Datum Systems | PSM-500L | Specifications | Datum Systems PSM-500L Specifications

Datum Systems PSM-500L Specifications
M500 VSAT/SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500/PSM-500L/500LT
Installation and Operation Manual
Revision 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Safety Notice .............................................................................................................. vii
EMC Notice ................................................................................................................. vii
Revision History .............................................................................................................................. viii
Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual ............................................................................. viii
Chapter 1 - PSM-500 Modem Description ........................................................................................ 1-1
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.0.1 How to Use This Manual .............................................................................................. 1-1
1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users .................................................................. 1-2
1.0.3 What’s New – This Modem and This Manual ............................................................... 1-2
1.1 Modem Capabilities................................................................................................................ 1-2
1.1.1 Modem IF Variations .................................................................................................... 1-2
1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations ..................................................................................... 1-3
1.1.3 Applications .................................................................................................................. 1-4
1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links .................................................................................. 1-4
1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application.............................. 1-4
1.1.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access)....................................................... 1-5
1.1.3.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application ....................... 1-5
1.2 Modem Functional Assemblies .............................................................................................. 1-6
Figure 1-2
Modem Block Diagram ....................................................................... 1-7
1.2.1 Modulator ...................................................................................................................... 1-8
1.2.2 Demodulator ................................................................................................................. 1-9
1.2.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing .............................................................................................. 1-10
Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options ....................................................................... 1-11
1.2.4 Control Processor ....................................................................................................... 1-12
1.2.5 Acquisition Processor ................................................................................................. 1-12
1.2.6 Standard Data Interface ............................................................................................. 1-12
1.2.6.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function .................................................................. 1-13
1.2.6.2 Data Interface BERT Function .......................................................................... 1-13
1.2.6.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function ......................................................... 1-13
1.2.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer ...................................................................... 1-14
1.2.7.1
Modem Control Channel (MCC) .................................................................... 1-15
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table of Contents
1.2.7.1.1
AUPC Control Channel (AUPC) ........................................................... 1-15
1.2.7.1.2
Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC) ............................................. 1-15
1.2.7.1.3
Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC) ................................................... 1-15
1.2.8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards ............................................................... 1-15
1.2.8.0 Special Codec CT Modes ................................................................................. 1-18
1.2.8.1 Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation Codec ............................................................ 1-18
1.2.8.2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability ...................................................................... 1-18
1.2.8.3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability............................................................... 1-20
1.2.8.4 LDPC FEC Capability ....................................................................................... 1-20
1.2.9 Optional Interface Capability ...................................................................................... 1-21
1.2.10 Modem Circuit Implementation ................................................................................. 1-21
Chapter 2 - Installation ....................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.0 Installation Requirements ...................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 Unpacking .............................................................................................................................. 2-1
2.1.1 Removal and Assembly ................................................................................................ 2-1
2.2 Mounting Considerations ....................................................................................................... 2-1
2.3 Modem Connections .............................................................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-1 Modem Rear Panel ................................................................................ 2-5
2.3.1 Data Interface Pin Connections .................................................................................... 2-6
Table 2–1 Data Interface Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal ................................. 2-6
2.3.1.1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment .................................................. 2-7
2.3.2 Remote Control Connection ......................................................................................... 2-7
Table 2–2. Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment .............................................. 2-8
2.3.3 Alarm Connection ......................................................................................................... 2-8
Table 2–3. Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment ................................................. 2-8
2.3.4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection .......................................................................................... 2-9
2.3.5 L-Band BUC Power Connection ................................................................................... 2-9
Table 2–4. BUC Power Connector J11 Pin Assignment ..................................... 2-9
2.3.6 Redundancy Connection .............................................................................................. 2-9
Figure 2-2 - Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy ............................................ 2-10
2.3.6.1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy ................................................................... 2-11
2.4 Modem Checkout ................................................................................................................. 2-12
2.4.1 Initial Power-Up .......................................................................................................... 2-12
2.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel................................................................................... 2-12
2.5.1 Parameter Setup ........................................................................................................ 2-13
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Table of Contents
2.6 Modem Terminal Mode Control ........................................................................................... 2-13
2.7 Self-Test Mode ..................................................................................................................... 2-14
2.8 IF Loop-back Test Mode ...................................................................................................... 2-14
2.8.1 Built-in BERT .............................................................................................................. 2-14
2.9 Modem Configuration ........................................................................................................... 2-15
2.9.0 Configuring the Modem for Operation ........................................................................ 2-15
2.9.1 Setting Essential Parameters ..................................................................................... 2-15
Modulator and Demodulator ..................................................................................... 2-15
Modulator .................................................................................................................. 2-15
Demodulator ............................................................................................................. 2-15
2.9.1.1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection ................................................... 2-16
2.9.1.2 Using The Proper Scrambler ............................................................................ 2-16
IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation ...................................................................... 2-16
IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation ...................................................................... 2-16
Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation ............................................................................ 2-16
Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation ....................................................................... 2-16
2.9.1.3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature ...................... 2-16
2.9.1.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature .................................. 2-17
2.9.2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters .................................................................................. 2-17
2.9.2.1 Initial Acquisition ............................................................................................... 2-18
2.9.2.2 Carrier Re-acquisition ....................................................................................... 2-18
2.9.3 Sample Configuration Setting ..................................................................................... 2-19
2.9.4 Setting Additional Parameters .................................................................................... 2-20
2.9.4.1 Data Interface Compatibility ....................................................................... 2-20
2.9.4.2 Automatic Correction .................................................................................. 2-20
2.9.4.3 Alarm configuration..................................................................................... 2-20
Figure 2-3 - Alarm Processing .................................................................................. 2-21
2.9.5 Using the Internal or an External Reference .............................................................. 2-22
2.9.5.1 Reference Calibration .............................................................................................. 2-22
2.9.6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name .......................................................................... 2-23
2.9.7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation ..................................... 2-24
2.10 Interface Type Configuration.............................................................................................. 2-24
2.10.1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type ..................................................... 2-24
2.11 Option FEC Card Installation ............................................................................................. 2-25
2.11.1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation ................................................................. 2-26
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Figure 2-5
Table of Contents
FEC Option Card Installation ............................................................... 2-27
Chapter 3 - Operation ......................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 Operating Procedures ............................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1.1 Front Panel Control ...................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2 Front Panel Layout and Features ................................................................................. 3-1
3.1.2.1 Front Panel LCD Display .................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2.2 Front Panel Keypad ............................................................................................ 3-2
3.1.2.3 Front Panel LED Indicators ................................................................................. 3-4
Modem LED Indicators ............................................................................................... 3-4
Modulator LED Indicators ........................................................................................... 3-4
Demodulator LED Indicators ...................................................................................... 3-4
3.1.3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control.................................................................... 3-5
3.1.3.1 Navigating Modem Parameters .......................................................................... 3-5
3.1.3.2 Monitoring Modem Parameters........................................................................... 3-6
3.1.3.3 Changing Modem Parameters ............................................................................ 3-6
3.1.3.4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences .......................................................... 3-7
3.1.3.5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits ....................................................................... 3-7
3.2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters ........................................................................ 3-7
Table 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet ..................................... 3-9
Table 3-4 PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet ............................ 3-11
Table 3-5. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail .................................................................... 3-12
Table 3-6. Modulator Parameter Detail .......................................................................... 3-16
Table 3-7. Demodulator Parameter Detail ..................................................................... 3-20
Table 3-8. Interface Parameter Detail ............................................................................ 3-25
3.3 Terminal Mode Control ........................................................................................................ 3-27
3.3.1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode ............................................................................... 3-27
Figure 3-2a. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen ........................ 3-28
Figure 3-2b. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection ....... 3-28
Figure 3-3. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen .............................. 3-29
3.3.2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens .................... 3-29
3.4 Remote Command Interface Control ................................................................................... 3-30
3.4.1 System Unit Programming/Communications ............................................................. 3-30
3.5 Modem Checkout ................................................................................................................. 3-30
3.5.1 Power-Up .................................................................................................................... 3-31
3.6 L-Band Feature Operation ................................................................................................... 3-31
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Table of Contents
3.6.1 L-Band BUC Control ................................................................................................... 3-32
3.6.2 L-Band LNB Control ................................................................................................... 3-32
3.7 Data Interface Clock Options ............................................................................................... 3-32
3.7.1 VSAT Mode ................................................................................................................ 3-32
3.7.2 SCPC Mode ................................................................................................................ 3-33
3.7.3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode .......................................................................... 3-33
3.8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation ............................................................ 3-33
3.9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation........................................................................ 3-35
3.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation .......................................................................... 3-36
3.10.1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode ........................................................................... 3-37
3.10.2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode ............................................................................ 3-38
3.10.2.1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode...................................... 3-38
3.10.3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode ..................................... 3-39
3.11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation ......................................................................... 3-39
3.12 Analog Monitor Output Operation ...................................................................................... 3-39
3.13 Storing and Recalling Configuration .................................................................................. 3-40
3.14 Automatic Configuration Recovery - ACR ......................................................................... 3-40
3.15 Special Control Mechanisms ............................................................................................. 3-41
3.15.1 Power-Up Behavior .................................................................................................. 3-41
3.15.2 Monitors and Outputs ............................................................................................... 3-41
3.16 Burst Mode Operation ........................................................................................................ 3-41
Chapter 4 - Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.0 Periodic Maintenance ............................................................................................................ 4-1
4.0.1 Internal Reference Calibration ...................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 Common Test Procedures ..................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1 Loop-Back Testing........................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1.2 Using the Built-in BERT ................................................................................................ 4-3
4.2 Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................... 4-4
4.2.1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators ..................................................................................... 4-6
4.2.2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics ......................................... 4-7
4.2.3 Built-in Lamp Test ......................................................................................................... 4-7
4.3 Updating Modem Software .................................................................................................... 4-7
4.3.1 Update Software Installation – ..................................................................................... 4-9
4.3.2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update – ............................................................. 4-10
4.4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set...................................................................................... 4-14
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table of Contents
4.5 Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ ..................................................................................... 4-15
A. Link Set Up and Installation. ............................................................................................. 4-15
A.1 Compatibility with other Modems. ................................................................................. 4-15
A.2 Operating and Performance Questions. ....................................................................... 4-16
A.3 Why does It do that? ..................................................................................................... 4-18
B. Front Panel Control ........................................................................................................... 4-18
C. Remote Control ................................................................................................................. 4-19
D. Data Interface.................................................................................................................... 4-20
E. Manual .............................................................................................................................. 4-21
Appendices
Appendix A – PSM-500 Technical Specifications ............................................................... A–1
Appendix B – Remote Control Command Protocol ............................................................ B–1
Appendix C – Cabling Specifications .................................................................................. C–1
Appendix MUX – Framing/Multiplexer Addendum ......................................................... MUX–1
Appendix TPC – Turbo Product Codes FEC Addendum ............................................... TPC–1
Appendix HSSI – High Speed Serial Interface Addendum ........................................... HSSI–1
Appendix SNIP – SnIP Ethernet Interface Addendum .................................................. SNIP–1
Appendix LDPC – LDPC FEC Addendum ................................................................... LDPC–1
Note: All appendices may not be present in manual. Some Appendixes may be shipped with
the option.
vi
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Notices
Safety Notice
This equipment has been designed in accordance with UL and CSA standards for Safety of
Information Technology Equipment.
The PSM-500 Modem contains potentially lethal voltages inside the case. Extreme caution should
be exercised when the cover is removed by following the precautions listed below
Never operate the equipment with the cover removed. Never remove the cover with power applied.
As a safety measure the power cord should be disconnected from the unit when preparing to
remove the cover.
This modem is designed for indoor use. Do not operate this equipment in a wet environment or
outdoors.
Do not operate the modem in an unsafe environment near explosive or flammable gases or liquids
Insure good grounding practices. The grounding lug on the rear of the modem should be connected
to a good earth ground with low impedance cable in rack installations.
The modem is supplied with an IEC filtered power inlet module designed to accept a 3-wire mains
connection consisting of an earth ground, neutral and line conductors. The mating power cord
should have a line cord and plug suitable for the country of operation.
EMC Notice
This equipment has been designed in accordance with FCC and CE standards.
FCC: Part 15, Subpart B, Class A
CE Emissions: EN 55022 Class A, EN 61000-3-2 Class A, EN 61000-3-3
CE Immunity: EN 55024
ICES-003, Class A
To maintain compliance with these standards the following the precautions must be observed.
The equipment must be operated with the cover and all cover screws in place.
Do not remove the rear panel option plate without replacing it with one designed for a specific option
assembly.
All rear connections are designed to have integral shielding on the cable and connector assembly.
“D” type signal connectors must have grounding fingers on the connector shell.
PSM-500/500L/500L - Rev. 0.91
vii
Notices
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
About This Manual
This manual is composed of several separable documents. They include the main body of the
manual and several “Appendices”. The main body itself is separated into several “Chapters” and
“Sections”. A “Section is considered a sub-section of a Chapter, such as Section 4.1.2 is a
numbered section within Chapter 4. Page numbers include the Chapter, as in page 3-14.
This manual is available in a printed form and as an electronic “Portable Document Format” or .PDF
file. The electronic format is produced as a universal Adobe Acrobat readable file, and can be
requested directly from Datum Systems, Inc., or via download from the web at
www.datumsystems.com. The electronic format on the web is always the latest revision.
Revision History
Revision 0.8
3/17/2006
Initial Public Release. ** Preliminary ** Requires minimum Modem
Software Revision 0.12.
Revision 0.83
12/4/2006
Still. ** Preliminary ** Includes additional FEC modes. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.21.
Revision 0.85
12/14/2006
Includes additional FEC modes and corrections. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.26.
Revision 0.86
8/12/2007
Includes additional FEC modes, corrections and new menu features for
Unit Configuration, RTS Monitor and Transmit Mute. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.52.
Revision 0.87
1/10/2008
Includes added Advanced TPC modes and corrections. Requires minimum
Modem Software Revision 0.63.
Revision 0.88
4/10/2008
Includes added 8QAM modulation, HSSI references, revised M500 Update
procedures and corrections. Requires minimum Modem Software Revision
0.72.
Revision 0.90
10/20/2010
Removes references to PSM-500H modem which is not available in the
PSM-500 Series.
Revision 0.91
7/15/2011
Update data rate limits and add more LDPC information. Added AUPC
setup example.
Pen and Ink Changes Made to this Manual
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
viii
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
Chapter 1 - PSM-500 Modem Description
1.0 Introduction
The Datum Systems’ PSM-500 Series are multi modulation mode VSAT/SCPC Satellite Modems.
They are capable of BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, 8PSK, 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes on
transmit and receive independently Their main use is as part of the transmitting and receiving
ground equipment in a satellite communications system. The PSM-500 series uses the latest Digital
Signal Processing (DSP) technology and proprietary techniques to provide unsurpassed
performance at a low cost.
The PSM-500 series is available in 4 IF versions with 3 upgradeable “feature sets” in each. The
matrix below shows the current IF versions available or planned, and the matrix in Section 1.1.2 on
the next page shows the feature sets available. Note that the terms PSM-500S and N are not
normally used except to differentiate between different IF versions.
PSM-500 Series IF Interface Versions.
Interface
Versions
PSM-500S
PSM-500N
PSM-500L
PSM-500LT
IF Transmit
50 ~ 90 MHz
100 ~ 180 MHz
950 ~ 1750 MHz
950 ~ 1750 MHz
IF Receive
50 ~ 90 MHz
100 ~ 180 MHz
950 ~ 1900 MHz
950 ~ 1900 MHz
The PSM-500 with a standard 70 (or 140) MHz IF is the first member of Datum Systems’ M500
Class Modem products, representing a major extension to our fifth generation of innovative design
concepts proven and refined over ten years of production. The PSM-500L is the second, utilizing LBand frequencies for both the Transmit and Receive IF, it creates the ability to build extremely
simple and low cost high performance VSATs All M500 class products encompass significant
performance improvement over previous modems at reduced cost. The PSM-500LT is the third,
providing an integrated BUC power supply.
The modem is designed for service in varied types of satellite systems. Either SCPC systems where
two modems are set for continuous operation with each other, or shared resource systems where
modem carriers are not continuous in nature, such as DAMA networks, where outgoing signals from
the modem can be operated in an extremely fast acquisition mode.
The modem is designed to be easily integrated into either a master or remote station via rack
mounting. A highly integrated design allows the PSM-500 to be built into a one rack unit (1 RU,
1.75”) high mounting case, using minimal power for dense applications. The modem is an integral
part of a satellite earth station’s equipment operating between the Data Terminal Equipment and the
station Up and Downconverter equipment.
1.0.1 How to Use This Manual
This manual provides Installation, Operating and Maintenance procedures for the PSM-500 Satellite
Modem and available options at the time of printing.
This manual is an integral part of the modem and is used to explain the installation and operating
procedures for the PSM-500 and present its capabilities and specifications. The manual is divided
into 4 Chapters with Appendices. The 4 Chapters are the Modem Description, Installation, Operation
and Maintenance. The Appendices include the Specifications, Remote Control Protocol and gives
further information on Options, Cabling and information related to placing the Modem in service.
The divisions of the manual are intended for use by personnel to answer questions in general areas.
Planners and potential purchasers may read the Introduction and Specifications to determine the
suitability of the modem to its intended use; Installers should read the Installation Chapter and the
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-1
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Cabling Specification Appendix; Operating Personnel would use the Operations Chapter to become
familiar with the Modem; while System Programmers would use the Remote Control Protocol to
determine control requirements.
The PSM-500, 500L and 500LT modems are fully interchangeable with the single exception of the IF
input frequency range. In addition all options available for the PSM-500 are usable with the L or LT
version. The term PSM-500 is used throughout this manual where references apply to either the
PSM-500, 500L or 500LT modems. Where a subject is specific to one modem the “L” or “LT” suffix is
used or the specific differences in operation between the three modem versions are detailed.
1.0.2 Quick Start for Experienced Modem Users
If you are experienced with modems, but not this particular one, you may want to skip some of the
introductory material and learn how to operate the front panel to set up the modem immediately. Go
directly to Section 3.1 – “Operating Procedures” and get a feel for how the front panel operates.
Then scan Tables 3-1 through 3-4 listing the parameters that can be changed, and set up the
modem for your application. We strongly recommend that you go back to learn more, as these
modems have extensive capabilities and features that are unique. A list of abbreviations is located at
the end of the “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) in Chapter 4.
1.0.3 What’s New – This Modem and This Manual
If you are familiar with Datum Systems modems, especially the PSM-4900, then you should feel
comfortable with both this modem’s operation and this manual. There are some significant
differences you should review in the list below.
New in This Modem:
•
The PSM-500 series is the first to include 8PSK, 8QAM and 16QAM modulation modes,
requiring new procedures and remote control interaction.
•
The PSM-500 now includes remote control and firmware update via USB interface on the
rear panel. This was especially necessary since the 10 fold increase in firmware requires a
faster method to load new firmware configurations.
•
Each PSM-500 IF version is capable of 3 standard value software upgradeable “Feature
Sets”, as described in section 1.1.2. Many features of the modem are field upgradeable
without adding new hardware. Subsets of these Feature Sets are available.
•
There are two option slots on the main PCB used for FEC/processing options. One is
always used for the standard FEC set as a minimum. They are wired in parallel like the PCI
slots on a computer, but use an SO-DIMM form factor. Please don’t plug memory in!
•
The IBS multiplexer with AUPC is now standard and built into the main board FPGA logic.
•
The Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC is now standard and built into the standard FEC
card.
New in This Manual:
•
A new “How-To” Appendix is added in Appendix H. It gives quick instructions on setting up
common features and capabilities.
1.1 Modem Capabilities
1.1.1 Modem IF Variations
The PSM-500 series is currently offered with 3 main Intermediate Frequency (IF) variations
designed to meet the needs of various station types. The standard PSM-500 modem has a 70 MHz
(or optional 140 MHz) transmit and receive IF which is typical for use in large stations with indoor or
outdoor up and down converters. The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT units feature an L-Band transmit
and receive making it ideal for low cost Vsat remote earth stations.
Page 1-2
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
1.1.2 Modem Feature Set Variations
Feature sets are specific capabilities that suit a modem for a particular purpose. The PSM-500
series is the first modem Datum Systems has offered with variable feature sets. The advantage is
that a customer does not have to pay for features he does not use, but later features can be
upgraded in the field electronically by adding new firmware Intellectual property to the modem. The
user has the best of both worlds. Feature sets are purposely kept to a minimum to make their control
easy and therefore reduce the cost. There are currently only 3 main feature sets offered for the
PSM-500 series, and they apply to any of the IF variations.
For comparison, the features available in the PSM-4900 modem are also shown. More detail on
maximum and minimum data rates are shown in Appendix A.
PSM-500 Series Feature and Option Matrix.
Original M5
Feature
PSM-500S/N/L/LT Series
PSM-4900
M505
M511
M523
BPSK
�
�
�
�
QPSK
�
�
�
�
OQPSK
N/A
�
�
�
8PSK/QAM
N/A
Upgrade
�
�
16QAM/APSK
N/A
Upgrade
Upgrade
�
Modulation
Max Data Rate
M523 rates slightly higher at higher FEC rates. See Notes below.
BPSK
2.46 Mbps
2.5 Mbps
5 Mbps
7.38 Mbps
QPSK/OQPSK
4.92 Mbps
5 Mbps
10 Mbps
14.76/28 Mbps
8PSK/QAM/TCM
N/A
N/A
10 Mbps
29.52 Mbps
16QAM/APSK
N/A
N/A
N/A
29.52 Mbps
N/A
�
�
�

�
�
�
Reed-Solomon
Option
�
�
�
TPC – 4K (2)
Option
Option
Option
Option
TPC – 16K
N/A
Option
Option
Option
LDPC-16k (2k)
N/A
Option
Option
Option
IBS Mux/AUPC
Option
�
�
�
SnIP Ethernet Int.
Option
Option
Option
Option
FEC Modes
Disabled
Viterbi
There are multiple items lists as “Options”. Options are specifically hardware items that are installed
in the modem, while a “feature” is a software installation listed as an “upgrade”. To upgrade the
modem from one feature set to another refer to the instructions in Section 4.4.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-3
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Maximum data rates are dependent on many factors besides the basic capabilities of the interface,
including cabling, interface type, features and options installed. The TPC4K hardware codec is
limited to 5Mbps.
1.1.3 Applications
Following are just a few representative forms of satellite communications links and networks in
which the PSM-500 modem series may be used.
1.1.3.1 SCPC Point-to-Point Links
The most straightforward application for a satellite modem is to serve as the Data Communications
Equipment (DCE) for a point-to-point data link. When used in this mode, two modems located at two
different sites are tuned to complementary transmit and receive frequencies. Each direction of the
communications link may have the same or entirely different transmission parameters. In this
application it is typical that the link is established and maintained on a continuous basis, although a
special “on demand” case is described later.
In SCPC point-to-point links the power required from the satellite or the size of the receive antenna
is dependent upon the modem receive performance. The PSM-500 modem uses the most rigorous
methods to maintain performance as close to the theoretical “waterfall” curves as possible. In most
cases the modem will perform at 0.1 to 0.2 dB from the curve (although we say “typically” 0.3 dB).
This consistent performance, plus advanced technology such as TPC results in the absolute
minimum power requirements, which equates to the minimum operating.
Ku Band satellite systems are subject to changing performance due to rain at one or more sites. The
PSM-500 contains built in software to perform Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). If the
modems at each link end are provided with an external asynchronous channel of 300 bps they can
be set to automatically maintain a constant Eb/No within programmable limits. This can result in
significantly lower satellite power requirements in a large system in addition to maintaining proper
performance in any system. The optional Multiplexer/interface card can provide this low rate channel
in addition to an Earth Station to Earth Station overhead service channel.
1.1.3.2 SCPC Point to Multi–Point Links in a Broadcast Application
A broadcast application might involve the necessity of sending continuous or intermittent data from
one source and
“broadcasting” the
information to many
remote locations. For
instance, constant
Satellite
pricing information and
updates may be sent by
a central location to
many store locations.
Remote C
There may be minor
Remote A
return information from
the remotes
acknowledging receipt.
Another broadcast
application could be
transmitting background
music from a central
location to many store
sites. In this case there
would be no return path.
Remote D
Remote B
Hub Station
Figure 1-1
Simple Star Network
The topology of the
network in both of these broadcast examples would typically be called a “Star” network. As shown in
Page 1-4
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
Figure 1-1, the shape of the configuration is drawn with the central “Hub” as the center of the star
and the remotes as points of the star. In both cases the transmit frequency and other parameters
may be shared by the receive of all the remotes.
The PSM-500L and LT are ideally suited for use at remote or small stations. Since the receive downconverter requirement is significantly reduced in this version, requiring only that a data grade LNB
(Low Noise Block down-converter) be connected to the modem. The L-Band version modems can
even supply power and reference to the LNB if needed. In addition the PSM-500L and PSM-500LT
modems are designed for use with a Block Up Converter or “BUC” and can supply power and
reference signals on the transmit cable. Most BUCs today are designed to receive these signals on
the cable.
In Broadcast type systems where the remotes only require a receiver, the L or LT is very low cost
and the transmit modulator section can be simply turned off.
A “Star” network configuration is also commonly used with multiple point-to-point links where the hub
is common to every link. An example might be where each remote represents a house or building
with voice or data traffic all destined for a common switch located near the hub. Each link is then
usually dedicated to that customer and the link resources are wasted when no traffic is carried. That
loss is partially offset by being able to use smaller antennas and power at each of the remotes,
concentrating costs at the hub.
1.1.3.3 DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access)
Suppose that we wanted to simulate a telephone network with a virtual switch between modems
carrying digitized voice information. We might use a central computer to assign a pair of frequencies
for any conversation and send this connection information to the proper sites to set up the
connection. Many systems of this type use “Star” network topology, but this has the disadvantage
that for a person at Remote A to talk to someone at Remote D the traffic must go through the hub.
The resulting delay through 2 satellite hops is just at the limit of what is tolerable for voice traffic.
In this application a new network configuration is usable. That is a “Mesh” network where any of the
voice modems at any site can be programmed to link with any other modem directly at any other
site. The resulting link diagram looks like a mesh of interconnects. Now there must be sufficient
antenna size and power at each remote to link to every other remote. The station costs can go up
significantly, and are multiplied by the number of stations.
Since the frequencies can be assigned on demand, the network is then called “Demand Assigned,
Multiple Access”, or DAMA. One important characteristic of a DAMA system used for voice
information is the lock-up time of the modem. At the low data rates used to digitize voice today (4.4
to 32 kbps) the modem receive acquisition method of sweeping results in lock-up times of tens of
seconds to minutes. The PSM-500 modem is uniquely designed to significantly reduce this time:
The fast acquisition digital signal processor used in the PSM-500 looks at the receive signals within
its acquisition range much like a person might view the same region using a spectrum analyzer. It
then “homes in” and locks to the most probable carrier. This acquisition mode can reduce the
rd
receive acquisition time to approximately 1/3 of a second at 9.6 kbps in QPSK mode over +/- 30
kHz, and less in BPSK mode.
1.1.3.4 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Remote Site Application
In a TDMA network the central Hub continually transmits a stream of outbound data containing
information for multiple remote sites, while the remotes transmit back to the Hub on a timed basis.
Each of these remotes is said to “burst” its information back on a specific frequency. This may be the
same inbound frequency for all sites. Each of the remotes is responsible for accessing its own
information from the outbound data stream by reading the address assigned to specific parts of the
data.
The TDMA network usually looks like the Star network described above. The outbound (from the
Hub) data rate may be quite high to accommodate many remotes with low latency, while the inbound
data rate may be low to allow use of a small antenna and power amplifier at the many remote sites.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-5
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
The PSM-500L is specifically designed to be usable as the remote site modem of a TDMA network
when coupled with a proper “Burst” demodulator at the hub site. Note: As of the time of this
manual the “TDMA burst” mode is a special factory request option and not installed in
standard modems.
Another variation could use both the DAMA (star or mesh configuration) with a concurrent TDMA
system as the monitor/control network for the DAMA. Again the PSM-500 modem is ideally suited for
both modem applications at both low and high speeds.
1.2 Modem Functional Assemblies
The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem consists of seven main functional elements arranged on three
electronic printed circuit assemblies, as shown in Figure 1-2.
The Main Modem Circuit Assembly consists of the following major assemblies:
1. The Modem digital PSK/QAM modulator with carrier generation in the 50 to 90 MHz
range for standard modem, or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band versions.
2. The Modem digital PSK/QAM demodulator accepting signals in the 50 to 90 MHz range
for the standard modem and 950 to 1900 MHz in the L-Band versions.
3. The Modem microprocessor monitor/control subsystem.
4. The Modem Digital Signal Processor Acquisition subsystem.
5. The Programmable Data Interface. Seven standard data interfaces are built onto the
main modem assembly. The unit can also accept special interfaces via an optional
interface card.
The other two printed circuit assemblies are the Front Panel Control Assembly, and the Power
Supply Assembly.
In addition the main PWB can accept two plug-in sub-assemblies for Forward Error Correction
(FEC). The first subassembly normally contains either the standard Viterbi and Reed-Solomon FEC
set or a combination card containing Viterbi/TCM, Reed-Solomon and either a 4k block size Turbo
Product Codes (TPC) or a 16k block size TPC. The TPC could also be installed alone on a card
placed in the second plug in location. The second location could also be one of a number of FECs
that are be available for the M500, such as FlexLDPC.
The IBS Multiplexer circuitry that was on another daughter card in previous modems is now part on
the main board’s FPGAs.
Note in the functional block diagram below that, with the exception of the receive FIFO buffer, there
are complementary signal processing blocks in the transmit and receive paths. Note also that there
are no typical superhetrodyne mixing and filtering blocks. That is because there are none used in the
direct modulation and demodulation scheme used in the PSM-500, sometimes referred to as Zero
IF.
The following sections described more detail on the design of the modulator and demodulator.
Page 1-6
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Figure 1-2
RS-449
or
V.35
or
RS-232
etc.
Program
mable
Transmit
Interface
DB37
Female
at J3
Ready
Ext
FIFO
Clk
RClk
RData
RS-449
or
V.35
or
RS-232
etc.
Program
mable
Receive
Interface
DB37
Female
at J3
Interface & LoopBack Circuits
TT
Clk
CTS
RTS
TClk
TData
P1
Option
Interface
Connector
P1
Option
Interface
Connector
Clock
Control
Out Clk
In Clk
Doppler
FIFO Buffer
Programmabl
e Attenuator
Figure - M500 Modem Block Diagram
A/D
Conversion
DSP Aquisition
Processor
Modem
Reference
Oscillator
Transmit Synthesizer
Modulator
Baseband Signal
Processing
Baseband Signal
Processing
FEC
Decoder
Processor Control
FEC
Encoder
V.35/Intelsat
and
Differential
Decoder
DEMODULATOR
MODULATOR
Aux.
Connection
at J4
V.35/Intelsat
and
Differential
Encoder
25 dB
Loopback
Attenuator
Term
Demodulator
Receive Synthesizer
Front end
AGC/Amp
Ext. Reference In
Low
Pass
Filter
RCV In
70 MHz
(or L-Band)
Term
Term
XMT Out
70 MHz
or L-Band
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
Modem Block Diagram
Page 1-7
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
1.2.1 Modulator
The PSK/QAM modulator in the modem employs a unique digital modulation scheme requiring no
heterodyne operations (mixing and filtering to an IF) to arrive at the transmit RF frequency. The
desired carrier frequency is synthesized and directly modulated with the baseband signal. The
baseband signal is itself digitally derived and generated using a digital to analog (D/A) converter.
The digital signal processing of the transmit signal includes the equivalent of a 144 tap FIR filter
function.
