogen as an energy vector, introduction to economic analysis).
The unit has a laboratory or other practical component in addition to the
lecture course.
Unit reference ELEN 4005. It does not appear to be available in the
Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering or Master of Engineering
Design programmes, nor in any of the undergraduate science
programmes.
75
Table 59
UCD, Unit on Waste Management
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 60
UL, Bioenergy in BSc in Food Science and Health
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Unit on Waste Management
UCD
www.ucd.ie
For MSc(Agr)/HDip in Engineering Technology: Academic Director,
Engineering Technology Programme, Department of Biosystems
Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2.
Elective unit in the BAgrSc Degree and the taught MSc(Agr)/HDip in
Engineering Technology.
May be taken full-time or part-time. Full-time students complete within
one academic year. Part-time students sit at least 32 credits of course
work in the first year, with the balance completed in the second year.
The unit includes the following: Agricultural waste characterisation.
Collection, storage and treatment of agricultural wastes. Anaerobic
digestion and composting. Land application techniques. Nutrient
management planning.
Unit reference ENGT 3012 (BAgrSc Degree) or ENGT P014
(MSc(Agr)/HDip in Engineering Technology).
BSc in Food Science and Health
University of Limerick
www.ul.ie
Bioenergy content delivered by: Tony Kay, College of Engineering, Tel.
+353 61 202009, email [email protected]
Honours Degree.
Bioenergy is covered in one module for one semester of the final year of
a four year full time degree. The module has three contact hours per
week.
The degree provides graduates with the expertise and experience to
effectively contribute to the technical and business development of the
food industry.
Energy and the environment, security of supply, anaerobic digestion, dry
agricultural residues, energy crops (including hemp, miscanthus, short
rotation coppice), energy from waste, landfill gas, liquid biofuels
(vegetable oils and ethanol), wood. There is also one session on nonenergy uses for biomass (e.g. lubricants, paints, polymers), delivered by a
Teagasc staff member.
There is some content on renewable energy in the final year of the BEng
in Mechanical Engineering. UL is also involved in research on bioenergy
(including: Dr Robin Howard-Hildige on liquid biofuels and fluidised
bed combustion; Tony Kay on renewable energy; Dr J.J. Leahy on
biodiesel; Dr Martin Leahy on poultry litter combustion).
76
Table 61
WIT, Bachelor of Science in Forestry
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus info
Bachelor of Science in Forestry
Waterford Institute of Technology
www.wit.ie/
Mr. Tom Kent
Course Leader Forestry
Full-time degree programme
3 years, full-time. Wood energy is taught as a module within the
Forestry and the Environment course, making up about 10% of the 120
course contact hours.
Running since 1997.
32
School leavers and mature students
English, Maths
To provide students with the necessary professional skills in forest
science, management and technology to gain employment in the
forestry industry.
Core Subjects: Silviculture, Forest Inventory & Planning, Wood Science.
Specialised Subjects: Forestry & the Environment (including climate,
climate change, Irish energy supply, renewable energy, wood as a fuel,
wood fuel harvesting and supply systems, heat and electricity
production from wood fuel), Forest Engineering & Harvesting.
Business Management and
Commercial Forest Practices.
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 62
Forest
Management,
The wood energy module includes theory and practical elements and
each student completes a guided self-study project on a topic selected
from: Short Rotation Coppice Willow; Wood briquettes; Wood pellets;
Wood Chips; Forest residues; Domestic wood stoves and boilers; Fuel
from thinnings; Wood CHP; Firewood; Charcoal Production.
Individual and group projects, fieldwork reports and written
examinations
See Table 45 for details on the EURIS and WESST projects.
Notes on Other Undergraduate Programmes in the ROI
Organisation
Institute of Technology
Tralee
Letterkenny Institute of
Technology
NUI Maynooth
UCD
Economics:
Note
Has an interest in bioenergy, and have had engineering degree students
undertake projects on the topic.
Has an interest in bioenergy, including anaerobic digestion. A Degree in
Building Services in currently being developed, and will include a
module on “Environmental Modelling”, incorporating bioenergy.
Renewable energy is listed as a possible career area for graduates of the
degree in Finance and Venture Management.
UCD’s Energy Research Group (ERG) has been working since 1975 on the
theory and application of sustainable strategies in building design and
construction. ERG supports teaching in undergraduate programmes
and assists practitioners who want to develop their skills in energyefficient and sustainable design. The Group provides consultancy on
integrating renewable energy systems into buildings, and is currently
involved in a project called “REASURE”, the aim of which is to promote
the use of renewable energy solutions in buildings.
77
Postgraduate Courses
Table 63
DIT, Faculty of the Built Environment
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 64
DKIT, MSc in Renewable Energy Systems Technology
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Startup
Entry requirements
Syllabus Content
Comments
Sustainable energy content in the:
•
Honours Degree in Spatial Planning or Environmental
Management
•
MSc in Spatial Planning
•
MSc in Sustainable Development
Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT)
www.dit.ie
Mr Hendrick van der Kamp, Faculty of the Built Environment, DIT Bolton
Street, Dublin 1. Tel. +353 1 4023652, Fax +353 1 4023999, Email
[email protected]
Three hour guest lecture, as part of a number of courses which vary
in duration.
Overview of sustainable energy including rational use of energy and
renewable energy (wind, solar, hydro, biomass, geothermal).
Seamus Hoyne of the Tipperary Energy Agency and Tipperary Institute
has delivered the content on a guest lecturer basis on a number of
occasions.
MSc in Renewable Energy Systems Technology
Dundalk Institute of Technology
www.credit.ie/courses.htm
Centre for Renewable Energy, Dundalk Institute of Technology (CREDIT),
Dundalk, County Louth. Tel: +353 42 9370299, fax: +353 42 932 8638,
email: [email protected]
A postgraduate certificate and postgraduate diploma will be awarded
upon completion of four and eight modules respectively. A project is
then required to complete the MSc.
Starting in September 2005.
A 2nd class honours BSc is required for entry into this programme.
Based on materials licensed from Loughborough University (see Table
127). There are nine taught modules, of which eight must be taken for
the MSc: Wind Power 1 and 2; Solar Power 1 and 2; Water Power;
Biofuels 1 and 2; Energy Policy and Environmental Economics; and
Integration of Renewables. The Biofuels 1 module includes - Overview,
Fundamentals, Anaerobic digestion, Energy from solid wastes,
Advanced conversion. The Biofuels 2 modules includes - Alcohols as
fuels, Energy from waste, Advanced conversion technologies, Turbine
cycles.
CREDIT also offers intensive customised programmes based on the
above modules for companies in the renewable energy industry.
Bioenergy content is not included at present in existing DKIT courses.
The Institute is a partner in the Renewable Energy Academy (Table 31).
For the gap analysis in , this programme is listed under “Education –
Other” (rather than “Education – Engineering”) because it falls into the
science discipline.
78
Table 65
UCC, Masters in Engineering Science in Sustainable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Masters in Engineering Science in Sustainable Energy
University College Cork, National University of Ireland
www.ucc.ie
Dr. Brian Ó Gallachóir, UCC.
Tel. +353 21 4903037, email
[email protected]
Postgraduate Diploma or Masters.
Eight months full-time for Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Energy,
12 months full-time or 24 months part-time for Masters.
Expected to be €4,500 - €5,000 for EU students and €13,000 - €14,000 for
non-EU students.
Autumn 2005.
Engineering graduates of all disciplines.
Honours BE or BEng Degree or equivalent engineering qualification.
Candidates with equivalent academic qualifications and suitable
experience may be accepted.
The focus is on equipping students with the information base and skill
set to actively participate in the growing global sustainable energy
market where energy / environment policy and technological
innovation meet.
Part I: students choose ten of the eleven taught modules and complete
a Preliminary Research Report. The taught modules are: Sustainable
Energy; Electrotechnology and Control; Energy in Buildings; Wind
Energy; Biomass Energy; Hydro and Ocean Energy;
Solar and
Geothermal Energy; Power Systems Analysis; Energy Systems in
Buildings;
Energy Systems Modelling;
Environmental Impacts,
Economics and Project Financing. Part II comprises a minor research
thesis.
Masters graduates are eligible for direct entry into UCC’s Doctoral
degree programme in Sustainable Energy.
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering has an very
active Sustainable Energy Research Group. The group were involved in
the production of a CD-ROM with training material on renewable
energy, under a project “Renewable Energy Course Materials Tackling
Market Barriers”, supported under the EU Altener programme in 1998.
The materials developed are aimed at decision makers in government
and local authorities, economists, financial advisors, engineers and
planners. The content includes the context for renewable energy and its
technical, economic, financial, social, environmental and policy aspects.
Biomass has significant coverage in the materials, which have been used
in a course delivered in UCC (see Table 54), and by UCC in a two week
training course for energy engineering postgraduates and lecturers in
Poland.
79
Table 66
Notes on Other Postgraduate Programmes in the ROI
Organisation
Galway Mayo Institute
of Technology
Institute of Technology,
Sligo
Note
Has a Sustainable Energy Demonstration Centre. Student undertaking
research Masters on potential of short rotation willow coppice for
energy production and wastewater treatment.
Offer possibility for research Masters on anaerobic digestion. Offer a BSc
and Graduate Diploma / MSc in Environmental Protection. The Graduate
Diploma / MSc is a two or three year distance learning programme
which also involves workshops, seminars and site visits at a range of
locations throughout Ireland. Development of the programme was a
collaborative process involving FÁS, Sligo County Council (acting on
behalf of all local authorities), the Institute and the Department of the
Environment and Local Government.
The development of the
programme was funded by FÁS. Contact: Dr Billy Fitzgerald, School of
Science, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Tel. +353 71 9155222. See
www.fas.ie/environmental_training_unit/graduate_diploma.html.
The Institute is a partner in the Renewable Energy Academy (see Table
31) and the INTERREG-supported RENEW project (Renewable Energy
Network for Environmental Welfare). The RENEW project involves the
establishment of 100 hectares of short rotation coppice, demonstration
wood-fuelled projects, and information dissemination.
The Institute was involved with NUI Galway in an EPA-supported study
on centralised anaerobic digestion (Mahony et al., 2002).
Institute of Technology
Tallaght
NUI Galway
Trinity College Dublin
The Institute offers a Master of Science in Environmental, Health and
Safety Management, which includes a dissertation (with bioenergy as a
possible topic).
The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers a research Masters,
with wind power listed among the possible research topics. The
Institute has purchased a wind energy system and also has an interest in
other forms of renewable energy.
The Department of Microbiology has a leading research team on
anaerobic methods of wastewater treatment. It offers research M.Sc.
and Ph.D. programmes on anaerobic microbiology, including the
following topics:
applications for wastewater treatment and
bioremediation; role of methylotrophs in landfill covers; microbial
ecology of anaerobic environments; biotechnology and microbiology of
low-temperature (<20°C) anaerobic wastewater treatment. Contacts:
Professor Emer Colleran, Tel. +353 91 750416; Dr. Vincent O’Flaherty,
Tel. +353 91 524411 Ext. 3734, email: [email protected]
NUI Galway was involved in an EPA-supported study on centralised
anaerobic digestion (Mahony et al., 2002). There are links to Sligo
Institute of Technology. NUI Galway has supported the development of
biogas projects in Ireland through the provision of advice – for example,
to the anaerobic digester at the Camphill Community Ballytobin in Co.
Kilkenny.
The Department of Botany offers research Masters and Ph.D. with
research projects available on the topic of plant biomass for energy. The
Department has completed substantial research on non-wood energy
crops (Miscanthus and reed canary grass). Contact: Prof. David Jeffrey,
Head of Department, Department of Botany, Trinity College Dublin. Tel.
+353 1 6081274, Fax +353 1 6081147, www.tcd.ie/Botany.
80
Austria
Training and CPD
Table 67
Austrian Biofuels Institute, Biodiesel Training
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Biodiesel training programmes
Austrian Biofuels Institute
www.biodiesel.at
Werner Koerbitz, Verein Österreichisches Biotreibstoff Institut, Graben
14/2, Pf. 97, A-1014 Vienna, ATU4168608, Austria. Tel. +43-1-53456-33,
email [email protected]
Customised courses as required by the client, delivered worldwide on a
consultancy basis in English. Previous courses have been run for twoday periods in Graz, Austria.
€1,390 per day plus expenses. Previous programmes have received EU
ALTENER programme support which met participants’ expenses.
Offering training since 1994.
Previous programmes have had up to 11 participants from EU countries.
Potential biodiesel investors from the public and private sectors. City
traffic managers, bus fleet managers, mechanics.
Specific customised training on biodiesel. One programme was to give
guidance on how to run a complete city bus fleet successfully on
biodiesel.
• Feedstock supply concepts, suitability and selection,
• Process technology, state of the art, evaluation and selection of the
most appropriate process,
• Biodiesel fuel quality: present status and future developments,
• Marketing strategy,
• Diesel engine warranty situation today and future scenarios,
• Legislative framework and tools applied in various countries.
A DVD on biodiesel in city bus fleets (three parts: 1. Biodiesel in general,
2. management of a modern bus fleet, 3. guidance on adaptations for
the use of biodiesel).
A CD-ROM with: World-wide review of biodiesel production; best
practice case studies of biodiesel production plants in Europe; review of
biodiesel standardisation world-wide.
Via internet newsletter and EU Commission.
The Austrian Biofuels Institute is an international competence centre for
liquid biofuels consisting of 48 independent experts from eight
countries on four continents. The Institute has published three
important studies on biodiesel (available on the CD-ROM), and has
worked in Ireland on biofuels policy.
The European Biodiesel Board is not aware of other biodiesel training
courses in Europe (Garofalo, 2004).
