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White paper
Blu-ray Disc Format
2.B Audio Visual Application
Format Specifications
for BD-ROM
March 2005
Table of Contents:
1
2
3
4
5
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................4
1.1
Background .........................................................................................................................................................4
1.1.1
Aims of BD-ROM .........................................................................................................................................4
1.1.2
Understanding Basic Issues (Required Specifications)........................................................................5
1.1.3
Evolution of Package Media for Movies..................................................................................................6
1.2
Overview...............................................................................................................................................................7
Database information ................................................................................................................................................9
2.1
BD-ROM data structure......................................................................................................................................9
2.1.1
Index table................................................................................................................................................ 10
2.1.2
Movie object ............................................................................................................................................. 11
2.1.3
Java Xlet.................................................................................................................................................... 11
2.1.4
Movie PlayList .......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.1.5
Clip............................................................................................................................................................. 12
2.2
Mechanism to realize “Browsable Slideshow”, “Pop-up Menu” and “Text subtitle”.............................. 13
2.3
Directory and File structure............................................................................................................................ 13
MPEG2 Transport stream for BD-ROM.................................................................................................................. 15
3.1
BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream................................................................................................................... 15
3.2
Elementary streams in BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream ......................................................................... 16
3.3
Video streams ...................................................................................................................................................17
3.4
Audio streams ...................................................................................................................................................17
3.5
Presentation Graphics and Interactive Graphics streams ........................................................................ 18
3.6
Text subtitle streams....................................................................................................................................... 18
HDMV mode.............................................................................................................................................................. 19
4.1
Core functions .................................................................................................................................................. 19
4.1.1
Out-of-Mux stream Framework.............................................................................................................. 19
4.1.2
Graphics Framework............................................................................................................................... 20
4.1.3
Text Subtitle Framework ........................................................................................................................ 23
4.1.4
Interactivity Framework.......................................................................................................................... 25
4.1.5
Command Framework.............................................................................................................................27
4.2
Application Examples ......................................................................................................................................27
4.2.1
Interactive Menus.....................................................................................................................................27
4.2.1.1
Browsable Slideshow with background music........................................................................... 28
4.2.1.2
Button sounds.................................................................................................................................. 28
4.2.2
User Changeable Subtitle styles ........................................................................................................... 29
BD-J mode ................................................................................................................................................................. 29
5.1
Core functions .................................................................................................................................................. 30
5.1.1
Application Execution / Management ................................................................................................. 30
5.1.2
GUI framework and User Interface ....................................................................................................... 30
5.1.3
Device model & functions like HAVi ......................................................................................................31
5.1.4
AV Playback and Navigation and Subtitle/Audio Language Control................................................31
5.1.5
Other (static) content format functions (Graphics, Text, Audio Clips) ............................................. 32
5.1.6
Access control, security scheme, application authentication scheme........................................... 32
5.1.7
Internet Connectivity & Download of New Contents/Applications.................................................. 32
5.1.8
System/Local Storage............................................................................................................................ 33
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5.1.9
Binding scheme for on-the-disc and off-the-disc content ................................................................. 33
5.2
Application Examples ..................................................................................................................................... 33
5.2.1
AV playback control................................................................................................................................. 33
5.2.2
Subtitle Updates ...................................................................................................................................... 33
5.2.3
Download new Movie trailer .................................................................................................................. 34
5.2.4
Play games on the disc and also online game................................................................................... 34
5.2.5
Advanced Applications that are under investigation......................................................................... 34
5.2.6
Application Illustrations ......................................................................................................................... 34
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1
Introduction
This Whitepaper is indented to provide an overview of the Blu-ray Disc Prerecorded application format
(BD-ROM) which is being designed through periodic consultation between executives of the technical divisions
of Hollywood studios and the Blu-ray Disc application format experts.
1.1
Background
1.1.1
Aims of BD-ROM
BD-ROM is being designed not only for pre-packaged High Definition (HD) movie content but also as a key
component of a consumer HD platform. As shown in Figure 1-1 below, the Blu-ray Disc (BD) platform is
being designed to provide access to HD content throughout the home via HD digital broadcast recording and
HD playback functions.
HD Digital Broadcast
Broadcasters
Broadband Access
BD Device
Movie
Studios
BDBD-ROM
Disc
HD Pre-Packaged
Distribution
HD-TV
BDBD-RE
Disc
HD Broadcast
Recording
We aim to accelerate home HD compatibility by making HD digital broadcast
recording and HD pre-packaged playback applications possible on BD devices.
By supporting both recording and pre-packaged playback functions, the need
to support two different media, as was the case for SD images (recording: VHS,
package playback: DVD-Video) is eliminated.
Figure 1-1 – HD Content Distribution as envisioned by the BD Application Standard
When DVD-Video was developed, Standard Definition (SD) image recording devices were already present in
the market (VHS). The user therefore had to contend with two different forms of media for SD: VHS for
recording and DVD-Video for package media playback. For HD however, we are at the initial rollout stage for
HD broadcast receivers, HD recording functions via package media, and HD pre-packaged content
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distribution. By combining all of these functions into one platform, BD provides a one-stop-shop to fulfill the
desires of users who want to use all of these functions. Simply put, the user will be HD compatible by using
BD.
1.1.2
Understanding Basic Issues (Required Specifications)
Understanding 1: Market Trends (DVD is still going as strong as ever)
1. When comparing VHS with DVD, there are clear differences: (1) improvement in maneuverability by going
from tape to optical disc, (2) improvements in image quality via MPEG-2, (3) going from linear movie
viewing to viewing multimedia titles including special features.
2. Popularity of DVD-Video business. US retail sales for 2004: 37.125 million DVD players sold, 1,518.3
million titles sold (Source: DVD Entertainment Group).
3. It will therefore be extremely important to design BD-ROM so that there is clear integration/continuity with
DVD-Video, but also with sufficient differentiation.
Understanding 2: Consumer Perspective
1. Consumers expect high image quality with large-screen displays. Plasmas, LCDs, rear-projection
televisions, digital projectors and other large-screen, HD capable display devices are now becoming popular.
DVD image resolution (SD) is insufficient on these types of large-screen, HD capable displays.
2. Special Features for Movies are Important:
US consumers are especially drawn to special features (production shots, outtakes, scenes cut from the
movie release, etc.) and cite these special features as one of the major reasons for purchasing DVD-Video
titles.
3. Need for new ways to view Movies:
Consumers may not pay attention to BD unless we can provide new, revolutionary ways to view movies and
movie related content in addition to providing a HD experience e.g. through services provided via
broadband.
4. User Interface Integration is important:
We need to keep in mind that users are familiar with (and are comfortable with) the DVD-Video User
Interface but that they also desire a richer interaction experience.
Understanding 3: Studio Perspective
1. The DVD-Video business is going extremely well, but competition between titles has also increased
dramatically.
z There is a need to include many special features and games to clearly distinguish titles.
z Increased Profit by releasing the DVD-Video title quickly after the theatrical release (In the US, DVD-Video
titles are released about 5 months after the theatrical release of the movie).
z Production schedules are becoming shorter and title programs are becoming more complex – the
burden on the production is getting heavier. Production needs to become more efficient.
2. BD-ROM Production:
z The DVD-Video production area is shouldering a large burden. Assuming that current DVD-Video
producers will also take on BD-ROM production, a smooth integration of the production process is
essential.
z We would like to make BD-ROM easier to manufacture than DVD-Video (and capable of doing more,
easily).
z Desire for New Type of Titles & Services:
We would like to promote the wide use of BD by providing new services and functions through BD-ROM
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titles. This will be another means of re-selling catalogue titles (i.e., continue to ride the wave of DVD
sales).
