Black Box LES1204A-R2 User`s manual

Black Box LES1204A-R2 User`s manual
LES1202A
LES1204A-3G-R2
LES1203A-M
LES1204A-R2
_
Remote Console Manager User’s Manual
Securely monitor, access, control, and manage your
remote computers, networking devices,
telecommunications equipment, power infrastructure,
smart devices, and operating environments.
Ideal for use in branch offices, communications rooms,
wiring closets, and remote locations.
Remote Console Manager
Trademarks Used in this Manual
Black Box and the Double Diamond logo are registered trademarks of BB Technologies, Inc.
Any other trademarks mentioned in this manual are acknowledged to be the property of the trademark owners.
We‘re here to help! If you have any questions about your application
or our products, contact Black Box Tech Support at 724-746-5500
or go to blackbox.com and click on “Talk to Black Box.”
You’ll be live with one of our technical experts in less than 60 seconds.
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FCC and IC RFI Statements
Federal Communications Commission and Industry Canada Radio Frequency Interference
Statements
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy, and if not installed and used properly, that is, in
strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, may cause interference to radio communication. It has been tested and
found to comply with the limits for a Class A computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart B of Part 15 of
FCC rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when the equipment is operated in
a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the
user at his own expense will be required to take whatever measures may be necessary to correct the interference.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emission from digital apparatus set out in the Radio
Interference Regulation of Industry Canada.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils numériques
de la classe A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique publié par Industrie Canada.
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Remote Console Manager
Instrucciones de Seguridad
(Normas Oficiales Mexicanas Electrical Safety Statement)
1. Todas las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser leídas antes de que el aparato eléctrico sea operado.
2. Las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser guardadas para referencia futura.
3. Todas las advertencias en el aparato eléctrico y en sus instrucciones de operación deben ser respetadas.
4. Todas las instrucciones de operación y uso deben ser seguidas.
5. El aparato eléctrico no deberá ser usado cerca del agua—por ejemplo, cerca de la tina de baño, lavabo, sótano mojado o
cerca de una alberca, etc..
6. El aparato eléctrico debe ser usado únicamente con carritos o pedestales que sean recomendados por el fabricante.
7. El aparato eléctrico debe ser montado a la pared o al techo sólo como sea recomendado por el fabricante.
8. Servicio—El usuario no debe intentar dar servicio al equipo eléctrico más allá a lo descrito en las instrucciones de
operación. Todo otro servicio deberá ser referido a personal de servicio calificado.
9. El aparato eléctrico debe ser situado de tal manera que su posición no interfiera su uso. La colocación del aparato electric
sobre una cama, sofá, alfombra o superficie similar puede bloquea la ventilación, no se debe colocar en libreros o
gabinetes que impidan el flujo de aire por los orificios de ventilación.
10. El equipo eléctrico deber ser situado fuera del alcance de fuentes de calor como radiadores, registros de calor, estufas u
otros aparatos (incluyendo amplificadores) que producen calor.
11. El aparato eléctrico deberá ser connectado a una fuente de poder sólo del tipo descrito en el instructivo de operación, o
comose indique en el aparato.
12. Precaución debe ser tomada de tal manera que la tierra fisica y la polarización del equipo no sea eliminada.
13. Los cables de la fuente de poder deben ser guiados de tal manera que no sean pisados ni pellizcados por objetos
colocados sobre o contra ellos, poniendo particular atención a los contactos y receptáculos donde salen del aparato.
14. El equipo eléctrico debe ser limpiado únicamente de acuerdo a las recomendaciones del fabricante.
15. En caso de existir, una antena externa deberá ser localizada lejos de las lineas de energia.
16. El cable de corriente deberá ser desconectado del cuando el equipo no sea usado por un largo periodo de tiempo.
17. Cuidado debe ser tomado de tal manera que objectos liquidos no sean derramados sobre la cubierta u orificios de
ventilación.
18. Servicio por personal calificado deberá ser provisto cuando:
A: Ecable de poder o el contacto ha sido dañado; u
B: Objectos han caído o líquido ha sido derramado dentro del aparato; o
C: El aparato ha sido expuesto a la lluvia; o
D: El aparato parece no operar normalmente o muestra un cambio en su desempeño; o
E: El aparatlo ha sido tirado o su cubierta ha sido dañada.
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Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This Manual Installation 2.1 Models and Kit Components 2.2 Power Connection 2.3 Network Connection 2.4 Serial Port Connection 2.5 USB Port Connection 2.6 Modem Port Connection 2.7 Cellular SIM and Aerial System Configuration 3.1 Management console connection 3.1.1 Connected PC/workstation Setup
3.1.2 Browser connection
3.2 Administrator Password 3.3 Network IP address 3.3.1 IPv6 configuration
3.3.2 Dynamic DNS (DDNS) configuration
3.4 System Services 3.5 Communications Software 3.5.1 SDT Connector
3.5.2 PuTTY
3.5.3 SSHTerm
3.6 Wireless network configuration (LES1203A-­‐11G only) Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration 4.1 Configure Serial Ports 4.1.1 Common Settings
4.1.2 Console Server Mode
4.1.3 SDT Mode
4.1.4 Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode
4.1.5 Terminal Server Mode
4.1.6 Serial Bridging Mode
4.1.8 Syslog
4.3 Authentication 4.4 Network Hosts 4.5 Trusted Networks 4.6 Serial Port Cascading 4.6.1 Automatically generate and upload SSH keys
4.6.2 Manually generate and upload SSH keys
4.6.3 Configure the slaves and their serial ports
4.6.4 Managing the Slaves
4.7 Serial Port Redirection 4.7.1 Portshare for Windows
4.7.2 Install Windows Portshare client
4.7.3 To remove a configured port (Windows PortShare)
4.7.4 To configure the remote serial device connection (Windows PortShare)
4.7.5 Portshare for Linux
4.7.6 PortShare command man pages
4.7.7 Some PortShare application examples
4.8 Managed Devices 4.9 IPsec VPN 4.9.1 Enable the VPN gateway
4.9.2 Cisco VPN example
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Table of Contents
Failover and Out-­‐of-­‐Band Access 5.1 OoB Dial-­‐In Access 5.1.1 Configure Dial-In PPP
5.1.2 Using SDT Connector client
5.1.3 Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client
5.1.4 Set up earlier Windows clients
5.1.5 Set up Linux clients for dial-in
5.2 Dial-­‐Out Failover 5.3 Cellular modem OoB Access and Failover 5.3.1 Configure for OoB and connect to carrier network
5.3.2 Verify connection to carrier network
5.3.3 Cellular failover
Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector 6.1 Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts 6.2 SDT Connector Client Configuration 6.2.1 SDT Connector installation
6.2.2 Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client
6.2.3 Auto-configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges
6.2.4 Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host
6.2.5 Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway
6.2.6 Manually adding new services to the new hosts
6.2.7 Adding a client program to be started for the new service
6.2.8 Dial in configuration
6.3 SDT Connector to Management Console 6.4 SDT Connector -­‐ telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices 6.5 Using SDT Connector for out-­‐of-­‐band connection to the gateway 6.6 Importing (and exporting) preferences 6.7 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication 6.8 Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access 6.8.1 Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed
6.8.2 Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client
6.9 SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC 6.9.1 Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed
6.9.2 Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer
6.10 Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway 6.10.1 Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server
6.10.2 Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server
6.10.3 Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port
6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY) Alerts and Logging 7.1 Configure SMTP/SMS/SNMP/Nagios alert service 7.1.1 Email alerts
7.1.2 SMS alerts
7.1.3 SNMP alerts
7.1.4 Nagios alerts
7.2 Activate Alert Events and Notifications 7.2.1 Add a new alert
7.2.2 Configuring general alert types
7.2.3 Configuring environment and power alert type
7.2.4 Configuring alarm sensor alert type
7.3 Remote Log Storage 7.4 Serial Port Logging 7.5 Network TCP or UDP Port Logging Power and Environmental Management 8.1 Remote Power Control (RPC) 8.1.1 RPC connection
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8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 RPC access privileges and alerts
User power management
RPC status
Uninterruptible Power Supply Control (UPS) Managed UPS connections
Remote UPS management
Controlling UPS powered computers
UPS alerts
UPS status
Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT)
Environmental Monitoring Connecting the EMD
Environmental alerts
Environmental status
Authentication 9.1 Authentication Configuration 9.1.1 Local authentication
9.1.2 TACACS authentication
9.1.3 RADIUS authentication
9.1.4 LDAP authentication
9.1.5 RADIUS/TACACS User Configuration
9.2 PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) 9.3 SSL Certificate Nagios Integration 10.1 Nagios Overview 10.2 Central management and setting up SDT for Nagios 10.2.1 Set up central Nagios server
10.2.2 Set up distributed console servers
10.3 Configuring Nagios distributed monitoring 10.3.1 Enable Nagios on the console server
10.3.2 Enable NRPE monitoring
10.3.3 Enable NSCA monitoring
10.3.4 Configure Selected Serial Ports for Nagios Monitoring
10.3.5 Configure Selected Network Hosts for Nagios Monitoring
10.3.6 Configure the upstream Nagios monitoring host
10.4 Advanced Distributed Monitoring Configuration 10.4.1 Sample Nagios configuration
10.4.2 Basic Nagios plug-ins
10.4.3 Additional plug-ins
10.4.4 Number of supported devices
10.4.5 Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios
System Management 11.1 System Administration and Reset 11.2 Upgrade Firmware 11.3 Configure Date and Time 11.4 Configuration Backup 11.5 FIPS Mode Status Reports 12.1 Port Access and Active Users 12.2 Statistics 12.3 Support Reports 12.4 Syslog 12.5 Dashboard 12.5.1 Configuring the Dashboard
12.5.2 Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard
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Table of Contents
Management Reports 13.1 Device Management 13.2 Port and Host Logs 13.3 Serial Port Terminal Connection 13.4 Power Management Configuration from the Command Line 14.1 Accessing config from the command line 14.2 Serial Port configuration 14.3 Adding and Removing Users 14.4 Adding and removing user Groups 14.5 Authentication 14.6 Network Hosts 14.7 Trusted Networks 14.8 Cascaded Ports 14.9 UPS Connections 14.10 RPC Connections 14.11 Environmental 14.12 Managed Devices 14.13 Port Log 14.14 Alerts 14.15 SMTP & SMS 14.16 SNMP 14.17 Administration 14.18 IP settings 14.19 Date & Time Settings 14.20 Dial-­‐in settings 14.21 DHCP server 14.22 Services 14.23 NAGIOS Advanced Configuration 15.1 Custom Scripting 15.1.1 Custom script to run when booting
15.1.2 Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered
15.1.3 Example script - Power Cycling on Pattern Match
15.1.4 Example script - Multiple email notifications on each alert
15.1.5 Deleting Configuration Values from the CLI
15.1.6 Power Cycle any device when a ping request fails
15.1.7 Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked
15.1.8 Backing-up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick
15.1.9 Backing-up the configuration off-box
15.2 Advanced Portmanager 15.2.1 Portmanager commands
15.2.2 External Scripts and Alerts
15.3 Raw Access to Serial Ports 15.3.1 Access to serial ports
15.3.2 Accessing the console/modem port
15.4 IP-­‐ Filtering 15.5 Modifying SNMP Configuration 15.5.1 Retrieving status information using SNMP
15.5.2 /etc/config/snmpd.conf
15.5.3 Adding more than one SNMP server
15.6 Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication 15.6.1 SSH Overview
15.6.2 Generating Public Keys (Linux)
15.6.3 Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering)
15.6.4 Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux)
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15.6.5 15.6.6 15.6.7 15.6.8 Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows)
Fingerprinting
SSH tunneled serial bridging
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
15.7 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support 15.8 HTTPS 15.8.1 Generating an encryption key
15.8.2 Generating a self-signed certificate with OpenSSL
15.8.3 Installing the key and certificate
15.8.4 Launching the HTTPS Server
15.9 Power Strip Control 15.9.1 The PowerMan tool
15.9.2 The pmpower tool
15.9.3 Adding new RPC devices
15.10 IPMItool 15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK) 15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves 15.13 SMS Server Tools 15.14 Multicast Appendix A: Linux Commands and Source Code Appendix B: Hardware Specifications Appendix C: Safety & Certifications Appendix F: End User License Agreement 205 206 207 209 210 210 210 210 211 211 211 211 212 213 214 216 217 217 218 220 226 228 230 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
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Introduction
This Manual
This User’s Manual walks you through installing and configuring your Black Box Remote Console Manager (LES1202A,
LES1203A-M, LES1203A-11G, LES1204A-R2, or LES1204A-3G-R2). Each of these products is referred to generically in
this manual as a “console server.”
Once configured, you will be able to use your console server to securely monitor access and control your local and
distributed infrastructure. You’ll be able to manage all the computers, networking devices, telecommunications equipment,
power infrastructure, smart devices, and operating environments in your branch offices, communications rooms, wiring
closets, and remote locations.
Manual Organization
This manual contains the following chapters:
1. Introduction
An overview of the features of console server and information about this manual.
2. Installation
Physical installation of the console server and how to interconnect managed devices.
3. System Configuration
Covers initial installation and configuration of the console server on the network and the
services that will be supported using the Management Console.
4. Serial, Host & User Config
Covers configuring serial ports and connected network hosts, and setting up Users and
Groups.
5. Failover and OoB dial-in
Describes setting up the high availability access features of the console server.
6. Secure Tunneling (SDT)
Covers secure remote access using SSH and configuring for RDP, VNC, HTTP, HTTPS,
etc. access to network and serially connected devices.
7. Alerts and Logging
Explains how to set up local and remote event/data logs and how to trigger SNMP and
email alerts.
8. Power & Environment
Management of USB, serial and network attached power strips and UPS supplies. EMD
environmental sensor configuration.
9. Authentication
Access to the console server requires usernames and passwords that are locally or
externally authenticated.
10. Nagios Integration
Describes how to set Nagios central management with SDT extensions and configure the
console server as a distributed Nagios server.
11. System Management
Covers access to and configuration of services that will run on the console server.
12. Status Reports
View a dashboard summary and detailed status and logs of serial and network connected
devices (ports, hosts, power, and environment).
13. Management
Includes port controls that Users can access.
14 Basic Configuration
Command line installation and configuration using the config command.
15. Advanced Config
More advanced command line configuration activities where you will need to use Linux
commands.
The latest update of this manual can be found online at www.Black Box.com/download.html
Types of users
The console server supports two classes of users:
I.
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First, there are the administrative users who will be authorized to configure and control the console server; and to
access and control all the connected devices. These administrative users will be set up as members of the admin user
group and any user in this class is referred to generically in this manual as the Administrator. An Administrator can
access and control the console server using the config utility, the Linux command line, or the browser-based
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Remote Console Manager
Management Console. By default, the Administrator has access to all services and ports to control all the serial
connected devices and network connected devices (hosts).
II.
The second class of users are those who have been set up by the Administrator with specific limits of their access and
control authority. These users are set up as members of the users user group (or some other user groups the
Administrator may have added). They are only authorized to perform specified controls on specific connected devices
and are referred to as Users. These Users (when authorized) can access serial or network connected devices; and
control these devices using the specified services (for example, Telnet, HHTPS, RDP, IPMI, Serial over LAN, Power
Control). An authorized User also has a limited view of the Management Console and can only access authorized
configured devices and review port logs.
In this manual, when the term user (lower case) is used, it refers to both the above classes of users. This document also
uses the term remote users to describe users who are not on the same LAN segment as the console server. These
remote users may be Users, who are on the road connecting to managed devices over the public Internet, or it may be an
Administrator in another office connecting to the console server itself over the enterprise VPN, or the remote user may be
in the same room or the same office but connected on a separate VLAN than the console server.
Management Console
The Management Console runs in a browser and provides a view of the console server and all the connected devices.
Administrators can use the Management Console, either locally or from a remote location, to manage the console server,
users, ports, hosts, power devices, and associated logs and alerts.
A User can also use the Management Console, but has limited menu access to control select devices, review their logs
and access them using the built-in java terminal or control power to them.
The console server runs an embedded Linux operating system, and experienced Linux and UNIX users may prefer to
undertake configuration at the command line. You can command line access by dial-in or directly connect to the console
server’s serial console/modem port, or use ssh or Telnet to connect to the console server over the LAN, or with IPsec
VPN.
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11
Introduction
Manual Conventions
This manual uses different fonts and typefaces to show specific actions:
Note
Text presented like this indicates issues to note.
Text presented like this highlights important information. Make sure you read and
follow these warnings.

Text presented with an arrow head indent indicates an action you should take as part of the procedure.
Bold text indicates text that you type, or the name of a screen object (for example, a menu or button) on the Management
Console.
Italic text indicates a text command you enter at the command line level.
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Remote Console Manager
Copyright
©Black Box Corporation 2014. All Rights Reserved.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of
Black Box. Black Box provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including,
but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness or merchantability for a particular purpose.
Black Box may make improvements and/or changes in this manual or in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in
this manual at any time. This manual could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are
periodically made to the information herein; these changes may be incorporated in new editions of the publication.
Notice to Users
Use proper back-up systems and necessary safety devices to protect against injury, death, or property damage caused by
system failure. This protection is the user’s responsibility.
This device is not approved for use as a life-support or medical system.
Any changes or modifications made to this device without the explicit approval or consent of Black Box will void Black Box
of any liability or responsibility of injury or loss caused by any malfunction.
This equipment is for indoor use and all the communication wirings are limited to the inside of the building.
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Chapter 2: Installation
Installation This chapter describes how to install the console server hardware and connect it to controlled devices.
To avoid physical and electrical hazards please read Appendix C on Safety.
2.1
Models and Kit Components There are five console server models, in the Black Box Remote Console Manager family.
LES1202A
LES1203A-M
LES1203A-11G
LES1204A-R2
LES1204A-3G-R2
Serial
Ports
2
3
3
4
4
USB
Ports
1
1
1
1
1
Network
Ports
1
1
1
1
1
802.11
Wireless
Internal
-
Modem
Internal
-
Cellular
GSM
Internal
Detailed below are the components shipped with each of these models. When you unpack your kit please verify you have
all the parts.
LES1202A, LES1203A-M, LES1203A-11G, LES1204A-R2 or
LES1204A-3G-R2 Remote Console Manager
(2) UTP CAT5 blue cables
DB9F-RJ45S straight and DB9F-RJ45S cross-over
connectors
Power Supply (12-VDC, 1.0-A wallmount)

Unpack your kit and verify you have all the parts shown above, and that they all appear in good working order.
The LES1204A-3G kit has an external 3G aerial to be attached.

Proceed to connect your console server to the network, the serial ports of the controlled servers, and AC power
as shown next.
To download the user manual from the Web site:
1. Go to www.blackbox.com
2. Enter LES1202A in the search box:
3. Click on the “Resources” tab on the product page, and select the document you wish to download.
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Remote Console Manager
2.2
Power Connection
The Black Box Remote Console Manager console server includes an external wall mount DC power supply unit. This unit
accepts an AC input voltage between 100 and 250 VAC with a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. The DC power supply is fitted
with a plug for North America, and other plugs (Europe, UK, Japan or Australia) are included in the kit. The 12-VDC
connector from the power supply unit plugs into the 12-VDC (PWR) power socket on the side of the console server
casing:

Plug in the power supply AC power cable and the DC power cable.

Turn on the AC power and confirm the console server Power LED (PWR) is lit.
2.3
Network Connection
The RJ-45 LAN port is located on the side of the console server. Use industry standard CAT5 cabling and connectors.
Make sure that you only connect the LAN port to an Ethernet network that supports 10BASE-T/100BASE-T.
To initially configure the console server, you must connect a PC or workstation to the console server’s LAN port.
2.4
Serial Port Connection
The Black Box Remote Console Manager console servers have two, three, or four RJ-45 serial ports. By default, Port 1 is
configured in Local Console (modem) mode.
The RJ-45 serial connectors have Cisco serial pinouts. This provides straight through RJ-45 cable to equipment such as
Cisco, Juniper, SUN, and more:
PIN SIGNAL 1 CTS 2 DSR 3 RXD 4 GND 5 GND 6 TXD 7 DTR 8 RTS DEFINITION Clear To Send Data Set Ready Receive Data Signal Ground Signal Ground Transmit Data Data Terminal Ready Request To Send DIRECTION Input Input Input NA NA Output Output Output Conventional CAT5 cabling with RJ-45 jacks is used for serial connections. Before connecting an external device’s
console port to the console server serial port, confirm that the device supports the standard RS-232C (EIA-232).
Black Box supplies a range of cables and adapters that may be required to connect to the more popular servers and
network appliances. Call Black Box Technical Support at 724-746-5500 for details.
2.5
USB Port Connection
The Black Box Remote Console Manager console servers each also have one external USB port. This port can be used
for connecting to the USB console of a managed device (for example, for managing an external UPS supply) or attaching
other external USB peripherals (for example, an external USB memory stick or modem).
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Chapter 2: Installation
2.6
Modem Port Connection
The LES1203A-M has an internal modem. If you plan to use this for out-of-band (OoB) dial-in access, connect the modem
port to the phone line.
2.7
Cellular SIM and Aerial
The LES1204A-3G has an internal 3G cellular modem. Before powering on the LES1204A-3G, you must install the
SIM card provided by your cellular carrier, and attach the external aerial.
To insert the SIM unscrew the cover plate on the side of the LES1204A-3G, insert the SIM into the SIM garage then screw
the cover plate back on.
Screw the aerial on to the LES1204A-3G. Locate the console server in a location that will ensure a quality signal.
Note
The LES1204A-3G has two cellular status LEDs. The SIM LED on top of unit should go on solid when a SIM card
has been inserted and detected.
The WWAN LED on top of unit should go on at a fast blink once a radio connection has been established with
your cellular carrier (that is, after an APN has been properly configured).
WWAN LED Status:
Off:
Slow blink:
Solid Green:
Fast Blink:
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In reset mode or not powered.
Searching for service.
Active service with no traffic detected.
Active service with traffic (blink rate is proportional to traffic detected)
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Chapter 3: System Configuration
System Configuration
This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for the console server’s initial configuration, and for connecting it to the
Management or Operational LAN. The Administrator must:

Activate the Management Console.

Change the Administrator password.

Set the IP address console server’s principal LAN port.

Select the network services that will be supported.
This chapter also discusses the communications software tools that the Administrator may use to access the console
server.
3.1 Management console connection Your console server is configured with a default IP Address 192.168.0.1 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

Note


3.1.1
Directly connect a PC or workstation to the console server.
For initial configuration, we recommend that you connect the console server directly to a single PC or workstation.
However, if you choose to connect your LAN before completing the initial setup steps, it is important that:
you make sure that there are no other devices on the LAN with an address of 192.168.0.1
the console server and the PC/workstation are on the same LAN segment, with no interposed router appliances.
Connected PC/workstation Setup
To configure the console server with a browser, the connected PC/workstation should have an IP address in the same
range as the console server (for example, 192.168.0.100):
 To configure the IP Address of your Linux or Unix PC/workstation simply run ifconfig
 For Windows PCs (Win9x/Me/2000/XP/Vista/ NT):

Click Start -> (Settings ->) Control Panel and double click Network Connections (for 95/98/Me, double
click Network).

Right click on Local Area Connection and select Properties.

Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.

Select Use the following IP address and enter the following details:


18
o
IP address: 192.168.0.100
o
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
If you want to retain your existing IP settings for this network connection, click Advanced and Add the above
as a secondary IP connection.
If it is not convenient to change your PC/workstation network address, you can use the ARP-Ping command to
reset the console server IP address. To do this from a Windows PC:

Click Start -> Run (or select All Programs then Accessories then Run).

Type cmd and click OK to bring up the command line.

Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache.

Type arp –a to view the current ARP cache (this should be empty).
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Now add a static entry to the ARP table and ping the console server to assign the IP address to the console
server. In the example below, a console server has a MAC Address 00:13:C6:00:02:0F (designated on the label
on the bottom of the unit) and we are setting its IP address to 192.168.100.23. Also the PC/workstation issuing
the arp command must be on the same network segment as the console server (that is, have an IP address of
192.168.100.xxx)
3.1.2

Type arp -s 192.168.100.23 00-13-C6-00-02-0F (Note for UNIX the syntax is: arp -s 192.168.100.23
00:13:C6:00:02:0F).

Type ping -t 192.18.100.23 to start a continuous ping to the new IP Address.

Turn on the console server and wait for it to configure itself with the new IP address. It will start replying to the
ping at this point.

Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache again.
Browser connection

Activate your preferred browser on the connected PC/workstation and enter https://192.168.0.1 The
Management Console supports all current versions of the popular browsers (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox,
Chrome, and more).

You will be prompted to log in. Enter the default
administration username and administration
password:
Username: root
Password: default
Note
Console servers are factory configured with HTTPS access enabled and HTTP access disabled.
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Chapter 3: System Configuration
A Welcome screen, which lists four initial installation configuration steps, will be displayed:
1. Change the default administration password on the System/Administration page (Chapter 3).
2. Configure the local network settings on the System/IP page (Chapter 3).
3. Configure port settings and enable ….. the Serial & Network/Serial Port page (Chapter 4).
4. Configure users with access to serial ports on the Serial & Network/Users page (Chapter 3).
After completing each of the above steps, you can return to the configuration list by clicking in the top left corner of the
screen on the Black Box logo.
Note
If you are not able to connect to the Management Console at 192.168.0.1 or if the default Username/Password
were not accepted, then reset your console server (refer to Chapter 11).
3.2 Administrator Password For security reasons, only the administrator user named root can initially log into your console server. Only people who
know the root password can access and reconfigure the console server itself. However, anyone who correctly guesses
the root password could gain access (and the default root password is default). To avoid this, enter and confirm a new
root password before giving the console server any access to, or control of, your computers and network appliances.
Note:
We recommend that you set up a new Administrator user as soon as convenient and log in as this new user for all
ongoing administration functions (rather than root). This Administrator can be configured in the admin group with
full access privileges through the Serial & Network: Users & Groups menu as detailed in Chapter 4.

Select System: Administration.

Enter a new System Password then re-enter it in Confirm System Password. This is the new password for
root, the main administrative user account, so choose a complex password, and keep it safe.

At this stage, you may also wish to enter a System Name and System Description for the console server to give
it a unique ID and make it simple to identify.
Note
The System Name can contain from 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters (however, you can also use the special
characters “-”, “_”, and “.”)
There are no restrictions on the characters that can be used in the System Description or the System Password
(each can contain up to 254 characters). However, only the first eight System Password characters are used to
make the password hash.
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
Note
Click Apply. Since you have changed the password you will be prompted to log in again. This time, use the new
password.
If you are not confident that your console server has the current firmware release, you can upgrade. Refer to
Upgrade Firmware—Chapter 10.
3.3 Network IP address The next step is to enter the IP address for the LAN port on the console server; or enable its DHCP client so that it
automatically obtains an IP address from a DHCP server on the network it will connect to.

On the System: IP menu, select the Network Interface page then check dhcp or static for the Configuration
Method.

If you selected Static, you must manually enter the new IP Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway, and DNS server
details. This selection automatically disables the DHCP client.

If you selected DHCP, the console server will look for configuration details from a DHCP server on your
management LAN. This selection automatically disables any static address. The console server MAC address is
printed on a label on the base plate.
Note

Note
In its factory default state (with no Configuration Method selected) the console server has its DHCP client
enabled, so it automatically accepts any network IP address assigned by a DHCP server on your network. In this
initial state, the console server will then respond to both its Static address (192.168.0.1) and its newly assigned
DHCP address.
By default the console server LAN port auto-detects the Ethernet connection speed. You can use the Media
menu to lock the Ethernet to 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and to Full Duplex (FD) or Half Duplex (HD).
If you changed the console server IP address, you may need to reconfigure your PC/workstation so it has an IP
address that is in the same network range as this new address.
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Chapter 3: System Configuration

Click Apply.

Enter http://new IP address to reconnect the browser on the PC/workstation that is connected to the console
server.
3.3.1
IPv6 configuration
The console server LAN Interface can also be configured for IPv6 operation:

On the System: IP menu select General Settings page (before selecting the Network Interface page) and
check Enable IPv6

Then select the Network Interface page and configure the additional IPv6 parameters
3.3.2
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) configuration
With Dynamic DNS (DDNS), a console server whose IP address is dynamically assigned (and that may change from time
to time) can be located using a fixed host or domain name. DDNS support is available in Firmware 3.0.2 and later.

The first step in enabling DDNS is to create an account with the supported DDNS service provider of your choice.
Supported DDNS providers include:
- DyNS www.dyns.cx
- dyndns.org www.dyndns.org
- GNUDip gnudip.cheapnet.net
- ODS www.ods.org
- TZO www.tzo.com
- 3322.org (Chinese provider) www.3322.org
Upon registering with the DDNS service provider, you will select a username and password, as well as a hostname that
you will use as the DNS name (to allow external access to your machine using a URL).
The Dynamic DNS service providers allow the user to choose a hostname URL and set an initial IP address to correspond
to that hostname URL. Many Dynamic DNS providers offer a selection of URL hostnames available for free use with their
service. However, with a paid plan, any URL hostname (including your own registered domain name) can be used.
You can now enable and configure DDNS on any of the Ethernet or cellular network connections on the console server
(by default DDNS is disabled on all ports):

22
Select the DDNS service provider from the drop down Dynamic DNS list on the System:IP or System:Dial menu
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Remote Console Manager





In DDNS Hostname enter the fully qualified DNS hostname for your console server e.g. yourhostname.dyndns.org
Enter the DDNS Username and DDNS Password for the DDNS service provider account.
Specify the Maximum interval between updates—in days. A DDNS update will be sent even if the address has
not changed.
Specify the Minimum interval between checks for changed addresses—in seconds. Updates will still only be
sent if the address has changed.
Specify the Maximum attempts per update, that is, the number of times to attempt an update before giving up
(defaults to 3).
Note: Your DDNS service provider may consider overly frequent updates to be an abuse of their service (and as a result
may block updates) so do observe the requirements of the DDNS service provider to ensure compliance with possible
abuse guidelines.
3.4 System Services The Administrator can access and configure the console server and connect to the managed devices using a range of
access protocols (services). The factory default enables HTTPS and SSH access to the console server and disables
HTTP and Telnet.
A User or Administrator can also use nominated enabled services to connect through the console server to attached serial
and network connected managed devices.
The Administrator can simply disable any of the services, or enable others:
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Chapter 3: System Configuration

Select the System: Services option, then select/deselect for the service to be enabled/disabled. The following
access protocol options are available:
HTTPS
This ensures secure browser access to all the Management Console menus. It also allows
appropriately configured Users secure browser access to selected Management Console Manage
menus. If you enable HTTPS, the Administrator will be able to use a secure browser connection to the
Console server’s Management Console. For information on certificate and user client software
configuration, refer to Chapter 9—Authentication. By default, HTTPS is enabled, and we recommend
that that you only use HTTPS access if the console server will be managed over any public network
(for example, the Internet).
HTTP
By default HTTP is disabled. We recommend that the HTTP service remain disabled if the console
server will be remotely accessed over the Internet.
Telnet
This gives the Administrator Telnet access to the system command line shell (Linux commands). This
may be suitable for a local direct connection over a management LAN. By default, Telnet is disabled.
We recommend that this service remain disabled if you will remotely administer the console server.
SSH
This service provides secure SSH access to the Linux command line shell. We recommend that you
choose SSH as the protocol where the Administrator connects to the console server over the Internet
or any other public network. This will provide authenticated communications between the SSH client
program on the remote PC/workstation and the SSH sever in the console server. By default SSH is
enabled. For more information on SSH configuration refer Chapter 9—Authentication.
 You can configure related service options at this stage:
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SNMP
This will enable netsnmp in the console server, which will keep a remote log of all posted information.
SNMP is disabled by default. To modify the default SNMP settings, the Administrator must make the
edits at the command line as described in Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration.
TFTP
This service will set up the default tftp server on the USB flash card (and is relevant to LES1208A,
LES1216A and LES1248A console servers only). This server can be used to store config files, and
maintain access and transaction logs, etc.
Ping
This allows the console server to respond to incoming ICMP echo requests. Ping is enabled by
default. For security reasons, you should disable this service after initial configuration.
 And there are some serial port access parameters that you can configure on this menu:
Base
The console server uses specific default ranges for the TCP/IP ports for the various access services
that Users and Administrators can use to access devices attached to serial ports (as covered in
Chapter 4—Configuring Serial Ports). The Administrator can also set alternate ranges for these
services, and these secondary ports will then be used in addition to the defaults.
The default TCP/IP base port address for telnet access is 2000, and the range for telnet is IP Address:
Port (2000 + serial port #) i.e. 2001 – 2048. If the Administrator sets 8000 as a secondary base for
telnet, then serial port #2 on the console server can be accessed via telnet at IP Address:2002 and at
IP Address:8002.
The default base for SSH is 3000; for Raw TCP is 4000; and for RFC2217 it is 5000.

Click Apply. As you apply your services selections, the screen will be updated with a confirmation message:
Message Changes to configuration succeeded.
3.5 Communications Software You have configured access protocols for the Administrator client to use when connecting to the console server. User
clients (who you may set up later) will also use these protocols when accessing console server serial attached devices
and network attached hosts. You will need to have appropriate communications software tools set up on the Administrator
(and User) PC/workstation.
Black Box provides the SDT Connector Java applet as the recommended client software tool. You can use other generic
tools such as PuTTY and SSHTerm. These tools are all described below as well.
3.5.1
SDT Connector
Each console server has an unlimited number of SDT Connector licenses to use with that console server.
SDT Connector is a lightweight tool that enables Users and Administrators to securely access the console server and the
various computers, network devices, and appliances that may be serially or network connected to the console server.
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Chapter 3: System Configuration
SDT Connector is a Java applet that couples the trusted SSH tunneling protocol with popular access tools to provide
point-and-click secure remote management access to all the systems and devices being managed. Information on using
SDT Connector is in Chapter 6—Secure Tunneling.
SDT Connector can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista PCs, and on most Linux, UNIX, and Solaris
computers.
3.5.2
PuTTY
You can also use communications packages like PuTTY to connect to the console server command line (and to connect
serially attached devices as covered in Chapter 4). PuTTY is a freeware implementation of Telnet and SSH for Windows
and UNIX platforms. It runs as an executable application without needing to be installed onto your system. PuTTY (the
Telnet and SSH client itself) can be downloaded from http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html
26

To use PuTTY for an SSH terminal session from
a Windows client, enter the console server’s IP
address as the”Host Name (or IP address).”

To access the console server command line,
select “SSH” as the protocol, and use the default
IP Port 22.

Click “Open” and the console server login
prompt will appear. (You may also receive a
“Security Alert” that the host’s key is not cached.
Choose “yes” to continue.)

Using the Telnet protocol is similarly simple - but
you use the default port 23.
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3.5.3
SSHTerm
Another popular communications package you can use is SSHTerm, an open source package that you can download
from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sshtools

To use SSHTerm for an SSH terminal session from a Windows Client, simply Select the “File” option and click on
“New Connection.”

A new dialog box will appear for your “Connection Profile.”
Type in the host name or IP address (for the console server
unit) and the TCP port that the SSH session will use (port 22).
Then type in your username, choose password
authentication, and click connect.

You may receive a message about the host key fingerprint.
Select “yes” or “always” to continue.

The next step is password authentication. The system
prompts you for your username and password from the
remote system. This logs you on to the console server
3.6 Wireless network configuration (LES1203A-­‐11G only) The LES1203A-11G has an internal 802.11g wireless LAN adapter

The wireless device will then be auto-detected on power up and you will be presented with a Wireless LAN
Interface menu in the System: IP menu

The wireless LAN is deactivated by default so to activate it first uncheck Disable
To configure the IP settings of the wireless LAN:

Select DHCP or Static for the Configuration Method
o
If you selected Static then manually enter the new IP Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway and DNS
server details. This selection automatically disables the DHCP client
o
If you selected DHCP the console server will look for configuration details from a DHCP server on
your management LAN. This selection automatically disables any static address. The console server
MAC address can be found on a label on the base plate

The wireless LAN when enabled will operate as the main network connection to the console server so failover is
available (though it not enabled by default). Use Failover Interface to select the device to failover to in case of
wireless outage and specify Probe Addresses of the peers to probed for connectivity detection

Configure the Wireless Client to select the local wireless network which will serve as the main network connection
to the console server.
o
Enter the appropriate SSID (Set Service Identifier) of the wireless access point to connect to
o
Select the Wireless Network Type where Infrastructure is used to connect to an access point and Adhoc to connect directly to a computer
o
Select the Wireless Security mode of the wireless network (WEP, WPA etc) and enter the required Key/
Authentication/ Encryption settings
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Chapter 3: System Configuration
Note: The Wireless screen in Status: Statistics will display all the locally accessible wireless LANs (with SSID and
Encryption/Authentication settings). You can also use this screen to confirm you have successfully connected to the
selected access point—refer to Chapter 12 .
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration
Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration
The Black Box console server enables access and control of serially attached devices and network attached devices
(hosts). The Administrator must configure access privileges for each of these devices, and specify the services that can
be used to control the devices. The Administrator can also set up new users and specify each user’s individual access
and control privileges.
This chapter covers each of the steps in configuring hosts and serially attached devices:
Configure Serial Ports—setting up the protocols to be used in accessing serially-connected devices.
Users & Groups—setting up users and defining the access permissions for each of these users.
Authentication—covered in more detail in Chapter 9.
Network Hosts—configuring access to network connected devices (referred to as hosts).
Configuring Trusted Networks—nominate user IP addresses.
Cascading and Redirection of Serial Console Ports.
Connecting to Power (UPS PDU and IPMI) and Environmental Monitoring (EMD) devices.
Serial Port Redirection – using the PortShare windows and Linux clients.
Managed Devices - presents a consolidted view of all the connections.
IPSec – enabling VPN connection. 4.1 Configure Serial Ports To configure a serial port, you must first set the Common Settings (the protocols and the RS-232 parameters (such as
baud rate) that will be used for the data connection to that port.
Select what mode the port is to operate in. You can set each port to support one of five operating modes:
1) Console Server Mode is the default and this enables general access to serial console port on the serially attached
devices.
2) Device Mode sets the serial port up to communicate with an intelligent serial controlled PDU, UPS, or
Environmental Monitor Device (EMD).
3) SDT Mode enables graphical console access (with RDP, VNC, HTTPS, etc.) to hosts that are serially connected.
4) Terminal Server Mode sets the serial port to wait for an incoming terminal login session.
5) Serial Bridge Mode enables transparently interconnects two serial port devices over a network.
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Remote Console Manager

Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and you will see the current labels, modes, logging levels, and RS-232
protocol options that are currently set up for each serial port.

By default, each serial port is set in Console Server mode. To reconfigure the port, click Edit.

When you have reconfigured the common settings (Chapter 4.1.1) and the mode (Chapters 4.1.2 –4.1.6) for each
port, you can set up any remote syslog (Chapter 4.1.7), then click Apply.
Note

4.1.1
If you want to set the same protocol options for multiple serial ports at once, click Edit Multiple Ports and select
which ports you want to configure as a group.
If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you will also be
presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to be monitored (refer Chapter
10—Nagios Integration).
Common Settings
There are a number of common settings that you can set for each serial port. These are independent of the mode in which
the port is being used. Set these serial port parameters to match the serial port parameters on the device you attach to
that port.

Specify a label for the port.

