Open On-Chip Debugger: OpenOCD User’s Guide for release 0.10.0-dev 11 April 2016

Open On-Chip Debugger: OpenOCD User’s Guide for release 0.10.0-dev 11 April 2016
Open On-Chip Debugger:
OpenOCD User’s Guide
for release 0.10.0-dev
11 April 2016
This User’s Guide documents release 0.10.0-dev, dated 11 April 2016, of the Open On-Chip
Debugger (OpenOCD).
c 2008 The OpenOCD Project
• Copyright c 2007-2008 Spencer Oliver [email protected]
• Copyright c 2008-2010 Oyvind Harboe [email protected]
• Copyright c 2008 Duane Ellis [email protected]
• Copyright c 2009-2010 David Brownell
• Copyright Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,
with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
i
Short Contents
About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 OpenOCD Developer Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Debug Adapter Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 About Jim-Tcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 Running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5 OpenOCD Project Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6 Config File Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7 Daemon Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8 Debug Adapter Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9 Reset Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
10 TAP Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
11 CPU Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
12 Flash Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
13 Flash Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
14 PLD/FPGA Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
15 General Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
16 Architecture and Core Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
17 JTAG Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
18 Boundary Scan Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
19 Utility Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
20 TFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
21 GDB and OpenOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
22 Tcl Scripting API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
23 FAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
24 Tcl Crash Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
A The GNU Free Documentation License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
OpenOCD Concept Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Command and Driver Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
ii
Table of Contents
About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What is OpenOCD? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Latest User’s Guide: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD User’s Forum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD User’s Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
OpenOCD Developer Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
OpenOCD Git Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doxygen Developer Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gerrit Review System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD Developer Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD Bug Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
3
4
4
Debug Adapter Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
Choosing a Dongle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Stand-alone JTAG Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
USB FT2232 Based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
USB-JTAG / Altera USB-Blaster compatibles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
USB J-Link based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
USB RLINK based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
USB ST-LINK based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
USB TI/Stellaris ICDI based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
USB CMSIS-DAP based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
USB Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
IBM PC Parallel Printer Port Based. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Other... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3
About Jim-Tcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4
Running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1
4.2
5
Simple setup, no customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
What OpenOCD does as it starts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
OpenOCD Project Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
Hooking up the JTAG Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Config Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project-Specific Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Software Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Hardware Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
15
15
16
17
18
19
iii
6
Config File Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1
6.2
Interface Config Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Board Config Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Communication Between Config files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Variable Naming Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 The reset-init Event Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.4 JTAG Clock Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.5 The init board procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Target Config Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Default Value Boiler Plate Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Adding TAPs to the Scan Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Add CPU targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4 Define CPU targets working in SMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.5 Chip Reset Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.6 The init targets procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.7 The init target events procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.8 ARM Core Specific Hacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.9 Internal Flash Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Translating Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Daemon Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8
Configuration Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering the Run Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCP/IP Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GDB Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
32
33
34
34
Debug Adapter Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.1
8.2
8.3
Interface Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 JTAG Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 SWD Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.3 SPI Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 JTAG Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
21
21
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
27
27
28
29
29
30
30
30
36
37
47
47
47
48
48
Reset Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
Types of Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SRST and TRST Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands for Handling Resets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Custom Reset Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
50
51
53
iv
10
TAP Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
11
55
56
56
58
58
58
59
CPU Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
12
Scan Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAP Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAP Declaration Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other TAP commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAP Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and Disabling TAPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Autoprobing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target CPU Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other $target name Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
62
63
64
66
Flash Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
12.1 Flash Configuration Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Erasing, Reading, Writing to Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Other Flash commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Flash Driver List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 External Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 Internal Flash (Microcontrollers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 NAND Flash Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.1 NAND Configuration Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.2 Erasing, Reading, Writing to NAND Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.3 Other NAND commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.4 NAND Driver List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6 mFlash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6.1 mFlash Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6.2 mFlash commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
70
72
72
73
74
89
90
90
92
93
95
95
95
13
Flash Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
14
PLD/FPGA Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.1
14.2
15
PLD/FPGA Configuration and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
PLD/FPGA Drivers, Options, and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
General Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
Daemon Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Target State handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
I/O Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Memory access commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Image loading commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Breakpoint and Watchpoint commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Misc Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
v
16
Architecture and Core Commands . . . . . . . . 105
16.1 ARM Hardware Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1.1 ETM Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1.2 ETM Trace Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1.3 Trace Port Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2 Generic ARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3 ARMv4 and ARMv5 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.1 ARM7 and ARM9 specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.2 ARM720T specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.3 ARM9 specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.4 ARM920T specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.5 ARM926ej-s specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.6 ARM966E specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.7 XScale specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4 ARMv6 Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4.1 ARM11 specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5 ARMv7 Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5.1 ARMv7 Debug Access Port (DAP) specific commands . .