81
Table 68
Austrian Biomass Association, Bioheat Installer
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Biowärme Installateur (Bioheat Installer)
Training provided by the Austrian Biomass Association in various
locations.
www.regionalenergie.at/bwi
Hermann Pummer, Österreichischer Biomasse Verband - Austrian
Biomass Association, Franz Josefs Kai 13, 1010 Wien (Vienna), Austria.
Tel. +43 1 533 079714, Fax +43 1 533 079790, email [email protected]
Three day training session, with follow-up check on trainee’s installation
work.
2000
Several hundred companies have been given the “Biomass-Installer”
certificate following completion of this course by their employees.
Employees from companies providing heating systems installation and
plumbing services.
To address the lack of appropriately skilled wood heating system
installers.
Energy policy, biofuels, combustion techniques, installation of facilities,
requirements for the chimney and fire prevention, heating systems,
integration with water circuits, supports and promotional activities for
wood energy, comparisons of costs of systems, marketing wood
heating, practical instruction at a wood heating system manufacturer.
Quality of subsequent installation work is checked before certificate is
issued.
Guest speakers with specialist knowledge.
Certificates were presented to companies with successful trainees by the
Minster for Agriculture and Environment. Substantial press coverage
was obtained, resulting in positive public relations for the companies
and the training programme.
The initiative was market driven, through an industry association. The
training was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture,
Forestry and Environment. It was strongly tied to quality assurance of
actual installations. The Association trained one third of all installers
over a three year period. Substantial training was also provided by
wood heating system manufacturers. New training initiatives focus on
chimney sweeps and the construction industry (on requirements of
pellet boiler and storage rooms) (Rakos, 2004). Some data from Fechner
et al. (2003).
82
Table 69
EVA, Development and Operation of Medium Scale Biomass Heating Projects
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Number of places
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Development and Operation of Medium Scale Biomass Heating Projects
Energie Verwertungsagentur (EVA - Austrian Energy Agency). The
course has been held in Pichl Forestry School.
www.bioheat.info
Ann McCarthy, SWS Energy Services, Shinagh House, Bandon, Co. Cork
(Irish partner in the Bioheat project). Tel: +353 23 41271, Fax: +353 23
41304, Email [email protected]
None
Five days full-time.
2004
50
The development of bioenergy in Austria – lessons learned and key
success factors;
wood heating technologies;
wood fuels –
characteristics, standards, production; wood energy business models
and contracts, including energy performance contracting; technical,
legal and financial aspects of wood heating projects; buffer storage
water tanks; key information for heating plant operators; important
technical aspects of biomass district heating plants – safety devices,
water treatment, pumps and other fittings, insulation, district heating
grids, heat transfer stations, adaptation of customer’s heating system for
connection to district heating; relevant European standards.
Group work on financial appraisal of a wood heating project proposal.
Site visits to about 10 wood heating projects, one forest, and a wood
boiler manufacturer.
Presentations, spreadsheet tool, manufacturers’ literature, operating
plants for site visits, guest lecturers.
Via email newsletters, Bioheat project partners and the Bioheat website.
The first cycle of the course was supported by the EU Altener
programme and had a subsidised cost of €250 per person (including
accommodation). 17 of the participants were from the island of Ireland.
There was also significant Irish participation in a second cycle. The
course was considered very successful by those who participated.
There are about 2,000 designers / specifiers of heating systems in
Austria, about 10% of whom have particular expertise in wood heating
(Rakos, 2004).
Table 70
Notes on Other Training and CPD in Austria
Organisation
Institute for Sustainable
Technologies (INTEC)
Note
Offers excursions, seminars and conferences in all areas of renewable
energy technology.
83
Undergraduate Courses
Table 71
Fachhochschule Pinkafeld, Energy and Environmental Management
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 72
Fachhochschule Wels, Eco-Energy Engineering
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure & Duration
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Internship
Fachhochschul-Bakkalaureatsstudiengang Energie- und
Umweltmanagement (EUM-Bakk.)
Fachhochschule Pinkafeld
www.fh-pinkafeld.ac.at/bew/bew_hauptframe.htm
Maximilian Steinkellner, Steinamangerstrasse 21, A-7423 Pinkafeld. Tel.
+43 3357 45370-1030, Email [email protected]
Engineering degree
3 year full-time engineering degree over six 15-week semesters. The
degree can also be done part-time.
Option to complete Masters part-time over further 2 years
No tuition fees
Restructured in 2004
80 per year
High school graduates and persons with appropriate professional
experience.
This course combines an engineering education with courses in
economics and business, foreign languages and social skills. The focus is
on implementation of technical solutions for problems in the field of
energy and environmental technology.
10 week internship in Semester 6
Energy sources (in particular renewable energy sources), energy
conversion, energy logistics, optimisation of energy systems.
Environmental technology (environmental protection and recycling),
Law, Science, English (Compulsory) plus one other language from
French, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Hungarian.
By examination and satisfactory project and coursework
Eco-Energy Engineering
Fachhochschule Wels, Austria
www.fh-wels.at/
FH-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Rudolf Kraft, Director of Studies, Fachhochschule
Wels. Email [email protected]
Full-time degree programme
Eight semesters (4 years)
Running since 2002. University opened in 1993.
30
High school leavers and mature students
English
This course produces graduates who are qualified to develop and apply
new energy technologies, helping ensure that energy is used as sensibly
and efficiently as possible to save resources and the environment while
giving due consideration to the needs of business, industry and society.
Mandatory 15 week internship in Semester 7 in a company or other
training establishment appropriate to the occupational field.
84
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Marketing
Table 73
Core Subjects: Mathematics, Applied Information Technology, Modern
Materials Science, Construction and Modern Manufacturing Processes,
Measuring, Control and Regulation Technology, Technical Chemistry,
technical applications of renewable and fossil fuels based on holistic
view of energy and technical systems in buildings. Specialised Subjects:
Ecological, Environmental and Energy Technology, Thermodynamics,
Energy Systems, Construction Physics and Biology, Heating, Cooling and
Conditioning Technology, Energy Planning and Services, Building
Management, Future Technologies.
Business Management and
Economics: Business Finance and Law, Systems Management, Quality
Assurance and Environmental Management, Strategies for Renewable
Energies, Strategic Energy and Environmental Planning.
Social
Competence Courses:
Foreign Languages, Presentation and
Communication Skills, Social and Organisational Psychology.
By examination.
Informative website with English language information.
Notes on Other Undergraduate Courses in Austria
Organisation
Technical
University
Graz
Technical
University
Wien
Note
Mechanical Engineering with renewable energy content.
Mechanical Engineering with offer of a specialisation in Energy and
Environmental Engineering.
85
Denmark
Training and CPD
Table 74
Notes on Training and CPD Programmes in Denmark
Organisation
Danish
Agricultural
Advisory Service
Danish EPA
dk-Teknik Energy and
Environment
Green City
(Herning)
Denmark
Nordic Folkecenter for
Renewable Energy
Skovskolen
Forestry
College
University of Southern
Denmark
Note
Training on biogas.
Significant training programmes provided in the Ukraine on use of straw
and wood for heating, including visit to Danish wood energy plant.
Provide training for energy plant operatives. Produce customised
simulator software for biomass-fired plants. The aim of the simulators is
to educate plant operators, thus improving the efficiency of biomass
plants and reducing emissions. See www.dk-teknik.dk.
Organisation of technical visits to bioenergy plants (biogas, ethanol,
landfill gas, straw and wood). Also visits to relevant companies and local
government officers. See www.greencity.dk.
Offers training on renewable energy, including: biogas; liquid biofuels
(five day course on conversion of cars to run on plant oil); and wood
energy for workers in developing countries. Located in the “Village for
Green Research”. See www.folkecenter.dk.
A NPTC Centre, offering qualifications in the arboriculture and forestry
(see also Coillte in Table 47).
The University’s Bioenergy Department is involved in dissemination
projects on anaerobic digestion, including organisation of study tours
and production of publications (e.g. Holm-Nielsen et al., 1997; Al Seadi,
2000). Two staff from Tipperary Institute completed a five-week
customised CPD programme with the University in 1998 under an EUAltener supported project (“Creation of a Community-based Biomass
Education, Training and Support Unit in Co. Tipperary”). Tipperary
Institute has been a partner in several of the University’s subsequent
projects.
Postgraduate Courses
Table 75
Danish Technical University, Anaerobic Biotechnology
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Course Aim
Anaerobic Biotechnology
The Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group, Danish
Technical University
www.emb.biocentrum.dtu.dk/
Professor Birgitte K. Ahring, Technical University of Denmark,
BioCentrum-DTU, Søltofts Plads, Building 227, DK-2800 Lyngby,
Denmark. Email [email protected]
13 weeks English-language programme
Available to students of the MSc Biotechnology programme at DTU and
followed also by PhD students and Post-Doctoral researchers at the
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group
To give students a basic understanding of anaerobic microbial processes
of importance for biotechnological use. The use of anaerobic processes
is discussed in a national and international perspective.
86
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 76
The module covers production of bioenergy (biogas, bioethanol,
biodiesel, hydrogen), enzymes and chemicals, with an emphasis on
anaerobes under extreme conditions. Anaerobic microbes - their
biology and physiology. The biogas process and its control. Production
of bioethanol from corn / grain and biomass. Pretreatment of biomass.
Biological production of hydrogen. Production of polylactate for biodegradable plastics. Enzymes from anaerobes.
Evaluation of exercises/reports - exercises (50%) and project (50%)
DTU also have other courses with content on biogas or biofuels. The
University is planning a new international course on renewable fuels and
chemicals.
Notes on Other Postgraduate Courses in Denmark
Organisation
Aalborg University
Note
Offers a one year Masters programme in Sustainable Energy Engineering
for students possessing a mechanical or electrical engineering degree.
Finland
Training and CPD
Table 77
Jyväskylä Polytechnic, Use of Wood Fuel for Heat Production
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus info
Professional Specialisation Studies: Use of Wood Fuel for Heat
Production
Jyväskylä Polytechnic
www.jypoly.fi/luva
Mr. Tero Vesisenaho, Jyväskylä Polytechnic Institute of Natural
Resources, Uuraistentie 240B, FIN-43130 Saarijärvi, Finland. Tel. +358 40
5934916, Fax +358 14 422119, Email [email protected]
Professional. 30 ECTS credits, equivalent to half a year of full-time study.
One year (part-time). 150 hours of contact time in Finland and Norway,
plus about 650 hours of distance (online) education.
The course is financed by the Finnish Ministry of Education and is free of
charge. There is a fee of €168 for study materials. Students pay their
own travel and subsistence costs.
2002
Minimum 12, maximum 16.
Industry professionals.
Graduates of Forestry, Agriculture and
Engineering.
Either sufficient work experience in wood energy or Bachelors degree in
Agriculture, Forestry or Engineering.
The objective of the course is to give students best practice in the
production and use of wood fuel for heat production and help students
identify local suitable sites. The course focuses on applications less than
1 MWth.
Orientation. Professional Studies: Properties and sources of wood fuels.
Production and procurement of forest chips. Refined solid wood fuels.
Heat entrepreneurship. Operation and design of small heating plants.
Development Project: Planning, implementation and evaluation of a
wood fuel development project. Optional studies: Production and use
of agrobiomass fuels. Liquid biofuels. Studies based on the student’s
personal study plan.
87
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Table 78
Oral and written examination and development project (20% of course).
Site visits to operating systems, demonstrations.
The course is delivered on a part-time basis with students spending two
short intensive contact periods at the Institute and the remainder spent
at home communicating by Internet. The course is delivered in English.
Bioenergy studies is a specialisation in the Degree Programme in
Agriculture and Rural Industries offered by Jyväskylä Polytechnic. The
Polytechnic also offers two day courses on wood fuel (Wood Fuels Basic
Information Pack), and is a member of BENET Bioenergy Network of
Central Finland. The Wood Fuels Basic Information Pack course has
been run in Ireland, in association with the SEI and COFORD wood
energy conference. The course described in this table is a good example
of a third-level education provider applying their expertise to the
training and CPD sector.
Savonlinna Vocational College, Forest Worker
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus info
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Vocational Qualification in Forestry, Forest Worker
Savonlinna Vocational College
www.sln-ami.fi
Ms Irja Harmala, International Co-ordinator, Savonlinna Vocational
College, PL12, FIN-57201 Savonlinna, Finland. Tel: +358 15 5506000, Fax:
+358 15 5506215, Email [email protected]
Vocational
130
Secondary school graduates and adult learners.
To give the student a vocational qualification and the necessary skills to
graduate as a forest worker.
Yes (six months)
Qualification for work in forest cultivation, timber harvesting and
production of wood-based energy.
Competency tests and written examinations
Machinery workshops, industry partners, international linkages.
Some students from this course undertake work placement in Ireland.
Courses are delivered in Finnish.
Undergraduate Courses
Table 79
North Karelia Polytechnic, Bachelor of Science in Forestry
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Bachelor of Science in Forestry
School of Natural Resources and the Environment, North Karelia
Polytechnic.
www.ncp.fi
Ms Sanna Jeskanen, International Relations Coordinator, North Karelia
Polytechnic, Kontionkatu 4/3, FIN-80200 Joensuu, Finland. Tel. +358 013
260 6729, [email protected]
Professional
Four Years, full-time.
Secondary school graduates and adult learners.
The programme provides a wide knowledge of forestry and related
fields. The student should gain skills in planning, carrying out forestry
activities and developing knowledge on the biological, economic,
technological and social aspects of forestry.
Yes (20 weeks)
88
Syllabus info
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Table 80
Basic Studies. Professional studies. Electives: Bioenergy: Environmental
Protection and Environmental Technology (climate protection and
emissions trading, life cycle analysis in energy production, legislation
and agreements). Bioenergy: Working Environment and Raw Material
Procurement and Production (sources of non-renewable energy,
renewable energy, production of energy wood, logging slash and
firewood, chipping methods and chippers. Bioenergy: Energy
Investments and Business Economics (municipal energy solutions,
heating entrepreneurship, profitability, heat production agreements,
development work, energy investment models).