Select the appropriate Baud Rate, Parity, Data Bits, Stop Bits, and Flow Control for each port. (Note: The RS485/RS-422 option is not relevant for console servers.)
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration

Before proceeding with further serial port configuration, connect the ports to the serial devices they will be
controlling, and make sure they have matching settings.
Note
The serial ports are all set at the factory to RS232 9600 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and Console
server Mode. You can change the baud rate to 2400–230400 baud using the management console. You can
configure lower baud rates (50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600, 1200, 1800 baud) from the command line. Refer
to Chapter 14— Basic Configuration (Linux Commands).
4.1.2
Console Server Mode
Select Console Server Mode to enable remote management access to the serial console that is attached to this serial
port:
Logging Level This specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored (refer to Chapter 7— Alerts and
Logging).
Telnet When the Telnet service is enabled on the console server, a Telnet client on a User or Administrator’s computer
can connect to a serial device attached to this serial port on the console server. The Telnet communications are
unencrypted, so this protocol is generally recommended only for local connections.
With Win2000/XP/NT you can run telnet from the command prompt (cmd.exe). Vista and Windows 7 include a
Telnet client and server, but they are not enabled by default. To enable Telnet:
32

Log in as Admin and go to Start/Control Panel/Programs and Features.

Select Turn Windows features on or off, check the Telnet Client, and click OK.
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If the remote communications are tunneled with SDT Connector, then you can use Telnet to securely access
these attached devices (refer to the Note below).
Note
In Console Server mode, Users and Administrators can use SDT Connector to set up secure Telnet connections
that are SSH tunneled from their client PC/workstations to the serial port on the console server. SDT Connector
can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and Windows 7 PCs and on most Linux platforms. You can
also set up secure Telnet connections with a simple point-and-click.
To use SDT Connector to access consoles on the console server serial ports, you configure SDT Connector with
the console server as a gateway, then configure it as a host, Next, you enable Telnet service on Port (2000 +
serial port #) i.e. 2001–2048. Refer to Chapter 6 for more details on using SDT Connector for Telnet and SSH
access to devices that are attached to the console server serial ports.
You can also use standard communications packages like PuTTY to set a direct Telnet (or SSH) connection to the serial
ports (refer to the Note below).
Note
PuTTY also supports Telnet (and SSH) and the procedure to set up a Telnet session is simple. Enter the console
server’s IP address as the “Host Name (or IP address).” Select “Telnet” as the protocol and set the “TCP port” to
2000 plus the physical serial port number (that is, 2001 to 2048).
Click the “Open” button. You may then receive a “Security Alert” that the host‘s key is not cached. Choose “yes” to
continue. You will then be presented with the login prompt of the remote system connected to the serial port
chosen on the console server. Login as normal and use the host serial console screen.
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration
PuTTY can be downloaded at http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html
SSH
We recommend that you use SSH as the protocol where the User or Administrator connects to the console
server (or connects through the console server to the attached serial consoles) over the Internet or any other
public network. This will provide authenticated SSH communications between the SSH client program on the
remote user’s computer and the console server, so the user’s communication with the serial device attached to
the console server is secure.
For SSH access to the consoles on devices attached to the console server serial ports, you can use SDT
Connector. Configure SDT Connector with the console server as a gateway, then as a host, and enable SSH
service on Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001-3048. Chapter 6—Secure Tunneling has more information on
using SDT Connector for SSH access to devices that are attached to the console server serial ports.
You can also use common communications packages, like PuTTY or SSHTerm to SSH connect directly to port
address IP Address _ Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001–3048.
SSH connections can be configured using the standard SSH port 22. Identify the serial port that’s accessed by
appending a descriptor to the username. This syntax supports:
<username>:<portXX>
<username>:<port label>
<username>:<ttySX>
<username>:<serial>
For a User named “fred” to access serial port 2, when setting up the SSHTerm or the PuTTY SSH client,
instead of typing username = fred and ssh port = 3002, the alternate is to type username = fred:port02 (or
username = fred:ttyS1) and ssh port = 22.
Or, by typing username=fred:serial and ssh port = 22. A port selection option appears to the User:
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This syntax enables Users to set up SSH tunnels to all serial ports with only opening a single IP port 22 in their
firewall/gateway.
Note
In Console Server mode, when you connect through to a serial port you connect via pmshell. To will generate a
BREAK on the serial port if you're connected over SSH, you'll need to type the character sequence "~~b"
TCP
RAW TCP allows connections directly to a TCP socket. Communications programs like PuTTY also support
RAW TCP. You would usually access this protocol via a custom application.
For RAW TCP, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (4000 + serial port #) i.e. 4001 – 4048.
RAW TCP also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial port devices
can transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.1.6—Serial Bridging).
RFC2217 Selecting RFC2217 enables serial port redirection on that port. For RFC2217, the default port address is IP
Address _ Port (5000 + serial port #), that is, 5001 – 5048.
Special client software is available for Windows UNIX and Linux that supports RFC2217 virtual com ports, so a
remote host can monitor and manage remote serially attached devices, as though they were connected to the
local serial port (see Chapter 4.6—Serial Port Redirection for details).
RFC2217 also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial port devices can
transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.1.6—Serial Bridging).
Unauthenticated Telnet Selecting Unauthenticated Telnet enables telnet access to the serial port without requiring the
user to provide credentials. When a user accesses the console server to telnet to a serial port he normally is
given a login prompt. With unauthenticated telnet, the user connects directly through to a port with any console
server login. This mode is mainly used when you have an external system (such as conserver) managing user
authentication and access privileges at the serial device level.
For Unauthenticated Telnet, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (6000 + serial port #) i.e. 6001 –
6048
Accumulation Period By default, once a connection is established for a particular serial port (such as a RFC2217
redirection or Telnet connection to a remote computer) then any incoming characters on that port are
forwarded over the network on a character by character basis. The accumulation period changes this by
specifying a period of time that incoming characters will be collected before then being sent as a packet over
the network.
Escape Character
This enables you to change the character used for sending escape characters. The default is ~.
Power Menu This setting enables the shell power command. A user can control the power connection to a Managed
Device from command line when they are connected to the device via telnet or ssh. To operate, the Managed
Device must be set up with both its Serial port connection and Power connection configured. The command to
bring up the power menu is ~p
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration
Single Connection
This setting limits the port to a single connection> If multiple users have access privileges for a
particular port, only one user at a time can access that port (that is, port “snooping” is not permitted).
4.1.3
SDT Mode
This setting allows port forwarding of RDP, VNC, HTPP, HTTPS, SSH, Telnet, and other LAN protocols through to
computers that are locally connected to the console server by their serial COM port. Port forwarding requires that you set
up a PPP link over this serial port.
For configuration details, refer to Chapter 6.6—Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices that are serially
attached to the console server.
4.1.4
Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode
This mode configures the selected serial port to communicate with a serial controlled Uninterruptable Power Supply
(UPS), Remote Power Controller/Power Distribution Unit (RPC) or Environmental Monitoring Device (EMD).

Select the desired Device Type (UPS, RPC or EMD)

Proceed to the appropriate device configuration page (Serial & Network: UPS Connections, RPC Connection
or Environmental) as detailed in Chapter 8—Power & Environmental Management.
4.1.5

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Terminal Server Mode
Select Terminal Server Mode and the Terminal Type (vt220, vt102, vt100, Linux, or ANSI) to enable a getty on
the selected serial port.
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The getty will then configure the port and wait for a connection to be made. An active connection on a serial device is
usually indicated by the Data Carrier Detect (DCD) pin on the serial device being raised. When a connection is detected,
the getty program issues a login: prompt, and then invokes the login program to handle the actual system login.
Note
Selecting Terminal Server mode will disable Port Manager for that serial port, so data is no longer logged for
alerts, etc.
4.1.6
Serial Bridging Mode
With serial bridging, the serial data on a nominated serial port on one console server is encapsulated into network packets
and then transported over a network to a second console server. It is then represented on its serial port again as serial
data. The two console servers effectively act as a virtual serial cable over an IP network.
One console server is configured as the Server. Set the Server serial port to be bridged in Console Server mode with
either RFC2217 or RAW enabled (as described in Chapter 4.1.2—Console Server Mode).
For the Client console server, the serial port to bridge must be set in Bridging Mode:

Select Serial Bridging Mode and specify the IP address of the Server console server and the TCP port address
of the remote serial port (for RFC2217 bridging this will be 5001-5048).

By default, the bridging client will use RAW TCP. Select RFC2217 if this is the console server mode you have
specified on the server console server.
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
4.1.8
You may secure the communications over the local Ethernet by enabling SSH. You will need to generate and
upload keys (refer to Chapter 14— Advanced Configuration).
Syslog
In addition to built-in logging and monitoring (which can be applied to serial-attached and network-attached management
accesses, as covered in Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging), you can also configure the console server to support the remote
syslog protocol on a per serial port basis:

Select the Syslog Facility/Priority fields to enable logging of traffic on the selected serial port to a syslog server;
and to appropriately sort and action those logged messages (that is, redirect them/send alert email etc.).
For example, if the computer attached to serial port 3 should never send anything out on its serial console port, the
Administrator can set the Facility for that port to local0 (local0 .. local7 are for site local values), and the Priority to
critical. At this priority, if the console server syslog server does receive a message, it will automatically raise an alert.
Refer to Chapter 7—Alerts & Logging.
4.2
Add/ Edit Users
The Administrator uses this menu selection to set up, edit, and delete users, and to define the access permissions for
each of these users.
Users can be authorized to access specified console server serial ports and specified network-attached hosts. These
users can also be given full Administrator status (with full configuration and management and access privileges).
To simplify user set up, they can be configured as members of Groups. There are two Groups set up by default (admin
and user).
1.
38
Members of the admin group have full Administrator privileges. The admin user (Administrator) can access the
console server using any of the services that are enabled in System: Services. For example, if only HTTPS has
been enabled, then the Administrator can only access the console server using HTTPS. Once logged in, they can
reconfigure the console server settings (for example, to enabled HTTP/Telnet for future access). They can also
access any of the connected Hosts or serial port devices using any of the services that have been enabled for
these connections. The Administrator can reconfigure the access services for any Host or serial port. Only trusted
users should have Administrator access.
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Note:
For convenience, the SDT Connector “Retrieve Hosts” function retrieves and auto-configures checked serial ports
and checked hosts only, even for admin group users.
2.
Members of the user group have limited access to the console server and connected Hosts and serial devices.
These Users can access only the Management section of the Management Console menu and they have no
command line access to the console server. They also can only access those Hosts and serial devices that are
checked for them, using services that are enabled.
3.
The Administrator can also set up additional Groups with specific serial port and host access permissions (same
as Users). However, users in these additional groups don’t have any access to the Management Console menu
or any command line access to the console server itself. Finally, the Administrator can also set up users who are
not a member of any Groups. They will have the same access as users in the additional groups.
To set up new Groups and new users, and to classify users as members of particular Groups:

Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups to display the configured Groups and Users.

Click Add Group to add a new Group.

Add a Group name and Description for each new Group, and then nominate the Accessible Hosts, Accessible
Ports, and Accessible RPC Outlets(s) that you want any users in this new Group to be able to access.

Click Apply.

Click Add User to add a new user.

Add a Username and a confirmed Password for each new user. You may also include information related to the
user (for example, contact details) in the Description field.
Note
The User Name can contain from 1 to 127 alphanumeric characters (you can also use the special characters “-”,
“_”, and “.”).
There are no restrictions on the characters that you can use in the user Password (each can contain up to 254
characters). Only the first eight Password characters are used to make the password hash.

Specify which Group (or Groups) you want the user to join.

Check specific Accessible Hosts and/or Accessible Ports to nominate the serial ports and network connected
hosts you want the user to have access privileges to.

If there are configured RPCs, you can check Accessible RPC Outlets to specify which outlets the user is able to
control (that is, Power On/Off).
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
Note
Click Apply. The new user can now access the Network Devices, Ports, and RPC Outlets you nominated as
accessible. Plus, if the user is a Group member they can also access any other device/port/outlet that was set up
as accessible to the Group.
There are no specific limits on the number of users you can set up; nor on the number of users per serial port or
host. Multiple users (Users and Administrators) can control/monitor one port or host.
There are no specific limits on the number of Groups. Each user can be a member of a number of Groups (they
take on the cumulative access privileges of each of those Groups). A user does not have to be a member of any
Groups (but if the User is not even a member of the default user group. then he will not be able to use the
Management Console to manage ports).
The time allowed to re-configure increases as the number and complexity increases. We recommend that you
keep the aggregate number of users and groups under 250.
The Administrator can also edit the access settings for any existing users:

Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups and click Edit for the User to be modified.
Note For more information on enabling the SDT Connector so each user has secure tunneled remote
RPD/VNC/Telnet/HHTP/HTTPS/SoL access to the network connected hosts, refer to Chapter 6.
4.3 Authentication Refer to Chapter 9.1— Remote Authentication Configuration for authentication configuration details.
4.4 Network Hosts To access a locally networked computer or device (referred to as a Host), you must identify the Host and specify the TCP
or UDP ports/services that will be used to control that Host.
40

Selecting Serial & Network: Network Hosts presents all the network connected Hosts that have been enabled
for access and the related access TCP ports/services.

Click Add Host to enable access to a new Host (or select Edit to update the settings for an existing Host).
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 Enter the IP Address or DNS Name and a Host Name (up to 254 alphanumeric characters) for the new network
connected Host (and optionally enter a Description).

Add or edit the Permitted Services (or TCP/UDP port numbers) that are authorized to be used in controlling this
host. Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by SDT to the Host. All other services (TCP/UDP
ports) will be blocked.

The Logging Level specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored for each Host access (refer to
Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging).

If the Host is a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power control, then specify RPC (for IPMI and
PDU) or UPS and the Device Type. The Administrator can then configure these devices and enable which users
have permission to remotely cycle power, etc. (refer to Chapter 8). Otherwise, leave the Device Type set to None.

If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you will also be
presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to be monitored (refer to
Chapter 10— Nagios Integration).

Click Apply. This will create the new Host and also create a new Managed Device (with the same name).
4.5 Trusted Networks The Trusted Networks facility gives you an option to nominate specific IP addresses where users (Administrators and
Users) must be located to access console server serial ports.

Select Serial & Network: Trusted Networks.

To add a new trusted network, select Add Rule.
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
Select the Accessible Port(s) that the new rule is to be applied to.

Then, enter the Network Address of the subnet to be permitted access.

Then, specify the range of addresses that are to be permitted by entering a Network Mask for that permitted IP
range, for example:




To permit all the users located with a particular Class C network (for example, 204.15.5.0) connection to the
nominated port then you would add the following Trusted Network New Rule:
Network Address
204.15.5.0
Network Mask
255.255.255.0
If you want to permit only the one user who is located at a specific IP address (for example, 204.15.5.13 say)
to connect:
Network Address
204.15.5.0
Network Mask
255.255.255.255
If, however, you want to allow all the users operating from within a specific range of IP addresses (for
example, any of the thirty addresses from 204.15.5.129 to 204.15.5.158) to be permitted connection to the
nominated port:
Host /Subnet Address
204.15.5.128
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.224
Click Apply.
Note
The above Trusted Networks will limit Users and Administrators access to the console serial ports. They do not
restrict access to the console server itself or to attached hosts. To change the default settings for this access, you
will to need to edit the IPtables rules as described in Chapter 14—Advanced.
4.6 Serial Port Cascading Cascaded Ports enables you to cluster distributed console servers. A large number of serial ports (up to 1000) can be
configured and accessed through one IP address and managed through one Management Console. One console server,
the Master, controls other console servers as Slave units and all the serial ports on the Slave units appear as if they are
part of the Master.
Black Box’s clustering connects each Slave to the Master with an SSH connection. This uses public key authentication so
the Master can access each Slave using the SSH key pair (rather than using passwords). This ensures secure
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authenticated communications between Master and Slaves, enabling the Slave console server units to be distributed
locally on a LAN or remotely around the world.
4.6.1 Automatically generate and upload SSH keys
To set up public key authentication, you must first generate an RSA or DSA key pair and upload them into the Master and
Slave console servers. This can all be done automatically from the Master.

Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.

Check Generate SSH keys automatically and click Apply.
Next, you must select whether to generate keys using RSA and/or DSA (if unsure, select only RSA). Generating each set
of keys will require approximately two minutes, and the new keys will destroy any old keys of that type that may previously
been uploaded.
Also, while the new generation is underway on the master, functions relying on SSH keys (for example, cascading) may
stop functioning until they are updated with the new set of keys.
To generate keys:

Select RSA Keys and/or DSA Keys.

Click Apply.

Once the new keys have been successfully generated, Click here to return and the keys will automatically be
uploaded to the Master and connected Slaves.
4.6.2 Manually generate and upload SSH keys
Or, if you have an RSA or DSA key pair, you can manually upload them to the Master and Slave console servers.
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Note
If you already have an RSA or DSA key pair that you do not want to use, you will need to create a key pair using
ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool as detailed in Chapter 15.6.
To manually upload the public and private key pair to the Master console server:

Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.

Browse to the location where you have stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to SSH RSA (DSA) Public
Key.

Browse to the stored RSA (or DSA) Private Key and upload it to SSH RSA (DSA) Private Key.

Click Apply.
Next, you must register the Public Key as an Authorized Key on the Slave. In a case that has only one Master with
multiple Slaves, you only need to upload the one RSA or DSA public key for each Slave.
Note
Using key pairs can be confusing since one file (Public Key) fulfills two roles— Public Key and Authorized Key.
For a more detailed explanation, refer to the Authorized Keys section of Chapter 15.6. Also, refer to this chapter if
you need to use more than one set of Authorized Keys in the Slave.

Select System: Administration on the Slave’s Management Console.

Browse again to the stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to Slave’s SSH Authorized Key.

Click Apply.
The next step is to Fingerprint each new Slave-Master connection. This one-time step will validate that you are
establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the first connection, the Slave will receive a fingerprint from the
Master which will be used on all future connections:

44
To establish the fingerprint, first log in the Master server as root and establish an SSH connection to the Slave
remote host:
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# ssh remhost
Once the SSH connection has been established, the system asks you to accept the key. Answer yes and the fingerprint
will be added to the list of known hosts. For more details on Fingerprinting, refer to Chapter 15.6.

If the system asks you to supply a password, then there is a problem with uploading keys. The keys should
remove any need to supply a password.
4.6.3 Configure the slaves and their serial ports
You can now begin setting up the Slaves and configuring Slave serial ports from the Master console server:

Select Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports on the Master’s Management Console:

To add clustering support, select Add Slave.
Note
You can’t add any Slaves until you automatically or manually generate SSH keys.
To define and configure a Slave:

Enter the remote IP Address (or DNS Name) for the Slave console server.

Enter a brief Description and a short Label for the Slave (use a convention here that enables you to effectively
manage large networks of clustered console servers and the connected devices).

Enter the full number of serial ports on the Slave unit in Number of Ports.

Click Apply. This will establish the SSH tunnel between the Master and the new Slave.
The Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports menu displays all the Slaves and the port numbers that have been allocated on
the Master. If the Master console server has 16 ports of its own, then ports 1-16 are pre-allocated to the Master. The first
Slave added will be assigned port number 17 and up.
Once you have added all the Slave console servers, you can assign and access the Slave serial ports and the connected
devices from the Master’s Management Console menu. You can also access them through the Master’s IP address.

Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit to configure the serial ports on the Slave.

Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Users & Groups to add new users with access privileges to the Slave
serial ports (or to extend existing users’ access privileges).
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration

Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Trusted Networks to specify network addresses that can access
nominated Slave serial ports.

Select the appropriate Alerts & Logging: Alerts to configure Slave port Connection, State Change, or Pattern
Match alerts.

The configuration changes made on the Master are propagated out to all the Slaves when you click Apply.
4.6.4 Managing the Slaves
The Master is in control of the Slave serial ports. For example, if you change User access privileges or edit any serial port
setting on the Master, the updated configuration files will be sent out to each Slave in parallel. Each Slave will then
automatically make changes to its local configuration (and only make those changes that relate to its particular serial
ports).
You can still use the local Slave Management Console to change the settings on any Slave serial port (such as alter the
baud rates). These changes will be overwritten next time the Master sends out a configuration file update.
Also, while the Master is in control of all Slave serial port related functions, it is not master over the Slave network host
connections or over the Slave console server system itself.
You must access each Slave directly to manage Slave functions such as IP, SMTP & SNMP Settings, Date &Time, and
DHCP server. These functions are not overwritten when configuration changes are propagated from the Master. Similarly,
you have to configure the Slaves Network Host and IPMI settings at each Slave.
The Master’s Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the Slave’s serial
ports. The Master does not provide a fully consolidated view. For example, if you want to find out who's logged in to
cascaded serial ports from the master, you’ll see that Status: Active Users only displays those users active on the
Master’s ports, so you may need to write custom scripts to provide this view. This is covered in Chapter 11.
4.7 Serial Port Redirection Black Box’s PortShare software serial port sharing software (PortShare) delivers the virtual serial port technology your
Windows and Linux applications need to open remote serial ports and read the data from serial devices that are
connected to your console server.
PortShare for Windows is supplied free with each console server and you are licensed to install PortShare on one or more
computers for accessing any serial device connected to any console server port.
The PortShare Linux solution is open source and can be used freely.
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So a single user can access multiple remote serial devices in multiple locations; and multiple users can access the same
remote serial device.
4.7.1
Portshare for Windows
PortShare establishes secure client-server connections between the serial ports on remote console servers and
applications on your Windows PC or server servicing COM ports.
Once connection is established, all data sent to the nominated COM port on the Windows computer will be immediately
redirected and delivered out the corresponding serial port on the console server. Similarly incoming data on the console
server serial port is redirected to the virtual COM port on the Windows computer where it can be processed further.
You are licensed to install PortShare on one or more computers for accessing any serial device connected to any Black
Box console server port.
4.7.2 Install Windows Portshare client
Port Share is fully compatible with 32 bit and 64 bit versions of Windows NT 4.x, Windows XP, 2000, 2003, 2008, Vista
and Windows 7.

The portshare_setup.exe program is included on the CD supplied with your console server (or a copy can be
freely downloaded from the Black Box ftp site).

Double click the portshare_setup.exe file to start installation process

Read the License Agreement then follow the prompts to select the destination path and choose shortcuts you
wish to create Once the installer completes you will have a working PortShare client installed on your machine
and an icon on your desktop

Click the PortShare icon on your desktop to start the client
Creating the PortShare client connection will initiate a virtual serial port data redirection to the remote console server
using TCP/IP protocol

Click on Add Ports

Specify a name to identify this connection in the "Server Description " tab
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Chapter 4: Serial Port, Host, Device, and User Configuration

Enter the console server's IP address (or network name)

Enter the Server TCP Port number that matches the port you have configured for the serial device on the remote
console server. Ensure this port isn't blocked by firewall
o
o
o
48
Telnet RFC2217 mode is configured by default so the range of port numbers available on a 16 port
console server would be 5001-5016
Alternately check RAW mode (4001- 4048 on a 48 port console server)
Select Encrypted to enable SSL/TLS encryption of the data going to the port. You will need to enter a
Password

Select the starting COM port (COM1 to COM4096)

Specify the number of ports you want to add. Sequential port numbers will be assigned automatically however if a
COM port # is already being used by other applications that # will be skipped

Click OK to add the specified COM ports
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
To configure a COM port you have created simply click on the desired COMx label in the left hand menu tree

In the Properties window you can edit the IP Address or TCP Port to be used to connect to that COM port

You can then configure the COM port in the Connection and Advanced windows:
-
Connect at system startup—When enabled PortShare will try to connect to the console server when the
PortShare service starts (as opposed to waiting for the application to open the serial port before initiating the
connection to the console server)
-
The Time between connection retries specifies the number of seconds between TCP connection retries after a
client-initiated connection failure. Valid values are 1-255 (The default is 1 second and PortShare will continue
attempting to reconnect forever to the console server at this interval)
-
The Send keep alive packets option tests if the TCP connection is still up when no data has been sent for a while
by sending keep-alive messages. Select this option and specify period of time (in milliseconds) after which Port
Share sends a command to remote console server end in order to verify connection's integrity and keep the
connection alive
-
The Keep Alive Interval specifies the number of seconds to wait on an idle connection before sending a keepalive message. The default is 1 second. The Keep Alive Timeout specifies how long Port Share should wait for a
keep alive response before timing out the connection.
-
Disable Nagle Algorithm — the Nagle Algorithm is enabled by default and it reduces the number of small packets
sent by PortShare across the network
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-
Check Receive DSR/DCD/CTS changes if the flow control signal status from the physical serial port on console
server is to be reflected back to the Windows COM port driver (as some serial communications applications prefer
to run without any hardware flow control i.e. in “two wire” mode)
-
The Propagate local port changes allows complete serial device control by the Windows application so it operates
exactly like a directly connected serial COM port. It provides a complete COM port interface between the attached
serial device and the network, providing hardware and software flow control. So the baud rate etc of the remote
serial port is controlled by the settings for that COM port on Windows computer. If not selected then the port
serial configuration parameters are set on the console server.
-
With the Emulate Baud Rate selected PortShare will only send data out at the baud rate configured by the local
Application using the COM port
4.7.3
To remove a configured port (Windows PortShare)
At any stage you can delete a single configured COM port, or delete the console server connection (and all the COM ports
configured on that console server)

4.7.4
Select the console server or COM port on the left hand menu and click the Remove button
To configure the remote serial device connection (Windows PortShare)
Ensure the remote serial device is connected to your remote console server. Then configure the serial port:

50
Set the RS232 Common Settings (e.g. baud rate)
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Select Console server mode and specify the appropriate protocol to be used:
RAW TCP allows connections directly to a TCP socket and the default TCP port address is 4000 +
serial port # (i.e. the address of the second serial port is IP Address _ 4002)
o RFC2217 enables serial port redirection on that port and the default port address is IP Address _ Port
(5000 + serial port #) i.e. 5001 – 5048 on a 48 port console server
o PortShare Secure mode enables encrypted communication

o
4.7.5 Portshare for Linux
The PortShare driver for Linux maps the console server serial port to a host tty port. portshare-serial-client as an
open source utility for Linux, AIX, HPUX, SCO, Solaris and UnixWare.
This PortShare serial port redirector allows you to use a serial device connected to the remote console server as if it
were connected to your local serial port. The portshare-serial-client creates a pseudo tty port, connects the serial
application to the pseudo tty port, receives data from the pseudo tty port, transmits it to the console server through
network and receives data from the console server through network and transmits it to the pseudo-tty port.
So using this driver you can use a remote console serial port as a local tty port and control remote serial devices as
though they were attached locally to the Linux host. The driver can run under Linux kernel 2.4.x (supporting IPv4
only) and Linux kernel 2.6.x) (supporting IPv4 and IPv6)
To map a console server serial port to a host tty port you first need to setup the console server and attach and
configure the serial port device:
- ensure the console server IP configuration is ok and that you can access the unit (ping, telnet...)
- configure the console server serial port to RAW or RFC2217 mode
Then you will install driver files into the host as detailed in 2.1 below. These simple installation instructions point to the
appropriate config files and man pages:

To build and install the PortShare package (as root):
$ ./configure && make && make install
Note that the `--prefix=' option is ignored by configure.

Configure the devices by editing /etc/portshare-devices. There are sample configurations in there, and the format
is documented at the top of the file, or in the portshare-devices man page.

Start the portshare devices:
/usr/local/sbin/portshare-serial-client start
(man portshare-serial-client for more information)
Useful commands:
portshare-stty
Used like 'stty', but applies the settings to the remote serial port correctly. A normal stty on /dev/ottyXX will not set
the parameters on the port correctly, since it is just a pseudo-tty
Caveats
The local Unix tty devices setup are just symlinks to pseudo-tty devices, so settings on those devices do not get
set on the console server. To do this, use 'portshare-stty'.
This also means that applications that rely on setting tty parameters such as baud rate, modem signals, etc will
not work unless they are started with the libportshare-ser-cli.so library preloaded.
e.g. LD_PRELOAD=/usr/local/lib/libportshare-ser-cli.so stty -a < /dev/otty01
Use /usr/local/sbin/portshare-stty as a template for running your application with the library preloaded.
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4.7.6 PortShare command man pages
portshare-devices.txt is the man page for the portshare-devices configuration file. It is the more formal explanation without
examples
portshare-ser-cli is the man page for the binary .c program, or backend which does the actual work
portshare-serial-client is the man page for a script. This script acts as the front end, or interface into the portshare-ser-cli
binary.
portshare-serial-client(8)
NAME
portshare-serial-client
Serial Port Interface for console servers
SYNOPSIS
portshare-serial-client (start | stop | restart | status) [devname]
DESCRIPTION
For each physical port listed in portshare-devices file, portshare-serial-client controls the status of the corresponding
portshare-ser-cli interface
OPTIONS
portshare-serial-client must be invoked with one of the (start, stop, restart or status), and optionally with an argument
associated to a specific device. In this case, the action specified as the option will be performed only for this device.
If this argument was not supplied, the action will be performed for all devices listed in portshare-devices file. The
mandatory options are:
start - Starts the portshare-ser-cli program, using parameters supplied in the portshare-devices file. If this program is
already running, a message will be displayed, and no additional copy will be started.
stop - Stops the portshare-ser-cli program(s), by issuing a SIGTERM signal.
restart - Simulates a hang-up to portshare-ser-cli program(s), by issuing a SIGUSR1 signal.
status - Checks the status of portshare-ser-cli programs(s).
EXAMPLE
Assuming the following portshare-devices file configuration:
/dev/ctty01:pr3k:1:rtelnet: /dev/ctty02:pr3k:2:socket:
1. Start all devices: portshare-serial-client start Messages: "Starting
/dev/ctty01 <==> pr3k:1 interface" "Starting
/dev/ctty02 <==> pr3k:2 interface"
2. Try to start them again: portshare-serial-client start Messages:
"portshare-serial-client : /dev/ctty01 already active" "portshare-serial-client : /dev/ctty02 already active"
3.
Stop only /dev/ctty01 device: portshare-serial-client stop
/dev/ctty01 Messages: "Stopping /dev/ctty01 <==> pr3k:2 interface"
4. Checking status: portshare-serial-client status Messages:
"/dev/ctty01 (rtelnet at pr3k:1) is inactive" "/dev/ctty02 ( socket at pr3k:2) active, pid 2983"
5. Start a non-valid device portshare-serial-client start /dev/xtty01
Messages: "portshare-serial-client : device /dev/xtty01 does not exist"
portshare-ser-cli(8)
NAME
portshare-ser-cli Serial Port Interface for console server
SYNOPSIS
portshare-ser-cli [options] devname rasname physport
DESCRIPTION
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The portshare-ser-cli program connects a Unix device file devname to a physical port physport of the console server
rasname. portshare-ser-cli provides the I/O interface between the device file and the physical port, running as an
user-mode device driver.
If physport is assigned to 0, then rasname is used as the IP address on an IP-based serial port addressing.
OPTIONS
portshare-ser-cli may be started with the following options:
-u ptyiosize
Sets the internal device I/O size to ptyiosize (maximum 4096 bytes, default 1024 bytes)
-n netiosize
Sets the internal socket I/O size to netiosize (maximum 512 bytes, default 128 bytes)
-i retrydelay
Delay in seconds between connection requests (default: 60)
-r retries
Number of connection request retries before exiting. (default: infinity)
-s
Use the Socket Server protocol for talking to the server, this means just piping all the data down a TCP
connection with no control information, so it’s impossible to change the port speed etc. The default is to use the
RFC2217 protocol.
-m modem handling
The default is 0 which means to check DCD state, 1 means to ignore DCD.
-c close mode
Last close handling; the default is 0 which means to hangup the modem, 1 means not to hangup.
-p start port
TCP base port of servers at console server side (defaults: 5000 for RFC2217 Server). Note: if physport is
assigned to zero, this option has no effect, the Telnet Server standard port (23) is used.
-d debug level
The default is debug level 0 (little debugging), level 1 debugs internal state changes, level 2 debugs events,
and level 3 debugs IO calls.
-f
Run in foreground, this is suitable for running from init.
-x
Console mode:normally all messages are sent to syslogd (using local2 facility). With this option, all messages
will be sent to stdout and portshare-ser-cli runs in the foreground. This implies -f
-P
Specify a TCP port to connect to. If this option is present, it will override most other options in the
/etc/portshare-devices file. portshare-ser-cli will use this TCP port instead of deriving it from –p and physport.
This option is useful when connecting to a local TCP port, which is connected to an ssh tunnel.
USE
Every instance of portshare-ser-cli will have a virtual serial device which is a sym-link to a pseudo-tty. A terminal
program can then talk to the virtual serial device and its data transfers will be redirected across the network. Each
virtual serial device will be accompanied by a UNIX domain socket with the same name with the addition of “.control".
So if portshare-ser-cli provides the virtual device named "/dev/modem" then it will have a control socket named
"/dev/modem.control". There is a shared object named libportshare-ser-cli.so which intercepts calls to the tcsetattr()
and tcsendbreak(). This shared object then sends the relevant data to the portshare-ser-cli server via the control
socket. To recognize a virtual modem device it has to read /etc/portshare-devices.
The libportshare-ser-cli.so shared object can be loaded per-application through the LD_PRELOAD environment
variable, or for the entire system through the system shared object configuration (see the OS documentation). Note
that the LD_PRELOAD environment variable has to have the fully qualified path of the object; otherwise an application
which changes its current directory may fail.
BUGS
In Solaris libportshare-ser-cli.so does not work with the stty program. stty uses a different interface to this and
requires some extra coding.
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In Solaris libportshare-ser-cli.so conflicts with some system programs such as ps for unknown reasons. Just don’t
load it for those programs; it has no such problems with any serial comms programs.
Example.
Start an interface between /dev/prt1 device and a serial port number 10 of a console server named pr01, without
hang-up at last close:
portshare-ser-cli -c 1 /dev/prt1 pr01 10
In general use do not start portshare-ser-cli from the command line start it through the portshare-serial-client script or
from init.
portshare-devices(5)
NAME
portshare-devices - tables for driving portshare-serial-client
DESCRIPTION
The portshare-devices file supplies all mapping between Unix device files (/dev/*) and the addresses of serial ports of
console servers. It contains one entry for each serial port, with the following format:
device:rastype:rasname:physport:type:options
Note: A # character at beginning of line indicates a comment
The entry fields are:
devname
- A full pathname of the file that will be associated to the serial port. It must start with a "/dev/" preffix. Two
naming schemes may be used here:
- devname does not exist, and will be linked to a free pseudo-tty. This is the default behavior of
portshare-ser-cli.
- devname is the name of a valid slave pseudo-tty. In this case, the “t 1” option must be assigned in
options field. (Note: this option is not supported by this release).
rastype
- Console server type
rasname
- Host Name or IP Address of the console server where the serial port resides.
physport
- Number of physical port in the console server. If treated as the IP address associated with this port, in a IPbased addressing scheme.
type
- Server type that will be contacted to handle the serial port:
- rfc2217, for RFC2217 serial support
- rtelnet, for Remote Telnet Server - socket, for Raw TCP Socket Server
options
- Per-port specific options, passed to portshare-ser-cli program.
Secure SSH connections
To connect via a secure ssh tunnel, use the “-P” parameter as part of "opts", and give the TCP port number used for
the local end of the tunnel. e.g. "-P 22222" will attempt to connect to local TCP port 22222. Also set the rasname to
"localhost". The ssh tunnel must already be setup for this to work.
Example 1
Device on a CM4008 console server 192.168.0.1 Port 1, accessed through /dev/otty01 device file name, using
RFC2217 protocol:
/dev/otty01:cm4008:192.168.0.1:1:rfc2217:
Example 2
Device on a CM4148 console server 192.168.0.2 Port 2, accessed through /dev/otty02 device file name, using
RFC2217 protocol:
/dev/otty02:cm4148:192.168.0.2:2:rfc2217:
FILES
/etc/portshare-devices
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4.7.7 Some PortShare application examples
These examples show the actual virtual port configuration and explain how the configuration should be done, using
examples:
/etc/portshare-devices
Entry Syntax:
devname:cmtype:cmname:physport:type:options
where :
devname -> Device full pathname
rastype -> Console Server type (cm4008 or CM4116 or CM4148)
rasname -> Console Server host name or IP address
physport -> Physical port number on Console Server
type -> Server type : rfc2217 or socket (raw TCP)
opts -> per-port interface options (optional)
To connect via a secure ssh tunnel, use the '-P' parameter as part of "opts", and give the TCP port number used
for the local end of the tunnel. e.g. "-P 22222" will attempt to connect to local TC port 22222. Also set the
rasname to "localhost". (Note: The ssh tunnel must already be setup for this to work).
Example 1.
Connect to port 1 on a 48 port console server at IP address 10.111.254.1, using RFC2217:
/dev/otty01:cm4148:10.111.254.1:1:rfc2217
Example 2.
Connect to port 8 on a CM4008 console server at IP address 10.111.254.2, using RFC2217:
/dev/otty02:cm4008:10.111.254.2:8:rfc2217
Example 3.
Create an ssh tunnel from localhost to console server. This tunnel connects to serial port 3 on the console server
and uses rfc2217. Assume the rfc2217 TCP port base on the console server is set to the alternate value of 9000
(whereas by default it would be 5000). The local TCP port used for the tunnel is 12345:
ssh -L 12345:10.111.254.3:9003 <username>@10.111.254.3 -N
Now use this tunnel to make the connection:
/dev/otty03:cm4008:localhost:3:rfc2217:-P 12345
4.8 Managed Devices Managed Devices presents a consolidated view of all the connections to a device that you can access and monitor
through the console server. To view the connections to the devices:

Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices.
This screen displays all the Managed Device with their Description/Notes and lists of all the configured Connections:
Serial Port # (if serially connected) or
- USB (if USB connected)
- IP Address (if network connected)
- Power PDU/outlet details (if applicable) and any UPS connections
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Devices such as servers will commonly have more than one power connections (e.g. dual power supplied) and more than
one network connection (e.g. for BMC/service processor).
All Users can view (but not edit) these Managed Device connections by selecting Manage: Devices. The Administrator
user can edit and add/delete these Managed Devices and their connections.
To edit an existing device and add a new connection:

Select Edit on the Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Connection.

Select the connection type for the new connection (Serial, Network Host, UPS, or RPC) and then select the
specific connection from the presented list of configured unallocated hosts/ports/outlets.
To add a new network-connected Managed Device:

The Administrator adds a new network-connected Managed Device using Add Host on the Serial & Network:
Network Host menu. This automatically creates a corresponding new Managed Device (as covered in Section
4.4—Network Hosts).

When adding a new network-connected RPC or UPS power device, you set up a Network Host, designate it as
RPC or UPS then go to RPC Connections (or UPS Connections) to configure the relevant connection. A
corresponding new Managed Device (with the same Name /Description as the RPC/UPS Host) is not created until
you complete this connection step (refer Chapter 8—Power and Environment).
Note
The outlet names on this newly created PDU will by default be “Outlet 1” and “Outlet 2.” When you connect a
particular Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet), then the outlet will take the powered Managed
Device’s name.
To add a new serially connected Managed Device:
 Configure the serial port using the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu (refer to Section 4.1—Configure Serial
Port).
 Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Device.
 Enter a Device Name and Description for the Managed Device.

Click Add Connection and select Serial and the Port that connects to the Managed Device.

To add a UPS/RPC power connection or network connection or another serial connection, click Add Connection.

Click Apply.
Note
56
To set up a new serially connected RPC UPS or EMD device, configure the serial port, designate it as a Device,
then enter a Name and Description for that device in the Serial & Network: RPC Connections (or UPS
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Connections or Environmental). When applied, this will automatically create a corresponding new Managed
Device with the same Name /Description as the RPC/UPS Host (refer to Chapter 8—Power and Environment).
All the outlet names on the PDU will by default be “Outlet 1” and “Outlet 2.” When you connect a particular
Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet) then the outlet will then take up the name of the powered
Managed Device.
4.9 IPsec VPN The Black Box Remote Console Manager console servers include Openswan, a Linux implementation of the IPsec (IP
Security) protocols, which can be used to configure a Virtual Private Network (VPN). The VPN allows multiple sites or
remote administrators to access the console server (and its Managed Devices) securely over the Internet.