3. Desire to Implement New Business Models:
z The introduction of DVD-Video allowed the industry to move from the “rental” driven VHS business model
to a “sales” driven DVD business model with a higher profit margin.
z Studios are looking forward to gaining a new source of income through the introduction of new package
media. To prepare for this eventuality, they are looking to new means of distribution including those
that use broadband technology.
1.1.3
Evolution of Package Media for Movies
BD-ROM design is conducted based on the probable evolution of package media as envisioned in Figure
1-2 below, with due consideration to the issues (usage requests) outlined previously.
BD-ROM
DVD-Video
VHS
Digital SD
Image
Recording
Digital HD
Image
Recording
Expanded
Interactive
Broadband
Content Service
Simple
Interactive
Analogue
Image
Recording
DVD-Video usage spread quickly via the implementation of MPEG and IT technologies, namely
the achievement of high quality SD images and the use of simple interactive functions typified
in special features. BD-ROM not only displays HD images and supports expanded interactive
functions on its own, but by providing broadband content service functions through
broadband technology, will lead the user to the HD/BD World.
Figure 1-2 –Evolution of Movie Package Media
The use of DVD-Video spread quickly because of high quality SD image technology and simple interactive
functions implemented through MPEG and IT technologies.
BD-ROM is being designed with an architecture for a “BD World” that clearly distinguishes itself from DVD
by (1) realizing High Definition images, (2) creating an “expanded” interactive environment, and (3) creating a
platform for broadband content service functions that will expand the viewer’s way of enjoying content.
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1.2
Overview
For the purposes of providing the reader with an understanding of BD-ROM features, this Whitepaper
categorizes related features into “modes” of which two are defined (“HDMV” and “BD-J”). The categorization
used in this Whitepaper does not represent the actual structure of BD-ROM nor does this Whitepaper provide
a description of the complete set of features supported by BD-ROM.
Introduction to HDMV mode
BD-ROM provides an easy-to-author framework for creation of High Definition movie experiences known as
“HDMV” (High Definition Movie) mode. HDMV has been designed from the ground up to support a feature
set that supersedes DVD-Video while emphasizing production continuity with existing media formats. HDMV
supports all of the well known DVD-Video features such as seamless multi-angle and multi story, Language
Credits (dynamic selection of a credits sequence depending on the users Language choice), Director’s cuts,
Trilogy collections etc.
Here are some of the key features offered by HDMV:
•
Industry Standard High Definition Video and Surround Sound Audio:
¾ MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC and SMPTE VC-1 video formats.
¾ LPCM as well as Dolby®( 1 ) Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby Lossless, DTS digital surround®( 2 ) and
DTS-HD® audio formats.
•
Independent High Definition Graphic planes:
¾ Two independent High Definition graphic planes and one High Definition video plane simplifies the
process of Authoring both Menu and Subtitle graphics compared to DVD-Video.
•
Improved Menu features:
¾ “Multi-page Menus” - Menu presentations can be changed with no interruption to AV playback.
¾ “Pop-up Menus” – Menus can be shown or removed from display based on User request.
¾ Full color High Definition animated Buttons and animated Menu transition effects.
¾ “Button-sounds” – sounds can be presented when Menu Buttons are selected or activated.
•
Improved Subtitle features:
¾ High Definition “Bitmap Subtitles” supporting full color images with frame-accurate animation
effects up to full video frame rate.
¾ High Definition “Text Subtitles” utilizing vector-based fonts, encoded text data and multiple style
definitions. Text Subtitles do not affect the bandwidth available for a BD-ROM Title’s AV stream.
•
Additional Features:
¾ “Browsable Slideshow” - still images may be presented and changed without interruption to audio
playback.
HDMV has been developed with a focus on ease-of-authoring, ease-of-verification and reduced content
production cost. This has been achieved in three ways: 1) ground-up modern design of flexible data
structure definitions; 2) integration into the current content production and material preparation process used
for DVD-Video titles; 3) enabling the possibility of simultaneous production of DVD-Video and BD-ROM titles as
Dolby and the double-D symbol are registered trademarks of Dolby Laboratories.
DTS, DTS digital surround and DTS-HD are registered trademarks of Digital Theater Systems,
Inc.
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shown in Figure 1-3 below.
SD Master
Audio
Subtitle
Menu Data/
Special
Features
HD
Master
SD-Video
Encoder
DVD-Video
Formatter
DVD-Video
Shared BD/DVD
Content Production
Process
HD Video
Encoder
BD-ROM
Formatter
BD-ROM is designed to implement new functions that differentiate it from existing media and
to ensure compatibility with BD-RE. Additionally, the design has an emphasis on BD-ROM
content production. From the perspective of content production/raw material preparation,
title production is made that much more difficult if the design demands a completely different
process in creating an HD movie mode-led title. (Impediments would include higher costs for
new BD-ROM content production tools, new specialized equipment, new tool implementation,
operator training, etc.) Therefore, as shown above, the HD movie mode has been designed
with emphasis on compatibility with DVD in the content production process that will allow
simultaneous DVD and BD-ROM title production.
Figure 1-3 – Example of HD Movie mode content production process
If the BD-ROM standard is based solely on the assumption of a content production and material
preparation process that is entirely different from DVD-Video, then the cost of Title production becomes
prohibitively more expensive (costs for new development of BD-ROM content production tools, exclusive
material necessary for production, new tool implementation, operator training, etc.), thereby potentially
hindering the spread of BD-ROM.
Details of the HDMV platform are given in Section 4 along with more detailed examples of HDMV
applications.
Introduction to BD-J mode
BD-ROM also provides a fully programmable application environment with network connectivity thereby
enabling the Content Provider to create highly interactive, updateable BD-ROM titles. This mode is based on
the Java™( 3 ) platform and is known as “BD-J”. Content Providers are able to include interactive Java
applications on a BD-ROM disc in various ways (one application for the entire disc, one application per Title,
etc.).
Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun
Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. For more information please refer to:
http://www.sun.com/suntrademarks/
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Title#1
Title#1
Title#2
Title#2
R ea d a pplica tion (ta ble)
……
Player’s Cache
memory
(Storing one JAR file
for one application)
cla s s loa der
Java
Application
Manager
Java
Heap
BD
Figure 1-4 – Overview of Java application tables in BD-ROM
Possible BD-J applications include:
• A BD-ROM Title that supports downloading trailers for a sequel from a Content Provider’s website
and playback under application control.
• A BD-ROM disc with a set of games, each game associated with a Title in the disc’s table of content.
The main Menu of the disc allows downloading subsequent games from a Content Provider’s
website under certain conditions, like solving a puzzle for example.
• A BD-ROM Title is distributed supporting only a small number of languages. Later support for more
languages (i.e. subtitle and or audio streams) can be downloaded by the BD-J application on the
disc.
Java is a platform independent programming environment deployed in a wide verity of environments:
Server based applications can be supported through the Java 2 platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE), while
Desktop based applications can be supported through the Java 2 platform Standard Edition (J2SE), and
Consumer Electronics based applications (for devices like cell-phones and interactive digital receivers) can be
supported through the Java 2 platform Micro Edition (J2ME). Java provides an open and flexible
programming environment for BD-ROM.