16.5.2 ARMv7-A specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5.3 ARMv7-R specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5.4 ARMv7-M specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5.5 Cortex-M specific commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.6 Intel Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.6.1 x86 32-bit specific commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.7 OpenRISC Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.7.1 TAP and Debug Unit selection commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.7.2 Registers commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.8 Software Debug Messages and Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
JTAG Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
17.1
17.2
18
SVF: Serial Vector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
XSVF: Xilinx Serial Vector Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Utility Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
19.1
19.2
20
Low Level JTAG Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
TAP state names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Boundary Scan Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
18.1
18.2
19
105
105
107
108
109
109
110
110
110
111
111
111
112
114
114
115
115
115
116
116
117
118
118
119
119
119
120
RAM testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Firmware recovery helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
TFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
vi
21
GDB and OpenOCD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
22
Connecting to GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample GDB session startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring GDB for OpenOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming using GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using OpenOCD SMP with GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RTOS Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
128
128
129
130
130
131
Tcl Scripting API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
API rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal low-level Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OpenOCD specific Global Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tcl RPC server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tcl RPC server notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tcl RPC server trace output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
133
134
134
134
135
23
FAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
24
Tcl Crash Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
24.1 Tcl Rule #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2 Tcl Rule #1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.3 Per Rule #1 - All Results are strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.4 Tcl Quoting Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5 Consequences of Rule 1/2/3/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5.1 Tokenisation & Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5.2 Command Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5.3 The FOR command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5.4 FOR command implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6 OpenOCD Tcl Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6.1 source and find commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6.2 format command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6.3 Body or Inlined Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6.4 Global Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.7 Other Tcl Hacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
141
141
141
141
142
142
142
143
143
144
144
145
145
146
146
Appendix A The GNU Free Documentation
License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents . . . . . . . . 153
OpenOCD Concept Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Command and Driver Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
About
1
About
OpenOCD was created by Dominic Rath as part of a 2005 diploma thesis written at the
University of Applied Sciences Augsburg (http://www.hs-augsburg.de). Since that time,
the project has grown into an active open-source project, supported by a diverse community
of software and hardware developers from around the world.
What is OpenOCD?
The Open On-Chip Debugger (OpenOCD) aims to provide debugging, in-system programming and boundary-scan testing for embedded target devices.
It does so with the assistance of a debug adapter, which is a small hardware module which
helps provide the right kind of electrical signaling to the target being debugged. These are
required since the debug host (on which OpenOCD runs) won’t usually have native support
for such signaling, or the connector needed to hook up to the target.
Such debug adapters support one or more transport protocols, each of which involves different electrical signaling (and uses different messaging protocols on top of that signaling).
There are many types of debug adapter, and little uniformity in what they are called.
(There are also product naming differences.)
These adapters are sometimes packaged as discrete dongles, which may generically be called
hardware interface dongles. Some development boards also integrate them directly, which
may let the development board connect directly to the debug host over USB (and sometimes
also to power it over USB).
For example, a JTAG Adapter supports JTAG signaling, and is used to communicate with
JTAG (IEEE 1149.1) compliant TAPs on your target board. A TAP is a “Test Access Port”,
a module which processes special instructions and data. TAPs are daisy-chained within and
between chips and boards. JTAG supports debugging and boundary scan operations.
There are also SWD Adapters that support Serial Wire Debug (SWD) signaling to communicate with some newer ARM cores, as well as debug adapters which support both JTAG
and SWD transports. SWD supports only debugging, whereas JTAG also supports boundary scan operations.
For some chips, there are also Programming Adapters supporting special transports used
only to write code to flash memory, without support for on-chip debugging or boundary
scan. (At this writing, OpenOCD does not support such non-debug adapters.)