The administrator can establish an encrypted authenticated VPN connections between console serves distributed
at remote sites and a VPN gateway (such as Cisco router running IOS IPsec) on their central office network:
o
o

Users and administrators at the central office can then securely access the remote console servers and
connected serial console devices
With serial bridging, serial data from controller at the central office machine can be securely connected to
the serially controlled devices at the remote sites
The road warrior administrator can use a VPN IPsec software client such as TheGreenBow
(www.thegreenbow.com/vpn_gateway.html) or Shrew Soft (www.shrew.net/support ) to remotely access the
advanced console server at the remote location
Configuration of IPsec is quite complex so Black Box provides a simple GUI interface for basic set up as described below.
However for more detailed information on configuring Openswan IPsec at the command line and interconnecting with
other IPsec VPN gateways and road warrior IPsec software refer http://wiki.openswan.org
4.9.1

Enable the VPN gateway
Select IPsec VPN on the Serial & Networks menu
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
Click Add and complete the Add IPsec Tunnel screen

Enter any descriptive name you wish to identify the IPsec Tunnel you are adding such as WestStOutlet-VPN

Select the Authentication Method to be used, either RSA digital signatures or a Shared secret (PSK)
o
58
If you select RSA you will asked to click here to generate keys. This will generate an RSA public key for
the console server (the Left Public Key). You will need to find out the key to be used on the remote
gateway, then cut and paste it into the Right Public Key
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o
If you select Shared secret you will need to enter a Pre-shared secret (PSK). The PSK must match the
PSK configured at the other end of the tunnel

In Authentication Protocol select the authentication protocol to be used. Either authenticate as part of ESP
(Encapsulating Security Payload) encryption or separately using the AH (Authentication Header) protocol.

Enter a Left ID and Right ID. This is the identifier that the Local host/gateway and remote host/gateway use for
IPsec negotiation and authentication. Each ID must include an ‘@’ and can include a fully qualified domain name
preceded by ‘@’ ( e.g. [email protected] )

Enter the public IP or DNS address of the gateway device connecting the console server to the Internet as the
Left Address. You can leave this blank to use the interface of the default route

In Right Address enter the public IP or DNS address of the remote end of the tunnel (only if the remote end has
a static or dyndns address). Otherwise leave this blank

If VPN gateway is serving as a VPN gateway to a local subnet (e.g. the console server has a Management LAN
configured) enter the private subnet details in Left Subnet. Use the CIDR notation (where the IP address number
is followed by a slash and the number of ‘one’ bits in the binary notation of the netmask). For example
192.168.0.0/24 indicates an IP address where the first 24 bits are used as the network address. This is the same
as 255.255.255.0. If the VPN access is only to the console server itself and to its attached serial console devices
then leave Left Subnet blank

If there is a VPN gateway at the remote end, enter the private subnet details in Right Subnet. Again use the
CIDR notation and leave blank if there is only a remote host

Select Initiate Tunnel if the tunnel connection is to be initiated from the Left console server end. This can only be
initiated from the VPN gateway (Left) if the remote end was configured with a static (or dyndns) IP address

Click Apply to save changes
4.9.2
Cisco VPN example
It is essential the configuration details set up on the console server (referred to as the Left or Local host) exactly matches
the set up entered when configuring the Remote (Right) host/gateway or software client.
The following example details configuration when VPN connecting an LES1204A-3G console server to a Cisco ASA
appliance as the remote host. The LES1204A-3G console server has a built-in 3G cellular modem, which can be used as
a primary or secondary link to the Internet. Many low-end 3G cellular plans do not provide publicly accessible IP
addresses so the LES1204A-3G console server may not be IP accessible from remote sites over the Internet. One way to
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allow such connectivity is using a VPN. The LES1204A-3G console server supports IPSec VPNs which can be used to
provide a secure connection back to the console server over whichever link is currently in use.
The LES1204A-3G console server can connect to the Internet via its Ethernet link or a 3G link. Once connected it then
brings up an IPSec tunnel to the Cisco ASA Appliance. The ASA is configured so that any requests for 10.1.1.2 are
forwarded over the tunnel to the LES1204A-3G console server. This means that the LES1204A-3G console server has a
consistent address regardless of whether it uses Ethernet or 3G to connect.
Configuration:

Configure the cellular modem, and make sure it can connect. Setup failover from the Network interface to the
cellular modem

Create a script ipsecupdown in /etc/config/scripts (you may need to create this directory) and add the following to
the file:
#!/bin/bash
/sbin/ifconfig ipsec0:0 10.1.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 up
Note: 10.1.1.2 should be changed to what you want your VPN Endpoint IP to be

Type chmod +x /etc/config/scripts/ipsecupdown to make the script executable.

Configure the IPSec tunnel:
- set the right address as the WAN address of the Cisco ASA
- set the right subnet as the LAN network of the Cisco ASA
- set the leftid to a unique name for the LES1204A-3G console server (for example @acmbrisbane) and
- set the left subnet to the VPN Endpoint IP (i.e. 10.1.1.2/32)

Add the following to /etc/config/ipsec.config.conf
aggrmode=yes
ike=3des-sha-modp1024
leftupdown="/etc/config/scripts/ipsecupdown"

Type ipsec setup –restart

Verify that you can ping through the tunnel to the VPN Endpoint IP from the LAN of the Cisco ASA
We now need to protect our changes to the IPSec configuration to make sure that if the IPSec configurator gets run, we
don't lose our configs:

Once you have a working tunnel, copy ipsec.config.conf to /etc/config/ipsec.config.conf.backup

Create a file /etc/config/scripts/config-post-ipsec

Add the following to the script
#!/bin/bash
cp /etc/config/ipsec.config.conf.backup /etc/config/ipsec/config.conf
ipsec setup --restart
You can try forcing the device to failover to 3G. Once the 3G link comes up you should still be able to access the
managed devices via the VPN Endpoint IP.
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Cisco ASA Configuration:
The following is the relevant parts of a config dump of a Cisco ASA configured to allow the LES1204A-3G console server
to connect in via a dynamic address, and to route any traffic destined for the VPN Endpoint IP from the LAN of the Cisco
ASA over the tunnel
The configuration assumes the following
- The LAN network of the Cisco ASA is 192.168.1.0/24
- The preshared key for the tunnel is 123456789
- The VPN Endpoint IP for the LES1204A-3G console server is 10.1.1.2
access-list 122 extended permit ip 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255
crypto ipsec transform-set fwConfigTset esp-3des esp-sha-hmac crypto dynamic-map fwConfigDynMap 222 match
address 122
crypto dynamic-map fwConfigDynMap 222 set pfs crypto dynamic-map fwConfigDynMap 222 set transform-set
fwConfigTset
crypto map fwConfigMapToDyn 223 ipsec-isakmp dynamic fwConfigDynMap
crypto map fwConfigMapToDyn interface outside
crypto isakmp enable outside
crypto isakmp policy 222
authentication pre-share
encryption 3des
hash sha
group 2
lifetime 86400
tunnel-group acmbrisbane type ipsec-l2l
tunnel-group acmbrisbane ipsec-attributes
pre-shared-key 123456789
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Failover and Out-of-Band Access
The console server has a number of fail-over and out-of-band access capabilities to make sure it’s available if there are
difficulties accessing the console server through the principal network path. This chapter covers:

out-of-band (OoB) access from a remote location (using dial-up modem or 3G cellular modem)

out-dial failover.
5.1
OoB Dial-In Access
To enable OoB dial-in access, you first configure the console server. Once it’s set up for dial-in PPP access, the console
server will await an incoming dial-in connection. Set up the remote client dial-in software so it can establish a network
connection from the Administrator’s client modem to the dial-in modem on the console server.
Note
The LES1203A-­‐M model has an internal modem. The LES1202A, LES1203A-­‐11G, LES1204A and LES1204A-­‐3G
models need to have an external modem attached via a serial cable to Port 1 (which must be configured in Local Console (modem) mode). Make sure you unplug the console server power before installing the modem. When it next boots, it will detect the
modem and a PC Card Modem tab will appear under System -> Dial.
5.1.1
Configure Dial-In PPP
To enable dial-in PPP access on the modem:
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
Note

Note
Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or Internal Modem Port).
The console server console/modem serial port is set by default to 115200 baud, No parity, 8 data bits and 1 stop
bit, with software (Xon-Xoff) flow control enabled for the Serial DB9 Port and 9600 baud for the Internal modem
and PC Card Ports. When enabling OoB dial-in, we recommend that this be changed to 38,4000 baud with
Hardware Flow Control.
Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.
You can further configure the console/modem port (for example, to include modem init strings) by editing
/etc/mgetty.config files as described in the Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration.

Check the Enable Dial-In Access box.

Enter the User name and Password to be used for the dial-in PPP link.

In the Remote Address field, enter the IP address to be assigned to the dial-in client. You can select any address
for the Remote IP Address. It, and the Local IP Address, must both be in the same network range (e.g.
200.100.1.12 and 200.100.1.67).

In the Local Address field, enter the IP address for the Dial-In PPP Server. This is the IP address that will be
used by the remote client to access console server once the modem connection is established. You can select
any address for the Local IP Address but it must be in the same network range as the Remote IP Address.

The Default Route option enables the dialed PPP connection to become the default route for the Console server.

The Custom Modem Initialization option allows you to enter a custom AT string modem initialization string (for
example, AT&C1&D3&K3).
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

You must select the Authentication Type to apply to the dial-in connection. The console server uses
authentication to challenge Administrators who dial-in to the console server. (For dial-in access, the username
and password received from the dial-in client are verified against the local authentication database stored on the
console server). The Administrator must also configure the client PC/workstation to use the selected
authentication scheme. Select PAP, CHAP, MSCHAPv2, or None, and click Apply.
None
With this selection, no username or password authentication is required for dial-in access. We do
not recommend this.
PAP
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is the usual method of user authentication used on the
internet: sending a username and password to a server where they are compared with a table of
authorized users. While most common, PAP is the least secure of the authentication options.
CHAP
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used to verify a user's name and
password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than PAP, the other main authentication
protocol.
MSCHAPv2
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP) is authentication for PPP
connections between a computer using a Microsoft Windows operating system and a network
access server. It is more secure than PAP or CHAP, and is the only option that also supports
data encryption.
Console servers support dial-back for additional security. Check the Enable Dial-Back box and enter the phone
number to call to re-establish an OoB link once a dial-in connection is logged.
Note
Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration) has examples of Linux commands that you can use to control the modem
port operation at the command line level.
5.1.2
Using SDT Connector client
Administrators can use their SDT Connector client to set up secure OoB dial-in access to all their remote console servers.
With a point and click, you can initiate a dial up connection. Refer to Chapter 6.5.
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5.1.3
Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client

Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the New Connection Wizard.

Select Connect to the Internet and click Next.

On the Getting Ready screen, select Set up my connection manually and click Next.

On the Internet Connection screen, select Connect using a dial-up modem and click Next.

Enter a Connection Name (any name you choose) and the dial-up Phone number that will connect through to
the console server modem.

Enter the PPP User name and Password you set up for the console server.
5.1.4
Set up earlier Windows clients

For Windows 2000, the PPP client set up procedure is the same as above, except you get to the Dial-Up
Networking Folder by clicking the Start button and selecting Settings. Then, click Network and Dial-up
Connections and click Make New Connection.

Similarly, for Windows 98, you double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-Up Networking and
double click Make New Connection. Then, proceed as above.
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5.1.5
Set up Linux clients for dial-in
The online tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a selection of methods for
establishing a dial up PPP connection:
Note



Command line PPP and manual configuration (works with any Linux distribution).
Using the Linuxconf configuration tool (for Red Hat compatible distributions). This configures the scripts
ifup/ifdown to start and stop a PPP connection.
Using the Gnome control panel configuration tool.
WVDIAL and the Redhat “Dialup configuration tool“ .
GUI dial program X-isp. Download/Installation/Configuration.
For all PPP clients:
Set the PPP link up with TCP/IP as the only protocol enabled.
Specify that the Server will assign IP address and do DNS.
Do not set up the console server PPP link as the default for Internet connection.
5.2
Dial-Out Failover
The console servers can be configured so a dial-out PPP connection is automatically set up in case the principal
management network is disrupted:
Note:
Only SSH and HTTPS access is enabled on the failover connection so the administrator can securely connect to
the console server and fix the problem which initiated the failover

When configuring the principal network connection in System: IP, specify Internal Modem (or the Dial Serial DB9 if
you are using an external modem on the Console port) as the Failover Interface to use when a fault is detected with
Network1 (eth0).

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the console server is to ping to
determine if Network1 is still operating.

Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or Internal Modem Port).

Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.
Note

66
You can further configure the console/modem port (for example, to include modem init strings) by editing
/etc/mgetty.config files as described in Chapter 13.
Check the Enable Dial-Out box in System: Dial and enter the access details to call the remote PPP server.
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Override DNS is available for PPP devices such as modems. Override DNS allows the use of alternate DNS servers
from those provided by your ISP. For example, an alternative DNS may be required for OpenDNS used for content
filtering.

To enable Override DNS, check the Override returned DNS Servers box. Enter the IP of the DNS servers into the
spaces provided.
Note:
By default, the console server supports automatic failure-recovery back to the original state prior to failover. The
console server continually pings probe addresses whilst in original and failover states. The original state will
automatically be set as a priority and reestablished following three successful pings of the probe addresses during
failover. The failover state will be removed once the original state has been re-established.
5.3
Cellular modem OoB Access and Failover
The LES1203-3G has an internal 3G cellular modem which can be configured in OoB mode (in which case the cellular
connection will always be on) or in Failover mode (where the connection is only established in event of a ping failure).
Before powering on the LES1203-3G you must install the SIM card provided by your cellular carrier, and attach the
external aerial.
If the SIM Card is configured with a PIN Code, you will be required to unlock the Card by entering the PIN Code. If the
PIN Code is entered incorrectly three times, then the PUK Code will be required to unlock the Card.
5.3.1
Configure for OoB and connect to carrier network
Your LES1203-3G will require a SIM card with either a publicly accessible fixed IP address or a publicly accessible
dynamic IP address.
Note:
By default most providers offer a consumer grade service which provides dynamic, private IP address
assignments to 3G devices. This IP address is not visible across the Internet but generally it is adequate for
home and general business use.
To use the LES1203-3G you will need a corporate mobile data service/plan with a public (static or dynamic) IP
address.
To configure the LES1203-3G cellular modem for OoB (out-of-band) access:

Select Internal Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu
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Chapter 5: Failover and Out-of-Band Access

Check Enable for Dial-Out Settings -OOB
Note: Your 3G carrier may have provided you with details for configuring the connection including APN (Access Point
Name), Pin Code (optional PIN code which may be required to unlock the SIM card), Phone Number (the sequence
to dial to establish the connection, defaults to *99***1#), Username/ Password (optional) and Dial string (optional
AT commands). However you generally will only need to enter your provider’s APN and leave the other fields blank

Enter the carrier’s APN e.g. for AT&T (USA) simply enter i2gold, for T-Mobile (USA) enter epc.tmobile.com.

You may also need to set Override DNS to use alternate DNS servers from those provided by your carrier.

To enable Override DNS, check the Override returned DNS Servers box. Enter the IP of the DNS servers into the
spaces provided.
Note:

Check Apply and a radio connection will be established with your cellular carrier
5.3.2

If the SIM in the LES1203-3G does not have a publicly accessible fixed IP address then a DDNS service will need
to be configured to enable the remote administrator to initiate incoming access
Verify connection to carrier network
With out-of-band access enabled, the cellular modem connection is always on and you can see the connection status
from the LEDs on top of unit
Note: The LES1203-3G has two cellular status LEDs. The SIM LED on top of unit should go on solid when a SIM card
has been inserted and detected.
The WWAN LED on top of unit is OFF when in reset mode or not powered. When powered it will go ON and while
searching for service it will flash off briefly every 5sec. Once a radio connection has been established with your
cellular carrier (i.e. after an APN has been properly configured) the WWAN LED will blink at a rate proportional to
traffic signal strength detected i.e. OFF =Low, (lower than -100 dBm), Blinking Slow = Low to Medium (-99 to -90
dBm), Blinking Fast = Medium to High (-89 to -70 dBm) and ON= High (-69 dBm or higher)

You can also verify the connection status by selecting the Cellular tab in the Statistics

Verify Service Availability and verify Mode is set to Online

You can also now try accessing the LES1203-3G using the custom APN Public IP Address provided by the carrier.
However by default only HTTPS and SSH access is enabled on the OoB connection. So you can browse to the
LES1203-3G (using DDNS or its fixed IP address) - but you cannot ping it
5.3.3
Cellular failover
Once you have confirmed carrier connectivity with the OoB setting, the internal cellular modem on the LES1203-3G can
be re-configured for failover.
This will tell the internal cellular connection to remain idle in a low power state. If the primary and secondary probe
addresses are not available it will bring up the cellular connection and connect back to the custom APN.
If you wish to not use the failover feature simply leave failover set to “none” and the cellular modem will continually stay
connected

Navigate back to the Network Interface on the System:IP menu specify Internal Cellular modem (cell modem 01))
as the Failover Interface to be used when a fault has been detected

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the LES1203-3G is to ping to determine
if the principal network is still operational
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
In event of a failure of the principal network the 3G network connection is activated as the access path to the console
server (and its Managed Devices). Only HTTPS and SSH access is enabled on the failover connection (which should
enable the administrator to connect and fix the problem)
Note:
If the LES1203-3G does not have a publicly accessible fixed IP address then a DDNS service will need to be
configured to enable the remote administrator to initiate incoming access
Note:
By default, the console server supports automatic failure-recovery back to the original state prior to failover. The
console server continually pings probe addresses whilst in original and failover states. The original state will
automatically be set as a priority and reestablished following three successful pings of the probe addresses during
failover. The failover state will be removed once the original state has been re-established.
You can check the connection status by selecting the Cellular panel on the Status: Statistics menu. The Operational
Status will change as the cellular modem finds a channel and connects to the network. The Failover & Out-of-Band
screen will display information relating to a configured Failover/OOB interface and the status of that connection. The IP
Address of the Failover/ OOB interface will be presented in the Failover & Out-of-Band screen once the Failover/OOB
interface has been triggered.
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector
Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector
Each Black Box console server has an embedded SSH server and uses SSH tunneling so remote users can securely
connect through the console server to Managed Devices—using text-based console tools (such as SSH, telnet, SoL) or
graphical tools (such VNC, RDP, HTTPS, HTTP, X11, VMware, DRAC, iLO).
The Managed Devices you access can be located on the same local network as the console server or they can be
attached to the console server via a serial port. The remote User/Administrator connects to the console server thru an
SSH tunnel via dial-up, wireless or ISDN modem; a broadband Internet connection; the enterprise VPN network; or the
local network.
To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the client PC to the console server, install and launch SSH client software on the
User/Administrator’s PC. Black Box recommends you use the SDT Connector client software supplied with the console
server for this. SDT Connector is simple to install and auto-configure and it provides all your users with point-and-click
access to all the systems and devices in the secure network. With one click, SDT Connector sets up a secure SSH tunnel
from the client to the selected console server, and then establishes a port forward connection to the target network
connected host or serial connected device. Next, it executes the client application that it uses in communicating with the
host.
This chapter details the basic SDT Connector operations:

Configuring the console server for SSH tunneled access to network attached hosts and setting up permitted
Services and user access (Section 6.1).

Setting up the SDT Connector client with gateway, host, service, and client application details, and making
connections between the Client PC and hosts connected to the console server (Section 6.2).

Using SDT Connector to access the Management Console via a browser (Section 6.3).

Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices that are serially attached to the console server
(Section 6.4).
The chapter then covers more advanced SDT Connector and SSH tunneling topics:
70

Using SDT Connector for out-of-band access (Section 6.5).

Automatic importing and exporting configurations (Section 6.6).

Configuring Public Key Authentication (Section 6.7).

Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for Remote Desktop (Section 6.8).

Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for VNC (Section 6.9).
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
6.1
Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the console server (Section 6.10).
Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts To set up the console server to SSH tunnel access a network attached host:

Note
Add the new host and the permitted services using the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu as detailed in
Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4). Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by SSH to the host. All
other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked.
Following are some of the TCP Ports used by SDT in the console server:
22
23
80
3389
5900
73XX
79XX

SSH (All SDT Tunneled connections)
Telnet on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
HTTP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
VNC on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number (that is, 7301 to 7348 on a 48 port
console server)
VNC over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number
Add the new Users using Serial & Network: Users & Groups menu as detailed in Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4).
Users can be authorized to access the console server ports and specified network attached hosts. To simplify
configuration, the Administrator can first set up Groups with group access permissions, then Users can be
classified as members of particular Groups.
6.2
SDT Connector Client Configuration The SDT Connector client works with all Black Box console servers. Each of these remote console servers has an
embedded OpenSSH based server that you can configure to port forward connections from the SDT Connector client to
hosts on their local network (as detailed in the previous chapter). You can also pre-configure the SDT Connector with the
access tools and applications that are available to run when you’ve established access to a particular host.
SDT Connector can connect to the console server using an alternate OoB access. It can also access the console server
itself and access devices connected to serial ports on the console server.
6.2.1
SDT Connector installation

The SDT Connector set up program (SDTConnector Setup-1.n.exe or sdtcon-1.n.tar.gz) is included on the CD
supplied with your Black Box console server.

Run the set-up program.
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Note
For Windows clients, the SDTConnectorSetup-1.n.exe application will install the SDT Connector 1.n.exe and the
config file defaults.xml. If there is already a config file on the Windows PC, then it will not be overwritten. To
remove an earlier config file, run the regedit command and search for “SDT Connector,” then remove the directory
with this name.
For Linux and other Unix clients, SDTConnector.tar.gz application will install the sdtcon-1.n.jar and the config file
defaults.xml.
Once the installer completes you will have a working SDT Connector client installed on your machine and an icon on your
desktop:
Click the SDT Connector icon on your desktop to start the client.

Note
SDT Connector is a Java application, so it must have a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed. You can
download this for free from http://java.sun.com/j2se/. It installs on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and 7 PCs
and on most Linux platforms. Solaris platforms are also supported, but they must have Firefox installed. SDT
Connector can run on any system with Java 1.4.2 and above installed, but it assumes the web browser is
Firefox, and that xterm -e telnet opens a telnet window.
To operate SDT Connector, you first need to add new gateways to the client software by entering the access details for
each console server (refer to Section 6.2.2). Then, let the client auto-configure all host and serial port connections from
each console server (refer to Section 6.2.3). Finally, point-and-click to connect to the Hosts and serial devices (refer to
Section 6.2.4).
Or, you can manually add network connected hosts (refer to Section 6.2.5) and manually configure new services to use to
access the console server and the hosts (refer to Section 6.2.6). Then, manually configure clients to run on the PC that
will use the service to connect to the hosts and serial port devices (refer to Section 6.2.7 and 6.2.9). You can also set up
SDT Connector to connect out-of-band to the console server (refer to Section 6.2.9).
6.2.2
Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client
To create a secure SSH tunnel to a new console server:

Click the New Gateway

Enter the IP or DNS Address of the console server and the SSH port that you will use (typically 22).
Note
72
icon or select the File: New Gateway menu option.
If SDT Connector is connecting to a remote console server through the public Internet or routed network you will
need to:

Determine the public IP address of the console server (or of the router/ firewall that connects the console
server to the Internet) as assigned by the ISP. One way to find the public IP address is to access
http://checkip.dyndns.org/ or http://www.whatismyip.com/ from a computer on the same network as the
console server and note the reported IP address.

Set port forwarding for TCP port 22 through any firewall/NAT/router that is located between SDT Connector
and the console server so it points to the console server. http://www.portforward.com has port forwarding
instructions for a range of routers. Also, you can use the Open Port Check tool from
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http://www.canyouseeme.org to check if port forwarding through local firewall/NAT/router devices has been
properly configured.

Enter the Username and Password of a user on the gateway that is enabled to connect via SSH and/or create
SSH port redirections.

Or, enter a Descriptive Name to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any Notes or a Description of
this gateway (such as its firmware version, site location, or anything special about its network configuration).

Click OK and an icon for the new gateway will now appear in the SDT Connector home page.
Note
For an SDT Connector user to access a console server (and then access specific hosts or serial devices
connected to that console server), that user must first be setup on the console server, and must be authorized to
access the specific ports/hosts (refer to Chapter 5). Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by
SSH to the Host. All other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked.
6.2.3
Auto-configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges
Each user on the console server has an access profile that was configured with those specific connected hosts and serial
port devices the user has authority to access, and a specific set of the enabled services for each of these. You can upload
this configuration automatically into the SDT Connector client:

Click on the new gateway icon and select Retrieve Hosts. This will:
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector
Note
6.2.4

74

configure access to network connected Hosts that the user is authorized to access and set up (for
each of these Hosts) the services (for example, HTTPS, IPMI2.0) and the related IP ports being
redirected.

configure access to the console server itself (this is shown as a Local Services host).

configure access with the enabled services for the serial port devices connected to the console
server.
The Retrieve Hosts function will auto-configure all user classes (that is, they can be members of user or admin
or some other group or no group. SDT Connector will not auto-configure the root (and we recommend that you
only use this account for initial config and to add an initial admin account to the console server).
Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host
Simply point at the host to be accessed and click on the service to use to access that host. The SSH tunnel to
the gateway is then automatically established, the appropriate ports redirected through to the host, and the
appropriate local client application is launched pointing at the local endpoint of the redirection:
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Remote Console Manager
Note
You can configure the SDT Connector client can be configured with unlimited number of Gateways (that is,
console servers). You can configure each Gateway to port forward to an unlimited number of locally networked
Hosts. There is no limit on the number of SDT Connector clients that can be configured to access the one
Gateway. Nor are there limits on the number of Host connections that an SDT Connector client can concurrently
have open through the one Gateway tunnel.
There is a limit on the number of SDT Connector SSH tunnels that can be open at the same time on a particular
Gateway (console server). Each Gateway (console server) can support at least 50 such concurrent connections.
At any time, you could have up to 50 users securely controlling an unlimited number of Managed Devices at a
remote site through the on-site console server Gateway.
6.2.5
Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway
For each gateway, you can manually specify the network connected hosts that you will access through that console
server; and for each host, specify the services that you will use to communicate with the host.

Select the newly added gateway and click the Host icon
gateway. (Alternatively select File: New Host).

Enter the IP or DNS Host Address of the host (if this is a DNS address, it must be able to be resolved by the
gateway).

Select which Services to use to access the new host. A range of service options are pre-configured in the default
SDT Connector client (RDP, VNC, HTTP, HTTPS, Dell RAC, VMware, etc.). However if you want to add new
services to the range, then proceed to the next section (Adding a new service) then return here.

Or, enter a Descriptive Name for the host to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any Notes or a
Description of this host (such as its operating system/release, or anything special about its configuration).

Click OK.
6.2.6
to create a host that will be accessible via this
Manually adding new services to the new hosts
To extend the range of services that you can use when accessing hosts with SDT Connector:

Select Edit: Preferences and click the Services tab. Click Add.

Enter a Service Name and click Add.

Under the General tab, enter the TCP Port that this service runs on (for example, 80 for HTTP). Or, select the
client to use to access the local endpoint of the redirection.
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector

Select which Client application is associated with the new service. A range of client application options are preconfigured in the default SDT Connector (RDP client, VNC client, HTTP browser, HTTPS browser, Telnet client,
etc.). If you want to add new client applications to this range, proceed to the next section (Adding a new client),
then return here.

Click OK, and then Close.
A service typically consists of a single SSH port redirection and a local client to access it. It may consist of several
redirections, and some or all may have clients associated with them.
An example is the Dell RAC service. The first redirection is for the HTTPS connection to the RAC server— it has a client
associated with it (web browser) that it launches immediately when you click the button for this service.
The second redirection is for the VNC service that you may choose to later launch from the RAC web console. It
automatically loads in a Java client served through the web browser, so it does not need to have a local client associated
with it.
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Remote Console Manager

On the Add Service screen, you can click Add as many times as needed to add multiple new port redirections
and associated clients.
You may also specify Advanced port redirection options:

Enter the local address to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. It is not usually necessary to
change this from “localhost.”

Enter a local TCP port to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. If you leave this blank, a
random port is selected.
Note
SDT Connector can also tunnel UDP services. SDT Connector tunnels the UDP traffic through the TCP SSH
redirection, so it is a “tunnel within a tunnel.”
Enter the UDP port where the service is running on the host. This will also be the local UDP port that SDT
Connector binds as the local endpoint of the tunnel.
Note that for UDP services, you still need to specify a TCP port under General. This will be an arbitrary TCP port
that is not in use on the gateway. An example of this is the SOL Proxy service. It redirects local UDP port 623 to
remote UDP port 623 over the arbitrary TCP port 6667.
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6.2.7
Adding a client program to be started for the new service
Clients are local applications that you may launch when a related service is clicked. To add to the pool of client programs:

Select Edit: Preferences and click the Client tab. Click Add.

Enter a Name for the client. Enter the Path to the executable file for the client (or click Browse to locate the
executable).

Enter a Command Line associated with launching the client application. SDT Connector typically launches a
client using command line arguments to point it at the local endpoint of the redirection. There are three special
keywords for specifying the command line format. When launching the client, SDT Connector substitutes these
keywords with the appropriate values:
%path% is path to the executable file, that is, the previous field.
%host% is the local address to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the Local Address
field for the Service redirection Advanced options.
%port% is the local port to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the Local TCP Port field for
the Service redirection Advanced options. If this port is unspecified (that is, “Any”), the appropriate randomly
selected port will be substituted.
For example SDT Connector is preconfigured for Windows installations with a HTTP service client that will connect with
the local browser that the local Windows user has configured as the default. Otherwise, the default browser used is
Firefox:
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Remote Console Manager
Also some clients are launched in a command line or terminal window. The Telnet client is an example of this so the
“Path to client executable file” is telnet and the “Command line format for client executable” is cmd /c start %path%
%host% %port% :

Click OK.
6.2.8 Dial in configuration If the client PC is dialing into Local/Console port on the console server, you will need to set up a dial-in PPP link:

Configure the console server for dial-in access (following the steps in the Configuring for Dial-In PPP Access
section in Chapter 5, Configuring Dial In Access).

Set up the PPP client software at the remote User PC (following the Set up the remote Client section in Chapter
5).
Once you have a dial-in PPP connection established, you then can set up the secure SSH tunnel from the remote Client
PC to the console server.
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector
6.3
SDT Connector to Management Console You can also configure SDT Connector for browser access to the console server’s Management Console —and for Telnet
or SSH access to the command line. For these connections to the console server itself, you must configure SDT
Connector to access the Gateway itself by setting the Gateway (console server) up as a host, and then configuring the
appropriate services:

Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Assuming you have already set up the console server as a Gateway in your
SDT Connector client (with username/ password etc.), select this newly added Gateway and click the Host icon to
create a host. Or, select File -> New Host.

Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and provide details in Descriptive Name/Notes. Click OK.

Note:
Click the HTTP or HTTPS Services icon to access the Management Console, and/or click SSH or Telnet to
access the command line console.
To enable SDT access to the console, you must also configure the console server to allow the port forwarded
network access to itself:

Browse to the console server and select Network Hosts from Serial & Network, click Add Host, and in the
IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network loopback address). Then, enter
Loopback in Description.

Remove all entries under Permitted Services except for those that you will use to access the Management
Console (80/http or 443/https) or the command line (22/ssh or 23/telnet). Scroll to the bottom and click Apply.

Administrators by default have gateway access privileges. For Users to access the console server
Management Console, you will need to give those Users the required access privileges. Select Users &
Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a Username, Description and Password/Confirm.
Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s) and click Apply.
6.4
SDT Connector -­‐ telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices You can also use SDT Connector to access text consoles on devices that are attached to the console server serial ports.
For these connections, you must configure the SDT Connector client software with a Service that will access the target
gateway serial port, and then set the gateway up as a host:
80

Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Select Edit -> Preferences and click the Services tab. Click Add.

Enter "Serial Port 2" in Service Name and click Add.

Select Telnet client as the Client. Enter 2002 in TCP Port. Click OK, then Close and Close again.
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Remote Console Manager

Assuming you have already set up the target console server as a gateway in your SDT Connector client (with
username/ password etc), select this gateway and click the Host icon to create a host. Or, select File -> New
Host.

Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and select Serial Port 2 for Service. In Descriptive Name, enter
something such as Loopback ports, or Local serial ports. Click OK.

Click Serial Port 2 icon for Telnet access to the serial console on the device attached to serial port #2 on the
gateway.
To enable SDT Connector to access to devices connected to the gateway’s serial ports, you must also configure the
Console server itself to allow port forwarded network access to itself, and enable access to the nominated serial port:

Browse to the Console server and select Serial Port from Serial & Network.

Click Edit next to selected Port # (for example, Port 2 if the target device is attached to the second serial port).
Make sure the port’s serial configuration is appropriate for the attached device.

Scroll down to Console server Setting and select Console server Mode. Check Telnet (or SSH) and scroll to
the bottom and click Apply.

Select Network Hosts from Serial & Network and click Add Host.

In the IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network loopback address) and enter
Loopback in Description.

Remove all entries under Permitted Services, select TCP, and enter 200n in Port. (This configures the Telnet
port enabled in the previous step, so for Port 2 you would enter 2002.)

Click Add, then scroll to the bottom and click Apply.

Administrators by default have gateway and serial port access privileges; however for Users to access the
gateway and the serial port, you will need to give those Users the required access privileges. Select Users &
Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a Username, Description, and Password/Confirm.
Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s) and select Port 2 from Accessible Port(s). Click Apply.
6.5
Using SDT Connector for out-­‐of-­‐band connection to the gateway You can also set up SDT Connector to connect to the console server (gateway) out-of-band (OoB). OoB access uses an
alternate path for connecting to the gateway to that used for regular data traffic. OoB access is useful for when the
primary link into the gateway is unavailable or unreliable.
Typically, a gateway’s primary link is a broadband Internet connection or Internet connection via a LAN or VPN, and the
secondary out-of-band connectivity is provided by a dial-up or wireless modem directly attached to the gateway. Out-of-
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band access enables you to access the hosts and serial devices on the network, diagnose any connectivity issues, and
restore the gateway's primary link.
In SDT Connector, to configure OoB access, you provide the secondary IP address of the gateway, and tell SDT
Connector how to start and stop the OoB connection. You can start an OoB connection by initiating a dial up connection,
or adding an alternate route to the gateway. SDT Connector allows for maximum flexibility. It allows you to provide your
own scripts or commands for starting and stopping the OoB connection.
To configure SDT Connector for OoB access:

When adding a new Gateway or editing an existing Gateway select the Out Of Band tab.

Enter the secondary, OoB IP address of the gateway (for example, the IP address it is using when dialed in
directly). You also may modify the gateway’s SSH port if it's not using the default of 22.

Enter the command or path to a script to start the OoB connection in Start Command.

To initiate a pre-configured dial-up connection under Windows, use the following Start Command:
cmd /c start "Starting Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection login password
where network_connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control Panel -> Network
Connections, login is the dial-in username, and password is the dial-in password for the connection.

To initiate a pre-configured dial-up connection under Linux, use the following Start Command:
pon network_connection
where network_connection is the name of the connection.

Enter the command or path to a script to stop the OoB connection in Stop Command.

To stop a pre-configured dial-up connection under Windows, use the following Stop Command:
cmd /c start "Stopping Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection /disconnect
where network connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control Panel -> Network
Connections.

To stop a pre-configured dial-up connection under Linux, use the following Stop Command:
poff network_connection
To make the OoB connection using SDT Connector:

82
Select the console server and click Out Of Band. The status bar will change color to indicate that this console
server is now accessed using the OoB link rather than the primary link.
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Remote Console Manager
When you connect to a service on a host behind the console server, or to the console server itself, SDT Connector will
initiate the OoB connection using the provided Start Command. The OoB connection does not stop (using the provided
Stop Command) until you click off Out Of Band under Gateway Actions; then the status bar will return to its normal color.
6.6
Importing (and exporting) preferences To enable the distribution of pre-configured client config files, SDT Connector has an Export/Import facility:

To save a configuration.xml file (for backup or for importing into other SDT Connector clients)
select File -> Export Preferences and select the location where you want to save the configuration file.

To import a configuration, select File -> Import Preferences and select the .xml configuration file to install.
6.7
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication SDT Connector can authenticate against an SSH gateway using your SSH key pair instead of requiring you to enter your
password. This is known as public key authentication.
To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, first you must add the public part of your SSH key pair to your SSH
gateway:

Make sure the SSH gateway allows public key authentication; this is typically the default behavior.

If you do not already have a public/private key pair for your client PC (the one running SDT Connector), generate
them now using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool. You may use RSA or DSA; however, leave the
passphrase field blank:
-
PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
-
OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/
-
OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/

Upload the public part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub) to the SSH
gateway, or otherwise add to .ssh/authorized keys in your home directory on the SSH gateway.

Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to SDT Connector.
Click Edit -> Preferences -> Private Keys -> Add, locate the private key file, and click OK.
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You do not have to add the public part of your SSH key pair, the private key calculates it.
SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when connecting through the SSH gateway (console server). You
may have to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were established using password
authentication.
If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT Connector, you may
also want to configure access to it for public key authentication as well. This configuration is entirely independent of SDT
Connector and the SSH gateway. You must configure the SSH client that SDT Connector launches (for example, Putty,
OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH server for public key authentication. Essentially what you are using is SSH over SSH, and
the two SSH connections are entirely separate.
6.8
Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access The Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) enables the system manager to securely access and manage remote
Windows computers—to reconfigure applications and user profiles, upgrade the server’s operating system, reboot the
machine, etc. Black Box’s Secure Tunneling uses SSH tunneling, so this RDP traffic is securely transferred through an
authenticated and encrypted tunnel.
SDT with RDP also allows remote Users to connect to Windows XP, Vista, Server2003, and Server 2008 computers and
to Windows 2000 Terminal Servers; and to access to all of the applications, files, and network resources (with full
graphical interface just as though they were in front of the computer screen at work). To set up a secure Remote Desktop
connection, enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer that you want to access and configure the RPD
client software on the client PC.
6.8.1
Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed
To enable Remote Desktop on the Windows computer being accessed:
84

Open System in the Control Panel and click the Remote tab.

Check Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.

Click Select Remote Users.
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Remote Console Manager

To set the user(s) who can remotely access the system with RDP, click Add on the Remote Desktop Users
dialog box.
Note
If you need to set up new users for Remote Desktop access, open User Accounts in the Control Panel and
follow the steps to nominate the new user’s name, password, and account type (Administrator or Limited).
Note
With Windows XP Professional and Vista, you have only one Remote Desktop session and it connects
directly to the Windows root console. With Windows Server 2008, you can have multiple sessions (and with
Server 2003 you have three sessions— the console session and two other general sessions). More than one
user can have active sessions on a single computer.
When the remote user connects to the accessed computer on the console session, Remote Desktop
automatically locks that computer (no other user can access the applications and files). When you come
back to your computer at work, you can unlock it by typing CTRL+ALT+DEL.
6.8.2
Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client
Now that you have the Client PC securely connected to the console server (either locally, or remotely—through the
enterprise VPN, or a secure SSH internet tunnel, or a dial-in SSH tunnel), you can establish the Remote Desktop
connection from the Client. Simply enable the Remote Desktop Connection on the remote client PC, and then point it to
the SDT Secure Tunnel port in the console server:
A. On a Windows client PC

Click Start. Point to Programs, then to Accessories, then Communications, and click Remote Desktop
Connection.
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

In Computer, enter the appropriate IP Address and Port Number:

Where there is a direct local or enterprise VPN connection, enter the IP Address of the console server, and
the Port Number of the SDT Secure Tunnel for the console server serial port that you attach to the Windows
computer you want to control. For example, if the Windows computer is connected to serial Port 3 on a
console server located at 192.168.0.50, then you would enter 192.168.0.50:7303.