BD-J provides a Java UI & graphics framework along with support for Local Storage and Internet
connectivity features thereby creating a complete and future proof solution. A BD-ROM disc can contain a
mix of titles based on HDMV and BD-J. Details of the BD-J platform are given in Section 5 along with more
detailed examples of BD-J applications.
2
Database information
2.1
BD-ROM data structure
Figure2-1 below provides a simplified overview of the BD-ROM data structure. BD-ROM has four layers for
managing AV stream files as follows: Index table, Movie Object/BD-J Object, PlayList and Clip.
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Index table
•
•
•
•
•
User
Interface
First Playback
Top Menu
Title1
Title2
...
Movie Object
Movie Object
BD-J Object
BD-J Object
commands commands
Movie PlayList
PlayItem
Movie PlayList
PlayItem
PlayItem
Movie PlayList
PlayItem PlayItem
Access point
(Time based)
Clip Information
Clip Information
Clip AV stream
Clip AV stream
Data-byte
position
dataButtonButton
Button
ObjectObjectObject
Clip
Clip
Figure 2-1 – Simplified structure of BD-ROM
2.1.1
Index table
The “Index Table” is a top-level table that defines the Titles and the Top Menu of a BD-ROM disc. This table
contains entry points for all of the Titles and the Top Menu. The Player references this table whenever a Title
or Menu is to be executed e.g. whenever the Title Search or Menu Call operation is called, the player refers to
this table to determine the corresponding Movie Object/BD-J Object that is to be executed.
The Index Table also has an entry to a Movie Object/BD-J Object designated for “First Playback” – this can
be used by Content Providers to perform automatic playback. When the disc is loaded, the player refers to
the “First Playback” entry to determine the corresponding Movie Object or BD-J Object that shall be executed.
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Index Table
Movie Object#1
First Playback
Movie Object#2
Movie Object#4
Top Menu
Title #1
Movie Object#3
:
BD-J Object#2
Title #n
BD-J Object#1
:
Figure 2-2 – An illustration of Index Table
2.1.2
Movie object
A “Movie Object” consists of an executable navigation command program (HDMV program). This enables
dynamic scenario description. Movie Objects exist in the layer above PlayLists.
Navigation commands in a Movie Object can launch PlayList playback or another Movie Object. This
enables the Content Provider to define a set of Movie Objects for managing playback of PlayLists in
accordance with a user’s interaction and preferences.
Movie Object#1
Movie Object#2
Jump Object #2
if ( a>b) {
Play PL#3
} else {
Play PL#4
}
PlayList#2
PlayList#3
Play PL#2
PlayList#4
Figure 2-3 – An illustration of Movie Object and PlayList
2.1.3
Java Xlet
When a Title associated with a BD-J Object in the Index Table on disc is selected, the corresponding
application is automatically launched and its lifecycle is bound to the Title. A BD-J application is a Java Xlet
which is controlled by the BD-ROM player’s Application Manager through its Xlet interface. The Xlet
interface has four states as follows: loaded, paused, active and destroyed. Once a BD-J application is
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destroyed, any resources allocated to it, such as memory and AV control, shall be released.
2.1.4
Movie PlayList
A “Movie PlayList” is a collection of playing intervals in the Clips. One such playing interval is called a
PlayItem and consists of an IN-point and an OUT-point, each of which refers to positions on a time axis of the
Clip. Therefore a PlayList is a collection of PlayItems. Here the IN-point means a start point of a playing
interval, and the OUT-point means an end point of the playing interval.
Movie PlayList
PlayItem
In
Out
PlayItem
In
PlayItem
Out
In
PlayItem
Out
Movie PlayList
In
Movie PlayList
In
PlayItem
Out
Out
Movie PlayList
In
Clip
Out
PlayItem
In
PlayItem
Out
Clip
Clip
Figure 2-4 – An illustration of Movie PlayList
2.1.5
Clip
An AV stream file together with its associated database attributes is considered to be one object. The AV
stream file is called a “Clip AV stream file”, and the associated database attribute file is called a “Clip
Information file".
An object consisting of a Clip AV stream file and its corresponding Clip information file is called a Clip.
(1) Clip AV stream file
A Clip AV stream file stores an MPEG-2 Transport Stream (ISO/IEC 13818-1) contained in a structure
compliant with the BD-ROM AV specification. This structure is called the “BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream”,
an overview of which is provided in Section 3.1.
(2) Clip Information file
The Clip Information file stores the time stamps of the access point into the corresponding AV stream file.
The Player reads the Clip Information to find out the position where it should begin to read the data from the
AV stream file.
There is a one-to-one relationship between a Clip AV stream file and a Clip Information file.
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2.2
Mechanism to realize “Browsable Slideshow”, “Pop-up Menu” and “Text subtitle” applications
BD-ROM provides a framework to realize “Browsable Slideshow”, “Pop-up Menu” and “Text subtitle”
applications by providing a mechanism called “sub-path”.
The sub-path is a structure that enables the author to easily add a separate (out-of-mux) stream to the
main Clip on the main-path.
Figure 2-5 shows the relation between the main-path and the sub-path in case of Text subtitle application.
As shown in the figure, a SubPlayItem is logically added to the PlayItem in the PlayList to associate a
separate Clip (SubPath) to the PlayItem on the Main path. The text subtitle presentation path using the
SubPlayItem is synchronized with the main path using PlayItems in the PlayList.
Movie PlayList
PlayItem (Main path)
SubPath
(SubPlayItem)
IN1
OUT1
Clip1
(Main AV stream)
IN2
OUT2
Clip2
(Text subtitle stream)
Figure 2-5 - An example of Main path and Sub path structure with Text subtitle presentation path
2.3
Directory and File structure
All BD-ROM application files are stored under a “BDMV” directory.
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root
BD-ROM Application Format
BDMV
directory
index.bdmv
MovieObject.bdmv
PLAYLIST
00000.mpls
00001.mpls
00002.mpls
CLIPINF
01000.clpi
02000.clpi
03000.clpi
STREAM
01000.m2ts
02000.m2ts
03000.m2ts
AUXDATA
sound.bdmv
11111.otf
99999.otf
BACKUP
1) “BDMV” directory:
The BDMV directory contains the PLAYLIST, CLIPINF, STREAM, AUXDATA and BACKUP directories.
2) “PLAYLIST” directory:
The PLAYLIST directory contains the Database files for Movie PlayLists.
3) “CLIPINF” directory
The CLIPINF directory contains the Database files for Clips.
4) “STREAM” directory
The STREAM directory contains AV stream files.
5) “AUXDATA” directory
The AUXDATA directory contains Sound data files and Font files.
6) “BACKUP” directory
The BACKUP directory contains copies of the "index.bdmv” file, the “MovieObject.bdmv” file, all the files in the
PLAYLIST directory and all files in the CLIPINF directory.
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7) “index.bdmv” file
The “index.bdmv” file stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one
index.bdmv file under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “index.bdmv”.
8) “MovieObject.bdmv” file
The “MovieObject.bdmv” file stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one
MovieObject.bdmv under the BDMV directory and its filename is fixed to “ MovieObject.bdmv “.
9) “xxxxx.mpls” file
The “xxxxx.mpls” files store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One file is created for each Movie
PlayList. The filenames of these files are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number
corresponding to the Movie PlayList.
10) “zzzzz.clpi” file
The “zzzzz.clpi” files store Clip information associated with a Clip AV stream file. The filenames of these files
are in the form “zzzzz.clpi”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip.