Dongles: OpenOCD currently supports many types of hardware dongles: USB-based, parallel port-based, and other standalone boxes that run OpenOCD internally. See Chapter 2
[Debug Adapter Hardware], page 5.
GDB Debug: It allows ARM7 (ARM7TDMI and ARM720t), ARM9 (ARM920T,
ARM922T, ARM926EJ–S, ARM966E–S), XScale (PXA25x, IXP42x), Cortex-M3 (Stellaris
LM3, ST STM32 and Energy Micro EFM32) and Intel Quark (x10xx) based cores to be
debugged via the GDB protocol.
Flash Programming: Flash writing is supported for external CFI-compatible NOR flashes
(Intel and AMD/Spansion command set) and several internal flashes (LPC1700, LPC1800,
LPC2000, LPC4300, AT91SAM7, AT91SAM3U, STR7x, STR9x, LM3, STM32x and
EFM32). Preliminary support for various NAND flash controllers (LPC3180, Orion,
S3C24xx, more) is included.
About
2
OpenOCD Web Site
The OpenOCD web site provides the latest public news from the community:
http://openocd.org/
Latest User’s Guide:
The user’s guide you are now reading may not be the latest one available. A version for
more recent code may be available. Its HTML form is published regularly at:
http://openocd.org/doc/html/index.html
PDF form is likewise published at:
http://openocd.org/doc/pdf/openocd.pdf
OpenOCD User’s Forum
There is an OpenOCD forum (phpBB) hosted by SparkFun, which might be helpful to you.
Note that if you want anything to come to the attention of developers, you should post it
to the OpenOCD Developer Mailing List instead of this forum.
http://forum.sparkfun.com/viewforum.php?f=18
OpenOCD User’s Mailing List
The OpenOCD User Mailing List provides the primary means of communication between
users:
https://lists.sourceforge.net/mailman/listinfo/openocd-user
OpenOCD IRC
Support can also be found on irc: irc://irc.freenode.net/openocd
Chapter 1: OpenOCD Developer Resources
3
1 OpenOCD Developer Resources
If you are interested in improving the state of OpenOCD’s debugging and testing support,
new contributions will be welcome. Motivated developers can produce new target, flash or
interface drivers, improve the documentation, as well as more conventional bug fixes and
enhancements.
The resources in this chapter are available for developers wishing to explore or expand the
OpenOCD source code.
1.1 OpenOCD Git Repository
During the 0.3.x release cycle, OpenOCD switched from Subversion to a Git repository
hosted at SourceForge. The repository URL is:
git://git.code.sf.net/p/openocd/code
or via http
http://git.code.sf.net/p/openocd/code
You may prefer to use a mirror and the HTTP protocol:
http://repo.or.cz/r/openocd.git
With standard Git tools, use git clone to initialize a local repository, and git pull to
update it. There are also gitweb pages letting you browse the repository with a web browser,
or download arbitrary snapshots without needing a Git client:
http://repo.or.cz/w/openocd.git
The README file contains the instructions for building the project from the repository or a
snapshot.
Developers that want to contribute patches to the OpenOCD system are strongly encouraged to work against mainline. Patches created against older versions may require additional
work from their submitter in order to be updated for newer releases.
1.2 Doxygen Developer Manual
During the 0.2.x release cycle, the OpenOCD project began providing a Doxygen reference
manual. This document contains more technical information about the software internals,
development processes, and similar documentation:
http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/html/index.html
This document is a work-in-progress, but contributions would be welcome to fill in the gaps.
All of the source files are provided in-tree, listed in the Doxyfile configuration at the top of
the source tree.
1.3 Gerrit Review System
All changes in the OpenOCD Git repository go through the web-based Gerrit Code Review
System:
http://openocd.zylin.com/
After a one-time registration and repository setup, anyone can push commits from their
local Git repository directly into Gerrit. All users and developers are encouraged to review,
Chapter 1: OpenOCD Developer Resources
4
test, discuss and vote for changes in Gerrit. The feedback provides the basis for a maintainer
to eventually submit the change to the main Git repository.