Site visits to operating systems
The elective modules in Bioenergy are delivered in English.
Some students from this course undertake work placement in Ireland.
Oulu Polytechnic, Degree Programme in Agricultural and Rural Industries
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Duration
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Degree Programme in Agricultural and Rural Industries
Oulu Polytechnic
www.oamk.fi/
Arja Maunumäki
ECTS co-ordinator
[email protected]
Full-time degree programme
4 years
60
High school leavers and mature students
The purpose is to train experts and entrepreneurs in co-operation with
the business world and other actors in the sector for developing
economically, socially and environmentally sound rural enterprises.
A practical training period, or a period of study abroad, is a compulsory
element of the course.
Core Subjects: Environmental Management, Agricultural Economics,
Livestock Management, Crop Management, Forest Management.
Specialised Subjects: Bioenergy Production, Nature and Rural Tourism,
Natural Production, Production Chain Planning.
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Business Management and Economics: Entrepreneurship, Management
Accounting, Business Management Project, Services Marketing, Quality
Management.
Written examination and project work
Site visits to operating systems
Bioenergy Production is taught through English. The course amounts to
6 ECTS Credits or 10% of the annual requirement for progression.
89
Table 81
University of Joensuu, Production and Energy Use of Wood Biomass
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Syllabus content
Assessment Method
Course on Production and Energy Use of Wood Biomass
Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu
www.joensuu.fi/envsci/
Prof. Paavo Pelkonen, Room 215, Natura Building, University of Joensuu,
FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
Tel. +358 13 251 3641, email
[email protected]
A 6 ECTS credit course, part of the International Study Programme in
Environmental Science and Forestry, which is a non-degree programme.
Lectures (24 hours), self study materials and exercises (30 hours),
excursions (16 hours), and reading of specified literature.
Students, professionals and other persons wishing to complement their
existing education.
Basic concepts of forest production ecology; biomass production
potential of a forest ecosystem; production of wood fuel from short
rotation plantations; use of residual biomass from traditional forestry
operations for energy; harvesting and logistics of energy wood
production; a brief introduction to bioenergy conversion technologies;
utilisation of bioenergy with reference to the global carbon cycle and
climatic change, especially with regard to CO2 emissions and carbon
storage; and the role of bioenergy in the European Union and in a global
context, especially its potential for the development of rural areas.
Final examination on the lectures and literature.
90
France
Training and CPD
Table 82
ASDER Savoy, Renewable Energy, Waste Separation and Valorisation
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 83
€6,195
1989
500 since start
Undergraduates
BAC+2, Personal assessment
13 weeks (unpaid)
Economics introduction.
Project development.
Recycling and
valorisation of waste. Environmental best practice. Solar thermal
energy. Renewable electricity production. Energy use of biomass.
Practicalities of developing countries. Presentation of projects.
Submission and presentation of project
ITEBE, Firewood Club
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Renewable Energy, Waste Separation and Valorisation
ASDER (Savoy Agency for Development of Renewable Energy),
Chambery, France [Part of CLER network]
www.asder.asso.fr/
Gérard Savatier, Jean-Christophe Castagné, Françoise Jaumain. ASDER,
562 avenue du Grand Ariétaz, BP 99499, 73094 Chambery Cedex, France.
Tel. +33 47985 8850, Fax +33 47933 2464, Email [email protected]
BAC+2 (2 years university)
9 Months, total tuition 885 hours.
ITEBE Firewood Club
Various around France, Belgium, Switzerland
www.itebe.org/portail/affiche.asp?num=97&arbo=1
Lamine Badji, ITEBE. Email [email protected]
Regular seminars on member-proposed topics. The goal is to create a
network of producers of firewood, to advance the sector, fight against
the black market trade and to get recognition for high quality producers
of firewood.
Some funding supplied by ADEME, French energy authority
2001
Wood fuel suppliers, heating equipment manufacturers and suppliers
To promote the exchange of information between different actors in the
sector
Current topics under discussion by the club:
Creating a commercial internet exchange for firewood
Reducing taxes on firewood
Creation of a domestic wood heater quality label
Drying of firelogs, sharing of experiences
Via web, ITEBE newsletter, ADEME
91
Table 84
ITEBE, Wood Chip Club
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Table 85
Wood Chip Club
ITEBE. Various locations around France, Belgium and Switzerland.
www.itebe.org/portail/affiche.asp?arbo=1&num=12
As per
Table 83.
Regular seminars on member-proposed topics
Some funding supplied by ADEME (French energy authority).
Members of club, suppliers and users of wood-chip, boiler
manufacturers, heat users
To provide a common forum to resolve difficulties with wood-chip
technology and reduce the cost of supply
Examples of topics covered: fuel quality requirements of different
boilers; cost of wood chip production; logistics of large-scale
production; improving the understanding between different actors
(foresters, heating experts, customers); supply contract types and
clauses for their revision; communication and marketing; selling wood
chip on an energy content basis; adoption by the club of elements of
the European standard on solid biofuels.
Via web, ITEBE newsletter, ADEME
ITEBE, Wood Energy Training
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Wood Energy Training
ITEBE. Various locations around South-East France, primarily Jura and
Alps regions.
www.itebe.org/newsletter/formulaire-formation-01-05.html
Karine Vendroux, ITEBE Education, 28 boulevard Gambetta, BP 149,
39004 Lons le Saunier Cedex, France. Tel. +33 38447 8100, Fax +33
38447 8119, Email [email protected]
French language, direct teaching in classroom or on-site, courses vary
from one to four days as below and are modular.
To provide training for various segments of the wood energy industry in
France.
Programme 1 Title: Planning and pre-feasibility on wood energy for
individuals or small enterprises. Audience - advisors, promoters of wood
energy projects, project leaders. Level 1 Beginners: four days. Level 2
the pre-feasibility study: four days. Programme 2 Title: The production
of wood fuel in compact form (Logs, Chips, Briquettes, Pellets).
Audience - entrepreneurs, farmers. Level 1 General: two days. Level 2
Logs: two days at production site. Level 2 Chips: two days at
production site. Level 2 Briquettes: two days at production site. Level 2
Pellets: two days at production site. Programme 3 Title: Study and
design of an automatic wood boiler with a heating network. Audience trained technicians, engineers and advisors. Level 1 Beginners
(Feasibility study): three days. Level 2 Experienced (Dimensioning):
three days. Programme 4 Title: Install a small wood heater (Logs, pellets
or chips). Audience - heating plumbers, advisors. Level 1 Beginners:
two days. Level 2 Experienced: two days. Programme 5 Title: Selling
wood heating - fuels and heating equipment, supply and maintenance
services.
Audience - business persons, sales representatives,
craftspersons and heating suppliers. Course 1 Selling to individuals:
three days. Course 2 Selling to companies and associations: three days.
Programme 6 Title: The sale and installation of pellet stoves and
fireplaces. Audience - business persons, craftspersons. Course 1 Selling:
one day in a showroom. Course 2 Installation: one day at a site.
92
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Table 86
ITEBE and ASDER, Wood Pellet Club
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 87
ITEBE has previously received ALTENER funding from the EU
Commission to support its wood energy training activities.
Via web and newsletters
ITEBE started life in 1997 as a French organisation for promoting wood
energy. It has expanded its role to cover a range of biomass
technologies and now has over 500 members in 19 countries. It is active
in training and education on bioenergy, and has proposed a number of
international co-operation projects on the topic (including under the
INTERREG programme).
Wood Pellet Club Training
Lyon, ITEBE Pellet club in conjunction with ASDER
www.itebe.org/portail/affiche.asp?arbo=1&num=229
Vice-President Mr Frédéric Challande, C/o Hervé MiconI [President],
Palazetti Est France, 6 B rue Cryot, FR - 25 480 Miserey Salines, France.
Tel: +33 603 16 19 73, Fax: +33 381 58 99 42, Email
[email protected]
Non-accredited
One day, two parallel sessions for boiler installers and resellers
€160 members; €180 non-members of ITEBE
First session was given on 14 June 2002 in Lyon
Boiler installers and pellet stoves retailers
The pellet club has concentrated its activities on the creation of a
technical training programme which guarantees that installations are
according to specification and a high quality after sales service.
Morning: Production, quality and the choices between stove and boiler.
Two parallel sessions in afternoon: boiler technology for boiler installers;
stove technology for resellers. Exam.
Short exam and issue of certificate of attendance
Interesting concurrent activities in developing quality standards for both
pellet fuel and stoves.
This club was founded in May 2001 in Lons le Saunier with the support
of the EU RECITE programme and co-financed by the Conseil Général du
Jura as an activity of the European Foundation for Lakes and Forest
(FONDELF).
Notes on Other Training and CPD in France
Organisation
ADEME (French Agency
for Environment and
Energy Management)
Note
Its training and employment service offers various five day applied
training courses in all aspects of renewable energy.
93
Undergraduate Courses
Table 88
IUT Tarbes, Science and Technology of Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Science and Technology of Renewable Energy
Institut Universitaire de Technologies (IUT) de Tarbes, France
www.ups-tlse.fr/FORMATIONS/IUTTARBES/indexiuttarbes.html
Eric Marino, IUT de Tarbes, 1, rue Lautréamont BP 1624, 65016 Tarbes
cedex, France. Tel. +33 56244 4204, Fax +33 56244 4201, Email
[email protected]
Bachelor Degree
One year course as part of a four year degree programme.
€750 (Actual cost €10,500, government funded)
2004
36
Engineering undergraduates
BAC +3 in technical discipline
To train students in the commercial activities of renewable energies (PV,
Wind, Micro-hydro, Solar-Thermal, Wood, Biogas and Biofuels)
16 weeks
Obligatory modules: Introduction to subjects (60 hours); Scientific
techniques (120 hours); Techniques of management (180 hours);
Independent and grid-connected electrical systems (250 hours); Power
supply and engineering for heating systems for buildings and grid
heating (250 hours). Mentored project and job-seeking training (175
hours).
Postgraduate Courses
Table 89
Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, Clean Energy From Biomass and Waste
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Entry requirements
Master of Engineering Clean Energy From Biomass and Waste
Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux
www.enstimac.fr/etudes/master_clean_energy/
Bruno Grano et Didier Lecomte, Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux,
Campus Jarlard - Route de Teillet, 81013 ALBI Cedex CT 09, France. Tel.
+33 563 493000, Fax. +33 563 493099, email [email protected],
[email protected]
Diplome National Master, recognised by French state
Total 18 Months
6 months of courses in Douai and Albi.
6 months on a research project in one of the CEBW laboratories.
6 months on a project in a European industrial partner in the CEBW
project.
Five full scholarships will be offered by French companies in the fields of
energy production, cement or paper and pulp industries. Also students
receive a payment of €500 per month to cover their living expenses. Full
fees €24,000.
Currently in first cycle (started October 2004). Next intake October 2006.
High level technical graduates
Candidates will be qualified to degree level or equivalent in an
engineering discipline such as chemical or mechanical engineering.
Candidates must have a minimum level in English.
94
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 90
The targets of the CEBW Masters are:
• To provide a core teaching syllabus in process engineering applied
to solid waste and biomass conversion to energy with a special focus
on: solid waste and biomass characterisation; thermal processes
(drying, pyrolysis, combustion and gasification); flue gas and solid
residue minimisation; energy efficiency; life cycle analysis and
modelling; applied environmental measurement techniques; fuel
characterisation.
• To deliver a high level degree in applied research in partnership with
major industrial organisations in sustainable energy production.
6 months
Subjects offered Fundamentals of Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer,
Fundamentals of Solid-Fluid Chemical Engineering, Energy Transfer and
Conversion, Modelling and Simulation, Solid Characterization and
Handling, Waste and Biomass, Dewatering and Drying, Combustion and
Flue Gas Treatment, Alternative Conversion Technology, Process Design
and Assessment, Process Monitoring and Control, Project Management,
Environmental and Energy Policy.
By preselection and interview in conjunction with employers prior to
commencement of course.
Unique entirely sponsored programme.
Candidates may apply
individually or in conjunction with industrial partner. Some data from
Grano (2004).
ENSAM Corsica, Renewable Energies and Their Production Systems
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Renewable Energies and Their Production Systems
ENSAM, Corsica satellite, Bastia, France
www.ensam.fr/Institut%20ENSAM%20Corse/instcorse.htm
Katia Duborget. Tel. +33 495 309634, Fax +33 495 309635, Email
[email protected]
Masters
12-18 months
€6,500
2000
Technical graduates
Science or engineering degree
To train engineers to design and implement complex energy systems from
renewable and conventional resources.
To train decision-makers to implement economically sensible sustainable
energy policy.
6 months
380 hours from October to February on courses, workshops and site visits in
the following topics:
Energy and environment
Renewable energies
Energy technology
Design of renewable resource systems
Regulatory and economic factors of renewable energy
Management of renewable energy projects
95
Table 91
University of Montpellier, Energy Economics and Law
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Internship
Syllabus Content
Comments
Energy Economics and Law
University of Montpellier
www.sceco.univ-montp1.fr/
Madame Anne Combes, Espace Richter, Avenue de la Mer, B.P. 9606 34054 - Montpellier Cedex 1, France. Tel. +33 467 158362.
DESS (BAC+5)
1 year
25
Graduates and professionals
Political Science, Law, Commerce or Engineering degree
3 Months
Economics and management: Economics and politics of energy;
Industrial economics; Natural resource economics; Deregulation of
infrastructure industries;
Management and strategy of energy
enterprises; Economic analysis of projects; International markets for
primary resources;
Energy problems of developing countries;
Introduction to energy modelling; Practical Workshops.