11) “zzzzz.m2ts” file
The “zzzzz.m2ts” files contains a BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream. The names of these files are in the form
“zzzzz.m2ts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz” is
used for an AV stream file and its associated Clip information file.
12) “sound.bdmv” file
The “sound.bdmv” file stores data relating to one or more sounds associated with HDMV Interactive Graphic
streams applications. This file may or may not exist under the AUXDATA directory. If it exists, there shall be
only one sound.bdmv file and its filename is fixed to “sound.bdmv “.
13) “aaaaa.otf” file
The “aaaaa.otf” file stores the font information associated with Text subtitle applications. The names of
these files are in the form “aaaaa.otf”, where “aaaaa” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Font.
3
MPEG2 Transport stream for BD-ROM
The Blu-ray Disc Prerecorded application format (BD-ROM) and the Blu-ray Disc Recordable application
format (BD-RE) use a common format for stream multiplexing – this format is based on the MPEG-2
Transport Stream industry standard (ISO/IEC 13818-1).
3.1
BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream
A MPEG-2 Transport Stream is stored in a Clip AV stream file in a structure known as the “BDAV MPEG-2
Transport Stream”. A BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream conforms to the data structure illustrated in Figure
3-1. The BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream is constructed from one or more “Aligned units”, where:
1) The size of an Aligned unit is 6144 bytes (2048*3 bytes).
2)
An Aligned unit starts from the first byte of the source packets.
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3)
The length of a source packet is 192 bytes. One source packet consists of one TP_extra_header
structure and one MPEG2 transport packet structure. The length of the TP_extra_header
structure is 4 bytes and the length of the transport packet structure is 188 bytes.
4)
One Aligned unit consists of 32 source packets.
BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream
Aligned
unit
Aligned
unit
Aligned
unit
...
Aligned
unit
source
packet-1
source
packet-2
...
source
packet-31
Aligned
unit
6144
bytes
source
packet-0
192
bytes
TP_extra_
header
Transport
packet
4
bytes
188
bytes
Figure 3-1 – Structure of BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream
Aligned units are recorded in three consecutive logical sectors on the BD-ROM disc. The size of one logical
sector is 2048 bytes. The maximum multiplex rate of the BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream is 48Mbps.
The decoder model of the BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream is described in the “White Paper: BD RE - Logical
and Audio Visual Application Format Specifications” available at:
“http://www.blu-raydisc.com/”.
3.2
Elementary streams in BDAV MPEG-2 Transport Stream
Video, audio, graphics and text elementary streams are coded in the PES packet payload of the BDAV
MPEG-2 Transport Stream. The coding method for each of these elementary streams is specified in Figure
3-2 below.
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Name of
elementary stream
Coding method of
elementary stream
Video stream
SMPTE VC-1 video stream
MPEG-4 AVC video stream
MPEG-2 video stream
Audio stream
Linear PCM audio stream
Dolby Digital audio stream
Dolby Digital Plus audio stream
Dolby Lossless audio stream
DTS digital surround audio stream
DTS-HD audio stream
Graphics stream
Presentation graphics stream
Interactive graphics stream
Text subtitle stream
HDMV Text subtitle stream
Figure 3-2 - Elementary streams in the BDAV MPEG2 Transport Stream
3.3
Video streams
Video streams shall be MPEG-2 video format (ISO/IEC 13818-2) compliant, MPEG-4 AVC video format
(ISO/IEC 14496-10) compliant or SMPTE VC-1 video format compliant.
The video formats shown in Figure 3-3 can be used for BD-ROM video streams.
CODECS
Video
Max. bitrate
HD
SD
MPEG-2: [email protected] and [email protected]
MPEG-4 AVC: MPEG-4 AVC: [email protected]/4.0 and [email protected]/4.0/3.2/3.1/3.0
SMPTE VC-1: [email protected] and [email protected]
40Mbps
1920x1080x59.94-i, 50-i
(16:9)
1920x1080x24-p, 23.976-p (16:9)
1440x1080x59.94-i, 50-i
(16:9) MPEG-4 AVC / SMPTE VC-1 only
1440x1080x24-p, 23.976-p (16:9) MPEG-4 AVC / SMPTE VC-1 only
1280x720x59.94-p, 50-p
(16:9)
1280x720x24-p, 23.976-p (16:9)
720x480x59.94-i
(4:3/16:9)
720x576x50-i
(4:3/16:9)
Figure 3-3 - Specification of BD-ROM Video streams
3.4
Audio streams
BD-ROM supports six types of audio stream formats ranging from a low bit rate to high audio quality, as
shown in Figure 3-4 below.
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CODEC
Audio
Max.bitrate
Max.ch
bits/sample
Sampling
frequency
3.5
LPCM
Dolby
Digital
640kbps
5.1
Dolby
Digital Plus
4.736Mbps
7.1
Dolby
DTS digital
Lossless
surround
27.648Mbps
18.64Mbps 1.524Mbps
8(48kHz,
8(48kHz,
5.1
96kHz),
96kHz),
6(192kHz)
6(192kHz)
16, 20, 24
16 - 24
16 - 24
16 - 24
16, 20, 24
48kHz,
48kHz
48kHz
48kHz,
48kHz
96kHz,
96kHz,
192kHz
192kHz
Figure 3-4 – Specification of BD-ROM Audio streams
DTS-HD
24.5Mbps
8(48kHz,
96kHz),
6(192kHz)
16 - 24
48kHz,
96kHz,
192kHz
Presentation Graphics and Interactive Graphics streams
Graphics
BD-ROM provides two types of graphics streams as shown in Figure 3-5 below. The Presentation Graphics
stream (available in HDMV and BD-J) is intended for Subtitles and Animated Graphics, and the Interactive
Graphics (available only in HDMV) is intended for Menu Graphics.
3.6
Plane size
1920x1080/1280x720/720x480/720x576
Color
8bit Index lookup table(24 bit color + 8 bit alpha)
Compression
Run Length Encoding
Presentation planes
2 planes
Presentation Plane name
Presentation Graphics
Interactive Graphics
Main usage
Subtitles
Menus
Animation Effects
Fade In/Out, Color changing, Wipe In/Out, Scrolling
Figure 3-5 – Specification of BD-ROM Graphics streams
Text subtitle streams
Text Subtitle
BD-ROM also supports Text subtitle streams. A Text subtitle is defined by a series of character codes plus
font and style information. Text subtitles are available in addition to the Bitmap based Subtitles provided by
BD-ROM Presentation Graphics streams.
Plane size
Character encoding
Presentation Plane name
Color
Effect
Presentation style
1920x1080/1280x720/720x480/720x576
Unicode2.0 (UTF-8 and UTF-16BE), Shift-JIS, KSC 5601-1987 (including
KSC 5653), GB18030-2000, GB2312, BIG5
Presentation Graphics
8bit Index lookup table(24 bit color + 8 bit alpha)
Fade In/Out, Color changing
Text position/flow/alignment, font style/size/color
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User change-able style
Text position, font size, line space
Figure 3-6 – Specification of BD-ROM Text subtitle streams
4
HDMV mode
The BD-ROM HDMV platform provides a flexible, simple framework for creation of interactive High
Definition and Standard Definition movie experience applications. This section will provide an overview of
some of the key features provided in HDMV.