The HACKING file, also available as the Patch Guide in the Doxygen Developer Manual,
contains basic information about how to connect a repository to Gerrit, prepare and push
patches. Patch authors are expected to maintain their changes while they’re in Gerrit,
respond to feedback and if necessary rework and push improved versions of the change.
1.4 OpenOCD Developer Mailing List
The OpenOCD Developer Mailing List provides the primary means of communication between developers:
https://lists.sourceforge.net/mailman/listinfo/openocd-devel
1.5 OpenOCD Bug Tracker
The OpenOCD Bug Tracker is hosted on SourceForge:
http://bugs.openocd.org/
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
5
2 Debug Adapter Hardware
Defined: dongle: A small device that plugs into a computer and serves as an adapter ....
[snip]
In the OpenOCD case, this generally refers to a small adapter that attaches to your computer via USB or the parallel port. One exception is the Ultimate Solutions ZY1000,
packaged as a small box you attach via an ethernet cable. The ZY1000 has the advantage
that it does not require any drivers to be installed on the developer PC. It also has a built
in web interface. It supports RTCK/RCLK or adaptive clocking and has a built-in relay to
power cycle targets remotely.
2.1 Choosing a Dongle
There are several things you should keep in mind when choosing a dongle.
1. Transport Does it support the kind of communication that you need? OpenOCD
focusses mostly on JTAG. Your version may also support other ways to communicate
with target devices.
2. Voltage What voltage is your target - 1.8, 2.8, 3.3, or 5V? Does your dongle support
it? You might need a level converter.
3. Pinout What pinout does your target board use? Does your dongle support it? You
may be able to use jumper wires, or an "octopus" connector, to convert pinouts.
4. Connection Does your computer have the USB, parallel, or Ethernet port needed?
5. RTCK Do you expect to use it with ARM chips and boards with RTCK support (also
known as “adaptive clocking”)?
2.2 Stand-alone JTAG Probe
The ZY1000 from Ultimate Solutions is technically not a dongle but a stand-alone JTAG
probe that, unlike most dongles, doesn’t require any drivers running on the developer’s host
computer. Once installed on a network using DHCP or a static IP assignment, users can
access the ZY1000 probe locally or remotely from any host with access to the IP address
assigned to the probe. The ZY1000 provides an intuitive web interface with direct access
to the OpenOCD debugger. Users may also run a GDBSERVER directly on the ZY1000
to take full advantage of GCC & GDB to debug any distribution of embedded Linux or
NetBSD running on the target. The ZY1000 supports RTCK & RCLK or adaptive clocking
and has a built-in relay to power cycle the target remotely.
For more information, visit:
ZY1000 See: http: / /www .ultsol .com /index .php /component /content /article /8 /
210-zylin-zy1000-main
2.3 USB FT2232 Based
There are many USB JTAG dongles on the market, many of them based on a chip from
“Future Technology Devices International” (FTDI) known as the FTDI FT2232; this is a
USB full speed (12 Mbps) chip. See: http://www.ftdichip.com for more information. In
summer 2009, USB high speed (480 Mbps) versions of these FTDI chips started to become
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
6
available in JTAG adapters. Around 2012, a new variant appeared - FT232H - this is a
single-channel version of FT2232H. (Adapters using those high speed FT2232H or FT232H
chips may support adaptive clocking.)
The FT2232 chips are flexible enough to support some other transport options, such as
SWD or the SPI variants used to program some chips. They have two communications
channels, and one can be used for a UART adapter at the same time the other one is used
to provide a debug adapter.
Also, some development boards integrate an FT2232 chip to serve as a built-in low-cost
debug adapter and USB-to-serial solution.
• usbjtag
Link http: / /elk .informatik .fh-augsburg .de /hhweb /doc /openocd /usbjtag /
usbjtag.html
• jtagkey
See: http://www.amontec.com/jtagkey.shtml
• jtagkey2
See: http://www.amontec.com/jtagkey2.shtml
• oocdlink
See: http://www.oocdlink.com By Joern Kaipf
• signalyzer
See: http://www.signalyzer.com
• Stellaris Eval Boards
See: http://www.ti.com - The Stellaris eval boards bundle FT2232-based JTAG and
SWD support, which can be used to debug the Stellaris chips. Using separate JTAG
adapters is optional. These boards can also be used in a "pass through" mode as JTAG
adapters to other target boards, disabling the Stellaris chip.