As previously shown in Figure 1-2, synchronous transmit data and clock signals are accepted by the
modulator, then processed by the V.35/Intelsat scrambler and differential encoder. The modulator
can be set by the processor to operate at a number of data rates between 1.2 kbps (BPSK, rate 1/2)
and 20 Mbps (8PSK +, M520 feature set). Refer to the specification in Appendix A for exact rate
capabilities. The data is then encoded for Forward Error Correction (FEC) at rate 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 or 7/8
resulting in an encoded signal at between 2.4 and 14,760 ksps (kilo symbols per second). The
Viterbi convolutional encoder can be programmed for rate 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 or 7/8 and is set for a
constraint factor (K) of 7 for use by a (receiving end) Viterbi convolutional decoder with the same
rate and K factor. A Reed-Solomon FEC is available for concatenated operation with the Viterbi
Codec and two types of “Turbo Codes” Codecs are also available to replace the Viterbi Codec. A
special case is 8PSK, which only operates in a Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) mode at rate 2/3,
unless a non-Viterbi FEC is added such as TPC or FlexLDPC.
The FEC is followed by an optional differential encoder. The differential encoder output is then sent
to the transmit baseband signal processor whose main function is to convert the data stream into
analog baseband I and Q channels for modulating the carrier. The actual conversion process is
accomplished in a lookup table, latch and D/A converter. The lookup table represents a digitally
preprocessed function required to produce the proper RF signal output when mixed with the desired
carrier frequency. A low-pass filter is applied to the D/A output to reduce the level of sampling
components.
Transmit Local Oscillator generation is accomplished in two parts. A PLL step synthesizer is used to
generate a basic LO in the 52 to 92 (or 104 to 184 or 952 to 1752) MHz range with 500 kHz step
size. A Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS), consisting of an NCO and D/A conversion, is used to
generate an approximate 2 MHz signal with fine step size of approximately 1 Hz and a range of
±1.25 MHz. When the DDS is subtracted from the step synthesizer output in a second PLL, the
available LO can be tuned in 1 Hz steps over the full range of 50 to 90 MHz (100 to 180 MHz if built
for that version).
The processed baseband signal is then mixed with the transmit synthesizer's LO carrier signal to
generate an output modulated carrier in the 50 to 90 MHz range (or 950 to 1750 MHz in the L-Band
modem). A classic IQ modulator with two mixers is used and the LO is fed into the second mixer
shifted 90 degrees from the first. The modulated baseband signal can take two forms at this point
depending on whether BPSK or QPSK modulation is used. In BPSK mode, the baseband signal fed
to the two mixers is identical. In QPSK mode, the two signals represent the baseband I and Q
channels of the baseband.
The resultant RF signal is then low pass filtered and amplified to produce a signal at approximately
over 5 dBm into 75Ω. An output attenuator controlled by the onboard processor is used to set the
modulator output level over a range of +5 to –35 dBm. The actual attenuator is a set of pin diodes
whose voltage is derived from the processor via a 12-bit D/A converter. The processor also holds a
calibration table of DAC input vs. RF output level/frequency in non-volatile memory.
No physical adjustments are present in the modulator. All necessary adjustments are electronically
performed during calibration and are intended to last the life of the unit without requiring resetting.
The modulator is capable of operating in two different modes: Continuous mode for SCPC use and
“Burst” mode for use at a VSAT location. When set to VSAT operating mode, the transmit signal is
turned off and on according to the status of the data interface control lines and framing information in
the data stream as described in the “Operation” Chapter of this document. The burst mode allows
multiple station modulators to link up consecutively with a single master station “burst demodulator”.
Page 1-8
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not
installed in standard modems.
The Modulator IF output can be routed to the Demodulator input using a built-in “IF Loop-back”
function. The loop-back path provides a 25 dB attenuator to avoid overloading the receive input.
1.2.2 Demodulator
The Modem Demodulator uses direct conversion techniques for recovery of data from an incoming
carrier, and therefore like the modulator does not use heterodyning, and has no internal IF signal or
processing. Referring to Figure 1-2, the input RF signal is first input to the receive AGC amplifier.
The AGC amplifier has a range of greater than 40 dB at any data rate, allowing inputs over that
range while still meeting performance criteria. The range is controlled in several steps depending on
the data rate extending over the range of –20 dBm at high data rates to –84 dBm at low data rates.
The proper AGC gain is digitally determined as that which produces an optimal output from the A/D
converters and is thus derived after the A/D converters.
The RF input is then demodulated using a “Costas Loop”, phase locked loop demodulator where the
signal is split using a 90 degree hybrid into I and Q channels. In BPSK mode, the I channel carries
the data information and the Q channel represents the noise and carrier phase information in the
Costas loop. For QPSK operation, the I and Q channels each carry data information. The I and Q
channel “eye” signals are not available as in many other modems because the signal/data
representation at this point is still strictly digital for direct signal processing.
A receive synthesizer generates the demodulator local oscillator which is at the desired receive
carrier frequency. The synthesizer is tunable over the range of 50 to 90 MHz (or 950 to 1900 MHz in
the L-Band modems) and has two tuning components; the LO step synthesizer used to tune in steps
of 500 kHz, and a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) component used to acquire and track the
received carrier. The DDS control has two tuning sources; (1) the digital Costas demodulation loop
phase detector used to track an already “locked” signal and (2) the processor control used to set the
carrier frequency and acquire new signals. The processor controls the acquisition search over a
programmable range from ±100 Hz to ±1.25 MHz.
The I and Q channel baseband outputs of the Costas Loop demodulator are converted to digital data
streams by parallel 12 bit D/A converters. The digital information is then filtered via a Datum
Systems’ proprietary programmable digital filter. The filtered sample output is sent to the input of the
Forward Error Correction (FEC) process (either Viterbi convolutional, concatenated Reed-Solomon,
8PSK TCM rate 2/3, Turbo Codes or LDPC decoder) circuit. Multiple bits of the filtered A/D
converter are used for “soft decision” decoding in the FEC, providing an improvement in
performance over hard decision decoding.
The A/D output is also available to a special Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which is used to
examine the incoming signals for known energy patterns and acquire carriers significantly faster
than conventional sweep acquisition. This DSP controlled acquisition is especially useful at low data
rates and can improve over a typical sweep by more than 2 orders of magnitude.
The receive signal processing shown in Figure 1-2 serves the following multiple functions:
1. Generates the soft decision symbol information for input to the FEC.
2. Recovers the bit rate clock from the incoming signal.
3. Measures the Es/No of the received signal.
4. Generates the receive AGC signal to set the input stage gain.
The FEC decoders are contained on one or two adaptor cards plugged into the main board (all
except the TPC are contained with the adaptors FPGA), which is under control of the onboard
processor.
A differential decoder and INTELSAT / V.35 descrambler for the received data signal can be
individually enabled or disabled by the processor based on the current FEC and other settings. It is
no longer under control of the front panel or command interface. This configuration is held in the
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-9
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
nonvolatile EEPROM and does not have to be reconfigured on power-up. The resulting received
data and clock signals are sent to the interface assembly. Receive interface clocking can take
several forms as explained below.
1.2.3 Modem Bit Rate Timing
The Modulator and the Demodulator each have 4 possible sources for their bit rate timing.
The Modulator always outputs the Send Timing signal, but the source of this timing may be either:
1. An Internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference,
2. The Demodulator Receive Clock,
3. An External input at the data rate or
4. An external input on the Interface Terminal Timing input.
The modem’s internal reference is a 2.0 parts per million clock oscillator, which is sufficiently
accurate for most applications. If system timing requirements dictate a better reference, the internal
oscillator may be phase locked to an external reference applied at the rear panel.
The Demodulator always outputs the Receive Timing signal. The receive demodulator clock derived
from the receive signal is synchronous with the Receive Data and is the normal source of the
receive timing. If the system requires a different clock (which still must be the same average rate as
the demodulator’s receive clock) then provisions are made to buffer the data in a programmable
FIFO. The demodulator receive clock is always used to clock the data into the FIFO. The clock
output can be either:
1. The Demodulator Receive Clock,
2. The Modulator Clock
3. An internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference, or
4. An External FIFO Clock applied on the interface connector.
If the demodulator receive clock is selected then the FIFO itself is physically bypassed by switching
circuitry.
The internally generated bit rate NCO locked to the Internal Reference oscillator is settable to 40 bit
accuracy. That is 1 part in 10 to the 12 or 1 part per trillion.
The PSM-500 series includes two changes to previous modems to insure proper operation. First, the
modem detects if no data is present on the input by a lack of transitions for approximately 5 seconds
and will produce a programmable alarm after that time. Second, due to the higher data rates the
PSM-500 input circuitry automatically fine tunes the clocks to attempt to place the data period at the
optimal point with respect to the clocks. This also helps tremendously when using the TT clock to
create the transmit timing.
A block diagram simplified representation of the Transmit and Receive clock sources are shown in
Figure 1-3.
Page 1-10
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Send Data
From
Interface
Description
DATA
Send
Timing To
Interface
CLOCK
Modulator
Terminal
Timing
Terminal
Timing
From
Interface
External Send Timing Input
(Rear Panel)
External
Reference Input
(Rear Panel)
Internal
Reference
Oscillator
External
Reference PLL
Modulator bit clock source is
selected from "Internal", "Terminal
Timing", "External" or "RCV
Clock". The Send Timing is
always an output from the modem.
Bit Rate NCO
From
Receive
Clock
Transmit Clock Sources
Optional Reed-Solomon Decoder
& IBS Multiplexer
Receive
Data To
Interface
DATA
OUT
Receive
Timing To
Interface
External
FIFO Clock
From
Interface
IN
DATA
Receive FIFO
Buffer
OUT
Demodulator
CLOCK
IN
Demodulator RCV
CLOCK
From Modulator
bit timing
Bit Rate NCO
"Internal"
Demod output
clock is phase
locked to receive
bit timing
FIFO output clock selected from
"RCV Clock", "Internal", "External"
or "Mod Clock". Selection of "RCV
Clock" bypasses the FIFO buffer.
Receive Clock Sources
Figure 1-3 Clock Source Options
These Clock sources may be used in various ways in a system implementation to provide correct
timing at a destination. Each of the clock sources can be set either from the front panel or from an
external monitor and control system.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-11
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
1.2.4 Control Processor
A single microprocessor manages all monitor, control and communications functions on the modem
board. The processor continuously monitors all onboard status signals.
The modem control processor uses external address and data buses to connect to external Flash
PROM containing the instruction code. The processor uses both internal and external RAM for all
operations and maintains configuration and permanent parameters in parallel EEPROM. The
processor also connects to the FEC, the custom ASICs, the DSP processor, the front panel, and
various onboard peripheral functions via the address and data bus.
The control processor also maintains a serial peripheral interface to connect to several onboard
peripherals. These include external D/A converters holding calibration and current analog settings,
identification EEPROMs on option and interface cards and step synthesizers.
The control processor also contains an internal 12-Channel 10-bit A/D converter for gathering
analog information from various onboard monitored points including the phase locked loop tuning
voltages.
Digital I/O used to monitor and control the modem is handled mainly through the DSP circuits and
their interface to the processor. Such parameters as the current Eb/No and receive offset frequency
information are read by the processor from the DSPs while most configuration information is written
to the DSPs.
The control processor uses a full-duplex Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) for
communications with either the RS–232 / RS–485 remote command port or with a separate VT100
type “console” terminal device connected to the modem. In addition a USB control interface is
provided.
The control processor has provisions for communicating with another PSM-500 modem for
implementation of Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). The channel for this communications is
normally provided by equipping the unit with the optional IBS multiplexer interface card.
1.2.5 Acquisition Processor
The acquisition processor, a Texas Instruments 320C5xxx Digital Signal Processor, manages the
receive signal acquisition and lock functions to achieve fast acquisition performance at low data
rates. This DSP is controlled by the control processor via a communications protocol managed
through a special bi-directional parallel interface to the main processor.
The signal acquisition DSP accepts sampled data from the receive chain A/D Converters and
mathematically determines the location of the incoming carrier. This is accomplished in a multi–step
process which continues to narrow down the exact frequency until it is known within the lock range
of the PLL demodulator. At data rates below 16 kbps this process is more than an order of
magnitude faster than a standard sweep method. Typical signal acquisition times at 16 kbps QPSK
are 0.2 seconds using the acquisition processor vs. over 20 seconds using a standard sweep.
1.2.6 Standard Data Interface
The standard Interface in the PSM-500 is built onto the main PWB and contains the drivers and
receivers for one of five possible data interface standards (seven including minor variations of each).
All interface standards are selected under program control via the front panel or remote control. Five
of these standards are common interfaces used in the communications industry:
• RS-449, terminated and un-terminated
• V.35,
• V.36
• Synchronous RS-232 (Limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers.)
• EIA-530 and EIA-530A
• Asynchronous RS-232 (Limited to 115 kbps by various protocols).
Page 1-12
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
The un-terminated versions of these standard interfaces and are used to implement one for one
(1:1) redundancy between two PSM-500 units.
A single 37 pin “D” type female connector is available on the rear panel at J3 providing the terrestrial
data interface. The interface standard is electronically selectable via front panel or remote control.
Optional interfaces are provided by a separate option interface card which is mounted inside the
modem chassis. The provision of an optional interface “adds” to the available interfaces which can
be selected under program control. An interface field kit of parts to add an option interface is
available from the manufacturer for installation by qualified technical field service personnel. When
an optional interface is installed the main processor automatically queries and installs the necessary
software controls for accessing the interface.
1.2.6.1 Data Interface Loop-Back Function
The standard and most optional interfaces also provide the data loop-back function. Ethernet
interfaces do not have this function. The data loop-back can be controlled from the front panel or via
remote control command. The data towards both the terrestrial and satellite sides can be looped
back individually by enabling this function via the front panel or remote control
⇒ Caution: Enabling the “Data Loop-Back” functions will result in loss of traffic. It
should not be used in operating links without prior arrangements.
The data loop-back allows testing of the signal path connection up to the loop-back and back to the
source. Since both terrestrial and satellite sides of the signal path can be looped, the connection
from a local DTE can be checked on the terrestrial side while the connection from the far end DTE
over the satellite and through the modem can be checked on the satellite side.
More information on use of the loop-back modes is given in Section 4.1 Common Test Procedures.
1.2.6.2 Data Interface BERT Function
The standard interfaces also include a programmable Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set. It is located
between the modem’s satellite and terrestrial data loop-back functions. Ethernet interfaces do not
have this function. The BERT can be controlled from the front panel or via remote control command
and provides extensive test result data.
⇒ Caution: Enabling the “BERT” function will result in loss of traffic. It should not be
used in operating links without prior arrangements.
New in this modem is the ability to set the BERT set to point toward the “Line” side external cabling,
acting as a DCE device. More on use of the BERT functions and modes is given in Section 4.1.2
“Using the Built-in BERT”.
1.2.6.3 Data Interface 1:1 Redundancy Function
The standard interfaces are also capable of operating in a special 1:1 redundancy mode. In this
mode the data interfaces are tied directly in parallel using a special “Y” cable. Software control built
into the modem can then be set to indicate that the two connected modems are operating in a
redundant mode. The two modems communicate with each other to determine the alarm status of
each and force the “off-line” unit’s data interface into an un-terminated condition. This allows both
interfaces to receive incoming data and clock signals, which are necessary to ascertain correct
functioning. At the same time the transmit and receive IF ports are also connected together through
the stations (or separately supplied) transmit and receive IF combiner/splitter assemblies.
The alarms that are used to determine switching criteria are programmable, and the first modem set
up for this mode automatically loads its configuration information to the second or “back-up” unit.
These features create a very low cost redundancy system that is both flexible and easily set up.
More information on the set-up and use of the 1:1 redundancy functions and modes is given in
Sections 2.3.5 “1:1 Redundancy Connection” and 3.10 “Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation”.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-13
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
1.2.7 Standard Framing and IBS Multiplexer
The framing/multiplexer is capable of multiplexing a relatively low speed overhead channel onto the
terrestrial data stream resulting in a slightly higher combined or “aggregate” data rate through the
modem. The overhead channel is recovered at the far end. This added channel is termed variously
an overhead channel, ESC, service channel, “asynch” channel or, in IESS terminology, an ES to ES
data channel. A simplified block diagram of the data multiplexer is shown in Appendix RS.
The basic frame structure used by the multiplexer is that specified in the IESS-309 standard, Page
60, Figure 10, resulting in a 16/15 aggregate to through data ratio. This means that when the
multiplexer is enabled the modem aggregate operating data rate is computed as the terrestrial
connection (through) data rate multiplied by 16/15. The user sets only the desired through data rate
while the modem computes the aggregate rate required. The multiplexer is also capable of
expanded operating modes which include custom setting of the ratio of data to framing bytes.
The Multiplexer provides the following modes of operation. They are described more fully in The IBS
Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon Appendix RS.
Mode
Standard/
Compatibility
Overhead
Ratio
Notes
Disabled
N/A
1/1
Standard
IESS-309
16/15
Fixed synchronous ESC, No AUPC, No MCC
Enhanced
Modified IESS-309
16/15
M4 compatible ESC and AUPC (limited
MCC).
Custom
Modified IESS-309
Variable
Full ESC and MCC including AUPC, Remote
Modem Control, 2 one=bit control channels.
Also variable data load per frame.
The ESC Data Channel can be set under software-control to either RS-232 or RS-485 mode. The
pin assignments for both modes are shown in Section 2.3 and Appendix RS. These pin assignments
appear on the rear panel “AUX” (Auxiliary) connector J4 only when the Multiplexer function is
enabled. The RS-485 Transmit Data Drivers can set to “RS-485” or “RS-485 ON” when in
“Enhanced” mode. The “ON” setting forces the driver continuously on while the “RS-485” setting
controls the output into tri-state when the modem is not transmitting data, allowing multiple modem
outputs to be connected together. In the standard IBS mode only the “RS-485 ON” mode is
available.
In Enhanced or Custom mode a 2 wire receive operating mode can be selected for the receive data
into the ESC channel. In this mode the receive input is muted while the transmit data output is
active. In 4 wire mode the receive is always enabled. In the standard IBS mode only the 4 wire mode
is available. Note that the transmit and receive pairs are physically separate wires and must be
connected together if true RS-485 2 wire connectivity is desired.
The processor on the main board performs software/hardware assignment of bits to specific
purposes in the Custom mode and buffers the ESC Data Channel to standard asynchronous data
rates.
The user does not have to compute data framing variables to use the Custom Multiplexer Mode.
When placed in this mode the entry parameters are the ESC and MCC channel rates selected from
standard asynchronous data rates (300 to 38,400 bps). The modem then computes the proper
relationship between the framing and terrestrial data rates to achieve the proper operation. The
modem also displays the terrestrial data to aggregate ratio.
Page 1-14
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
1.2.7.1
Description
Modem Control Channel (MCC)
The MCC is available in both the Enhanced and Custom Multiplexer modes. In the Enhanced mode
the MCC provides for an AUPC channel. In the Custom mode the MCC provides for the AUPC plus
the Remote Modem Control (RMC) Channel and the Auxiliary control bits (RFC).
1.2.7.1.1
AUPC Control Channel (AUPC)
When the modem is placed into either the “Enhanced” or “Custom” modes the AUPC control
channel becomes available. The AUPC operation itself is under control of the modem while the
AUPC facility in the MCC provides the channel for the information. This channel provides a minimum
300 baud control channel in each direction to allow the modems at two ends of a link to interactively
maintain the receive Eb/No by controlling the power output at the transmit site.
Refer also to the AUPC operation description of the main manual in Section 3.8 titled “Automatic
Uplink Power Control (AUPC)” Operation.
1.2.7.1.2
Remote Modem Control Channel (RMC)
When the modem is placed in the “Custom” mode the Remote Modem Control Channel becomes
available. This channel allows the control of a far end modem from the near end site. This control is
not however allowed from the near end front panel, but only via the remote control interface port.
The command protocol for remote unit control is explained in Appendix B, “Remote Control
Protocol”.
Note that the Automatic Configuration Recovery or ACR is partially designed as a safety feature to
be used with the remote programming of modems. It can help prevent “losing” the modem at an
unattended site. Refer to the ACR section of the main manual in 3.14 “Automatic Configuration
Recovery”.
1.2.7.1.3
Auxiliary Bit Control Channels (RFC)
When the Multiplexer is placed into the “Custom” mode the auxiliary bit control RFC channels
becomes available. These consist of two single line or “one-bit” control channels that can be used to
send control information independently in both directions over the link. The input signals on these
channels can be either a contact closure or a logic type signals while the output is a form C relay
contract set whose state depends on the state of the input signal. The low input logic level is 0 to 0.4
VDC, while the logic high level can be from 2.4 to approximately 20 VDC. The input is current limited
to accept this wide voltage range without damage. Higher voltages may damage the inputs however
and caution should be exercised. Pin connections for these one bit channels are shown in the RS
Appendix.
1.2.8 Standard and Optional Modem FEC Cards
All of the M500 class modems have two card slots on the main PCB for two FEC function boards.
One board is normally installed containing the standard Forward Error Correction set including
Viterbi (with Trellis Code Modulation mode when in 8PSK mode only) and Reed-Solomon
concatenated codecs. The same standard card has several variations which includes either a 4k or
16k block size TPC or both on the same board if ordered that way initially. The second slot can be
used for optional FECs as desired, for example the FlexLDPC FEC featuring exceptional
performance at very low Eb/No.
These two FEC slots are wired in parallel and the control processor on the main board searches for
a requested FEC on the first card containing that capability. The same FEC functions can exist on
both cards, but only the first card will be used in that case.
FEC technology is in many ways a matter of tradeoffs. In most cases the tradeoff is between
bandwidth and performance, which also relates to power and performance. FECs are normally
specified by “Rate”, which is the ratio of data information bits to transmitted bits, and coding gain,
which is the Eb/No reduction able to achieve a specified BER as compared to an unencoded signal.
The extra bits required for a given rate are redundancy processing bits needed to perform forward
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-15
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
error correction. For example, the common rate ½ means that for every data bit two bits are
transmitted, and in rate 5/6, 6 bits are transmitted for every 5 data bits. Better performance is
commonly considered higher coding gain at a given rate. There are always other factors to consider,
such as the latency (processing time) required, time to recover from a synch loss, signal acquisition
time, etc, etc.
FECs technology is often specifically adapted to a particular use. For example, it is common to use
special forms of Reed-Solomon, TPC and LDPC for video signals. These type signals and FECs
typically have a fairly high performance floor that are of little consequence for a wideband video
signal, but would be entirely unacceptable for most data information especially at low data rates.
Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for
approximately 10 years. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged
which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. The standard PSM-500 FEC card
includes the circuitry for a Viterbi, TCM and Reed-Solomon Codec providing the PSM-500 with basic
functional capability for all standard operating parameters including 8PSK TCM and 16QAM. The
following are general descriptions of the characteristics of each of these functions.
The table below shows the currently available modes depending on modulation.
Note in Table A that the front panel selection number for each of the options is listed as the “Sel #”.
For example The Modulation modes show the selection numbers 0 through 6, and the FEC Type,
Option and Code Rate selection numbers are listed in the column to the right of each item. These
numbers can be referred to for front panel operation but are even more applicable to the SnIP Telnet
command line program named “m500ctl”. This program has specific commands that allow entering
either just the 3 digit FEC options or the full Modulation, FEC Type, Option, Code rate and ReedSolomon mode (MTOCR) in a single entry. Refer to the SnIP documentation for more information.
Page 1-16
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
1. The TPC M5 Full, Short and Legacy modes are intended for PSM-4900 Compatibility only
2. * TPC 4k/16k restrictions apply to that line and Code Rate only
3. TPC4k Max data rate limits see below
4. TPC16k operates up to 20 Mbps depending on Feature Set and modulation
5. The Viterbi, Rate 3/4 & 7/8, 16QAM CT modes are only for Comtech modem compatibility as
they only operate in this mode with R-S at 220, 200, depth of 4. R-S is auto-enabled
6. TPC Advanced modes are Datum Systems proprietary implementations that require the
TPC16k option only for the colored lines. They offer superior performance to CT modes
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-17
Description
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
1.2.8.0 Special Codec CT Modes
The wide range of FECs available today and the possibility of many different operating modes and
parameters for each can make compatibility with other brands of modems extremely difficult. To aid
in FEC compatibility with other brands of modems, the PSM-500 series offers special “CT” modes,
standing for “Competing Technology”. These modes use the same parameter settings as popular
modems by other manufacturers.
Take note of the special CT modes available for Viterbi, Reed-Solomon and TPC modes below.
1.2.8.1 Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation Codec
Viterbi has been the standard high performance FEC used in satellite communications for
approximately 10 years. It has only been in the past few years that new technologies have emerged
which provide more coding gain with reasonable implementations. Viterbi still maintains the
advantage of fairly high coding gain with very low latency. So, for voice circuits or DAMA links
requiring fast acquisition times Viterbi may be the FEC of choice.
Viterbi is part of a class of FECs considered “convolutional”, basically meaning folded as in the
redundancy bits are folded into the data bit stream. The important issue here is that it is not block
oriented and not framed. It is therefore the responsibility of the FEC decoder to determine which are
the proper data bits.
Trellis Code Modulation or “TCM” is a standard part of the M500 used with 8PSK at rate 2/3.
The Viterbi CT option mode follows that of competitive modems for 16QAM operation at rates ¾ and
7/8. The CT mode at this setting defaults to selecting Reed-Solomon CT mode at n, k and depth
values of 220, 200, depth of 4 and inverts the data. This is a closed circuit mode that does not meet
normal IESS standards, but is necessary in order to link to those modems.
1.2.8.2 Reed-Solomon Codec Capability
Reed-Solomon Codec places a second Forward Error Correction (FEC) process outside of and in
series with the existing Viterbi FEC. The two FECs are thus considered "Concatenated". In addition,
the data between the two FECs is "interleaved" which effectively reduces the possibility of multiple
consecutive errored block symbols, thus improving the Reed-Solomon Codec performance.
The performance improvement achieved by this combination is significant. For example, the BER vs.
Eb/No performance of concatenated Viterbi rate 3/4 coding with R-S is better than Viterbi rate 1/2
alone and it uses less bandwidth than the Viterbi rate 1/2 alone.
Reed-Solomon is a block oriented code, meaning that data is framed into fixed size blocks and
processed in a specific way. A full block must be received before processing can begin, thus adding
to the latency. The PSM-500 type R-S Codec is capable of operating in multiple standard and
custom modes as shown in the table below.
Reed-Solomon uses framing which allows the use of a synchronous scrambler resulting in slightly
improved performance relative to the self-Synchronized scrambler normally used.
A simplified block diagram of the Reed-Solomon Codec is shown in the Figure below.
Page 1-18
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
Transmit
Data Channel
Control
Transmit Reed-Solomon
Block Encoder &
Synchronous Scrambler
Transmit Reed-Solomon
Block Interleaver
Clock
Transmit
Terrestrial Data
Channel
XMT
IBS
Multiplex
Option
Processor
Clock and Frame
Generation
Clocks
Main Modem
Assembly
Clock
Control
RCV
Receive
Terrestrial Data
Channel
FIFO From
Main Modem
Receive Reed-Solomon
Block Decoder &
Synchronous
Descrambler
Receive Data
Channel
Receive Reed-Solomon
Block De-Interleaver
Reed-Solomon Codec Simplified Block Diagram
The Reed-Solomon modes shown available below can be selected from the front panel or remote
control. The CT220,200 mode is a special compatibility mode and is automatically set by certain CT
FEC modes, for example when Viterbi, Rate ¾ is selected when in 16QAM mode. It can be overridden by choice from the Reed-Solomon parameter.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-19
Description
Mode
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Compatibility
Terrestrial
Data Rate
Overhead
Ratio
n, k and depth Values
Disabled
N/A
1/1
IESS-308
IESS-308
1.2 kbps to
<1.544 Mbps
9/8
126, 112, 4 (M4 modem compatible)
IESS-308
1.544 Mbps to
<2.048 Mbps
45/41
225, 205, 4
IESS-308
>2.048 Mbps
73/67
219, 201, 4
IESS-309
IESS-309
All
73/67
219, 201, 4
CT220,200
Comtech
All
11/10
220, 200, 4
Custom
Modified
IESS-309
All
Variable
Allows setting the “n”, “k” and “depth”
values for special requirements. Can
also be set for M4 compatibility to
max M4 data rate.
The IESS 308 mode automatically adjusts the n and k factors dependent on the data rate. The
“Overhead” ratio is the ratio of the data rate at the R-S encoder output to the data rate at the input. It
is defined as n/k. The modem automatically adjusts to accommodate the new rate.
The Reed-Solomon Codec function can be turned on and off under software control, and is
independent of the IBS ESC Data Channel enabling.
1.2.8.3 Turbo Product Codes FEC Capability
The addition of the Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi
FEC selectively for the transmit and receive paths independently. The performance improvement
achieved by the TPC is significant. For example, the BER vs. Eb/No performance of TPC Rate ¾ is
approximately equal to Rate ½ Viterbi and uses over 40% less bandwidth. TPC also provides better
bandwidth/power utilization than either Reed-Solomon concatenated on Viterbi or 8PSK/TCM with
Reed-Solomon.
The PSM-500 series offers extensive TPC capabilities including both first generation 4k block TPC
with both PSM-4900 compatibility (M5) and Competitive Technology (CT) operating modes plus a
newer second generation 16k block TPC. This second TPC offers superior performance at the
expense of more delay due to larger processing blocks.
The Datum Systems’ proprietary TPC “Advanced” mode has been optimized to provide the highest
performance available in any TPC on the market. These modes not only outperform other
manufacturer’s TPC, but also LDPC in many cases.
The Turbo Product Codes FEC is more fully explained in Appendix TPC.
1.2.8.4 FlexLDPC FEC Capability
The addition of the FlexLDPC FEC option allows replacement of the standard Viterbi FEC selectively
for the transmit and receive paths. The performance improvement achieved by FlexLDPC is the
highest and most flexible of any specialized FEC technology to date, outperforming TPC in across
all modes. FlexLDPC at rate ½ are capable of operating at a sustained Eb/No of only 1.5 dB with an
error rate less than 10-9
.
Page 1-20
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Description
1.2.9 Optional Interface Capability
The M500 modems are also capable of accepting optional interface cards to replace the standard
synchronous serial interfaces. The first of these cards is the Ethernet interface embodied in the
Datum Systems’ Satellite Network Interface Processor, or “SnIP”. The SnIP is more fully explained
in Appendix SNIP.
A second specialized interface card available is a High Speed Serial Interface or HSSI that is
commonly used for connection to some routers. The HSSI interface is more fully explained in
Appendix HSSI.
For users that require the option to select either SnIP or HSSI interfaces in addition to the standard
synchronous serial interfaces, both cards can be installed in a “stacked configuration.
Installed option interfaces are automatically recognized by the modem, making them a selectable
option on the front panel or remote control protocols.
1.2.10 Modem Circuit Implementation
Much of the functionality in this modem has been achieved by incorporation of extensive circuitry
into Digital Signal Processing parts and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Depending on
features and options installed there are between 1.2 and over 2 Million gates of logic encapsulated
in the FPGAs, a 10 fold increase over the last generation modem. The logic can be augmented and
changed as requirements change. The modems unique direct modulation and demodulation scheme
also completely eliminates all IF mixing and filtering circuitry.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 1-21
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
Chapter 2 - Installation
2.0 Installation Requirements
The PSM-500 VSAT/SCPC Modem is designed for installation in any standard 19-inch
equipment cabinet or rack, and requires 1 RU mounting space (1.75 inches) vertically and 12
inches of depth. Including cabling, a minimum of 15-inches of rack depth is required. The rear
panel of the PSM-500 is designed to have power enter from the left and IF cabling enter from the
right when viewed from the rear. Data and control cabling can enter from either side although
they are closer to the left. The unit may be placed on a table or suitable surface as required.
⇒ CAUTION: There are no user-serviceable parts or configuration settings located
inside the PSM-500 modem case. There is a shock hazard internally at the power supply
module. DO NOT open the modem case unless power is removed for option installation.
⇒ CAUTION: Before initially applying power to the modem, it is a good idea to
disconnect the transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment. This
is especially true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown, where
incorrect setting could disrupt existing communications traffic.