Legal: Regulation of energy markets; Energy accounting; Energy
competition law; Construction law; EU institutions and political regime.
Focuses heavily on regulated gas and electricity markets
96
Germany
Training and CPD
Table 92
EBA-Zentrum Triesdorf, Biogas Basic Seminar
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
€120
Last course ran from 22 November to 17 December 2004. Four more
seminars planned by end April 2005, completely booked.
Maximum 30.
Bavarian residents from the agricultural sector.
To provide the technical and economic knowledge to make decisions on
building and maintenance of anaerobic digestors.
Participants are trained in the basics of biogas, the equipment
technology and economics. Also deals with legal issues and practical
examples of developing biogas projects. Technology used such as
intake systems, agitators, digestor heaters and CHP are covered.
Electricity feed-in tariffs and optimal waste heat utilisation. The various
courses are supplemented by site visits and excursions.
An advanced two day training course for biogas plant operators and
managers can be provided on request.
The centre also runs a series of biogas information days, where many of
the two week course participants first learn about the course.
Marketing
Table 93
Biogas Basic Seminar
EBA-Zentrum Triesdorf (an institute of agricultural education) at
Triesdorf Agricultural Machinery College
www.triesdorf.de/EBA/home.htm
Technical information:
EBA-Zentrum Triesdorf (Dipl.-Ing. Manuel
Maciejczyk; Steingrubestr. 5, 91746 Weidenbach/Triesdorf, Germany.
Tel. +49 9826 18266, Fax +49 9826 18260. Registration: Ländlichen
Entwicklungsgruppe in Uffenheim (Tel. +49 9842-208-254).
Two weeks full-time.
IBBK, Biogas Seminars
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Number of places
Target group
Syllabus Content
Biogas seminars for farmers and plant operators (various)
Internationales Biogas and Bioenergie Kompetenzzentrum
www.biogas-zentrum.de
Dipl.-Ing. agrar Michael Köttner, Internationales Biogas und Bioenergie
Kompetenzzentrum, Fachgruppe Biogas, Weckelweiler, Heimstr. 1,
74592 Kirchberg / Jagst, Germany. Tel. +49 7954 926 203, Fax +49 7954
926 204, email [email protected]
Biogas- Intensive: planning seminar for farmers: 1 day
Biogas plant operators seminar: 2 days
Biogas quality offensive Baden-Württemberg for farmers and craftsmen:
7 days two times a year starting in 2005
From €60-120 per day
About 110 participants in three planning seminars to-date.
For operator seminar about 250 participants in five seminars.
Farmers and biogas plant operators
Legal framework for biogas with energy crops; Permission and planning
issues; Fermentation of agricultural energy plants; Practical case study
with plant operators; Wet and dry digestion; Biogas site visit to
Hohenlohe and Franconias. Köttner, 2005.
97
Table 94
LEB, Biogas Plant Operator Seminar
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 95
Contact
Programmes for biogas project developers and plant operators
Düsse Centre for Energy Crops (Zentrum für nachwachsende Rohstoffe)
www.duesse.de/znr/veranstaltungen/index.htm
Courses are typically one day events.
Courses have included “Biogas is Booming: Trends and Technology”,
“Biogas Construction”, “Energy Crops for Biogas”, “Heating with
Biomass”, “Slurry, Gas, Money”. The Centre organises seminars,
exhibitions, regional site visits and international study trips on biogas,
cereals, straw and wood for energy.
Elke Bockholt, Zentrum für nachwachsende Rohstoffe, LZ Haus Düsse,
Landwirtschaftskammer NRW, Germany. Tel. +49 2945 989143.
Notes on Other Training and CPD Programmes in Germany
Organisation
Barby
Teutloff
Ecological Centre
FNR
LFL Bayern
€320
November 2004
Maximum 20
Must have practical experience of biogas plant or have followed
introductory course on biogas technology.
To equip operators to maximise financial contribution of their plant and
minimise emissions.
The microbiology of biogas
Facility processing and monitoring of process stability and the yield of
digested products
Legal framework regarding biogas facilities
Safety aspects with the building and operation of biogas facilities
Financial aspects of biogas
Public acceptance, safety devices and image maintenance
LEB is an agricultural institute for the environmental education of adults.
ZNR, Biogas Programmes
Title
Location
Web
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Table 96
Biogas Plant Operator Seminar
LEB
www.nds.leb.de/
Cord Remke, LEB, Am Bremer Dreh 1, 49406 Barnstorf, Germany. Tel.
+49 5442 2824, Fax +49 5442 2825.
Three day seminar.
Note
Offers basic two day courses in Renewable Energy Systems.
Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Agency for Renewable Raw
Materials). FNR is a government body, under the Ministry for Consumer
Protection, Food and Agriculture. Its purpose is to disseminate the
results of research to the public. It provides information and training on
biofuels (including bioethanol), biogas, slurry management and wood
pellets. It co-operates with the German Farmers Association and
Fachverband Biogas. FNR has produced information boards for public
display at biogas plants, to explain biogas technology and its benefits to
visitors. See www.nachwachsende-rohstoffe.de.
Biogas training, including maize as an energy crop for anaerobic
digestion (selection of maize varieties for biogas, fertilisation, timing of
harvesting, cost, methane yield).
98
Solar
Academy
in
Freiburg
Solar Institute of Julich
Offers various one day seminars in renewable energy.
Students after their fourth university semester are offered attendance at
a two-week summer school on Renewable Energy Technology.
Undergraduate Courses
Table 97
UAS Berlin, Mechanical Engineering – Renewable Energies
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 98
Mechanical Engineering – Renewable Energies
University of Applied Sciences Berlin (Technische Fachhochschule Berlin)
www.tfh-berlin.de,
www.tfhberlin.de/FB_VIII/erneuerbare_energien.htm
Tel. +49 30 4504 2219, Email [email protected]
Full-time engineering degree
4 years
2001
School leavers and mature students
This course teaches energy technology and includes specific modules on
renewable energy including one on biomass.
13 weeks
After a basic engineering training semesters 4-8 include the following
modules to give a renewable energy degree:
Hydraulics and
Pneumatics;
Thermodynamics and fluid mechanics;
CAD;
Manufacturing;
Environmental legislation on energy conversion;
Mechanics of materials (stress and elasticity); Safety studies; Dynamics
of Structures; Engine technologies; Process measuring laboratory;
Control engineering; Wind and water systems technology; Internal
combustion engines, compressors; Solar thermal and photovoltaic
technology; Biomass energy; Hydrogen technology; Heat pumps;
Electric motors; Power plant materials; Energy and economic science;
Finite element methods; Project management; Business planning.
Coursework, project and verbal examination
Notes on Other Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in Germany
Organisation
Technical
University
Hamburg
UAS Bingen
University
of
Hohenheim
University of Oldenburg
Note
Five year degree on Energy and Environmental Technology.
Elements of biogas education.
Elements of biogas education.
Runs both its own Renewable Energy Masters and teaches the EUREC
Masters programme (Table 134).
99
Sweden
Training and CPD
Table 99
Notes on Training and CPD Programmes in Sweden
Organisation
Hydrosafe AB
RVF
(waste
management
association)
Swedish University of
Agricultural
Sciences
(SLU)
Note
Offers a two day course on operation and maintenance of biogas plants
(Nordberg, 2005).
Offers short courses on operation of biogas plants, in response to
demand (Nordberg, 2005).
The Department is a leading research centre on short rotation willow
coppice. See also Table 102 and Table 104. Two staff from Tipperary
Institute completed a six-week customised CPD programme with the
University’s Department of Short Rotation Forestry under an EU-Altener
supported project.
Undergraduate Courses
Table 100
Linköping University, The Biogas Process
Title
Location
Web
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Table 101
Module on The Biogas Process
Linköping University
www.liu.se
Five weeks full-time.
Practical: reactor start-up; substrate addition, sampling and analysis;
reactor shut-down. Theory: microbiology of the biogas process; large
scale biogas production; methane yield calculations; the biogas market;
the biogas process in relation to Swedish waste handling; permits and
laws; biogas from sewage sludge; process surveillance parameters;
biogas in relation to other energy carriers. Visits to two biogas plants,
including history of plant development “from plan to plant”.
Laboratory reports and assignment.
Literature, laboratory with anaerobic reactors, operating biogas plants
for visits.
Halmstad University offers a module of the same duration on biogas
technology (Nordberg, 2005).
Växjö University, Bioenergy Technology via Distance Learning
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Entry requirements
Bioenergy Technology via Distance Learning
Växjö University
www.vxu.se/english/education/programmes/bta811.html
Björn Zethræus, School of Biosciences and Process Technology, Växjö
University, SE-351 95, Växjö, Sweden. Tel. +46 470 70 87 38, Fax +46 470
70 87 56, email [email protected]
Undergraduate beginners’ level, 5 points (7.5 ECTS).
100% internet-based, uses FirstClass software for discussion and
classroom interaction. English language. Runs September to December
annually, estimated equivalent to five weeks full-time attendance.
2004
School-leavers, undergraduates as optional study module.
Completed upper secondary education and a good command of
English.
100
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
The course presents the fundamental aspects of the technology for
using biofuels in the energy system. Global considerations, biological
constraints, fuel supply systems, fuel quality and combustion
technology are covered. After this course the participants will have
gained an understanding of the basic differences between a biofuelbased and a fossil-fuel-based energy system.
1. Introduction and fundamental thermodynamic considerations introduces the subject and outlines the fundamental differences
between fossil fuels and biofuels from a thermodynamic point of view.
2. Biofuel production, biological and fundamental considerations describes some limiting factors to biomass production, the
photosynthesis reaction, the importance of trace elements and nutrients
etc.
3. Biofuel upgrading and conversion, technical aspects - outlines
technical methods to change the properties of the raw material into
more refined fuels, pelletising, briquetting, liquefaction, gasification etc.
4. Biofuel handling, storage and logistics - covers technical and
fundamental aspects on the handling of biofuels including the working
environment. Emphasis on fuel quality and how it is affected by
handling procedures.
5. Biofuel combustion, different scales and technologies - introduces
different types of boilers and combustion technologies adopted for
different scales and for different types of production. Emphasis on the
emissions of gaseous pollutants.
6. General environmental considerations and ash recycling - ash
recirculation aspects, fate of trace metals etc.
To pass the course a student has to be an active participant in the
discussions and to complete the exercises.
Postgraduate Courses
Table 102
SLU, Bioenergy Technology and Systems
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Postgraduate Course in Bioenergy Technology and Systems
SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.bioenergi.slu.se/
Associate Prof. Raida Jirjis, Tel. +46 18 671000, email
[email protected]
15 ECTS credits Postgraduate
50% of the credits are obtained by attending lectures and laboratory
work between August and December. The other credits are awarded for
a special individual assignment designed by the PhD student’s
supervisor and course leader. The assignments involve a focused
literature review on a subject relevant to the student’s research area.
The first 50% of the course can also be attended by senior students in
their last yeas of civil engineering, energy programme, in which case
they get 5 credits.
The University does not charge the registered students any fees.
2004 is the 2nd cycle of this course.
Enrolment in the first cycle was around 12 students from both
categories.
18 students on 2004/2005 cycle, three of them
postgraduate.
Technology graduates, final year engineering students.
40 credits in technology (or equivalent), minimum of 5 credits in
chemistry and 5 credits in biology.
101
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 103
University College of Borås, Modules on Energy Recovery
Title
Location
Web
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 104
Modules on Energy Recovery in the MSc Waste Management and
Resource Recovery
University College of Borås
www.ing.hb.se or www.hb.se
The MSc is two academic years, full-time.
Suitable for students with a BSc degree in civil, mechanical, chemical,
electrical or computer engineering.
The module on “Fundamentals in Energy and Resource Recovery” deals
with combustion (including environmental impacts), and is worth 5
ECTS credits. The module on “Energy Recovery” deals with combustion
(including corrosion and oxide formation) and anaerobic digestion, and
is worth 7.5 ECTS credits. The MSc also includes content on Risk
Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment and Entrepreneurship or Theory of
Knowledge and Scientific Methods, with an elective from Experimental
Design, Simulation & Modelling, Organisation & Leadership.
The MSc is taught in English. The local authority in the area is
progressive regarding waste treatment, with an anaerobic digestion
plant for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in operation for
ten years. Adaptations were made to a new waste management facility
to allow research and educational activities.
University of Uppsala and SLU, Master of Science in Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
To acquire knowledge about different bioenergy sources with regard to
primary production, characterisation of raw material, harvesting
techniques, logistics systems, storage, handling and upgrading. To
achieve further knowledge about energy production from biomass as
well as liquid and gaseous biofuels.
- Woodfuel from the forest
- Biofuel from farmland (energy grass, willow)
- Energy from waste and peat
- Storage and drying of biofuel
- Upgrading (pellets, briquettes, wood powder)
- System aspects e.g. potentials and economy
- Recycling of nutrients
- Liquid and gaseous biofuels
- Electricity production from biomass
Written or oral examination, presentation of results from own laboratory
and seminar work. Written examination with 60% pass mark. Attending
all laboratory activities and excursions is obligatory.
Master of Science in Renewable Energy
University of Uppsala and SLU
utbdatabas.uu.se/katalog/kurs2.asp?kod=x4342
Ewa Wäckelgård, e-mail: [email protected], phone:
+46(0)18-471 1081, fax: +46(0)18-50 01 31. Address: Department of
Engineering Sciences, P O Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
MSc
One year full-time.
Living expenses estimated at SEK 6,300/month. The University does not
charge registered students any fees.
Autumn 2005
102
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 105
Individual selection, minimum BSc in Technology of which at least 10
credit points/15 ECTS are in Energy Technology, proficient English,
statement of intent, letters of reference. Students will be selected
considering aspects such as previous academic studies and degrees
(with an emphasis on grades in technology, physics, chemistry and/or
biology), reason for applying and previous professional experience (if
any).