• TI/Luminary ICDI
See: http://www.ti.com - TI/Luminary In-Circuit Debug Interface (ICDI) Boards
are included in Stellaris LM3S9B9x Evaluation Kits. Like the non-detachable FT2232
support on the other Stellaris eval boards, they can be used to debug other target
boards.
• olimex-jtag
See: http://www.olimex.com
• Flyswatter/Flyswatter2
See: http://www.tincantools.com
• turtelizer2
See: Turtelizer 2, or http://www.ethernut.de
• comstick
Link: http://www.hitex.com/index.php?id=383
• stm32stick
Link http://www.hitex.com/stm32-stick
• axm0432 jtag
Axiom AXM-0432 Link http://www.axman.com - NOTE: This JTAG does not appear
to be available anymore as of April 2012.
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
7
• cortino
Link http://www.hitex.com/index.php?id=cortino
• dlp-usb1232h
Link http://www.dlpdesign.com/usb/usb1232h.shtml
• digilent-hs1
Link http://www.digilentinc.com/Products/Detail.cfm?Prod=JTAG-HS1
• opendous
Link http://code.google.com/p/opendous/wiki/JTAG FT2232H-based (OpenHardware).
• JTAG-lock-pick Tiny 2
Link http://www.distortec.com/jtag-lock-pick-tiny-2 FT232H-based
• GW16042
Link: http: / / shop . gateworks . com / index . php ? route=product / product &
path=70_80&product_id=64 FT2232H-based
2.4 USB-JTAG / Altera USB-Blaster compatibles
These devices also show up as FTDI devices, but are not protocol-compatible with the
FT2232 devices. They are, however, protocol-compatible among themselves. USB-JTAG
devices typically consist of a FT245 followed by a CPLD that understands a particular
protocol, or emulates this protocol using some other hardware.
They may appear under different USB VID/PID depending on the particular product.
The driver can be configured to search for any VID/PID pair (see the section on driver
commands).
• USB-JTAG Kolja Waschk’s USB Blaster-compatible adapter
Link: http://ixo-jtag.sourceforge.net/
• Altera USB-Blaster
Link: http://www.altera.com/literature/ug/ug_usb_blstr.pdf
2.5 USB J-Link based
There are several OEM versions of the SEGGER J-Link adapter. It is an example of a
microcontroller based JTAG adapter, it uses an AT91SAM764 internally.
• SEGGER J-Link
Link: http://www.segger.com/jlink.html
• Atmel SAM-ICE (Only works with Atmel chips!)
Link: http://www.atmel.com/tools/atmelsam-ice.aspx
• IAR J-Link
2.6 USB RLINK based
Raisonance has an adapter called RLink. It exists in a stripped-down form on the STM32
Primer, permanently attached to the JTAG lines. It also exists on the STM32 Primer2, but
that is wired for SWD and not JTAG, thus not supported.
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
8
• Raisonance RLink
Link: http: / / www . mcu-raisonance . com / ~rlink-debugger-programmer__
microcontrollers__tool~tool__T018:4cn9ziz4bnx6.html
• STM32 Primer
Link: http://www.stm32circle.com/resources/stm32primer.php
• STM32 Primer2
Link: http://www.stm32circle.com/resources/stm32primer2.php
2.7 USB ST-LINK based
ST Micro has an adapter called ST-LINK. They only work with ST Micro chips, notably
STM32 and STM8.
• ST-LINK
This is available standalone and as part of some kits, eg. STM32VLDISCOVERY.
Link: http://www.st.com/internet/evalboard/product/219866.jsp
• ST-LINK/V2
This is available standalone and as part of some kits, eg. STM32F4DISCOVERY.
Link: http://www.st.com/internet/evalboard/product/251168.jsp
For info the original ST-LINK enumerates using the mass storage usb class; however, its
implementation is completely broken. The result is this causes issues under Linux. The
simplest solution is to get Linux to ignore the ST-LINK using one of the following methods:
• modprobe -r usb-storage && modprobe usb-storage quirks=483:3744:i
• add "options usb-storage quirks=483:3744:i" to /etc/modprobe.conf
2.8 USB TI/Stellaris ICDI based
Texas Instruments has an adapter called ICDI. It is not to be confused with the FTDI
based adapters that were originally fitted to their evaluation boards. This is the adapter
fitted to the Stellaris LaunchPad.