2.1 Unpacking
The PSM-500 Modem was carefully packed to avoid damage and should arrive complete with the
following items for proper installation:
1. PSM-500 Modem Unit. L-Band Units may include an external BUC power supply.
2. Power Cord, 6 foot with applicable AC connector.
3. Installation and Operation Manual plus other information on CD.
2.1.1 Removal and Assembly
If using a knife or cutting blade to open the carton, exercise caution to ensure that the blade does
not extend into the carton, but only cuts the tape holding the carton closed. Carefully unpack the
unit and ensure that all of the above items are in the carton. If the Prime AC power available at
the installation site requires a different power cord/AC connector, then arrangements to receive
the proper device will be necessary before proceeding with the installation.
The PSM-500 Modem unit is shipped fully assembled and does not require removal of the covers
for any purpose in normal installation. All normal hardware configuration, including setting the
data interface type and IF impedance is under software control. The type of Feature Sets, FEC
Options and Interface Options installed can be read from the LCD display on the front panel
under <Unit: Status – > column by scrolling down after initial application of power.
Should the power cable AC connector be of the wrong type for the installation, either the cable or
the power connector end should be replaced. The power supply itself is designed for world-wide
application using from 90 to 264 VAC (100 to 240 VAC +/- 10%).
2.2 Mounting Considerations
When mounted in an equipment rack, adequate ventilation must be provided. The ambient
temperature in the rack should preferably be between 10 and 35° C, and held constant for best
equipment operation. The air available to the rack should be clean and relatively dry. The modem
units may be stacked one on top of the other to a maximum of 10 consecutive units before
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 2-1
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
providing a 1 RU space for airflow. Modem units should not be placed immediately above a high
heat or EMF generator to ensure the output signal integrity and proper receive operation.
Do not mount the PSM-500 in an unprotected outdoor location where there is direct contact with
rain, snow, wind or sun. The modem is designed for indoor applications only.
The only tools required for rack mounting the PSM-500 is a set of four rack mounting screws and
an appropriate screwdriver. Rack mount brackets are an integral part of the front panel plate of
the unit and are not removable.
The following interface connections should be available at the mounting location as a minimum:
1. Prime AC power.
2. A 75Ω Transmit IF cable with BNC male connector. (50Ω optional) or a 50Ω Transmit
IF cable with type N male connector for the L-Band version.
3. A 75Ω Receive IF cable with BNC male connector. (50Ω optional)
or a 75Ω Receive IF cable with type F male connector for the L-Band versions.
4. A Terrestrial data interface cable to mate with the modem or installed option; either a
37-pin male “D” sub connector for all standard or appropriate connector for an
optional interface (such as G.703 or Ethernet 10 Base T).
Other optional connections are shown below.
2.3 Modem Connections
All modem connections are made to labeled connectors located on the rear of the unit: The
connector definitions below are those on the modem unit. Any connection interfacing to the
modem must be the appropriate mating connector. Cabling and Connections are detailed in
Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications”. Refer to Figure 2-1 to locate the following connectors:
Prime AC power to the far left IEC male input at J1:
90 to 260 VAC, 47 – 63 Hz.
Maximum unit power consumption is 50 Watts (Typical < 30 Watts).
Integral switch provided as part of power entry connector.
Chassis ground connection at #8 stud location J2.
Data Interface Connection at Data Connector J3:
Standard RS–449 Connector (37-pin female “D” sub connector).
DB25 adaptor cable supplied with modem for V.35, EIA 530, RS-232.
Alarm Connection at 9-pin male “D” connector J5.
RS–485 Control Port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6:
Shield ground on pin 15
Transmit A on pin 6 (output from modem)
Transmit B on pin 1. (output from modem)
Receive A on pin 9 (input to modem)
Receive B on pin 8. (input to modem)
OR
RS–232 Control port connection at 9-pin female “D” sub connector J6:
Transmit on pin 3 (input to modem)
Receive on pin 2 (output from modem)
Common on pin 5.
Page 2-2
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
The Modulator 70 MHz IF Output at female BNC J7
50 – 90 MHz
Programmable +5 to –35 dBm output at 75Ω
Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50Ω.
The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) L-Band IF Output at female Type N J7
950 – 1750 MHz
Programmable +3 to –35 dBm output at 50Ω.
BUC Power Source (normally 24VDC @ <4A) to be output on this connector. Various
supplies are available and all are connected to the 5 pin DIN connector at J10.
Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector.
⇒ CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test
equipment in the transmit line either directly to the modem output or within the
line to the BUC. The voltage present to power the BUC can cause severe damage
to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers. A DC Block device is
highly recommended for test equipment connection.
⇒ CAUTION!: Extreme Care should be exercised when handling the transmit
cable as it is possible to have hazardous voltages on the transmit line. When
higher voltages are used to supply BUCs that require 48VDC the transmit line
can seriously injure personnel.
To avoid injury or equipment damage unplug the L-Band modem
and BUC power supply whenever the transmit cable is
disconnected!
The L-Band Modulator (PSM-500L) Block Up Converter Power Supply at J10
12 to 56 Volts DC, up to 6 Amp capability.
Programmable enable and disable onto the transmit cable at J7
The BUC Power Status LED next to J7 shows the status as follows
Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input connector or power is input and the
enabled but the cable to the BUC is shorted.
Green – Power sensed and enabled (connected) to transmit cable
Off – Power sensed but disabled (disconnected) from transmit cable.
The Demodulator 70 MHz IF Input at female BNC J9, 50 – 90 MHz
–20 to –60 dBm input at 75 or 50Ω. (to –84 dBm at lower bit rates)
The L-Band Demodulator (/L) L-Band IF Input at female Type F J9
950 – 1900 MHz
–20 to –60 dBm input at 75Ω. (to –100 dBm at lower bit rates)
Programmable 0, 13VDC or 18VDC @ <500mA to be output on this connector
Programmable 10 MHz Reference signal to be output on this connector.
⇒ CAUTION: Extreme Care should be exercised when connecting test
equipment in the receive line to the LNB. The voltage present to power the LNB
can cause severe damage to the input of test equipment like spectrum analyzers.
A DC Block device is highly recommended for test equipment connection.
The Modem External Reference Input at female BNC J8
1, 5, 9 or 10 MHz input
+10 to –15 dBm input level at 50Ω (normally a sine wave).
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 2-3
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
The ESC channel connection at 37-pin male “D” sub connector J4 (AUX). (When the optional
IBS multiplexer is enabled). See Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications” for the pins used
for each of the following interfaces available on the “AUX” connector.
RS-232 Standard Mode Connection (synchronous)
RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem, sampled on rising clock edge)
RS-232 Transmit Clock on pin 13 (output from modem)
RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem, changes on falling clock edge)
RS-232 Receive Clock on pin 7 (output from modem)
RS-232 Enhanced/Custom Mode Connection:
RS-232 Transmit on pin 4 (input to modem)
RS-232 Receive on pin 6 (output from modem)
RS-232 CTS on pin 7 (output from modem)
RS-232 RTS on pin 9 (input to modem)
RS-232 DSR on pin 11 (output from modem)
RS-232 DTR on pin 12 (input to modem)
RS-232 DCD on pin 13 (output from modem)
RS-485 Connection:
RS-485 Receive A on pin 11 (output from modem)
RS-485 Receive B on pin 6. (output from modem)
RS-485 Transmit A on pin 12 (input to modem)
RS-485 Transmit B on pin 4. (input to modem)
User Remote Facility Control channel A
Pin 33 - RFC channel A Input (TTL, Internal 1mA Pull-Up)
Pin 34 - RFC channel A Form-C Common
Pin 35 - RFC channel A Form-C N.C.
Pin 16 - RFC channel A Form-C N.O.
User Remote Facility Control channel B
Pin 15 - RFC channel B Input (TTL, Internal 1mA Pull-Up)
Pin 17 - RFC channel B Form-C Common
Pin 18 - RFC channel B Form-C N.C.
Pin 36 - RFC channel B Form-C N.O.
Grounds
Pins 14, 19, 20, 32, 37
Page 2-4
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
J1
S1
J1
S1
Normally Blank, Used with
Option Interface.
90 - 260 VAC, 50 W.
J2
AC
Line
Normally Blank, Used with
Option Interface.
90 - 260 VAC, 50 W.
J2
AC
Line
Control J6
37 Pin "D" Connector
J3 Data Interface
USB
J5
Alarm
J10
EXT. REF IN
J7
AUX
J4
Control J6
USB
J10
J8
!
BUC PWR
Status
XMT IF OUT
J9
RCV IF IN
MADE IN U.S.A.
MADE IN U.S.A.
RCV IF IN
J9
CAUTION!
Hazardous Voltage May Be Present on J8/J9
XMT IF OUT
J8
DC Only,
60V, 6A Max
EXT. REF IN
BUC PWR IN
J7
J11
L-Band IF Modem
37 Pin "D" Connector
J3 Data Interface
Alarm
J5
70 / 140 MHz and Hybrid IF Modem
AUX
J4
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
Figure 2-1 Modem Rear Panel
Page 2-5
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
2.3.1 Data Interface Pin Connections
The unit is supplied with an electronically programmable data interface assembly. Table 2-1
shows the pin assignments for the possible standard interfaces. Additional information aiding the
creation of “adaptor” cables from the unit’s 37-pin female “D” sub connector to other types of
interface connections such as V.35 “Winchester” type connector standard pin-outs or RS-232
type DB25 connector is presented in Appendix C “Cabling Specifications”.
Table 2–1 Data Interface
Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal
Modem
Pin #
RS–449 Signal Name
1
Shield (GND)
4
RS-232 Signal Name
*(5)
Eia-530 Signal Name
Direction
Shield (GND)
Shield (GND)
SHD (GND)
GND (4)
Transmit Data (A) –
SD A (SD-)
SD
TD A
Input
22
Transmit Data (B) +
SD B (SD+)
TD B
Input
5
Transmit Clock (A) –
SCT A (ST-)
TTSETC A
Output
23
Transmit Clock (B) +
SCT B (ST+)
TSETC B
Output
6
Receive Data (A) –
RD A (RD-)
RD A
Output
24
Receive Data (B) +
RD B (RD+)
RD B
Output
8
Receive Clock (A) –
SCR A (RT-)
RSETC A
Output
26
Receive Clock (B) +
SCR B (RT+)
RSETC B
Output
7
RTS (A) –
RTS
RTS A
Input
25
RTS (B) +
RTS B
Input
9
CTS (A) –
CTS A
Output
27
CTS (B) +
CTS B
Output
11
Data Mode (A) –
DCR A
Output
29
Data Mode (B) +
DCR B
Output
12
TR (A) –
DTR A
Input
30
TR (B) +
DTR B
Input
13
Receive Ready (A) –
RLSD A
Output
31
Receive Ready (B) +
RLSD B
Output
17
Terminal Timing (A) –
SCTE A (TT-)
TSETT A
Input
35
Terminal Timing (B) +
SCTE B (TT+)
TSETT B
Input
3
External data Clock
(transmit data clock or
receive FIFO Buffer
output Clock (A) – *(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
A (-)*(3)
Input
21
External data Clock
(transmit data clock or
receive FIFO Buffer
output Clock (B) + *(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Ext Data/FIFO Clock
B (+)*(3)
Input
19
Signal GND
SIG GND
GND
SGND
GND
20
Common
Chassis
10
Mod Fault Alarm *(2)
Mod Fault Alarm *(2)
Page 2-6
V.35, V.36 Signal
Name
CTS
DSR
DTR
RLSD
ST
RD
RT
RTS
CTS
DCR
DTR
RLSD
TSETT
GND
Mod Fault Alarm *(2)
Mod Fault Alarm *(2)
OC TTL
output
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
Table 2–1 Data Interface
Connector J3 Pin Assignment by Signal
Modem
Pin #
RS–449 Signal Name
28
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
32
V.35, V.36 Signal
Name
RS-232 Signal Name
*(5)
Eia-530 Signal Name
Direction
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
Demod Fault Alarm
*(2)
OC TTL
output
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Receive
*(1)
Input
34
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Aux RS-232 Transmit
*(1)
Output
37
Send Common
GND
Notes on Data Interface Connections:
1. If Automatic Uplink Power Control is provided by an external multiplexer the control
channel may use the Aux RS-232 signal lines. These lines are however dedicated when
the 1:1 redundancy mode is enabled for inter-modem communications.
2. The modulator and demodulator fault alarms are Open Collector TTL outputs used to
interface to redundancy control equipment.
3. The External Data/FIFO clock pins are an input to the modem. An input at the receive
data rate can be used to clock data out of the demodulator FIFO buffer. An input at the
transmit data rate can be used to provide a transmit send timing clock which the modem
will phase locked to (if within acceptable range). The send timing signal is still an output
from the modem, but in this case will be at the input signal rate. Both functions can be
used simultaneously if the transmit and receive data rates are the same.
4. The Shield is normally connected to the cables shield at one end of the cable only.
Connecting at the DCE end only prevents ground loop currents being carried on the
shield.
5. The synchronous RS-232 connection is limited to 128 kbps.
2.3.1.1 Connecting the Data Interface to Other Equipment
The PSM-500 physical connector is that of an RS-449 interface. The electrical interface however
can be changed under front panel or remote program control to include the types of interfaces
shown above. Connecting the Data Interface to other types of equipment involves building cables
between the PSM-500 and that other equipment’s physical interface. Refer to Appendix C,
“Cabling Specifications” for more information on building and connecting these cables.
2.3.2 Remote Control Connection
The modem has a command interface serial control port which can be configured for either of two
electrical interface modes of operation. Both are located on the rear panel 9-pin female “D” sub
connector J6. Connection to either the RS–232 or RS–485 is selected by connecting to the
proper set of pins as shown in table 2-4, and setting the remote mode as applicable via the front
panel control. If the user desires a 2 wire RS-485 bus then the transmit and receive 485 lines
should be externally connected together (1 to 8 and 6 to 9).
The USB type B connection is also available for use as a remote control connection, although its
primary purpose is loading new firmware. Computers that do not have an available RS-232 port
could use of this port for control, but it requires that a special USB device driver be loaded into
the computer to access the modem via this port. This driver makes the control port appear similar
to a serial port. The latest driver is available on our web site.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 2-7
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table 2–2.
Remote Control Connector J6 Pin Assignment
P2 Pin #
Signal Name
Use
Direction
1
Transmit B
RS–485 Transmit Data (B) +
Output
2
Transmit
RS–232 Transmit Signal
Output
3
Receive
RS–232 Receive Signal
Input
4
Not Used
5
Common
RS-232 Signal Common
I/O
6
Transmit A
RS-485 Transmit Data (A) -
Output
7
Not Used
8
Receive B
RS-485 Receive Data (B) +
Input
9
Receive A
RS-485 Receive Data (A) -
Input
Refer to Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications” for information on making a remote control cable.
2.3.3 Alarm Connection
The modem has two form-C dry contact alarm relays on board and an alarm connector located
on the rear panel, the 9-pin male “D” sub connector J5.
The two relays are designated “A” and “B” and the particular alarms that are summarized on each
relay are programmable from the front panel of the unit or via remote control. Connection to the A
and B relays is via the proper set of pins as shown in Table 2-5 below and programming the
applicable alarm entries via the front panel control or remote control. Non-Alarm is defined as the
powered state of the relay resulting in an alarm when power is lost.
The analog monitor output is programmable from the front panel to select either receive Eb/No,
receive AGC voltage or transmit output power.
Table 2–3.
Alarm Connector J5 Pin Assignment
J5 Pin #
Connection
1
Relay A - NO on Alarm
Note:
2
Relay A - Common
3
Relay A - NC on Alarm
4
No Connection
By convention “NO”
means Normally Open,
and “NC” means Normally
Closed.
5
Analog Monitor Output (1kOhm)
6
GND for analog monitor
7
Relay B - NO on Alarm
8
Relay B - Common
9
Relay B - NC on Alarm
Page 2-8
Both conditions are the
non-powered, Alarm State.
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
2.3.4 Auxiliary (AUX) Connection
The modem has an auxiliary connector located on the rear panel, the 37-pin male “D” sub
connector J4. The pin-out of this connector is determined by option board(s) installed in the
modem; for example a multiplexer option would present overhead channel and analog channel
inputs at this connector. The pin definitions are defined in the addendum related to installed
options, for example when the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon option card is installed the I/O on
connector J4 is defined in Appendix RS.
2.3.5 L-Band BUC Power Connection/PSM-500L
The PSM-500L modem has a 5 pin circular DIN connector at the rear panel J11. This connector
is used to connect an auxiliary DC supply to power Block Up Converters that accept DC power
via the transmit line. This connector applies the input voltage to the transmit cable via a relay
internal to the modem and a “Bias-T” circuit. The relay is under processor control and can be
enabled or disabled using the front panel or remote control. The processor also reads the voltage
and current applied to the BUC and can create alarms in addition to reading voltage and current
at the front panel. The power connector pin-out and rear panel LED (labeled “BUC Power
Status”) meanings are shown below.
⇒ Caution: The BUC power input is DC
Table 2–4. BUC
Power
Connector J11
Pin Assignment
J11 Pin #
4
1
2
5
3
Connection
1
Ground
2
Ground
3
V+
4
Ground
5
V+
Only, 60 VDC maximum, 6 Amps maximum.
The power input is only intended for
positive voltages with respect to ground.
Rear Panel BUC Status Indicator
Red – No voltage sensed on DIN input
connector or power is input and enabled
but the cable to the BUC is shorted.
Green – Power sensed and enabled
(connected) to transmit cable.
Off – Power sensed but disabled
(disconnected) from transmit cable.
2.3.6 Redundancy Connection
The modem is capable of operating in a limited 1:1 redundancy protection mode without the use
of a separate redundancy switch. It does require specific minimal facilities at the transmit and
receive IF signal connections and at the terrestrial data connection. These are a combiner at the
transmit IF, a splitter at the receive IF and a “Y” cable at the terrestrial data connection. With this
connection scheme the switching is only performed on the outputs from the modem. The modem
IF and data inputs are always available at the modem allowing internal circuitry to determine if
one modem is correctly accepting and “locking” to the input signals while the other is unable to if
in a failed state.
The two modems communicate with each other over the data “Y” cable. In this cable all
connections are 1 to 1 except the auxiliary RS-232 transmit and receive lines. These two lines
are swapped between the two modems allowing them to talk over an auxiliary serial link.
Specifics of this cable wiring are shown in Appendix C, “Cabling Specifications”. Operation of the
data interface connected in parallel depends upon the programmable interface drivers to be tristated and the receivers to be set in an un-terminated mode. This is accomplished under control
of the modem’s internal software.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
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Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Note: The two modems should be at the same firmware revision for proper redundant operation.
The two modems operate in a “non-priority” redundancy mode, that is, no modem is specified as
“primary”, or having preference when both modems are operational. The first modem turned on
assumes a non-redundancy mode until the second connected unit is powered up. The on-line
unit can be set to send its configuration information to a second unit via the front panel. The
modems will remain in this state, constantly sending status information back and forth until one
unit indicates a failure. If that modem is currently on line, it is switched off-line and the alternate
unit is switch on.
The modem is also capable of operating in 1:N and M:N redundancy switching schemes. The
necessary connections to monitor and control switching are available on the data connector itself
in the form of the modulator and demodulator fault outputs and the auxiliary RS-232 control port.
The alarm outputs are also available. The other facility provided to aid in these redundancy
schemes is the ability to save and recall configuration information. Thus a back-up modem can
obtain and save the configurations from 8 other modems and switch immediately to the
necessary parameters to replace any of those units by simply recalling that unit’s stored
configuration. In addition, the programmable interface and common physical data connector
allows different interface protocols between the primary modems.
A diagram of the connections required for installing 1:1 redundancy is shown in the figure below.
Data "Y" Cable
Station IF
Equipment
Paired Modems
Xmt IF
Transmit
IF
Combiner
Modem A
Aux Xmt
Rcv IF
Aux Rcv
Aux Xmt
Aux Rcv
Xmt IF
Receive IF
Splitter
Modem B
Rcv IF
Figure 2-2 - Modem Connections for 1:1 Redundancy
It is important in L-Band systems to use special splitters and combiners that have the ability to
pass DC used to power the BUC and LNB with sufficient current capacity. One type of these is
termed “Wilkinson” combiners. For the lower power receive LNB connection there are low cost
DC pass combiners that may be suitable. Visit our web site for recommendations.
Page 2-10
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
2.3.6.1 Set-Up Procedure for 1:1 Redundancy
If redundancy mode is to be set up between a pair of modems then the following procedure is
followed during installation, other wise this section can be skipped. In overview the procedure is:
1. Physically install both units to be paired and connect the IF transmit and receive
coaxial cables and data cables to both units. The special data “Y” cable is connected
between the redundant pair. For convenience we will arbitrarily call one modem
“Primary” and the other “Secondary”.
2. Power-up and configure the primary modem completely for the intended operating
parameters, including setting the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> parameter to “1:1”.
This initial unit should not be in alarm. The second unit should still be turned off.
3. Turn the power on the secondary unit on.
4. Go to the primary unit menu item <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the
“Edit” key. The on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second
unit with the prompt “Config Backup?” Confirm by pressing “Enter”. The primary unit
should say “Sending Config” for approximately 1 second. If the transfer of any packet
results in an error, a “Send Fail” message will be displayed, but transfer will continue.
5. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. Go to the <Unit:
Status – Redundancy> item in both units. The on-line unit will say “On-Line, Bckup
OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby, OK”.
Physical installation of the two units is best accomplished with one unit directly above the other in
the rack. This allows the status of the two modems to be seen together and avoids confusion.
Care should be taken that both units are not turned on in a non-redundant configuration with the
“Y” data cable installed. This will result in the two unit’s data output drivers possibly conflicting
and causing damage.
During configuration of the primary unit several new parameters will become available after the
mode is set to 1:1. In addition to the <Unit: Redundcy - Config> parameter of step 4 above
there will also be parameters that allow the alarms and timing to be configured for the application.
The default values for these parameters are probably good in most installations, but they may
require specific configuration, especially if the unit had been configured for another unique
application. These new parameters are:
•
<Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm
indications result in a switch request. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”, “On
Alarm A”, “On Alarm B”, or “On Alarm A & B”. Since the specific alarms which comprise
Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves, then a switch request is highly
programmable itself. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a
preferred selection.
•
<Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must
exist on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. Allowable
values are 0.0 to 600.0 seconds. The value could be set to zero, but this is not advised. A
nominal value of 0.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue
switching. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a
switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request
or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds).
Teardown or un-pairing of two redundant units is accomplished by turning both units off before
removing the “Y” cable. Then power on and set the <Unit: Redundancy – Mode> to “Disabled”.
A unique case can arise when both units are off-line and powered up at the same time. They will
probably go out of alarm at virtually the same time. In such tie cases, which unit will be placed on
line is determined by the unit serial numbers, where the highest serial number wins the tie.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 2-11
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
2.4 Modem Checkout
The following descriptions assume that the modem is installed in a suitable location with prime
AC power and supporting equipment available.
2.4.1 Initial Power-Up
⇒ CAUTION: Before initial power-up of the modem, it is a good idea to disconnect the
transmit output from the operating satellite ground station equipment. This is especially
true if the current modem configuration settings are unknown, where incorrect setting
could disrupt existing communications traffic. New modems from the factory are normally
shipped in a default configuration which includes setting the transmit carrier off.
Turn the unit “ON” by placing the rear panel switch (above the power entry connector) to the “ON”
position. At every power-up, the modem processor tests itself and several of its components
before beginning its main monitor/control program. These power-up diagnostics take
approximately 1 second and show no results if successful. If a failure is detected, the indications
vary by the type of fault detected. A serious failure will result in the front panel Alarm LEDs
flashing at a rate of approximately 4 times a second, and the unit beeper sounding.
Most potential failures will result in the modem giving a verbal indication of the problem on the
front panel LCD display. Status indications are shown highest priority first.
The initial field checkout of the modem can be accomplished from the front panel or in the
Terminal Mode. The Terminal Mode has the advantage of providing full screen access to all of
the modem’s parameters, but requires a separate VT100 terminal or computer running a terminal
program in VT100 or ANSI mode. The modem unit is placed into terminal mode by setting two
options via the front panel. First set the <Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100”
(option 0), then set the <Unit: Remote – Port> parameter to “RS–232” (option 0). The <Unit:
Remote – Bit Rate> and Format also require setting to match the terminal settings. The <Unit:
Remote – Address> serves no function in the Terminal mode. See below for a quick introduction
on the use of the front panel and steps for entering parameters.
2.5 Modem Control from the Front Panel
The front panel can be used to completely control the modem setup and operating parameters.
Front panel control of the modem is more thoroughly discussed in the Operations Section, 3.1.3
“Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control”, but a quick introduction to the front panel operations
is given here to allow initial setup. The Navigation figure in Section 3.1.3 is especially useful.
The modem parameters are arranged in four matrices, one each for “Unit”, “Mod”, “Demod” and
“Int’f”, representing Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface. Each matrix is 4 to 10 columns
wide and up to 20 rows long as shown in the parameter matrix tables. The particular functional
matrix is selected by pressing one of the four buttons to the immediate right of the LCD display. In
response the modem will highlight the particular button text selected. Within each matrix the
columns designation is shown in the upper left hand corner of the LCD Display and is selected
using the left and right arrow keys. Columns common to all matrices are “Status”, “Alarm” and
“Test”, while others vary by the parameters required. The particular parameter within a column is
shown in the upper right hand of the LCD display and is selected using the up and down arrow
keys. The LCD display allows viewing only one of the many parameters at one time, while the
four arrow keys (↑), (↓), (→), (←), allow scrolling through the rows and columns of the parameter
matrix. The complete matrix is shown as Tables 3-1 through 3-4 in Chapter 3, “Operation” of this
manual.
In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format
<Function: Column – Row>. For example, to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to
press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up
Page 2-12
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. This is shown by convention in this
manual as <Mod: IF – Level>
2.5.1 Parameter Setup
Each individual item that may be read or set is referred to as a “parameter”. Parameters are
arranged in a matrix of rows and columns. To set any parameter:
1. Select the functional matrix by choosing one of the four function keys; Unit, Mod, Dem
and Int’f.
2. Select the parameter to be set using the four arrow keys to the right of the LCD display.
The Left and right arrow keys control the column of the matrix and is shown in the upper
left position of the LCD display. The up and down arrow keys control the row of the matrix
and is shown in the upper right of the LCD display. Then
3. Press the “Edit” key to indicate that a new entry is desired (If the “Quick” keyboard entry
is enabled this step may be skipped), next
4. Set the parameter via the numeric keypad, and
5. Finalize the data entry using the “Enter” key.
The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing
“Enter”.
When the entry involves selection of one of several choices; this is accomplished by either:
1. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll though the available options, pressing “Enter”
when the desired option is displayed. When scrolling though the available options the
current setting is denoted by an arrow in the left column position, or
2. Pressing an option number selection (0 to max. where max. may be 1 to 8), then
pressing the “Enter” key. This method is faster when the option scheme becomes more
familiar. For instance, all options that can be enabled or disabled use “1” to enable and
“0” to disable. Note that the “yes” and “no” below the 1 and 0 key aid this convention.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM
making it available immediately and also automatically the next time the unit is powered on.
2.6 Modem Terminal Mode Control
The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the VT100 Terminal mode, with a full
screen presentation of current settings and status. Programming is accomplished by selecting the
item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option letter “A” through “Z”. For
example, to change the transmit data rate, press the terminal's “A” key (upper case is not
necessary for letters). The modem will respond by presenting the options available and
requesting input. Two types of input may be requested. If the input is multiple choice, the desired
choice is selected by pressing the indicated number key. This input type does not require
pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key. The other possible input type requires a numerical
input (such as entering a frequency or data rate). This type of input is followed by pressing the
“Enter” or carriage return key. An input can be aborted at any time by pressing the “TAB” key.
Invalid input keys are signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal. Note that the “ESC” key
is not used to escape or cancel an input because the common ANSI and VT100 terminal control
sequences use the escape character to flag start of sequence.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM
making it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered
up.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
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Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
2.7 Self-Test Mode
⇒ CAUTION: The Self-Test Mode will disconnect the transmit and receive IF from the
ground station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM500 under test. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit.
The PSM-500 provides a built–in self-test mode which uses the IF Loop-back and a predefined
sequence of actions to test the basic modem operation. This test mode can be used to verify
correct functioning of the modem before placing it into service. The modem is placed into self-test
mode by using the front panel controls to initiate the test mode sequence.
The Self-Test Mode does not use or change the current configuration parameters, and returns to
these parameters after the test is completed.
To access the Self-Test Mode from the front panel, select “Unit” and use the right arrow key to
scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “Test Modem” is
displayed. Then press “Edit”, the “3” key then “Enter” to start the test. The modem self-test only
requires approximately one minute. This tests both the lamp and unit functioning. Just the lamp
test is performed by selecting “1” above or the Loop tests by selecting “2” above.
If any portion of the self-test fails, the modem will halt on the failed test and enter a loop with 4
short “beeps” then pause for several seconds and repeat the 4 short beeps.
The Self-Test Mode state is not stored in EEPROM, therefore if the unit is powered off during
Self-Test Mode it will be configured for Self-Test Mode disabled when powered up again
2.8 IF Loop-back Test Mode
⇒ CAUTION: The IF Loop-back Mode will disconnect the receive IF from the ground
station equipment and will therefore disrupt any traffic currently through the PSM-500
under test. The transmit output is still active if it was enabled before initiating an IF Loopback. This Test Mode should not be used on a live traffic unit.
The PSM-500 provides a built–in IF loop-back mode which couples the transmit output to the
receive input via physical relays at the modem IF and an internal attenuator to achieve proper
input levels. This mode can be used to test modem operation with data, for instance using a BER
test set, before going up on the satellite.
The IF Loop-back Test Mode uses the current modulator carrier frequency (plus offset setting)
only and sets the demodulator to the same carrier frequency setting when in loop-back. The user
is responsible for all other compatible settings in order for the modulator and demodulator to
operate properly. When the IF Loop-back Test Mode is disabled, the demodulator carrier
frequency is returned to that stored in EEPROM (present before Loop-back was initiated).
To access the IF Loop-back Mode using the front panel, select the “Demod” and use the arrow
keys to scroll to the “Test” column of the configuration matrix and then scroll down until “IF
Loopbck” is displayed. Then press “Edit”, the “1” key for enable and then “Enter” to enable the IF
Loop-back. When finished using this mode, return to the “Test - IF Loop” position and press the
“0” option key to disable.
2.8.1 Built-in BERT
When in IF Loop-back mode a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) can also be performed using the
modem’s built in BER test capabilities. The transmit and receive BERTs are independent and are
enabled in the <Int’f: Test – Mod BER> and <Int’f: Test – Dem BER> parameters. Note this
convention for accessing a parameter. It means press the “Int’f” key (if not already set) and scroll
left or right to the Test column and then up or down until the LCD displays ”Test – Mod BER” on
the upper line. The BER test is enabled by pressing “Edit” and then pressing either “1” for a
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PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
“2047” pattern or “2” for a “2^23-1” pattern. The “0” key will disable the BER test mode. BERT test
readings are displayed in the <Int’f: Status - BER> parameter and the 6 items below it.
Since there is no noise added in the IF Loop-back mode the BER results should show no errors.
This test is more useful once the modem is configured and a Loop-back over the satellite is
performed by setting the receive frequency to that output by the modulator.
The IF Loop-back state and the BERT state are both stored in EEPROM, therefore if the unit is
powered off during IF loop-back and/or BERT test it will return to this state when powered up
again.
More information on the BERT functions is given in Section 4.1.2 “Using the Built-in BERT”.
2.9 Modem Configuration
Configuring the PSM-500 Modem operating parameters is essential before placing the unit into
service. The PSM-500 Modem operating parameters may be set up using the front panel, the
USB or the terminal command mode. The binary remote control input may also be used if the
remote interface parameters are already known and set.
2.9.0 Configuring the Modem for Operation
The following description assumes that the modem setup is to be done manually at a depot
location or in the field via the front panel. Alternately, the modem could be automatically set up
using a controller and the command interface. No software is provided for such an external
control application and therefore this task is the responsibility of the using organization.