The aim of the programme is to train engineers and technicians with a
special interest in renewable energy, using a broader perspective on
both technology and energy systems.
The Master of Science in Renewable Energy is based on the competence
at Uppsala University and SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural
Sciences). The profile of the two universities involved offers the student
different perspectives and competences in the field of renewable
energy: energy technology, natural resources, system analysis and
environmental impact. The programme is given in co-operation
between the two universities.
Six special courses are given at an advanced level in technology and
systems (each 5 credit points/7.5 ECTS) and the programme also
includes a Master´s thesis chosen on an individual basis.
- Bioenergy - Technology and Systems
- Hydroelectric Power - Technology and Systems
- Wave Power - Technology and Systems
- Wind Power - Technology and Systems
- Solar Energy - Technology and Systems
- Selection of Energy Systems
- Degree project (10 credit points/15 ECTS or 20 credit points/30 ECTS)
Delivered in English. Data from Jirjis, 2004.
Notes on Other Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in Sweden
Organisation
Malardalen University
Royal
Institute
of
Technology, Stockholm
Note
Undergraduate degree in energy engineering.
The Sustainable Energy Engineering Masters is taught in English. The
Institute is also involved in a Masters programme in Croatia (Table 136).
103
United Kingdom
Training and CPD
Table 106
ADER, Renewables Seminar
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 107
Renewables Seminar
ADER, Newmarket, UK
www.ader.org.uk
Sue Hopkins, ADER (Agricultural Development in the Eastern Region),
Agriculture House, Willie Snaith Road, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7SN,
United Kingdom. Tel: +44 1638 672107, email [email protected]
Short seminar, given twice in July 2004
ADER was formed by a consortium of the East of England Land Based
Colleges and training organisations. It is a regional initiative aimed at
providing farmers with a co-ordinated range of business training, advice
and support. ADER aims to be the first port of call for all farm
development requirements, to provide high quality training and skills
courses at local colleges, and to help farmers develop their ideas.
ADER has successfully run two seminars for Renewables East that have
helped farmers understand the opportunities in renewable energy,
primarily land-based wind turbines, non-food crops for biomass and
biofuels, and community scale projects.
A parallel development is the East of England Biofuels Forum,
inaugurated in July 2004.
CAT, Introduction to Small-scale Wood Fuel Systems
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration
Cost
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
An Introduction to Small-scale Wood Fuel Systems
Centre for Alternative Technology (CAT),
www.cat.org.uk/
Laura Snowball, CAT Courses, Powys, Wales. Tel. +44 1654 705 981,
email [email protected]
A residential course taught over 4 days full-time.
£550 – High-waged, £400 – Waged, £250 – Non-waged. The course fee
covers full board accommodation at CAT, tuition and course materials.
Minimum 12.
Potential domestic users, potential commercial and institutional users
(small scale), architects, heating professionals (as an introduction).
Provide overview of modern heating for domestic and commercial
applications.
How wood burns – combustion, primary and secondary air, gasification,
temperature-time–turbulence, volatiles, ash, lambada, flue gas, tar and
emissions. Moisture versus energy, seasoning and drying. Types of
wood fuel. Convenience versus cost. Logs. Pellets, chips. Heating
design plus practical session. Design software tools. Woodburning
equipment for logs, automatic wood fuel systems, pellets, chip. Stoves,
boilers, grates, fuel feed. Site visits to local installations including log,
pellet and chip boilers. Integrating into domestic central heating
systems – vented and unvented, expansion vessels, flow temperatures,
controls. Fuel storage, accumulators and flues – outfeeders, walking
floors, hoppers, bunkers, insulation, draught stabilisers. Legalities and
funding – building regulations and planning, domestic, institutional,
commercial and non-profit funding.
Course Tutors: Duncan Kerridge, Renewable Energy Consultant; Chris
Laughton, Very Efficient Heating Company; Rob Gwillim, National
Energy Foundation.
104
Table 108
CAT, Make Your Own Biodiesel
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Table 109
CIWM, Introduction to the Management of Wastes
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Make Your Own Biodiesel
Centre for Alternative Technology
www.cat.org.uk/
Laura Snowball, CAT Courses, Powys, Wales. Tel. +44 1654 705 981,
email [email protected]
A residential course taught over 2 days full-time. Courses in 2005 are
scheduled for May 13 – 15, November 25 – 27.
£295 – High waged, £210 – Waged, £150 – Non waged. The course fee
covers full board accommodation at CAT, tuition and course materials.
Minimum 12.
All people interested in biodiesel production.
This course aims to teach each participant the necessary skills to develop
their own sense of resourcefulness and enable the individual to
undertake their own research and design.
Theory discussion. Potential scenarios for manufacture and use of
biodiesel. What are the environmental benefits of biofuels? Biodiesel
versus the use of pure oil and other ways to use oil. What is biodiesel?
The EU fuel specification EN 14214. Chemistry - How to make biodiesel
including - basic chemistry, transesterification, pH and measuring pH,
temperature and thermometers, qualitative versus quantitative.
Different types of reaction - single and dual stage reactions. Process
design considerations. How a diesel engine works (or doesn’t) and
important fuel characteristics, including the effects of temperature, long
term storage and mixing fuels. Practical sessions on making biodiesel in
1 litre batches - single and dual stage reactions using new oil, used ‘light
oil’ (Chinese restaurant oil) and used heavy oil (burger bar oil). Statutory
regulations in the UK. Environment Agency Law, applications for
permits, charging schemes. Customs and Excise Law, how to register
and pay tax on road fuels. Planning law. Health and Safety issues. The
safe use and handling of flammable liquids. A discussion on the costs of
fuel production and how to market biodiesel.
Phil Hunt is a Renewable Energy Consultant for the National Energy
Foundation in Milton Keynes and developed and ran this biodiesel
course with colleagues whilst living in the Low Impact Living
Community in the UK.
An Introduction to the Management of Wastes
Chartered Institution of Wastes Management
www.ciwm.co.uk/
Training Services Department, IWM Business Services Ltd., 9 Saxon
Court, St Peter's Gardens, Northampton, NN1 1SX, United Kingdom. Tel.
+ 44 1604 620426, Fax + 44 1604 604467, Email [email protected]
18 CPD hours.
Residential course of three days.
CIWM and Environmental Services Association Member: £810 + VAT,
CIWM or ESA Member: £860 + VAT, Non-Member: £1015 + VAT.
Those new to the waste management industry or those who have
recently acquired the responsibility for managing waste within their
organisation.
Understand the importance of the management of wastes and the
relationship to sustainable development.
105
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Marketing
Comments
Includes landfill gas, anaerobic digestion, waste to energy, refuse
derived fuel, pyrolysis, gasification.
Presentations including case studies, group work, opportunities for
networking and informal discussions.
Full details on CIWM website.
A ‘Practical Waste Management course for practitioners, and other
specific courses on landfill gas management also available. The
Institution has an Irish section.
Table 110
Clear Skies Programme
Title
Comments
Clear Skies programme
This £10 million programme provides funding for renewable energy installations.
The scheme has recently been extended to run until March 2006. Under the
programme householders can obtain grants between £400 to £5,000, while notfor-profit community organisations can receive up to £100,000. Included among
the list of supported technologies are wood-fuelled boiler systems and automated
pellet-heating systems. There are strict quality assurance mechanisms built into
the scheme, covering both installers and the products installed. Installers must be
accredited - “Accredited status means that the installer abides by a recognised Code of
Practice for quality assurance and customer service, agreeing that: they will not
misrepresent the economic and energy saving benefits of renewable energy systems;
they will not inflate the savings that the systems can make; they have appropriate
levels of insurance cover in place and they will ensure that the most appropriate
system is installed. There are monitoring checks in place to ensure that accredited
installers comply with the scheme standards. Their first installations will be site
inspected to ensure workmanship to high standards. A percentage of their subsequent
installations will also be site inspected.” (BRE Ltd., 2004, p7).
It is a condition for installers registered under the scheme to attend any training
that is provided under the scheme. The content of this training is under
development by the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE), which is also
responsible for responsible for the accreditation of installers and the approval of
consultants for feasibility studies. The training will be designed to give installers
greater insight into the processes of the scheme, how to make the scheme work
for them, and training on specific legal and technical issues relevant to their
particular technology. This will include, for example, training on the Pressure
Equipment Directive for installers of solar thermal systems. The training is only
available to installers already registered under the scheme. It is not the intention
of Clear Skies to provide training for those not already experienced in the relevant
technologies such that they would not qualify to join the scheme. This type of
training is being developed by various organisations for some of the technologies
and when ready, will be offered by colleges and other established training
institutions with specific entry requirements.
106
Table 111
(Former) Landfill Gas Association, Landfill Gas Courses
Title
Location
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Startup
Target group
Comments
Table 112
Advice and Training on Energy Crops
Locations around the UK.
www. johnamos.co.uk
John Amos & Co., Lion House, Broad Street, Leominster HR6 8PD, UK.
Tel. +44 1568 610007, Fax: +44 1568 611555, Email
[email protected]
Advice on energy crops (Miscanthus, Reed Canary Grass and Switch
Grass), bioenergy project development and management, and policy.
Field study tours, presentations, open days and training courses.
Marketing services.
The company provided four training days in 2004 in association with the
Country Land and Business Association (CLA).
Services
Comments
Loyton Renewable Energy Centre, Introduction to Wood Heating
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Delivered in 2000.
Mechanical and electrical engineers, technicians and landfill gas
operatives.
Based on DTI, 2000. The Renewable Power Association (RPA) (www.r-pa.org.uk) now incorporates what was formerly the Landfill Gas
Association (LFGA). The UK landfill gas sector is of a globally significant
size (Anon., 1997), amounting to 387 MWe of installed capacity in 2004
(DTI, 2004a). UK-based training on landfill gas is important for serving
the needs of the Irish landfill gas power generation sector.
John Amos & Co., Advice and Training on Energy Crops
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Table 113
"Utilisation and Management of Landfill Gas for Power Generation" and
"Gas Engines and Electrical Systems" by the (then) Landfill Gas
Association and the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers.
London
Five-day training courses.
An Introduction to Wood Heating
Loyton Renewable Energy Centre
www.loyton.co.uk
Renewable Heat & Power Ltd., Barnstaple, Devon.
Email
[email protected] or [email protected]
The course is designed to give introductory training in all aspects of
modern wood heating systems, primarily those under 50 kW.
None
•
Forms of wood fuel
•
Relevant building regulations British Standards
•
Specification of fuel type and quality
•
Combustion equipment options
•
Determination of heat load
•
Specification of chimney and venting arrangements
Brochure available online.
107
Table 114
NPTC, Brushwood Chipper Operations
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Certificate of Competence in Brushwood Chipper Operations
National Proficiency Tests Council (NPTC)
www.nptc.org.uk
NPTC, Avenue 'J', National Agricultural Centre, Stoneleigh, Warwickshire
CV8 2LG, UK. Tel. +44 24 7685 7300, Fax: +44 24 7669 6128, Email
[email protected]
Level 2 Certificate of Competence
Full-time or part-time modes available.
Operatives working in the forestry and arboricultural sectors.
16 years +
On completion students should be able to:
1. Identify, inspect and comment on key parts of the machine
2. Prepare the machine for work safely without risk to themselves, other
people or the environment
3. Carry out daily and routine maintenance on the machine
4. Operate the machine safely and competently without risk to
themselves, others or the environment
5. Follow the correct procedure to adjust chip size
6. Deal with blockages
7. Maintain cutting systems as per manufacturers instructions
8. Prepare the machine for transportation
1. Prepare the brushwood chipper for operation
2. Operate the brushwood chipper
3. Maintain the brushwood chipper
Written examination and practical assessment
This course is not specifically focused on woodchip production for
energy. However, this course would be of benefit to any operative
responsible for operating a chipper for wood chip production for
energy.
NPTC is a part of the City and Guilds Group and specialises in certifying
competence in forestry, arboriculture and agricultural skill training
programmes. It is likely that any specific skills training developed in the
area of forest machinery for energy wood production would be
accredited through the NPTC.
NPTC accredit courses delivered at the Coillte National Training Centre
in Mountrath, Co. Laois. Other NPTC topics include “Forestry, Chain Saw
and Arboriculture Qualifications” (including forest machine operations),
“Pesticides and Related Qualifications” (including fertilisers) and
“General Machinery Qualifications” (including maintenance) sectors.
108
Table 115
University of Wales, Introduction to Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Comments
Table 116
Introduction to Renewable Energy
School of Education and Lifelong Learning, University of Wales
www.greendragonenergy.co.uk/
To register: School of Education and Lifelong Learning, University of
Wales, Old College, King Street, Aberystwyth SY23 2AX, UK. Tel. +44
1970 622677, email [email protected] Information on course contents:
Green Dragon Energy, Tel. +44 1654 761 731, email
[email protected]
A completion certificates will be awarded to all participants.
Three day course, 6.5 hours per day.
£125
The course is aimed at those in the business, non-profit, public and
academic sectors who wish to get a comprehensive introduction to
renewable energy technology in general, as well as those wishing to
install renewable energy systems in both urban or rural settings. The
course is designed for both those with no technical knowledge and
those who have an engineering background.
None stated.
To examine how renewable energy systems work and what is
practicable, and to provide participants with the opportunity to develop
their own projects. On completion of the course participants should be
able to select an appropriate technology for a given situation, do
installation sizing calculations and specify system configuration.
None.
Overview of Renewable Energy Technologies. Electricity, Power and
Energy. Solar electricity, Solar water heating. Wind energy, Micro-hydro,
Biomass. Stand-alone systems, Grid-connected systems. System design,
sizing and costing.
Green Dragon send regular email updates on their courses.