Where there is an SSH tunnel (over a dial up PPP connection or over a public internet connection or private
network connection), simply enter the localhost as the IP address, 127.0.0.1. For Port Number, enter the
source port you created when setting SSH tunneling /port forwarding (in Section 6.1.6), for example, :1234.
Click Option. In the Display section, specify an appropriate color depth (for example, for a modem connection
we recommend that you not use over 256 colors). In Local Resources, specify the peripherals on the remote
Windows computer that are to be controlled (printer, serial port, etc.).

Note

Click Connect.
The Remote Desktop Connection software is pre-installed with Windows XP, Vista and Server 2003/2008. For
earlier Windows PCs, you need to download the RDP client:
Go to the Microsoft Download Center site http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=80111F21D48D-426E-96C2-08AA2BD23A49&displaylang=en and click the Download button
This software package will install the client portion of Remote Desktop on Windows 95, Windows 98 and 98
Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000. When run, this software allows these older
Windows platforms to remotely connect to a computer running current Windows.
B. On a Linux or UNIX client PC:

Launch the open source rdesktop client:
rdesktop -u windows-user-id -p windows-password -g 1200x950 ms-windows-terminal-server-hostname
option
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description
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Remote Console Manager

Note
-a
Color depth: 8, 16, 24
-r
Device redirection. ( Redirect sound on remote machine to local device. -0 -r sound (MS/Windows 2003)
-g
Geometry: widthxheight or 70% screen percentage.
-p
Use -p - to receive password prompt.
You can use GUI front end tools like the GNOME Terminal Services Client tsclient to configure and launch the
rdesktop client. (Using tsclient also enables you to store multiple configurations of rdesktop for connection to
many servers)
The rdesktop client is supplied with Red Hat 9.0:

rpm -ivh rdesktop-1.2.0-1.i386.rpm
For Red Hat 8.0 or other distributions of Linux; download source, untar, configure, make, make, then install.
rdesktop currently runs on most UNIX based platforms with the X Window System and can be downloaded from
http://www.rdesktop.org/
C. On a Macintosh client:

Download Microsoft's free Remote Desktop Connection client for Mac OS X
http://www.microsoft.com/mac/otherproducts/otherproducts.aspx?pid=remotedesktopclient
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6.9
SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC With SDT and Virtual Network Computing (VNC), Users and Administrators can securely access and control Windows,
Linux, Macintosh, Solaris, and UNIX computers. There’s a range of popular free and commercial VNC software available
(UltraVNC, RealVNC, TightVNC). To set up a secure VNC connection, install and configure the VNC Server software on
the computer the user will access, then install and configure the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC.
6.9.1
Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software enables users to remotely access computers running Linux, Macintosh,
Solaris, UNIX, all versions of Windows, and most other operating systems.
A. For Microsoft Windows servers (and clients):
Windows does not include VNC software, so you will need to download, install, and activate a third party VNC Server
software package:
RealVNC http://www.realvnc.com is fully cross-platform, so a desktop running
on a Linux machine may be displayed on a Windows PC, on a Solaris
machine, or on any number of other architectures. There is a Windows
server, allowing you to view the desktop of a remote Windows machine on
any of these platforms using exactly the same viewer. RealVNC was founded
by members of the AT&T team who originally developed VNC.
TightVNC http://www.tightvnc.com is an enhanced version of VNC. It has
added features such as file transfer, performance improvements, and readonly password support. They have just recently included a video drive much
like UltraVNC. TightVNC is still free, cross-platform (Windows Unix, and
Linux), and compatible with the standard (Real) VNC.
UltraVNC http://ultravnc.com is easy to use, fast, and free VNC software that
has pioneered and perfected features that the other flavors have consistently
refused or been very slow to implement for cross platform and minimalist
reasons. UltraVNC runs under Windows operating systems (95, 98, Me, NT4,
2000, XP, 2003). Download UltraVNC from Sourceforge's UltraVNC file list.
B. For Linux servers (and clients):
Most Linux distributions now include VNC Servers and Viewers and they generally can be launched from the
(Gnome/KDE etc) front end; for example, with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 there’s VNC Server software and a
choice of Viewer client software, and to launch:
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
Select the Remote Desktop entry in the Main Menu -> Preferences menu.

Click the Allow other users… checkbox to allow remote users to view and control your desktop.
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Remote Console Manager

To set up a persistent VNC server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
o Set a password using vncpasswd
o Edit /etc/sysconfig/vncservers
o Enable the service with chkconfig vncserver on
o Start the service with service vncserver start
o Edit /home/username/.vnc/xstartup if you want a more advanced session than just twm and an xterm.
C. For Macintosh servers (and clients):
OSXvnc http://www.redstonesoftware.com/vnc.html is a robust, full-featured VNC server for Mac OS X that allows any
VNC client to remotely view and/or control the Mac OS X machine. OSXvnc is supported by Redstone Software.
D. Most other operating systems (Solaris, HPUX, PalmOS etc) either come with VNC bundled, or have third-party VNC
software that you can download.
6.9.2
Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer
VNC is truly platform-independent so a VNC Viewer on any operating system can connect to a VNC Server on any other
operating system. There are Viewers (and Servers) from a wide selection of sources (for example, UltraVNC TightVNC or
RealVNC) for most operating systems. There are also a wealth of Java viewers available so that any desktop can be
viewed with any Java-capable browser (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC lists many of the VNC Viewers sources).

Note
Install the VNC Viewer software and set it up for the appropriate speed connection.
To make VNC faster, when you set up the Viewer:

Set encoding to ZRLE (if you have a fast enough CPU).

Decrease color level (e.g. 64 bit).

Disable the background transmission on the Server or use a plain wallpaper.
(Refer to http://doc.uvnc.com for detailed configuration instructions)

To establish the VNC connection, first configure the VNC Viewer, entering the VNC Server IP address.
A. When the Viewer PC is connected to the console server thru an SSH tunnel (over the public Internet, or a dial-in
connection, or private network connection), enter localhost (or 127.0.0.1) as the IP VNC Server IP address; and the
source port you entered when setting SSH tunneling /port forwarding (in Section 6.2.6) e.g. :1234
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B. When the Viewer PC is connected directly to the console server (i.e. locally or remotely through a VPN or dial in
connection); and the VNC Host computer is serially connected to the console server; enter the IP address of the
console server unit with the TCP port that the SDT tunnel will use. The TCP port will be 7900 plus the physical serial
port number (i.e. 7901 to 7948, so all traffic directed to port 79xx on the console server is tunneled thru to port 5900
on the PPP connection on serial Port xx). For a Windows Viewer PC using UltraVNC connecting to a VNC Server
attached to Port 1 on a console server, it is located at 192.168.0.1

Note


90
To establish the VNC connection, simply activate the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC and enter the
password.
For general background reading on Remote Desktop and VNC access we recommend the following:
The Microsoft Remote Desktop How-To.
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/getstarted/remoteintro.mspx
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Remote Console Manager
The Illustrated Network Remote Desktop help page.
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/RemoteDesktopSetupandTroubleshooting.html
What is Remote Desktop in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003? by Daniel Petri.
http://www.petri.co.il/what's_remote_desktop.htm
Frequently Asked Questions about Remote Desktop.
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/rdfaq.mspx
Secure remote access of a home network using SSH, Remote Desktop and VNC for the home user
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/SSH-RDP-VNC/RemoteDesktopVNCandSSH.html
Taking your desktop virtual with VNC, Red Hat magazine. http://www.redhat.com/magazine/006apr05/features/vnc/
and http://www.redhat.com/magazine/007may05/features/vnc/
Wikipedia general background on VNC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC.






6.10 Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway Network (IP) protocols like RDP, VNC and HTTP can also be used for connecting to host devices that are serially
connected through their COM port to the console server. To do this you must:
●
establish a PPP connection (Section 6.7.1) between the host and the gateway, then
●
set up Secure Tunneling—Ports on the console server (Section 6.7.2), then
●
configure SDT Connector to use the appropriate network protocol to access IP consoles on the host devices that are
attached to the Console server serial ports (Section 6.7.3)
6.10.1
Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server
(This step is only necessary for serially connected computers)
First, physically connect the COM port on the host computer you want to access to the serial port on the console server,
then:
A. For non Windows (Linux, UNIX, Solaris, etc.) computers, establish a PPP connection over the serial port. The online
tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a selection of methods for establishing a
PPP connection for Linux.
B. For Windows XP and 2003 computers, follow the steps below to set up an advanced network connection between the
Windows computer, through its COM port to the console server. Both Windows 2003 and Windows XP Professional
allow you to create a simple dial in service which can be used for the Remote Desktop/VNC/HTTP/X connection to the
console server:

Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the New Connection Wizard.
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector
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
Select Set up an advanced connection and click Next.

On the Advanced Connection Options screen, select Accept Incoming Connections and click Next.

Select the Connection Device (i.e. the serial COM port on the Windows computer that you cabled through to the
console server). By default, select COM1. The COM port on the Windows computer should be configured to its
maximum baud rate. Click Next.

On the Incoming VPN Connection Options screen, select Do not allow virtual private connections and click
Next.

Specify which Users will be allowed to use this connection. This should be the same Users who were given
Remote Desktop access privileges in the earlier step. Click Next.

On the Network Connection screen select TCP/IP and click Properties.
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Remote Console Manager

Note
Select Specify TCP/IP addresses on the Incoming TCP/IP Properties screen, select TCP/IP. Nominate a
From: and a To: TCP/IP address, and click Next.
You can choose any TCP/IP addresses so long as they are addresses that are not used anywhere else on your
network. The From: address will be assigned to the Windows XP/2003 computer and the To: address will be
used by the console server. For simplicity, use the IP address as shown in the illustration above:
From: 169.134.13.1
To: 169.134.13.2
Or, you can set the advanced connection and access on the Windows computer to use the console server
defaults:

Specify 10.233.111.254 as the From: address

Select Allow calling computer to specify its own address
Also, you could use the console server default username and password when you set up the new Remote
Desktop User and gave this User permission to use the advance connection to access the Windows computer:

The console server default Username is portXX where XX is the serial port number on the console server.

The default Password is portXX
To use the defaults for a RDP connection to the serial port 2 on the console server, you would have set up a
Windows user named port02.

When the PPP connection has been set up, a network icon will appear in the Windows task bar.
Note The above notes describe setting up an incoming connection for Windows XP. The steps are similar for Vista and
Windows Server 2003/2008, but the set up screens present slightly differently:
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You need to put a check in the box for Always allow directly connected devices such as palmtop…..
The option for to Set up an advanced connection is not available in Windows 2003 if RRAS is configured. If
RRAS has been configured, you can enable the null modem connection for the dial-in configuration.
C. For earlier version Windows computers, follow the steps in Section B. above. To get to the Make New Connection
button:

For Windows 2000, click Start, and select Settings. At the Dial-Up Networking Folder, click Network and Dialup Connections, and click Make New Connection. You may need to first set up a connection over the COM
port using Connect directly to another computer before proceeding to Set up an advanced connection.

For Windows 98, double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-Up Networking and double click.
6.10.2
Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server
To set up RDP (and VNC) forwarding on the console server Serial Port that is connected to the Windows computer COM
port:
94

Select the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu option and click Edit (for the particular Serial Port that is
connected to the Windows computer COM port).

On the SDT Settings menu, select SDT Mode (this will enable port forwarding and SSH tunneling) and enter a
Username and User Password.
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Remote Console Manager
Note
When you enable SDT, it will override all other Configuration protocols on that port.
Note
If you leave the Username and User Password fields blank, they default to portXX and portXX where XX is the
serial port number. The default username and password for Secure RDP over Port 2 is port02.

Make sure the console server Common Settings (Baud Rate, Flow Control) are the same as those set up on the
Windows computer COM port and click Apply.

RDP and VNC forwarding over serial ports is enabled on a Port basis. You can add Users who can have access
to these ports (or reconfigure User profiles) by selecting Serial & Network: User & Groups menu tag—as
described earlier in Chapter 4, Configuring Serial Ports.
6.10.3 Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port
In the SDT Connector software running on your remote computer, specify the gateway IP address of your console server
and a username/password for a user you set up on the console server that has access to the desired port.
Next, add a New SDT Host. In the Host address, put portxx, where xx = the port you are connecting to. Example: for port
3 you would have a Host Address of: port03. Then select the RDP Service check box.
6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY) As covered in the previous sections of this chapter, we recommend that you use the SDT Connector client software that is
supplied with the console server. There’s also a wide selection of commercial and free SSH client programs that can
provide the secure SSH connections to the console servers and secure tunnels to connected devices:
-
PuTTY is a complete (though not very user friendly) freeware implementation of SSH for Win32 and UNIX platforms.
-
SSHTerm is a useful open source SSH communications package.
-
SSH Tectia is leading end-to-end commercial communications security solution for the enterprise.
-
Reflection for Secure IT (formerly F-Secure SSH) is another good commercial SSH-based security solution.
For example, the steps below show how to establish an SSH tunneled connection to a network connected device using
the PuTTY client software.
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Chapter 6: Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector

In the Session menu, enter the IP address of the console server in the Host Name or IP address field.

For dial-in connections, this IP address will be the Local Address that you assigned to the console server
when you set it up as the Dial-In PPP Server.

For Internet (or local/VPN connections) connections, this will be the console server’s public IP address.

Select the SSH Protocol, and the Port will be set as 22.

Go to the SSH -> Tunnels menu and in Add new forwarded port enter any high unused port number for the
Source port, for example, 54321.

Set the Destination: IP details.

96
If your destination device is network-connected to the console server and you are connecting using RDP, set
the Destination as <Managed Device IP address/DNS Name>:3389. For example, if when setting up the
Managed Device as Network Host on the console server you specified its IP address to be 192.168.253.1 (or
its DNS Name was accounts.myco.intranet.com), then specify the Destination as 192.168.523.1:3389 (or
accounts.myco.intranet.com:3389 ). Only devices that are configured as networked Hosts can be accessed
using SSH tunneling (except by the “root” user who can tunnel to any IP address the console server can route
to).
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Remote Console Manager

Note
If your destination computer is serially connected to the console server, set the Destination as <port
label>:3389. For example, if the Label you specified on the serial port on the console server is win2k3, then
specify the remote host as win2k3:3389. Or, you can set the Destination as portXX:3389 (where XX is the SDT
enabled serial port number). For example, if port 4 is on the console server is to carry the RDP traffic, then
specify port04:3389
http://www.jfitz.com/tips/putty_config.html has useful examples on configuring PuTTY for SSH tunneling.

Select Local and click the Add button.

Click Open to SSH connect the Client PC to the console server. You will now be prompted for the
Username/Password for the console server user.

If you are connecting as a User in the “users” group, then you can only SSH tunnel to Hosts and Serial Ports
where you have specific access permission.

If you are connecting as an Administrator (in the “admin” group), then you can connect to any configured
Host or Serial Ports (that has SDT enabled).
To set up the secure SSH tunnel for a HTTP browser connection to the Managed Device, specify port 80 (instead of port
3389 that was used for RDP) in the Destination IP address.
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To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the Client (Viewer) PC to the console server for VNC, follow the steps above, but
when you configure the VNC port redirection, specify port 5900 in the Destination IP address.
Note
How secure is VNC? VNC access generally allows access to your whole computer, so security is very important.
VNC uses a random challenge-response system to provide the basic authentication that allows you to connect to
a VNC server. This is reasonably secure and the password is not sent over the network.
Once connected, all subsequent VNC traffic is unencrypted. A malicious user could snoop your VNC session.
There are also VNC scanning programs available, which will scan a subnet looking for PCs that are listening on
one of the ports that VNC uses.
Tunneling VNC over a SSH connection ensures all traffic is strongly encrypted. No VNC port is ever open to the
internet, so anyone scanning for open VNC ports will not be able to find your computers. When tunneling VNC
over a SSH connection, the only port that you’re opening on your console server is the SDT port 22.
Sometimes it may be prudent to tunnel VNC through SSH even when the Viewer PC and the console server are
both on the same local network.
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Chapter 7: Alerts and Logging
Alerts and Logging This chapter describes the alert generation and logging features of the console server. The Alert facility monitors the serial ports, all logins, the power status, and environmental monitors and probes, and sends emails, SMS, Nagios, or SNMP alerts when specified trigger events occur. 
First, enable and configure the service that will be used to carry the alert (Section 7.1). 
Then, specify the alert trigger condition and the actual destination to which that particular alert will be sent (Section 7.2). All console server models can maintain log records of all access and communications with the console server and with the attached serial devices. A log of all system activity is also maintained, as is a history of the status of any attached environmental monitors. Some models also log access and communications with network attached hosts and maintain a history of the UPS and PDU power status. 
If port logs are to be maintained on a remote server, then configure the access path to this location (Section 7.3). 
Then you need to activate and set the desired levels of logging for each serial (Section 7.4) and/or network port (Section 7.5) and/or power and environment UPS (refer to Chapter 8). 7.1 Configure SMTP/SMS/SNMP/Nagios alert service The Alerts facility monitors nominated ports/hosts/UPSs/PDUs/EMDs, etc. for trigger conditions. When triggered, the facility sends an alert notification over the nominated alert service. Before setting up the alert trigger, configure these alert services: 7.1.1 Email alerts The console server uses SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending the email alert notifications. To use SMTP, the Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email:  Select Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
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 In the SMTP Server field, enter the outgoing mail Server’s IP address.  If this mail server uses a Secure Connection, specify its type.  You may enter a Sender email address which will appear as the “from” address in all email notifications sent from this console server. Many SMTP servers check the sender’s email address with the host domain name to verify the address as authentic. So it may be useful to assign an email address for the console server such as [email protected]  You may also enter a Username and Password if the SMTP server requires authentication.  You can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email.  Click Apply to activate SMTP. 7.1.2 SMS alerts The console server uses email-­‐to-­‐SMS services to send SMS alert notifications to mobile devices. Sending SMS via email using SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is much faster than sending text pages via a modem using the TAP Protocol. Almost all mobile phone carriers provide an SMS gateway service that forwards email to mobile phones on their networks. There’s also a wide selection of SMS gateway aggregators that provide email to SMS forwarding to phones on any carriers. To use SMTP SMS, the Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email: 100
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 In the SMTP SMS Server field in the Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS menu, enter the IP address of the outgoing mail Server (and Secure Connection if applicable).  You may enter a Sender email address, which will appear as the “from” address in all email notifications sent from this console server. Some SMS gateway service providers only forward email to SMS when the email has been received from authorized senders. You might need to assign a specific authorized email address for the console server.  You may also enter a Username and Password, because some SMS gateway service providers use SMTP servers which require authentication.  You can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email. Generally, the email subject will contain a truncated version of the alert notification message (which is contained in full in the body of the email). However some SMS gateway service providers require blank subjects or require specific authentication headers to be included in the subject line.  Click Apply to activate SMTP. 7.1.3 SNMP alerts The Administrator can configure the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent that resides on the console server to send SNMP trap alerts to an NMS management application:  Select Alerts & Logging: SNMP  Enter the SNMP transport protocol. SNMP is generally a UDP-­‐based protocol, though infrequently, it uses TCP instead.  Enter the IP address of the SNMP Manager and the Port to use for connecting (default = 162)  Select the version being used. The console server SNMP agent supports SNMP v1, v2, and v3.  Enter the Community name for SNMP v1 or 2c. An SNMP community is the group that devices and management stations running SNMP belong to. It helps define where information is sent. SNMP default communities are private for Write (and public for Read).  To configure for SNMP v3, you will need to enter an ID and authentication password and contact information for the local Administrator (in the Security Name). 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
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 Click Apply to activate SNMP. Note
All console servers have the snmptrap daemon to send traps/notifications to remote SNMP servers on defined
trigger events as detailed above. LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers also embed the netsnmpd daemon. It accepts SNMP requests from remote SNMP management servers and provides information on
network interface, running processes, etc. (refer to Chapter 15.5—Modifying SNMP Configuration for more
details).
7.1.4 Nagios alerts To notify the central Nagios server of Alerts, NSCA must be enabled under System: Nagios and Nagios must be enabled for each applicable host or port under Serial & Network: Network Hosts or Serial & Network: Serial Ports (refer to Chapter 10). 7.2 Activate Alert Events and Notifications The Alert facility monitors the status of the console server and connected devices. When an alert event is triggered, the Alert facility notifies a nominated email address or SMS gateway, or the configured SNMP or Nagios server. The data stream from nominated serial ports can be monitored for matched patterns or flow control status changes can be configured to trigger alerts, as can user connections to serial ports and Hosts, or power events. 102
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 Select Alerts & Logging: Alerts, which will display all the alerts currently configured. Click Add Alert. 7.2.1 Add a new alert The first step is to specify the alert service that this event will use for sending notification, who to notify there, and what port/host/device is to be monitored:  At Add a New Alert, enter a Description for this new alert.  Nominate the email address for the Email Recipient(s) and/or the SMS Recipient(s) to be notified of the alert. For multiple recipients, enter comma separated addresses.  Activate SNMP notification if an SNMP trap is to be sent for this event.  Activate Nagios notification to use it for this event. In a SDT Nagios centrally managed environment, you can check the Nagios alert option. On the trigger condition (for matched patterns, logins, power events, and signal changes), an NSCA check “warning” result will be sent to the central Nagios server. This condition is displayed on the Nagios status screen and triggers a notification, which can cause the Nagios central server itself to send out an email or an SMS, page, etc. 7.2.2 Configuring general alert types Next, you must select the Alert Type (Connection, Signal, Pattern Match, UPS Power Status, Environment and Power Sensor or Alarm Sensor) to monitor. You can configure a selection of different Alert types and any number of specific triggers. 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
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 Connection Alert—This alert will be triggered when a user connects or disconnects from the applicable Host or Serial Port, or when a Slave connects or disconnects from the applicable UPS (and you must specify the applicable connections to Apply Alert To).  Serial Port Signal Alert—This alert will be triggered when the specified signal changes state and applies to serial ports only. You must specify the particular Signal Type (DSR, DCD or CTS) trigger condition and the Applicable Ports(s).  Serial Port Pattern Match Alert—This alert will be triggered if a regular expression is found in the serial ports character stream that matches the regular expression you enter in the Pattern field. This alert type will only be applied to serial ports selected as Applicable Ports(s). 104
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 UPS Power Status Alert— This alert will be triggered when the UPS power status changes between on line, on battery, and low battery. This status will only be monitored on the Applicable UPS(es) you select.  Environment and Power Alert—(next section).  Alarm Sensor Alert—(next section). 7.2.3 Configuring environment and power alert type This alert type monitors UPSes, RPCs, power devices, and EMD environmental devices.  Select Environment and Power Alert to activate.  Specify which Sensor Type to alert on (Temperature, Humidity, Power Load and Battery Charge).  Set the levels at which Critical and/or Warning alerts are to be sent. You can also specify High and/or Low Set Points for sending alerts and the Hysteresis to be applied before resetting off the alerts. Note
Specify the Set Point values are in Degrees Centigrade for Temperature, Amps (Current) for Power
Load, and % (Percentage) for both Humidity and Battery Charge.
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Note An alert notification (SNMP, SMTP etc) is only sent out when there is a transition to or from a trigger event/level.
For example, if a High temperature alert is set at 40 degrees with a 5 degree hysteresis then a High alert
notification will be sent when the sensor temperature reads 40 degrees. The next alert will be sent when the
temperature falls below 35 degrees. If the temp was over 40 degrees when the alert was first set, no high temp
notification will be sent.
7.2.4 Configuring alarm sensor alert type You can set an alert on sensor devices that may be attached to any EMD devices connected to the console server:  Select Alarm Sensor Alert and then set the time windows when these sensors will not be monitored. For example, for a door open sensor, you may not want to deactivate the sensor alert monitoring during the working day (and the default 00:00 settings actively monitor the sensors 24/7).  Select the Applicable Alarm Sensor(s) for this alert and click Apply. 7.3 Remote Log Storage Before activating Serial or Network Port Logging on any port or UPS logging, you must specify where those logs are to be saved:  Select the Alerts & Logging: Port Log menu option and specify the Server Type to use, and the details to enable log server access. 106
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7.4 Serial Port Logging In Console Server mode, activity logs of all serial port activity can be maintained. These records are stored on an off-­‐
server, or in the Advanced Console Server flash memory. To specify which serial ports have activities recorded and to what level data is to be logged:  Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit the port to be logged.  Specify the Logging Level of for each port as: Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Turns off logging for the selected port. Logs all connection events to the port. Logs all data transferred to and from the port, all changes in hardware flow control status, and all User connection events.  Click Apply Note
A cache of the most recent 8K of logged data per serial port is maintained locally (in addition to the Logs that are
transmitted for remote/USB flash storage). To view the local cache of logged serial port data, select Manage:
Port Logs.
7.5 Network TCP or UDP Port Logging The LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A models support optional logging of access to and communications with network attached Hosts.  For each Host, when you set up the Permitted Services that you authorize to use, you also must set up the level of logging to maintain for each service. 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
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 Specify the logging level to maintain for that particular TDC/UDP port/service, on that particular Host: Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 
Turns off logging for the selected TDC/UDP port to the selected Host. Logs all connection events to the port. Logs all data transferred to and from the port. Click Add then click Apply. 108
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Chapter 8: Remote Power Management
Power and Environmental Management
Black Box console servers manage embedded software that you can use to manage connected Power Distribution
Systems (PDUs), IPMI devices, and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs) supplied by a number of vendors, and some
environmental monitoring devices.
8.1
Remote Power Control (RPC) The console server Management Console monitors and controls Remote Power Control (RPC) devices using the
embedded PowerMan and Network UPS Tools open source management tools and the Black Box power management
software. RPCs include power distribution units (PDUs) and IPMI power devices.
You can control serial PDUs invariably using their command line console, so you could manage the PDU through the
console server using a remote Telnet client. Also, you could use proprietary software tools supplied by the vendor. This
generally runs on a remote Windows PC, and you could configure the console server serial port to operate with a serial
COM port redirector in the PC (as detailed in Chapter 4).
Similarly, you can control network-attached PDUs with a browser (for example, with SDT as detailed in Chapter 6.3), an
SNMP management package, or using the vendor-supplied control software. Servers and network-attached appliances
with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs invariably have their own management tools (like SoL) that provide
secure management when connected with SDT Connector.
For simplicity, you can now control all these devices through one window using the Management Console’s RPC remote
power control tools.
8.1.1
RPC connection
Serial and network connected RPCs must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with, the console server:
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
For serial RPCs, connect the PDU to the selected serial port on the console server. From the Serial and
Network: Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the
RS-232 properties etc required by the PDU (refer to Chapter 4.1.1 Common Settings). Then select RPC as the
Device Type.

For each network-connected RPC, go to Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and configure the RPC as a
connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: RPC and clicking Apply (refer to Section 4.4, Network Hosts).
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
Select the Serial & Network: RPC Connections menu. This will display all the RPC connections that have
already been configured.

Click Add RPC.
 Connected Via presents a list of serial ports and network Host connections that you have set up with device type
RPC (but have yet to connect to a specific RPC device):

When you select Connect Via for a Network RPC connection, then the corresponding Host
Name/Description that you set up for that connection will be entered as the Name and Description for the
power device.

Or, if you select to Connect Via a Serial connection, enter a Name and Description for the power device.
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 Select the appropriate RPC Type for the PDU (or IPMI) being connected:

If you are connecting to the RPC via the network, you will be presented with the IPMI protocol options and
the SNMP RPC Types currently supported by the embedded Network UPS Tools.

If you are connecting to the RPC by a serial port, you will be presented with all the serial RPC types
currently supported by the embedded PowerMan and the Black Box power manager:
 Enter the Username and Password used to login into the RPC (Note that these login credentials are not related
to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial & Networks: Users & Groups).
 If you selected SNMP protocol, enter the SNMP v1 or v2c Community for Read/Write access (by default this
would be “private”).
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 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this RPC to
be logged. View these logs from the Status: RPC Status screen.

Click Apply.

For SNMP PDUs, the console server probes the configured RPC to confirm the RPC Type matches and reports
the number of outlets it finds that can be controlled. If unsuccessful, it will report Unable to probe outlets and
you’ll need to check the RPC settings or network/serial connection.

For serially connected RPC devices, a new Managed Device (with the same name as given to the RPC) will be
created. The console server will then configure the RPC with the number of outlets specified in the selected RPC
Type or will query the RPC itself for this information.
Note
The Black Box console servers support most popular network and serial PDUs. If your PDU is not on the default
list, then you can add support directly (as covered in Chapter 14—Advanced Configurations) or add the PDU
support to either the Network UPS Tools or PowerMan open source projects.
Configure IPMI service processors and BMCs so that all authorized users can use the Management Console to
remotely cycle power and reboot computers, even when their operating system is unresponsive. To set up IPMI
power control, the Administrator first enters the IP address/domain name of the BMC or service processor (for
example, a Dell DRAC) in Serial & Network: Network Hosts, then in Serial & Network: RPC Connections
specifies the RPC Type to be IPMI1.5 or 2.0.
8.1.2
RPC access privileges and alerts
You can now set PDU and IPMI alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to Chapter 7). You can also assign which
user can access and control which particular outlet on each RPC using Serial & Network: User & Groups (refer Chapter
4).
8.1.3
User power management
The Power Manager enables both Users and Administrators to access and control the configured serial and network
attached PDU power strips, and servers with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs.

Select the Manage: Power and the particular Target power device to be controlled (and the Outlet to be
controlled if the RPC supports outlet level control).

The outlet status is displayed and you can initiate the Action you want to take by selecting the appropriate icon:
Turn ON
Turn OFF
Cycle
Status
You will only be presented with icons for those operations that are supported by the Target you have selected.
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8.1.4
RPC status
You can monitor the current status of your network and serially connected PDUs and IPMI RPCs.

Select the Status: RPC Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected RPC hardware will be
displayed.

Click on View Log or select the RPCLogs menu and you will be presented with a table of the history and detailed
graphical information on the selected RPC.

Click Manage to query or control the individual power outlet. This will take you to the Manage: Power screen.
8.2
Uninterruptible Power Supply Control (UPS) You can configure all Black Box console servers to manage locally and remotely connected UPS hardware using Network
UPS Tools.
Network UPS Tools (NUT) is a group of open source programs that provide a common interface for monitoring and
administering UPS hardware. These programs ensure safe shutdowns of the systems that are connected. NUT is built on
a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server, and clients (covered in some detail in Chapter 8.2.6).
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8.2.1
Managed UPS connections
A Managed UPS is a UPS that is directly connected as a Managed Device to the console server. You can connect it via
serial or USB cable or by the network. The console server becomes the master of this UPS, and runs a upsd server to
allow other computers that are drawing power through the UPS (slaves) to monitor the UPS status and take appropriate
action, such as shutdown when the UPS battery is low.
The console server may or may not be drawing power itself through the Managed UPS. When the UPS’s battery power
reaches critical, the console server signals and waits for slaves to shut down, then powers off the UPS.
Serial and network connected UPSes must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with the console server:

For serial UPSes attach the UPS to the selected serial port on the console server. From the Serial and Network:
Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the RS-232 properties, etc. required by the
UPS (refer to Chapter 4.1.1—Common Settings). Then select UPS as the Device Type.

For each network connected UPS, go to the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and configure the UPS as
a connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: UPS and clicking Apply.

No such configuration is required for USB connected UPS hardware.

Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Managed UPSes section will display all the UPS
connections that have already been configured.
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
Click Add Managed UPS.
 Select if the UPS will be Connected Via USB, over a pre-configured serial port, or via SNMP/HTTP/HTTPS over
the preconfigured network Host connection.
 When you select a network UPS connection, then the corresponding Host Name/Description that you set up for
that connection will be entered as the Name and Description for the power device. Or, if you selected to
Connect Via a USB or serial connection then you will need to enter a Name and Description for the power
device (and these details will also be used to create a new Managed Device entry for the serial/USB connected
UPS devices).
 Enter the login details. This Username and Password is used by slaves of this UPS (that is, other computers
that are drawing power through this UPS) to connect to the console server to monitor the UPS status so they can
shut themselves down when battery power is low. Monitoring will typically be performed using the upsmon client
running on the slave server (refer to Section 8.2.3)
Note: These login credentials are not related to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial & Networks:
Users & Groups.
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 If you have multiple UPSes and require them to be shut down in a specific order, specify the Shutdown Order
for this UPS. This is a whole positive number, or -1. 0s shut down first, then 1s, 2s, etc. -1s are not shut down at
all. Defaults to 0.
 Select the Driver that you will use to communicate with the UPS. Most console servers are preconfigured so the
drop down menu presents a full selection of drivers from the latest Network UPS Tools (NUT version 2.4).
 Click New Options in Driver Options if you need to set driver-specific options for your selected NUT driver and
hardware combination (more details at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc).
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this UPS to
be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.
 If you have enabled Nagios services, then you will be presented with an option for Nagios monitoring. Check
Enable Nagios to enable this UPS to be monitored using Nagios central management.

Check Enable Shutdown Script if this is the UPS providing power to the console server itself and if a critical
power failure occurs, you can perform any "last gasp" actions on the console server before power is lost. Place a
custom script in /etc/config/scripts/ups-shutdown (you may use the provided /etc/scripts/ups-shutdown as a
template). This script only runs when then UPS reaches critical battery status.

Click Apply.
Note: You can also customize the upsmon, upsd, and upsc settings for this UPS hardware directly from the command
line.
8.2.2
Remote UPS management
A Remote UPS is a UPS that is connected as a Managed Device to a remote console server that is monitored (but not
managed) by your console server.
You can configure the upsc and upslog clients in the Black Box console server to monitor remote servers that are running
Network UPS Tools managing their locally connected UPSes. These remote servers might be other Black Box console
servers or generic Linux servers running NUT. You can centrally monitor all these distributed UPSes (which may be
spread in a row in a data center, around a campus property, or across the country) through the one central console server
window. To add a Remote UPS:

Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Remote UPSes section will display all the remote
UPS devices being monitored.

Click Add Remote UPS.
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 Enter the Name of the particular remote UPS that you want to remotely monitor. This name must be the name
that the remote UPS was configured with on the remote console server (because the remote console server may
itself have multiple UPSes attached that it manages locally with NUT). Optionally, enter a Description.
 Enter the IP Address or DNS name of the remote console server* that is managing the remote UPS. (*This may
be another Black Box console server or it may be a generic Linux server running Network UPS Tools.)
Note
An example where centrally monitor remotely distributed UPSes is useful is a campus or large business site
where there’s a multitude of computer and other equipment sites spread afar, each with their own UPS supply …
and many of these (particularly the smaller sites) will be USB or serially connected.
Having a console server at these remote sites would enable the system manager to centrally monitor the status of
the power supplies at all sites, and centralize alarms. So he/she can be warned to initiate a call-out or shut-down.

Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this UPS to
be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.

Check Enable Shutdown Script if this remote UPS is the UPS providing power to the console server itself. If the
UPS reaches critical battery status, the custom script in /etc/config/scripts/ups-shutdown runs, enabling you to
perform any “last gasp” actions.

Click Apply.
8.2.3
Controlling UPS powered computers
One of the advantages of having a Managed UPS is that you can configure computers that draw power through that UPS
to shut down gracefully if you have UPS problems.
For Linux computers, set up upsmon on each computer and direct them to monitor the console server that is managing
their UPS. This will set the specific conditions that will be used to initiate a power down of the computer. Non-critical
servers may be powered down some seconds after the UPS starts running on battery. In contrast, more critical servers
may not be shut down until a low battery warning is received). Refer to the online NUT documentation for details on how
to do this:
http://eu1.networkupstools.org/doc/2.2.0/INSTALL.html
http://linux.die.net/man/5/upsmon.conf
http://linux.die.net/man/8/upsmon
An example upsmon.conf entry might look like:
MONITOR [email protected] 1 username password slave
- managedups is the UPS Name of the Managed UPS
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- 192.168.0.1 is the IP address of the Black Box console server
- 1 indicates the server has a single power supply attached to this UPS
- username is the Username of the Managed UPS
- password is the Password of the Manager UPS
There are NUT monitoring clients available for Windows computers (WinNUT).
If you have an RPC (PDU), you can shut down UPS powered computers and other equipment if the they don’t have a
client running (for example, communications, and surveillance gear). Set up a UPS alert and using this to trigger a script
that controls a PDU to shut off the power (refer to Chapter 15).
8.2.4
UPS alerts
You can set UPS alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer Chapter — Alerts & Logging).
8.2.5
UPS status
You can monitor the current status of your network, serially or USB connected Managed UPSes, and any configured
Remote UPSes.

Select the Status: UPS Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected UPS hardware
displays.

Click on any particular UPS System name in the table and more detailed graphical information on the selected
UPS System appears.

Click on any particular All Data for any UPS System in the table for more status and configuration information
about the selected UPS System.
 Select UPS Logs and you will be presented with the log table of the load, battery charge level, temperature, and
other status information from all the Managed and Monitored UPS systems. This information will be logged for all
UPSes that were configured with Log Status checked. The information is also presented graphically.
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8.2.6
Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT)
NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server and clients. Configure NUT using the
Management Console as described above, or configure the tools and manage the UPSes directly from the command line.
This section provides an overview of NUT. You can find full documentation at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc.
NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server and clients:
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
The driver programs talk directly to the UPS equipment and run on the same host as the NUT network server
(upsd). Drivers are provided for a wide assortment of equipment from most of the popular UPS vendors and
understand the specific language of each UPS. They communicate with serial, USB, and SNMP network
connected UPS hardware and map the communications back to a compatibility layer. This means both an
expensive “smart” protocol UPS and a simple “power strip” model can be handled transparently.

The NUT network server program upsd is responsible for passing status data from the drivers to the client
programs via the network. upsd can cache the status from multiple UPSes and then serve this status data to
many clients. upsd also contains access control features to limit the abilities of the clients (only authorized hosts
may monitor or control the UPS hardware).
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

There are a number of NUT clients that connect to upsd to check on the status of the UPS hardware and do
things based on the status. These clients can run on the same host as the NUT server or they can communicate
with the NUT server over the network (enabling them to monitor any UPS anywhere):

The upsc client provides a quick way to poll the status of a UPS server. Use it inside shell scripts and
other programs that need UPS data but don't want to include the full interface.

The upsmon client enables servers that draw power through the UPS to shutdown gracefully when the
battery power reaches critical.

There are also logging clients (upslog) and third party interface clients (Big Sister, Cacti, Nagios,
Windows, and more. Refer www.networkupstools.org/client-projects.)
The latest release of NUT (2.4) also controls PDU systems. It can do this either natively using SNMP or through a
binding to Powerman (open source software from Livermore Labs that also is embedded in Black Box console
servers).
These NUT clients and servers all are embedded in each Black Box console server (with a Management Console
presentation layer added) —and they also are run remotely on distributed console servers and other remote NUT
monitoring systems. This layered distributed NUT architecture enables:

Multiple manufacturer support: NUT can monitor UPS models from 79 different manufacturers—and PDUs from a
growing number of vendors—with a unified interface.

Multiple architecture support: NUT can manage serial and USB connected UPS models with the same common
interface. Network-connected USB and PDU equipment can also be monitored using SNMP.