2.9.1 Setting Essential Parameters
The setting of several basic parameters is essential to achieve proper operation and carrier lock
with the modem. Improper setting of any of these parameters will probably result in failure to
communicate with the far end of the link. These basic parameters are listed here to serve as a
minimum checklist for installation.
Modulator and Demodulator
1. Carrier Frequency (Note special procedures below available for L-Band interfaces.)
2. Modulation Mode (BPSK or QPSK)
3. Bit Rate
4. FEC Code Rate
5. Scrambler (Normally Enabled in IESS 308/309 mode – See “Using The Proper
Scramble” below)
6. Clock sources set per system requirements.
7. Reed-Solomon Codec settings if enabled
8. IBS Multiplexer settings if enabled
9. External reference set properly
10. Modulator and Demodulator functions enabled
Modulator
1. Output Level
2. Carrier Enable
3. The L-Band modem can also supply power and reference to a BUC.
Demodulator
1. Carrier Acquisition Mode and Acquisition Range
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
2. The L-Band modems with L-Band Receive can be set to supply power at either 13 or
18 VDC and/or a 10 MHz reference signal on the receive input connector for coupling
to the LNB via the receive cable.
2.9.1.1 IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon Selection
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry implementing either an IBS Multiplexer or a
Reed-Solomon concatenated FEC capability independently.
The IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon functions are independent and each can be enabled and
disabled as required. The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each
option are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.
For additional information on the configuration of the IBS Multiplexer/Reed-Solomon capabilities
refer to Appendix RS.
2.9.1.2 Using the Proper Scrambler
The PSM-500 modems now have had an “Auto” mode used to automatically select the preferred
scrambler setting in any FEC or other dependent mode. This replaces the previous “IESS 308” or
“IESS-309” auto modes used in the PSM-4900. There is no IESS Standard covering the Turbo
Product Codes FEC. The Auto mode is highly recommended. Following is the setting chosen by
the modem when in Auto Scrambler mode:
•
When TPC is either not installed or not enabled the preferred scrambler and descrambler
is automatically selected to “IESS 308” or “IESS 309”. See below for the difference.
•
When TPC is enabled but the IBS multiplexer option is not installed or not enabled “Auto”
uses the new Scrambler and Descrambler option #7 “TPC Sync” this uses a synchronous
scrambler specific to the TPC Codec.
•
When both TPC and IBS multiplexer are installed and enabled Auto uses the “IESS 308”
option.
Remember that the scrambler and descrambler may be set independently in each link direction.
IESS-308 Scrambler Mode Operation
•
With no mux or RS then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is enabled.
•
With just the IBS mux enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used
•
With just the R-S enabled then the R-S synchronous scrambler is used
• With both IBS Mux and R-S enabled then the IBS synchronous scrambler is used.
IESS-309 Scrambler Mode Operation
The operation is the same as the IESS-308 option with the exception that
• With just R-S enabled then the self-synchronizing Intelsat scrambler is used.
Fixed Scrambler Mode Operation
The V.35 and Intelsat scrambler modes use the V.35 and Intelsat self-synchronizing scramblers
respectively in all modes.
Alternate Scrambler Mode Operation
The alternate V.35 and alternate Intelsat scrambler mode performs a data inversion required by
some “Comstream” modems.
2.9.1.3 Using The L-Band PSM-500L Transmit RF Frequency Feature
The PSM-500L can cover the entire satellite’s receive range from it’s transmit output. This output
can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1750 MHz range. The coverage
can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being transmitted at the BUC output. To
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PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
enable this feature simply supply the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter with a value
other than “0”. When the value set here is equal to the BUC’s LO frequency then the modem can
automatically compute the RF frequency at the BUC output.
The PSM-500L modem will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so
that it is always “Normal”, i.e. not inverted. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting
from “Normal” to achieve this.
Note: After entering a new BUC LO frequency the modem requires a new Transmit IF
frequency input to recalculate the proper output frequency setting.
To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting, simply enter a value of “0” into the BUC LO
parameter. A common BUC LO frequency for the C-Band 5.925 to 6.425 GHz Range is 4900
MHz (low side LO), while a low side LO for the Ku Band 14.0 to 14.5 GHz range is 13150 MHz.
2.9.1.4 Using The L-Band & L Receive RF Frequency Feature
The L or LT models can cover the entire satellite’s transmit range on it’s receive input. This input
can be tuned to any frequency on 1 Hz increments in the 950 to 1900 MHz range. The coverage
can be “projected” to the actual satellite RF frequency being received at the LNB input. To enable
this feature simply supply the <Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter with a value other than
“0”. When the value set here is equal to the LNB’s LO frequency then the modem can
automatically compute the RF frequency at the LNB input.
The L/LT modems will also determine if the LO is high or low side and sets the spectrum so that it
is always “Normal”, i.e. not inverted. You do not have to change the IF spectrum setting from
“Normal” to achieve this.
Note: After entering a new LNB LO frequency the modem requires a new Receive IF
frequency input to recalculate the proper input frequency setting.
To return to using the L-Band IF frequency setting, simply enter a value of “0” into the LNB LO
parameter. A common LO frequency for the C-Band 3.7 to 4.2 GHz Range is 5150 MHz (high
side LO), while a common LO for the Ku Band 11.7 to 12.2 GHz range is 10750 MHz (low side
LO).
2.9.2 Carrier Acquisition Parameters
The PSM-500 Modem has two main modes and several programmable receive carrier acquisition
parameters available. These parameters control the initial acquisition of a carrier and
reacquisition of a carrier when it has been removed and reapplied.
There are two main acquisition methods used by the PSM-500. The normal mode for fastest
possible acquisition (especially at low data rates) is the “Fast” mode which utilizes an onboard
digital signal processor (DSP) to mathematically determine the location of the carrier and lock as
fast as possible. This mode initially goes for the largest carrier power within the acquisition range.
A new acquisition attempt will always repeat the same process and go to the same carrier. The
“fast” acquisition mode is optimized for the fastest possible acquisition speed, and is set as the
default acquisition mode for the modem.
A second mode called “Search” also uses the DSP but performs a piece-wise sweep of the
programmable acquisition range to locate the carrier and lock to it. If the modem cannot lock to
the first carrier it detects it will attempt to find another carrier in the next step of frequency. The
sweep always starts at the low end of the acquisition range and moves upward, wrapping around
to the low end when the top is reached. The Search mode is optimized for crowded spectrum
applications where nearby high power carriers may interfere with the standard “Fast” acquisition
mode. To our knowledge no one has ever had a problem using the standard Fast mode over
several years with many thousands of units, but the “Search” mode is still supplied just in case.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
The hybrid “Auto Narrow” and “Auto Track” modes available in previous generations of this
modem are no longer available as separate entries. The “Auto Narrow” function of initially
searching in a smaller acquisition range is incorporated into the latest version of the “Search”
mode. Setting the “Search” mode also enables a new menu item for “Sweep Time”. To be
enabled the <Dem: IF – Sweep Time> is set to a value other than 0 Seconds. Then, when a
carrier lock is lost, the modem will search in a reduced acquisition range (equal to the symbol
rate in Hertz) for the specified Sweep Time.
The “Search” acquisition mode also allows a modified version of the previous “Auto Track”
function. When in this mode the modem can be commanded to an offset from the set receive IF
frequency and the modem will begin its narrow search about that offset for the specified Sweep
Time. In this mode the Demod Offset may be set by any command method and the demodulator
will search at that point in the narrow DSP mode. (Note that in the standard fast acquisition mode
the Demod Offset is read only) This mode is intended for possible DAMA use where the offset
can be maintained to insure the fastest lock time.
The acquisition mode is set by setting the <Demod: IF - Sweep Mode> option parameter to
either “Fast” (0), or “Search” (1). The “Fast” mode is the standard setting.
2.9.2.1 Initial Acquisition
For initial acquisition, a single setting allows programming the acquisition sweep range that the
modem will search to find an available carrier. This parameter can be set from ± 100 Hz ± 1.25
MHz, where ± 30 kHz is common for standard demodulators. If all of the system offsets are
known and stable for a given installation, the initial acquisition range can be set to a low value
which will slightly reduce acquisition time, especially at low data rates. Conversely if a very
“loose” downconverter is in use such as a block down converter, for example, the initial
acquisition range can be set very wide to allow locking to a carrier well outside the range of
standard modems. Several cautions are in order here. If the acquisition range is set too small and
the system offsets drift, then a carrier may be locked out of acquisition or lost during operation. If
the acquisition range is set too wide and other compatible carriers are within the acquisition
range, then the wrong carrier may be locked.
If a Demodulator Offset frequency parameter is entered in “Search” mode, the Demodulator
carrier frequency setting plus the offset setting is used as the start point for attempting to acquire
a signal. If a sweep time has been set in the “Search” mode the modem uses the last carrier lock
offset as the initial setting.
If the demodulator lock to a signal is forcibly aborted in “Search” mode, the Demodulator will
attempt to acquire another signal immediately higher in frequency than the aborted signal. This
pseudo-sweep always progresses more positive in frequency until it reaches the upper limit of the
set acquisition range, where it will start searching again beginning at the lower limit of the set
acquisition range. This allows a user to “search” through all of the available carriers within the
acquisition range by viewing the <Dem: Lock – Status> and pressing the “Edit” or “Enter” key. At
this keypress the modem will prompt with “Enter to unlock”. Pressing “Enter” will cause the
modem to unlock and find the next higher frequency carrier within the acquisition range.
2.9.2.2 Carrier Re-acquisition
For the “Search” acquisition modes the PSM-500 attempts to find a carrier in a reduced or
“narrow” search range for a specified period of time before reverting to the standard search
range. The reduced sweep range is equal to the symbol rate in Hertz. Once the “Search”
acquisition mode is set, the “Sweep Time” Demod parameter setting controls the acquisition
search time in the reduced range.
NOTE: The Narrow sweep range is relative to the receive frequency offset that is commanded via
the remote control or front panel, or the last lock offset.
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PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
2.9.3 Sample Configuration Setting
The following procedures are used to set each of the modem’s parameters using the front panel.
Assuming the modem is to be used in the SCPC mode for a point-to-point link with another PSM500, the following sample configuration is representative of the required procedures:
For easier entry we can first set the entry mode to “Quick”. Go to <Unit: Keybrd – Entry> and
set the “Quick” mode. This is the default setting.
The desired transmit operating mode is 81.275 MHz, QPSK, 56 kbps, Rate 1/2 FEC, and receive
at 81.550 MHz, BPSK, 128 kbps, Rate 1/2 FEC. This example uses different transmit and receive
parameters to illustrate several points. The other end of the link would naturally have the opposite
transmit and receive parameter settings.
The transmit parameters will be set first. With the unit powered on, press the “Mod” function
button. Next, press the left or right arrow keys until the “IF” identifier is in the upper left line of the
LCD display indicating that we are in the Modulator IF column of the parameter matrix. Now scroll
down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display indicates “Frequency”. The value displayed
in the lower line is the current setting for the transmit frequency. A new frequency can now be
directly entered by using the numeric keypad. First indicate that a new entry is desired by
pressing the “Edit” key, which will display the current setting with the cursor set on the first
available digit. Enter a frequency in MHz not including the decimal point, entering all digits
required to specify the shown frequency, then press the “Enter” key to apply this new parameter
value. In this first setting we did not use the quick entry mode, but the following will use that
mode. Note that when not using quick entry the frequency edit function skipped over the decimal
point. Late you might try returning to the frequency setting and enter the frequency directly using
quick entry and the decimal point.
Next scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and press the “1” key to request QPSK, then press the
“Enter” key to apply this new parameter value. Scroll right to the “Data” column and down to the
“Bit Rate” parameter and press “56” and “Enter”. (Without Quick entry we would have to press
“Edit”, “0”, “0”, “5”, “6” and “Enter”. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after
the last “6” of the valid entry, then they must be overwritten with “0”s.) Last, scroll down to the
“Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0” and “Enter”.
To set the receive parameters, press the “Demod” button and the right arrow key until the “IF”
identifier is in the upper left line of the LCD display indicating that we are in the Demodulator IF
column of the parameter matrix. Now scroll down (or up) until the upper right of the LCD display
indicates “Frequency”, and press the “Edit” key. Then edit the displayed frequency to 81.55 MHz
and press “Enter”. Note that if digits other than “0” had been set in positions after the last “5” of
the valid entry, then they must be overwritten with “0”s. Scroll down to the “Modulation” entry and
press the “Edit”, the “0” key to request BPSK and press the “Enter”. Scroll right to the “Data”
column and down to the “Bit Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0”, “1”, “2”, “8” and “Enter”. Last
scroll down to the “Code Rate” parameter and press “Edit”, “0” and “Enter”. Next scroll left and
down in the IF list to the “Sweep Range” parameter and set the value to 30 kHz.
This configuration example has illustrated how to “navigate” through the available parameter
matrix and has shown two modes of entry for numerical and list selected values. If the Unit
keyboard Entry had been set to “Quick” then all of the parameters shown above could have been
set directly without pressing the “Edit” key first. This mode also does not require that existing
characters be overwritten when entering new data.
Using the front panel or terminal command mode, set all modem parameters as necessary for the
type of service intended. This should prepare the unit for operation. If the modem is to be
controlled by an external command controller, set the modem address properly as described in
the next section. The modem should now be ready for service in an operating satellite system.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Once all parameters have been set and verified, the transmit output can be connected to the
ground station equipment for transmission to the satellite. Verify that the alarms are extinguished
and that the demodulator has locked.
2.9.4 Setting Additional Parameters
As stated before, the basic parameter settings are essential to achieve modem operation and
carrier lock. There are many other parameters, which must be set on the PSM-500 to configure
the unit to operate within your own system. These include setting those parameters which fall into
three major categories; Data Interface compatibility; Automatic Correction for link properties; and
Alarm configuration.
2.9.4.1 Data Interface Compatibility
Mod and Demod Data Sense
Mod and Demod Clock Source
Mod and Demod Clock Phase (Default Mod Clock is now “Auto”).
Modulator RTS Enable
2.9.4.2 Automatic Correction
Automatic Uplink Power Control (if equipped)
Demod FIFO Operation
2.9.4.3 Alarm configuration
The PSM-500 Alarm system represents a sophisticated method of controlling visual, relay and
logical alarm outputs which can be used for multiple purposes including redundancy. A basic
representation of the alarm system functioning is shown in the figure below.
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PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Individual Alarms
Installation
Processing Matrix
Outputs
Summary Alarm
Unit Alarms
Reference
Test Active
Hardware
Alarm Relay A
Modulator Alarms
Alarm Relay B
Carrier
Bit Clock
Test Active
Hardware
No Data
Selection
Logic
Demodulator Alarms
Carrier Lock
Low Level
Low Eb/No
Test Active
Hardware
No Data
Modulator
Alarm
NC
NO
C
NC
NO
C
Front Panel
Data
Interface
Interface Alarms
BER Loss
Test Active
Option Fail
Demodulato
r Alarm
Front Panel
Data
Interface
Redundancy
Switch Request
Figure 2-3 - Alarm Processing
There are also other possible alarm inputs depending on the modem options and configuration.
Each of the individual alarm inputs has a configuration selection parameter under the “Alarm”
column of its matrix. The general options available are to set the alarm to either be ignored or to
form one of the “OR” inputs to the A or B alarm relay or both. The default set-up for these alarms
is to have all the modulator related alarms assigned to Alarm A and all demodulator alarms
assigned to Alarm B. The two alarm relays could be changed to represent “Major” and “Minor”
alarms.
The open collector outputs for the modulator and demodulator alarms are available on the data
interface connector and are used by some types of redundancy switches for determining alarm
status. The modem’s built-in redundancy switch logic uses either all alarms or combinations of
the A and B alarms to activate a switch request.
A description of each of these settings is contained in Operations, Section 3.2 and Tables 3-5
through 3-8 later in this manual. A brief description of alarm configuration is also given here.
Possible alarm sources include the following items:
1. Unit Reference missing.
2. Unit Test Active.
3. Unit Hardware Fault.
4. Transmit Carrier Off.
5. Modulator Bit Rate Lock.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
6. Modulator AUPC Alarm.
7. Modulator Test Active.
8. Modulator Hardware Fault.
9. Demodulator Signal Lock.
10. Receive Input Level below AGC range.
11. Receive Low Eb/No below threshold.
12. Demod Test Active.
13. Demodulator Hardware Fault.
14. Interface Test mode Active.
15. Interface BER Test Sync Loss.
16. Backward Alarm from IBS multiplexer (if equipped).
The inputs are read by the processor and eight outputs are produced including two alarm relays,
one Modulator , one Demodulator and one Summary alarm LED on the front panel, and a
modulator and demodulator redundancy open collector alarms on the interface card, plus the
redundancy switch request. The summary Alarm LED is the OR function of either of the alarm
relays. The front panel or remote control can be used to select which of the possible alarm
sources are assigned to each of the relays or can individually ignore any of the sources. Some
modems only present alarms based upon a hardware fault in either the modulator or
demodulator. The PSM-500 allows the user to select such items as a low input level or Eb/No to
activate an alarm. By providing two relays and the configuration options, several alternative alarm
scenarios can be used. The A and B alarm relays could represent a minor and major alarm, or
they could be separated into modulator and demodulator functions, or one could be a summary
alarm while the other is a dry contact input to a redundancy control unit.
2.9.5 Using the Internal or an External Reference
The PSM-500 contains an internal Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO)
reference which determines the basic accuracy of all modem frequency and rate settings. This
internal reference is a nominal 2.0 ppm stability over normal operating temperature, and exhibits
aging less than 1 ppm per year. This is accurate for most applications, and for example,
produces a worst case transmit center output frequency accuracy of 2.0 X 10–6 X 70 MHz X 106
or ±140 Hz (176 Hz at 88 MHz). If this accuracy is not sufficient, or the network operating mode
dictates, an external reference can be used.
The L-Band modem, PSM-500L, uses an Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO) and the
standard unit has a 1 x 10-7 stability and 2 to 3 x 10-7 aging rate per year. The increased stability
is necessary because the oscillator can be used as the reference for a BUC.
The external reference frequency is applied at the rear panel BNC connector, J7, at a frequency
of 1, 5, 9 or 10 MHz. Use of the external reference and the reference frequency are selected at
the front panel from the <Unit: Ref – Source>, setting to external which then enables the entry
for <Unit: Ref – Frequency>.
The external reference input does not perform any clean-up of an input other than band-pass
filtering with a pass-band from approximately 1 to 12 MHz. The reference input should therefore
been a low noise source.
2.9.5.1 Reference Calibration
During factory testing and calibration the modem unit is compared to a known in-house reference
and calibrated. A default value is permanently stored representing this factory calibration. The
unit may be offset from this factory value by using the manual tuning or automatic recalibration.
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PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
Manual tuning of the modem’s reference is accomplished using the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune>
parameter and entering a value from –127 to +127
Automatic calibration of the modem’s internal reference is accomplished by inserting a known
high accuracy reference at the rear panel “External Reference” input and enabling the <Unit:
Test – Cal Ref> item. The calibration should take several seconds and will indicate a successful
completion. If the calibration fails then the external reference was out of range in either level or
frequency.
The factory calibration may be restored by setting the <Unit: Ref – Fine Tune> value to “0”.
2.9.6 Setting the Modem Station ID Name
Each PSM-500 contains two unique identification entries available at the front panel or remotely.
They are the unit serial number and the Unit Name or “Unit ID”. The serial number is set at the
factory and cannot be changed, but the Unit ID can be set and changed whenever necessary.
This field allows identification of the modem with up to 16 characters.
The Unit ID can be set easily from the VT100 terminal mode, and with slightly more effort from
the unit front panel. To set the Unit ID, use the front panel arrow keys to scroll to the <Unit:
Status – Unit ID> parameter and pressing “Edit” to begin entry. Each character position is
selected using the right and left arrow keys, and the character at that position is set using the up
and down arrow keys. When the proper entry is achieved press the “Enter” key to finalize the
input. The first character is the “Space” followed by the characters below.
ASCII Characters Available for Unit Station ID
Char
!
“
#
$
%
&
‘
(
)
*
+
,
.
Char
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
Char
.
?
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
Char
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
Char
]
^
_
‘
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
I
j
k
Char
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
Char
{
|
}
→
÷
&
When entering this parameter via a terminal connected to the remote port the Unit ID Name is
entered directly as text from the terminal keyboard. The Unit ID can also be entered via remote
control at the rear panel DB9 or USB control ports.
After any entry mode the processor will center the input characters on the lower line of the LCD
display
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2.9.7 Setting the Modem Address for Command Mode Operation
If Command Mode Binary Packet Operation is desired the modem packet “address” must be set
via the front panel before the modem will recognize packets. To set the address use the arrow
keys to go to the <Unit: Remote – Address> parameter and press “Edit”, then use the numeric
keypad to enter the address from 0 to 255. Then press the “Enter” key to enable the change.
The address 255 is “global” and all units will respond to a message packet with this address
regardless of its setting, but no unit will return a response message. It is suggested that you do
not use addresses 1 or 255 (1 is the factory setting, and any new unit added to a system will
have address 1).
The address “0” is also unique. This address causes the modem to accept commands and send
responses without the address fields normally required in the command packets.
2.10 Interface Type Configuration
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry to implement several different interface types:
0
Disabled
1
RS-232 (Synchronous only, limited to 128 kbps by drivers and receivers)
2
RS-449
3
RS-449/Unterminated (used in redundancy)
4
V.35
5
V.36
6
EIA-530
7
EIA-530A
8
SnIP (Option)
9
HSSI (Option)
A single 37 pin female “D” type connector on the rear panel at J3 is used for all interface types.
The connector pin-out is shown in Chapter 2, Installation. Adaptor cables are available for other
physical connector types. The two we make are the DB25 (P/N DSF00-080) and Winchester M34
style V.35 (P/N DSF00-083). See Appendix C for more cabling information.
The modem is also capable of accepting one of several existing and to be implemented
additional option interfaces. These include a 10 Base T Ethernet interface, a High Speed Serial
Interface (HSSI), a G.703 interface and others. The main processor automatically determines the
presence and type of interface and options by querying the interface card. Adding an optional
interface card or changing an already installed interface should only be attempted by experienced
personnel familiar with electronic communications equipment. Either of these operations requires
removing the modem from service, and removal and replacement of the modem top cover to gain
access to the interface PCB assembly.
2.10.1 Adding or Changing the Optional Interface Type
An optional interface card may be installed or exchanged in a modem unit by removing the
modem’s top cover. First the interface option card rear panel plate is released from the chassis
by removing the two screws on either side of this plate at the rear panel. The interface card to be
removed is disconnected from the main board by releasing the one or two ribbon cables from the
IDC connectors at P5 and P7 (or P5 only if so configured). These designations are those on the
main modem PWB. The three #6 screws and lock washers are then removed if in an existing
board and saved for placing the new interface card into the chassis. Once the new interface card
is installed on the standoffs the two rear panel screws are installed first, then the three #6 screws
are used to mount the board to the chassis (some boards have 4 mounting screws). Finally the
required ribbon cables are (re-)attached to the new card and the main PWB at P5 (and also P7 if
used). Finally the unit top cover is replaced using the 8 screws removed above.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
When the unit is powered-up again the main modem processor will automatically query the new
interface card and determine the type and options installed.
The SnIP Ethernet
interface and the HSSI
interface may be installed
alone or together. In the
latter case the two
interfaces are “stacked”
and a special ribbon cable
is available for this
configuration to connect to
the internal modem
interface. More information
on this installation is
provided with the HSSI
interface option.
To
P5
Once installed the main
data interface for the SnIP
option is its standard RJ-45
10/100 base T Ethernet
interface connector located
on the rear panel.
Figure 2-4 Typical Interface Card Layout
Most option interface cards completely co-exist with the on-board interface types, allowing the
optional interface to
represent one or more
Rear Connector Plate
added interface types
available. Only one
interface type is however
allowed to be enabled at
External Connector Area
one time.
Once installed the main
data interface for the HSSI
option is its standard High Density SCSI-2 type connector located on the rear panel. This
connection is designed to interface directly with a Cisco or compatible HSSI router interface
module via a commercially available HSSI cable. See Appendix C for more cable information.
2.10.2 Optional Interface Configuration
Installed interface cards are automatically recognized by the modem and an entry is added to the
Interface Option selection menu. Selection of the option interface then becomes identical to
selection of any of the standard interfaces. Both the SnIP and HSSI automatically use the
modem’s transmit and receive data rate parameter as their clock signal just like the standard
interfaces.
2.11 Option FEC Card Installation
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and two “slot” connectors for adding several
available and planned FEC option “daughter” boards. These plug into either the A or B slots on
the main modem assembly. Installation of these cards is not difficult, but requires removal of the
modem from service and removal of the unit’s cover, and should be accomplished only by a
qualified technician. The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card and
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 2-25
Installation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings allowing control of the
option.
The modem’s two FEC slots are identical, and if similar functions exist on two cards the modem
will select a requested FEC option from the first slot which has that capability
In some cases when options are first introduced a software update to the modems internal
program is necessary to allow use of the option. Refer to Section 4.3 “Updating Modem
Software”. The Datum Systems’ M500 Update program will also recognize and install software for
FEC cards present in the modem.
The physical arrangement of the two FEC slots is shown in Figure 2-x below. The same PWB is
used for the standard Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs with the
manufacturing option to add either the TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered. If these options
are ordered later a new board is supplied that has all of the necessary FEC capabilities and the
original standard FEC may be removed. FlexLDPC has a unique PWB, but comes standard with
Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation and Reed-Solomon FECs, and is configurable to add either the
TPC4k or TPC16k chips when ordered.
2.11.1 Turbo Product Codes Option Installation
The PSM-500 Modem contains on-board circuitry and connectors for adding a Turbo Product
Codes Option Card. This card can co-exist with the IBS Multiplexer (and the Reed-Solomon
function also, but both cannot be used simultaneously).
Turbo Product Codes or TPC is available in multiple mechanical forms and also versions
depending on the link requirements. The three versions are a TPC4K which uses the same TPC
chip as in the PSM-4900 series of modems, and a TPC16K which uses a newer 16K block size to
improve performance, and a TPC-20K board with both the TPC4k and TPC16k chips installed.
Because of the larger processed block size, the TPC16K device has much higher delay or
latency than the 4K block device. It is also more expensive.
The modem can be ordered with any of these TPC options from the factory, and will then
normally be supplied as added components on the standard FEC card already containing the
Viterbi, TCM and Reed-Solomon FECs. Only one of these four versions can be installed on the
standard FEC card, and the type cannot be changed.
The other possibility is to add a card which has one of these two TPC chips into the Slot B of a
modem which already has Slot A occupied by the standard FEC card. Installation of these cards
is into a common SO-DIMM, 144 pin socket, and should be installed only by a qualified
technician.
The modem automatically recognizes the presence of the option card(s) and capabilities and
provides additional front panel and remote control parameter settings to control the option.
The Turbo Product Codes option, when enabled, replaces the convolutional encoder/Viterbi
decoder functions. The Modulator (Transmit) and Demodulator (Receive) functions of each option
are also independent and can be enabled and disabled as required.
Top and side views of the FEC cards are shown in Figure 2-5 below. For additional information
on the installation and configuration of the Turbo Product Codes option refer to Appendix TPC.
Page 2-26
PSM-500/500L/500L T- Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Installation
Rear Panel
J3 and J4 Connectors
Interface Option
Connector
Top View
M500 Series Main PCB
Latches
FEC Card
DRA05-002
FEC Slot A
FEC Slot B
Flash
FPGA
TPC4k
TPC16k
Side View
Showing Insertion
Slot B must be empty
to install in Slot A
Main PCB
Figure 2-5
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
FEC Option Card Installation
Page 2-27
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Chapter 3 - Operation
3.1 Operating Procedures
Operation of the PSM-500 Modem consists of controlling the unit’s operating parameters and
monitoring status and responses via one of the control interfaces. There are three possible
control methods for the modem:
1. Front Panel Keypad Control. (Section 3.1.1)
2. Terminal Mode Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports. (Section 3.3)
3. Command Interface Binary Control via rear panel 232/485 or USB control ports.
(Section 3.4)
Any of these methods may be used separately or together to monitor and control the modem unit.
Each of these three interfaces and their respective methods are discussed separately below in
the sections noted above.
Additional operating procedures are also presented later in this section on using some of the
unique features of the PSM-500 that would not normally be set-up during installation. These
include such items as the FIFO buffer, built-in BERT, storing and recalling configuration
information, AUPC, the analog monitor output, redundancy and automatic recovery.
3.1.1 Front Panel Control
The front panel of the PSM-500 allows complete control and monitor of all modem parameters
and functions via a keypad, LCD display and status LEDs.
3.1.2 Front Panel Layout and Features
The front panel layout shown in Figure 3–1, identifies the location and labeling of items on the
front panel. The front panel is divided into three functional areas: the LCD display, the Keypad
and the LED Indicators, each described below.
3.1.2.1 Front Panel LCD Display
The front panel display is a 2 line by 16 character LCD display. It is augmented by the four LED
highlighted legends to the display’s right. The display and legends are lighted and the brightness
can be set to increase when the front panel is currently in use, automatically dimming with
inactivity. The display has four distinct areas showing current information. The four legends
indicate the Modem’s functional area that is currently being monitored or controlled, including
“Unit”, “Mod”, “Demod” and “Interface”. The upper left of the LCD shows the current area of use,
such as “Status”, “IF”, “Data”, “Alarm” or “Test” (for the Mod and Demod). The upper right shows
the current parameter being monitored, such as “Frequency”, “Offset” or “Bit Rate”. The lower line
shows the current value of that parameter. The LCD display is a single entry window into the
large matrix of parameters which can be monitored and set from the front panel. It is convenient
to imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel workbook, with
the different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit, Mod, Demod and Interface, while
navigation on a given sheet is accomplished using the up, down, left and right arrow keys.
The backlight brightness can be set for two states: Active and Idle. The active state is entered
whenever a key on the front panel is pressed, while the idle state occurs after approximately 60
seconds of inactivity. Each state may be set to “Off”, 1/3 brightness, 2/3 brightness and full
brightness. The default setting is full in the active state and 1/3 in the idle state. To change the
settings for either state go to the “Modem LCD Active” or “Modem LCD Idle” brightness
parameter and adjust to the desired values.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-1
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
3.1.2.2 Front Panel Keypad
The front panel keypad consists of three areas:
First, is a 10-key numeric entry with 5 additional keys. Two keys provide for a “+/-” (change sign)
and “.” (decimal point) function, while three more on the far right provide “Edit”, “Clear” and
“Enter”. The “Enter” key on the lower right is normally blue while the rest of the numeric keypad
keys are gray. This allows easy identification of the Enter key.
The second area is a set of “Arrow” or “Cursor” keys used to navigate the parameter currently
being monitored or controlled. During entry, the cursor keys allow moving a cursor to individual
digits of a numerical entry or scrolling through the available options of a selection entry. The
arrow keys are also in blue.
The third area is the four selection keys previously discussed with the LCD display. They allow
selecting which functional area or “sheet” of the display matrix is currently in use. The four
functional buttons represent the Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface.
Page 3-2
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM500
Satellite Modem
SYSTEMS
DATUM
Int'f
Dem
Mod
no
0
.
+/-
yes
1
4
7
2
5
8
3
6
9
Figure 3-1 PSM-500 Front Panel Controls and Indicators
IF
Frequency
70.125613MHz
Unit
Edit
Enter
Clear
Minor Alm
Test
Test
Major Alm
Lock
Demodulator
Minor Alm
Major Alm
Transmit
Modulator
Power
Sum
Alarm
Local
Remote
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Page 3-3
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
3.1.2.3 Front Panel LED Indicators
There are 12 LEDs on the modem front panel to indicate current status of the modem’s
operation. They are separated into three columns representing (from left to right) the Modulator
status, the Demodulator status and the Modem (Unit) status. The LED colors maintain a
consistent meaning. Green signifies that the indication is appropriate for normal operation, Yellow
means that there is a condition not proper for normal operation. Red indicates a fault condition
which will result in lost communications
When one of the Alarm lamps below is illuminated, the highest priority alarm condition is
displayed in the LCD window.