4.1
Core functions
4.1.1
Out-of-Mux stream Framework
HDMV provides a framework for individual stream handling. An Out-of-Mux stream is an additional stream
which is decoded while the main MPEG stream is decoding. The Out-of-Mux framework provides support for
new applications such as Pop-Up Menus, Browsable Slideshow with background music, Button click sound
and Text subtitle display.
Decoder model
The HDMV decoder model is equipped with two read buffers, two preloading buffers and two switches.
The second read buffer enables the supply of an Out-of-Mux audio stream to the decoder even while the main
MPEG stream is being decoded. The preloading buffers cache Text subtitles, Interactive Graphics and
sounds effects (which are presented at Button selection or activation). The preloading buffer stores data
before movie playback begins and supplies data for presentation even while the main MPEG stream is being
decoded.
This switch between the ECC decoder and buffers selects the appropriate buffer to receive demodulated
packet data from any one of read buffers or preloading buffers. Before starting the main movie
presentation, effect sounds data (if it exists), text subtitle data (if it exists) and Interactive Graphics (if
preloaded Interactive Graphics exist) are preloaded and sent to each buffer respectively through the switch.
The main MPEG stream is sent to the primary read buffer (RB1) and the Out-of-Mux stream is sent to the
secondary read buffer (RB2) by the switch.
The audio decoder also has a switch to select a read buffer for source audio data. In the case of a
Browsable Slideshow with background music, the switch selects the secondary read buffer (RB2) to store an
Out-of-Mux audio stream and continue supplying the audio stream to the decoder. In all other cases the
switch selects the primary read buffer (RB1).
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Preloading
PCM data
Buffer1
IG Dec
Preloading
IG plane
Buffer2
TXT Dec
RB1
SW1
BD-ROM
Demodulation,
Drive
ECC decoder
PG Dec
Read buffer1
V Dec
A Dec
RB2
Read buffer2
PG plane
+
V plane
+
SW2
Figure 4-1 – Decoder model
4.1.2
Graphics Framework
HDMV provides two graphics frameworks for compositing graphics on video: the Interactive Graphics
system and the Presentation Graphics system.
A BD-ROM Interactive graphics stream contains information required to provide a series of interactive
displays, which appear and disappear with frame accuracy, that are supplemental to an associated HDMV
presentation. It is envisaged that Interactive graphics streams will typically be used to provide both the
display and associated commands of graphical interactive displays during a HDMV presentation.
A BD-ROM Presentation graphics stream, available in both HDMV and BD-J modes, contains information
required to provide non-interactive images that are supplemental to an associated BD-ROM presentation.
The images described in the stream are designed for graphic overlay, with frame accuracy, on the associated
video image. It is envisaged that BD-ROM Presentation graphics streams will typically be used to provide
subtitle services and/or other animated graphics during a HDMV or BD-J presentation.
1) Graphics planes
As shown in Figure 4-2, HDMV defines two independent full HD resolution (1920x1080) graphics planes for
graphics which are composited on the video plane. One graphics plane is assigned for subtitling
applications (Presentation Graphics or Text Subtitles) and the other plane is assigned to interactive
applications (HDMV or BD-J mode interactivity graphics).
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Main
Main Movie
Movie Plane
Plane
Presentation
Presentation Plane
Plane
+
+
Welcome
Welcome to
to
BDBD
BDROM
BD--ROM
Button1
Button1
Button2
Button2
Welcome
Welcome to
to
BDBD
BDROM
BD--ROM
Interactive
Interactive Plane
Plane
Button1
Button1
Button2
Button2
BD-ROM
BD-ROM is
isdesigned
designed to
to have
havemultiple
multipleimage
imageplanes
planes (main
(mainmovie,
movie, subtitle,
subtitle, graphics
graphics &
&button)
button)
in
inthe
thereference
referenceplayer
playermodel,
model,which
whichare
arethen
then combined
combined into
intoone
oneimage
imageat
atdisplay.
display. This
This
allows
allows the
themovie
movieimage,
image, subtitle
subtitleand
andbuttons
buttons to
tobe
beindependently
independentlycontrolled,
controlled, therefore
therefore
increasing
increasingcompatibility
compatibilityand
and ease
easeof
of implementation
implementation compared
compared to
to existing
existing media.
media.
Figure 4-2 – Graphics planes
Each graphics plane has 8-bits per pixel, with each pixel value referring to an index entry in a Palette for
translation to YCrCb color and 8-bit (256level) alpha. This color capability offers an enhanced visual
experience and allows compelling content to be displayed using the HDMV Interactive Graphics system.
2) Graphics model
The HDMV graphics systems define a flexible decoding and composition system for providing graphics
displays whereby graphic images may be reused, with different effects applied, in one or more graphics
displays.
A HDMV graphics stream consists of one or more “Segments” – “Segments” are the basic syntactical
element of HDMV graphics streams. There are three types of Segments - Graphics Object Segment,
Composition Segment and Palette Segment:
• Composition Segment – defines the appearance of a graphics display.
• Graphics Object Segment – Bitmap image data compressed with an RLE compression schema.
• Palette Segment – color and transparency data (up to 256 entries) for translation of 8bit index color
to full color when compositing on the video plane.
Segments are processed by the BD-ROM HDMV graphics decoder as shown in Figure 4-3 below.
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Control data
RLE data
Bitmap Object
Palette
Cropping
Display Image
100111011100
Comp.
CLUT
Transparency
Comp.
Coded Data
Graphics
Object
Graphics
Buffer
Processor
Buffer
Plane
Composition
Graphics
Buffer
Controller
CLUT
Comp.
Comp.
Palette
………
Figure 4-3 – Illustration of BD-ROM HDMV Graphics decoding
A Segment first arrives at the Coded Data Buffer. The Graphics Processor extracts the Segment at the
time defined by a system time-stamp associated with the Segment. When Composition and Palette
Segments arrive at the Graphics processor, they are decoded to the Composition Buffer.
When Graphics Object Segments arrive at the Graphics Processor, the Graphics Processor decodes the
Graphics Object to an uncompressed 8-bit graphics object which is then stored in the Object Buffer. Once a
Graphics Object has been decoded, it is available for use by one or more graphics displays as described in
Composition Segment.
The Graphics Controller is responsible for compositing graphics images on to the graphics plane in
accordance with the description in the Composition Segment. The composited image on the graphics plane
is transformed to full color and transparency by the CLUT module and then overlaid on the video image. The
decoder implements a Pipelined decoding model such that Graphics Displays may be assembled in the
Graphics Plane while, at the same time, new Graphics data is decoded into the Object Buffer.
3) Graphics animations
Support for graphics effects is part of the graphics tool set for Content Providers to create rich BD-ROM
Graphics Displays. Supported effects include scrolls, wipes, cuts, fades (transparency changes) and color
changes. All of these effects may be utilized in both Interactive (e.g. to be used for Menu page transitions)
and Presentation Graphics streams (e.g. to be used for advanced Subtitles or Karaoke).
Composition Segments indicate the Graphics Objects to be used for a graphics display and may define a
cropping transform to be applied when compositing the Graphics Object. Composition Segments also
indicate the Palette to be used for the graphics display. Effects are realized by providing multiple
Compositions Segments which change cropping areas of Graphics Objects (e.g. to provide wipes, scrolls and
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cuts) as illustrated in Figure 4-4 and/or reference different Palettes (e.g. to provide fades or color changes).