Multiple clients monitoring one UPS: Multiple systems may monitor a single UPS using only their network
connections. There is a wide selection of client programs that support monitoring UPS hardware via NUT (Big
Sister, Cacti, Nagios and more).

Central management of multiple NUT servers: A central NUT client can monitor multiple NUT servers that may be
distributed throughout the data center, across a campus, or around the world.
NUT supports the more complex power architectures found in data centers, communications centers, and distributed
office environments where many UPSes from many vendors power many systems with many clients. Each of the larger
UPSes power multiple devices, and many of these devices are in turn dual powered.
8.3
Environmental Monitoring The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any Black Box console server serial port and each console server
can support multiple EMDs. Each EMD device has one temperature and one humidity sensor and one or two generalpurpose status sensors that you can connect to a smoke detector, water detector, vibration, or open-door sensor.
Using the Management Console, Administrators can view the ambient temperature (in °C) and humidity (percentage), and
set the EMD to automatically send alarms progressively from warning levels to critical alerts.
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8.3.1
Connecting the EMD
The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any serial port on the console server via a special EMD
Adapter and standard CAT5 cable. The EMD is powered over this serial connection and communicates using a
custom handshake protocol. It is not an RS-232 device and should not be connected without the adapter:

Plug the male RJ plug on the EMD Adapter into EMD and
then connect it to the console server serial port using the
provided UTP cable. If the 6-foot (2-meter) UTP cable
provided with the EMD is not long enough, you can
replace it with a standard CAT5 UTP cable up to 33 feet
(10 meters) long.

Screw the bare wires on any smoke detector, water
detector, vibration sensor, open-door sensor, or general
purpose open/close status sensors into the terminals on
the EMD.
Note: You can attach two external sensors onto the terminals on EMDs that are connected to LES1108A, LES1116A, and
LES1148A console servers. LES1208A, LES1216A, and LES1248A console servers only support attaching a
single sensor to each EMD.
You can only use the EMD with a Black Box console server; you cannot connect it to standard
RS-232 serial ports on other appliances.
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
Select Environmental as the Device Type in the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu for the port to which the
EMD will be attached. No particular Common Settings are required.

Click Apply.

Select the Serial & Network: Environmental menu. This will display all the EMD connections that have already
been configured.

Click Add.
 Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the EMD and select the pre-configured serial port that the EMD
will be Connected Via.
 You may optionally calibrate the EMD with a Temperature Offset (+ or - °C) or Humidity Offset (+ or percent).
 Provide Labels for each of the two alarms (if used).
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want to log the status from this
EMD. These logs can be views from the Status: Environmental Status screen.
 Click Apply. This will also create a new Managed Device (with the same name).
8.3.2
Environmental alerts
You can now set temperature, humidity and probe status alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to Chapter 7).
8.3.3
Environmental status
You can monitor the current status of all EMDs and their probes.

Select the Status: Environmental Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected EMD
hardware will be displayed.
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
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Click on View Log or select the Environmental Logs menu and you will be presented with a table and graphical
plot of the selected EMD’s log history.
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Chapter 9: Authentication
Authentication
The console server is a dedicated Linux computer with a myriad of popular and proven Linux software modules for
networking, secure access (OpenSSH), and communications (OpenSSL), and sophisticated user authentication (PAM,
RADIUS, TACACS+ and LDAP).

This chapter details how the Administrator can use the Management Console to establish remote AAA
authentication for all connections to the console server and attached serial and network host devices.

This chapter also covers how to establish a secure link to the Management Console using HTTPS and using
OpenSSL and OpenSSH to establish a secure Administration connection to the console server.
9.1
Authentication Configuration
Authentication can be performed locally, or remotely using an LDAP, Radius, or TACACS+ authentication server. The
default authentication method for the console server is Local.
Any authentication method that is configured will be used for authentication of any user who attempts to log in through
Telnet, SSH, or the Web Manager to the console server and any connected serial port or network host devices.
You can configure the console server to the default (Local) or using an alternate authentication method (TACACS,
RADIUS, or LDAP). Optionally, you can select the order in which local and remote authentication is used:
Local TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP: Tries local authentication first, falling back to remote if local fails.
TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if remote fails.
TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Down Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if the remote
authentication returns an error condition (for example, if the remote authentication server is down or inaccessible).
9.1.1
Local authentication

Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check Local.

Click Apply.
9.1.2
TACACS authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the TACACS+ authentication method to use whenever the console server or
any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:

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Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check TACAS or LocalTACACS or TACACSLocal or
TACACSDownLocal
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Remote Console Manager
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/Authorization server. Multiple remote
servers may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in succession.
 In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/
Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the
Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead.

Enter the Server Password.

Click Apply. TACAS+ remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server and serially or
network attached devices.
TACACS+
The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) security protocol is a recent protocol
developed by Cisco. It provides detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over the
authentication and authorization processes. TACACS+ allows for a single access control server (the TACACS+
daemon) to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services independently. Each service can be
tied into its own database to take advantage of other services available on that server or on the network,
depending on the capabilities of the daemon. There is a draft RFC detailing this protocol. You can find further
information on configuring remote TACACS+ servers at the following sites:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094e99.shtml
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps4911/products_user_guide_chapter09186a00800eb6d6.html
http://cio.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios113ed/113ed_cr/secur_c/scprt2/sctplus.htm
9.1.3
RADIUS authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the RADIUS authentication method to use whenever the console server or
any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:

Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check RADIUS or LocalRADIUS or RADIUSLocal or
RADIUSDownLocal.
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/ Authorization server. Multiple remote
servers may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in succession.
 In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/
Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the
Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead.
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
Enter the Server Password.

Click Apply. RADIUS remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server and serially or
network-attached devices.
RADIUS
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol was developed by Livingston
Enterprises as an access server authentication and accounting protocol. The RADIUS server can support a
variety of methods to authenticate a user. When it is provided with the username and original password given by
the user, it can support PPP, PAP, or CHAP, UNIX login, and other authentication mechanisms. You can find
further information on configuring remote RADIUS servers at the following sites:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/library/DepKit/d4fe8248-eecd-49e4-88f69e304f97fefc.mspx
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a00800945cc.shtml
http://www.freeradius.org/
9.1.4
LDAP authentication
Perform the following procedure to configure the LDAP authentication method to use whenever the console server or any
of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:

Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check LDAP or LocalLDAP or LDAPLocal or
LDAPDownLocal
 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication server. Multiple remote servers may be
specified in a comma-separated list. Each server is tried in succession.

Note

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Enter the Server Password.
To interact with LDAP requires that the user account exist on our console server to work with the remote server.
(You can't just create the user on your LDAP server and not tell the console server about it.) You need to add the
user account.
Click Apply. LDAP remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server and serially or
network attached devices.
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Remote Console Manager
LDAP The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is based on the X.500 standard, but is significantly simpler and
more readily adapted to meet custom needs. The core LDAP specifications are all defined in RFCs. LDAP is a
protocol used to access information stored in an LDAP server. You can find further information on configuring
remote RADIUS servers at the following sites:
http://www.ldapman.org/articles/intro_to_ldap.html
http://www.ldapman.org/servers.html
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5050/1/
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5074/4/
9.1.5
RADIUS/TACACS User Configuration
Users may be added to the local console server appliance. If they are not added and they log in via remote AAA, a user
will be added for them. This user will not show up in the Black Box configurators unless they are specifically added, at
which point they are transformed into a completely local user. The newly added user must authenticate from the remote
AAA server, and will have no access if it is down.
If a local user logs in, they may be authenticated and authorized from the remote AAA server, depending on the chosen
priority of the remote AAA. A local user’s authorization is the union of local and remote privileges.
Example 1:
User Tim is locally added, and has access to ports 1 and 2. He is also defined on a remote TACACS server,
which says he has access to ports 3 and 4. Tim may log in with either his local or TACACS password, and will
have access to ports 1 through 4. If TACACS is down, he will need to use his local password, and will only be
able to access ports 1 and 2.
Example 2:
User Ben is only defined on the TACACS server, which says he has access to ports 5 and 6. When he attempts
to log in, a new user will be created for him, and he will be able to access ports 5 and 6. If the TACACS server is
down he will have no access.
Example 3:
User Paul is defined on a RADIUS server only. He has access to all serial ports and network hosts.
Example 4:
User Don is locally defined on an appliance using RADIUS for AAA. Even if Don is also defined on the RADIUS
server, he will only have access to those serial ports and network hosts he has been authorized to use on the
appliance.
If a “no local AAA” option is selected, then root will still be authenticated locally.
You can add remote users to the admin group via either RADIUS or TACACS. Users may have a set of authorizations set
on the remote TACACS server. Users automatically added by RADIUS will have authorization for all resources, whereas
those added locally will still need their authorizations specified.
LDAP has not been modified, and will still need locally defined users.
9.2
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) The console server supports RADIUS, TACACS+, and LDAP for two-factor authentication via PAM (Pluggable
Authentication Modules). PAM is a flexible mechanism for authenticating users. Nowadays, a number of new ways of
authenticating users have become popular. The challenge is that each time a new authentication scheme is developed,
you need to rewrite all the necessary programs (login, ftpd, etc.) to support it.
PAM provides a way to develop programs that are independent of authentication scheme. These programs need
“authentication modules” to be attached to them at run-time in order to work. Which authentication module is attached
depends on the local system setup and is at the discretion of the local Administrator.
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The console server family supports PAM with the following modules added for remote authentication:
RADIUS
- pam_radius_auth
(http://www.freeradius.org/pam_radius_auth/)
TACACS+
- pam_tacplus
(http://echelon.pl/pubs/pam_tacplus.html)
LDAP
- pam_ldap
(http://www.padl.com/OSS/pam_ldap.html)
Further modules can be added as required.
Changes may be made to files in /etc/config/pam.d/ that will persist, even if the authentication configurator runs.

Users added on demand:
When a user attempts to log in, but does not already have an account on the console server, a new user account
will be created. This account will have no rights, and no password set. It will not appear in the Black Box
configuration tools.
Automatically added accounts will not be able to log in if the remote servers are unavailable. RADIUS users are
currently assumed to have access to all resources, so they will only be authorized to log in to the console server.
RADIUS users will be authorized each time they access a new resource.

Admin rights granted over AAA:
Users may be granted Administrator rights via networked AAA. For TACACS a priv-lvl of 12 of above indicates an
Administrator. For RADIUS, Administrators are indicated via the Framed Filter ID. (See the example configuration
files below for example.)

Authorization via TACACS for both serial ports and host access:
Permission to access resources may be granted via TACACS by indicating a Black Box Appliance and a port or
networked host the user may access. (See the example configuration files below for example.)
TACACS Example:
user = tim {
service = raccess {
priv-lvl = 11
port1 = les1116/port02
port2 = 192.168.254.145/port05
}
global = cleartext mit
}
RADIUS Example:
paul
Cleartext-Password := "luap"
Service-Type = Framed-User,
Fall-Through = No,
Framed-Filter-Id=":group_name=admin"
The list of groups may include any number of entries separated by a comma. If the admin group is included, the
user will be made an Administrator.
If there is already a Framed-Filter-Id, simply add the list of group_names after the existing entries, including the
separating colon “:”.
9.3
SSL Certificate
The console server uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol for encrypted network traffic between itself and a
connected user. When establishing the connection, the console server has to expose its identity to the user’s browser
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Remote Console Manager
using a cryptographic certificate. The default certificate that comes with the console server device upon delivery is for
testing purposes only.
The System Administrator should not rely on the default certificate as the secured
global access mechanism for use through Internet.

Activate your preferred browser and enter https:// IP address. Your browser may respond with a message that
verifies the security certificate is valid but notes that it is not necessarily verified by a certifying authority. To
proceed, you need to click yes if you are using Internet Explorer or select accept this certificate permanently (or
temporarily) if you are using Mozilla Firefox.

You will then be prompted for the Administrator account and password as normal.
We recommend that you generate and install a new base64 X.509 certificate that is unique for a particular console server.
To do this, the console server must be enabled to generate a new cryptographic key and the associated Certificate
Signing Request (CSR) that needs to be certified by a Certification Authority (CA). A certification authority verifies that you
are the person who you claim you are, and signs and issues a SSL certificate to you. To create and install a SSL
certificate for the console server:

Select System: SSL Certificate and fill out the fields as explained below:
Common name This is the network name of the console server once it is installed in the network (usually
the fully qualified domain name). It is identical to the name that is used to access the console server with a
web browser (without the “http://” prefix). In case the name given here and the actual network name differ,
the browser will pop up a security warning when the console server is accessed using HTTPS.
Organizational Unit Use this field to specify which department within an organization the console server
belongs to.
Organization The name of the organization that the console server belongs to.
Locality/City The city where the organization is located.
State/Province The state or province where the organization is located.
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Country The country where the organization is located. This is the two-letter ISO code, for example, DE
for Germany, or US for the USA. (Note: Enter the country code in CAPITAL LETTERS.)
Email
The email address of a contact person that is responsible for the console server and its security.
Challenge Password Some certification authorities require a challenge password to authorize later changes
on the certificate (for example, revocation of the certificate). The password must be at least 4 characters
long.
Confirm Challenge Password
Confirmation of the Challenge Password.
Key length This is the length of the generated key in bits. 1024 Bits are supposed to be sufficient for most
cases. Longer keys may result in slower response time of the console server when establishing connection.
 Once this is done, click on the button Generate CSR which will initiate the Certificate Signing Request
generation. The CSR can be downloaded to your administration machine with the Download button.
 Send the saved CSR string to a Certification Authority (CA) for certification. You will get the new certificate
from the CA after a more or less complicated traditional authentication process (depending on the CA).
 Upload the certificate to the console server using the Upload button as shown below.
After completing these steps, the console server has its own certificate that is used for identifying the console server to its
users.
Note You can find information on issuing certificates and configuring HTTPS from the command line in Chapter 15.
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Chapter 10: Nagios Integration
Nagios Integration
Nagios is a powerful, highly extensible open source tool for monitoring network hosts and services. The core Nagios
software package will typically be installed on a server or virtual server, the central Nagios server.
Console servers operate in conjunction with a central/upstream Nagios server to distribute and monitor attached network
hosts and serial devices. They embed the NSCA (Nagios Service Checks Acceptor) and NRPE (Nagios Remote Plug-in
Executor) add-ons—this allows them to communicate with the central Nagios server, so you won’t need a dedicated slave
Nagios server at remote sites.
The console server products all support extensive customizable distributed monitoring. Even if distributed monitoring is
not required, the console servers can be deployed locally alongside the Nagios monitoring host server, to provide
additional diagnostics and points of access to managed devices.
SDT for Nagios extends the capabilities of the central Nagios server beyond monitoring, enabling it to be used for central
management tasks. It incorporates the SDT Connector client, enabling point-and-click access and control of distributed
networks of console servers and their attached network and serial hosts, from a central location.
Note If you have an existing Nagios deployment, you may want to use the console server gateways in a distributed
monitoring server capacity only. If this case and you are already familiar with Nagios, skip ahead to section 10.3
10.1 Nagios Overview
Nagios provides central monitoring of the hosts and services in your distributed network. Nagios is freely downloadable,
open source software. This section offers a quick background of Nagios and its capabilities. A complete overview, FAQ,
and comprehensive documentation are available at: http://www.nagios.org
Nagios does take some time to install and configure, however once Nagios is up and running however, it provides an
outstanding network monitoring system.
With Nagios you can:


Display tables showing the status of each monitored server and network service in real time.


Display warnings and send warning e-mails, pager, or SMS alerts when a service failure or degradation is detected.
Use a wide range of freely available plug-ins to make detailed checks of specific services—for example, don't just
check that a database is accepting network connections, check that it can actually validate requests and return real
data.
Assign contact groups who are responsible for specific services in specific time frames.
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Remote Console Manager
10.2
Central management and setting up SDT for Nagios
The Black Box Nagios solution has three parts: the Central Nagios server, Distributed Black Box console servers, and the
SDT for Nagios software.
Central Nagios server

A vanilla Nagios 2.x or 3.x installation (typically on a Linux server) generally running on a blade, PC, virtual machine,
etc. at a central location.


Runs a web server that displays the Nagios GUI.
Imports configuration from distributed console servers using the SDT for Nagios Configuration Wizard.
Distributed console servers



Black Box console servers.
Serial and network hosts are attached to each console server.
Each runs Nagios plug-ins, NRPE, and NSCA add-ons, but not a full Nagios server.
Clients






Typically a client PC, laptop, etc., running Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X.
Runs SDT Connector client software 1.5.0 or later.
Possibly remote to the central Nagios server or distributed console servers (i.e. a road warrior).
May receive alert emails from the central Nagios server or distributed console servers.
Connects to the central Nagios server web UI to view status of monitored hosts and serial devices.
Uses SDT Connector to connect through the console servers to manage monitored hosts and serial devices.
SDT Nagios setup involves the following steps:
i.
Install Nagios and the NSCA and NRPE add-ons on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.1—Set up central
Nagios server).
ii.
Configure each Black Box distributed console server for Nagios monitoring, alerting, and SDT Nagios integration
(Section 10.2.2— Set up distributed Black Box servers).
iii.
Run the SDT for Nagios Configuration Wizard on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.3— Set up SDT Nagios
on central Nagios server) and perform any additional configuration tasks.
iv.
Install SDT Connector on each client (Section 10.2.4—Set up clients).
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10.2.1 Set up central Nagios server
SDT for Nagios requires a central Nagios server running Nagios 2.x or 3.x. Nagios 1.x is not supported. The Nagios
server software is available for most major distributions of Linux using the standard package management tools. Your
distribution will have documentation available on how to install Nagios. This is usually the quickest and simplest way to
get up and running.
Note that you will need the core Nagios server package, and at least one of the NRPE or NSCA add-ons. NSCA is
required to use the alerting features of the Black Box distributed hosts, installing both NRPE and NSCA is recommended.
You will also require a web server such as Apache to display the Nagios web UI (and this may be installed automatically
depending on the Nagios packages).
Or, you may wish to download the Nagios source code directly from the Nagios website, and build and install the software
from scratch. The Nagios website (http://www.nagios.org) has several Quick Start Guides that walk through this process.
Once you are able to browse to your Nagios server and see its web UI and the local services it monitors by default, you
are ready to continue.
10.2.2 Set up distributed console servers
This section provides a brief walkthrough on configuring a single console server to monitor the status of one attached
network host (a Windows IIS server running HTTP and HTTPS services) and one serially attached device (the console
port of a network router), and to send alerts back to the Nagios server when an Administrator connects to the router or IIS
server.
This walkthrough provides an example, but details of the configuration options are described in the next section. This
walkthrough also assumes the network host and serial devices are already physically connected to the console server.
The first step is to set up the Nagios features on the console server:
136

Browse the Black Box console server and select System: Nagios on the console server Management Console.
Check Nagios service Enabled.

Enter the Host Name and the Nagios Host Address (for example, IP address) that the central Nagios server will
use to contact the distributed Black Box console server.

Enter the IP address that the distributed Black Box console server will use to contact the central Nagios server in
Nagios Server Address.
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Remote Console Manager

Enter the IP address that the clients running SDT Connector will use to connect through the distributed Black Box
servers in SDT Gateway address.

Check Prefer NRPE, NRPE Enabled, and NRPE Command Arguments.

Check NSCA Enabled, choose an NSCA Encryption Method and enter and confirm an NSCA Secret.
Remember these details because you will need them later on. For NSCA Interval, enter: 5

Click Apply.
Next, you must configure the attached Window network host and specify the services you will be checking with Nagios
(HTTP and HTTPS):

Select Network Hosts from the Serial & Network menu and click Add Host.

Enter the IP Address/DNS Name of the network server, for example: 192.168.1.10 and enter a Description, for
example: Windows 2003 IIS Server.

Remove all Permitted Services. This server will be accessible using Terminal Services, so check TCP, Port
3389 and log level 1 and click Add. Remove and re-add the service to enable logging.

Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.

Click New Check and select Check Ping. Click check-host-alive.

Click New Check and select Check Permitted TCP. Select Port 3389

Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 80.

Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 443.

Click Apply.
Similarly, you now must configure the serial port to the router to be monitored by Nagios:

Select Serial Port from the Serial & Network menu.

Locate the serial port that has the router console port attached and click Edit.

Make sure the serial port settings under Common Settings are correct and match the attached router’s console
port.

Click Console server Mode, and select Logging Level 1.

Check Telnet (SSH access is not required, as SDT Connector is used to secure the otherwise insecure Telnet
connection).

Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.

Check Port Log and Serial Status.

Click Apply.
Now you can set the console server to send alerts to the Nagios server:

Select Alerts from the Alerts & Logging menu and click Add Alert.
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
In Description enter: Administrator connection.

Check Nagios (NSCA).

In Applicable Ports check the serial port that has the router console port attached. In Applicable Hosts check
the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server.

Click Connection Alert.

Click Apply.
Finally, you need to add a User for the client running SDT Connector:

Select Users & Groups from the Serial & Network menu.

Click Add User.

In Username, enter: sdtnagiosuser, then enter and confirm a Password.

In Accessible Hosts click the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server, and in Accessible Ports click the serial
port that has the router console port attached.

Click Apply.
10.3
Configuring Nagios distributed monitoring
To activate the console server Nagios distributed monitoring:

Nagios integration must be enabled and a path established to the central/upstream Nagios server.

If the console server is to periodically report on Nagios monitored services, then the NSCA client embedded in the
console server must be configured—the NSCA program enables scheduled check-ins with the remote Nagios server
and is used to send passive check results across the network to the remote server.

If the Nagios server is to actively request status updates from the console server, then the NRPE server embedded
in the console server must be configured— the NRPE server is the Nagios daemon for executing plug-ins on remote
hosts.

Each of the Serial Ports and each of the Hosts connected to the console server that you want to monitor must have
Nagios enabled and any specific Nagios checks configured.

Configure the central/upstream Nagios monitoring host.
10.3.1 Enable Nagios on the console server
138

Select System: Nagios on the console server Management Console and tick the Nagios service Enabled.

Enter the Nagios Host Name that the Console server will be referred to in the Nagios central server—this will be
generated from local System Name (entered in System: Administration) if unspecified.

In Nagios Host Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the upstream Nagios server will use to reach
the console server— if unspecified this will default to the first network port’s IP (Network (1) as entered in
System: IP).

In Nagios Server Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the console server will use to reach the
upstream Nagios monitoring server.

Check the Disable SDT Nagios Extensions option if you want to disable the SDT Connector integration with
your Nagios server at the head end— this would only be checked if you want to run a vanilla Nagios monitoring.

If not, enter the IP address or DNS name that the SDT Nagios clients will use to reach the console server in SDT
Gateway Address.
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
When NRPE and NSCA are both enabled, NSCA is preferred method for communicating with the upstream
Nagios server— check Prefer NRPE to use NRPE whenever possible (that is, for all communication except for
alerts).
10.3.2 Enable NRPE monitoring
Enabling NRPE allows you to execute plug-ins (such as check_tcp and check_ping) on the remote Console server to
monitor serial or network attached remote servers. This will offload CPU load from the upstream Nagios monitoring
machine. This is especially valuable if you are monitoring hundreds or thousands of hosts. To enable NRPE:


Select System: Nagios and check NRPE Enabled
Enter the details for the user connection to the upstream Nagios monitoring server and again refer to the sample
Nagios configuration example below for details about how to configure specific NRPE checks.
By default, the console server will accept a connection between the upstream Nagios monitoring server and the NRPE
server with SSL encryption, without SSL, or tunneled through SSH. The security for the connection is configured at the
Nagios server.
10.3.3 Enable NSCA monitoring
NSCA is the mechanism that allows you to send passive check results from the remote console server to the Nagios
daemon running on the monitoring server. To enable NSCA:
 Select System: Nagios and check NSCA Enabled.
 Select the Encryption to be used from the drop down menu, then enter a Secret password and specify a check
Interval.
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 Refer to the sample Nagios configuration section below for some examples of configuring specific NSCA checks.
10.3.4 Configure Selected Serial Ports for Nagios Monitoring
The individual Serial Ports connected to the console server to be monitored must be configured for Nagios checks. Refer
to Chapter 4.4—Network Host Configuration for details on enabling Nagios monitoring for Hosts that are network
connected to the console server. To enable Nagios to monitor a device connected to the console server serial port:

Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and click Edit on the serial Port # you want to monitor.

Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device on the upstream server and determine the check you want
to run on this port. Serial Status monitors the handshaking lines on the serial port and Check Port monitors the
data logged for the serial port.
10.3.5 Configure Selected Network Hosts for Nagios Monitoring
The individual Network Hosts connected to the console server that you want to monitor must also be configured for
Nagios checks:

Select Serial & Network: Network Port and click Edit on the Network Host you want to monitor.

Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device as it will appear on the upstream Nagios server.

Click New Check to add a specific check which will be run on this host.

Select Check Permitted TCP/UDP to monitor a service that you have previously added as a Permitted Service.

Select Check TCP/UDP to specify a service port that you want to monitor, without allowing external (SDT
Connector) access.

Select Check TCP to monitor.

The Nagios Check nominated as the check-host-alive check is the check used to determine whether the
network host itself is up or down.

Typically this will be Check Ping—although in some cases the host will be configured not to respond to pings.

If no check-host-alive check is selected, the host will always be assumed to be up.

You may deselect check-host-alive by clicking Clear check-host-alive.

If required, customize the selected Nagios Checks to use custom arguments.

Click Apply.
10.3.6 Configure the upstream Nagios monitoring host
Refer to the Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) for configuring the upstream server:

The section entitled Distributed Monitoring steps through what you need to do to configure NSCA on the
upstream server (under Central Server Configuration).

NRPE Documentation was recently added that steps through configuring NRPE on the upstream server
http://nagios.sourceforge.net/docs/nrpe/NRPE.pdf.
At this stage, Nagios at the upstream monitoring server is configured, and individual serial port and network host
connections on the console server are configured for Nagios monitoring. If NSCA is enabled, each selected check will be
executed once over the period of the check interval. If NRPE is enabled, then the upstream server will be able to request
status updates under its own scheduling.
10.4
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10.4.1 Sample Nagios configuration
An example configuration for Nagios is listed below. It shows how to set up a remote Console server to monitor a single
host, with both network and serial connections. For each check it has two configurations, one each for NRPE and NSCA.
In practice, these would be combined into a single check which used NSCA as a primary method, falling back to NRPE if
a check was late— for details see the Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) on Service and Host
Freshness Checks.
; Host definitions
;
; Black Box console server
define host{
use
generic-host
host_name
Black Box
alias
Console server
address
192.168.254.147
}
; Managed Host
define host{
use
host_name
alias
address
}
generic-host
server
server
192.168.254.227
; NRPE daemon on gateway
define command {
command_name
check_nrpe_daemon
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
NRPE Daemon
Black Box
generic-service
check_nrpe_daemon
; Serial Status
define command {
command_name
check_serial_status
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c check_serial_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
Serial Status
server
generic-service
check_serial_status
serial-signals-server
server
generic-service
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check_command
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
check_serial_status
1
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Serial Status
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
; Port Log
define command{
command_name check_port_log
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c port_log_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
Port Log
server
generic-service
check_port_log
define service {
service_description
port-log-server
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_port_log
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Port Log
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
; Ping
define command{
command_name check_ping_via_Black Box
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c host_ping_$HOSTNAME$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
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Host Ping
server
generic-service
check_ping_via_Black Box
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define service {
service_description
host-ping-server
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_ping_via_Black Box
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
Host Ping
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
; SSH Port
define command{
command_name check_conn_via_Black Box
command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H 192.168.254.147 -p 5666 -c host_$HOSTNAME$_$ARG1$_$ARG2$
}
define service {
service_description
host_name
use
check_command
}
SSH Port
server
generic-service
check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22
define service {
service_description
host-port-tcp-22-server
; host-port-<protocol>-<port>-<host>
host_name
server
use
generic-service
check_command
check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22
active_checks_enabled 0
passive_checks_enabled
1
}
define servicedependency{
name
host_name
dependent_host_name
dependent_service_description
service_description
execution_failure_criteria
}
Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep
Black Box
server
SSH Port
NRPE Daemon
w,u,c
10.4.2 Basic Nagios plug-ins
Plug-ins are compiled executables or scripts that can be scheduled to run on the console server to check the status of a
connected host or service. This status is then communicated to the upstream Nagios server that uses the results to
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monitor the current status of the distributed network. Each console server is preconfigured with a selection of the checks
that are part of the Nagios plug-ins package:
check_tcp and check_udp are used to check open ports on network hosts
check_ping is used to check network host availability
check_nrpe is used to execute arbitrary plug-ins in other devices
Each console server is preconfigured with two checks that are specific to Black Box:
check_serial_signals is used to monitor the handshaking lines on the serial ports
check_port_log is used to monitor the data logged for a serial port.
10.4.3 Additional plug-ins
Additional Nagios plug-ins (listed below) are available for Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A, LES1216A, LES1248A:
check_apt
check_by_ssh
check_clamd
check_dig
check_dns
check_dummy
check_fping
check_ftp
check_game
check_hpjd
check_http
check_imap
check_jabber
check_ldap
check_load
check_mrtg
check_mrtgtraf
check_nagios
check_nntp
check_nntps
check_nt
check_ntp
check_nwstat
check_overcr
check_ping
check_pop
check_procs
check_real
check_simap
check_smtp
check_snmp
check_spop
check_ssh
check_ssmtp
check_swap
check_tcp
check_time
check_udp
check_ups
check_user
You can download these plug-ins from the Nagios plug-ins package from www.blackbox.com.
You can also download and run bash scripts (primarily check_log.sh).

To configure additional checks, save the downloaded plug-in program in the tftp addins directory on the USB flash
and save the downloaded text plug-in file in /etc/config

To enable these new additional checks, select Seria l& Network: Network Port, then Edit the Network Host you
want to monitor, and select New Checks. The additional check option is included in the updated Nagios Checks
list, and you can again customize the arguments.
10.4.4 Number of supported devices
Ultimately the number of devices that by any particular console server can support depends upon the number of checks
made, and how often they are performed. Access method will also play a part. The table below shows the performance of
three of the console servers:
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Time
No
encryption
3DES
SSH tunnel
NSCA for single check
~ ½ second
~ ½ second
~ ½ second
NSCA for 100 sequential checks
100 seconds
100 seconds
100 seconds
NSCA for 10 sequential checks, batched upload
1 ½ seconds
2 seconds
1 second
NSCA for 100 sequential checks, batched
upload
7 seconds
11 seconds
6 seconds
No encryption
th
SSL
rd
no encryption tunneled over
existing SSH
session
th
NRPE time to service 1 check
1/10 second
1/3 second
1/8 second
NRPE time to service 10
simultaneous checks
1 second
3 seconds
1 ¼ seconds
Maximum number of simultaneous
checks before timeouts
30
20 (1,2 and 8) or
25 (16 and 48 port)
25 (8 port), 35 (16
and 48 port)
The results were from running tests 5 times in succession with no timeouts on any runs. There are a number of ways to
increase the number of checks you can do.
Usually when using NRPE checks, an individual request will need to set up and tear down an SSL connection. This
overhead can be avoided by setting up an SSH session to the console server and tunneling the NRPE port. This allows
the NRPE daemon to run securely without SSL encryption, because SSH will provide the security.
When the console server submits NSCA results, it staggers them over a certain time period (for example, 20 checks over
10 minutes will result in two check results every minute). Staggering the results like this means that if the power fails or
other incident causes multiple problems, the individual freshness checks will be staggered too.
NSCA checks are also batched. In the previous example, the two checks per minute are sent through in a single
transaction.
10.4.5 Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios
Below are a number of distributed monitoring Nagios scenarios:
I.
Local office
In this scenario, the console server is set up to monitor each managed device’s console. Configure it to make a
number of checks, either actively at the Nagios server's request, or passively at preset intervals, and submit the
results to the Nagios server in a batch.
You can augment the console server at the local office site by one or more Intelligent Power Distribution Units
(IPDUs) to remotely control the power supply to the managed devices.
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II.
Remote site
In this scenario, configure the console server NRPE server or NSCA client to actively check configured services and
upload the checks to the Nagios server that’s waiting passively. You can also configure it to service NRPE
commands to perform checks on demand.
In this situation, the console server will perform checks based on both serial and network access.
Remote site with restrictive firewall
In this scenario, the role of the console server will vary. One aspect may be to upload check results through NSCA.
Another may be to provide an SSH tunnel to allow the Nagios server to run NRPE commands.
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Remote site with no network access
In this scenario the console server allows dial-in access for the Nagios server. Periodically, the Nagios server will
establish a connection to the console server and execute any NRPE commands, before dropping the connection.
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Chapter 11: System Management
System Management
This chapter describes how the Administrator can perform a range of general console server system administration and
configuration tasks such as:

Applying Soft and Hard Resets to the gateway.

Re-flashing the Firmware.

Configuring the Date, Time and NTP.

Setting up Backup of the configuration files.

Configuring the console server in FIPS mode
System administration and configuration tasks that are covered elsewhere include:

Resetting the System Password and entering a new System Name and Description (Chapter 3.2).

Setting the System IP Address (Chapter 3.3).

Setting the permitted Services by which to access the gateway (Chapter 3.4).

Setting up OoB Dial-in (Chapter 5).

Configuring the Dashboard (Chapter 12).
11.1
System Administration and Reset
The Administrator can reboot or reset the gateway to default settings.
A soft reset is affected by:

Selecting Reboot in the System: Administration menu and clicking Apply.
The console server reboots with all settings (for example, the assigned network IP address) preserved. This soft reset
disconnects all users and ends any established SSH sessions.
A soft reset will also occur when you switch OFF power from the console server, and then switch the power back ON. If
you cycle the power and the unit is writing to flash, you could corrupt or lose data, so rebooting the software is the safer
option.
A hard erase (hard reset) is performed by:

Pushing the Erase button on the rear panel twice. A ball-point pen or bent paper clip is a suitable tool for this
procedure. Do not use a graphite pencil. Press the button gently twice (within a couple of seconds) while the unit
is powered ON.
This will reset the console server back to its factory default settings and clear the console server’s stored configuration
information.
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The hard erase will clear all custom settings and
return the unit back to factory default settings (i.e.
the IP address will be reset to 192.168.0.1).
You will be prompted to log in and must enter the
default administration username and administration
password:
Username: root
Password: default
11.2
Upgrade Firmware
Before upgrading, make sure you are already running the most current firmware in your gateway. Your console server will
not allow you to upgrade to the same or an earlier version.

The Firmware version is displayed in each page’s header.

Or select Status: Support Report and note the Firmware Version.

To upgrade, you first must download the latest firmware image from the Black Box.web site.

Save this downloaded firmware image file to a system on the same subnet as the console server.

Download and read the release_notes.txt for the latest information.

To upload the firmware image file to your console server, select System: Firmware.

Specify the address and name of the downloaded Firmware Upgrade File, or Browse the local subnet and locate
the downloaded file.

Click Apply and the console server appliance will perform a soft reboot and start upgrading the firmware. This
process will take several minutes.
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
After the firmware upgrade completes, click here to return to the Management Console. Your console server will
have retained all its pre-upgrade configuration information.
11.3
Configure Date and Time
We recommend that you set the local Date and Time in the console server as soon as it is configured. Features like
Syslog and NFS logging use the system time for time-stamping log entries, while certificate generation depends on a
correct Timestamp to check the validity period of the certificate.

Select the System: Date & Time menu option.

Manually set the Year, Month, Day, Hour and Minute using the Date and Time selection boxes, then click
Apply.
The gateway can synchronize its system time with a remote time server using the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
Configuring the NTP time server ensures that the console server clock will be accurate soon after the Internet connection
is established. Also if NTP is not used, the system clock will reset randomly every time the console server is powered up.
To set the system time using NTP:

Select the Enable NTP checkbox on the Network Time Protocol page.

Enter the IP address of the remote NTP Server and click Apply.
You must now also specify your local time zone so the system clock can show local time (and not UTP):

Set your appropriate region/locality in the Time Zone selection box and click Apply.
11.4
Configuration Backup
We recommend that you back up the console server configuration whenever you make significant changes (such as
adding new Users or Managed Devices) or before performing a firmware upgrade.

Select the System: Configuration Backup menu option or click the
icon.
Note You can also back up the configuration files from the command line (refer to Chapter 14).
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With all console servers, you can save the backup file remotely on your PC and you can restore configurations from
remote locations:

Click Save Backup in the Remote Configuration Backup menu.

The config backup file (System Name_date_config.opg) will be downloaded to your PC and saved in the location
you nominate.
To restore a remote backup:

Click Browse in the Remote Configuration Backup menu and select the Backup File you want to restore.

Click Restore and click OK. This will overwrite all the current configuration settings in your console server.
With Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A, LES1216A, LES1248A), you can save the backup file locally on the console
server USB storage. To do this you must have an external USB flash drive installed.
To backup and restore using USB:

Make sure the USB flash is the only USB device attached to the console server and click Prepare Storage in the
Local Configuration Backup menu.

This will set a Volume Label on the USB storage device. This preparation step is only necessary the first time,
and will not affect any other information you have saved onto the USB storage device. We recommend that you
back up any critical data from the USB storage device before using it with your console server.

If there are multiple USB devices installed, you will be warned to remove them.

To backup to the USB, enter a brief Description of the backup in the Local Configuration Backups menu and
select Save Backup.

The Local Configuration Backup menu will display all the configuration backup files you have stored onto the USB
flash.
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
To restore a backup from the USB simply select Restore on the particular backup you wish to restore and click
Apply.
After saving a local configuration backup, you may choose to use it as the alternate default configuration. When the
console server is reset to factory defaults, it will then load your alternate default configuration instead of its factory
settings:

Note:
To set an alternate default configuration, check Load On Erase and click Apply.
Before selecting Load On Erase, make sure that you have tested your alternate default configuration by clicking
Restore.
If your alternate default configuration causes the console server to not boot, recover your unit to factory settings
using the following steps:
-
If the configuration is stored on an external USB storage device, unplug the storage device and reset to
factory defaults as per section 11.1 of the user manual.
-
If the configuration is stored on an internal USB storage device, reset it to factory defaults using a specially
prepared USB storage device:
o The USB storage device must be formatted with a Windows FAT32/VFAT file system on the first
partition or the entire disk; most USB thumb drives are already formatted this way.
o The file system must have the volume label: OPG_DEFAULT.
o Insert this USB storage device into an external USB port on the console server and reset to factory
defaults as described in Section 11.1.
- After recovering your console server, make sure the problem configuration is no longer selected for Load On
Erase.
11.5 FIPS Mode The Black Box Remote Console Manager console server models all use an embedded cryptographic module that has
been validated to meet the FIPS 140-2 standards.
Note
152
The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publishes the FIPS (Federal Information
Processing Standard) series of standards. FIPS 140-1 and FIPS 140-2 are both technical standards and
worldwide de-facto standards for the implementation of cryptographic modules. These standards and guidelines
are issued by NIST for use government-wide. NIST develops FIPS when there are compelling Federal
government requirements such as for security and interoperability and there are no acceptable industry standards
or solutions.
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Black Box advanced console servers use an embedded OpenSSL cryptographic module that has been validated
to meet the FIPS 140-2 standards and has received Certificate #1051
When configured in FIPs mode all SSH, HTTPS and SDTConnector access to all services on the console servers will use
the embedded FIPS compliant cryptographic module. To connect you must also be using cryptographic algorithms that
are FIPs approved in your browser or client or the connection will fail.