Modem LED Indicators
1. Power:
Green – Indicates the modem unit is currently under power.
2. Alarm:
Red – if summary fault condition exists from either Alarm A or
Alarm B.
3. Local:
Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the front
panel.
4. Remote:
Green – Indicates that the unit is set to respond to the remote
control input.
Modulator LED Indicators
1. Transmit:
Green – Indicates that the transmit output is currently active.
Green Flashing when an IF Looback test is active and the
carrier is configured to the “disabled” state.
2. Major Alarm:
Red – Indicates that the transmit direction has failed, losing
traffic.
3. Minor Alarm:
Yellow – Indicates a transmit warning condition exists.
4. Test Mode:
Yellow Flashing – Indicates the modulator is involved in a
current test mode activity.
Demodulator LED Indicators
Page 3-4
1. Lock:
Green – Indicates receiver lock to an incoming CXR and data
including FEC sync.
2. Major Alarm:
Red – Indicates that the receive direction has failed, losing
traffic.
3. Minor Alarm:
Yellow – Indicates a receive warning condition exists, either an
incoming carrier with a low input level or a low Eb/No
(programmable threshold), or a backward alarm received from
the far end.
4. Test Mode:
Yellow Flashing – Indicates the receiver is involved in a current
test mode activity.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
3.1.3 Guide to Front Panel Monitor and Control
The front panel can be used to perform complete monitor and control of the modem setup and
operating parameters. The operation of the front panel should be intuitive after very little use to
familiarize the user with basic concepts and operations. Parameter entry operations have two
methods of accomplishing the same goal and the method used is up to the user although in most
cases one method will have potential advantages.
3.1.3.1 Navigating Modem Parameters
Consider that there are over 180 programmable or monitored parameters on the PSM-500 and
that the LCD display can only show one parameter at a time. To simplify locating any desired
parameter, they are organized into a 3 dimensional table or matrix form with 4 layers or “sheets”,
each one having 4 to 10 columns and up to 32 rows. This matrix is shown in Tables 3-1 through
3-4. Each matrix sheet represents a major functional area of modem operation (i.e. Unit,
Modulator, Demodulator and Interface) while the columns represent groupings within those
functional areas and the rows represent individual parameters associated with that function. The
columns include such divisions as Status, Alarm and Test areas. The LCD display allows viewing
only one of the many parameters at one time. At any time the LCD display shows the monitored
parameter value on the lower line of the two-line display. The upper left line of the display shows
the column name (such as Status, IF, Data, Alarm and Test) while the upper right shows the
parameter (row) name.
Matrix
Column
Matrix Row
Data
Bit Rate
256.000kbps
Unit
Mod
Dem
Int'f
Matrix Sheet
Parameter
Front Panel Parameter Matrix Navigation
The four arrow keys located to the right of the LCD display are used to scroll through the rows
and columns of each parameter matrix layer or sheet. The left and right arrow keys scroll through
the columns and the up and down arrow keys scroll through the available parameters in each
column. Both the columns and rows “wrap around” such that scrolling past the last item in a row
starts with the first item in the same row again, and the same for columns.
In this manual operation of the keypad to access a certain parameter is shown in the format
<Function: Column – Row>. For example, to get to the Modulator IF Level the method is to
press the “Mod” key then use the left and right arrow keys to access the “IF” column and the up
and down arrow keys to arrive at the “Level” parameter. This is shown by convention in this
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-5
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
manual as <Mod: IF – Level>. We may also show selection of a specific value for the parameter
using the notation <Function: Column – Row> = value(#). The value is descriptive and the # in
parenthesis is the selection number key to press for optional parameters, if applicable, in the
direct entry mode explained below.
It is convenient to imagine the matrix as 3 dimensional spreadsheet just like a multi-sheet Excel
workbook, with the different “sheets” selected by the buttons for Unit, Mod, Demod and Interface,
while navigation on a given sheet is accomplished using the up, down, left and right arrow keys.
Until you become familiar with the location of parameters using the front panel, it is convenient to
use the Matrix Tables 3-1 through 3-4 as a quick reference.
3.1.3.2 Monitoring Modem Parameters
Any available modem parameter is monitored by simply using the function and arrow keys to
display the desired parameter in the LCD display. The item displayed will remain until changed or
power is removed from the modem unit. The display is “Live”, therefore when a currently
displayed parameter changes the display will change without operator intervention. When
multiple parameters could be displayed (such as when multiple test modes are currently running
or multiple alarms are present) only the highest priority item is displayed. When that item is no
longer valid the next highest priority is displayed. The priority of items is fixed within the modem
software.
3.1.3.3 Changing Modem Parameters
To set any parameter, the 4 functional area keys and the 4 arrow keys to the right of the LCD
display are first used to select the parameter to be set, then one of several “entry” modes is used
to change the parameter. In any entry mode pressing the “Edit” key to indicate a new entry, then
editing the parameter via the arrow keys and the numeric keypad and finalizing the data entry
using the “Enter” key will work. The “Quick” entry mode allows direct entry of a new value without
first pressing the “Edit” key. All entry items take one of two forms:
1. Numeric entry such as frequency or bit rate; and
2. Selection from a list such as selecting FEC rates 1/2, 3/4 or 7/8.
Numeric entries may be entered by performing one of the following:
•
When a numeric parameter is displayed, it can be changed by pressing the “Edit”
key, then using the left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed and
entering a new digit. Successive digit entries go to successive characters on the
display, skipping over the decimal point which is in a fixed location. Leading zeros
must be used to enter smaller numbers than are currently displayed, and trailing
zeroes are used to eliminate trailing digits not required. The entry is finalized by
pressing the “Enter” key.
•
An alternate edit mode is accomplished by first pressing the “Edit” key, then using
the left and right arrow keys to select the first digit to be changed. The digit is
“scrolled” using the up and down arrow key. Additional digits are pointed to using the
left and right arrows and also scrolled. Finish the edit by pressing the enter key.
Overflow when scrolling up through 9 will increment the next higher digit while
underflow will decrement the next higher digit.
•
Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to
“Quick”. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering new
information, which completely overwrites the existing parameter. For example when
viewing the Modulator Data Bit Rate of 256.000kbps entering the digits 47.243
(including the decimal point) and pressing “Enter” will change to that new data rate.
Note that a leading “0” did not have to be entered to overwrite the “2” of the existing
parameter.
Page 3-6
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
The current input can be canceled by pressing the “Clear” key at any time before pressing
“Enter”. Failure to press a key for approximately 60 seconds results in automatic canceling of the
current entry and return of the display to the current setting.
Selection entries may be accomplished by one of the following:
•
When a selection entry parameter is displayed, simply press the “Edit” key followed
by a digit key 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. In this scheme “0” represents disabled, OFF, NO or the
first possible choice. “1” represents enabled, ON, YES or the second possible choice.
“2”, “3” and “4” represents the third, fourth and fifth possible choices. Then press the
“Enter” key to finalize the entry.
•
Alternately, when a selection parameter is displayed it can be changed by pressing
the “Edit” key, then using the up and down arrow keys to scroll through the possible
choices. When the desired option is displayed, pressing the “Enter” key selects the
displayed choice and finalizes the entry. When scrolling though the available options,
an arrow in the left column position denotes the current setting.
•
Direct entry can be accomplished if the <Unit: Keyboard – Entry Mode> is set to
“Quick”. In this mode the current parameter can be changed by simply entering digit
key 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 … and pressing “Enter” to finalize the entry. Optional selections
can be viewed by successively pressing several keys to determine their value, then
pressing “Enter”.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM
making it available not only immediately, but also automatically the next time the unit is powered
on.
3.1.3.4 Automatic Modem Parameter Sequences
Certain parameters are dependent on other parameter settings. New in the PSM-500 is
automatic presentation of those parameters that must be set to properly achieve the first setting
entered. An example of this is when entering an “IF Modulation” mode change, the modem will
accept that but next request entry of the “Data FEC” type, then the “Data Code Rate” finally
returning to the original IF Modulation screen. If only the Data FEC type were initially changed
then only the following item in the sequence would be requested. This insures that all of the
necessary parameters are entered to enable any mode dependent on other settings. Normal
settings are typically displayed during this sequence and it may be possible to simply press the
“Enter” key at each succeeding request.
3.1.3.5 Finding Modem Parameter Limits
During parameter setting you may not know what the maximum or minimum value is that may be
entered. The modem can help in some cases by taking the parameter to its maximum or
minimum value when you enter a value greater or less than possible. For example, when all other
parameters have been set, if you wish to go to the maximum transmit data rate possible in an
M505 modem simply enter a value like 10000 (for 10,000 kbps). The modem should beep, say
“Set at max” and enter a value of 5000 (for 5 Mbps).
3.2 Front Panel Monitor and Control Parameters
The following tables 3-1 through 3-4 list the parameter matrices available from the front panel.
Parameters that appear shaded are only accessible when the modem is configured to use those
parameters. For example, those parameters pertaining the to AUPC are only available when the
AUPC is enabled, and those pertaining to the Reed-Solomon Codec will appear only if the ReedSolomon Codec is installed and enabled. This list does not include optional parameters for some
interface options such as Ethernet or G.703 E1 interfaces.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-7
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
The top gray row represents column headers, which are shown on the LCD display in the upper
left. Items below the header are row parameter names shown in the upper right of the LCD.
Columns are navigated using the left and right arrow keys while rows are navigated using the up
and down arrow keys.
The tables below are organized with general “Rules of Thumb” which aid navigation.
1. The “Status” columns are generally read only, providing status on specific areas of
modem operation.
2. The Modulator and Demodulator matrixes use common column designations. A current
parameter in one area can be immediately accessed in the other by pressing the
appropriate “Mod” or “Dem” button. For example when viewing the Mod Bit Rate, the
Demod Bit Rate is accessed by simply pressing the “Dem” button.
3. The “Alarm” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the disposition of alarm
information from that source. Therefore the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> sets the
disposition of the Demodulator Carrier Lock Alarm as either None, to Alarm Relay A, to
Alarm Relay B, or to Alarm Relay A & B.
4. The “Test” columns existing in all four matrixes and represents the control and display of
test information for that area. The top entries in the Test column contain tests which can
be enabled or disabled if available. The lower rows represent measurements of
parameters and are read only. Active tests enabled in these columns generate flashing
“Test” LED lamps in appropriate areas.
Page 3-8
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Table 3-1
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Unit Sheet
Status
Modem
Redundcy
Mode
Config
Keybrd
Remote
USB
Ref
Monitor
Test
Modem
Mode
Mode
Mode
Source
Reference SW Rqst
Recall
Entry
Protocol
Activity
Frequency Full
OCXO Oven Cal Ref
Redundcy
SW Hold
Store
LCD Actve Address
Fine Tune Zero
Tst Active Update ROM
Unit ID
Backup
Restore 1 LCD Idle
Rate
Mode
Alarm
Reference Modem
Hardware
Ref AFC
Beep
SysClk AFC
Model
Restore 2 LCD Cntst Format
Feature
Restore 3 Activity
Port
+3.3V
Serial #
Restore 4
Activity
+5.0V
Version
Restore 5
+12.0V
FEC A
Restore 6
+21.0V
FEC A Ver
Restore 7
-12.0V
FEC B
Restore 8
Boot Code
FEC B Ver
Power-Up
Mod Opt
Int’f Opt
Notes:
Parameters shown in gray are only available when the entry immediately above is enabled or set to a mode that requires those
entries. The gray Redundancy parameters are only shown when connected to another unit in redundancy mode.
Other columns may be added by options added to the modem or software.
Word spelling is purposely truncated to fit in available LCD display window.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-9
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Table 3-2
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Modulator Sheet
Status
IF
Data
Mux
BUC
Power
Alarm
CXR
Test
CXR
Frequency
Bit Rate
Mode
Modulation
Data
Offset
Fec
ESC Overhead Voltage Out Data
Clock
Level
FEC Options MCC Overhead Voltage Min Clock
Clock Error
Test
Output
Code Rate
OverHd Ratio Current Out AUPC
CXR ALC
Modulation
RS Mode
ESC Port
Current Max Tst Active LO AFC
Spectrum
RS (n)
ESC Rate
Current Min Hardware
Filter Mask
RS (k)
ESC Frmt
10 MHz Ref
Mode
RS Depth
ESC CTS
LO Frequency
Preamble
Dif Encoder
AUPC
Scrambler
AUPC Eb/No
Clk Source
Symbol Rate
Step AFC
BUC Power
AUPC Max Lvl
AUPC Min Lvl
Mute
Impedance
BUC parameters are only available on PSM-500L.
AUPC settings are only visible if the AUPC is enabled.
Dif Encoder disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled.
Table 3-3
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Demodulator Sheet
Status
IF
Data
Mux
LNB
Power
Alarm
CXR Lock
Test
CXR
Frequency
Bit Rate
Mode
IF Loopbck
Eb/No
Sweep Range
Fec
ESC Overhead Current Out Data
Offset
Sweep Mode
FEC Options MCC Overhead Current Max Low Eb/No
Clock Error
Level
Sweep Time
Code Rate
OverHd Ratio Current Min Low Level
AGC
Est.BER Modulation
RS Mode
ESC Port
10 MHz Ref Tst Active LO AFC
SER
Spectrum
RS (n)
ESC Rate
LO Frequency Hardware
Buffer
Filter Mask
RS (k)
ESC Frmt
Backward
IDcOff
Test
Eb/No Alm
RS Depth
ESC DTR
LNB Power
QDcOff
Low Level Alm
Dif Decoder ESC DSR
Impedance
Descrambler
Symbol Rate
Step AFC
Clk Source
Buffr Delay
Buffer Size
FEC Hold
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-10
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
LNB column is only available on Land LT models.
Sweep Time is only visible if Sweep Mode is set to “Search”.
Buffer Parameters are only visible if the Data Clock Source is not set to “Demod”, enabling the
buffer.
Dif Decoder is disabled and not visible with Turbo Product Codes Option installed and enabled.
Table 3-4
PSM-500 Front Panel Parameter Matrix – Interface Sheet
Status
I/O
SnIP or SDMS
Alarm
Test
I/O
Mode
IP Addr
Tst Active
Ter Loopbck
RTS
Format
Netwrk Mask
BER Loss
Sat Loopbck
CTS
RTS
MAC Addr
SnIP or SDMS
BER I/O
DCD
CTS
Options
Mod BER
DTR
DCD
Version
Demod BER
DSR
DTR
Serial#
Test
DSR
Test BER
Xmt Data
Sync Loss
Xmt Clock
Errors
Rcv Data
Bits
Rcv Clock
EFS
RTS Monitor
Erred Sec
Total Sec
Note: The seven shaded BERT Status column items are only visible when the Demod BER is
enabled in the Test column.
The center column is used for interface option expansion, and is only displayed with an option
installed. The entries shown are only representative of one type of option interface.
The RTS Monitor function is only available in firmware versions 0.47 and after.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-11
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Tables 3-5 through 3-8 describe the parameters available from the front panel and entry in more
detail. The grayed separators delineate column divisions in the area matrix. The “»”symbol
indicates that this parameter is not available unless a preceding parameter is enabled or set to
require those parameters, or optional hardware is installed that uses that particular parameter.
Parameters can also be added as new options are installed.
Table 3-5. Modem (Unit) Parameter Detail
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation
Status
Modem
Locked & Sending
Status Reference
Internal, OK
Type
Entry
Description
Read Only
Read Only
Mod & Demod Status
Read Only
Not changeable
Reference source and
status
Status
Redundcy
1:1 On Line
Read Only
Used to force a transfer
away from this unit.
Redundancy Status
Status
Unit ID
Rmt Santa Cruz
Alpha –
Numeric
Entered as ASCII for up to
16 characters
Station Name for user
Status
Model
PSM-500
Status
Feature
M523-8PSK-16QAM
Read Only
Read from software
Modem Model #,
Numeric
16 digit Feature Set upgrade
code inserted here.
Used to display features and
upgrade feature set.
Status
Serial#
12923
Status
Version
0.10
Status
FEC A
Viterbi/TCM/RS
Read Only
Not changeable
Modem Serial Number
Read Only
Read from software
Version of software installed
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
Available FEC options in
Slot A.
Status FEC A Ver
01-004
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
FEC Type Number and
Firmware Revision
Status
FEC B
TPC4K
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
Available FEC options in
Slot B.
Status FEC B Ver
03-004
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
FEC Type Number and
Firmware Revision
Status
Mod Opt
Burst
Status Int’f Opt
SDMS-Lite
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
Type of Installed Option
Read Only
Read from Installed Option
Type of Installed Option
Redundcy
Mode
Internal 1:1
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Internal 1:1,
2 = External
Select Redundancy mode.
Internal requires “Y” cable.
Redundcy Sw Rqst
on Alarm A & B
Selection
0 = On any Alarm
1= On Alarm A
2 = On Alarm B
3 = On Alarm A & B
What will request a switch to
backup modem.
Page 3-12
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation
Redundcy Sw Hold
.5 Sec
Type
Entry
Description
Numeric
0.0 to 600.0 seconds in 0.1
second increments.
Sets the minimum time that
a redundancy alarm must
last before switching occurs.
Redundcy Backup
Idle
Selection
Backup Status or Press “0”
or “Edit” then “Enter” to
transfer current
configuration to backup.
View status of or configure
backup. Only available when
on-line.
Config
Modem
Mod & Demod
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Demod Only,
2 = Mod Only,
3 = Mod & Demod
Used to disable the Mod or
Demod and also the lamps
and indications when not
used.
Config
Recall
Factory, 1 to 8
Selection/
Numeric
0 to 8, 0 = Factory
Location to recover current
configuration from.
Config
Store
Factory, 1 to 8
Selection/
Numeric
1 to 8, Factory configuration
not alterable
Location to store current
configuration to.
Config Restore 1
After 1 Sec
Selection/
Numeric
Disabled (0), 1 to 14,400
seconds
Time after loss of rcv carrier
to restore this configuration.
...Restore 2-7
…
Config Restore 8
Disabled
Selection/
Numeric
Disabled (0), 1 to 14,400
seconds
Time after loss of rcv carrier
to restore this configuration.
Config Power-Up
Last
Selection/
Numeric
Last (0), Recall 1 to 8
Behavior on power-up.
Either the last settings or try
to lock using one of the
stored configurations.
Keybrd
Mode
Full Access
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access
Keyboard access control.
Keybrd
Entry
Quick
Selection
0 = Quick,
1 = Edit Only
2 = Confirm
Keyboard Entry method.
Quick is the normal default
mode.
Keybrd LCD Active
Backlight Full
Selection
0 = off, 1 = 1/3, 2 = 2/3, 3 =
Full
Active level of LCD backlight
Keybrd
LCD Idle
Backlight 1/3
Selection
0 = off, 1 = 1/3, 2 = 2/3, 3 =
Full
Idle level of LCD backlight
Keybrd
LCD Cntst
10
Keybrd
Activity
Beep
Numeric
0 to 20
LCD Contrast setting
Selection
0 = None,
1 = Beep,
2 = Blink,
3 = Beep & Blink
Audible “click” and/or “Local”
LED Blink on front panel key
press.
Remote
Mode
Full Access
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access.
Remote control access
mode allowed
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-13
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation
Remote
Protocol
Binary Packet
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = VT100,
1 = Quiet VT100,
2 = Binary Packet,
Remote control mode type
Remote
Numeric
0 to 255
0 = address disabled
255 = global
Address used to access this
unit via remote control and
USB packets.
Remote
Rate
19200bps
Selection
0 to 7 selects 300 to 38,400
bits per second.
Remote port bit rate
Remote
Format
N,8,1
Selection
0 = N,8,1
1 = E,8,1
2 = O,8,1
3 = M,8,1
4 = S,8,1
Remote control data/stop
bits and parity. Always 8
data bits and 1 stop bit. N=
No Parity, E = Even, M =
Mark, S = Space.
Remote
Port
RS–485
Remote
Activity
RS–485
Selection
0 = RS–232, 1 = RS–485
Remote control port used
Selection
0 =None,
1 =Beep,
2 =Blink,
3 =Beep & Blink
Audible “click” on/or and
“Remote” LED Blink on
Remote port activity.
USB
Mode
Full Access
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Read Only,
2 = Full Access.
Remote control access
mode allowed from front
panel port.
USB
Activity
Blink
Selection
0 = None,
1 = Beep,
2 = Blink,
3 = Beep & Blink
Audible “click” on/or and
“Remote” LED Blink on
Infrared port activity.
Ref
Source
Internal
Selection
0 = Internal, 1 = External
Rear panel external
reference.
Ref
Frequency
10.000MHz
Selection
0 =1.0,
1 =5.0,
2 =9.0,
3 =10.0 MHz
Reference frequency at rear
panel. Only available if set
to external reference.
Ref
Fine Tune
0
Numeric
+127 to -127
Internal reference fine
adjustment. Only in Internal
Monitor
Mode
AGC Level
Selection
0 =AGC Level,
1 =Eb/No,
2 =Mod CXR Level
Selects source of analog
output on rear panel alarm
connector pins 5 and 6
Monitor
+5.0V
Full
Numeric
+10.0 to –10.0
Full scale setting for
maximum output
Monitor
0.0V
Zero
Numeric
+10.0 to –10.0
Minimum scale setting for
minimum output.
Address
1
Page 3-14
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Unit Parameter Detail
Representation
Alarm
Reference
To Alarm A
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination and
action taken for reference
oscillator alarm types.
Alarm OCXO Oven
Mute & Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Alarm
Hardware
To Alarm A
Alarm
Beep
On Alarm A & B
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Selection
0=None,
1=On Alarm A,
2=On Alarm B,
3=On Alarm A & B
Selects if alarm causes a
unit audible “beep”.
Test
Modem
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = Lamp Test,
2 = Self Test
3 = Lamp & Self Test
Carrier output mode for test
purposes.
Test
Cal Ref
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = Enabled
Calibrates the internal
reference to an external
input.
Test Update ROM
Disabled
Numeric
Normally Disabled,
Enter unit serial number and
“Enter” key to start.
Entering the serial number
and pressing “Enter” starts
the update process.
Test
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Supply Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Supply Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Supply Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Supply Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Supply Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Factory Diagnostic Use
Ref AFC
+1.1V
Test SysClk AFC
+9.1V
Test
+3.3V
+3.3V
Test
+5.0V
+5.0V
Test
+12.0V
+12.1V
Test
+21.0V
+20.8
Test
-12.0V
-12.1V
Test
Boot Code
0000:0000:0000
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-15
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table 3-6. Modulator Parameter Detail
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Status
CXR
Sending, OK
Status
Data
NO DATA
Status
Clock
Internal, OK
Type
Entry
Description
Read Only
Read Only
Modulator Carrier Status
Read Only
Read Only
Modulator Input Data Status
Read Only
Read Only
Modulator Bit Rate Clock
Status
Status
Test
Normal
Read Only
Read Only
Modulator Test Status
IF
Frequency
70.000000MHz
Numeric
50.000 000 to 90.000 000
MHz
Carrier center frequency
IF
Offset
–8.031kHz
Level
–20.4dBm
Numeric
–1,250.000 to +1,250.000
kHz
Carrier offset frequency
Numeric
+5.0 to –35.0 dBm
+3.0 max at 50Ω
Transmit output power level
Output
Enabled
Modulation
QPSK
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Carrier output enable
Selection
0 = BPSK, 1 = QPSK,
2 = OQPSK, 3 = 8PSK,
6 = 16QAM
Modulation Mode. Some
values left available for new
options.
Spectrum
Normal
Filter Mask
Normal
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted
Modulation Spectrum control
Selection
0 = IESS, 1 = Legacy
Modulation Spectrum Filter
Control. Legacy for PSM4900 compatibility.
»IF
Mode
Continuous
Selection
0 = Continuous, 1 = Burst
Only available with burst
option installed.
»IF
Preamble
64 Symbols
Selection
0 = 32, 1 = 64 Symbols
Selects preamble length when
burst option installed.
IF
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Automatic Uplink Power
Control
IF
IF
IF
IF
IF
AUPC
Disabled
»IF
AUPC Eb/No
6.5dB
Numeric
3.0 to 20.0 dB
AUPC remote receive Eb/No
level set point.
»IF
AUPC Max Lvl
–10.0 dB
Numeric
+5.0 dBm to Minimum level
Max. Transmit level under
AUPC control
»IF
AUPC Min Lvl
–20.0 dB
Numeric
Maximum level to –35 dBm
Min. Transmit Level under
AUPC control
Mute
Selection
0 = Automatic,
1 = Confirm,
2 = Manual
3 = Manual & Pwr Loss
Manual requires manual
Carrier enable after Mod
output change. Option 3
forces Cxr off after power fail.
Impedance
75 Ohm
Selection
0 = 50Ω, 1 = 75Ω
Transmit IF impedance.
IF
Manual
IF
Page 3-16
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Data
Bit Rate
2.100000Mbps
Type
Entry
Description
Numeric
1.200 to 20,000.000 kbps
in 1 bps resolution. Entered
in kbps to 1bps increments.
Modulator Bit Rate – The max
and min are determined by
settings and options.
Data
FEC
Selection
0 – None
1 = Viterbi,
2 = TCM (8PSK only)
3 = TPC Short
4 = TPC (Legacy)
5 = TPC (CT)
TPC Encoder - Only available
if installed. Reed-Solomon is
enabled below.
Legacy in Rate ¾, 7/8 only.
CT compatibility Rate ¾ only.
FEC Option
Normal
Selection
0 = Normal,
1 = Swap C0/C1,
FEC Optional Modes. May
change depending on FEC
options installed.
Data
Code Rate
Rate 1/2
Selection
0 = ½, 1 = ¾, 2 = 5/6
3 = 7/8.
0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM
FEC Code Rate. The options
may change depending on
FEC installed and selected
RS
Mode
IESS-308
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = IESS-308
2 = IESS-309
4 = IESS Custom
Reed-Solomon column and
options only available if not
disabled. Entry is not shown
when TPC enabled.
Numeric
In Custom Mode only:
Available n values
Read only in other modes
Block size
In Custom Mode only:
Available k values
Read only in other modes
k = 20 to 253,
Selection
In Custom Mode only:
0 = 4, 1 = 8, 2 = 16
Read only in other modes
Interleave depth factor
Not
Shown
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Differential Encoder Not
shown or settable except in
special modes.
Viterbi
Data
»RS FEC
126
»RS FEC
112
»RS FEC
(n)
(k)
depth
4
Numeric
n = 22 to 255
k must be 2 to 20 less than n
Data
Dif Encoder
Enabled
Data
Scrambler
Auto
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Auto
2 = V.35,
3 = Intelsat, ,
4 = Alt V.35,
5 = Alt. Intelsat
6 = EFD
7 = TPC Sync
Scrambler types. Types are
added if optional hardware is
installed. The Auto mode
uses IESS 308 & 309
standards to automatically
switch to use synchronous
scramblers part of R-S and
TPC.
Data
Clk Source
Internal
Selection
0 = Internal,
1 = TT Clock,
2 = External,
3 = RCV Clock
Transmit Data Clock Source.
Type 1, 2 or 3 will fall-back to
Internal if clock is not present
in these modes.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-17
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Mux
Mode
IBS Custom
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = IBS Standard,
2 = IBS Enhanced
3 = IBS Custom
Enables Multiplexer to
specified mode. Enable
makes other menu selection
below visible.
»Mux ESC Overhead
9600 bps
Selection
0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode.
Selects framing resources
committed to ESC Comm.
»Mux MCC Overhead
1200 bps
Selection
0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode.
Selects framing resources
committed to MCC Comm.
»Mux
Read Only
Ratio
15:16
Shows current data to
aggregate ratio for mux.
»Mux
ESC Port
RS-485, 4 Wire
Selection
0 = RS-232,
1 = RS-485 2 wire,
2 = RS-485 4 wire,
3 = RS-485 Drvr On
Physical ESC port type. .
(coupled to receive)
»Mux
ESC Rate
9600 bps
Selection
0 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Physical ESC port rate at rear
panel. (coupled to receive)
»Mux
ESC Frmt
N,8,1
Selection
0 = N/7/1,
1 = P/7/1,
2 = N/8/1,
3 = P/8/1
Physical ESC port format at
rear panel. (coupled to
receive)
BUC
Power
Enabled
Selection
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
Selects Power and Voltage to
a BUC in the 500L
BUC
Voltage Out
+23.8V
Numeric
Read Only
Displays Voltage output on
Transmit Cable.
BUC
Voltage Min
+20.0V
Numeric
0 to 60.0 V
Sets the minimum BUC
voltage before an alarm.
BUC
Current Out
2.37A
Current Max
5.00A
Numeric
Read Only
Displays Current draw of BUC
Numeric
0 to 6.00 A
Sets the maximum BUC
current before an alarm.
BUC
BUC
Current Min
1.25A
Numeric
0 to 4.00 A
Sets the minimum BUC
current before an alarm.
BUC
10 MHz Ref
Enabled
Selection
0 = Disabled
1 = Enable
Selects if modem’s current 10
MHz reference to be supplied
to a BUC in PSM-500L
Numeric
0 to 49999.999996 MHz
Selects BUC LO frequency in
PSM-500L. If set non-zero
then IF frequency setting is at
RF frequency.
BUC LO Frequency
7375.000000MHz
Page 3-18
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Modulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Alarm
Carrier
To Alarm A
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = Mute CXR,
1 = Mute & Alarm A,
2 = Mute & Alarm B,
3 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Data
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Clock
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B, 4=Send All ones.
5 = All ones & A
6 = All ones & B
7 = All ones & A & B
8 = Mute Mod Cxr
9 = Mute & A
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
AUPC
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Hardware
To Alarm A & B
Selection
0 = Mute CXR,
1 = Mute & Alarm A,
2 = Mute & Alarm B,
3 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm BUC Power
Mute & Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Test
Selection
0 = Normal,
1 = Pure Carrier,
2 = Alt 1/0
3 = Sideband
Carrier output mode for test
purposes.
Test Symbol Rate
256.000ksps
Read Only
N/A
Computed Transmit Symbol
Rate
Test Clock Error
251
Test
CXR ALC
+3.0V
Test
LO AFC
+9.1V
Test
Step AFC
+9.5V
Read Only
N/A
Bit Rate Clock error
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Modulation
Normal
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-19
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Table 3-7. Demodulator Parameter Detail
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Status
Carrier
Locked, OK
Type
Entry
Description
Read Only
N/A
Demodulator receive Carrier
Status
Status
Eb/No
4.7dB
Read Only
Measured by internal
circuitry.
Measured Eb/No
Status
Offset
–8.031kHz
Numeric
Within +/– Narrow
Acquisition Range
Receive carrier offset
frequency. An entry will reset
to 0 after search time has
elapsed.
Status
Level
–52.4dBm
Status
Est. BER
2x10^–7
Read Only
N/A
Receive carrier level
Read Only
Resettable
Press “0” or “Edit” and
“Enter” to restart.
Estimated Bit Error Rate
Status
SER
3.37x10^–2
Read Only
Resettable
Press “0” or “Edit” and
“Enter” to restart.
Measured Symbol Error Rate
Status
Buffer
100%
Read Only
Resettable
0 = Reset Slip (Flag)
1 = Re-center
FIFO Buffer status in percent
fill. Only visible when Demod
Data clock source is not set to
“RCV Clock”. The “slip” flag
tells when the FIFO
automatically re-centered.
Status
Test
Normal
Read Only
N/A
Demodulator Test Status
IF
Frequency
70.000000MHz
Numeric
50.000 000 to 90.000 000
MHz
950 000 000 to 1900 000
000 MHz for L-Band unit
Carrier center frequency.
L-Band frequency shown if
LNB LO is set to 0, else is set
to RF frequency.
Sweep Range
+/-30.000kHz
IF
Sweep Mode
Fast
Numeric
+/–0.1 to +1,250.000 kHz
Carrier Acquisition Range in
kHz.