A member of the Tipperary Institute Centre for Sustainable Energy
Development has completed a Green Dragon course. Green Dragon
also provide residential courses in Solar Electrical System Installation in
France.
Notes on Other Training and CPD Courses in the UK
Organisation
Cranfield University
CREST
de Montfort University
Dulas Ltd.
Intermediate
Technology Consultants
LILI (Low-Impact Living
Initiative)
Napier University
Peter Brotherhood Ltd.
Note
Two day training course on “Anaerobic Digestion: Fundamentals,
Design, Operation, Commissioning and Safety” (see www.edie.net).
Offers modules of postgraduate programmes as specialised modules for
professional training, including a five day course on “Advanced
Bioenergy” (Renewables East, 2005).
Offers modules of postgraduate programmes as specialised modules for
professional training.
Training on renewable energy.
Training on renewable energy.
Weekend introduction to biodiesel.
Five week part-time evening course on “Renewable Energy: Theory and
Practice” (Renewables East, 2005). See also Table 117.
Training of operators of bioenergy plants using the company’s turbo
alternator sets.
109
Royal Institution of
Chartered
Surveyors
(RICS)
Sundance Renewables
Has been involved in the organisation of events on biogas that count as
CPD allowances for RICS members, in association with the BIOEXELL
project. The BIOEXELL project was established with EU support, was coordinated by the University of Southern Denmark (see Table 74) and
included Tipperary Institute as a partner. The project is now being
continued by Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council on a
voluntary basis.
Offer training on liquid biofuels (see www.sundancerenewables.org.uk).
Undergraduate Courses
Table 117
Napier University, Energy and Environmental Engineering
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Energy and Environmental Engineering
Napier University
www.napier.ac.uk/, www.soe.napier.ac.uk
Roy Goodwin, Napier University, Edinburgh,
[email protected]
BEng/BEng (Hons)
3 Years(Degree) or 4 Years(Honours)
UK.
Email
Home-based UK students and students from EU countries pay no fees
up front - there is a graduate endowment tax payable after graduation
once earnings reach a certain level (at present the total payable is
£2,000). International students pay £8,450 per annum.
The course is running at least 25 years.
Can accommodate at least 50 students, never oversubscribed.
School leavers.
To educate energy engineers capable of finding cleaner, more efficient
ways of utilising traditional fossil fuels while investigating and
developing alternative, renewable energy sources such as solar, wind
and wave energy.
An industrial placement is incorporated into year 3 - academic studies
end at Easter. Students are on placement for a minimum of 20 weeks
prior to commencing their final, honours year.
The first one and a half years are in common with other BEng
Engineering programmes, which allows students to transfer between
these programmes during that period without difficulty.
Level 1: Professional Skills, Creative Engineering, Engineering Principles,
Maths, Computer Engineering, Electronic and Electrical Principles,
Engineering Science, Elective.
Level 2: Engineering Design, Mechatronics, Industrial Management,
Maths, Mechanics, Thermofluids, Materials and Manufacturing, Elective.
Level 3:
Engineering Applications, Manufacturing & Materials,
Renewable Energy Systems & Sustainability, Case Studies in Engineering
Economics, Group Assignment, Industrial Placement (Honours) or
Individual Project (Degree).
Level 4: Advanced Energy Systems A, Professional Engineering, Building
Services Engineering A, Advanced Energy Systems B, Building Services
Engineering B, Advanced Assignment, Honours Project.
Examination, project, coursework.
This is a long-established degree, which may have a background in
Scotland’s extensive fossil-fuel resources. Transfer to other programmes
in the engineering suite is possible. Napier University also offers a
Mechanical Engineering degree with a specialisation in Renewable
Energy. Some data provided by Goodwin (2004).
110
Table 118
Queen’s University Belfast, Advanced Crop Science
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Module on “Advanced Crop Science”
Queen’s University Belfast
www.qub.ac.uk
Mr Malcolm Dawson, Department of Agriculture and Rural
Development, Loughgall, Northern Ireland. Tel. +44 28 38892307,
email [email protected]
Module of Bachelor degree.
Almost 70 hours, including lectures, fieldwork, practicals, workshop and
seminar.
Maximum of 40 students.
BAgr Agriculture students.
Using examples of various crops to widen perspectives and develop
basic principles concerning crop growth and development and in
particular those amenable to sustainable alternatives to more
conventional cropping and land use.
Crop varieties and genetic modification; climate and crop growth,
cropping patterns and climate change; future cropping options;
agroforestry and biomass (including short rotation coppice); field
experimentation and data interpretation; horticultural crop technology
and production; crop and grassland physiology; weed science;
population dynamics and biodiversity; low input systems and organic
farming.
Assignments, an essay and examination.
Malcolm Dawson is a leading researcher on short rotation coppice.
There is also some content on anaerobic digestion in an agricultural
engineering course at the University (Lukehurst, 2005).
Table 119
UMIST, Architectural and Environmental Services Engineering
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Architectural and Environmental Services Engineering
University of Manchester
www.umist.ac.uk/civilandconstruction
Dr. Tony Sung, Manchester Centre for Civil & Construction Engineering,
School of Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK.
Email [email protected]
MEng
4 years full-time
£1,125 per year (EU students)
School-leavers, mature students
The degree has been designed to equip students with knowledge
relating to the design of low energy buildings and engineering systems
which include renewable energy alternatives, climate control, electric
power, data and voice communications, lighting, heating, ventilation
and air conditioning, fire protection and security systems.
Students participate in a series of architectural design studios aimed at
developing their creative design skills. The syllabus includes major
elements of management and project work. These give graduates a
good preparation for their contribution to the industry, and allow them
to develop and demonstrate critical judgments in pursuing project and
design work as part of their studies and in their careers.
111
Table 120
University of Edinburgh, Mechanical Engineering with Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Table 121
Mechanical Engineering with Renewable Energy
University of Edinburgh
www.see.ed.ac.uk/undergraduate/Flyers/renewable.pdf
The Undergraduate Selector, School of Engineering and Electronics.
Phone 0131 650 7701, Fax 0131 650 5893, email [email protected]
BEng / Meng
4 year full-time for BEng, 5 year full-time for MEng
£1,100 per year (EU students)
School-leavers, mature students.
The aim of this degree programme is to produce engineering graduates
who have a strong grounding in the core Mechanical Engineering
subjects, but also have a good background in energy studies, together
with an understanding of the social and economic aspects of energy
policy.
MEng students spend the second half of the 4th year working, at
graduate level, in industry or in an overseas academic institution.
Year 1: Engineering 1 course introduces mechanical, chemical, electrical,
civil and environmental engineering. Mechanical Engineering course
further develops basic engineering concepts. Mathematics course
covers algebra, calculus and numerical skills. Two additional courses can
be taken either to complement the renewable energy programme (e.g.
Technology and Society; Electrical Engineering) or to contrast with the
core engineering courses (e.g. Ancient History or a modern language).
Year 2: Mechanical Engineering: fluid mechanics, thermo-dynamics,
dynamics of mechanical systems, structural mechanics and electronics.
Design: includes specialist software design tools. Mathematics.
Industrial Management. Global Environmental Processes analyses the
geological, chemical, physical and biological processes which determine
the characteristics of the environment and how it changes with time.
Year 3: Mechanical and Renewable Energy Engineering - emphasis on
individual and energy-related group project work, personal organisation
and time management.
Year 4: specialist modules such as Energy Systems, Dynamics, Fluid
Mechanics, Solid Mechanics, Project Management, and Materials.
Extensive individual project for BEng students. Internship for MEng
students.
Year 5: substantial individual project based on some aspect of
renewable energy, together with selection from taught modules on
Energy Systems, CAD/CAM, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Materials,
Project Management, etc. Group project.
University of Exeter Cornwall, BSc Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
BSc Renewable Energy
University of Exeter Cornwall (UEC)
www.ex.ac.uk/cornwall/ugp/ugp-re.html
Dean Millar, Programme Director, Tel. +44 1326 371833, email
[email protected]
BSc
3 years full-time. Each year is divided into two semesters.
A limited number of scholarships, worth £1,000 per year, are awarded on
the basis of academic excellence.
112
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Table 122
University of Glamorgan, Energy and Environmental Technology
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Comments
Table 123
School-leavers, mature students
It provides a broad-based training appropriate for students who wish to
maximise their employment potential as energy professionals.
Year1: Communications & IT; Chemistry for Applied Sciences;
Foundation Mathematics; Surveying; Alternative Energy Sources;
Electrical & Electronic Principles; Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics;
Mathematics; Engineering Mechanics.
Year2: Electrical & Microprocessor Engineering; Fluid Mechanics;
Mathematics; The Energy Market, Policy & Environmental Law; Health &
Safety, Risk Management; Mechanics of Materials; Project Management;
Two options from: Environmental Assessment and Monitoring; Applied
Thermodynamics; Environment and Society; or Earth Systems Science.
Year3: Wind Turbines; Hydropower; Waste to Energy; GIS and CAD for
Renewable Energy; plus two options from Socio-Economic and
Environmental Impact Studies; Energy Storage Technology; Network
Engineering, Monitoring and Management; Data Acquisition and
Control. Dissertation; Economics, Resource Assessment and Appraisal;
Work placement report; plus three options from Solar Power; Energy
Generation from Biomass; Geothermal Energy; Energy Legislation;
Energy Auditing and Energy Conservation; Modelling, Simulation and
Control of Energy Systems.
Energy and Environmental Technology
University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales
www.glam.ac.uk
BSc Honours
3 years full-time.
Approx. £1,100 per year.
School-leavers, mature students.
This course gives an understanding of environmental issues in addition
to specialised knowledge of appropriate technology for the control of
pollution. The main themes are energy and environmental technology
and it can lead to membership of the Institute of Energy.
The following subjects are included:
Level one: energy technology, environmental technology and risk
management.
Level two: environmental management, management, energy
technology and environmental technology.
Level three: choice of courses about noise and vibration, energy in
buildings, water and sewage treatment, atmospheric pollution or land
and waste management.
This course has won the Esso UK Prize in the 4th Annual Partnership
Awards for the excellence of the teaching that is offered to students.
University of Leeds, Environmental/Energy Technology
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Environmental/Energy Technology
University of Leeds
www.leeds.ac.uk/fuel/und/undg.html
Alison Sowerby, Department of Fuel and Energy, University of Leeds,
Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Tel. +44 113 343 2498, Fax +44 113 244 0572, Email
[email protected]
BSc / BEng / MEng
113
Cost
Syllabus Content
Table 124
£1,125 per year (EU students)
This course concentrates on three main subjects:
1- Controlling pollution (air, water and land) from energy production at
source through for example better low emission design of combustion
devices e.g. in power generation or vehicle engines and the use of
renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind power.
2- The use of alternative fuels such as nuclear, biomass and energy from
waste, the wider issues of energy economics, environmental law, air
quality and transport management and land remediation.
3- Other major pollution problems of water supply, the cleanup of waste
water from industry and waste management.
University of Staffordshire, Design Technology for Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Table 125
Design Technology for Renewable Energy
University of Staffordshire
www.staffordshire.ac.uk
BSc Honours
3 years full-time
There is a need for designers who understand the technological
principles behind ecologically friendly energy policies. This course gives
the understanding and ability to generate and develop such solutions.
Level 1 introduces fundamental technological concepts together with a
range of transferable skills.
Levels 2 and 3 develop an awareness of environmental problems and
the increasingly stringent legislation. Levels 2 and 3 include material
properties, fluid technology, environmental measurement, renewable
energy technology, thermal technology, materials selection, electrical
technology, environmental law and utilities management in buildings,
as well as a technology project.
Notes on Other Undergraduate Programmes in the UK
Organisation
University of Aberdeen
University of Plymouth
University
Southampton
of
Note
Offer a BSc Honours in Renewable Resources (Renewables East, 2005).
Offer a BSc Honours in Mechanical Design and Manufacture with
Renewable Energy Studies (Renewables East, 2005).
Modules on anaerobic digestion in undergraduate courses (Chesshire,
2005).
114
Postgraduate Courses
Table 126
De Montfort University, Climate Change and Sustainable Development
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Marketing
Comments
Table 127
Loughborough University, Renewable Energy Systems Technology
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Climate Change and Sustainable Development
De Montfort University
www.iesd.dmu.ac.uk/msc/index.htm
Professor Paul Fleming, Programme Leader, Climate Change and
Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester/Bedford,
UK.
Tel: +44 116 257 7963, Fax +44 116 257 7977, email
[email protected]
MSc/PGDip/PGCert
1 year (variable). Modular courses for graduates and professionals.
Incorporates both taught and research components. Can be studied
full-time, part-time, by distance learning or as continuing professional
development.
Cost just over £3,000 for MSc
Started in 1997/98. Distance learning mode (as well as attendance)
made available in 2000/01 academic year.
Over 90 students enrolled, no capacity problems.
Graduates and professionals.
Applicants should normally have a good degree (second class or above)
in a relevant subject or five years work experience in an appropriate
field.
Taught modules: Energy in Buildings; Sustainable Development;
Renewable Energy; Integrated Environmental Strategies; People,
Society and Climate Change; Resource Use and Pollution; Energy
Analysis Techniques; Research Methods. In addition, each student
undertakes a piece of individual research, focusing on a topic of his or
her choice.
100% course work assessment
Graduates are getting good jobs following completion of this course.
There are strong links to EU energy agencies, Energy Cities, Climate
Change Protection campaign, Council of European Municipalities and
Regions energy work, etc.
The University also offers a postgraduate course (PGCert, PGDip or MSc)
in Energy and Sustainable Building Design. Some data from Fleming,
2004.
Renewable Energy Systems Technology
Loughborough University
www.lboro.ac.uk
Allison White, CREST, Loughborough University, UK. Tel. +44 1509
223466, email [email protected]
MSc
MSc: 1 year full-time, 3 years part-time (typical). Also available part-time
via distance learning.