Select the System: Administration menu option

Check FIPS Mode to enable FIPS mode on boot, and check Reboot to safely reboot the console server

Click Apply and the console server will now reboot. It will take several minutes to reconnect as secure
communications with your browser are validated. When reconnected the Management Console will display “FIPs
mode: Enabled” in the banner text
Note:
To enable FIPS mode from the command line, login and run these commands:
config -s config.system.fips=on
touch /etc/config/FIPS
chmod 444 /etc/config/FIPS
flatfsd -b
The final command saves to flash and reboots the unit. The unit will take a few minutes to boot into FIPS mode.
To disable FIPS mode:
config -d config.system.fips
rm /etc/config/FIPS
flatfsd –b
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Chapter 12: Status Reports
Status Reports
This chapter describes the dashboard feature and the status reports that are available:

Port Access and Active Users

Statistics

Support Reports

Syslog

Dashboard
Other status reports that are covered elsewhere include:
12.1

UPS Status (Chapter 8.2)

RPC Status (Chapter 8.1)

Environmental Status (Chapter 8.3)
Port Access and Active Users
The Administrator can see which Users have access privileges with which serial ports:

Select the Status: Port Access
The Administrator can also see the current status as to Users who have active sessions on those ports:

12.2
Select the Status: Active Users
Statistics
The Statistics report provides a snapshot of the status, current traffic, and other activities and operations of your console
server:

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 You can find detailed statistics reports by selecting the various submenus.
12.3
Support Reports
The Support Report provides useful status information that will assist the Black Box Technical Support team to solve any
problems you may experience with your console server.
If you do experience a problem and have to contact tech support, make sure you include the Support Report with your
email support request. The Support Report is generated when the issue is occurring, and is attached in plain text format.

Select Status: Support Report and you will be presented with a status snapshot.

Save the file as a text file and attach it to your support email.
12.4
Syslog
The Linux System Logger in the console server maintains a record of all system messages and errors:

Select Status: Syslog
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You can redirect the syslog record to a remote Syslog Server:

Enter the remote Syslog Server Address and Syslog Server Port details and click Apply.
The console maintains a local Syslog. To view the local Syslog file:

Select Status: Syslog
To make it easier to find information in the local Syslog file, use the provided pattern matching filter tool.

12.5
Specify the Match Pattern that you want to search for (for example, the search for mount is shown below) and
click Apply. The Syslog will then be represented with only those entries that actually include the specified pattern.
Dashboard
The Dashboard provides the Administrator with a summary of the status of the console server and its Managed Devices.
You can configure custom dashboards for each user group.
12.5.1 Configuring the Dashboard
Only users who are members of the admin group (and the root user) can configure and access the dashboard. To
configure a custom dashboard:
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
Select System: Configure Dashboard and select the user (or group) you are configuring this custom dashboard
layout for.

Click Next.
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Note: You can configure a custom dashboard for any admin user or for the admin group or you can reconfigure the
default dashboard.
The Status:Dashboard screen is the first screen displayed when admin users (other than root) log into the console
manager. If you log in as “John,” and John is member of the admin group and there is a dashboard layout
configured for John, then you will see the dashboard for John upon log-in and each time you click on the
Status:Dashboard menu item.
If there is no dashboard layout configured for John, but there is an admin group dashboard configured, then you
will see the admin group dashboard instead. If there is no user dashboard or admin group dashboard configured,
then you will see the default dashboard.
The root user does not have its own dashboard.
Use the above configuration options to enable admin users to setup their own custom dashboards.
The Dashboard displays six widgets. These widgets include each of the Status screens (alerts, devices, ports ups, rpc,
and environmental status) and a custom script screen. The admin user can configure which of these widgets will be
displayed where:

Go to the Dashboard layout panel and select which widget is to be displayed in each of the six display locations
(widget1 …6).

Click Apply.
Note:
The Alerts widget is a new screen that shows the current alerts status. When an alert gets triggered, a
corresponding .XML file is created in /var/run/alerts/. The dashboard scans all these files and displays a summary
status in the alerts widget. When an alert is deleted, the corresponding .XML files that belong to that alert are also
deleted.
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To configure what is to be displayed by each widget:

Go to the Configure widgets panel and configure each selected widget (for example, specify which UPS status
is to be displayed on the ups widget or the maximum number of Managed Devices to be displayed in the devices
widget.

Click Apply.
Note:
Dashboard configuration is stored in the /etc/config/config.xml file. Each configured dashboard will increase the
config file. If this file gets too big, you can run out of memory space on the console manager.
12.5.2 Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard
T o run a custom script inside a dashboard widget:
Create a file called "widget-<name>.sh" in the folder /etc/config/scripts/ where <name> can be anything. You can have as
many custom dashboard files as you want.
Inside this file you can put any code you want. When configuring the dashboard, choose "widget-<name>.sh" in the
dropdown list. The dashboard will run the script and display the output of the script commands directly on the screen,
inside the specific widget.
The best way to format the output would be to send HTML commands back to the browser by adding echo commands in
the script:
echo '<table>'
You can of course run any command and its output will be displayed in the widget window directly.
Below is an example script that writes the current date to a file, and then echoes HTML code back to the browser. The
HTML code gets an image from a specific URL and displays it in the widget.
#!/bin/sh
date >> /tmp/test
echo '<table>'
echo '<tr><td> This is my custom script running </td></tr>'
echo '<tr><td>'
echo '<img src="http://www.vinras.com/images/linux-online-inc.jpg">'
echo '</td></tr>'
echo '</table>'
exit 0
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Management Reports
The console server has a small number of Manage reports and tools that are available to both Administrators and Users:

Access and control authorized devices.

View serial port logs and host logs for those devices.

Use SDT Connector or the java terminal to access serially attached consoles.

Control power devices (where authorized).
All other Management Console menu items are available to Administrators only.
13.1
Device Management
To display the Managed Devices and their associated serial, network, and power connections:

Select Manage: Devices. The Administrator will be presented with a list of all configured Managed Devices,
whereas the User will only see the Managed Devices they (or their Group) have been given access privileges for.

Select Serial Network or Power for a view of the specific connections. The user can then take a range of actions
using these serial, network or power connections by selecting the Action icon or the related Manage menu item.
(For example, selecting the Manager Power icon [or Manage: Power from the menu] would enable the user to
power Off/On/Cycle any power outlet on any PDU the user has been given access privileges to [refer to Chapter 8
for details]).
13.2
Port and Host Logs
Administrators and Users can view logs of data transfers to connected devices.
 Select Manage: Port Logs and the serial Port # to be displayed.
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 To display Host logs, select Manage: Host Logs and the Host to be displayed.
13.3
Serial Port Terminal Connection
Administrator and Users can communicate directly with the console server command line and with devices attached to the
console server serial ports using SDT Connector and their local tenet client, or use a java terminal in their browser.

Select Manage: Terminal.

Click Connect to SDT Connector to access the console server’s command line shell or the serial ports via SDT
Connector. This will to activate the SDT Connector client on the computer you are browsing from and load your
local telnet client to connect to the command line or serial port using SSH.
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Note You must install SDT Connector on the computer you are browsing from and add and the console server as a
gateway as detailed in Chapter 6.
The alternate to using SDT Connector and your local telnet client is to run the open source jcterm java terminal applet into
your browser to connect to the console server and attached serial port devices. jcterm does have some JRE compatibility
issues that may prevent it from loading.

Select Manage: Terminal. The jcterm java applet is downloaded from the console server to your browser and the
virtual terminal will be displayed.

Select File -> Open SHELL Session from the jcterm menu to access the command line using SSH.

To access the console server’s command line, enter its TCP address (e.g. 192.168.254.198) as hostname and
the Username, for example, [email protected] Then enter the Password.

To access the console server's serial ports, append :serial to the username. With the gateway’s TCP address (for
example, 192.168.254.198), the Username (for example, root), enter root:[email protected] Then enter
Password and select the TCP Port address for the serial port to be accessed. By default 3001 is selected (that is,
Port 1). To access Port 4 for example, change this to 3004 for the Username.
13.4
Power Management
Administrators and Users can access and manage the connected power devices.
 Select Manage: Power
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Configuration from the Command Line
For those who prefer to configure their console server at the Linux command line level (rather than use a browser and the
Management Console), this chapter describes how to use command line access and the config tool to manage the
console server and configure the ports, etc.
This config documentation in this chapter walks through command line configuration to deliver the functions provided
using the Management Console GUI.
For advanced and custom configurations and for details using other tools and commands, refer to the next chapter.
When displaying a command, the convention used in the rest of this chapter is to use single quotes ('') for user-defined
values (for example, descriptions and names). Element values without single quotes must be typed exactly as shown.
After the initial section on accessing the config command, the menu items in this document follow the same structure as
the menu items in the web GUI.
14.1
Accessing config from the command line
The console server runs a standard Linux kernel and embeds a suite of open source applications. If you do not want to
use a browser and the Management Console tools, you can configure the console server and manage connected devices
from the command line using standard Linux and Busybox commands and applications such as ifconfig, gettyd, stty,
powerman, nut etc. Without care, these configurations may not withstand a power-cycle-reset or reconfigure.
Black Box provides a number of custom command line utilities and scripts to make it simple to configure the console
server and make sure the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc.
In particular, the config utility allows you to manipulate the system configuration from the command line. With config, you
can activate a new configuration by running the relevant configurator, which performs the action needed to make the
configuration changes live.
To access config from the command line:


Power on the console server and connect the “terminal” device:
o
If you are connecting using the serial line, plug a serial cable between the console server local DB9 console
port and terminal device. Configure the serial connection of the terminal device you are using to 115200 bps,
8 data bits, no parity, and one stop bit.
o
If you are connecting over the LAN, then you will need to interconnect the Ethernet ports and direct your
terminal emulator program to the IP address of the console server (192.168.0.1 by default).
Log on to the console server by pressing “return” a few times. The console server will request a username and
password. Enter the username root and the password default. You should now see the command line prompt
which is a hash (#).
This chapter is not intended to teach you Linux. We assume you already have a
certain level of understanding before you execute Linux kernel level commands.
The config tool
Syntax
config [ -ahv ] [ -d id ] [ -g id ] [ -p path ] [ -r configurator ] [ -s id=value ] [ -P id ]
Description
The config tool is designed to perform multiple actions from one command if needed, so options can be chained together.
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The config tool allows you to manipulate and query the system configuration from the command line. Using config, you
can activate the new configuration by running the relevant configurator that performs the action needed to make the
configuration changes live.
The custom user configuration is saved in the /etc/config/config.xml file. This file is transparently accessed and edited
when configuring the device using the Management Console browser GUI. Only the user “root” can configure from the
shell.
By default, the config elements are separated by a '.' character. The root of the config tree is called <config>. To address
a specific element place a '.' between each node/branch e.g. to access and display the description of user1 type:
# config -g config.users.user1.description
The root node of the config tree is <config>. To display the entire config tree, type:
# config -g config
To display the help text for the config command, type:
# config -h
The config application resides in the /bin directory. The environmental variable called PATH contains a route to the /bin
directory. This allows a user to simply type config at the command prompt instead of the full path /bin/config.
Options
-a –run-all
Run all registered configurators. This performs every configuration synchronization action
pushing all changes to the live system
-h –help
Display a brief usage message
-v –verbose
Log extra debug information.
-d –del=id
Remove the given configuration element specified by a '.' separated identifier.
-g –get=id
Display the value of a configuration element.
-p –path=file
Specify an alternate configuration file to use. The default file is located at
/etc/config/config.xml.
-r –run=configurator Run the specified registered configurator. Registered configurators are listed below.
-s --set=id=value
Change the value of configuration element specified by a '.' separated identifier.
-e --export=file
Save active configuration to file.
-i --import=file
Load configuration from file.
-t --test-import=file
Pretend to load configuration from file.
-S --separator=char
The pattern to separate fields with, default is '.'
-P --password=id
Prompt user for a value. Hash the value, then save it in id.
The registered configurators are:
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alerts
auth
cascade
console
dhcp
dialin
eventlog
hosts
ipaccess
ipconfig
nagios
power
serialconfig
services
slave
systemsettings
time
ups
users
There are three ways to delete a config element value. The simplest way is use the delete-node script detailed later in
Chapter 15. You can also assign the config element to "", or delete the entire config node using -d:
# /bin/config -d 'element name'
All passwords are saved in plaintext except the user passwords and the system passwords, which are encrypted.
Note: The config command does not verify whether the nodes edited/added by the user are valid. This means that any
node may be added to the tree. If a user runs the following command:
# /bin/config -s config.fruit.apple=sweet
The configurator will not complain, but this command is useless. When the configurators are run (to turn the
config.xml file into live config) they will simply ignore this <fruit> node. Administrators must make sure of the
spelling when typing config commands. Incorrect spelling for a node will not be flagged.
Most configurations made to the XML file will be immediately active. To make sure that all configuration changes are
active, especially when editing user passwords, run all the configurators:
# /bin/config -a
For information on backing up and restoring the configuration file, refer to Chapter 15, Advanced Configuration.
14.2
Serial Port configuration
The first set of configurations you need to make to any serial port are the RS-232 common settings. For example, setup
serial port 5 to use the following properties:
Baud Rate
Parity
Data Bits
Stop Bits
label
log level
protocol
flow control
9600
None
8
1
Myport
0
RS232
None
To do this, use the following commands:
# config -s config.ports.port5.speed=9600
# config -s config.ports.port5.parity=None
# config -s config.ports.port5.charsize=8
# config -s config.ports.port5.stop=1
# config -s config.ports.port5.label=myport
# config -s config.ports.port5.loglevel=0
# config -s config.ports.port5.protocol=RS232
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# config -s config.ports.port5.flowcontrol=None
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r serialconfig
Note: Supported serial port baud-rates are ‘50’, ‘75’, ‘110’, ‘134’, ‘150’, ‘200’, ‘300’, ‘600’,
‘1200’, ‘1800’, ‘2400’, ‘4800’, ‘9600’, '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'.
Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'.
Supported data-bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'.
Supported stop-bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'.
Supported flow-control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'.
Additionally, before any port can function properly, you need to set the port mode. Set any port to run in one of the five
possible modes (refer Chapter 4 for details): [Console server mode|Device mode|SDT mode|Terminal server mode|Serial
bridge mode]. All these modes are mutually exclusive.
Console server mode
The command to set the port in portmanager mode:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=portmanager
To set the following optional config elements for this mode:
Data accumulation period
100 ms
Escape character
% (default is ~)
log level
2 (default is 0)
Shell power command menu
Enabled
RFC2217 access
Enabled
Limit pot to 1 connection
Enabled
SSH access
Enabled
TCP access
Enabled
telnet access
Disabled
Unauthorized telnet access
Disabled
# config -s config.ports.port5.delay=100
# config -s config.ports.port5.escapechar=%
# config -s config.ports.port5.loglevel=2
# config -s config.ports.port5.powermenu=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.rfc2217=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.singleconn=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.ssh=on
# config -s config.ports.port5.tcp=on
# config -d config.ports.port5.telnet
# config -d config.ports.port5.unauthtel
Device Mode
For a device mode port, set the port type to ups, rpc, or enviro:
# config -s config.ports.port5.device.type=[ups | rpc | enviro]
For port 5 as a UPS port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved
For port 5 as an RPC port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=powerman
For port 5 as an Environmental port:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved
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SDT mode
To enable access over SSH to a host connected to serial port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=sdt
# config -s config.ports.port5.sdt.ssh=on
To configure a username and password when accessing this port with Username = user1 and Password = secret:
# config -s config.ports.port#.sdt.username=user1
# config -s config.ports.port#.sdt.password=secret
Terminal server mode
Enable a TTY login for a local terminal attached to serial port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=terminal
# config -s config.ports.port5.terminal=[vt220 | vt102 | vt100 | linux | ansi]
The default terminal is vt220.
Serial bridge mode
Create a network connection to a remote serial port via RFC-2217 on port 5:
# config -s config.ports.port5.mode=bridge
Optional configurations for the network address of RFC-2217 server of 192.168.3.3 and TCP port used by the RFC-2217
service = 2500:
# config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.address=192.168.3.3
# config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.port=2500
To enable RFC-2217 access: # config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.rfc2217=on
To redirect the serial bridge over an SSH tunnel to the server: # config -s config.ports.port5.bridge.ssh.enabled=on
Syslog settings
Additionally, the global system log settings can be set for any specific port, in any mode:
# config -s config.ports.port#.syslog.facility='facility'
'facility' can be:
Default
local 0-7
auth
authpriv
cron
daemon
ftp
kern
lpr
mail
news
user
uucp
# config -s config.ports.port#.syslog.priority='priority'
'priority' can be:
Default
warning
notice
Info
error
emergency
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debug
critical
alert
14.3
Adding and Removing Users
First, determine the total number of existing Users (if you have no existing Users you can assume this is 0):
# config -g config.users.total
This command should display config.users.total 1. Note that if you see config.users.total this means you have 0 Users
configured.
Your new User will be the existing total plus 1. If the previous command gave you 0, then you start with user number 1. If
you already have 1 user your new user will be number 2, etc.
To add a user (with Username=John, Password=secret and Description =mySecondUser) issue the commands:
# config -s config.users.total=2 (assuming we already have 1 user configured)
# config -s config.users.user2.username=John
# config -s config.users.user2.description=mySecondUser
# config -P config.users.user2.password
NOTE: The -P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value of any config
element using the -P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords are supported. If any other
element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and will have to be reset.
To add this user to specific groups (admin/users):
# config -s config.users.user2.groups.group1='groupname'
# config -s config.users.user2.groups.group2='groupname2'
etc...
To give this user access to a specific port:
# config -s config.users.user2.port1=on
# config -s config.users.user2.port2=on
# config -s config.users.user2.port5=on
etc...
To remove port access:
# config -s config.users.user2.port1='' (the value is left blank)
or simply:
# config -d config.users.user2.port1
The port number can be anything from 1 to 48, depending on the available ports on the specific console server.
For example, assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console server and the RPC is configured. To
give this user access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the 2 commands below:
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.user2=John
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total=2 (total number of users that have access to this outlet)
If more users are given access to this power outlet, then increment the 'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total'
element accordingly.
To give this user access to network host 5 (assuming the host is configured):
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user1=John
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=1 (total number of users having access to host)
To give another user called “Peter” access to the same host:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user2=Peter
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# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=2 (total number of users having access to host)
To edit any of the user element values, use the same approach as when adding user elements, that is, use the “-s”
parameter. If any of the config elements do not exist, they will automatically be created.
To delete the user called John, use the delete-node script:
# ./delete-node config.users.user2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r users
14.4
Adding and removing user Groups
The console server is configured with a few default user groups (even though only two of these groups are visible in the
Management Console GUI). To find out how many groups are already present:
# config -g config.groups.total
Assume this value is six. Make sure you number any new groups you create from seven and up.
To add a custom group to the configuration with Group name=Group7, Group description=MyGroup and Port access= 1,5
you’d issue the commands:
# config -s config.groups.group7.name=Group7
# config -s config.groups.group7.description=MyGroup
# config -s config.groups.total=7
# config -s config.groups.group7.port1=on
# config -s config.groups.group7.port5=on
Assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console manager, and the RPC is configured. To give this
group access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the two commands below:
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.group1=Group7
# config -s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total=1 (total number of groups that have access to this outlet)
If more groups are given access to this power outlet, then increment the 'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total'
element accordingly.
To give this group access to network host 5:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group1=Group7
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=1 (total number of groups having access to host)
To give another group called 'Group8' access to the same host:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group2=Group8
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=2 (total number of users having access to host)
To delete the group called Group7, use the following command:
# rmuser Group7
Attention: The rmuser script is a generic script to remove any config element from config.xml correctly. However, any
dependencies or references to this group will not be affected. Only the group details are deleted. The Administrator is
responsible for going through config.xml and removing group dependencies and references manually, specifically if the
group had access to a host or RPC device.
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.5
Authentication
To change the type of authentication for the console server:
# config -s config.auth.type='authtype'
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'authtype' can be:
Local
LocalTACACS
TACACS
TACACSLocal
TACACSDownLocal
LocalRADIUS
RADIUS
RADIUSLocal
RADIUSDownLocal
LocalLDAP
LDAP
LDAPLocal
LDAPDownLocal
To configure TACACS authentication:
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction and authorization
servers.)
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting servers. If unset,
Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.)
# config -s config.auth.tacacs.password='password'
To configure RADIUS authentication:
# config -s config.auth.radius.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction and authorization
servers.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting servers. If unset,
Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.password='password'
To configure LDAP authentication:
# config -s config.auth.ldap.server='comma separated list' (list of remote servers.)
# config -s config.auth.ldap.basedn='name' (The distinguished name of the search base. For example: dc=mycompany,dc=com)
# config -s config.auth.ldap.binddn='name' (The distinguished name to bind to the server with. The default is to
bind anonymously.)
# config -s config.auth.radius.password='password'
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r auth
14.6
Network Hosts
To determine the total number of currently configured hosts:
# config -g config.sdt.hosts.total
Assume this value is equal to 3. If you add another host, make sure you increment the total number of hosts from 3 to 4:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.total=4
If the output is config.sdt.hosts.total then assume 0 hosts are configured.
Add power device host
To add a UPS/RPC network host with the following details:
IP address/ DNS name
192.168.2.5
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Host name
Description
Type
Allowed services
Log level for services
remoteUPS
UPSroom3
UPS
ssh port 22 and https port 443
0
Issue the commands below:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.2.5
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=remoteUPS
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=UPSroom3
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type=ups
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=0
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2=443
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2.loglevel=0
The loglevel can have a value of 0 or 1.
The default services that you should configure are: 22/tcp (ssh), 23/tcp (telnet), 80/tcp (http), 443/tcp (https), 1494/tcp
(ica), 3389/tcp (rdp), 5900/tcp (vnc)
Add other network host
To add any other type of network host with the following details:
IP address/ DNS name
Host name
Description
Allowed sevices
log level for services
192.168.3.10
OfficePC
MyPC
ssh port 22,https port 443
1
Issue the commands below. If the Host is not a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power control, then leave
the device type blank:
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.3.10
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=MyPC
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=OfficePC
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type='' (leave this value blank)
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=1
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcppport2=443
# config -s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcpport2.loglevel=1
If you want to add the new host as a managed device, make sure you use the current total number of managed devices +
1, for the new device number.
To get the current number of managed devices:
# config -g config.devices.total
Assuming we already have one managed device, our new device will be device 2. Issue the following commands:
# config -s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.name=192.168.3.10
# config -s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.type=Host
# config -s config. devices.device2.name=OfficePC
# config -s config. devices.device2.description=MyPC
# config -s config.devices.total=2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -hosts
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14.7
Trusted Networks
You can further restrict remote access to serial ports based on the source IP address. To configure this via the command
line, you need to do the following:
Determine the total number of existing trusted network rules. If you have no existing rules, you can assume this is 0.
# config -g config.portaccess.total
This command should display config.portaccess.total 1
Note that if you see config.portaccess.total this means you have 0 rules configured.
Your new rule will be the existing total plus 1. So if the previous command gave you 0, then you start with rule number 1.
If you already have 1 rule your new rule will be number 2, etc.
If you want to restrict access to serial port 5 to computers from a single class C network (192.168.5.0 for example), you
need to issue the following commands (assuming you have a previous rule in place).
Add a trusted network:
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.address=192.168.5.0
# config -s "config.portaccess.rule2.description=foo bar"
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.netmask=255.255.255.0
# config -s config.portaccess.rule2.port5=on
# config -s config.portaccess.total=2
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r serialconfig
14.8
Cascaded Ports
To add a new slave device with the following settings:
IP address/DNS name
Description
Label
Number of ports
16
192.168.0.153
Console in office 42
les1116-5
The following commands must be issued:
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.address=192.168.0.153
# config -s "config.cascade.slaves.slave1.description=CM in office 42"
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.label=les1116-5
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.ports=16
The total number of slaves must also be incremented. If this is the first slave you’re adding, type:
# config -s config.cascade.slaves.total=1
Increment this value when adding more slaves.
NOTE: If a slave is added using the CLI, then the master SSH public key will need to be manually copied to every slave
device before cascaded ports will work (refer Chapter 4).
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r cascade
14.9
UPS Connections
Managed UPSes
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Before adding a managed UPS, make sure that at least 1 port has been configured to run in 'device mode', and that the
device is set to 'ups'.
To add a managed UPS with the following values:
Connected via
UPS name
Description
Username to connect to UPS
Password to connect to UPS
shutdown order
Driver
Driver option - option
Driver option - argument
Logging
Log interval
Run script when power is critical
Port 1
My UPS
UPS in room 5
User2
secret
2 (0 shuts down first)
genericups
option
argument
Enabled
2 minutes
Enabled
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port01
If the port number is higher than 9, eg port 13, enter:
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port13
# config -s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.name=My UPS"
# config -s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.description=UPS in room 5"
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.username=User2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.password=secret
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.sdorder=2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.driver=genericups
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.opt=option
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.arg=argument
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.total=1
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.interval=2
# config -s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.script.enabled=on
Make sure to increment the total monitors:
# config -s config.ups.monitors.total=1
The five commands below will add the UPS to Managed devices. Assuming there are already two managed devices
configured:
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=My UPS"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=UPS Unit"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.name=My UPS"
# config -s "config.devices.device3.description=UPS in toom 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=3
To delete this managed UPS:
# config -d config.ups.monitors.monitor1
Decrement monitors.total when deleting a managed UPS.
Remote UPSes
To add a remote UPS with the following details (assuming this is our first remote UPS):
UPS name
Description
Address
Log status
174
oldUPS
UPS in room 2
192.168.50.50
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Log rate
Run shutdown script
240 seconds
Enabled
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.name=oldUPS
# config -s "config.ups.remotes.remote1.description=UPS in room 2"
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.address=192.168.50.50
# config -d config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.enabled
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.interval=240
# config -s config.ups.remotes.remote1.script.enabled=on
# config -s config.ups.remotes.total=1
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.10 RPC Connections
You can add an RPC connection from the command line. We do not recommend that you do this because of dependency
issues.
However FYI before adding an RPC the Management Console GUI code makes sure that at least one port has been
configured to run in 'device mode', and that the device is set to 'rpc'.
To add an RPC with the following values:
RPC type
Connected via
UPS name
Description
Login name for device
Login password for device
SNMP community
Logging
Log interval
Number of power outlets
APC 7900
Port 2
MyRPC
RPC in room 5
rpclogin
secret
v1 or v2c
Enabled
600 second
4 (depends on the type/model of the RPC)
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.type=APC 7900
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.name=MyRPC
# config -s "config.ports.port2.power.description=RPC in room 5"
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.username=rpclogin
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.password=secret
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.snmp.community=v1
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.log.interval=600
# config -s config.ports.port2.power.outlets=4
The following five commands are used by the Management Console to add the RPC to “Managed Devices”:
# config -s config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=myRPC
# config -s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=RPC Unit"
# config -s config.devices.device3.name=myRPC
# config -s "config.devices.device3.description=RPC in room 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=3
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
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14.11 Environmental
To configure an environmental monitor with the following details:
Monitor name
Monitor Description
Temperature offset
Humidity offset
Enable alarm 1 ?
Alarm 1 label
Enable alarm 2 ?
Alarm 2 label
Logging enabled ?
Log interval
Envi4
Monitor in room 5
2
5
yes
door alarm
yes
window alarm
yes
120 seconds
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.name=Envi4
# config -s "config.ports.port3.enviro.description=Monitor in room 5"
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.temp=2
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.humid=5
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.alarmstate=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.label=door alarm
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.alarmstate=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.label=window alarm
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.total=2
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.enabled=on
# config -s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.interval=120
Assign alarms.total=2 even if they are off.
The following 5 commands will add the environmental monitor to “Managed devices”:
To get the total number of managed devices:
# config -g config.devices.total
Make sure you use the total + 1 for the new device below:
# config -s config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.name=Envi4
# config -s "config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.type=EMD Unit"
# config -s config. devices.device5.name=Envi4
# config -s "config. devices.device5.description=Monitor in room 5"
# config -s config.devices.total=5
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.12 Managed Devices
To add a managed device: (also see UPS, RPC connections and Environmental)
# config -s "config.devices.device8.name=my device"
# config -s "config.devices.device8.description=The eighth device"
# config -s "config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.name=my device"
# config -s config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.type=[serial | Host | UPS | RPC]
# config -s config.devices.total=8
(decrement this value when deleting a managed device)
To delete the above managed device:
# config -d config.devices.device8
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
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# config -a
14.13 Port Log
To configure serial/network port logging:
# config -s config.eventlog.server.address='remote server ip address'
# config -s config.eventlog.server.logfacility='facility'
'facility' can be:
Daemon
Local 0-7
Authentication
Kernel
User
Syslog
Mail
News
UUCP
# config -s config.eventlog.server.logpriority='priority'
'priority' can be:
Info
Alert
Critical
Debug
Emergency
Error
Notice
Warning
Assume the remote log server needs a username 'name1' and password 'secret':
# config -s config.eventlog.server.username=name1
# config -s config.eventlog.server.password=secret
To set the remote path as '/Black Box/logs' to save logged data:
# config -s config.eventlog.server.path=/Black Box/logs
# config -s config.eventlog.server.type=[none | syslog | nfs | cifs | usb]
If the server type is set to usb, none of the other values need to be set. The mount point for storing on a remote USB
device is /var/run/portmanager/logdir
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.14 Alerts
You can add an email, SNMP or NAGIOS alert by following the steps below.
The general settings for all alerts
Assume this is our second alert, and we want to send alert emails to [email protected] Box.com and sms's to [email protected]
Box.com:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.description=MySecondAlert
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
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To use NAGIOS to notify of this alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.nsca.enabled=on
To use SNMP to notify of this alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.snmp.enabled=on
Increment the total alerts:
# config -s config.alerts.total=2
Below are the specific settings depending on the type of alert required:
Connection Alert
To trigger an alert when a user connects to serial port 5 or network host 3:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.host3='host name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port5=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=login
Signal Alert
To trigger an alert when a signal changes state on port 1:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port1=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=[ DSR | DCD | CTS ]
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=signal
Pattern Match Alert
To trigger an alert if the regular expression '.*0.0% id' is found in serial port 10's character stream.
# config -s "config.alerts.alert2.pattern=.*0.0% id"
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.port10=on
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=pattern
UPS Power Status Alert
To trigger an alert when myUPS (on localhost) or thatUPS (on remote host 192.168.0.50) power status changes between
on line, on battery and low battery.
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=ups
# config -s [email protected]
# config -s [email protected]
Environmental and Power Sensor Alert
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical='critical value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning='warning value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis='value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical='critical value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning='warning value'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1='Enviro sensor name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet#='RPCname'.outlet#
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'alert2.outlet#' increments sequentially with each added outlet. The second 'outlet#' refers to the specific RPC
power outlets.
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.rpc#='RPC name'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=[ temp | humid | load | charge]
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.ups1='[email protected]'
Example1: To configure a temperature sensor alert for a sensor called 'SensorInRoom42':
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=60
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=50
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=2
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=5
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=10
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1=SensorInRoom42
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
Example2: To configure a load sensor alert for outlets 2 and 4 for an RPC called 'RPCInRoom20':
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet1='RPCname'.outlet2
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.outlet2='RPCname'.outlet4
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=300
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=280
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=20
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=50
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=70
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.rpc1=RPCInRoom20
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=load
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro
Alarm Sensor Alert
To set an alert for 'doorAlarm' and 'windowAlarm' that are two alarms connected to an environmental sensor called
'SensorInRoom3'. Both alarms are disabled on Mondays from 8:15 am to 2:30 pm:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm1 (doorAlarm)
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm2 (windowAlarm)
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=8
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=15
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=14
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=30
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.description='description'
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.type=alarm
To enable an alarm for the entire day:
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=0
# config -s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=0
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
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# config -r alerts
14.15 SMTP & SMS
To set-up an SMTP mail or SMS server with the following details:
Outgoing server address
Secure connection type
Sender
Server username
Server password
Subject line
mail.Black Box.com
SSL
[email protected] Box.com
john
secret
SMTP alerts
# config -s config.system.smtp.server=mail.Black Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.encryption=SSL (can also be TLS or None )
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.username=john
# config -s config.system.smtp.password=secret
# config -s config.system.smtp.subject=SMTP alerts
To set-up an SMTP SMS server with the same details as above:
# config -s config.system.smtp.server2=mail.Black Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.encryption2=SSL (can also be TLS or None )
# config -s [email protected] Box.com
# config -s config.system.smtp.username2=john
# config -s config.system.smtp.password2=secret
# config -s config.system.smtp.subject2=SMTP alerts
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.16 SNMP
To set-up the SNMP agent on the device:
# config -s config.system.snmp.protocol=[ UDP | TCP ]
# config -s config.system.snmp.trapport='port number' (default is 162)
# config -s config.system.snmp.address='NMS IP network address'
# config -s config.system.snmp.commnity='community name' (v1 and v2c only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.engineid='ID' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.username='username' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.password='password' (v3 only)
# config -s config.system.snmp.version=[ 1 | 2c | 3 ]
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.17 Administration
To change the administration settings to:
System Name
System Password (root account)
Description
og.mydomain.com
secret
Device in office 2
# config -s config.system.name=og.mydomain.com
# config -P config.system.password
(will prompt user for a password)
# config -s "config.system.location=Device in office 2"
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NOTE: The -P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value of any config
element using the -P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords are supported. If any other
element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and will have to be reset.
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.18 IP settings
To configure the primary network interface with static settings:
IP address
192.168.0.23
Netmask
255.255.255.0
Default gateway 192.168.0.1
DNS server 1
192.168.0.1
DNS server 2
192.168.0.2
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.address=192.168.0.23
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.netmask=255.255.255.0
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.gateway=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.dns1=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.dns2=192.168.0.2
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.mode=static
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.media=[ Auto | 100baseTx-FD | 100baseTx-HD | 10baseT-HD ] 10baseT-FD
To enable bridging between all interfaces:
# config -s config.system.bridge.enabled=on
To enable IPv6 for all interfaces
# config -s config.system.ipv6.enabled=on
To configure the management LAN interface, use the same commands as above but replace:
config.interfaces.wan, with config.interfaces.lan
Note: Not all devices have a management LAN interface.
To configure a failover device in case of an outage:
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address1='ip address'
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address2='ip address'
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.failover.interface=[ eth1 | console | modem ]
The network interfaces can also be configured automatically:
# config -s config.interfaces.wan.mode=dhcp
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.mode=dhcp
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# /bin/config –-run=ipconfig
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r ipconfig
14.19
Date & Time Settings
To enable NTP using a server at pool.ntp.org, issue the following commands:
# config -s config.ntp.enabled=on
# config -s config.ntp.server=pool.ntp.org
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Alternatively, you can manually change the clock settings:
To change running system time:
# date 092216452005.05
Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]
Then the following command will save this new system time to the hardware clock:
# /bin/hwclock -systohc
Alternatively, to change the hardware clock:
# /bin/hwclock -- set --date=092216452005.05
Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]
Then the following command will save this new hardware clock time as the system time:
# /bin/hwclock -hctosys
To change the timezone:
# config -s config.system.timezone=US/Eastern
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -r time
14.20 Dial-in settings
To enable dial-in access on the DB9 serial port from the command line with the following attributes:
Local IP Address
Remote IP Address
Authentication Type:
Serial Port Baud Rate:
Serial Port Flow Control:
Custom Modem Initialization:
Callback phone
User to dial as
Password for user
172.24.1.1
172.24.1.2
MSCHAPv2
115200
Hardware
ATQ0V1H0
0800223665
user1
secret
Run the following commands:
# config -s config.console.ppp.localip=172.24.1.1
# config -s config.console.ppp.remoteip=172.24.1.2
# config -s config.console.ppp.auth=MSCHAPv2
# config -s config.console.speed=115200
# config -s config.console.flow=Hardware
# config -s config.console.initstring=ATQ0V1H0
# config -s config.console.ppp.enabled=on
# config -s config.console.ppp.callback.enabled=on
# config -s config.console.ppp.callback.phone1=0800223665
# config -s config.console.ppp.username=user1
# config -s config.console.ppp.password=secret
To make the dialed connection the default route:
# config -s config.console.ppp.defaultroute=on
Please note that supported authentication types are 'None', 'PAP', 'CHAP' and 'MSCHAPv2'.
Supported serial port baud-rates are '9600', '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'.
Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'.
Supported data-bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'.
Supported stop-bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'.
Supported flow-control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'.
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If you do not want to use out-of-band dial-in access, note that the procedure for enabling start-up messages on the
console port is covered in Chapter 15—Accessing the Console Port.
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.21 DHCP server
To enable the DHCP server on the console management LAN, with settings:
Default lease time
Maximum lease time
DNS server1
DNS server2
Domain name
Default gateway
IP pool 1 start address
IP pool 1 end address
Reserved IP address
MAC to reserve IP for
Name to identify this host
200000 seconds
300000 seconds
192.168.2.3
192.168.2.4
company.com
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.20
192.168.0.100
192.168.0.50
00:1e:67:82:72:d9
John-PC
Issue the commands:
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.enabled=on
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.defaultlease=200000
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.maxlease=300000
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns1=192.168.2.3
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns2=192.168.2.4
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.domain=company.com
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.gateway=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.start=192.168.0.20
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.end=192.168.0.100
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.total=1
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.ip=192.168.0.50
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.mac=00:1e:67:82:72:d9
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.host=John-PC
# config -s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.total=1
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.22 Services
You can manually enable or disable network servers from the command line. For example, if you wanted to guarantee the
following server configuration:
HTTP Server
HTTPS Server
Telnet Server
SSH Server
SNMP Server
Ping Replies (Respond to ICMP echo requests)
TFTP server
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
# config -s config.services.http.enabled=on
# config -d config.services.https.enabled
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# config -d config.services.telnet.enabled
# config -s config.services.ssh.enabled=on
# config -d config.services.snmp.enabled
# config -d config.services.pingreply.enabled
# config -s config.services.tftp.enabled=on
To set secondary port ranges for any service
# config -s config.services.telnet.portbase='port base number'
Default: 2000
# config -s config.services.ssh.portbase='port base number'
Default: 3000
# config -s config.services.tcp.portbase='port base number'
Default: 4000
# config -s config.services.rfc2217.portbase='port base number' Default: 5000
# config -s config.services.unauthtel.portbase='port base number Default: 6000
The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration:
# config -a
14.23 NAGIOS
To configure NAGIOS with the following settings:
NAGIOS host name
NAGIOS host address
NAGIOS server address
Enable SDT for NAGIOS ext.
SDT gateway address
Prefer NRPE over NSCA
console at R3 (Name of this system)
192.168.0.1 (IP to find this device at)
192.168.0.10 (upstream NAGIOS server)
Enabled
192.168.0.1 (defaults to host address)
Disabled (defaults to Disabled)
# config -s config.system.nagios.enabled=on
# config -s config.system.nagios.name=les1116
# config -s config.system.nagios.address=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.system.nagios.server.address=192.168.0.10
# config -s config.system.nagios.sdt.disabled=on
(diables SDT for nagios extensions)
# config -s config.system.nagios.sdt.address=192.168.0.1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.prefer=''
To configure NRPE with following settings:
NRPE port
NRPE user
NRPE group
Allow command arguments
5600 (port to listen on for nrpe. Defualts to 5666)
user1 (User to run as. Defaults to nrpe)
group1 (Group to run as. Defaults to nobody)
Enabled
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.enabled=on
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.port=5600
# config -s config.system.nagios.user=user1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.group=group1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nrpe.cmdargs=on
To configure NSCA with the following settings:
NSCA encryption
BLOWFISH (can be: [ None | XOR | DES | TRPLEDES | CAST-256 | BLOWFISH
| TWOFISH | RIJNDAEL-256 | SERPENT | GOST ]
NSCA password
secret
NSCA check-in interval
5 minutes
NSCA port
5650 (defaults to 5667)
user to run as
User1 (defaults to nsca)
group to run as
Group1 (defaults to nobody)
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.enabled=on
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# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.encryption=BLOWFISH
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.secret=secret
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.interval=2
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.port=5650
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.user=User1
# config -s config.system.nagios.nsca.group=Group1
Then synchronize the live system with the new configuration using # config –a
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Advanced Configuration
Black Box console servers run the embedded Linux operating system. So Administrator class users can configure the
console server and monitor and manage attached serial console and host devices from the command line using Linux
commands and the config utility as described in Chapter 14.
The Linux kernel in the console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to run custom
scripts. This chapter presents a number of useful scripts and scripting tools including:
-
delete-node which is a general script for deleting users, groups, hosts, UPSes etc.
-
ping-detect which will run specified commands when a specific host stops responding to ping requests.
This chapter then details how to perform advanced and custom management tasks using Black Box commands, Linux
commands, and the open source tools embedded in the console server:
-
portmanager serial port management
-
raw data access to the ports and modems
-
iptables modifications and updating IP filtering rules
-
modifying SNMP with net-snmpd
-
public key authenticated SSH communications
-
SSL, configuring HTTPS and issuing certificates
-
using pmpower for NUT and PowerMan power device management
-
using IPMItools
-
CDK custom development kit
15.1 Custom Scripting
The console server supports GNU bash shell commands (refer to Appendix A) enabling the Administrator to run custom
scripts.
15.1.1 Custom script to run when booting
The /etc/config/rc.local script runs whenever the system boots. By default, this script file is empty. You can add any
commands to this file if you want them to run at boot time (for example, if you wanted to display hello world:)
#!/bin/sh
echo "Hello World!"
If this script has been copied from a Windows machine, you may need to run the following command on the script before
bash can run it successfully:
# dos2unix /etc/config/rc.local
Another scenario would be to call another custom script from the /etc/config/rc.local file, making sure that your custom
script will run whenever the system is booted.
15.1.2 Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered
Whenever an alert gets triggered, specific scripts get called. These scripts all reside in /etc/scripts/. Below is a list of the
default scripts that get run for each applicable alert:
-
For a connection alert (when a user connects or disconnects from a port or network host): /etc/scripts/portmanageruser-alert (for port connections) or /etc/scripts/sdt-user-alert (for host connections)
-
For a signal alert (when a signal on a port changes state): /etc/scripts/portmanager-signal-alert
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-
For a pattern match alert (when a specific regular expression is found in the serial ports character stream):
/etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
-
For a UPS status alert (when the UPS power status changes between on line, on battery, and low battery):
/etc/scripts/ups-status-alert
-
For a environmental, power and alarm sensor alerts (temperature, humidity, power load, and battery charge alerts):
/etc/scripts/environmental-alert
-
For an interface failover alert: /etc/scripts/interface-failover-alert
All of these scripts do a check to see whether you have created a custom script to run instead. The code that does this
check is shown below (an extract from the file /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert):
# If there's a user-configured script, run it instead
scripts[0]="/etc/config/scripts/pattern-alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}"
scripts[1]="/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert"
for (( i=0 ; i < ${#scripts[@]} ; i++ )); do
if [ -f "${scripts[$i]}" ]; then
exec /bin/sh "${scripts[$i]}"
fi
done
This code shows that there are two alternative scripts that can be run instead of the default one. This code first checks
whether a file "/etc/config/scripts/pattern-alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}" exists. The variable ${ALERT_PORTNAME} must
be replaced with "port01" or "port13" or whichever port the alert should run for. If this file cannot be found, the script
checks whether the file "/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert" exists. If either of these files exists, the script calls
the exec command on the first file that it finds and runs that custom file/script instead.
As an example, you can copy the /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert script file to /etc/config/scripts/portmanagerpattern-alert:
# cd /
# mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist)
# cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
The next step will be to edit the new script file. First, open the file /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert using vi (or
any other editor), and remove the lines that check for a custom script (the code from above). This will prevent the new
custom script from repeatedly calling itself. After these lines have been removed, edit the file, or add any additional
scripting to the file.
15.1.3 Example script - Power Cycling on Pattern Match
For example, we have an RPC (PDU) connected to port 1 on a console server and also have some telecommunications
device connected to port 2 (which is powered by the RPC outlet 3). Now assume the telecom device transmits a character
stream "EMERGENCY" out on its serial console port every time that it encounters some specific error, and the only way to
fix this error is to power cycle the telecom device.
The first step is to setup a pattern-match alert on port 2 to check for the pattern "EMERGENCY".
Next we need to create a custom script to deal with this alert:
# cd /
# mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist)
# cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-pattern-alert
Note: Make sure to remove the if statement (which checks for a custom script) from the new script, in order to prevent an
infinite loop.
The pmpower utility is used to send power commands to RPC device in order to power cycle our telecom device:
# pmpower -l port01 -o 3 cycle (The RPC is on serial port 1. The telecom device is powered by RPC outlet 3)
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We can now append this command to our custom script. This will guarantee that our telecom device will be power cycled
every time the console reads the "EMERGENCY" character stream on port 2.
15.1.4 Example script - Multiple email notifications on each alert
If you want to send more than one email when an alert triggers, you have to create a replacement script using the method
described above and add the appropriate lines to your new script.
Currently, there is a script /etc/scripts/alert-email that runs from within all the alert scripts (for example, portmanager-useralert or environmental-alert). The alert-email script sends the email. The line that invokes the email script is as follows:
/bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-email $suffix &
If you want to send another email to a single address or the same email to many recipients, edit the custom script
appropriately. You can follow the examples in any of the seven alert scripts listed above. In particular, consider the
portmanager-user-alert script. If you need to send the same alert email to more than one email address, find the lines in
the script responsible for invoking the alert-email script, then add the following lines below the existing lines:
export TOADDR="[email protected]"
/bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-email $suffix &
These two lines assign a new email address to TOADDR and invoke the alert-email script in the background.
15.1.5 Deleting Configuration Values from the CLI
The delete-node script is provided to help with deleting nodes from the command line. The "delete-node" script takes one
argument, the node name you want to delete (for example, "config.users.user1" or "config.sdt.hosts.host1").
delete-node is a general script for deleting any node you desire (users, groups, hosts, UPSes, etc.) from the command
line. The script deletes the specified node and shuffles the remainder of the node values.
For example, if we have five users configured and we use the script to delete user 3, then user 4 will become user 3, and
user 5 will become user 4.
This creates an obvious complication because this script does NOT check for any other dependencies that the node being
deleted may have. You are responsible for making sure that any references and dependencies connected to the deleted
node are removed or corrected in the config.xml file.
The script treats all nodes the same. The syntax to run the script is # ./delete-node {node name}. To remove user 3:
# ./delete-node config.users.user3
The delete-node script
#!/bin/bash
#User must provide the node to be removed. e.g. "config.users.user1"
# Usage: delete-node {full node path}
if [ $# != 1 ]
then
echo "Wrong number of arguments"
echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}"
exit 2
fi
# test for spaces
TEMP=`echo "$1" | sed 's/.* .*/N/'`
if [ "$TEMP" = "N" ]
then
echo "Wrong input format"
echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}"
exit 2
fi
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# testing if node exists
TEMP=`config -g config | grep "$1"`
if [ -z "$TEMP" ]
then
echo "Node $1 not found"
exit 0
fi
# LASTFIELD is the last field in the node path e.g. "user1"
# ROOTNODE is the upper level of the node e.g. "config.users"
# NUMBER is the integer value extracted from LASTFIELD e.g. "1"
# TOTALNODE is the node name for the total e.g. "config.users.total"
# TOTAL is the value of the total number of items before deleting e.g. "3"
# NEWTOTAL is the modified total i.e. TOTAL-1
# CHECKTOTAL checks if TOTAL is the actual total items in .xml
LASTFIELD=${1##*.}
ROOTNODE=${1%.*}
NUMBER=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/^[a-zA-Z]*//g'`
TOTALNODE=`echo ${1%.*} | sed 's/\(.*\)/\1.total/'`
TOTAL=`config -g $TOTALNODE | sed 's/.* //'`
NEWTOTAL=$[ $TOTAL -1 ]
# Make backup copy of config file
cp /etc/config/config.xml /etc/config/config.bak
echo "backup of /etc/config/config.xml saved in /etc/config/config.bak"
if [ -z $NUMBER ] # test whether a singular node is being \
#deleted e.g. config.sdt.hosts
then
echo "deleting $1"
config -d "$1"
echo Done
exit 0
elif [ $NUMBER = $TOTAL ] # Test if only one item exists
then
echo "only one item exists"
# Deleting node
echo "Deleting $1"
config -d "$1"
# Modifying item total.
config -s "$TOTALNODE=0"
echo Done
exit 0
elif [ $NUMBER -lt $TOTAL ] # more than one item exists
then
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# Modify the users list so user numbers are sequential
# by shifting the users into the gap one at a time...
echo "Deleting $1"
LASTFIELDTEXT=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/[0-9]//g'`
CHECKTOTAL=`config -g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL`
if [ -z "$CHECKTOTAL" ]
then
echo "WARNING: "$TOTALNODE" greater than number of items"
fi
COUNTER=1
while [ $COUNTER != $((TOTAL-NUMBER+1)) ]
do
config -g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER)) \
| while read LINE
do
config -s \
"`echo "$LINE" | sed -e "s/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+ \
COUNTER))/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER-1))/" \
-e 's/ /=/'`"
done
let COUNTER++
done
# deleting last user
config -d $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL
# Modifying item total.
config -s "$TOTALNODE=$NEWTOTAL"
echo Done
exit 0
else
echo "error: item being deleted has an index greater than total items. Increase the total count variable."
exit 0
fi
15.1.6 Power Cycle any device when a ping request fails
The ping-detect script is designed to run specified commands when a monitored host stops responding to ping requests.
The first parameter taken by the ping-detect script is the hostname/IP address of the device to ping. Any other parameters
are then regarded as a command to run whenever the ping to the host fails. ping-detect can run any number of
commands.
Below is an example using ping-detect to power cycle an RPC (PDU) outlet whenever a specific host fails to respond to a
ping request. The ping-detect runs from /etc/config/rc.local to make sure that the monitoring starts whenever the system
boots.
Suppose we have a serially controlled RPC connected to port01 on a console server and have a router powered by outlet
3 on the RPC (and the router has an internal IP address of 192.168.22.2). The following instructions will show you how to
continuously ping the router. When the router fails to respond to a series of pings, the console server will send a
command to RPC outlet 3 to power cycle the router, and write the current date/time to a file:
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-
Copy the ping-detect script to /etc/config/scripts/ on the console server
-
Open /etc/config/rc.local using vi
-
Add the following line to rc.local:
/etc/config/scripts/ping-detect 192.168.22.2 /bin/bash -c "pmpower -l port01 -o 3 cycle && date" > /tmp/output.log &
The above command will cause the ping-detect script to continuously ping the host at 192.168.22.2 which is the router. If
the router crashes, it will no longer respond to ping requests. If this happens, the two commands pmpower and date will
run. The output from these commands is sent to the file /tmp/output.log so that we have a record. The ping-detect is also
run in the background using the "&".
Remember the rc.local script only runs by default when the system boots. You can manually run the rc.local script or the
ping-detect script if desired.
The ping-detect script
The above is just one example of using the ping-detect script. The idea of the script is to run any number of commands
when a specific host stops responding to ping requests. Here are details of the ping-detect script itself:
#!/bin/sh
# Usage: ping-detect HOST [COMMANDS...]
# This script takes 2 types of arguments: hostname/IPaddress to ping, and the commands to
# run if the ping fails 5 times in a row. This script can only take one host/IPaddress per
# instance. Multiple independent commands can be sent to the script. The commands will be
# run one after the other.
#
# PINGREP is the entire reply from the ping command
# LOSS is the percentage loss from the ping command
# $1 must be the hostname/IPaddress of device to ping
# $2... must be the commands to run when the pings fail.
COUNTER=0
TARGET="$1"
shift
# loop indefinitely:
while true
do
# ping the device 10 times
PINGREP=`ping -c 10 -i 1 "$TARGET" `
#get the packet loss percentage
LOSS=`echo "$PINGREP" | grep "%" | sed -e 's/.* \([0-9]*\)% .*/\1/'`
if [ "$LOSS" -eq "100" ]
then
COUNTER=`expr $COUNTER + 1`
else
COUNTER=0
sleep 30s
fi
if [ "$COUNTER" -eq 5 ]
then
COUNTER=0
"[email protected]"
sleep 2s
fi
done
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15.1.7 Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked
A configurator is responsible for reading the values in /etc/config/config.xml and making the appropriate changes live.
Some changes made by the configurators are part of the Linux configuration itself, such as user passwords or ipconfig.
Currently there are nineteen configurators. Each one is responsible for a specific group of config (for example, the "users"
configurator makes the user configurations in the config.xml file live). To see all the available configurators type the
following from a command line prompt:
# config
When a change is made using the Management Console web GUI, the appropriate configurator automatically runs. This
can be a problem if another Administrator makes a change using the Management Console. The configurator could
possibly overwrite any custom CLI/Linux configurations you may have set.
The solution is to create a custom script that runs after each configurator runs. After each configurator runs, it will check
whether that appropriate custom script exists. You can then add any commands to the custom script and they will be
invoked after the configurator runs.
The custom scripts must be in the correct location:
/etc/config/scripts/config-postTo create an alerts custom script:
# cd /etc/config/scripts
# touch config-post-alerts
# vi config-post-alerts
You could use this script to recover a specific backup config or overwrite a config or make copies of config files, etc.
15.1.8 Backing-up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick
The /etc/scripts/backup-usb script is written to save and load custom configuration using a USB flash disk. Before
saving configuration locally, you must prepare the USB storage device for use. To do this, disconnect all USB storage
devices except for the storage device you want to use.
Usage: /etc/scripts/backup-usb COMMAND [FILE]
COMMAND:
check-magic -- check volume label
set-magic -- set volume label
save [FILE] -- save configuration to USB
delete [FILE] -- delete a configuration tarbal from USB
list -- list available config backups on USB
load [FILE] -- load a specific config from USB
load-default -- load the default configuration
set-default [FILE] -- set which file becomes the default
The first thing to do is to check if the USB disk has a label:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb check-magic
If this command returns "Magic volume not found", then run the following command:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb set-magic
To save the configuration:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb save config-20May
To check if the backup was saved correctly:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb list
If this command does not display "* config-20May" then there was an error saving the configuration.
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The set-default command takes an input file as an argument and renames it to "default.opg". This default configuration
remains stored on the USB disk. The next time you want to load the default config, it will be sourced from the new
default.opg file. To set a config file as the default:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb set-default config-20May
To load this default:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb load-default
To load any other config file:
# /etc/scripts/backup-usb load {filename}
The /etc/scripts/backup-usb script can be executed directly with various COMMANDS or called from other custom scripts
you may create. We recommend that you do not customize the /etc/scripts/backup-usb script itself at all.
15.1.9 Backing-up the configuration off-box
If you do not have a USB port on your console server, you can back up the configuration to an off-box file. Before backing
up you need to arrange a way to transfer the backup off-box. This could be via an NFS share, a Samba (Windows) share
to USB storage, or copied off-box via the network. If backing up directly to off-box storage, make sure it is mounted.
/tmp is not a good location for the backup except as a temporary location before transferring it off-box. The /tmp directory
will not survive a reboot. The /etc/config directory is not a good place either, because it will not survive a restore.
Backup and restore should be done by the root user to make sure correct file permissions are set. The config command is
used to create a backup tarball:
config -e <Output File>
The tarball will be saved to the indicated location. It will contain the contents of the /etc/config/ directory in an
uncompressed and unencrypted form.
Example nfs storage:
# mount -t nfs 192.168.0.2:/backups /mnt # config -e /mnt/les4108.config # umount/mnt/
Example transfer off-box via scp:
# config -e /tmp/les4108.config
# scp /tmp/les4108.config 192.168.0.2:/backups
The config command is also used to restore a backup:
config -i <Input File>
This will extract the contents of the previously created backup to /tmp, and then synchronize the /etc/config directory with
the copy in /tmp.
One problem that can crop up here is that there is not enough room in /tmp to extract files to. The following command will
temporarily increase the size of /tmp:
mount -t tmpfs -o remount,size=2048k tmpfs /var
If restoring to either a new unit or one that has been factory defaulted, make sure that the process generating SSH keys
either stops or completes before restoring configuration. If this is not done, then a mix of old and new keys may be put in
place.
SSH uses these keys to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks. Logging in may be disrupted.
15.2 Advanced Portmanager
Black Box’s portmanger program manages the console server serial ports. It routes network connection to serial ports,
checks permissions, and monitors and logs all the data flowing to/from the ports.
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15.2.1 Portmanager commands
pmshell
The pmshell command acts similar to the standard tip or cu commands, but all serial port access is directed via the
portmanager.
Example: To connect to port 8 via the portmanager:
# pmshell -l port08
pmshell Commands:
Once connected, the pmshell command supports a subset of the '~' escape commands that tip/cu support. For
SSH you must prefix the escape with an additional ‘~’ command (i.e. use the ‘~~’ escape)
Send Break: Typing the character sequence '~b' will generate a BREAK on the serial port.
History: Typing the character sequence '~h' will generate a history on the serial port.
Quit pmshell: Typing the character sequence '~.' will exit from pmshell.
Set RTS to 1 run the command: pmshell --rts=1
Show all signals: # pmshell –signals
DSR=1 DTR=1 CTS=1 RTS=1 DCD=0
Read a line of text from the serial port:
# pmshell –getline
pmchat
The pmchat command acts similar to the standard chat command, but all serial port access is directed via the
portmanager.
Example: To run a chat script via the portmanager:
# pmchat -v -f /etc/config/scripts/port08.chat < /dev/port08
For more information on using chat (and pmchat) you should consult the UNIX man pages:
http://techpubs.sgi.com/library/tpl/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?coll=linux&db=man&fname=/usr/share/catman/man8/chat.8.html
pmusers
The pmusers command is used to query the portmanager for active user sessions.
Example: To detect which users are currently active on which serial ports:
# pmusers
This command will output nothing if there are no active users currently connected to any ports. Otherwise, it will respond
with a sorted list of usernames per active port:
Port 1:
user1
user2
Port 2:
user1
Port 8:
user2
The above output indicates that a user named “user1” is actively connected to ports 1 and 2, while “user2” is connected
to both ports 1 and 8.
portmanager daemon
There is normally no need to stop and restart the daemon. To restart the daemon normally, just run the command:
# portmanager
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Supported command line options are:
Force portmanager to run in the foreground:
Set the level of debug logging:
--nodaemon
--loglevel={debug,info,warn,error,alert}
Change which configuration file it uses: -c /etc/config/portmanager.conf
Signals
Sending a SIGHUP signal to the portmanager will cause it to re-read its configuration file
15.2.2 External Scripts and Alerts
The portmanager can execute external scripts on certain events.
When the portmanager opens a port:
-
It attempts to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.init (where XX is the number of the port, e.g. 08). The script is run
with STDIN and STDOUT both connected to the serial port.
-
If the script cannot be executed, then portmanager will execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.chat via the chat command
on the serial port.
When an alert occurs on a port:
-
The portmanager will attempt to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.alert (where XX is the port number, e.g. 08)
-
The script is run with STDIN containing the data which triggered the alert, and STDOUT redirected to /dev/null, NOT
to the serial port. If you want to communicate with the port, use pmshell or pmchat from within the script.
-
If the script cannot be executed, then the alert will be mailed to the address configured in the system administration
section.
When a user connects to any port:
-
If a file called /etc/config/pmshell-start.sh exists it is run when a user connects to a port. It is provided 2 arguments,
the "Port number" and the "Username". Here is a simple example:
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh >
#!/bin/sh
PORT="$1"
USER="$2"
echo "Welcome to port $PORT $USER"
< /etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
-
The return value from the script controls whether the user is accepted or not, if 0 is returned (or nothing is done on
exit as in the above script) the user is permitted, otherwise the user is denied access.
-
Here is a more complex script which reads from configuration to display the port label if available and denies access
to the root user:
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
#!/bin/sh
PORT="$1"
USER="$2"
LABEL=$(config -g config.ports.port$PORT.label | cut -f2- -d' ')
if [ "$USER" == "root" ]; then
echo "Permission denied for Super User"
exit 1
fi
if [ -z "$LABEL" ]; then
echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT"
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else
echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT ($LABEL)"
fi
</etc/config/pmshell-start.sh>
15.3 Raw Access to Serial Ports
15.3.1 Access to serial ports
You can use tip and stty to completely bypass the portmanager and have raw access to the serial ports.
When you run tip on a portmanager controlled port, portmanager closes that port, and stops monitoring it until tip releases
control of it.
With stty, the changes made to the port only “stick” until that port is closed and opened again. People probably will not
want to use stty for more than initial debugging of the serial connection.
If you want to use stty to configure the port, you can put stty commands in /etc/config/scripts/portXX.init which gets run
whenever portmanager opens the port.
Otherwise, any setup you do with stty will get lost when the portmanager opens the port. (The reason that portmanager
sets things back to its config rather than using whatever is on the port, is so the port is in a known good state, and will
work, no matter what things are done to the serial port outside of portmanager.)
15.3.2 Accessing the console/modem port
The console dial-in is handled by mgetty, with automatic PPP login extensions. mgetty is a smart getty replacement,
designed to be used with Hayes compatible data and data/fax modems. mgetty knows about modem initialization,
manual modem answering (your modem doesn’t answer if the machine isn’t ready), UUCP locking (you can use the
same device for dial-in and dial-out). mgetty provides very extensive logging facilities. All standard mgetty options are
supported.
Modem initialization strings:
-
To override the standard modem initialization string either use the Management Console (refer Chapter 5) or the
command line config tool (refer to Dial-In Configuration Chapter 14).
Enabling Boot Messages on the Console:
-
If you are not using a modem on the DB9 console port and instead want to connect to it directly via a Null Modem
cable, enable verbose mode, which allows you to see the standard Linux start-up messages. Follow these
commands:
# /bin/config --set=config.console.debug=on # /bin/config --run=console # reboot
-
If at some point in the future you chose to connect a modem for dial-in out-of-band access, you can reverse the
procedure with the following commands.
# /bin/config --del=config.console.debug # /bin/config --run=console # reboot
15.4 IP- Filtering
The console server uses the iptables utility to provide a stateful firewall of LAN traffic. By default, rules are automatically
inserted to allow access to enabled services, and serial port access via enabled protocols. The commands that add these
rules are contained in configuration files:
/etc/config/ipfilter
This is an executable shell script that runs whenever the LAN interface is brought up and whenever modifications are
made to the iptables configuration as a result of CGI actions or the config command line tool.
The basic steps performed are as follows:
-
The current iptables configuration is erased.
-
If a customized IP-Filter script exists it is executed and no other actions are performed.
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-
Standard policies are inserted that will drop all traffic not explicitly allowed to and through the system.
-
Rules are added which explicitly allow network traffic to access enabled services, for example, TTP, SNMP, etc.
-
Rules are added that explicitly allow traffic network traffic access to serial ports over enabled protocols e.g. Telnet,
SSH and raw TCP.
If the standard system firewall configuration is not adequate for your needs you can bypass it safely by creating a file at
/etc/config/filter-custom containing commands to build a specialized firewall. This firewall script will run whenever the
LAN interface is brought up (including initially) and will override any automated system firewall settings.
Below is a simple example of a custom script that creates a firewall using the iptables command. Only incoming
connections from computers on a C-class network 192.168.10.0 will be accepted when this script is installed at
/etc/config/filter-custom. Note that when this script is called, any preexisting chains and rules have been flushed from
iptables:
#/bin/sh
# Set default policies to drop any incoming or routable traffic
# and blindly accept anything from the 192.168.10.0 network.
iptables –-policy FORWARD DROP
iptables –-policy INPUT DROP
iptables –-policy OUTPUT ACCEPT
# Allow responses to outbound connections back in.
iptables –-append INPUT \
–-match state –-state ESTABLISHED,RELATED –-jump ACCEPT
# Explicitly accept any connections from computers on
# 192.168.10.0/24
iptables –-append INPUT –-source 192.168.10.0/24 –-jump ACCEPT
There’s good documentation about using the iptables command at the Linux netfilter website
http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html. There are also many high-quality tutorials and HOWTOs available via the
netfilter website, in particular peruse the tutorials listed on the netfilter HOWTO page.
15.5 Modifying SNMP Configuration
All console servers have the snmptrap daemon to send traps/notifications to remote SNMP servers on defined trigger
events (as detailed in Chapter 7). This daemon can be configured to send traps/notifications to multiple remote SNMP
servers (as outlined below).
Console servers also host the net-snmpd program which provides status information on demand through SNMP. netsnmpd responds to SNMP queries for management information from SNMP management software. Upon receiving a
request, it processes the request(s), collects the requested information and/or performs the requested operation(s) and
returns the information to the sender.
15.5.1 Retrieving status information using SNMP
The console servers can provide serial and device status information through SNMP. This includes
- Serial port status
- Active users
- Remote Power Control (RPC) and Power Distribution Unit (PDU) status
- Environmental Monitoring Device (EMD) status
- Signal alert status
- Environmental alert status and
- UPS alert status
The MIBs in your console server are located in /etc/snmp/mibs and they include:
OG-STATUS-MIB
This new MIB contains serial and connected device status
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information (for snmpstatusd & snmpalertd)
OG-SMI-MIB
Enterprise structure of management information
OGTRAP-MIB
SMIv1 traps from old MIBS (as smilint will not let SMIv1
structures coexist with SMIv2)
To retrieve status information using SNMP:
•
Select System: Services and enable the SNMP Server
•
•
Setup serial ports and devices as per operational requirements such as UPS, RPC/PDU and EMD
Copy the mibs from /etc/snmp/mibs on the product to a local directory using scp or Winscp. For example:
scp [email protected]:/etc/snmp/mibs/*
•
Using the snmpwalk and snmpget commands, the status information can be retrieved from any console server. For
example:
snmpwalk -Oa -v1 -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs -c public im4004 OG-STATUS-MIB::ogStatus
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snmpget -Oa -v1 -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs -c public im4004 OG-STATUS-MIB::ogSerialPortStatusSpeed.2
•
A mib browser may be used to explore the enterprise MIB structure. For example, the ogStatus tree is shown below:
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15.5.2 /etc/config/snmpd.conf
The net-snmpd is an extensible SNMP which includes built-in support for a wide range of MIB information modules, and
can be extended using dynamically loaded modules, external scripts and commands. snmpd when enabled should run
with a default configuration. Its behavior can be customized via the options in /etc/config/snmpd.conf.
Changing standard system information such as system contact, name and location can be achieved by editing
/etc/config/snmpd.conf file and locating the following lines:
sysdescr
syscontact
sysname
syslocation
"blackbox"
root <[email protected]>(configure /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
Not defined (edit /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
Not defined (edit /etc/default/snmpd.conf)
Simply change the values of sysdescr, syscontact, sysname and syslocation to the desired settings and restart snmpd.
The snmpd.conf provides is extremely powerful and too flexible to completely cover here. The configuration file itself is
commented extensively and good documentation is available at the net-snmp website http://www.net-snmp.org,
specifically:
Man Page:
http://www.net-snmp.org/docs/man/snmpd.conf.html
FAQ:
http://www.net-snmp.org/docs/FAQ.html
Net-SNMPD Tutorial:
http://www.net-snmp.org/tutorial/tutorial-5/demon/snmpd.html
15.5.3 Adding more than one SNMP server
To add more than one SNMP server for alert traps add the first SNMP server using the Management Console (refer
Chapter 7) or the command line config tool. Further SNMP servers are added manually using config.
Log in to the console server’s command line shell as root or an admin user. Refer back to the Management Console UI or
user documentation for descriptions of each field.
To set the Manager Protocol field:
config --set config.system.snmp.protocol2=UDP or
config --set config.system.snmp.protocol2=TCP
To set the Manager Address field:
config --set config.system.snmp.address2=w.x.y.z
.. replacing w.x.y.z with the IP address or DNS name.
To set the Manager Trap Port field
config --set config.system.snmp.trapport2=162
.. replacing 162 with the TCP/UDP port number
To set the Version field
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=1 or
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=2c or
config --set config.system.snmp.version2=3
To set the Community field (SNMP version 1 and 2c only)
config --set config.system.snmp.community2=yourcommunityname
.. replacing yourcommunityname with the community name
To set the Engine ID field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.engineid2=800000020109840301
.. replacing 800000020109840301 with the engine ID
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To set the Username field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.username2=yourusername
.. replacing yourusername with the username
config.system.snmp.username2 (3 only)
To set the Engine ID field (SNMP version 3 only)
config --set config.system.snmp.password2=yourpassword
.. replacing yourpassword with the password
Once the fields are set, apply the configuration with the following command:
config --run snmp
You can add a third or more SNMP servers by incrementing the "2" in the above commands, e.g.
config.system.snmp.protocol3, config.system.snmp.address3, etc
15.6
Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication
This section covers how to generate public and private keys in a Linux and Windows environment and configure SSH for
public key authentication. The steps to use in a Clustering environment are:
- Generate a new public and private key pair.
- Upload the keys to the Master and to each Slave console server.
- Fingerprint each connection to validate.
15.6.1 SSH Overview
Popular TCP/IP applications such as telnet, rlogin, ftp, and others transmit their passwords unencrypted. Doing this
across pubic networks like the Internet can have catastrophic consequences. It leaves the door open for eavesdropping,
connection hijacking, and other network-level attacks.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote
machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure communications
over insecure channels.
OpenSSH, the de facto open source SSH application, encrypts all traffic (including passwords) to effectively eliminate
these risks. Additionally, OpenSSH provides a myriad of secure tunneling capabilities, as well as a variety of
authentication methods.
OpenSSH is the port of OpenBSD's excellent OpenSSH[0] to Linux and other versions of Unix. OpenSSH is based on the
last free version of Tatu Ylonen's sample implementation with all patent-encumbered algorithms removed (to external
libraries), all known security bugs fixed, new features reintroduced, and many other clean-ups. http://www.openssh.com/
The only changes in the Black Box SSH implementation are:
-
PAM support
-
EGD[1]/PRNGD[2] support and replacements for OpenBSD library functions that are absent from other versions of
UNIX
-
The config files are now in /etc/config. e.g.
 /etc/config/sshd_config instead of /etc/sshd_config
 /etc/config/ssh_config instead of /etc/ssh_config
 /etc/config/users/<username>/.ssh/ instead of /home/<username>/.ssh/
15.6.2 Generating Public Keys (Linux)
To generate new SSH key pairs use the Linux ssh-keygen command. This will produce an RSA or DSA public/private key
pair and you will be prompted for a path to store the two key files, for example, id_dsa.pub (the public key) and id_dsa
(the private key). For example:
$ ssh-keygen -t [rsa|dsa]
Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
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Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
Create a new directory to store your generated keys. You can also name the files after the device they will be used for.
For example:
$ mkdir keys
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected]
$
Make sure that there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the Black Box devices will have
no way to supply it as runtime.
Full documentation for the ssh-keygen command can be found at http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=sshkeygen
15.6.3 Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering)
For Black Box console servers, the keys can be simply uploaded through the web interface, on the System:
Administration page. This enables you to upload stored RSA or DSA Public Key pairs to the Master and apply the
Authorized key to the slave and is described in Chapter 4. Once complete, you then proceed to Fingerprinting as
described below.
15.6.4 Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux)
Alternately, the public key can be installed on the unit remotely from the linux host with the scp utility as follows.
Assuming the user on the Management Console is called "fred"; the IP address of the console server is 192.168.0.1
(default); and the public key is on the linux/unix computer in ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub. Execute the following command on the
linux/unix computer:
scp ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub \
[email protected]:/etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys
The authorized_keys file on the console server needs to be owned by "fred", so login to the Management Console as root
and type:
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chown fred /etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys
Master
Slave
Slave
authorized_key
authorized_key
ssh-rsa
AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+t
[email protected]
ssh-rsa
AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+t
[email protected]
id_rsa
-----BEGIN RSA
PRIVATE KEY----MIIEogIBAAKCAQEA
yIPGsNf5+a0LnPUMc
nujXXPGiQGyD3b79
KZg3UZ4MjZI525sCy
opv4TJTvTK6e8QIYt
GYTByUdI
id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+tGHlAAA== [email protected]
If the Black Box device selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the authorized_keys file is simply a
copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be clients of the server, then the authorized_keys file will
contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and DSA keys may be freely mixed in the authorized_keys file. For example,
assume we already have one server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the control_room and the
plant_entrance:
$ ls /home/user/keys control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub $ cat
/home/user/keys/control_room.pub /home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub >
/home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server
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Master
Master
Slave
authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+tGHl
AAA== [email protected]
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaZr+OV01C8gdgz
XDg== [email protected]
id_dsa
-----BEGIN DSA
PRIVATE KEY----MIIBugIBAAKBgQCR
kixjJ0SKuiREXTM
x0PFp9HqBvEg7Ww9
oynY4QNiXj1YU7T
87ITLQiAhn3yp7ZWy
7Z5C3sLF8o46Go
id_rsa
-----BEGIN RSA
PRIVATE KEY----MIIEogIBAAKCAQEA
yIPGsNf5+a0LnPUMc
nujXXPGiQGyD3b79
KZg3UZ4MjZI525sCy
opv4TJTvTK6e8QIYt
GYTByUdI
ssh-dss
AAAAB3NzaZr+OV01C8gdgz
XDg== [email protected]
ssh-rsa
AAAAB3NzaC1yc2Efg4+tG
HlAAA== [email protected]
id_dsa.pub
id_rsa.pub
More documentation on OpenSSH can be found at:
http://openssh.org/portable.html
http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=ssh&sektion=1
http://www openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=sshd.
15.6.5 Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows)
This section describes how to generate and configure SSH keys using Windows.
First create a new user from the Black Box Management (the following example uses a user called "testuser") making
sure it is a member of the "users" group.
If you do not already have a public/private key pair you can generate them now using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar
tool:
PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/
OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/
For example, using PuTTYgen, make sure you have a recent version of the puttygen.exe (available from
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html) Make sure you have a recent version of WinSCP
(available from http://winscp.net/eng/download.php )
To generate a SSH key using PuTTY http://sourceforge.net/docs/F02/#clients:
-
Execute the PUTTYGEN.EXE program.
-
Select the desired key type SSH2 DSA (you may use RSA or DSA) within the Parameters section.
-
It is important that you leave the passphrase field blank.
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-
Click on the Generate button.
-
Follow the instruction to move the mouse over the blank area of the program in order to create random data used by
PUTTYGEN to generate secure keys. Key generation will occur once PUTTYGEN has collected sufficient random
data.
-
Create a new file " authorized_keys " (with notepad) and copy your public key data from the "Public key for pasting
into OpenSSH authorized_keys file" section of the PuTTY Key Generator, and paste the key data to the
"authorized_keys" file. Make sure there is only one line of text in this file.
-
Use WinSCP to copy this "authorized_keys" file into the users home directory: e.g.
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys of the Black Box gateway which will be the SSH server. You will need
to make sure this file is in the correct format with the correct permissions with the following commands:
# dos2unix \
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys && chown testuser \
/etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys
-
Using WinSCP copy the attached sshd_config over /etc/config/sshd_config on the server (Makes sure public key
authentication is enabled).
-
Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" to the client Black Box
device and typing (you should not need to enter anything): # ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no <server-ip>
To automate connection of the SSH tunnel from the client on every power-up you need to make the clients
/etc/config/rc.local look like the following:
#!/bin/sh
ssh -L9001:127.0.0.1:4001 -N -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no [email protected]<server-ip> &
This will run the tunnel redirecting local port 9001 to the server port 4001.
15.6.6 Fingerprinting
Fingerprints are used to ensure you are establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the first connection to
a remote server you will receive a fingerprint that you can use on future connections.
This fingerprint is related to the host key of the remote server. Fingerprints are stored in ~/.ssh/known_hosts.
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To receive the fingerprint from the remote server, log in to the client as the required user (usually root) and establish a
connection to the remote host:
# ssh remhost
The authenticity of host 'remhost (192.168.0.1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 8d:11:e0:7e:8a:6f:ad:f1:94:0f:93:fc:7c:e6:ef:56.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
At this stage, answer yes to accept the key. You should get the following message:
Warning: Permanently added 'remhost,192.168.0.1' (RSA) to the list of
known hosts.
You may be prompted for a password, but there is no need to log in— you have received the fingerprint and can Ctrl-C to
cancel the connection. If the host key changes you will receive the following warning, and not be allowed to connect to the
remote host:
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!
@
@ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY! @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
ab:7e:33:bd:85:50:5a:43:0b:e0:bd:43:3f:1c:a5:f8.
Please contact your system Administrator.
Add correct host key in /.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending key in /.ssh/known_hosts:1
RSA host key for remhost has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.
If the host key has been legitimately changed, it can be removed from the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file and the new fingerprint
added. If it has not changed, this indicates a serious problem that should be investigated immediately.
15.6.7 SSH tunneled serial bridging
You have the option to apply SSH tunneling when two Black Box console servers are configured for serial bridging.
As detailed in Chapter 4, the Server console server is setup in Console server mode with either RAW or RFC2217
enabled and the Client console server is set up in Serial Bridging Mode with the Server Address, and Server TCP Port
(4000 + port for RAW or 5000 + port # for RFC2217) specified:

Select SSH Tunnel when configuring the Serial Bridging Setting.
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Next, you will need to set up SSH keys for each end of the tunnel and upload these keys to the Server and Client console
servers.
Client Keys:
The first step in setting up ssh tunnels is to generate keys. Ideally, you will use a separate, secure, machine to generate
and store all keys to be used on the console servers. If this is not ideal for your situation, keys may be generated on the
console servers themselves.
It is possible to generate only one set of keys, and reuse them for every SSH session. While we do not recommend this,
each organization will need to balance the security of separate keys against the additional administration they bring.
Generated keys may be one of two types—RSA or DSA (and it is beyond the scope of this document to recommend one
over the other). RSA keys will go into the files id_rsa and id_rsa.pub. DSA keys will be stored in the files id_dsa and
id_dsa.pub.
For simplicity going forward, the term private key will be used to refer to either id_rsa or id_dsa and public key to refer to
either id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub.
To generate the keys using OpenBSD's OpenSSH suite, we use the ssh-keygen program:
$ ssh-keygen -t [rsa|dsa]
Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub.
The key fingerprint is:
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$
It is advisable to create a new directory to store your generated keys. It is also possible to name the files after the device
they will be used for. For example:
$ mkdir keys
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room
Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
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$
You should ensure there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the console servers will
have no way to supply it as runtime.
Authorized Keys:
If the console server selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the authorized_keys file is simply a
copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be clients of the server, then the authorized_keys file will
contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and DSA keys may be freely mixed in the authorized_keys file.
For example, assume we already have one server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the control_room and
the plant_entrance:
$ ls /home/user/keys
control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub
$ cat /home/user/keys/control_room.pub
/home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub >
/home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server
Uploading Keys:
The keys for the server can be uploaded through the web interface, on the System: Administration page as detailed
earlier. If only one client will be connecting, then simply upload the appropriate public key as the authorized keys file.
Otherwise, upload the authorized keys file constructed in the previous step.
Each client will then need its own set of keys uploaded through the same page. Take care to ensure that the correct type
of keys (DSA or RSA) go in the correct spots, and that the public and private keys are in the correct spot.
15.6.8 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication
SDT Connector can authenticate against a console servers using your SSH key pair, rather than requiring you to enter
your password (i.e. public key authentication).