Selection
0 = Fast, 1 = Search
Fast Acquisition mode is
standard method
Numeric
0.0 to 600.0 Seconds.
0 Disables Narrow Sweep
Narrow Sweep time
applicable to Search sweep
mode only.
IF
»IF
Sweep Time
10.0 Sec
IF
Modulation
QPSK
Selection
0 = BPSK, 1 = QPSK,
2 = OQPSK, 3 = 8PSK,
6 = 16QAM
Modulation Mode. Some
values left available for new
options.
IF
Spectrum
Normal
Filter Mask
Normal
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted
Modulation Spectrum control
Selection
0 = IESS, 1 = Legacy
Modulation Spectrum Filter
Control. Legacy for PSM-4900
compatibility.
IF
Page 3-20
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Eb/No Alm
2.0dB
Type
Entry
Description
Numeric
1.0 to 20.0 dBm in 0.1 dB
increments
A receive Eb/No level at or
below this level will produce
an alarm.
IF
Low Level Alm
-65.5dBm
Numeric
-26 to –85 dBm in 0.1 dB
increments. Dependent on
Bit Rate.
A receive carrier level at or
below this level will produce
an alarm.
IF
Impedance
50 Ohm
Selection
0 = 50Ω, 1 = 75Ω
Receive IF impedance.
Data
Bit Rate
2.100000Mbps
Numeric
1.200 to 20,000.000 kbps
in 1 bps resolution. Entered
in kbps to 1bps increments.
Modulator Bit Rate – The max
and min are determined by
settings and options.
Data
FEC
Selection
0 = Viterbi,
1 = TPC Full
2 = TPC Short
3 = TPC (Legacy)
4 = TPC (CT)
TPC Decoder - Only available
if installed. Reed-Solomon is
enabled in R-S column.
Legacy in Rate ¾, 7/8 only.
CT compatibility Rate ¾ only.
FEC Option
Normal
Selection
0 = Normal,
1 = Swap C0/C1,
2 = Invert C1,
3 = Swap and Invert C1
FEC Optional Modes. May
change depending on FEC
options installed.
Data
Code Rate
Rate 1/2
Selection
0 = ½, 1 = ¾, 2 = 5/6
3 = 7/8.
0 = 2/3 in 8PSK TCM
FEC Code Rate. The options
may change depending on
FEC installed and selected
R-S
Mode
IESS-308
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = IESS-308
2 = IESS-309
5 = IESS Custom
Reed-Solomon column and
options only available if not
disabled. Entry is not shown
when TPC enabled.
Numeric
In Custom Mode only:
Available n values
Read only in other modes
Block size
In Custom Mode only:
Available k values
Read only in other modes
k = 20 to 253,
IF
Viterbi
Data
»RS FEC
126
»RS FEC
112
»RS FEC
(n)
(k)
depth
4
Data
Dif Decoder
Enabled
Numeric
n = 22 to 255
k must be 2 to 20 less than n
Selection
In Custom Mode only:
0 = 4, 1 = 8, 2 = 16
Read only in other modes
Interleave depth factor
Not
Shown
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Differential Encoder Not
shown or settable except in
special modes.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-21
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Data Descrambler
Auto
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = Disable,
1 = Auto
2 = V.35,
3 = Intelsat, ,
4 = Alt V.35,
5 = Alt. Intelsat
6 = EFD
7 = TPC Sync
Scrambler types. Types are
added if optional hardware is
installed. The Auto mode uses
IESS 308 & 309 standards to
automatically switch to use
synchronous scramblers part
of R-S and TPC.
Data
Selection
0 = RCV Clock
1 = Internal,
2 = External,
3 = Mod Clock
Receive Data Clock Source.
Selecting “0” disables FIFO
buffer, any other setting
enables it.
»Data Buffr Delay
2.00000ms
Numeric
0 to maximum calculated
by data rate.
Receive FIFO buffer delay in
milli-Seconds.
»Data Buffer Size
512 Bits
Numeric
0 to 131,070 bits in 1 bit
increments.
Receive FIFO buffer delay in
bits. Buffer has this many bits
filled and empty when
centered.
Data
Numeric
0 to 255
Normally set to 1
Number of FEC lock “cycles”
the FEC will accomplish
before declaring loss of lock.
Mux
Mode
IBS Custom
Selection
0 = Disabled,
1 = IBS Standard,
2 = IBS Enhanced
3 = IBS Custom
Enables Multiplexer to
specified mode. Enable
makes other menu selection
below visible.
»Mux ESC Overhead
9600 bps
Selection
0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode.
Selects framing resources
committed to ESC Comm.
»Mux MCC Overhead
1200 bps
Selection
0 = Disable
1 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Only in Custom Mode.
Selects framing resources
committed to MCC Comm.
»Mux
Read Only
Clk Source
RCV Clock
FEC Hold
1
Ratio
15:16
Shows current data to
aggregate ratio for mux.
»Mux
ESC Port
RS-485, 4 Wire
Selection
0 = RS-232,
1 = RS-485 2 wire,
2 = RS-485 4 wire,
3 = RS-485 Drvr On
Physical ESC port type.
(coupled to transmit)
»Mux
ESC Rate
9600 bps
Selection
0 to 7 selects standard
rates 300 bps – 38.4 kbps
Physical ESC port rate at rear
panel. (coupled to transmit)
»Mux
Selection
0 = N/7/1,
1 = P/7/1,
2 = N/8/1,
3 = P/8/1
Physical ESC port format at
rear panel. (coupled to
transmit)
ESC Frmt
N,8,1
Page 3-22
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation
LNB
Power
+18V
LNB
LNB
Current Out
221mA
Current Max
300mA
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = Disabled
1 = +13VDC
2 = +18VDC
Selects Power and Voltage to
an LNB in the 500L or LT
Numeric
Read Only
Displays Current draw of LNB
Numeric
0 to 500 mA
Sets the maximum LNB
current before an alarm.
LNB
Current Min
150mA A
Numeric
0 to 500 mA
Sets the minimum LNB
current before an alarm.
LNB
10 MHz Ref
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disabled
1 = Enable
Selects if modem’s current 10
MHz reference to be supplied
to an LNB in or L
LNB LO Frequency
5150.000000MHz
Numeric
0 to 49999.999996 MHz
Selects LNB LO frequency in
or L. If set non-zero then IF
frequency setting is at RF
frequency.
Alarm
CXR Lock
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A&B,
4 = Mute Mod CXR,
5 = Mute & Alarm A,
6 = Mute & Alarm B,
7 = Mute & Alarm A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Data
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Low Eb/No
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Low Level
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm Tst Active
To Alarm A
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Alarm
Hardware
To Alarm A & B
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
»Alarm Backward
To Alarm A & B
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm –
Only available with mux.
»Alarm LNB Power
To Alarm A & B
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B,
3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm –
Only shown in /L.
Test IF Loopbck
Disabled
Test Symbol Rate
256.000ksps
Test Clock Error
251
Test
AGC
-1.9V
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
IF Loop-back control.
Read Only
N/A
Receive Symbol Rate
Read Only
N/A
Bit Rate Clock error
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-23
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Demodulator Parameter Detail
Representation
Test
LO AFC
+8.8V
Test
Step AFC
+9.4V
Test
IDcOff
-0.1V
Test
QDcOff
-0.1V
Page 3-24
Type
Entry
Description
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage. I
channel DC offset
Read Only
N/A
Internal Loop Voltage. Q
channel DC offset
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Table 3-8. Interface Parameter Detail
Interface Parameter Detail
Representation
Status
I/O
Online
Status
RTS
Off
Status
CTS
On
Status
DCD
On
Status
DTR
Off
Status
DSR
Off
Status
Test
Mod BER
Status
BER
0.0 E-7
Status Sync Loss
3
Status
Errors
7
Status
Bits
1.45 E7
Status
EFS
99.95%
Status Erred Sec
1
Status Total Sec
2135
I/O
Mode
RS-449
I/O
Normal
Read Only
N/A
Interface Status **
Read Only
N/A
Interface RTS line status
Read Only
N/A
Interface CTS line status
Read Only
N/A
Interface DCD line status
Read Only
N/A
Interface DTR line status
Read Only
N/A
Interface DSR line status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Read Only
N/A
Interface Test status
Selection
0 = Disable
1 = RS-232
2 = RS-449
3 = RS-449/Unterm
4 = V.35
5 = V.36
6 = EIA-530
7 = EIA-530A
8 = SnIP (Option)
9 = HSSI (Option)
Interface electrical mode.
Some option interfaces may
replace the SnIP or HSSI
interface.
Other options may include
G.703 (when released)
0 = Normal
1 = Control CXR
2 = Ignore
Interface RTS line control
CTS
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active
Interface CTS line control
DCD
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active
Interface DCD line control
DTR
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Ignore
Interface DTR line control
Normal
I/O
Description
Selection
Normal
I/O
Entry
RTS
Ignore
I/O
Type
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-25
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Interface Parameter Detail
Representation
I/O
DSR
Normal
I/O
Xmt Data
Normal
I/O
Xmt Clock
Normal
I/O
Rcv Data
Normal
I/O
Rcv Clock
Normal
I/O RTS Monitor
Normal
Type
Entry
Description
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Force Active
Interface DSR line control
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted
Transmit Data Inversion
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted, 2 =
Auto
Transmit Clock Phase. Auto
is now default standard.
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted
Receive Data Inversion
Selection
0 = Normal, 1 = Inverted
Receive Clock Phase
Selection
0 = Disabled, 1 = to Alarm A,
2 = to Alarm B
Allows using Alarm relay
contacts to show RTS Status,
overriding other alarms.
SnIP
IP Addr
192.168.100.1
Numeric
IP Address for Ethernet
Interface.
SnIP Netwrk Mask
255.255.255.0
Numeric
IP Mask Address for Ethernet
Interface.
SnIP
MAC Addr
0080A800256C
Read Only
Read Only
Allows read of fixed Interface
MAC Address..
SnIP
Options
00007f
Read Only
Read Only
Displays SnIP Options
enabled
SnIP
Version
021771-001-50
Read Only
Read Only
Displays SnIP Software
Version Number
SnIP
Serial#
1200047
Read Only
Read Only
Displays SnIP Serial Number
Tst Active
Alarm A
BER Loss
Alarm B
SnIP
Alarm B
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Selection
0=None, 1=A, 2=B, 3=A & B
Selects destination of alarm
Test Ter Loopbck
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Interface terrestrial loop-back
xmt input to receive output.
Test Sat Loopbck
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = Enable
Interface satellite loop-back
receive output to xmt input.
Test
BER I/O
Satellite
Selection
0 = Satellite, 1 = Terrestrial
BERT Transmit output and
Receive input direction..
Test
Mod BER
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = 2047,
2 = 2^23-1
3 = Insert 1 Error (if enabled)
BERT enable to modem
transmit input.
Test
Demod BER
Disabled
Selection
0 = Disable, 1 = 2047,
2 = 2^23-1
BERT enable from modem
receive output.
Alarm
to
Alarm
to
Alarm
to
** Interface Status when the SnIP option is installed and enabled can be:
Page 3-26
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
•
•
•
Operation
”SnIP FAILURE”, Meaning no communications from SnIP card to modem processor.
“SnIP HARD RESET”, Meaning that the SnIP is in process of resetting its parameters.
“SnIP LIMIT ALARM”, Meaning that the SnIP is not able to process data.
The front panel controls for the SDMS are normally only used for basic initial setup. When more
sophisticated software is loaded into the SDMS control is usually via the Ethernet connection.
3.3 Terminal Mode Control
The PSM-500 Terminal Mode Control allows the use of an external terminal or computer to
monitor and control the modem from a full screen interactive presentation operated by the
modem itself. No external software is required other than VT100 terminal emulation software
(e.g. “Procomm” or “HyperTerminal”) for a computer when used as a terminal. The control port is
normally used as an RS–232 connection to the terminal device. The RS–232 operating
parameters can be set using the modem front panel and stored in EEPROM for future use.
The USB connection at J10 cannot be used for Terminal Mode Control. To connect to the modem
from a computer’s USB port, use a USB to serial adaptor connected to the DB9 at J6.
3.3.1 Modem Setup for Terminal Mode
Terminal mode communications and protocol is set from the front panel control by setting the
<Unit: Remote – Protocol> parameter to “VT100” (Option 0), and then setting the <Unit:
Remote – Port>, <Unit: Remote – Rate> and <Unit: Remote – Format> parameters as
desired. Then a “VT100” protocol terminal is connected to connector J6. All operating software
for the terminal mode is contained within the PSM-500 modem internal control software.
A “break” signal on the communications line, pressing “Control R” on the terminal or power on of
the modem will initiate full screen terminal mode printing and redraw the full screen. The terminal
mode displays the present status of all user parameters controlled and read by the processor,
and offers a menu allowing change to any controlled parameter.
A single terminal mode screen displays one full column of information from any one of the four
matrixes, being Unit, Modulator, Demodulator and Interface. The number of terminal mode
display screens possible is equal to the total number of columns in the four matrixes (24 at
current count). Any possible screen can be accessed by 2 key presses from any other screen.
The 2 key presses are:
1. A first digit representing the functional area:
a) 0 = Unit
b) 1 = Modulator
c) 2 = Demodulator
d) 3 = Test
2. A second digit representing the column number. (0 to 9 for the Unit, 0 to 5 for Modulator
and Demodulator or 0 to 4 for the Interface).
The resulting screen display shows all items present in that column of the matrix.
For example the basic Unit Status screen shown below lists the status items from the Unit Status
column of the Unit Matrix. Notice that at the bottom of the screen is a prompt inviting you to select
from one of the 4 items as the first step to change to another screen.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-27
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control
Unit Status
Modem Demod Tst Active
Reference Internal, Ok
C) Redundcy Internal 1:1
D) Unit ID
Model PSM-500
Serial# 13490
Version 0.10
Section ? 0)Unit, 1)Mod, 2)Demod, 3)Intf
Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.
Figure 3-2a. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen
Assuming that we wanted to view another of the Unit column screens. If we first press the “0” key
to indicate that we want to change to a “Unit” screen the following lower screen prompt will be
displayed:
PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control
Unit Status
Modem Demod Tst Active
Reference Internal, Ok
C) Redundcy Internal 1:1
D) Unit ID
Model PSM-500
Serial# 13490
Version 0.10
Unit ? 0)Status, 1)Config, 2)Keybrd, 3)Remote, 4)USB, 5)Ref, 6)Redundcy,
7)Monitor, 8)Alarm, 9)Test
Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.
Figure 3-2b. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Status Screen Selection
Page 3-28
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
Notice now that we can select from the Status, Configuration, Keyboard, etc. columns of the Unit
Matrix. Selecting for example the “Test” item (selection 9), would display the following new
screen.
PSM-500 VT100 Terminal Control
Unit Test
A) Modem BER Test
B) Cal Ref Disabled
Ref AFC +1.1V
SysClk AFC +9.3V
+3.3V Power +3.3V
+5.0V Power +5.0V
+12.0V Power +12.0V
+21.0V Power +20.8V
-12.0V Power -12.2V
J) Boot Code 0000:0000:0000
Mod ? 0)Status, 1)IF, 2)Data, 3)Alarm, 4)Test
Strike Number/Letter of Option to Select, TAB Key Aborts Selection.
Figure 3-3. Terminal Mode – Example of Unit Test Screen
Notice that some items have a preceding letter with parentheses. These items are programmable
via the communications interface. Items without a preceding letter in parentheses are “Read
Only” items.
Any available “screen” can be displayed with only two keystrokes. These are similar to
designating the functional area and column of a matrix as when using the front panel.
3.3.2 Programming Modem Operational Values From the Terminal Screens
The modem can be interactively monitored and controlled in the Terminal mode, with a full
screen presentation of current settings and status. Programming is accomplished by selecting
first the desired screen, then the item to be modified and pressing the terminal key of the option
letter “A” through “Z”. For example, to change the modulator's carrier frequency you must first go
to the modulator screen if not already there (Press “1, 1”) and press the terminal's “A” key (lower
case is fine!). The modem screen will respond by presenting the options, or input range, available
and waiting for input. The operator input is followed by pressing the “Enter” or carriage return key.
An input can be aborted at any time before completing by pressing the “TAB” key, restoring the
previous setting. Invalid input keys are signaled by a beep or bell signal from the terminal.
Following a valid input, the modem will place the new setting into the nonvolatile EEPROM
making it available not only immediately but also automatically the next time the unit is powered
up.
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-29
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
3.4 Remote Command Interface Control
The PSM-500 Command Mode allows the use of an external controller or computer to monitor
and control the modem via a packet-based message protocol. This mode normally uses the RS–
485 connections allowing multiple modems (and other devices) to share the command link under
control of a single or multiple entities. An RS–232 connection is also usable for this application,
but lacks the RS-485’s ability to work on a “party line” and is therefore limited to a single
controller and single modem, for example a computer to a modem. The packets use a unique
address for each controlled device, which is set using the modem’s front panel. The message
packets themselves use a binary format for efficiency. The complete protocol is shown in
Appendix B.
The protocol consists of messages from the controller to the modem and response messages
from the modem back to the controller. The modem never initiates communications without
having first received a correctly addressed and formed message requiring a response.
Message packets to the modem can take two forms;
1. Messages requesting information in a response message or “Read”;
2. Messages commanding a change in operating parameters or “Write”.
Any write information is automatically saved to non-volatile memory and is still present on the
next power-up.
The packet of both incoming and outgoing messages take the same generic form. First are pad
and opening flag, then the destination and source addresses, followed by the command code
(and read or write mode), then necessary data. The message packet is closed with a closing flag
and check word to verify the packet integrity. The use of a source address allows multiple
controllers on a single control link.
3.4.1 System Unit Programming/Communications
The communications protocol is unique. This mode is termed “command mode” communications
in the following discussion and is normally accomplished via an RS–485 4-wire connection to the
modem at “Control” connector J6. Note that the transmit and receive pair of this interface are
separated to form a 4-wire basis. If a 2-wire connection is desired, the transmit A and B leads
may be connected to the Receive A and B leads respectively in the connector applied to J6.
This command mode communications protocol involves the sending of a standard message
packet from a controller requesting information or commanding a change. The PSM-500 modem
responds with a message packet containing the information or confirmation of change. The
Modem never initiates communications at any time except in response to a command or query
message from the station controlling devices.
The new features and capabilities of the PSM-500 modem over previous versions required
modification of the protocol such that older control programs would not work directly. The PSM500 however emulates the protocol used in the PSM-4900 and other M5 series modems within
the capabilities of those previous modems. Therefore, the PSM-500 may be placed into a system
with existing PSM-4900s and the control mechanisms do not have to be changed until newer
feature control is desired. This emulation capability also allows an SDMS type Ethernet interface
card designed for an M5 modem to be placed into an M500 series modem and still work. See
Appendix B for more information.
3.5 Modem Checkout
The following descriptions assume that the full system is in operation and that software is running
properly on the central processor.
Page 3-30
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
3.5.1 Power-Up
On initial and every subsequent power-up, the modem microprocessor will test itself and several
of its components before beginning its main monitor/control program. These power-up
diagnostics show no results if successful. If a serious power on failure is detected, the ALARM
LED is flashed at an approximate 4 Hz rate. Other failure modes are displayed on the front panel
LCD.
New modems from the factory have default values placed into the EEPROM for operating
parameters. If a Monitor/Control System does not configure the modem automatically via the
serial command channel, the modem can be easily configured from the front panel or can be
connected to a VT100 protocol terminal to set the modem's operating parameters. To restore the
default parameters the modem can be powered on while depressing the “Clear” key.
The most common default parameters placed into the EEPROM are as follows: A modem can be
returned to the factory default settings by using the front panel command <Unit: Config Recall>, then editing (or quick edit) and choosing the “Factory” or “0” selection option.
Modulator:
Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz
Data Rate = 256 kbps
Modulation = QPSK
Code Rate = Rate 1/2
Differential Encoder = Enabled
Scrambler = Auto
Clock phase = Normal
Data = Normal
Clock Source = Internal
RTS = Ignore
Carrier = Off.
All Mod Alarms to Relay A
Modem Unit:
Modem Reference: Internal, 10 MHz
Remote Port Address = 1
Remote Port = RS-232
Remote Mode = Binary Packet
Remote Rate = 9.6 kbps
Remote Data Format = 8 data bits, 1
stop, no parity
Demodulator:
Carrier Frequency = 70.00 MHz
Data Rate = 256 kbps
Modulation = QPSK
Code Rate = Rate 1/2
Differential Decoder = Enabled
Descrambler = Auto
Clock phase = Normal
Data = Normal
Clock Source = Receive
Sweep mode = Fast
Acquisition Range = +/- 30 kHz
All Demod Alarms to Relay B
Interface:
Mode = RS-449
All Tests Off
Data and Clocks in normal mode (not
inverted). The XMT Clock now uses a
default “Auto” mode that detects the
proper phasing and applies it.
In a properly operating system, with an incoming carrier available for the demodulator, the
modem’s Alarm (red) and Warning (yellow) LEDs should all go out. Without an acceptable
incoming carrier the Demod “Major Alarm” and “Summary Alarm” will illuminate. When the
incoming carrier is acquired, the green “Signal Lock” LED should illuminate. The “Transmit On”
LED will also illuminate if the transmit output is enabled.
3.6 L-Band Feature Operation
Note: The following special L-Band features refer to the transmit and receive for the PSM500L and the PSM-500LT .
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
Page 3-31
Operation
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
3.6.1 L-Band BUC Control
The PSM-500L offers 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Block Up
Converter or BUC: Frequency control, power control and reference control.
Transmit Frequency Control – When the BUC Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into
the <Mod: BUC – LO Frequency> parameter the <Mod: IF – Frequency> parameter entry
allows (and requires) entry of transmit frequency at the actual satellite uplink RF frequency. To
return to using L-Band IF frequencies set the BUC – LO Frequency parameter to “0”.
BUC Power Control – When a power supply is plugged into the rear panel DIN connector, J10,
the PSM-500L uses and internal power relay to control application of power to the BUC’s transmit
input cable under front panel or remote control. The modem can also read the voltage and
current being applied to the transmit cable. The PSM-500LT has an integrated BUC power
supply.
BUC Reference Control – The PSM-500L/LT contains a high stability 10 MHz OCXO reference
oscillator designed to provide a suitable reference signal to most BUCs. See the specifications in
Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and level specifications. The
application of the reference to the transmit cable is under front panel or remote control, as
required by the BUC. Some BUCs use the 10 MHz signal to control application of power to the
final PA, removing it and going to a low power state when the 10 MHz is absent.
3.6.2 L-Band LNB Control
The PSM-500L and H offer 3 specific features related to the control and use of an outdoor Low
Noise Block Down Converter or LNB: Frequency control, power control and reference control.
Receive Frequency Control – When the LNB Local Oscillator or LO frequency is entered into
the <Dem: LNB – LO Frequency> parameter the <Dem: IF – Frequency> parameter entry
allows (and requires) entry of receive frequency at the actual satellite downlink RF frequency. To
return to using L-Band IF frequencies set the LNB – LO Frequency parameter to “0”.
LNB Power Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal LNB power supply
and internal power relay to control application of power to the LNB’s receive output cable under
front panel or remote control. The voltage applied can be chosen for either 18VDC or 13 VDC.
The modem can also read the voltage and current being applied to the receive cable.
LNB Reference Control – The PSM-500L and PSM-500LT contain an internal 10 MHz reference
oscillator designed to provide a suitable signal to those LNBs requiring an external reference.
See the specifications in Appendix A for the exact reference stability, aging, phase noise and
level specifications. The application of the reference to the receive cable is under front panel or
remote control, as required by the LNB.
3.7 Data Interface Clock Options
The modem clocking and options for either VSAT or SCPC operation is discussed below:
3.7.1 VSAT Mode
A typical method of synchronization in a VSAT system is as follows. The master station reference
is used to synchronize the master station transmit data clock. The VSAT terminal receive data
clock maintains this synchronization. The VSAT terminal DTE equipment may use the receive
data clock to synchronize itself and generate the transmit data clock for input to the VSAT
modulator either directly via setting the Modulator clock source to “Receive Clock” or indirectly via
the Terminal Timing input. Alternately it may use an accurate clock to generate the transmit data
clock and input it via the Terminal Timing input.
Page 3-32
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
Operation
3.7.2 SCPC Mode
Independent – Each station of two linked SCPC modems is considered independent. The
transmit data clock is either an input to or output from each station modulator. The other station
receive data clock maintains this synchronization. The clocking in each direction is independent
and follows the same transmit to receive synchronization.
Master/Slave – One station of two linked SCPC modems is considered the master and the other
station is considered the slave. The master transmit data clock is either an input to or output from
the master station modulator. The slave station receive data clock maintains this synchronization.
The receive data clock is used to generate a contra–directional transmit data clock (from
modulator to DTE) of the same frequency, but not necessarily phase, as the receive data clock.
3.7.3 Transmit Interface Clock Auto Mode
The PSM-500 Modem uses a transmit clock option called “Auto”, which is now the default setting.
The new clock mode appears in the "Interface I/O" menu column under “Xmt Clock” and is not
settable. The modem measures the phase relationship between the transmit clock and data and
automatically sets the clock phase correctly. This gives improved performance on slightly longer
data cables when operating at bit rates above approximately 1.5 Mbps.
3.8 Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) Operation
The PSM-500 modem has built-in logic for Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC). AUPC
attempts to maintain a constant Eb/No at the receive end of an SCPC link by adjusting the
transmit power at the transmit end of the link. This is especially useful when operating over a
satellite at Ku-Band frequencies in locations with high rainfall periods.
The AUPC function requires a data channel at 300 to 1200 baud in order to operate. This
data channel can either be external to the modem (that is provided by an external
multiplexer or telephone line modem) or provided by the internal IBS multiplexer when
enabled.
Note: The “Enhanced” or “Custom” Multiplexer mode MUST be selected to provide a
channel for AUPC operation from the IBS multiplexer option.
The internal data multiplexer in “Enhanced” mode provides a 300 baud service channel between
the two sites of a link permitting the modem processors to send messages and get responses
over this channel. AUPC can be set to operate on either or both directions of a link but always
requires a bi–directional channel. The AUPC functions and their descriptions are shown in the
table below:
Function
Description
AUPC ENABLE/DISABLE
Enables/Disables the AUPC to function locally.
MOD AUPC Eb/No
Desired Eb/No of remote modem.
MOD AUPC MIN LVL
Sets minimum output power to be used.
MOD AUPC MAX LVL
Sets maximum output power to be used.
The basic AUPC operation is described as follows: Assume that the two modems, one at each
end of the link, are set up for AUPC operation. Only one direction is discussed, controlling the
Eb/No at Site B, but the same functions could be occurring in both directions simultaneously. This
is shown in the Figure 3-4 below. Modem “A” is transmitting to modem “B” under normal
conditions and modem “B” has a receive Eb/No of 7.5 dB. Modem “A” has been set to an AUPC
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Eb/No on the front panel of 7.5 dB, and is currently outputting –15 dBm. Next it begins raining at
location “B”, and the Eb/No drops to –7.0 then –6.8 dB. Modem “B” is constantly sending update
messages to “A” and reports the current Eb/No. When “A” sees the drop in Eb/No, it slowly
begins to raise the output power, and raises it again when it sees further drops. As the rain
increases in intensity, and the Eb/No decreases again, “A” continues to increase its power level
to compensate, and when the rain diminishes and quits, it also lowers its power level to
compensate. The operation is therefore a feedback control loop with the added complication of a
significant time delay.
Site A
Satellite
Modem A
Modulator
Site B
Modem B
Modulator
AUPC Control
Mux
Eb/No
Eb/No
Mux
Modem B
Demodulator
Modem A
Demodulator
Figure 3-4 AUPC
There must be safeguards built into the AUPC system. First, the Modulator has two additional
parameters which allow control of the maximum and minimum power output level. The other
controls are built into the operating control software to limit response times and detect adverse
operating conditions.
3.8.1 AUPC Setup Guide
The normal method for setting up AUPC over a point to point link is to use the PSM-500's built in
multiplexer to provide the necessary communications channel. Since AUPC can be enabled in a
single direction the multiplexer must be enabled in only the direction necessary to return Eb/No
information to the controlled transmit modem. The best way to illustrate this is with an expansion
of the example shown above for sites A and B. Here are the steps assuming that we start with a
working link between A and B without any multiplexers or AUPC enabled. We will also assume
that the desired receive Eb/No that we wish to maintain at site B is 7.0 dB.:
Site B AUPC Setup
1. Set the B Modulator Multiplexer to Custom mode. Note this kills the link from B to A until
the A Demod is set with the same Multiplexer settings.
2. If not using the ESC channel for some other reason then set the ESC Overhead to
“Disabled”.
3. Set the MCC Overhead Rate to 1200 bps. This carries the AUPC information and 300
baud is the absolute minimum required. But in most cases you should start at this higher
rate. You can always go back and try lower values. The speed here determines the time
it takes to send the information.
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Site A AUPC Setup
4. Set the A Demodulator Multiplexer to Custom mode (or match the B setup above).
5. If not using the ESC channel for some other reason then set the ESC Overhead to
“Disabled”.
6. Set the MCC Overhead Rate to match that set for Site A above e.g. 1200 bps.
[ The link should now be working again from B to A. ]
7. Set the Modulator IF AUPC to “Enabled.
8. Set the Modulator IF AUPC Eb/No to that desired, e.g. 7.0 dB.
9. Set the Modulator IF AUPC Maximum Level to that desired allowing at least several dB
above the nominal operating point for margin, e.g. -10.0 dBm.
10. Set the Modulator IF AUPC Minimum Level to that desired, e.g. -32.0 dBm.
The link should now be operating and using AUPC to set the A transmit level keeping the B
receive Eb/No constant. Alarms will be generated if the transmit level reaches either the max or
min level attempting to maintain the receive E/b/No.
The exact settings required can be further adjusted to account for the type of fading expected.
For example if in a tropical environment with sudden heavy showers you may want to allow more
power margin and possibly speeding up the response time by using a higher speed MCC
channel.
To set the other direction to use AUPC, simply repeat the above instructions reversing the A and
B site.
3.9 Demodulator Receive Data FIFO Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in First In First Out (FIFO) buffer on the receive data channel
that may be enabled to compensate for cyclical variations in the receive data rate or different
systems clocks at the two link ends. A receive buffer of this type is sometimes referred to as a
Plesiochronous buffer when the intent is to absorb different clocks on the transmit and receive
end. This type of clock difference is usually uni-directional and cumulative. Cyclical variations are
most often caused by the daily movement of the satellite in its position resulting in a varying
distance from earth station locations. This movement would cause the receive data rate to
increase during a portion of the day and decrease during other periods. This type of variation is
termed Doppler variation and the buffer to absorb the variation is a Doppler Buffer. If the daily or
weekly average rate is the same then this temporal variation can be absorbed by the receive
FIFO without ever losing data (assuming the FIFO is large enough). Other data rate variations
between the transmitting and receiving stations which are not periodic (that is average to zero)
can still be buffered by the FIFO, but will eventually result in lost data.
Operation of the FIFO requires two clock sources: one that clocks the data into the FIFO, which
is always the clock recovered from the received signal; and one that clocks the data out of the
FIFO. The “out” clock can come from one of four sources:
1. Receive Clock – (Option 0) Meaning that the input and output clocks are the same,
disabling the FIFO.
2. Internal Clock – (Option 1) Uses a dedicated modem internal NCO generated data
rate clock as the output clock. Use of this clock does not require that the modulator
and demodulator data rate be identical.
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3. External FIFO Clock – (Option 2) This option allows a station-derived standard clock
rate to be used to clock data out of the FIFO. The externally supplied clock must be
equal to the average receive data rate.
4. Modulator Clock – (Option 3) Uses the modulator data rate clock as the output
clock and obviously requires that the modulator and demodulator data rate be
identical.