Technical graduates or professionals.
Good honours degree in engineering or physics, or equivalent
qualification. Other disciplines acceptable if required mathematical and
technological skills proven.
The programme provides students with an advanced level of education
and practical training in renewable energy technologies, with special
emphasis on electricity generation and the integration of resources into
utility networks.
115
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 128
All modules in the first term include laboratory work. An optional (nonexaminable) foundation course at the beginning of the first semester is
available to supplement students’ knowledge of electrical, engineering
and fluid mechanics. In the second semester students can specialise in
two technologies and also take Integration of Renewables and
Sustainability, Policy and Environmental Management, the latter of
which is examined by a group project. Core Modules: Sustainability,
Policy and Environmental Management; Introduction to Solar Power;
Introduction to Wind Power; Introduction to Water Power; Introduction
to Biomass; Integration of Renewables; Specialised Modules: Advanced
Solar Power; Advanced Wind Power; Advanced Biomass.
By examination, coursework, and project submission.
Two UK professional engineering institutions (IEE and IMechE) have
recently approved the CREST’s MSc in Renewable Energy Systems
Technology as a matching section. This means that graduates who have
already completed accredited 3-year undergraduate degrees can use
satisfactory completion of the CREST MSc as a direct route to Chartered
Engineering status.
University of Durham, MSc in New and Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Startup
Target Group
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
MSc in New and Renewable Energy
University of Durham
www.dur.ac.uk/engineering/nareg/index2.htm
New and Renewable Energy Group, School of Engineering, University of
Durham. Email [email protected]
Masters (taught)
September 2005
Graduates with a degree in a science or engineering, candidates with
industrial experience.
To educate students in the key engineering aspects of new and
renewable energy, enabling them to undertake responsible, creative,
challenging and stimulating posts in industry or research.
Core: Renewable Energy Fundamentals; Research and Development
Project; Energy and the Environment (including biomass); Advanced
Engineering Design.
Optional: Energy Generation and Conversion Technologies; ThermoMechanical Energy Conversion Systems; Turbine Technology; Energy
Delivery and Network Integration
Oral and written examination, coursework, assignments, experiment,
major research and development project (50% of course).
Laboratories, guest lecturers.
The project may involve industry partners.
116
Table 129
University of Reading, Renewable Energy and the Environment
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Resources/Facilities
Comments
Postgraduate Diploma and MSc in Renewable Energy and the
Environment
University of Reading
www.rdg.ac.uk
Maureen Lewis, School of Construction Management & Engineering, The
University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW, UK.
Tel. + 44 118 987 5123 Ext 7560, email [email protected]
MSc 90 ECTS, Postgraduate Diploma 60 ECTS
The MSc lasts for 12 months full-time or 24 months part-time; the
Postgraduate Diploma for 9 months full-time or 21 months part-time.
The part-time programme is flexible, and can be taken by attendance for
two days per week throughout the period, or on a block study basis.
Candidates require a good background in physical science, through a
subject such as Engineering, Physics or Technology. Qualifying courses
are offered for graduates from other disciplines. These can be taken fulltime, part-time or by distance learning, and last for between 10 and 30
weeks full-time equivalent, depending on the background of the
candidate.
The programme is centred on the technology and application of
renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind, solar and hydropower.
These are set strongly in an environmental context, and economic and
social factors are also considered.
The course content includes: Biomass energy - conversion and use of
biomass fuels; Carbon accounting - effects of carbon dioxide on climate
change and analysis of carbon flows; Advanced biomass energy
(optional) - detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of biomass fuel
usage, such as in engines.
Computer and internet-based assignments, laboratory and written
reports. Small-group assignments. Some formal examinations. MSc
candidates undertake an individual research project, which usually
involves significant design and practical work, and may involve an
industrial partner.
Visits (including the Centre for Alternative Technology) and visiting
speakers.
The course is well established and has over 170 graduates world-wide.
The University also offers a BEng and MEng in Engineering Sustainability
with specialisation options including Renewable Energy, and Climate
Change.
117
Table 130
University of Ulster, Postgraduate Diploma/MSc Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Table 131
Postgraduate Diploma/MSc Renewable Energy
University of Ulster
www.ulster.ac.uk, www.campusone.ulster.ac.uk
Dr Stephen Lo, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland. Tel.
+44 28 90366907, email [email protected]
MSc / PG Dip
Available via distance learning.
£3,000 for MSc via online modules [ROI resident]
Technical graduates
To undertake the MSc programme candidates should normally possess a
second class honours degree or better in a science or engineering
discipline from a recognised institution. Candidates for the Diploma
should normally possess a degree in a science or engineering discipline
from a recognised institution and have been in related professional
employment for at least one year. Other qualifications deemed by the
Senate of the University of Ulster to be equivalent may be considered.
The programme enables those with a background in engineering or
science to specialise in renewable energy. Although the focus of the
programme is on renewable energy, the course has proved useful to
those involved in many aspects related to energy in general, particularly
those in management or a decision-making role regarding the
implementation of such technologies.
The current taught programme comprises modules in: Energy
Resources and Supply; Renewable Energy and Clean Technologies
including solar, hydro, tidal and wave energy technologies; Renewable
Energy Integration and Energy Efficiency in the Built Environment;
Research Design Methods; Renewable energy project.
Open book-type course work. There are no formal examinations.
Notes on Other Postgraduate Programmes in the UK
Organisation
Aston University
Centre for Alternative
Technology and the
University
of
East
London
London City University
Uk
Euniversities
Worldwide Ltd.
University of Glasgow
University
Nottingham
University
Southampton
of
of
Note
See also Table 135. Aston University is prominent in pyrolysis research,
and is a partner in the EU-supported Bioenergy Network of Excellence
project (see www.bioenergy-noe.org). The University also offers a BEng
Honours in Chemical Engineering (Energy and Environment)
(Renewables East, 2005).
The MSc Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
involves study and practical work. It is available through distance
learning mode, and is accredited by the Energy Institute. Some units are
offered via the CPD providers network of the Royal Institute of British
Architects.
Offer a MSc Energy Technology and Economics, with a module on
renewable energy (Renewables East, 2005).
Offer a Postgraduate Certificate and Masters in Renewable Energy, on a
self-study basis (Renewables East, 2005).
Offer a MA in Renewable Energy: Engineering in the Environment
(Renewables East, 2005).
Offer a MSc Renewable Energy and Architecture (Renewables East,
2005).
Modules on anaerobic digestion in postgraduate courses (Chesshire,
2005).
118
Other Countries
Training and CPD
Table 132
INFORSE, Internet Education on Renewable Energy
Title
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 133
Resources/Facilities
Comments
No charge for INFORSE members, European Non-Governmental
Organisations or members of the general public.
1999
25 to 30 for each cycle.
To provide students with basic knowledge about renewable energy
technologies and their use in different parts of the world.
Why Renewables?; Biomass Energy; Solar Energy; Hydro Power; Wind
Energy; Organising and Policy Making for Renewable Energy; Cases
Studies; Units.
Tests.
INFORSE is the “International Network for Sustainable Energy”
Natural Resources Canada, Training on RETScreen Software
Title
Location
Web
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Syllabus Content
Marketing
Distance Internet Education on Renewable Energy Technologies
www.inforse.org/europe/educat.htm
Emil Bedi, Foundation for Alternative Energy (FAE), Bratislava, Slovakia.
Tel. +421 2 63 836964, email [email protected]
Certificate from the INFORSE Secretariat.
Four months maximum.
Training on RETScreen Pre-Feasibility Analysis Software
Natural Resources Canada, Montreal
www.retscreen.net
Three days
RETScreen is a free decision support tool developed with the
contributions of experts from around the world. The spreadsheet-based
software evaluates energy production, lifecycle costs and greenhouse
gas emission reductions for various sustainable energy applications. It
includes models for biomass heating and Combined Heat and Power.
In addition to the software, there is access to an international weather
database, an online manual, case studies, an electronic textbook and an
online marketplace.
Website and email newsletter issued when updates or additions are
made to the software.
RETScreen has almost 50,000 users in over 200 countries. It is used on
the Tipperary Institute Certificate in Renewable Energy course. A
member of staff has completed the RETScreen course in Canada.
Some data from ITEBE, 2005.
119
Postgraduate Courses
Table 134
EUREC, European Master in Renewable Energy
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Level of Award
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Entry requirements
Internship
Syllabus Content
European Master in Renewable Energy
EUREC Agency (European Renewable Energy Centres Agency). The core
training is available in English, French and Spanish and awarded by the
following universities: Loughborough University, UK taught in English;
Zaragoza University, Spain taught in Spanish; Ecole des Mines de Paris,
France taught in French; Oldenburg University, Germany taught in
English. Students who go on to specialise in biomass technology attend
Zaragoza University
www.eurec.be/REMaster/index.html
Biomass programme Administrative Coordinator and Contact Person:
Prof. Sabina Scarpellini. Tel. +34 976 76 18 63, fax: +34 976 73 20 78,
email [email protected]
MSc or equivalent - 90 ECTS Credits. Also separate Diploma awarded in
Biomass Technologies from Zaragoza University.
The programme is run by a network of seven European universities and
research centres leading in renewable energy research, development
and demonstration. Education is divided into a "core" part providing
understanding of the whole range of renewable energy technologies,
followed by a "specialisation" at another university where the student
goes into depth in the technology of her or his choice, followed by an
internship and project. It has recently been extended to a 17 month fulltime programme.
The course fee is €6,500 for EU students, €7,500 for EU students who
apply after the deadline, and €10,000 for Non-EU students.
2002
For the academic year 2005-2006, the maximum number of students
that can participate will be approximately fifty. Each university has its
maximum number of students that it can admit. At no university will
there be groups of RE Master students larger than 20. In most cases, the
groups are between 8 and 15 students.
The European Master in RE is directed towards engineers that want to
specialise in one of the renewable energy technologies, such as wind
energy, biomass energy, photovoltaics, solar building technology or
hybrid systems.
Applicants are required to hold at least a four-year higher education
degree of a high standard, normally in an Engineering, Mathematics or
Physics subject or equivalent appropriate work experience. Additionally,
students must prove their ability to follow a postgraduate course. Nonnative English speaking students who did not follow a university degree
conducted in English must provide evidence of having sat an
appropriate exam.
The final six months are spent in a company or research centre where
the student carries out a personal practical or research project.
The core programme provides a firm technical background in the key
renewable energy fields, including bioenergy (fundamentals, biomass
sources, applications, associated environmental issues, anaerobic
digestion, landfill gas, energy from solid wastes, short rotation coppice,
advanced conversion technologies, laboratory work on anaerobic
digestion). Students who chose the biomass specialisation at Zaragoza
University receive comprehensive training on: Dry residual biomass and
energy crops; Wet residual biomass; Biofuels; Municipal solid waste
recovery. Laboratory, field and pilot plant work are included.
120
Assessment Method
Comments
Table 135
IMES EU-USA, Masters in Bioenergy and Environment
Title
Location
Web
Contact
Structure, Duration &
Delivery Mode
Cost
Startup
Number of places
Target group
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Comments
Assessment is through laboratory reports, mini-projects and end-ofsemester exams. Students are required to produce a master thesis and
to make a project presentation at the end of the programme.
Mr. Tom Bruton of Bruton Bioenergy is one of several Irish graduates
from the first cycle of this course.
IMES EU-USA Masters in Bioenergy and Environment
It is intended to be taught at three principal locations: University of
Florence (Florentina), Italy; Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal;
Aston University, United Kingdom.
www.de.unifi.it/Macchine/Martelli/IMES_Master/IMES.htm
Prof. F. Martelli (IMES project coordinator), University of Florence, Italy.
Tel. +39 055 4796340, Fax +39 055 4796342, email [email protected]
Duration 18 months. It will be taught at the three universities listed
above. In addition, there will be collaboration from United States-based
universities: Baylor University; Arizona State University; Embry-Riddle
University.
There will be funding available for up to five students to undertake a
placement at one of the three collaborating US universities.
2004
Maximum 15 at each university (total 45). Minimum of 10 students
required to run programme.
IMES is open to students who have graduated in Engineering, Natural,
mathematical, physical and chemical sciences, Agronomy and forestry,
Architecture (urban planning).
To provide studies connected with the various methods of production of
biomass, its conversion and upgrading to energy or other products, in a
sustainable manner that respects the environment and conservation of
resources.
The last six months of the course involve a project of research work or a
technological development study, which will lead to a dissertation.
The main topics on the course are: 1. Biomass production, 2. Biomass
conversion technologies, 3. Power generation and system analysis, 4.
Liquid biofuel utilisation, chemicals and hydrogen, 5. Environment
(including minimising negative impacts of bioenergy), 6. Business
management and economy. The course includes lectures, laboratory
studies, tutorials, field visits and workshops.
The course is supported by the EU and the US Department of Education
under the “EC/USA Cooperation Programme on Higher Education and
Vocational Training”. The three universities are also involved in the EUsupported project “Bioenergy Network of Excellence”.
121
Table 136
University of Zagreb, International MSc in Sustainable Energy Engineering
Title
Location
Web
Level of Award
Structure & Duration
Target group
Entry requirements
Course Aim
Internship
Syllabus Content
Resources/Facilities
Comments
International MSc in Sustainable Energy Engineering
Department of Thermodynamics, Thermal and Process Engineering and
the Department of Power Engineering, at the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
www.fsb.hr/see
Masters.
Nine months of taught courses and five months for a project thesis.
Technical graduates.
Bachelor degree or equivalent in relevant discipline.
Focus on developing the skills and knowledge necessary for providing
and utilising energy at the least financial, environmental and social cost.
Includes a week at the Centre for Advanced Academic Studies in
Dubrovnik.