To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, you must first create an RSA or DSA key pair (using sshkeygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool) and add the public part of your SSH key pair to the Black Box gateway—as
described in the earlier section.

Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to SDT Connector client.
Click Edit -> Preferences -> Private Keys -> Add, locate the private key file and click OK. You do not have to add
the public part of your SSH key pair, it is calculated using the private key.
SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when SSH connecting through the console server. You may have
to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were established using password authentication.
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If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT Connector, you can
also configure it for public key authentication. Essentially what you are using is SSH over SSH, and the two SSH
connections are entirely separate, and the host configuration is entirely independent of SDT Connector and the console
server. You must configure the SSH client that SDT Connector launches (e.g. Putty, OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH
server for public key authentication.
15.7 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL
works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection.
The console server includes OpenSSL. The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a robust, commercialgrade, full-featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer
Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-strength general purpose cryptography library. The project is managed by a
worldwide community of volunteers that use the Internet to communicate, plan, and develop the OpenSSL toolkit and its
related documentation.
OpenSSL is based on the excellent SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson. The OpenSSL toolkit
is licensed under an Apache-style licence, which basically means that you are free to get and use it for commercial and
non-commercial purposes subject to some simple license conditions. In the console server, OpenSSL is used primarily in
conjunction with ‘http’ to have secure browser access to the GUI management console across insecure networks.
More documentation on OpenSSL is available from:
http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/openssl.html
http://www.openssl.org/docs/HOWTO/certificates.txt
15.8 HTTPS
The Management Console can be served using HTTPS by running the webserver via sslwrap. The server can be
launched on request using inetd.
The HTTP server provided is a slightly modified version of the fnord-httpd from http://www.fefe.de/fnord/
The SSL implementation is provided by the sslwrap application compiled with OpenSSL support. You can find more
detailed documentation at http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/
If your default network address is changed or the unit is to be accessed via a known Domain Name, you can use the
following steps to replace the default SSL Certificate and Private Key with ones tailored for your new address.
15.8.1 Generating an encryption key
To create a 1024 bit RSA key with a password, issue the following command on the command line of a linux host with the
openssl utility installed:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out ssl_key.pem 1024
15.8.2 Generating a self-signed certificate with OpenSSL
This example shows how to use OpenSSL to create a self-signed certificate. OpenSSL is available for most Linux
distributions via the default package management mechanism. (Windows users can check
http://www.openssl.org/related/binaries.html)
To create a 1024 bit RSA key and a self-signed certificate, issue the following openssl command from the host you have
openssl installed on:
openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 1000 \
-newkey rsa:1024 -keyout ssl_key.pem -out ssl_cert.pem
You will be prompted to enter a lot of information. Most of it doesn’t matter, but the "Common Name" should be the
domain name of your computer (e.g. test.Black Box.com). When you have entered everything, the certificate will be
created in a file called ssl_cert.pem.
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15.8.3 Installing the key and certificate
We recommend that you use an SCP (Secure Copying Protocol) client to copy files securely to the console server unit.
The scp utility is distributed with OpenSSH for most Unix distributions, while Windows users can use something like the
PSCP command line utility available with PuTTY.
You can install remotely the files created in the steps above with the scp utility as follows:
scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
or using PSCP:
pscp -scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
pscp -scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/
PuTTY and the PSCP utility can be downloaded from: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
More detailed documentation on the PSCP can be found:
http://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/0.58/htmldoc/Chapter5.html#pscp
15.8.4 Launching the HTTPS Server
Note that the easiest way to enable the HTTPS server is from the web Management Console. Simply click the appropriate
checkbox in Network -> Services -> HTTPS Server and the HTTPS server will be activated (assuming the ssl_key.pem
& ssl_cert.pem files exist in the /etc/config directory).
Alternatively inetd can be configured to launch the secure fnord server from the command line of the unit as follows.
Edit the inetd configuration file. From the unit command line:
vi /etc/config/inetd.conf
Append a line:
443 stream tcp nowait root sslwrap -cert /etc/config/ssl_cert.pem -key /etc/config/ssl_key.pem -exec /bin/httpd
/home/httpd"
Save the file and signal inetd of the configuration change.
kill -HUP `cat /var/run/inetd.pid`
The HTTPS server should be accessible from a web client at a URL similar to this: https://<common name of unit>
More detailed documentation about the openssl utility can be found at the website: http://www.openssl.org/
15.9 Power Strip Control
The console server supports a growing list of remote power-control devices (RPCs) that you can configure using the
Management Console as described in Chapter 8. These RPCs are controlled using the open source PowerMan and
Network UPS Tools and with Black Box’s pmpower utility.
15.9.1 The PowerMan tool
PowerMan provides power management in a data center or compute cluster environment. It performs operations such as
power on, power off, and power cycle via remote power controller (RPC) devices.
Synopsis
powerman [-option] [targets]
pm [-option] [targets]
Options
-1, --on Power ON targets.
-0, --off Power OFF targets.
-c, --cycle
Power cycle targets.
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-r, --reset
Assert hardware reset for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-f, --flash
Turn beacon ON for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-u, --unflash
Turn beacon OFF for targets (if implemented by RPC).
-l, --list List available targets. If possible, output will be compressed into a host range (see TARGET SPECIFICATION
below).
-q, --query
Query plug status of targets. If none specified, query all targets. Status is not cached; each time this
option is used, powermand queries the appropriate RPC's. Targets connected to RPC's that could not be
contacted (e.g. due to network failure) are reported as status "unknown". If possible, output will be
compressed into host ranges.
-n, --node
Query node power status of targets (if implemented by RPC). If no targets specified, query all targets. In
this context, a node in the OFF state could be ON at the plug but operating in standby power mode.
-b, --beacon
Query beacon status (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all targets.
-t, --temp
Query node temperature (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all targets.
Temperature information is not interpreted by powerman and is reported as received from the RPC on
one line per target, prefixed by target name.
-h, --help
Display option summary.
-L, --license
Show powerman license information.
-d, --destination host[:port] Connect to a powerman daemon on non-default host and optionally port.
-V, --version
Display the powerman version number and exit.
-D, --device
Displays RPC status information. If targets are specified, only RPC's matching the target list are
displayed.
-T, --telemetry Causes RPC telemetry information to be displayed as commands are processed. Useful for debugging
device scripts.
-x, --exprange Expand host ranges in query responses.
For more details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman
Also refer powermand (http://linux.die.net/man/1/powermand) documentation and powerman.conf
(http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.conf)
Target Specification
powerman target hostnames may be specified as comma separated or space separated hostnames or host ranges. Host
ranges are of the general form: prefix[n-m,l-k,...], where n < m and l < k, etc., This form should not be confused with
regular expression character classes (also denoted by ''[]''). For example, foo[19] does not represent foo1 or foo9, but
rather represents a degenerate range: foo19.
This range syntax is meant only as a convenience on clusters with a prefix NN naming convention and specification of
ranges should not be considered necessary—the list foo1,foo9 could be specified as such, or by the range foo[1,9].
Some examples of powerman targets follows.
Power on hosts bar,baz,foo01,foo02,...,foo05: powerman --on bar baz foo[01-05]
Power on hosts bar,foo7,foo9,foo10: powerman --on bar,foo[7,9-10]
Power on foo0,foo4,foo5: powerman --on foo[0,4-5]
As a reminder to the reader, some shells will interpret brackets ([ and ]) for pattern matching. Depending on your shell,
you might need to enclose ranged lists within quotes. For example, in tcsh, the last example above should be executed
as:
powerman --on "foo[0,4-5]"
15.9.2 The pmpower tool
The pmpower utility is a high level tool for manipulating remote preconfigured power devices connected to the console
server either via a serial or network connection. The PDU UPS and IPMI power devices are variously controlled using the
open source PowerMan, IPMItool or Network UPS Tools and Black Box’s pmpower utility arches over these tools so the
devices can be controlled through one command line:
pmpower [-?h] [-l device | -r host] [-o outlet] [-u username] [-p password] action
-?/-h This help message.
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-l The serial port to use.
-o The outlet on the power target to apply to
-r The remote host address for the power target
-u Override the configured username
-p Override the configured password
on This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) on
off This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off
cycle This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off and on again
status This action retrieves the current status of the device or outlet
Examples:
To turn outlet 4 of the power device connected to serial port 2 on: # pmpower -l port02 -o 4 on
To turn an IPMI device off located at IP address 192.168.1.100 (where username is 'root' and password is 'calvin':
# pmpower -r 192.168.1.100 -u root -p calvin off
Default system Power Device actions are specified in /etc/powerstrips.xml. Custom Power Devices can be added in
/etc/config/powerstrips.xml. If an action is attempted which has not been configured for a specific Power Device, pmpower
will exit with an error.
15.9.3 Adding new RPC devices
There are a number of simple paths to adding support for new RPC devices.
The first is to have scripts to support the particular RPC included in either the open source PowerMan project
(http://sourceforge.net/projects/powerman) or the open source NUT UPS Tools project. The PowerMan device
specifications are rather weird and it is suggested that you leave the actual writing of these scripts to the PowerMan
authors. Documentation on how they work can be found at http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.dev. The Network UPS
Tools (NUT) project has recently moved on from its UPS management origins to also cover SNMP PDUs (and embrace
PowerMan). Black Box progressively includes the updated PowerMan and NUT build into the console server firmware
releases.
The second path is to directly add support for the new RPC devices (or to customize the existing RPC device support) on
your particular console server. The Manage: Power page uses information contained in /etc/powerstrips.xml to configure
and control devices attached to a serial port. The configuration also looks for (and loads) /etc/config/powerstrips.xml if it
exists.
The user can add their own support for more devices by putting definitions for them into /etc/config/powerstrips.xml. This
file can be created on a host system and copied to the Management Console device using scp. Alternatively, login to the
Management Console and use ftp or wget to transfer files.
Here is a brief description of the elements of the XML entries in /etc/config/powerstrips.xml.
<powerstrip>
<id>Name or ID of the device support</id>
<outlet port="port-id-1">Display Port 1 in menu</outlet>
<outlet port="port-id-2">Display Port 2 in menu</outlet>
...
<on>script to turn power on</on>
<off>script to power off</off>
<cycle>script to cycle power</cycle>
<status>script to write power status to /var/run/power-status</status>
<speed>baud rate</speed>
<charsize>character size</charsize>
<stop>stop bits</stop>
<parity>parity setting</parity>
</powerstrip>
The id appears on the web page in the list of available devices types to configure.
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The outlets describe targets that the scripts can control. For example, a power control board may control several different
outlets. The port-id is the native name for identifying the outlet. This value will be passed to the scripts in the environment
variable outlet, allowing the script to address the correct outlet.
There are four possible scripts: on, off, cycle and status.
When a script is run, its standard input and output is redirected to the appropriate serial port. The script receives the
outlet and port in the outlet and port environment variables respectively.
The script can be anything that can be executed within the shell.
All of the existing scripts in /etc/powerstrips.xml use the pmchat utility.
pmchat works just like the standard unix "chat" program, only it ensures interoperation with the port manager.
The final options, speed, charsize, stop and parity define the recommended or default settings for the attached device.
15.10 IPMItool
The console server includes the ipmitool utility for managing and configuring devices that support the Intelligent Platform
Management Interface (IPMI) version 1.5 and version 2.0 specifications.
IPMI is an open standard for monitoring, logging, recovery, inventory, and control of hardware that is implemented
independent of the main CPU, BIOS, and OS. The service processor (or Baseboard Management Controller, BMC) is the
brain behind platform management and its primary purpose is to handle the autonomous sensor monitoring and event
logging features.
The ipmitool program provides a simple command-line interface to this BMC. It features the ability to read the sensor data
repository (SDR) and print sensor values, display the contents of the System Event Log (SEL), print Field Replaceable
Unit (FRU) inventory information, read and set LAN configuration parameters, and perform remote chassis power control.
SYNOPSIS
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I open <command>
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I lan -H <hostname>
[-p <port>]
[-U <username>]
[-A <authtype>]
[-L <privlvl>]
[-a|-E|-P|-f <password>]
[-o <oemtype>]
<command>
ipmitool [-c|-h|-v|-V] -I lanplus -H <hostname>
[-p <port>]
[-U <username>]
[-L <privlvl>]
[-a|-E|-P|-f <password>]
[-o <oemtype>]
[-C <ciphersuite>]
<command>
DESCRIPTION
This program lets you manage Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) functions of either the local system, via a
kernel device driver, or a remote system, using IPMI V1.5 and IPMI v2.0. These functions include printing FRU
information, LAN configuration, sensor readings, and remote chassis power control.
IPMI management of a local system interface requires a compatible IPMI kernel driver to be installed and configured. On
Linux, this driver is called OpenIPMI and it is included in standard distributions. On Solaris, this driver is called BMC and is
inclued in Solaris 10. Management of a remote station requires the IPMI-over-LAN interface to be enabled and configured.
Depending on the particular requirements of each system, it may be possible to enable the LAN interface using ipmitool
over the system interface.
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OPTIONS
-a
Prompt for the remote server password.
-A <authtype>
Specify an authentication type to use during IPMIv1.5 lan session activation. Supported types are NONE,
PASSWORD, MD5, or OEM.
-c
Present output in CSV (comma separated variable) format. This is not available with all commands.
-C <ciphersuite>
The remote server authentication, integrity, and encryption algorithms to use for IPMIv2 lanplus connections. See
table 22-19 in the IPMIv2 specification. The default is 3 which specifies RAKP-HMAC-SHA1 authentication,
HMAC-SHA1-96 integrity, and AES-CBC-128 encryption algorightms.
-E
The remote server password is specified by the environment variable IPMI_PASSWORD.
-f <password_file>
Specifies a file containing the remote server password. If this option is absent, or if password_file is empty, the
password will default to NULL.
-h
Get basic usage help from the command line.
-H <address>
Remote server address, can be IP address or hostname. This option is required for lan and lanplus interfaces.
-I <interface>
Selects IPMI interface to use. Supported interfaces that are compiled in are visible in the usage help output.
-L <privlvl>
Force session privilege level. Can be CALLBACK, USER, OPERATOR, ADMIN. Default is ADMIN.
-m <local_address>
Set the local IPMB address. The default is 0x20 and there should be no need to change it for normal operation.
-o <oemtype>
Select OEM type to support. This usually involves minor hacks in place in the code to work around quirks in
various BMCs from various manufacturers. Use -o list to see a list of current supported OEM types.
-p <port>
Remote server UDP port to connect to. Default is 623.
-P <password>
Remote server password is specified on the command line. If supported it will be obscured in the process list.
Note! Specifying the password as a command line option is not recommended.
-t <target_address>
Bridge IPMI requests to the remote target address.
-U <username>
Remote server username, default is NULL user.
-v
Increase verbose output level. This option may be specified multiple times to increase the level of debug output. If
given three times you will get hexdumps of all incoming and outgoing packets.
-V
Display version information.
If no password method is specified, then ipmitool will prompt the user for a password. If no password is entered at the
prompt, the remote server password will default to NULL.
SECURITY
The ipmitool documentation highlights that there are several security issues to be considered before enabling the IPMI
LAN interface. A remote station has the ability to control a system's power state as well as being able to gather certain
platform information. To reduce vulnerability, we strongly advise that the IPMI LAN interface only be enabled in 'trusted'
environments where system security is not an issue or where there is a dedicated secure 'management network' or
access has been provided through an console server.
Further, we strongly advise that you do not enable IPMI for remote access without setting a password, and that that
password should not be the same as any other password on that system.
When an IPMI password is changed on a remote machine with the IPMIv1.5 lan interface, the new password is sent
across the network as clear text. This could be observed and then used to attack the remote system. We recommend that
IPMI password management only be done over IPMIv2.0 lanplus interface or the system interface on the local station.
For IPMI v1.5, the maximum password length is 16 characters. Passwords longer than 16 characters will be truncated.
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For IPMI v2.0, the maximum password length is 20 characters; longer passwords are truncated.
COMMANDS
help
This can be used to get command-line help on ipmitool commands. It may also be placed at the end of
commands to get option usage help.
ipmitool help
Commands:
raw
Send a RAW IPMI request and print
response
lan
Configure LAN Channels
chassis Get chassis status and set power
state
event Send pre-defined events to MC
mc
Management Controller status and
global enables
sdr
Print Sensor Data Repository
entries and readings
sensor Print detailed sensor information
fru
Print built-in FRU and scan SDR
for FRU locators
sel
Print System Event Log (SEL)
pef
Configure Platform Event Filtering
(PEF)
sol
Configure IPMIv2.0 Serial-over-LAN
isol
Configure IPMIv1.5 Serial-over-LAN
user
Configure Management Controller
users
channel
Configure Management Controller
channels
session
Print session information
exec
Run list of commands from file
set
Set runtime variable for shell and
exec
ipmitool chassis help
Chassis Commands: status, power, identify, policy, restart_cause, poh, bootdev
ipmitool chassis power help
chassis power Commands: status, on, off, cycle, reset, diag, soft
You will find more details on ipmitools at http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net/manpage.html
15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK)
As detailed in this manual customers can copy scripts, binaries, and configuration files directly to the console server.
Black Box also freely provides a development kit that allows changes to be made to the software in console server
firmware image. The customer can use the CDK to:

generate a firmware image without certain programs, such as telnet, which may be banned by company policy.

generate an image with new programs, such as custom Nagios plug-in binaries or company specific binary utilities.

generate an image with custom defaults e.g. it may be required that the console server be configured to have a
specific default serial port profile which is reverted to even in event of a factory reset.

place configuration files into the firmware image, which cannot then be modified e.g. # /bin/config –-set= tools update
the configuration files in /etc/config which are read/write, whereas the files in /etc are read only and cannot be modified
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The CDK essentially provides a snapshot of the Black Box build process (taken after the programs have been compiled
and copied to a temporary directory romfs) just before the compressed file systems are generated. You can obtain a copy
of the Black Box CDK for the particular appliance you are working with from Black Box
Note
The CDK is free.
15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves
When the console servers are cascaded the Master is in control of the serial ports on the Slaves, and the Master’s
Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the Slave’s serial ports. The Master
does not provide a fully consolidated view, for example, Status: Active Users only displays those users active on the
Master’s ports and you will need to write a custom bash script that parses the port logs if you want to find out who’s
logged in to cascaded serial ports from the master.
You will probably also want to enable remote or USB logging, because local logs only buffer 8K of data and don’t persist
between reboots.
This script would, for example, parse each port log file line by line, each time it sees 'LOGIN: username', it adds
username to the list of connected users for that port, each time it sees 'LOGOUT: username' it removes it from the list.
The list can then be nicely formatted and displayed. You can run the script on the remote log server. To enable log
storage and connection logging:
- Select Alerts & Logging: Port Log
- Configure log storage
- Select Serial & Network: Serial Port, Edit the serial port(s)
- Under Console server, select Logging Level 1 and click Apply
There’s a useful tutorial on creating a bash script CGI at
http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialCgiShellScript.html
Similarly, the Master does maintain a view of the status of the slaves:
- Select Status: Support Report
- Scroll down to Processes
- Look for: /bin/ssh -MN -o ControlPath=/var/run/cascade/%h slavename
- These are the slaves that are connected
- Note the end of the Slaves' names will be truncated, so the first 5 characters must be unique
Alternatively, you can write a custom CGI script as described above. The currently connected Slaves can be determined
by running: ls /var/run/cascade and the configured slaves can be displayed by running: config -g config.cascade.slaves
15.13 SMS Server Tools
The console servers include the SMS Server Tools software which provides an SMS Gateway which can send and
receive short messages through GSM modems and mobile phones.
You can send short messages by simply storing text files into a special spool directory. The program monitors this
directory and sends new files automatically. It also stores received short messages into another directory as text files.
Binary messages (including Unicode text) are also supported, for example ring tone messages. It's also possible to send a
WAP Push message to the WAP / MMS capable mobile phone.
The program can be run as a SMS daemon which can be started automatically when the operating system starts. High
availability can be ensured by using multiple GSM devices (currently up to 64, this limit is easily changeable).
The program can run other external programs or scripts after events like reception of a new message, successful sending
and also when the program detects a problem. These programs can inspect the related text files and perform automatic
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The SMS Server Tools software needs a GSM modem (or mobile phone) with SMS command set according to the
European specifications GSM 07.05 (=ETSI TS 300 585) and GSM 03.38 (=ETSI TS 100 900). AT command set is
supported. Devices can be connected with serial port, infrared or USB.
For more information refer to http://smstools3.kekekasvi.com.
15.14 Multicast
By default, all the console servers come with Multicasting enabled. Multicasting provides these products with the ability to
simultaneously transmit information from a single device to a select group of hosts.
Multicasting can be disabled and re-enabled from the command line (Firmware releases V3.1 and later). To disable
multicasting type:
ifconfig eth0 –multicast
To re-enable multicasting from the command line type:
ifconfig eth0 multicast
IPv6 may need to be restarted when toggling between multicast states.
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Linux Commands
Appendix A: Linux Commands and Source Code
The console server platform is a dedicated Linux computer, optimized to provide monitoring and secure access to serial
and network consoles of critical server systems and their supporting power and networking infrastructure.
Black Box Remote Console Manager Console servers are built on the 2.6 uClinux kernel as developed by the uClinux
project. This is GPL code and source can be found at http://cvs.uclinux.org. Some uClinux commands have config files
that can be altered (e.g. portmanager, inetd, init, ssh/sshd/scp/sshkeygen, ucd-snmpd, samba, fnord, sslwrap). Other
commands you can run and do neat stuff with (e.g. loopback, bash (shell), ftp, hwclock, iproute, iptables, netcat, ifconfig,
mii-tool, netstat, route, ping, portmap, pppd, routed, setserial, smtpclient, stty, stunel, tcpdump, tftp, tip, traceroute)
Below are most of the standard uCLinux and BusyBox commands (and some custom Black Box commands) that are in
the default build tree. The Administrator can use these to configure the console server, and monitor and manage attached
serial console and host devices:
addgroup *
adduser *
agetty
arp
arping
bash
busybox
cat *
chat
chgrp *
chmod *
chown *
config
cp *
date *
dd *
deluser *
df *
dhcpd
discard
dmesg *
echo *
erase
eraseall
false *
find
flashw
flatfsd
ftp
gen-keys
getopt *
gettyd
grep *
gunzip *
gzip *
hd
220
Add a group or add an user to a group
Add an user
alternative Linux getty
Manipulate the system ARP cache
Send ARP requests/replies
GNU Bourne-Again Shell
Swiss army knife of embedded Linux commands
Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout
Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout
Change file access permissions
Change file access permissions
Change file owner and group
Black Box tool to manipulate and query the system configuration from the command line
Copy files and directories
Print or set the system date and time
Convert and copy a file
Delete USER from the system
Report filesystem disk space usage
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server
Network utility that listens on the discard port
Print or control the kernel ring buffer
Print the specified ARGs to stdout
Tool for erasing MTD partitions
Tool for erasing entire MTD partitions
Do nothing, unsuccessful
Search for files
Write data to individual flash devices
Daemon to save RAM file systems back to FLASH
Internet file transfer program
SSH key generation program
Parses command options
Getty daemon
Print lines matching a pattern
Compress or expand files
Compress or expand files
ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
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Remote Console Manager
hostname *
httpd
hwclock
inetd
inetd-echo
init
ip
ipmitool
iptables
ip6tables
iptablesrestore
iptables-save
kill *
ln *
login
loopback
loopback1
loopback2
loopback8
loopback16
loopback48
ls *
mail
mkdir *
mkfs.jffs2
mknod *
more *
mount *
msmtp
mv *
nc
netflash
netstat
ntpd
pgrep
pidof
ping
ping6
pkill
pmchat
pmdeny
pminetd
pmloggerd
pmshell
pmusers
portmanager
Get or set hostname or DNS domain name
Listen for incoming HTTP requests
Query and set hardware clock (RTC)
Network super-server daemon
Network echo utility
Process control initialization
Show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
Linux IPMI manager
Administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT
Administration tool for IPv6 packet filtering
Restore IP Tables
Save IP Tables
Send a signal to a process to end gracefully
Make links between files
Begin session on the system
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
Black Box loopback diagnostic command
List directory contents
Send and receive mail
Make directories
Create an MS-DOS file system under Linux
Make block or character special files
File perusal filter for crt viewing
Mount a file system
SMTP mail client
Move (rename) files
TCP/IP Swiss army knife
Upgrade firmware on ucLinux platforms using the blkmem interface
Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics etc
Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon
Display process(es) selected by regex pattern
Find the process ID of a running program
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
IPv6 ping
Sends a signal to process(es) selected by regex pattern
Black Box command similar to the standard chat command (via portmanager)
Black Box command similar to the standard tip or cu but all serial port access is directed via the
portmanager.
Black Box command to query portmanager for active user sessions
Black Box command that handles all serial port access
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221
Linux Commands
portmap
pppd
ps *
pwd *
reboot *
rm *
rmdir *
routed
routed
routef
routel
rtacct
rtmon
scp
sed *
setmac
setserial
sh
showmac
sleep *
smbmnt
smbmount
smbumount
snmpd
snmptrap
sredird
ssh
ssh-keygen
sshd
sslwrap
stty
stunnel
sync *
sysctl
syslogd
tar *
tc
tcpdump
telnetd
tftp
tftpd
tip
top
touch *
traceroute
traceroute6
true *
umount *
uname *
usleep *
222
DARPA port to RPC program number mapper
Point-to-Point protocol daemon
Report a snapshot of the current processes
Print name of current/working directory
Soft reboot
Remove files or directories
Remove empty directories
Show or manipulate the IP routing table
Show or manipulate the IP routing table
IP Route tool to flush IPv4 routes
IP Route tool to list routes
Applet printing /proc/net/rt_acct
RTnetlink listener
Secure copy (remote file copy program)
Text stream editor
Sets the MAC address
Sets and reports serial port configuration
Shell
Shows MAC address
Delay for a specified amount of time
Helper utility for mounting SMB file systems
Mount an SMBFS file system
SMBFS umount for normal users
SNMP daemon
Sends an SNMP notification to a manager
RFC 2217 compliant serial port redirector
OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program)
Authentication key generation, management, and conversion
OpenSSH SSH daemon
Program that allows plain services to be accessed via SSL
Change and print terminal line settings
Universal SSL tunnel
Flush file system buffers
Configure kernel parameters at runtime
System logging utility
The tar archiving utility
Show traffic control settings
Dump traffic on a network
Telnet protocol server
Client to transfer a file from/to tftp server
Trivial file Transfer Protocol (tftp) server
Simple terminal emulator/cu program for connecting to modems and serial devices
Provide a view of process activity in real time
Change file timestamps
Print the route packets take to network host
Traceroute for IPv6
Returns an exit code of TRUE (0)
Unmount file systems
Print system information
Delay for a specified amount of time
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Remote Console Manager
vconfig *
vi *
w
zcat *
Create and remove virtual ethernet devices
Busybox clone of the VI text editor
Show who is logged on and what they are doing
Identical to gunzip -c
Commands above which are appended with '*' come from BusyBox (the Swiss Army Knife of embedded Linux)
http://www.busybox.net/downloads/BusyBox.html. Others are generic Linux commands and most commands the -h or -help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. More details on the generic Linux commands can
found online at http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/howtos.html and http://www.faqs.org/docs/LinuxHOWTO/Remote-Serial-Console-HOWTO.html
An updated list of the commands may found using ls command to view all the commands actually available in the /bin
directory in your console server.
There were a number of Black Box tools listed above that make it simple to configure the console server and make sure
the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc. These commands are covered in the previous chapters
and include:
•
config which allows manipulation and querying of the system configuration from the command line. With config a
new configuration can be activated by running the relevant configurator, which performs the action necessary to
make the configuration changes live.
•
portmanager which provides a buffered interface to each serial port. It is supported by the pmchat and pmshell
commands which ensure all serial port access is directed via the portmanager.
•
pmpower is a configurable tool for manipulating remote power devices that are serially or network connected to
the console server.
•
SDT Connector is a java client applet that provides point-and-click SSH tunneled connections to the console
server and Managed Devices.
There are also a number of other CLI commands related to other open source tools embedded in the console server
including:
•
PowerMan provides power management for many preconfigured remote power controller (RPC) devices. For CLI
details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman
•
Network UPS Tools (NUT) provides reliable monitoring of UPS and PDU hardware and ensure safe shutdowns
of the systems which are connected - with a goal to monitor every kind of UPS and PDU. For CLI details refer
http://www.networkupstools.org
•
Nagios is a popular enterprise-class management tool that provides central monitoring of the hosts and services
in distributed networks. For CLI details refer http://www.nagios.org
Many components of the console server software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (version 2), which
Black Box supports. You may obtain a copy of the GNU General Public License at http://www.fsf.org/copyleft/gpl.html.
Black Box will provide source code for any of the components of the software licensed under the GNU General Public
License upon request.
The console server also embodies the okvm console management software. This is GPL code and the full source is
available from http://okvm.sourceforge.net.
The console server BIOS (boot loader code) is a port of uboot, which is also a GPL package with source openly available.
The console server CGIs (the html code, xml code and web config tools for the Management Console) are proprietary to
Black Box, however the code will be provided to customers, under NDA.
Also inbuilt in the console server is a Port Manager application and Configuration tools as described in Chapters 14 and
15. These both are proprietary to Black Box, but open to customers (as above).
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223
Linux Commands
The console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to run custom scripts. GNU bash,
version 2.05.0(1)-release (arm-Black Box-linux-gnu) offers the following shell commands:
alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
bg [job_spec]
bind [-lpvsPVS] [-m keymap] [-f fi
break [n]
builtin [shell-builtin [arg ...]]
case WORD in [PATTERN [|
PATTERN]
cd [-PL] [dir]
command [-pVv]
command [arg ...]
compgen [-abcdefjkvu] [-o option]
complete [-abcdefjkvu] [-pr] [-o o]
continue [n]
declare [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value]
dirs [-clpv] [+N] [-N]
disown [-h] [-ar] [jobspec ...]
echo [-neE] [arg ...]
enable [-pnds] [-a] [-f filename]
eval [arg ...]
exec [-cl] [-a name] file [redirec]
exit [n]
export [-nf] [name ...] or export
false
fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
fg [job_spec]
for NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do
COMMA
function NAME { COMMANDS ; } or
NA
getopts optstring name [arg]
hash [-r] [-p pathname] [name ...]
help [-s] [pattern ...]
history [-c] [-d offset] [n] or hi
if COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; [
elif jobs [-lnprs] [jobspec ...] or job kill
[-s sigspec | -n signum | -si let arg [arg
...]
224
local name[=value] ...
logout
popd [+N | -N] [-n]
printf format [arguments]
pushd [dir | +N | -N] [-n]
pwd [-PL]
read [-ers] [-t timeout] [-p promp]
readonly [-anf] [name ...] or read return
[n]
select NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do
COMMANDS
set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o opti]
shift [n]
shopt [-pqsu] [-o long-option] opt
source filename
suspend [-f]
test [expr]
time [-p] PIPELINE
times
trap [arg] [signal_spec ...]
true
type [-apt] name [name ...]
typeset [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value
ulimit [-SHacdflmnpstuv] [limit]
umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
unalias [-a] [name ...]
unset [-f] [-v] [name ...]
until COMMANDS; do COMMANDS;
done
variables - Some variable names an
wait [n]
while COMMANDS; do COMMANDS;
done { COMMANDS ; }
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Hardware Specification
Appendix B: Hardware Specifications FEATURE Dimensions Weight Ambient operating temperature Non operating storage temperature Humidity Power Power Consumption CPU Memory Serial Connectors USB Ports Serial Baud Rates Ethernet Connectors 226
VALUE 4.1x3.4x1.1 in (10.3 x 8.7 x 2.8 cm) 1.0 kg (2.2 lbs) 5°C to 50°C (41°F to 122°F) -­‐30°C to +60°C (-­‐20°F to +140°F) 5% to 90% 12V DC All less than 30W Micrel KS8695P ARM9 32MB SDRAM 16MB Flash LES1202A: 2 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports LES1203A-­‐M/11G: 3 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports LES1204A(-­‐3G): 3 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports 1 External RJ45 ports -­‐ 50 to 230,400bps One RJ-­‐45 10/100Base-­‐T Ethernet ports 724-746-5500 l www.blackbox.com
Safety & Certifications
Appendix C: Safety & Certifications
Please take care to follow the safety precautions below when installing and operating the console server:
-
Do not remove the metal covers. There are no operator serviceable components inside. Opening or removing the
cover may expose you to dangerous voltage which may cause fire or electric shock. Refer all service to Black Box
qualified personnel.
-
To avoid electric shock the power cord protective grounding conductor must be connected through to ground.
-
Always pull on the plug, not the cable, when disconnecting the power cord from the socket.
Do not connect or disconnect the console server during an electrical storm. We recommend that you use a surge
suppressor or UPS to protect the equipment from transients.
FCC Warning Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation of this device is subject to the following conditions: (1) This
device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference that may cause undesired
operation.
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End User License Agreement
Appendix F: End User License Agreement
READ BEFORE USING THE ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING THE ACCOMPANYING
SOFTWARE, THE USE OF WHICH IS LICENSED FOR USE ONLY AS SET FORTH BELOW. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT, DO NOT USE THE SOFTWARE. IF YOU USE ANY PART OF THE
SOFTWARE, SUCH USE WILL INDICATE THAT YOU ACCEPT THESE TERMS.
You have acquired a product that includes Black Box (“Black Box”) proprietary software and/or proprietary software licensed to Black
Box. This Black Box End User License Agreement (“EULA”) is a legal agreement between you (either an individual or a single entity)
and Black Box for the installed software product of Black Box origin, as well as associated media, printed materials, and “online” or
electronic documentation (“Software”). By installing, copying, downloading, accessing, or otherwise using the Software, you agree to
be bound by the terms of this EULA. If you do not agree to the terms of this EULA, Black Box is not willing to license the Software to
you. In such event, do not use or install the Software. If you have purchased the Software, promptly return the Software and all
accompanying materials with proof of purchase for a refund.
Products with separate end user license agreements that may be provided along with the Software are licensed to you under the terms
of those separate end user license agreements.
LICENSE GRANT. Subject to the terms and conditions of this EULA, Black Box grants you a nonexclusive right and license to install
and use the Software on a single CPU, provided that, (1) you may not rent, lease, sell, sublicense or lend the Software; (2) you may not
reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or modify the Software, except and only to the extent that such activity is expressly permitted
by applicable law notwithstanding this limitation; and (3) you may not transfer rights under this EULA unless such transfer is part of a
permanent sale or transfer of the Product, you transfer at the same time all copies of the Software to the same party or destroy such
materials not transferred, and the recipient agrees to this EULA.
No license is granted in any of the Software’s proprietary source code. This license does not grant you any rights to patents, copyright,
trade secrets, trademarks or any other rights with respect to the Software.
You may make a reasonable number of copies of the electronic documentation accompanying the Software for each Software license
you acquire, provided that, you must reproduce and include all copyright notices and any other proprietary rights notices appearing on
the electronic documentation. Black Box reserves all rights not expressly granted herein.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The Software is protected by copyright laws, international copyright treaties, and other
intellectual property laws and treaties. Black Box and its suppliers retain all ownership of, and intellectual property rights in (including
copyright), the Software components and all copies thereof, provided however, that (1) certain components of the Software, including
SDT Connector, are components licensed under the GNU General Public License Version 2, which Black Box supports, and (2) the
SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure Java implementation of SSH2 which is licensed under BSD style license. Copies of
these licenses are detailed below and Black Box will provide source code for any of the components of the Software licensed under the
GNU General Public License upon request.
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You agree that you will not export or re-export the Software, any part thereof, or any process or service
that is the direct product of the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of the United States or the country in which
you obtained them.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. The Software and related documentation are provided with Restricted Rights. Use,
duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical
Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software –
Restricted Rights at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19, as applicable, or any successor regulations.
TERM AND TERMINATION. This EULA is effective until terminated. The EULA terminates immediately if you fail to comply with any
term or condition. In such an event, you must destroy all copies of the Software. You may also terminate this EULA at any time by
destroying the Software.
GOVERNING LAW AND ATTORNEY’S FEES. This EULA is governed by the laws of the State of Utah, USA, excluding its conflict of
law rules. You agree that the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is hereby excluded in its
entirety and does not apply to this EULA. If you acquired this Software in a country outside of the United States, that country’s laws
may apply. In any action or suit to enforce any right or remedy under this EULA or to interpret any provision of this EULA, the prevailing
party will be entitled to recover its costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees.
ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This EULA constitutes the entire agreement between you and Black Box with respect to the Software, and
supersedes all other agreements or representations, whether written or oral. The terms of this EULA can only be modified by express
written consent of both parties. If any part of this EULA is held to be unenforceable as written, it will be enforced to the maximum extent
allowed by applicable law, and will not affect the enforceability of any other part.
Should you have any questions concerning this EULA, or if you desire to contact Black Box for any reason, please contact the Black
Box representative serving your company.
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Remote Console Manager
THE FOLLOWING DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS INCORPORATED INTO THIS EULA BY
REFERENCE. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. YOU HAVE INDEPENDENTLY DETERMINED HOW TO USE THE
SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND BLACK BOX HAS RELIED UPON YOU TO CONDUCT SUFFICIENT TESTING TO DETERMINE
THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLE FOR SUCH USE.
LIMITED WARRANTY Black Box warrants the media containing the Software for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of original
purchase from Black Box or its authorized retailer. Proof of date of purchase will be required. Any updates to the Software provided by
Black Box (which may be provided by Black Box at its sole discretion) shall be governed by the terms of this EULA. In the event the
product fails to perform as warranted, Black Box’s sole obligation shall be, at Black Box’s discretion, to refund the purchase price paid
by you for the Software on the defective media, or to replace the Software on new media. Black Box makes no warranty or
representation that its Software will meet your requirements, will work in combination with any hardware or application software
products provided by third parties, that the operation of the software products will be uninterrupted or error free, or that all defects in the
Software will be corrected.
BLACK BOX DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT
LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. OTHER THAN
AS STATED HEREIN, THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO SATISFACTORY QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, AND EFFORT IS WITH
YOU. ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST INTERFERENCE WITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR
AGAINST INFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE,
THOSE WARRANTIES DO NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDING ON, BLACK BOX.
NO LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN DAMAGES. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BY LAW, BLACK BOX SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR
COSTS, LOSS, DAMAGES OR LOST OPPORTUNITY OF ANY TYPE WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOST
OR ANTICIPATED PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF DATA, OR ANY INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY SPECIAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER UNDER CONTRACT, TORT, WARRANTY OR OTHERWISE ARISING FROM OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THIS EULA OR THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT SHALL BLACK BOX BE
LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT IN EXCESS OF THE LICENSE FEE PAID TO BLACK BOX UNDER THIS EULA. SOME STATES AND
COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
JSch License
SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure Java implementation of SSH2. JSch is licensed under BSD style license and it is:
Copyright (c) 2002, 2003, 2004 Atsuhiko Yamanaka, JCraft,Inc. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The names of the authors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN
NO EVENT SHALL JCRAFT, INC. OR ANY CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS SOFTWARE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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231
End User License Agreement
SDT Connector License
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be
distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work
based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is
included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
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License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a
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3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the
terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
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Remote Console Manager
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of
physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under
the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer,
in accord with Subsection b above.)
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source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
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operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access
to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to
copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as
such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do
not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such
claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by
public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system
in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software
through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and
"any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever
published by the Free Software Foundation.
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End User License Agreement
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the
author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software
Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all
derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
234
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Remote Console Manager
LES1202A, rev. 2
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