Composition
Segments
Coded Data
Graphics
Object
Graphics
Buffer
Processor
Buffer
Plane
CLUT
Graphics
Object
Display 1
Cropping
Display 2
Figure 4-4 – Illustration of wipe effect
HDMV Interactive Graphics are further extended to support animated sequences of graphics for Buttons.
The Normal, Selected and Activated states of a Button may be animated with a sequence of different images.
With 8-bit index color and transparency support along with support for frame rates up to the underlying video
frame rate, the creative possibilities are greatly expanded over existing formats.
4.1.3
Text Subtitle Framework
HDMV provides support for Text based subtitles. This framework enables the Content Provider to create
Subtitling applications using character code sequences (text) plus style information. The Text subtitle
stream is stored as an Out-Of-Mux stream (as described in Section 4.1.1) which does not impinge on the
bandwidth of the main AV stream thereby enabling the Content Provider to supply several Subtitle streams
without affecting the quality of the associated audio and video presentation. The BD-ROM player can
present either a Text Subtitle stream or a Presentation Graphics Subtitle stream – it will not present both at
the same time.
A Text subtitle stream consists of a sequence of “Text Dialogs”, each of which consists of a text to be
presented. Text Dialogs contain up to a maximum of two Text Regions, each of which may be presented
with an individual presentation Style. All text in a Text Dialog shall be presented during the same
presentation time slot which is frame-accurately synchronized with the main AV stream.
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PTS1
PTS2 PTS3
PTS6
PTS4 PTS5
Text Dialog #1
Text Dialog #2
Teacher’s Instructions
Teacher’s Instructions
Children’s Chat…
Text Dialog #3
Teacher’s Instructions
Children’s Chat, Cont.
Up to two Text Regions with
different presentation styles
Figure 4-5 – Illustration of Text Dialogs and Text Regions
Text subtle streams are rendered to an 8-bit index image and a Palette is applied for translation to YCrCb
color and 8-bit (256level) alpha prior to display.
The Text subtitle framework supports various presentation styles as shown in Figure 4-6:
• A “Text Region” is defined by position and size within the Graphic plane. Each Text Region can have
a unique background color.
• A “Text box” is defined by position and size within a Text Region. Text boxes are used for the
placement of text for display.
• Text boxes define the style of text for display as follows:
o Text arrangement using text flow (e.g. left-to-top progression), text alignment (e.g. left
alignment) and line space style attributes.
o Font styles using font type (e.g. Arial, Courier), font style (e.g. bold, italic), font size and font
color can be set for each Text Region.
• In addition to the Text box style, variations of font styles are allowed for character by character
(known as “in-line” styles).
Graphics Plane
Background Color
A Text Region
Text Box
This is the first line
This is the second line
Line Space
Figure 4-6 – Illustration of Text Region and Text Box
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Figure 4-7 shows an example of some temporal effects which can be performed using the HDMV Text subtitle
format. Fading of text is realized by simple Palette changes. Seamless presentation between individual
Text subtitle displays is guaranteed.
Example of Fade-in
Text Dialog #1
Text Dialog #2
Text Dialog #3
Song Lyrics …
Song Lyrics …
Song Lyrics …
Smooth Presentation without Flickering
Text Dialog #1
Text Dialog #2
Teacher’s instructions
Teacher’s instructions
Children’s chat …
Smooth Change
Text Dialog #3
Children’s chat …
Smooth Change
Figure 4-7 – Example of Text subtitle effects
4.1.4
Interactivity Framework
1) Pop-Up Menus
HDMV Interactive Graphics support a “Pop-Up” Menu Interface: once playback of video has begun, HDMV
graphical interactive content may be activated during the playback of video by pressing a ‘Pop-Up’ Button on
the remote. In this case, video playback can continue while the HDMV Interactive graphics are on the screen
or video playback may be paused – this is determined by the Content Provider using navigation commands.
Menus that support a “Pop-Up” Menu Interface are always pre-loaded. As shown in Figure 4-8, several
pages of HDMV Interactive Graphics data can be pre-loaded before playback starts. This Interactive
Graphics data is kept in memory during playback of the AV stream and is not displayed until requested by the
user.
English
Lang.
Menu
Menu
PopUp_on()
French
Menu
PopUp_off()
Figure 4-8 – Illustration of Pop-Up Menus
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2) Always-On Menus
HDMV Interactive Graphics support an “Always-On” Menu Interface; Interactive Graphics content that
cannot be removed from the screen by user request is called “Always-On”. This is one of the methods
provided by HDMV to present interactivity to the user and is similar to that provided by DVD-Video. For
example, a Menu implemented with the Always-On interface may be presented to the user when the disc is
inserted into the player.
Feature
Games
Game
Menu
Feature
Menu
Feature
Feature
Activate_button ()
Menu
Menu
Menu
Menu
Inactivate_button()
Figure 4-9 – Illustration of Always-On Menus
Menus that support an “Always-On” Menu Interface may be pre-loaded or multiplexed with video. If the
HDMV Interactive Graphics stream is multiplexed with video, PTS/DTS timestamps can frame accurately
determine when the Always-On Menu shall appear and disappear.
3) Multi-page Menus
The HDMV Interactive Graphics framework provides a scheme for Menu Page definition, thereby allowing a
large amount of data to be presented in an organized manner with special commands available for
inter-page navigation. When a Button is activated, a corresponding navigation command is executed which
causes the display to change to a specified page. This action is performed with no visible interruption to the
screen allowing a seamless user experience.
Main menu
Languages
Chapters1
Chapters2
Languages
English
1
2
3
Chapters
French
Main
Next
Prev.
4
Navigation program changes a page
Page
Figure 4-10 – Example of Multi-page Menu
4) Button enabling and disabling
The HDMV Interactive Graphics framework also provides a scheme for dynamic graphics display. On a
single page, this enables the Content Provider to determine dynamically which Buttons are visible and
invisible at any point in time. This scheme could be used, for example, to provide Buttons that present a set
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of options and when one of those Buttons is selected, additional Buttons appear. When a Button is enabled
it becomes visible and can be navigated to. This action is performed with no visible interruption to the
screen allowing a seamless user experience. The author may choose to either keep the earlier Buttons
accessible or disable them which would clear them from the display.
Navigation Button associated to
“Languages Button” enables three Buttons
Main Menu
Main menu
English
Languages
Languages
Activate
French
Chapters
Chapters
Spanish
No Button enabled
Figure 4-11 – Example of Button enabling and disabling
Command Framework
4.1.5
HDMV provides a simple programming platform to enable the Content Provider to author interactive movie
contents, such as those seen in the DVD-Video market. This platform provides a scheme to manage the
behavior of Menus, Browsable Slideshow pages and so on.
There are two types of Objects which contain navigation commands – the Movie Object and the Button
Object. A Movie Object is executed when the Title associated with the Movie Object begins playback.
Movie Object navigation commands are used to manage PlayList playback. While a PlayList is under
playback, the state of a Movie Object is maintained and resumes after PlayList playback is terminated. A
Button Object is an alternative programming method that is available while the PlayList is under playback
and a Button Object is executed by user activation or system timer.
Programming commands and Registers
HDMV navigation commands have three operation groups: playback operation group, compare operation
group, and arithmetical and bitwise operation group. The playback operation group manages PlayList
playback, execution of Movie Objects, execution of Titles and control of the Graphics display (Button enabling
and disabling). The comparison operation group provides comparison functions between parameters
and/or given values and provides a Boolean result.