Core modules include: Introduction to Energy Technology; Sustainable
Power Generation; Sustainable Energy Utilisation; Renewable Energy
Technology; Applied Energy Technology - Project Course; Energy and
Environment; and Energy Management. There are two parallel study
majors, both having a strong environmental focus: Sustainable Energy
Utilisation in the Built Environment (Thermal Comfort and Indoor
Climate; Applied Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology; Applied
Solar Technology) and Sustainable Power Generation (Applied Heat and
Power Technology; Wind, Biomass and Hydro Technology).
Guest lecturers, laboratories, study visits to projects.
Delivered in English. Developed with the support of the EU Tempus
programme with the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
(which has a similar programme), the University of Rijeka, Croatia, the
University of Split, Croatia and the University of Padova, Italy.
122
Appendix 2.
The Study Team
Tipperary Institute
Mr. Clifford Guest holds a National Certificate in Agriculture, a Diploma in Farm Business Organisation
and Management, an Advanced Diploma in the Organisation of Community Groups, a Master of Rural
Development and a Certificate in Training and Continuing Education. He lectures on sustainable rural
development, agriculture, agricultural policy and sustainable energy. His project work focuses on
bioenergy, particularly anaerobic digestion and short rotation coppice. He worked previously in the
development of rural tourism for a state development agency, and as a farm manager in the UK, Australia
and New Zealand. He is Honorary Treasurer of the Irish Bioenergy Association (IrBEA –www.irbea.org).
Clifford has completed bioenergy training in Austria (wood heating and biogas), Denmark (biogas),
Germany (biogas), Ireland (short rotation coppice) and Sweden (short rotation coppice).
Mr. Kevin Healion holds a Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology, a Postgraduate Diploma in
Environmental Engineering, a Certificate in Training and Continuing Education and a Higher Diploma in
Adult and Community Education. He lectures on environmental management and renewable energy.
His project work focuses on the community-based development of bioenergy. He previously worked as
an environmental consultant. Kevin was a member of the Bioenergy Strategy Group established by the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. He is a former member of the
Management Committee of the Irish Bioenergy Association. Kevin has completed bioenergy training in
Austria (wood heating and biogas), Denmark (biogas), Germany (biogas), Ireland (short rotation coppice)
and Sweden (short rotation coppice).
Mr. Seamus Hoyne has a Bachelor of Engineering and a Masters of Engineering from the University of
Limerick, and is completing a Masters in Energy Management with the University of Ulster. He lectures in
Tipperary Institute on computer applications, Geographic Information Systems, project management
and natural resource management (energy and waste). His project and research work includes wood for
heat, wind energy and community involvement in renewable energy. He is Managing Director of the
Tipperary Energy Agency (www.tea.ie). He worked previously as a Research Assistant on the design and
development of a forest residue bundling system in the University of Limerick. He was the Chairperson
of the Association of Irish Energy Agencies (www.aiea.ie) in 2003. Seamus has completed bioenergy
training in Canada (RetScreen renewable energy pre-feasibility software) and Ireland (“Wood Fuels Basic
Information Pack”).
Waterford Institute of Technology
Mr. Tom Kent graduated with a Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Forestry) from University College
Dublin. He is the course leader of the BSc. in Forestry (Ordinary) at Waterford Institute of Technology,
lecturing in Forest Management, Wood Science, Forest Mensuration and Forestry and the Environment.
He is active in research and innovation, in the areas of biomass resource studies, economic analysis of
biomass and is currently the promoter of an EU-funded Leonardo da Vinci pilot training project, WESST Wood Energy Supply Systems Training, which seeks to provide relevant short training courses for the
forestry sector on developing wood energy markets. He worked previously as a researcher with Coillte
Teoranta, Teagasc, ESB International and duQuesne Ltd. From 1996 - 1999 he was national co-ordinator
of the EU-supported Agriculture and Forestry Biomass Network (AFB-net).
Bruton Bioenergy
Mr Tom Bruton has a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture and Food Engineering from University College
Dublin and a European Masters in Renewable Energy Technologies from the Ecole Des Mines, Paris. He
has also received a Diploma in Biomass Energy Technology at the University of Zaragoza and a Diploma
in Management Practice from the Dublin Institute of Technology. Tom has extensive experience working
in the EU and speaks French and Spanish in addition to English. He previously managed significant
capital projects in a manufacturing facility in Ireland and worked on government policy development to
support the bioenergy industry in Victoria, Australia. He has now established a bioenergy engineering
and advisory services business to support the emerging Irish industry. He is Secretary of the Irish
Bioenergy Association.
123
International Expert Review Panel
Dr. Julije Domac received a PhD for his research into the social and economic aspects of bioenergy
systems at the University of Zagreb. He also holds a Masters of Science from the same institution during
which he researched a framework for bioenergy use in Croatia. He is a Senior Researcher with the
Croatian Hrvoje Pozar Energy Institute. He has been the Croatian project partner in a large number of
international co-operative bioenergy research programmes and has access to an extensive network of
bioenergy specialists. He is Leader of International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 29, on the socioeconomics of bioenergy (Tipperary Institute are Country Representative for Ireland). See www.ieabioenergy-task29.hr and www.aboutbioenergy.info.
Mr. Jean-Marc Jossart holds a Degree in Agronomy from the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) in
Belgium. He has over twelve years experience in the bioenergy sector. He is responsible for the biomass
programme at UCL. Projects undertaken by UCL cover topics such as short rotation coppice, wood
gasification, combined food and biomass production, wastewater treatment using willows and
promotion of short rotation coppice as an alternative farm enterprise. For example, the SRC-GAZEL
project includes a demonstration short rotation coppice plantation and a wood gasification plant for
electricity production. Jean-Marc has acted as General Secretary of the European Biomass Association
(AEBIOM) since 1997. AEBIOM has 28 national biomass associations as members, including the Irish
Bioenergy Association. The activities of AEBIOM include networking, lobbying, project work and
information dissemination (see www.ecop.ucl.ac.be/aebiom).
Ms Katharina Krell holds a Masters of Business Administration (MBA) with a specialisation in public affairs
from the United Business Institutes, Brussels in addition to a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Graduate
Institute for International Studies, Geneva. She is Secretary General of the European Renewable Energy
Centres (EUREC) agency after joining the agency as programme manager for the EUREC European
Masters in Renewable Energy Technologies. Katharina speaks fluent French, English, Spanish and
Russian. Her strong communication skills and experience in the renewable energy education sector
allow her to manage a network of over 41 renewable energy research institutions across Europe.
124
Appendix 3.
Other Suggestions Made During the Study
A number of suggestions were made during the Study. While not key recommendations, they are
nonetheless valuable, and are thus recorded here.
Awareness
Fund bioenergy scholarships for third level education (undergraduate and postgraduate), perhaps in cooperation with the relevant Research Councils, and for industrial development skills. The example of the
Special Scholarship in Economic Modelling and Forecasting in Energy from the Irish Research Council for
Science, Engineering & Technology and SEI is relevant.
Provide information for consumers on wood heating system fuelling, operation and maintenance (e.g.
Baker, 2004). Include wood energy in fuel cost comparison sheets so that potential wood energy users
can compare costs with fossil fuels in a consistent way. With the availability of wood pellets in Ireland,
reliable information on wood fuel costs is now obtainable.
Promote inclusion of bioenergy where possible in the school curricula at primary and second levels. The
importance of this action has been emphasised by one of the Study Team’s international experts, Dr.
Julije Domac. Suggestions include:
• Sponsor a prize for the best bioenergy project at the Young Scientists’ competition (in a similar way
to the COFORD-sponsored forestry prize);
• Write to all guidance counsellors in second-level schools to emphasise the importance of sustainable
energy for the future of Ireland, outlining the courses that contain a sustainable energy element, and
advising them where they can obtain further information.
• Consider the idea of a brochure on training, education and careers within the renewable energy
industry. Lantra, the UK Sector Skills Council for the environmental and land-based sector, has
recently produced such a brochure for the Scottish forestry and wood processing industry entitled
“To the Top of the Tree: A Future in Scotland’s Forest Industries” (Scottish Forest Industries Cluster,
2005). The transferability of bioenergy industry skills to other utility-based sectors should be
emphasised.
Provide grants for information boards and facilities for students, researchers and visitors (e.g. viewing
galleries) at bioenergy plants (see Swedish example in Table 103).
Industry
Industry actors should provide mutual support through membership of industry associations, perhaps
aided by regional discussion groups, ‘Clubs’ or ‘Chapters’.
Statistics
Collect and analyse data on employment trends in the renewable energy sector.
Strategic Co-operation
Continue and expand the existing co-operation between SEI, the Local Energy Agencies (LEAs) and the
LEADER companies. The Association of Irish Energy Agencies is a useful single point of contact. The LEAs
by their nature have good local linkages, and they may be in a position to provide support to project
developers and project operators. The LEADER companies represent possible funders of bioenergy
training at local level, and could also provide funding towards project construction.
Support
Consider the establishment of a mentor network consisting of people with specific expertises on
bioenergy to provide technical advice, support and facilitation to emerging projects. A need for such
mentoring was expressed during the consultations with the bioenergy industry. The service should also
be made available to students and researchers.
Training and Education Providers
Ensure that the format and content of prospectuses allows prospective students to quickly and clearly
identify programmes which have renewable energy content. Promote existing training and education
services on the EU ManagEnergy website (www.managenergy.net).
125
Appendix 4.
AAI
ACCS
ADEME
ASDER
AT
AER
ASA
BAC
BE
BSc
BTEC
CAD
CAM
C&D
CAT
CEBW
CEMR
CHP
CIWM
CLER
CPD
DCMNR
DE
DEA
DESS
DEUG
DG TREN
DIT
DK
DKIT
DTU
ECSSA
ECTS
ENSAM
EPA
EREC
ERG
ESA
ESB
ETCI
EU
EUREC
EVA
FAS
FETAC
FH
GCE
FI
FR
GCSE
GIS
GMIT
H
HEA
HETAC
HVAC
IBBK
IBEC
ICMSA
ICOS
List of Abbreviations
Architecture Association of Ireland
Accumulation of Credits and Certification of Subjects
Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maitrise de l’Energie
Association Savoyarde pour le Développement des Energies Renouvelables
Austria
Alternative Energy Requiremen
Agricultural Science Association
Baccalauréat (French)
Bachelor of Engineering
Bachelor of Science
Business and Technology Education Council (UK)
Computer-Aided Design
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Construction and Demolition
Centre for Alternative Technology
Clean Energy from Biomass and Waste
Council of European Municipalities and Regions
Combined Heat and Power
Chartered Institution of Wastes Management
Comité de Liaison Énergies Renouvelables
Continuing Professional Development
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources
Germany
Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies
Diplôme d'Etude Supérieures Spécialisées (five years of study following second-level school)
Diplôme d'Etudes Universitaires Générales
Directorate-General for Transport and Energy, European Commission
Dublin Institute of Technology
Denmark
Dundalk Institute of Technology
Danish Technical University
Electrical Contractors Safety and Standards Association
European Credit Transfer System
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers
Environmental Protection Agency
European Renewable Energy Council
Energy Research Group (UCD)
Environmental Services Association (UK)
Electricity Supply Board
Electro-technical Council of Ireland
European Union
European Renewable Energy Centres Agency
Austrian Energy Agency (Austrian German)
Ireland’s National Training and Employment Authority
Further Education and Training Awards Council
Fachhochschule
General Certificate of Education
Finland
France
General Certificate of Standard Education
Geographical Information Systems
Galway Mayo Institute of Technology
Higher level (in the Irish Leaving Certificate examination)
Higher Education Authority
Higher Education and Training Awards Council
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
Internationales Biogas and Bioenergie Kompetenzzentrum
Irish Business and Employers Confederation
Irish Creamery Milk Suppliers’ Association
Irish Co-operative Organisation Society
126
ICSA
IE
IEE
IEI
IFA
IFCA
ILSU
IMechE
IT
ITEBE
ITGA
IUT
kTOE
LEA
LEB
LILI
LIT
MSc
MSW
NPTC
NUI
NVQ
O
OPW
PGCert
PGDip
PhD
PREDAC
RD&D
RE
RECI
RIAI
ROI
SCS
SE
SEI
SLU
SWS
TI
TOEFL
TPER
TU
UCAS
UCC
UCD
UK
VCE
WIT
Irish Cattle and Sheep Farmers’ Association
Ireland
Institution of Electrical Engineers
Institution of Engineers of Ireland
Irish Farmers’ Association
Irish Forestry Contractors Association
Irish LEADER Support Unit
Institution of Mechanical Engineering
Information Technology
European Technical Institute for Wood Energy (French)
Irish Timber Growers Association
Institut Universitaire de Technologies
kilo (thousand) Tonnes of Oil Equivalent
Local Energy Agency
Ländliche Erwachsenenbildung
Low-Impact Living Initiative
Limerick Institute of Technology
Master of Science
Municipal Solid Waste
National Proficiency Tests Council
National University of Ireland
National Vocational Qualification
Ordinary level (in the Irish Leaving Certificate examination)
Office of Public Works
Post-graduate Certificate
Post-graduate Diploma
Doctor of Philosophy
A project which aims at promoting local development of renewable energies and energy
efficiency in Europe, Co-ordinated by CLER; co-funded by ADEME and DG TREN
Research, Development and Demonstration
Renewable Energy
Register of Electrical Contractors of Ireland
Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Society of Chartered Surveyors
Sweden
Sustainable Energy Ireland
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)
South Western Services
Tipperary Institute
Teaching of English as a Foreign Language
Total Primary Energy Requirement
Technische Universität
Universities and Colleges Admissions Service
University College Cork
University College Dublin
United Kingdom
Vocational Certificate of Education
Waterford Institute of Technology
127
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