The Receive FIFO operation can be set from the front panel or remote control, and consists of
selecting the output clock source, and either the delay time desired in milliseconds or the number
of bits of delay. The processor computes the other value based on the one entered and the
current data rate. The modem processor also keeps track of and can display the current FIFO fill
percentage status. The FIFO sets the delay or number of bits selected upon activation and this
center value represents 100% FIFO fill. At any time the FIFO may contain from 0% to 200% of
the set value. The percentage fill can also represent the percentage of delay with respect to the
setting. For example if the buffer was set to 2 mS of delay and the fill is 150% this represents 3
mS of delay.
When the data rate is changed the modem maintains delay time constant, automatically changing
the number of bits stored in the buffer to compensate.
NOTE: When the number of bits of delay are very small, one bit may represent a large
percentage change (e.g. if the delay is only 4 bits, each bit represents 25%). The delay
may be set from 4 bits to 131,070 bits at any data rate, resulting in a delay ranging from
0.00081mS (4 bits at 4.92 Mbps) to over 42,000 mS (131,070 bits at 2400 bps).
An overrun occurs when a bit is clocked into the FIFO causing the fill to reach a full 200% of the
selected value. This causes flushing the upper half of the FIFO, restoring the fill to 100%, recentering the FIFO. The data flushed is lost and cannot be recovered.
An under-run occurs when the last bit is clocked out of the FIFO, emptying it. This also causes
re-centering of the FIFO by resetting the buffer pointers to the mid or 100% level, resending all
the data in the buffer. Both conditions result in a potential serious disruption of traffic.
When an under or over-run occurs an internal modem flag is set indicating that a re-center has
occurred. The front panel display shows “Slip” and FIFO fill data percentages read from the
remote port are negative numbers. This latched flag may be reset at the front panel or by writing
to the remote port FIFO parameter.
The FIFO may also be re-centered at any time on command from either the front panel or via the
remote control. At the front panel the command is <Dem: Status - Buffer> and pressing the “1”
key, then "Enter" to confirm. Pressing the “0” key on this parameter will clear the “Slip Status”.
In “framed” communications the severity of the disruption can be minimized by setting the buffer
size in bits to multiples of the frame size. For example if the total frame size is 512 bits and the
buffer is set to a size of 1024 bits an under or over-run would result in the frame flags remaining
in the same location in the data stream. Note that frames will still be errored by the under or overrun, but synchronization may not be lost. If a superframe structure is used it is likely that
synchronization will still be lost.
3.10 Built-in 1:1 Redundancy Mode Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in 1:1 redundancy mode that allows two modems to be
connected together sharing connections, but with only one unit “on-line”. The built-in software
provides automatic back-up protection should the on-line unit indicate a failure by switching to a
functioning off-line unit.
A diagram of the connections is shown in Section 2.3.6.
This is a very low cost method of achieving redundancy and because of the design has both
advantages and disadvantages:
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•
Advantage – The second or current back-up unit can be sent its full configuration from
the on-line unit, making set-up extremely easy.
•
Advantage – Since the units are fully programmable concerning alarm content that
determines the switching criteria, this method is more flexible than most redundancy
schemes.
•
Advantage – The single point failure of the switch in a classic 1:1 redundancy scheme is
eliminated. Since these switches are often mechanical relays they actually have a poor
failure rate, reliability (with respect to a classic scheme) is not seriously compromised.
•
Disadvantage – There is no separate physical switch which provides a positive lock-out
of a seriously failed unit that may not be able to turn its output signals off.
•
Disadvantage – There is no single point control allowing forced switching away from one
unit. Forced switching is accomplished only “from” the currently on-line unit.
•
Disadvantage – There is no mode forcing a priority unit. In a priority system one unit is
considered primary and the other secondary. If both units show good status the primary
is always on-line. But, the priority scheme would also create more switching and is not
normally used anyway.
Of course the major advantage to the built-in redundancy capability is its extreme low cost.
3.10.1 Setting Up 1:1 Redundancy Mode
Redundancy mode between a pair of modems is normally accomplished during installation. The
procedure outlined here provides that information again, but also additional information on
options and parameters used to determine operating modes. In overview the procedure is to:
Note: The two modems MUST be the same model number and type, and should be at the same
firmware revision for proper redundant operation.
1. Configure the first modem completely for the intended operating parameters,
including setting the redundancy parameter to “1:1”. This initial unit should not be in
alarm.
2. Physically install the second unit to be paired, but with its power off.
3. Connect the IF and data cables to both units. The special data “Y” cable is connected
between the redundant pair.
4. Turn the secondary unit on.
5. Go to the menu in the <Unit: Redundancy – Config> and press the “Edit” key. The
on-line unit will ask permission to transfer configuration to the second unit. Confirm
by pressing “Enter”. The primary unit should say “Sending Config” for approximately
1 second. If any packet transferred results in an error message a “Send Fail”
message will be displayed, but the remainder of the transfer will continue.
6. Verify that the units are functioning correctly in redundancy mode. Go to the <Unit:
Status – Redundancy> item in both units. The on-line unit will say “On-Line, Bckup
OK” while the off-line unit will say “Standby, OK”.
Tear-down or un-pairing of two units is accomplished by turning both units off before removing
the “Y” cable. Then turn the units back on and set the redundancy to “Disabled”
Two parameters are added to the unit redundancy menu when redundancy is enabled:
•
<Unit: Redundncy – Sw Rqst> This parameter allows you to determine which alarm
indications result in a switch request. The possible selections are “On Any Alarm”, “On
Alarm A”, “On Alarm B”, or “On Alarm A & B”. Since the specific alarms which comprise
Alarm A and Alarm B are programmable themselves, then a switch request is highly
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programmable itself. For most applications though the default “On Any Alarm” is a
preferred selection.
•
<Unit: Redundncy – Sw Hold> This parameter determines how long an alarm must
exist on the on-line unit and not the off-line unit before switching will occur. Allowable
values are 0.0 to 600.0 seconds. The value could be set to zero, but this is not advised. A
nominal value of 0.5 seconds insures that intermittent cases do not cause undue
switching. A built in factor of 10 seconds is provided once a switch has occurred before a
switch back to the original unit is allowed (except in the case of a manual switch request
or loss of power in the on-line unit which requires 2 seconds).
The possible case can arise when both units go out of alarm at virtually the same time. This might
occur if both units are powered on simultaneously or the receive carrier appears after being off or
a necessary clock signal is applied to both units. In such tie cases, which unit will be placed on
line is determined by the unit serial numbers, where the highest serial number wins the tie.
3.10.2 Operating 1:1 Redundancy Mode
Operation of a redundant pair of modems consists mainly of determining the status of units and
forcing transfer of operation from one unit to the other.
A quick status to determine which modem is currently on ”On-Line” and the failure state of the
paired modems is done by viewing the LED indicators on the front panels. In a fully operating setup there will be no alarms on either unit, but one modem will have the green Modulator Transmit
LED illuminated and the other will have the transmit LED extinguished. The other LED indicators
still show the relevant condition of the Modulator, Demodulator and Unit.
A more thorough status condition is viewed by setting both modems to the <Unit: Status –
Redundcy> parameter. The unit currently On-Line will present its status on the lower line of the
LCD display as “Online – xxxxx” where xxxxx could be one of several messages:
•
Bckup OK – This modem thinks that everything is fine.
•
BCKUP ALM – The backup modem is in an alarm state.
•
NO BCKUP – No backup modem was found via the aux communications channel.
•
The unit currently Off-Line will present its status on the lower line of the LCD display as
“Standby OK” or “OFFLINE – ALARM”.
3.10.2.1 Forcing a Transfer Switch in 1:1 Redundancy Mode
The 1:1 “transfer” process of forcing the two paired modems to swap their on-line/off-line status is
a one step process. The procedure however can only be accomplished on the unit that is
currently “On-Line”.
•
On the currently “On-Line” unit go to the<Unit: Status – Redundcy> parameter and
press the “Edit” key.
•
The LCD display will present the message “Enter to Xsfer?”. Pressing the “enter key will
cause the unit to go off-line and the currently “Off-Line” backup unit to go “On-Line”.
If there is no backup unit or the backup unit is itself in alarm then the transfer will not be
completed and an error message is displayed.
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3.10.3 Removal and Replacement of Units in Redundancy Mode
It may be necessary to remove a unit of a redundant pair and replace that unit with another. The
following method performs that function with the minimum disruption to the traffic status. In
overview the procedure is to:
1. Force a switch away from the unit to be removed (if it is currently on-line),
2. Disconnection of cables from the now off-line unit, and
3. Physical removal of the unit.
Replacement is the reverse of this procedure.
3.11 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) Set Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in BERT that can be individually enabled in the transmit and
receive direction. It is capable of operating with two standard patterns; “2047” and “2^23 –1” and
maintains even complex BER test results. BER test results include BER, Sync Loss, Errored Bits,
Total Bits, Error Free Seconds, Erred Seconds and Total Seconds. Tests can be re-started at will
and run via the remote control and from the front panel.
⇒ CAUTION: Enabling the BER Test set will result in disruption of any traffic currently
through the PSM-500 in the direction that is enabled. BER Tests should not be performed
on a live traffic unit.
The PSM-500 BER Test set can be “pointed” in two possible directions. The normal mode as
available in the PSM-4900 involves the BER transmitting in the direction of the satellite and
receiving from the satellite direction. An alternate mode allows the BER set to transmit and
receive toward the terrestrial data interface or “line” side. The direction is controlled via the
Interface <Intf: Test – BER I/O> parameter and can be selected for either “Satellite” or
“Terrestrial”. The Satellite direction looks to the modem as if a DTE is sending and receiving data.
The Terrestrial direction appears to the line as if a DCE device is sending and receiving data.
The use of the BERT is more fully described in the Maintenance Section 4.1.2.
3.12 Analog Monitor Output Operation
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function to output an analog voltage representing the current
value of one of three internal parameters. These are the receive Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
level, the receive Eb/No and the transmit output power level. Each of these is a digital value
accessible to the main processor, which can output the selected value continuously to the rear
panel Alarm connector via a 16 bit digital to analog converter.
Processor access and control of these signals allows a highly flexible output format tailored to the
user’s requirements. In addition to selecting the parameter value to output the processor allows
control of the “full scale” and “zero scale” output voltage over a range of –10.0 Volts to +10.0
Volts. These two settings can control the output slope (gain and direction) and offset.
To illustrate consider the example of outputting the receive AGC (representative of received
signal level) to automatic antenna positioning equipment. The PSM-500 has a carrier input range
of approximately –20 to –60 dBm. The AGC over this range is a voltage varying from
approximately –5 Volts at the maximum input and +5 Volts at the minimum input. Note that these
voltages can vary with data rate and other factors. The slope of this response is negative relative
to the receive signal level. Next assume that the positioning equipment wants a positive slope
between 0 and +10 Volts, where +10 Volts represents the maximum received signal level. In this
case we would set the <Unit: Monitor - Full> to 0.0 Volts and the <Unit: Monitor - Zero> to
+10.0 Volts. These settings have the effect of inverting the slope of the AGC signal and applying
an offset of +5 Volts to the output.
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The analog output presented at the rear panel Alarm connector J5 has a 1kΩ output impedance,
protecting the driver circuitry from shorts.
3.13 Storing and Recalling Configuration
The PSM-500 modem has a built-in function allowing the operator to store the current complete
configuration in one of 8 numbered locations.
Any stored configuration can then be recalled, including one permanent configuration called
“Factory” which is a set of default configurations.
3.14 Automatic Configuration Recovery - ACR
The PSM-500 modem has an additional feature related to the ability to store and recall
configurations. Any or all of the 8 configurations can be set to be automatically recalled in the
event of receive carrier loss for more than a specified number of seconds. This automatic recall is
termed “Restore” on the control options. Each configuration has an associated time parameter
that is normally set to a 0 (zero) value. When any other value up to 14,400 seconds is placed in
this parameter then that configuration is recalled if the current configuration results in a loss of
carrier for more than the specified number of seconds.
The automatic configuration recovery feature, or ACR is also commonly used with the ability to
turn the carrier off after loss of receive carrier.
A feature added in version 0.52 of the modem firmware allows the power up behavior of the
modem to be selected as either “Last” or recalling one of the 8 stored configurations. Last is the
normal previous mode where the modem powers up using the last settings. Recall 1..8 will recall
any stored configuration on power up. The default stored in each configuration is the factory
settings.
⇒ Note: The ACR is not available when the modem is operating in a redundancy mode.
Several examples more clearly illustrate the use and operation of the automatic configuration
recovery (ACR).
Consider a demand access type system where modems not currently in use are intended to be
placed at a “home” location. This would consist of mainly a receive IF frequency and data rate
where the modem could receive assignment information. By storing the necessary parameters for
the home location in configuration #1, and setting the configuration #1 time to 10 seconds, the
modem will return to home whenever no carrier is received for 10 seconds. Then upon receiving
an assignment, going to the new assigned set-up, and passing data traffic the link “tear-down”
only requires removing the inbound carrier. 10 seconds later the modem will return to the home
location awaiting another assignment.
Consider a simpler system that uses the multiplexer option to remotely program a far end
modem. This ability is only available via remote control, not the front panel. If a remote
unattended modem is erroneously commanded to a location and does not find the carrier then it
may be impossible to “re-acquire” that modem, necessitating a technician to visit that site. By first
storing the current configuration in one available location, and then setting the time to perhaps 30
seconds (all over the link itself) for that configuration then the remote modem can safely be sent
a command to change frequency (for example) knowing that if the modem does not lock up to a
receive carrier in 30 seconds it will return to the current configuration.
Multiple configurations can have time settings associated with them. The result is that each
configuration will be tried in turn until a carrier is found and locked. Upon losing the receive
carrier again the modem will restart the configuration sequence beginning with the lowest
numbered configuration having an associated non-zero time. The sequence is repeating with the
highest configuration with a non-zero time “wrapping” around to the lowest.
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Caution – What is not immediately obvious is that the time set is the time of the “current”
configuration with no carrier before switching to that configuration. Thus if configuration #1
is set to 12 seconds and #4 is set to 2 seconds (all others being set to zero) then when on #4 for
12 seconds with no receive carrier the modem will change to #1, and when on #1 for 2 seconds
with no receive carrier then the modem changes to configuration #4.
Note that all of the above examples would be “safer” if the <Dem: Alarm – CXR Lock> is set to
“Mute and …”. With this setting the transmit carrier is turned off when no receive carrier is
present, even if commanded on.
3.15 Special Control Mechanisms
The PSM-500 modem includes several special controls that were built in for specific customer
systems, but may be of use by other user. This are listed here since they are not considered
normal options and could be easily overlooked.
3.15.1 Power-Up Behavior
The PSM-500 modem has the capability to always revert to the transmit carrier disabled on
power-up. This might be useful for example in mobile environments where the antenna may not
be deployed or aligned on each power-up cycle. Setting this option in the <Modulator: IF Mute>
parameter allows such operation.
In other cases the user may require that the modem always revert to a specific configuration on
power-up. The normal behavior is for the modem to power-up with the last settings still in effect.
One of the options in the Unit Configuration column is “Power-Up” control (<Unit: Config – PwrUp>). The default setting is to “Last” which performs as the normal described above. A user can
select any of the 8 stored configurations to be recalled on each power-up cycle. This could be
useful in a mobile environment or a DAMA system where a “home” channel is desired on each
power-up. In a large system units can be pre-set to a specific configuration for use in initially
bringing up a site and then easily changed to another configuration for normal operation.
3.15.2 Monitors and Outputs
The PSM-500 has always had the ability to send one of 3 measured parameters to an analog
monitor output on the rear panel Alarm connector at pin 5 of J5. A newer monitor output added in
Version 0.47 of the modem code allows putting the Data Interface RTS status onto either the A or
B Alarm relay output, also on the rear panel J5 connection. Since these relays are form C, either
logic direction can be chosen for the output to use in controlling other equipment. Control of this
feature is in the <Intf: I/O – RTS Monitor> parameter. Caution – Setting this to either Alarm A
or B relay will override an other settings going to that alarm relay. It is the responsibility of
the user to set alarms properly when using this unique feature. This relay control is also not debounced with a time delay, therefore a fast changing or chattering RTS signal will cause the relay
to chatter. This feature is independent of the <Intf: I/O – RTS> parameter which can be used to
control the Carrier enable via the RTS status.
3.16 Burst Mode Operation
Note: As of the time of this manual the burst mode is a special factory request option and not
installed in standard modems. The following description is typical of burst operations.
The modulator burst mode is controlled by the interface RTS/CTS and data flag signals. The
sequence of events for the burst mode is as follows:
1. The RTS from the DTE device is normally active. The idle character from the DTE is
a continuous Mark condition. The modulator output carrier is off in this idle state.
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2. The modulator responds to the DTE device when ready to transmit by activating the
CTS signal.
3. Any time after the CTS is received by the DTE, the DTE starts transmitting flags
and/or data. The first non–SDLC/HDLC flag character received by the modulator is
the start of transmission signal, causing the modem to generate a preamble and
initiate the “Carrier ON” command. Transmission continues with data bytes placed
after the preamble.
4. The next SDLC/HDLC flag received by the modulator is the end of transmission
signal.
5. When the closing flag is detected by the modulator, it drops the CTS indicating that a
new data message cannot be started. When the last data bit is sent, the modulator
will reassert the CTS signal, and turn the carrier OFF.
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Chapter 4 - Maintenance
4.0 Periodic Maintenance
The PSM-500 requires no mandatory periodic field maintenance procedures. The unit contains
no adjustments and most calibration is digital and held in EEPROM. Should a unit be suspected
of a defect in field operations after all interface signals are verified the proper procedure is to
replace the unit with another known working modem. If this does not cure the problem, other
equipment in the link, wiring or power should be suspect.
There are no batteries or parts requiring periodic service contained within the case. The only
moving part is the internal fan, which is designed for a service life in excess of 200,000 hours.
There is no external fuse on the PSM-500 Modem. The fuse is located on the power supply
assembly inside the case, and replacement is not intended in the field.
4.0.1 Internal Reference Calibration
If desired, or if it is suspected that the modem’s internal reference requires calibration, this can be
performed on a unit “on-location”. A recommended interval for the reference calibration would be
after the first 6 months to a year in service and on a yearly basis thereafter. The external
reference should be of known accuracy before attempting calibration. The calibration of the
modem’s internal reference from an externally applied reference is an automatic procedure
enabled from the unit’s front panel. Go to <Unit: Test – Cal Ref> to enable the calibration
procedure.
⇒ Caution: The Reference Calibration procedure may result in lost traffic during
performance of the calibration! The calibration should not be performed in
operating links without prior arrangements.
Before beginning an internal reference calibration an external reference must be applied and the
<Unit: Ref – Source> must be set to “External”.
4.1 Common Test Procedures
When a modem, link or system is first installed and placed in service it is common to run several
tests to verify proper performance of each of the equipment items in the link. The PSM-500 is
designed to aid in this process by providing built in test modes geared to verifying performance,
and isolating potential problems. These aids consist of the modem self test procedure, the
multiple “Loop-Back” modes available and the built-in BERT. These facilities are also useful when
troubleshooting system or link problems which involve the modem.
⇒ Caution: All of the modem operating procedures described below will result in
loss of traffic. They should not be used in operating links without prior
arrangements.
The modem self test can be used to check out a modem within a system or stand alone on a
bench. It requires nothing more than power. The procedure is described in more detail in Section
4.2.3 below.
4.1.1 Loop-Back Testing
The Loop-Back modes are typically used in a wired link with DTE equipment that can transmit
and verify receipt or preferably a Bit Error Rate Test Set (BERT). The basic procedure used is to
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transmit a data signal at one end of the link and sequentially set each of the loop-back options.
Proper reception of the loop-back data verifies all components between the source and the loop.
The simplified diagram below shows the location of the PSM-500’s built in loop-back functions
within the link from one end of a link to the other. The advantage to having these functions built-in
is that they are electronically programmable without having to disconnect existing cabling to
connect equipment that must be available for testing.
Built-in BERT is
located here.
Satellite
Link
Far Modem
Near Modem
DTE
Or
BERT
Far End Satellite
Data Loop-Back
Near IF
Loop-Back
Near End Terrestrial.
Data Loop-Back
Near End Satellite.
Data Loop-Back
Each of these loop-back modes are individually programmable at the modem front panel or
remote control interface. More detail on each of the typical loop back uses is given below.
•
Near End Terrestrial Data Loop-Back: This will be the closest loop-back to the DTE or
BERT. If data is returned and received properly it indicates that the DTE wiring and
connection to the modem are correct. Note from the position of the built-in BERT in the
diagram above that this test requires an external source of data. The PSM-500 can
individually set the data path terrestrial side loop-back and the data path satellite side loopback in <Int’f: Test - Ter Loopbck> and <Int’f: Test - Sat Loopbck> respectively.
•
Near End IF Loop-Back: This second loop-back will verify the modem transmit data signal
processing, modulation, demodulation, receive signal processing, and connection to the
receive interface. The PSM-500 sets the IF loop-back in <Dem: Test - IF Loopbck>. Note in
this test that the near end satellite loop-back function should not be enabled whether using
the internal or an external BERT.
•
Far End Satellite Data Loop-Back: This will test most of the satellite link as well as the
functions checked in test 2 above. The signal is sent over the satellite (or test setup) and is
looped back at the satellite side of the data interface on the far end. This tests both modems,
the satellite link and originating end wiring. The PSM-500 sets the satellite side loop-back in
<Int’f: Test - Sat Loopbck>. Note in this test that the near end satellite and IF loop-back
functions should not be enabled whether using the internal or an external BERT. Setting this
mode slaves the modulator timing to the demod timing and the FIFO buffer remains engaged
if enabled.
In this type of testing an external BERT is typically set to provide a terminal timing output, while
the connected modem is set to use the terminal timing signal as the transmit bit rate clock
source. This modem can alternatively be set to use its internal clock for the transmit clock timing
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and provide that signal to the BERT for synchronization. More information on using the PSM500’s internal BERT is given below.
4.1.2 Using the Built-in BERT
The PSM-500 contains a complete transmit and receive Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set. Each
direction is independent and can be used for either loop-back testing or uni-directional testing
with another PSM-500 on the other end of the link. Since the test sequences used are industry
standard it should also be possible to use the built in BERT with an external BERT and any brand
of modem at the other link end, although this has not been extensively tested.
The Modulator (Transmit) BERT is enabled at <Int’f: Test – Mod BER>, and the Demodulator
(Receive) BERT is enabled at < Int’f: Test – Dem BER >. With either transmit or receive being
enabled by choosing either the 2047 or 2^23-1 test pattern options. Both should be the same to
operate properly.
When the Demodulator receive BER Test is enabled the test results are available in the <Int’f:
Status - Test> parameter item and the 7 items below it in the Interface Status column. These 7
items are:
1. Test BER – The ratio of errored bits to un-errored bits since the test began or was last
reset. Expressed in bits per bit as x.yyy E-power where the mantissa (x.yyy) is always
between 0 and 10 and power is the power of 10. For example 1.200 E-6 is 1.2 errored
bits in 10^6 bits, or 1.2 errors per million bits. No errors are expressed as 0.000E-power.
Since Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss, it is possible to lose sync for
several seconds and not have the BER affected.
2. Sync Loss – The total number of sync losses that have occurred since the test began or
was last reset.
3. Errors – The total number of bit errors that have occurred since the test began or was
last reset. Errored bits do not accumulate during a sync loss.
4. Bits – The total number of bits that have been received since the test began or was last
reset.
5. EFS – Error Free Seconds. The percentage of the total number of seconds with no errors
occurring during that particular second. Compiled since the test began or was last reset.
No errors are shown as “100.00%”. Errored seconds accumulate during a sync loss.
6. Erred Sec – The total number of seconds with errors occurring during that particular
second, since the test began or was last reset. Errored seconds accumulate during a
synch loss
7. Total Sec – The total number of seconds since the test began or was last reset.
The test is reset or started over by viewing any of the 7 status items listed above and pressing
the “Edit” or “0” key, then responding to the prompt “Enter to Restart” by pressing “Enter”. A
restart on any items resets all items and values.
A single error may be inserted when the BER test is active to verify proper operation by using the
<Int’f: Test – Mod BER> parameter and pressing “3” and “Enter”. This could be useful since it is
sometimes difficult to see errors with the Turbo Product Codes FEC.
In the loop-back diagram shown above the BER test sets are physically between the satellite and
terrestrial loop-back functions. Thus data traversing through either of these loop-backs does not
involve the BER test sets, even if enabled. If the built-in BERT is being used the local “satellite
loop-back” function should not be enabled.
The transmit output from the built-in BERT always faces toward the modem’s transmit or satellite
side, while the receive comes from the modem’s receive side. It is not designed to transmit and
receive signals from the terrestrial side of the data connection.
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All of these settings and test results are also available via the remote control interface, allowing
for automated and periodic testing of units not in service.
4.2 Troubleshooting
The following is a list of possible problems that could be caused by failures of the modem or
improper setup and configuration for the type of service. The list is arranged by possible
symptoms exhibited by the modem. When simple solutions yield not results then test equipment
may be necessary to help isolate the trouble. A spectrum analyzer is invaluable. So is a Bit Error
Rate Test set (BERT). The PSM-500 has a built in BERT function.
In most cases the first attempt at isolating a problem suspected of being within the modem is to
place the modem in the Self-Test Mode. Since this the vast majority of internal circuitry then a
pass on this test means that the user should probably concentrate on parameter settings and
external equipment and connections.
One obvious and time-honored method of isolating problems is to substitute suspect equipment
with known good equipment. Assuming that the configuration setting of the equipment is not the
source of the problem, this method will quickly eliminate items from the potential source list. The
two drawbacks to this method are the availability of extra equipment and the possibility of
interaction between two or more equipment items.
Symptom: The Modem will not acquire the incoming carrier:
Possible Cause: Improper receive input to modem.
Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct.
Possible Cause: Receive carrier level too low.
Action: Check that the receive cabling is correct, that the downconverter is properly set
and that the LNA is turned on. If a spectrum analyzer is available, locate and measure
the receive level, which should not be below –60 dBm absolute. At lower data rates the
input level may be as low as –84 dBm.
Possible Cause: Receive carrier frequency outside of acquisition range.
Action: Check the receive acquisition range is adequate for the possible system offsets.
Setting the value to 30 kHz is a standard value encompassing all normal offsets. After
acquisition, the actual receive frequency can be read from the front panel.
Possible Cause: Transmit carrier incompatible.
Action: Check the receive parameter settings and ensure that they match those on the
modulator.
Possible Cause: Modem is in test mode.
Action: Check the modem front panel for yellow warning LEDs indicating a test mode is
enabled. Self Test or IF Loop-back disconnects the Demodulator from the IF receive
input connector.
Possible Cause: Interference on the satellite.
Action: The interference can take many forms. The most common are an adjacent large
carrier, antenna feed polarization off resulting in carrier interference in opposite
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polarization, intermodulation products. Most of these cases can more easily be
determined with a spectrum analyzer. If possible move to another operating frequency to
see if that resolves the problem.
Symptom: The Modem acquires a carrier but loses lock intermittently.
Possible Cause: Receive acquisition range set too narrow. When the carrier drifts
outside of the acquisition range the demodulator looses lock until the carrier returns
inside the acquisition range.
Action: Check the actual receive carrier frequency and the receive offset at the front
panel and set the acquisition range appropriately.
Possible Cause: Receive level varying out of AGC range.
Action: Check the actual receive input level at the front panel. Change the carrier input
level to within the correct range. In Ku–Band systems, rain fade can cause significant
receive level variance.
Possible Cause: Transmit or Receive Converter equipment noisy.
Action: The dependence up good phase noise in converter equipment is especially
noticeable at low data rates and when using QPSK modulation. Very low frequency
phase noise on the converter oscillators is very difficult to see or measure, but is
detrimental to proper low data rate performance. Substitution of another modem will
verify the correct modem functioning.
Symptom: The Modem output data is corrupted.
Possible Cause: Receive data or clock inverted.
Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock and Data Phase. Try inverting the
phase.
Possible Cause: Receive Carrier signal Eb/No is too low resulting in poor BER
performance.
Action: Ensure that the transmit end is properly set and that the receive subsystems are
all operating correctly. In a small station ensure that the antenna is “peaked” on the
satellite. In a Ku-Band station, intense rain can cause poor receive performance.
Possible Cause: Transmit and Receive scrambler or differential encoder options do not
match or not enabled. Note – The differential encoder in the PSM-500 is under processor
control only, but this cause could apply to a mixed system linked to another modem.
Action: Check the current state of the Scrambler and differential encoder. In all operating
systems the differential encoder/decoder and one of the available scramblers must be
enabled.
Symptom: The Modem receive FIFO buffer indicates “Slip”.
Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run
condition occurs.
Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large
enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period. No amount
of buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO.
Symptom: Receive DTE equipment indicates “clock slip” or “sync lost”.
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Possible Cause: The FIFO automatically re-centers when an overrun or under-run
condition occurs.
Action: Check that the proper clocking options are used and the FIFO buffer is set large
enough to handle the expected satellite Doppler shift over a 24 hour period. No amount
of buffering will correct for different clocks on the input and output of the FIFO.
Possible Cause: Receive signal or clock inverted.
Action: Check the current state of the Demod Clock Phase. Try inverting the phase.
4.2.1 Onboard Diagnostic Indicators
There are 8 LEDs on the main PWB which provide diagnostic information about the status of
various functions:
1. DS1 - MBIT FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit bit timing is not
synchronized. The most common reason for this fault should be that the modem is
set for external Transmit Timing input and either none is present or the applied signal
is off frequency.
2. DS2 - MOD ENABLE(Green) – Indicates that the modulator hardware has
enabled the transmit carrier.
3. DS3 - Modulator FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly.
(Red) – Indicates that the modulator
4. DS4 - MSTP FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit step synthesizer is
unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
5. DS5 - REF FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the onboard TCXO reference oscillator
is not phase locked when set to an external reference input.
6. DS6 - System Clock Alarm- (Red) – Indicates that the 80 MHz clock hardware has
failed.
7. DS7 - DEM LOCKincoming carrier.
(Green) – Indicates that the demod hardware has locked to an
8. DS8 - DSTP FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the receive step synthesizer is unlocked.
Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
9. DS9 - Demodulator FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly.
(Red) – Indicates that the demodulator
10. DS10 - I channel FPGA program faultfailed to program correctly.
(Red) – Indicates that the I channel filter
11. DS11 - Q channel FPGA program faultfilter failed to program correctly.
(Red) – Indicates that the Q channel
12. DS12 - MLO FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the transmit Local Oscillator synthesizer
is unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
13. DS13 - DLO FAULT- (Red) – Indicates that the receive Local Oscillator synthesizer
is unlocked. Normally this would result only from an onboard fault.
14. DS14 - Front Panel FPGA program faultFPGA failed to program correctly.
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(Red) – Indicates that the front panel
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4.2.2 Onboard Processor Power-On Sequence and Diagnostics
The processor goes through the following sequence every time the modem is powered up.
1. Sets up the stack pointer and initializes the register bank;
2. Disables all interrupts;
3. All internal RAM and all external RAM is tested by writing to it and reading from it. If
any value does not work correctly, the initialization is halted and an endless loop is
entered putting out a square wave on ALARM LED;
4. The front panel is checked for presence.
5. Checks the Flash memory contents and calculates its checksum value. If the
checksum does not correspond to that in the ROM, the initialization is halted and an
endless loop is entered putting out a square wave on the ALARM LED;
6. The EEPROM is tested for specific flag bytes in its contents. If the flags are incorrect,
the EEPROM is assumed to be corrupted and is re-initialized with the factory
defaults, removing the current. A message is displayed on the front panel LCD.
7. Initializes all variables and internal components;
8. The standard or optional interfaces are interrogated for type and installed options.
9. Initializes the serial UARTs, A/D converter and internal timers, enabling these
interrupts in the process;
10. Begins operating its main loop program which responds to control inputs, monitors
and displays terminal and LED status, controls the modulator output, FEC, operating
modes, etc.
4.2.3 Built-in Lamp Test
4.2.3.1 Lamp Test
The Front Panel LEDs and LCD display backlight are tested. This is meant to be viewed by an
operator. During the 4 seconds of this test both alarm relays are forced off.