The player has two types of Registers: General Purpose Registers and Player Status Registers. General
Purpose Registers provide the Content Provider with 4096 4-bytes unsigned registers. Player Status
Registers represent the Player’s playback status, configuration and preferences.
4.2
Application Examples
4.2.1
Interactive Menus
The HDMV Interactive Graphics framework is used to provide interactive Menu displays. For instance,
changing the display image of selected Buttons and changing the graphics display of the page (Buttons
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appearing and disappearing) with Button activation. This framework enables the author to provide flexible
Menu navigation while the movie is presented.
E t
Figure 4-12 – Example of Multi-page Menu with dynamic Button display
4.2.1.1
Browsable Slideshow with background music
The HDMV decoder enables simultaneous decoding of still picture data and audio data. Since the
decoding process of each is independent, the decoder enables the user to freely change (skip next or skip
back) the still picture while not interrupting the audio presentation. This means that background music can
continuously be presented during a Browsable Slideshow application.
Figure 4-13 – Example of Browsable Slideshow with background music
4.2.1.2
Button sounds
The concept of Button Sounds is available in HDMV. Both the Select and Activate actions may be
associated with short duration sounds which are mixed with the underlying audio.
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Sound
Mixer
Main audio
Preloading Buffer
sound_id
PCM data
1
Title Menu
2
:
TITLE 1
:
N
Preload
TITLE 2
Sound effect
TITLE 3
(link to sound_id=1)
Figure 4-14 – Example of Button sounds
4.2.2
User Changeable Subtitle styles
In addition to the basic style control made available in the Text subtitle format, the Content Provider can
also define a set of various presentation positions and font sizes for the display region as user selectable
styles. In this case, the user can change the presentation style by selecting one style from the set of user
selectable styles as shown in Figure 4-15 below.
Song Lyric 1
Song Lyric 1
Changing
Text Position
Song Lyric 1
Song Lyric 1
Changing
Font size
Figure 4-15 – User change to presentation styles
5
BD-J mode
This section will cover the main features of the BD-J mode platform which is shown in Figure 5-1 below.
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BD-J Application
BD-J Application
BD-J Application
Application Runtime Environment
Core Package
Optional Package
Application Manager
JavaVM
Access Control
HDMV compatible AV Playback and Navigation
Graphics Decoder
Network Protocols
UO Dispatcher
Network
System
Storage
Text-Subtitle Decoder
Storage System
Text Presentation Engine
Presentation Engine
Host OS
Local
Storage
disc
Application
Cache
Event
Queue
Figure 5-1 – Overall BD-J system model
BD-J is based on the Java 2 Micro-Edition (J2ME) Personal Basis Profile (PBP) – a Java profile that was
developed for consumer electronics devices.
5.1
Core functions
5.1.1
Application Execution / Management
A key concept of BD-J is the BD-J Object. A BD-J Object is a Java Xlet that is registered in the Application
Management Table (AMT). Each Title on a disc or even the disc itself can have an associated AMT.
At least one application in the AMT must be signaled as “autostart”. This application will be started when
the corresponding Title is selected and from thereon the BD-J platform is used by the BD-J application. This
could include selecting another Title and launching other applications signaled in the AMT or downloading
from the Internet.
5.1.2
GUI framework and User Interface
BD-J includes a GUI framework that is suitable for a CE environment. A BD-J application’s GUI can be
operated with a remote control with a required set of keys and an optional pointing device. The set of
required keys includes at least the keys needed to support the User Operations in HDMV applications.
The GUI framework in BD-J is similar to the framework defined in HAVi( 4 ) UI and is not a desktop GUI
framework like Swing or AWT. The GUI framework will be based on the core of AWT, but the widget set
includes mechanisms for remote control navigation and easy customization of look and feel.
HAVi is owned by the HAVi Organization. For more information, please refer to: http://www.havi.org/
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5.1.3
Device model & functions like HAVi
BD-J includes a HAVi-like device model that maps to the BD-ROM system resources. One of the devices
supported in the model is the Screen device that is build up of a Background Device, a Video Device and a
Graphics Device. The configuration of the Screen and its constituent devices is under control of the BD-J
application, as shown in Figure 5-2 below.
back
front
B a ckg round
Video
J a va Gra phics
The graphics device is used
for drawing and displaying the
GUI of a BD-J application. It is
the equivalent of the IG plane
for BD-J.
The video device is used to display
video and associated presentation
graphics. Configuration of this and the
other devices can be changed under
BD-J application control
The background device sits at the
back, behind the video and it can
display a single image or a single
color.
Figure 5-2 – BD-J system device model
Supported resolutions of the devices are compatible with the supported video format resolutions. The
Graphics Device uses a 32-bit color RGB color model.
BD-J graphics can use alpha for overlay with video. Additionally, the video can be scaled behind the BD-J
graphics and the video background device can display a single image.
5.1.4
AV Playback and Navigation and Subtitle/Audio Language Control
BD-J includes a media framework similar to JMF for the playback of media content related to the BD-ROM
disc. It is assumed that the BD-ROM disc will be the prime source for media files, but it will not be the only
one; other sources could be the studio’s web server and local storage.
The unit of playback in BD-J is the Playlist, just as in HDMV. All features of HDMV, except Interactive
Graphics, can be used by a BD-J Application. HDMV Interactive Graphics is replaced by BD-J graphics.
Supported features include video, audio, Presentation Graphics, Text Subtitle component selection,
media-time and playback-rate (trick-mode) control.
The BD-J Video Device is a combination of the HDMV Video and Presentation Graphics planes. Both Video
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and Presentation graphics will play back in the Video Device.
5.1.5
Other (static) content format functions (Graphics, Text, Audio Clips)
BD-J includes standard Java libraries for decoding and displaying images in JFIF (JPEG), PNG and other
image formats. These images can be displayed on the Java graphics plane using standard Java graphics
functions. An image can also be rendered in the background plane using a BD-J specific package.
Text can be rendered using standard Java text functions. These text-rendering functions are extended with
a more advanced text layout manager that integrates with the BD-J UI framework. The text is rendered using
a vector-based font either coming from the disc, the player (default font) or downloaded from the network.
Button sounds from HDMV can also be used by the Java UI framework. Sound files can be loaded and
rendered as a reaction to the user pressing a key, or as a reaction on a marked event related to the movie - or
as a reaction to any event generated by a BD-J Application.
5.1.6
Access control, security scheme, application authentication scheme
The BD-J environment uses the Java 2 security model to authenticate signed applications and to grant
them permissions that go beyond the core functions (the BD-J defined sandbox).
The authentication scheme of BD-J applications is based on signing the JAR files that contain the
applications. The relation between the authentication of BD-J applications coming from the disc and the BD
Copy Protection System is out of scope for this paper, but an efficient workable scenario will be part of the
BD-ROM Full Feature specification. The BD-J classloader will only load authenticated applications when the
disc is in the player.
Authenticated applications can use a (signed) permission request file to acquire permissions that go
beyond the BD-J sandbox. Permissions can be acquired for:
• Reading and writing to local and system storage
• Using the network connection (to connect to defined servers)
• Access of the file system on the BD-ROM disc
• Title selection of other titles on the BD-ROM disc
• Control of other running BD-J applications
5.1.7
Internet Connectivity & Download of New Contents/Applications
BD-J contains the Java network package. Java applications can use this package to connect to servers on
the Internet. The physical connection might differ between implementations e.g. Ethernet, telephone line,
etc. At the network level, TCP/IP is supported and the HTTP protocol may be used. Moreover, the Java
package for secure connections is included (JSSE) as part of the BD-J platform. Before a BD-J application
can use the network connection, it must be authenticated and have suitable permission to use the network.
The web sites to which the application will go are under full control of the Content Provider. This control is
guaranteed in two ways:
• Only (disc) authenticated BD-J applications are allowed to run when the disc is played. The
application controls the use of the network connection.
• In addition, permissions defined on the disc can restrict the use of the (TCP/IP) network connection
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The Blu-ray Disc Format Specifications have not yet been finalized and the contents in this White Paper may
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to certain sites.
5.1.8
System/Local Storage
BD-J will include support for storage. Two flavors of storage are included – mandatory System Storage
and optional Local Storage. All storage is accessed using methods from the Java IO package.
System storage is storage that will be present in all BD-J players. The required minimum size of this
system storage will permit storage of application data like settings, high-scores etc. It will not be big enough
to store downloaded AV material. For this purpose, optional local storage is available. Typically system
storage will be implemented using Flash memory and the optional local storage will be implemented on a
HDD.
Since storage is a shared resource between all discs played on the player, Java access control is part of
BD-J. BD-J applications can only access a disc specific part of the storage space and cannot access the part
belonging to other discs.
5.1.9
Binding scheme for on-the-disc and off-the-disc content
A binding scheme between media content (AV files, subtitles, Java applications files, database files) on the
disc and content (related to the disc) stored on local storage is defined. This scheme enables a seamless
user experience to be provided when playing back media data, regardless of the origin of the data.
5.2
Application Examples
BD-J allows many possible application types. In this section we will cover a few typical examples in more
detail.
5.2.1
AV playback control
One of the main features of BD-J is playback of A/V material. A disc bound BD-J application can be
created which is started when the disc is put into the player. This application could present a Menu on the
screen, e.g. while playing an introduction of the movie in a scaled-down manner in a corner of the screen
which allows language selection, chapter selection, and display of background information that might be
retrieved from disc or from the Internet. Once the user selects playback of a Title, the disc application
becomes invisible but allows the user to use trick modes with a simple on-screen GUI on top of the video (as
long as the application on the disc allows this). The user also has the option of going back to the full-screen
Menu of the disc application using one of the remote control keys.
BD-J features used in this example include: media control (including video scaling, playback speed,
language component selection), GUI framework, and Internet connectivity.
5.2.2
Subtitle Updates
The BD-J application described above can be further extended to allow the user to obtain subtitles in a
language that is not supported on the disc. The Content Provider can publish new or updated subtitle files
on a website dedicated to the disc Title. The BD-J application on the disc can include the retrieval of this
subtitle file and storage (in encrypted form) in the player’s local storage. After storing the subtitle file, the
application can select the new subtitles for a Title.
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The Blu-ray Disc Format Specifications have not yet been finalized and the contents in this White Paper may
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Only BD compliant players and trusted and authenticated applications will be able to do this and only from
trusted and authenticated websites. The trust scheme will make use of the Java 2 security scheme and be
tied to the CPS of the disc.
Additional BD-J features used in this example: downloading data into local storage, combined playback of
subtitles from local storage with video from disc, merged file-system view, Java 2 security model.
5.2.3
Download new Movie trailer
When the Content Provider that published the disc is launching a sequel to the Title, they may also choose
to publish a trailer for the sequel on their website, specifically for holders of the current title. A BD-J
application, present on the disc, can connect to this website and see if there is new content available. The
BD-J application can inform the user that a trailer for the new sequel movie is available e.g. by showing a
number of (JPEG) images in the Main Menu. After the user has selected to view the trailer, the BD-J
application downloads this trailer, while at the same time showing some background information on the
actors in this sequel. When the download of the trailer to local storage is completed, the application plays it
back, showing at the bottom of the screen the movie theatres where this movie can be seen.
Additional BD-J features used in this example: downloading A/V material to local storage, playback of A/V
material from local storage, display of (JPEG) images from local storage, retrieval and usage of user
information (for the display of localized information).
5.2.4
Play games on the disc and also online game
BD-J is not only a good solution for flexible media-playback from disc and from the Internet, it can also be
used for games. A disc can contain, besides the movie Title, a Title that contains a set of games. The Java
application associated with the Title displays the Menu of available games. The set of games can be a
combination of games coming from the disc and games downloaded in JAR files from the Content Provider’s
website. Games can retrieve high scores from the Internet and achieving a new high-score can result in the
user’s alias appearing in the updated game results. Game applications can make use of the Java graphics
and UI input features of the Java programming environment.
Additional BD-J features used in this example: multiple application support, Java graphics, user input (keys,
optional pointing device).
5.2.5
Advanced Applications that are under investigation
With the features described above it is possible to create new Advanced Applications, for example:
• An online shopping application that may allow the end-user to buy Title related merchandising.
• Chat applications that may allow on-line discussion with other purchasers of the same Title.
5.2.6
Application Illustrations
Figure 5-3 below, further illustrates potential BD-J application types. This illustration includes an application
that allows a movie director to give comments on the movie, to control playback of the disc and to point to
certain items in the video. Note that this does not have to be a live commentary, but can be scripted at the
server side.
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The Blu-ray Disc Format Specifications have not yet been finalized and the contents in this White Paper may
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Buttons
Video Playback
> BD Theatre <
> SYNCHRONIZATION <
Director’s pointer
Server time is 16:10 (event starts at 16:00)
Your client time is 16:10 CET
> Exit THE EVENT <
Steps of the Tea Ceremony
In the music of Guzheng, the master lights the
incense and washes her hands. Then she starts
the whole process and invites the guests to
appreciate both the tea and the tea ware. The
tea ceremony emphasizes the porcelain ware
from Jinde Town and the dark-red enameled
pottery from Yixing.
Animations
Director: Hi, I’m John…
Actor1: Nice to meet you!…
Actor2: Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah
Director: Have a look at the red pointer
(on the video) …
Director: Blah Blah Blah Blah
Actor2: Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah
Actor1: Blah Blah Blah Blah Blah
…
Text Display
Online Chat
Figure 5-3 – Example of BD-J application
The four pictures below illustrate the use of multiple concurrent applications. One typical example of this
is a main application that controls media playback and a second application that displays some information
transparently on top of the video. The main game Menu that allows launching various games is another
example.
Application 1:
Control Media
Player
Application 2 :
Sports info and
commercial menu
Application 2:
Info tick appears
on certain time
Info to buy
Key Info like name
Item to buy
More to buy
So me lo nger info abo ut the
player that just performe d a
nice action.
So me lo nger info abo ut the
player that just performe d a
nice action.
Items to buy
This box gives info on the skiing contest
Main
Application :
Photo
Magazine
Application 2:
AV Player
Application 2 :
Game to be
activated
Main
Application :
Game Menu
Mov ie & Photo Magazine
A foto
A foto
A foto
A foto
A foto
A foto
A foto
A foto
Som e text
describing the
photographs and
m ovie items in
the m agazine.
Som e text
describing the
photographs and
m ovie items in
the m agazine.
Prev
Next
Mov ie Window
Game 1
Game 2
Game 3
Details on the
selected item ,
Details on the
selected item ,
Details on the
selected item ,
Details on the
selected item
Game 4
Game 5
Game 6
Game 7
Game 8
More games
Figure 5-4 – Example of multiple concurrent BD-J applications
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The Blu-ray Disc Format Specifications have not yet been finalized and the contents in this White Paper may
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