Eb/No, input level and offset frequency are all within limits. The internal BERT is used to verify no
errors or loss of sync.
4.3 Updating Modem Software
The PSM-500 modem software and firmware are held in flash memory and can be field upgraded
by several methods. The most common is to download newer software revisions via the Internet
and install from a Window’s type USB capable PC using the modem’s USB control port. If a USB
capable computer is not available software and firmware can be updated via the serial control
port, but this method is not recommended because of the large amount of firmware and the slow
serial connection.
We do occasionally add new features or correct operating procedures within the modem software
that might lead to problems. When the operating software changes the Revision number is
updated. Some changes may involve modification of the information or structure in the nonvolatile EEPROM storage.
The latest versions of firmware, instructions and PC compatible update programs are available
on the www.datumsystems.com web site, and should be checked for the latest instructions
before attempting the procedures below
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The complete software update “package” consists of two or three ZIP compressed files – One
holding the Update program with a Window’s Installer and the other two holding the firmware
images that the Update program writes to the modem. There are separate firmware files for the
main unit and the FEC card The following are typical of the file types and ZIP contents, but they
may change as to provide easier operation – check the web site for the latest:
A. - M500UpdateFullVxxx.zip where xxx is the current version number of the M500Update
program. Besides the Loader program itself this zip file also contains the full set of Visual Basic
DLL and OCX associated files. The USB drivers needed for installation on a computer are
typically separately packaged.
Once installed the latest version of the program itself without the other drivers and DLL files is
available as M500UpdateVxxx.zip (note the “Full” is not in this version’s name).
•
M500Flash.EXE
•
Various DLL, OCX Visual Basic runtime routines necessary to run the M500Flash.exe
program.
PC based program to load software to the modem.
B. M500ModemUSBDriver.zip This program is only needed once on any computer to provide
the USB driver.
•
USB drivers for the FTDI USB interface – currently named FTD2XX.lib, sys, dll, ini, etc.
•
Windows installer used to install the driver program and its associated files.
C. M500Ux.xx.yyy.zip where x.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable unit
type as explained below.
•
M500Ux.xx.yyy.fbf
Binary image of the modem’s main Unit software/firmware.
M500U is for the Unit where currently exists yyy values of:
o
000 for a 70 MHz modem
o
001 for a 140 MHz Modem
o
040 for the L-Band Modems
D. M500Fx.xx.yyy.zip where x.xx is the current version number and yyy is the applicable FEC
card type as explained below.
•
M500Fx.xx.yyy.fbf
Binary image of the FEC cards firmware. M500F is for the FEC
where currently exist yyy card types of
o
001 for the standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code Modulation (TCM)
and Reed-Solomon
o
002 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code
Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon, plus the TPC4K type Turbo chip.
o
003 for the enhanced standard FEC card containing Viterbi, Trellis Code
Modulation (TCM) and Reed-Solomon, plus the TPC16K type Turbo chip.
o
004 Not defined yet.
In addition the user must supply a “PC” type computer running Windows and a USB A to B type
cable to connect the PC to the modem. The USB type A connection goes to the computer and the
type B connection to J10 on the rear of the modem. This is a normal serial cable available from
many common sources and also used with many computer peripherals such as printers. Do not
connect this USB cable until the software drivers are installed.
Although not recommended, if using a serial RS-232 connection to perform modem
updates, the serial cable has a male DB9 connector on the modem end and normally a
female DB9 connector on the computer end. Older computers may require a DB25 to
DB9 adaptor on the computer end. The 9 pin cable is wired 1:1 with no crossovers (as in
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“null modem” type cables). This is a standard serial extension cable available at
computer outlets.
Any software upgrade requires a “Control Program” hosted on the computer which transmits or
“Loads” the new software to the modem. The Control Program is available with the newer
software revision. Currently the name of the control program is “M500 Update.exe”. This Loader
is an IBM PC Visual Basic based program that can be run under Windows 98, 2000 and XP. We
now have a newer self contained M500 Update program capable of running under Windows Vista
available on the web site. This version can also check a special web site on demand for newer
firmware for the connected modem, making the process as painless as possible.
The Installation program must be run first to install the update program in the PC used for
updating modem firmware. The M500Update program is specifically designed to stand alone if it
is located in a directory with its VB DLL and OCX files plus the flash binary format files for the
modem. It does not change the registry or appear in the “Start Programs” menu. The advantage
of this is that it can even be run from the CD that comes with the modem (although that probably
does not have newer flash files), or from a central networked computer location.
4.3.1 Update Software Installation –
There are two M500 software/firmware update programs available. The main one is the
recommended M500 Update program that is very easy to use. The alternate is the
M500FlashLoader program that may be required in special cases only. Both are briefly described
below. More complete installation and usage information is available on the web and with the
programs.
4.3.1.1 M500 Update Program
The M500Update program is designed to be very simple to install and use. It looks at the modem
and the .fbf files in its own directory and determines if an update is available. You only need to
push one button and the program will load the main unit and any FEC files needed by the
modem. The program is normally installed in a folder/directory of your choosing, for example one
named C:\My Documents\M500Tools. It is described above and on the “download” page of our
web site.
Beginning with version 2.0 the M500Update program was renamed to M500 Up_date for
programming reasons. These versions are needed to operate in Windows Vista operating
systems. Newer versions of this update program are even easier to use. As of this writing version
2.10 is available. In this release a computer with web access can determine the Unit and FEC
versions in the USB connected modem and then check the web for availability of later firmware.
On command it can download the new firmware, unpack it and install it into the modem. It can
even check for newer versions of the Update program itself. To use the latest implementation the
user only needs the M500 Up_date.exe program and the USB driver to get new firmware and
update modems.
4.3.1.2 M500 Flash Loader Program
This is an older, but more flexible program that operates in a slightly different manner than the
normal M500 Update program: It is not recommended unless specifically required.
The M500 Flash Loader program can be “installed” and will appear in the Start Programs menu.
The Flash Binary Format files do not have to be in the same directory as the program.
It does not analyze the modem to determine if an update is needed based on those .fbf files.
It allows installing down rev software if required.
The installation program handles this location by default. The recommended method for installing
the Update Software program is as follows:
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1. Download the Full version of the update program which includes the program, associated
files and USB drivers. Also download the latest firmware for your modem from the web
site.
2. Unzip or extract the program files into the directory where you saved the download in
step one. An alternative is to leave the downloaded program files compressed - either
WinZip or Windows XP compressed folders will allow you to run the install program
directly from within the compressed file.
3. Run the “Install.exe” file by double clicking on it. This will create the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory and place the program and associated files there.
The USB drivers will be in a sub-directory named. C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH
Loader\UsbDriver.
4. Unzip or extract the binary files into a suitable folder. You could use the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory, or chose one within My Documents such as “M500
Binaries”.
5. Connect the computer to the modem via a USB cable. If the modem is turned off then
turn it on. The computer will recognize and advise you that new hardware has been
found and run the new hardware wizard.
6. If the wizard asks if you would like to connect to the Internet to search for drivers, select
“No, not this time” and click “Next”.
7. When asked if you want to “Install Automatically” or “Locate the drivers myself” or “Have
Disk”, select the self locate or have disk option and navigate to the C:\Program
Files\M500 FLASH Loader\UsbDriver folder and there select the ftd2xx.inf file. Then let
windows do the rest. If notified that the driver is not certified select “Continue Anyway”.
The supplied drivers are from a reputable source that manufactures the USB interface
chip.
The modem has a complementary program which talks to the loader and controls re-writing of the
flash memory. No actions to the modem are normally necessary before beginning update with the
exception of removing it from service, and the M500 Flash Update program can take care of all
tasks directly including finding the modem, determining if it has newer software/firmware versions
available and preventing loading of incorrect firmware to the modem The modem is specifically
designed to not accept firmware that is not made for it. For example the standard 70 MHz modem
would reject firmware for a 140 MHz or L-Band Modem.
It is a good idea to see if a later version of the update program or the update instructions are
available on the web. Those could be newer than the basic information given here.
4.3.2 Performing the Software/Firmware Update –
Once the PC program which does the actual update and communications with the modem is
installed the process for accomplishing the actual update using the original “M500 Flash Loader”
is as shown below.
⇒ Note: For virtually all users the recommended program is the newer “M500
Up_date.exe” program available on our web site at www.datumsystems.com. This newer
program in version 2.06 and later is significantly easier to use, works with any version of
Windows including Vista, and can check a special web site for available modem and
program updates on user command. This relieves the user from having to know about
numbering schemes, modem types, etc. Use instructions are also on the web site.
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The M500 Flash Update program gives feedback to the user during the update process. If you
suspect that something is not going correctly with the update process then wait until the current
process is completed and contact Datum Systems via email with details of what is observed. We
have tried very hard to make the program as robust as possible.
There are two types of software/firmware files that may be uploaded to the modem. One is for the
main modem itself and its binary file name begins with “M500U”. The other is update firmware for
the particular FEC card that may be installed and its binary file name begins with “M500F”. The
update program is intended to determine which one of these may be required and which one
should be loaded first.
All user settings and calibration data are maintained when newer software revisions are installed.
⇒ CAUTION: The process of updating software will result in disruption of any traffic
currently through the PSM-500. Upgrade should not be performed on a live traffic unit.
⇒ CAUTION: The process of updating software must not be interrupted once started. In
the rare occasions when a new bootloader is installed in flash, failure to complete this
portion of the loading process may result in complete loss of the modem programming. In
this eventuality the modem must be returned to Datum Systems for software initialization
and calibration..
Complete update of the modem normally requires approximately 4 to 6 minutes. The process
cannot be accomplished on multiple modems simultaneously.
Before performing an update check the web site first to determine if there is a later firmware
revision and if there is any advantage to performing the update. The firmware revision on the web
is compared to that in the modem.
To determine the modem’s current Unit firmware revision go to the front panel and navigate to the
<Unit: Status - Version> parameter. It will display a number including two decimal points, for
example 0.09.000 where the 0.09 represents the firmware revision “0.09” of modem type “000”.
In this case the 000 type is a 70 MHz modem. Then if on the web site there is found for example
a firmware updated version number 0.12.000 that indicates that the latest revision available for
the 70 MHz M500 modem is 0.12. The file can be downloaded, unzipped and placed in the
C:\Program Files\M500 FLASH Loader directory where the program can find it. It may alternately
be placed in another directory or folder and you will have to browse to locate the binary file.
And finally the procedure:
1. Insure that the modem is connected to the PC via a USB type A to B cable, and the
modem is powered on. The USB drivers for the modem should have already been
installed.
2. Start the update program via “Start – Programs – M500 FLASH Loader” menu, and
the M500 Flash Loader program should start and recognize the attached modem. In a
few seconds the modem’s serial number and other information will be shown in the left
panel displaying a window similar to that below.
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3. Click on the entry box below “M500 FLASH Program File” in the right pane. This will bring
up a file open dialog box. Browse to the location of the flash binary format (.fbf) files
downloaded with the newer firmware version, and select the M500F or M500U file
desired.
4. The program window should now show that file selected, and if it is the same as the
current file loaded into the modem it will display as below:
Not the “** Current Version **” after the File Firmware Version = 0.08.000 indicating the
selected file is the same as that loaded.
5. If the binary file versions available in this directory are newer than those in the modem,
then select the “Update M500 FLASH” button and the update process will begin.
6. When completed the modem will reset itself and the revised information will be displayed
in the left pane. If you need to also load an FEC firmware binary file, then repeat the
process by selecting that file and updating again. When finished simply end the M500
FLASH Update program and disconnect the modem from the computers USB port.
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NOTE: The IF version of the 70 MHz, 140 MHz and L-Band modem is determined by
hardware only, and has nothing to do with the software. The modem will refuse to accept
attempts to load the wrong software intended for another version.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
4.4 Upgrading the Modem Feature Set
Each of the modems in the PSM-500 series is available currently with 3 different “Feature Sets”,
M505, M511 and M523, representing basic capabilities that suit it to certain tasks. They are
currently given a feature set code representing the elements of those features. Refer to Section
1.1.2. which shows the capabilities of each standard feature set.
Upgrading from one feature set to another is accomplished in the following manner.
Contact your local reseller or Datum Systems directly requesting an upgrade and noting the Unit
Serial Number, current version and the version to which you would like to upgrade to. There are
only 3 upgrades possible at this writing, from the M505 to the M511, from the M511 to the M523
and from the M505 to the M523.
Upon purchasing an upgrade you will be provided with a special 16 digit code which is used to
enable the upgraded features. The code is unique to this unit’s serial number and will not work in
any other modem.
To insert the code go to the <Unit: Status - Feature> parameter using the front panel keypad.
Then enter the 16 digits of the given code directly using the digits on the keypad, then press the
“Enter” key. If correctly entered the modem will now display the new feature set and list the
available modulation modes above the standard set in the M505. For example when the M523
feature set is enabled the <Unit: Status - Feature> parameter will display “M523-8PSK-16QAM”.
Feature sets can only be upgraded. There is no code to downgrade a feature set to a lower one.
4.4.1 Future Software Options –
In the future we may have additional options which can be enabled via an “unlock code”. For
example, newer FEC options based on Intellectual Property (IP) which we must license and
charge for, may fit into this category. The procedure for these options will be similar to that
described above and explained in the transmittal that accompanies the unlock code.
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4.5 Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ
OR How Do I?,
Why Doesn’t It?,
and Where Is?
This Section is intended to form a smart index pointing to proper sections of the manual with
information on performing common actions or answering common questions. The presentation
here is divided into 5 common areas – Link Setup, Front Panel, Remote Control, Data Interface
and Manual.
A. Link Set Up and Installation.
A.1 Compatibility with other Modems.
How do I make the PSM-500 talk to a xxxx brand modem on the other end of a link?
The PSM-500 has several new programmable features which should make this easier than ever.
First, where possible if both modems adhere to Intelsat IESS standards then those defined
parameters should be set the same. Still all modem manufacturers have their own conventions
for setting parameters with no specified standard, so for example some modems may have a
different modulation sense for data bits than others. This would make no difference between two
modems of the same type, but would invert data between modems of different types on each end
of a link. Most items of this type are programmable in the PSM-500 modem.
The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving
compatibility with some competitive modems, especially in Turbo FEC modes. These modes are
denoted by the FEC Option type “CT” on the front panel selection.
Is Datum Systems' Turbo Product Codes compatible with that made by other modem
manufacturers?
The PSM-500 also has a significant number of FEC compatibility modes for aid in achieving
compatibility with some competitive modems, especially in Turbo FEC modes. These modes are
denoted by the FEC Option “CT” on the front panel selection. These modes are typified by the
modes used in the CDM5xx and CDM6xx series of competitive modems.
There are several modes that are probably not compatible for several reasons. First is
that there is no standard for implementation of TPC. Second, Datum Systems spent a lot
of time and development in implementing a full set of TPC parameters (i.e. Rates 1/2, 3/4
and 7/8), and insuring the absolute best performance with no compromises. We have
seen no other TPC implementation that even comes close to ours. Third, because we
have many customers that use our modems in systems requiring low latency we
implemented an alternate "Short Block" mode that reduces the typical TPC delay by
approximately 1/3. The techniques used in this TPC achieve the best performance of any
modem currently produced. Our latest TPC “Advanced” modes are also proprietary to
Datum Systems, simply because we know of no one else using the specific parameters.
Is the PSM-500 Remote Control Protocol Compatible with the PSM-4900?
The PSM-500 has significant new capabilities and features that cannot fit into the structure of the
PSM-4900 protocol. However, the PSM-500 will respond to properly formatted PSM-4900 binary
control packets within the capabilities of the PSM-4900. This allows mixed systems of 4900 and
500 series modems without initially changing control software. The compatibility does not
currently extend to operation over the link on the MCC channel.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
My PSM-500 and PSM-2100 do not agree on the Eb/No parameter with Reed-Solomon
Codec installed?
The PSM-2100 was designed before Intelsat IESS 309 added the section defining how the Eb/No
was measured with Reed-Solomon concatenated coding, and uses a different method. The
method is encapsulated in ASIC and not changeable. Unfortunately the IESS lists two possible
methods of computing the Eb/No with Reed-Solomon. The PSM-500, being of more recent
design, adheres to both IESS definitions by allowing the reference point to be varied. The two
therefore may read differently, but actually achieve the same performance. Refer to Appendix RS
for more information on setting the calculation parameter.
Does the PSM-500 have AUPC and AUFC and are they compatible with the PSM-2100?
The PSM-500 does not have AUFC, but retains the AUPC from the PSM-2100 type modems.
Like the PSM-2100 the built in AUPC (Automatic Uplink Power Control) can be enabled only if the
multiplexer option is installed or if an external communications channel is provided.
The PSM-500 AUPC is compatible with that in the 2100 when the PSM-500 modem IBS
Multiplexer is placed in the “Enhanced” mode. It is not compatible in the “Custom” mode.
How do I set up the IBS Multiplexer and AUPC Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible
with the PSM-2100 Modem?
The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the IBS Multiplexer beyond the
capabilities of the PSM-2100. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly
named options are available in the PSM-500. These modes are the “Standard” and "Enhanced”
multiplexer operating modes. The 500’s “Custom” mode is not compatible with the PSM-2100.
For the AUPC to function and to be compatible with a PSM-2100 it must be set in the “Enhanced”
mode.
How do I set up the Reed-Solomon Option in the PSM-500 to be compatible with the PSM2100 Modem?
The PSM-500 Modem is capable of varying the parameters for the Reed-Solomon Codec beyond
the capabilities of the PSM-2100. To maintain compatibility with the PSM-2100 specific similarly
named options are available in the PSM-500. When enabled the RS FEC Mode should be set to
“IESS-308”. This will automatically set the “n”, “k” and “Depth” options to 126, 112 and 4
respectively. The 500’s “IESS-309” and “Custom” modes are not compatible with the PSM-2100.
A.2 Operating and Performance Questions.
There are so many options and parameter settings! Where do I start?
The PSM-500 is highly programmable. This can make the set-up daunting at first. If you are
unfamiliar with the common terms and modes used in satellite communications you should first
refer to Chapter 2 of this manual “Installation and Setup”. As a starting point the modem can also
be taken to a default basic set of operating parameters by using the front panel <Unit:
Configuration - Recall> parameter and select option “0” or “Factory”. From that point you make
necessary changes to set the desired configuration. Once all parameters are set as required the
configuration can be saved using the <Unit: Configuration - Store> control. From there you can
always go back to this configuration by recalling it.
Why doesn’t my PSM-500 talk to another PSM-500 over the satellite? I have set all the
parameters the same.
Any satellite modem has a significant number of parameters, which are settable in order to
achieve the maximum performance at the least cost. Because there are so many parameters it is
possible to have one unit with a slightly different parameter set than that at the other end of the
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link. If after insuring that all parameters are set the same and that the acquisition range is correct
and that there are no interfering carriers; one other method is to take both modems back to the
factory default condition and rebuild the configuration from “scratch”. Use the front panel <Unit:
Configuration - Recall> and select option “0” or “Factory”. You may want to save your current
configuration before resetting to the default.
What is the delay from end to end using the PSM-500?
The satellite link itself represents a fixed and very slightly variable delay due to the distance of the
satellite from the two stations linked. This delay is approximately 250 milli-seconds. In addition
Appendix A lists the specified fixed and rate dependent delays incurred in the modem’s transmit
and receive processing, including those in the IBS Multiplexer and Reed-Solomon if equipped
and enabled.
Can I use the PSM-500 to help align the station antenna?
Is an AGC output provided to feed to automatic antenna positioning equipment?
Yes - The PSM-500 has a single analog output that is produced by the main processor and
converted to analog by a D/A converter. The parameter selected for this output can be either the
AGC, Eb/No or Mod CXR Level selected in the <Unit: Monitor - Mode>. The slope and polarity
are selected using the “Zero” and “Full” parameters below this. The signal is available at the rear
panel on the J5 Alarm Connector, pin 5 with the Ground return on pin 6. See Installation Section
2.3.3, “Alarm Connection”, and Operations Section 3.11 for more information on connection and
use of the monitor function.
The AGC has been the classic parameter used for this type of function, but the PSM-500
provides an output that may be better in most situations. That is the Eb/No, which is a function
without the slope changes and negative signal sense of the AGC signal.
Where is the “Eye Pattern” test points for the I and Q channel receive signals?
The PSM-500 does not have an analog test point to view the eye pattern. All information at this
point in the receive chain is digital and measured by the modem processor. The result of this
measurement is presented as the Eb/No. If it is absolutely essential to view the eye pattern as
analog test information, contact the factory for availability of a special test fixture for conversion.
What happened to the Burst Modulator mode in the PSM-500?
The PSM-500 has the basic circuitry necessary to implement burst modulation. The burst
demodulation scheme compatible with the modulation used in the PSM-2100 is no longer
manufactured, and there is no clear standard for implementing this capability. Modifying the PSM500 to work with a specific burst demodulator scheme is an option which requires contacting the
factory for availability.
How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to invert the spectrum?
These options were added into the PSM-500 to aid in building specialized systems which may
invert the spectrum sense of the received carrier. The main cause of this would be an up or down
converter which performs a spectrum inversion.
How do I use the modulator and demodulator functions to vary the FEC C0 and C1 values?
These options were added into the PSM-500 to help achieve compatibility with other brands of
modems at the other end of a link. These parameter settings also allow changing the modulation
of adjacent carriers on the satellite so that a demodulator will not lock to them. This has value if
the carriers are placed closer than the required receive acquisition range. Using this scheme
requires the use of the demodulator search mode.
Intelsat in the latest IESS 308/309 has changed the definition of the C0 and C1 values. This
option allows compatibility with any definition.
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
How do I determine the transmitted "Symbol Rate" of the modem?
This particular parameter used to be a lot simpler to define. With the introduction of Turbo
Product Codes coupled with all the other modem modes and options like programmable
IBS multiplexer data load it is now extremely hard to define. The modem knows though,
and it is available at the front panel parameter showing the current transmit/receive
symbol rate. It is in the <Mod: Test – Symbol Rate> and the <Dem: Test – Symbol
Rate> parameters.
A.3 Why does It do that?
The modem is operating fine and then suddenly will not lock!
You probably have the differential encoder/decoder turned off. It is only provided as a control for
very special cases and should normally be set to “Enabled”.
The modem changed its operating parameters without me doing anything!
The ACR or Automatic Configuration Recovery feature is possibly enabled by setting one of the
<Unit: Config – Recall X> parameters set to a non-zero value. This will change the modem
configuration if the receive carrier is lost longer than the number of seconds entered.
The <Unit: Config – Power-Up> parameter may be set to change to a specified configuration on
power-up. The normal setting for this is “Last” (0).
B. Front Panel Control
What happened to the “Differential Encoder/Decoder parameter?
In normal operation there is no need to disable the Differential encoder or decoder. We only
found that occasionally someone disabled it and then had problems locking up to carriers, so this
capability was initially removed from front panel control. All of the latest firmware however now
allows this control, so you may need to update your firmware.
How do I enter a number with a minus sign?
At any time during the “Edit” process the “+/-“ key will change the sign of the current entry (if the
change is possible). In the quick edit mode this can be the first key pressed, so for instance, if the
current setting for modulator transmit output level is –10 dBm then pressing “+/-, 12” will enter a
value of –12 dBm. You could also press “1+/-2” or “12+/-” with the same result.
Why doesn’t the PSM-500 front panel act like the PSM-2100 or PSM-4900? [and] How do I
make it act like the PSM-2100?
The PSM-500 has many more features and programmable options than the PSM-2100 modems.
A close match is achieved by disabling the “quick” entry mode and remembering to press the
“Edit” key first instead of the “Enter” key. Once you become accustomed to the “Quick” entry
mode and using the change sign (+/-) and decimal point keys you will find it more convenient
than any entry on the PSM-2100.
Why does the transmit carrier turn off whenever I make a change?
First the transmit carrier can be set to a mode which will turn the carrier off if any change is made
that would result in a possible interference with other carriers on the satellite. This mode can be
set to one of three states: Automatic, Confirm or Manual. Automatic will turn the carrier off during
the parameter change and return the carrier on (if currently enabled) after the change is
completed, Confirm will ask if the carrier should be left on (requiring a “yes” or “no” answer), while
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Manual will always turn the carrier off after a change. This option is set in <Mod: IF – Mute>.
More directly the setting described is probably set to “Manual” mute mode.
Why can’t I find or see a certain option parameter that is shown in the tables?
Many parameters are only available when another option has been enabled which requires that
parameter. For example, the <Demod: IF – Sweep Time> parameter is only visible if the
<Demod: IF – Sweep Mode> is set to “Search”. These options are shown in the tables as gray
to indicate this status.
Can I control the far end modem from the front panel of a local modem?
The PSM-500 has the ability to control the far end modem (when linked and locked) from a local
modem, but only using the remote control port. This ability requires enabling the Multiplexer
option. Control from the front panel is prone to possible mistakes that would lead to accidentally
setting the remote modem in a state that could not be recovered without going to the remote site.
The far right “Remote” LED is blinking. What does it mean?
The Unit Remote Activity parameters allow setting this lamp to blink when activity is detected on
the USB or serial remote control ports. The same is possible for the “Local” LED using the Unit
Keyboard Activity control.
I seem to have no modulator or demodulator functions available?
There are two reasons that could explain this. First, there are some units sold with only one
function installed for special purposes. These units would have a model number indicating this
such as PST for a Modulator transmit only or PSD indicating a Demodulator receive only.
The other reason could be that the Modulator or Demodulator is disabled. To check and enable if
desired, go to the <Unit: Config – Modem>.parameter which shows what is enabled and allows
changing.
What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean?
See the abbreviations in FAQ Section E below.
C. Remote Control
Where is the ASCII Control packet structure in the PSM-500?
The PSM-500 and the PSM-4900 modems do not have an ASCII control packet protocol, only the
binary packet protocol. The SnIP however does have a fairly complete command line driven
control method via the “m500ctl” program. In addition the SnIP can potentially control multiple
modems connected via its external RS-485 control port.
Can I use the USB connector at J10 to remotely control the PSM-500?
The USB connector is mainly intended for firmware updates requiring a faster speed than the RS232/449 connection can supply. It is possible to control the modem in binary packet mode via the
USB connection. However, this connection does not use or accept addresses in the packet
structure, so it will likely require re-writing your packet routines.
You cannot currently use the USB connection for “Terminal Mode” control.
Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks
like that in the PSM-4900?
Yes. The new PSM-500 design dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater
number of commands available in the PSM-500. Many items such as the interface structure, data
rates and available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was
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PSM-500/500L/500LT SCPC Satellite Modem
impossible. However the PSM-500 actually contains both its own and a copy of the PSM-4900
protocol, allowing the PSM-500 to accept and respond to PSM-4900 packets within the limitations
of the PSM-4900 capabilities. This allows mixed systems of 4900 and 500 series modems
without initially changing control software. The compatibility does not currently extend to
operation over the link on the MCC channel.
Is there a “compatibility” mode for the remote control binary packet protocol that looks
like that in the PSM-2100?
No. The new commands dictated a new structure to implement the significantly greater number of
commands available in the PSM-500. Many items such as the interface structure, data rates and
available options are so different that creating a compatible command set was impossible. The
packet structure itself is virtually identical though and in most cases the new command set can be
accommodated by a “driver” tailored to the PSM-500.
D. Data Interface
How do I make a cable to connect to my V.35 (or EIA-530) device?
See the “Installation” Chapter 2 and Appendix C on “Cabling Specifications” which shows how to
make cables to interface between the modem’s DB37 connector and other types of common
connectors used.
Where do I get a “Y” cable to implement 1:1 redundancy?
These may be purchased from Datum Systems or it is possible to build your own. The
connections are discussed in Chapter 2 “Installation” and shown in Appendix C, “Cabling
Specifications”.
Why do I keep getting “sync losses” on my link? Or why does a BERT test show “sync
losses”?
This is usually a sign that some section of the link has a clock or data inversion. See Chapter 4 of
the manual for “Loop” testing to try to determine where the problem is and correct either the
wiring or change the modem data or clock sense.
Why does the modem occasionally fail to operate with my DTE equipment, and to correct
it I have to invert the data or clock?
The only cause in an otherwise functioning modem for this symptom is that the differential
encoder/decoder is turned off. Modems use the differential encoding to determine the proper
relationship between the clock and data. If the encoder is turned off the modem has a possibility
of locking to a signal with the wrong phase. For all normal operation of the modem the Modulator
differential encoder and the Demodulator differential decoder must be “Enabled”.
The Turbo Product Codes (TPC) option does not use the differential encoder, and when it is
enabled the differential encoder and/or decoder is turned off and the option is removed from the
parameter matrix. Other modes also automatically control the differential encoder and decoder in
the PSM-500, but a linked modem may have the ability to turn it on or off.
How do I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set?
See Maintenance Section 4.1.2 for information on using the built-in BERT. The PSM-500 BERT
now has the ability to be switched to look at the data line side.
Can I use the built-in Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) set to test the line or DTE side
equipment?
Yes with reservations. The BERT is designed to normally transmit and receive to the modem
side. New in the PSM-500 is the ability to electrically switch the direction that the BERT “looks”
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toward the line side. However, because of the hard wiring of the interface the pinout is fixed as a
DCE device. See Maintenance Section 4.1.2 for information on using the built-in BERT.
Why doesn’t my 1:1 redundant switch on certain alarms?
The 1:1 redundancy logic is programmable on two levels. First is the <Unit: Redundcy – SW
Rqst> parameter which selects whether a switch is requested on all alarms, alarm A and/or
alarm B. If it is set to any options but “On All Alarms” then the particular alarms that are summed
into the A and B alarms are themselves programmable, creating the second level. See the
discussion in section for more information.
E. Manual
What do the abbreviations on the front panel and in the manual mean?
A good example is the display and manual representation "Redundcy SW Rqst". Unfortunately
the display does not hold enough characters to display the full text of "Redundancy Switch
Request". Following is a list of abbreviations used.
Abbreviation
1:1, 1:N, M:N
ACR
AFC
AGC
ALC
Alm
Alt
AUPC
AUFC
BER, BERT
BUC
Cal
Clk
Config
Cntst
CXR
Dem
Dif
ESC
Erred
FEC
Freq, Frq
Frmt
HSSI
IDcOff, QDcOff
I/O
Int'f
Full Text
One for One, One for N and M for N. All
redundancy switch types.
Automatic Configuration Recovery
Automatic Frequency Control
Automatic Gain Control
Automatic Level Control
Alarm
Alternate
Automatic Uplink Power Control
Automatic Uplink Frequency Control
Bit Error Rate, Bit Error Rate Test
Block Up-Converter
Calibrate
Clock
Configuration
Contrast
Carrier
Demodulator
Differential
Engineering Service Channel
Errored
Forward Error Correction
Frequency
Format
High Speed Serial Interface (used with routers)
I and Q channel DC Offset
Input/Output
Interface
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Abbreviation
Keybrd
LCD
LDPC & FLDPC
LNB
LO
Loopbck
Lvl
Max
MCC
Min
Mod
Mux
Opt
OverHd
RCV, Rcv
Redundcy
Ref
Rqst
RS, R-S
Sat
SCPC
SER
SnIP
SW, Sw
Sync
SysClk
Ter, Terr
TPC
Tst
USB
VSAT
XMT, Xmt
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Full Text
Keyboard
Liquid Crystal Display
(Flexible) Low Density Parity Check FEC
Low Noise Block downconverter
Local Oscillator
Loop-back
Level
Maximum
Modem Control Channel
Minimum
Modulator
Multiplexer
Option
Overhead
Receive, into the Demodulator
Redundancy
Reference
Request
Reed-Solomon – Type of FEC
Satellite
Single Channel Per Carrier
Symbol Error Rate
Satellite network Interface Processor, our name
for an Ethernet Interface running Linux.
Switch
Synchronous or Synchronization
System Clock
Terrestrial – Line side of modem
Turbo Product Codes – Type of FEC
Test
Universal Serial Bus
Very Small Aperture Terminal
Transmit, from the Modulator
PSM-500/500L/500LT - Rev. 0.91
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