2.9 USB CMSIS-DAP based
ARM has released a interface standard called CMSIS-DAP that simplifies connecting debuggers to ARM Cortex based targets http://www.keil.com/support/man/docs/dapdebug/
dapdebug_introduction.htm.
2.10 USB Other
• USBprog
Link: http://shop.embedded-projects.net/ - which uses an Atmel MEGA32 and a
UBN9604
• USB - Presto
Link: http://tools.asix.net/prg_presto.htm
• Versaloon-Link
Link: http://www.versaloon.com
• ARM-JTAG-EW
Link: http://www.olimex.com/dev/arm-jtag-ew.html
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
9
• Buspirate
Link: http://dangerousprototypes.com/bus-pirate-manual/
• opendous
Link: http://code.google.com/p/opendous-jtag/ - which uses an AT90USB162
• estick
Link: http://code.google.com/p/estick-jtag/
• Keil ULINK v1
Link: http://www.keil.com/ulink1/
2.11 IBM PC Parallel Printer Port Based
The two well-known “JTAG Parallel Ports” cables are the Xilinx DLC5 and the Macraigor
Wiggler. There are many clones and variations of these on the market.
Note that parallel ports are becoming much less common, so if you have the choice you
should probably avoid these adapters in favor of USB-based ones.
• Wiggler - There are many clones of this.
Link: http://www.macraigor.com/wiggler.htm
• DLC5 - From XILINX - There are many clones of this
Link: Search the web for: “XILINX DLC5” - it is no longer produced, PDF schematics
are easily found and it is easy to make.
• Amontec - JTAG Accelerator
Link: http://www.amontec.com/jtag_accelerator.shtml
• Wiggler2
Link: http: / / www . ccac . rwth-aachen . de / ~michaels / index . php / hardware /
armjtag
• Wiggler ntrst inverted
Yet another variation - See the source code, src/jtag/parport.c
• old amt wiggler
Unknown - probably not on the market today
• arm-jtag
Link: Most likely http://www.olimex.com/dev/arm-jtag.html [another wiggler
clone]
• chameleon
Link: http://www.amontec.com/chameleon.shtml
• Triton
Unknown.
• Lattice
ispDownload from Lattice Semiconductor http://www.latticesemi.com/lit/docs/
devtools/dlcable.pdf
• flashlink
From ST Microsystems;
Link:
http: / / www . st . com / internet / com / TECHNICAL_RESOURCES /
TECHNICAL_LITERATURE/DATA_BRIEF/DM00039500.pdf
Chapter 2: Debug Adapter Hardware
10
2.12 Other...
• ep93xx
An EP93xx based Linux machine using the GPIO pins directly.
• at91rm9200
Like the EP93xx - but an ATMEL AT91RM9200 based solution using the GPIO pins
on the chip.
• bcm2835gpio
A BCM2835-based board (e.g. Raspberry Pi) using the GPIO pins of the expansion
header.
• jtag vpi
A JTAG driver acting as a client for the JTAG VPI server interface.
Link: http://github.com/fjullien/jtag_vpi
Chapter 3: About Jim-Tcl
11
3 About Jim-Tcl
OpenOCD uses a small “Tcl Interpreter” known as Jim-Tcl. This programming language
provides a simple and extensible command interpreter.
All commands presented in this Guide are extensions to Jim-Tcl. You can use them as
simple commands, without needing to learn much of anything about Tcl. Alternatively,
you can write Tcl programs with them.
You can learn more about Jim at its website, http://jim.tcl.tk. There is an active and
responsive community, get on the mailing list if you have any questions. Jim-Tcl maintainers
also lurk on the OpenOCD mailing list.
• Jim vs. Tcl
Jim-Tcl is a stripped down version of the well known Tcl language, which can be found
here: http://www.tcl.tk. Jim-Tcl has far fewer features. Jim-Tcl is several dozens
of .C files and .H files and implements the basic Tcl command set. In contrast: Tcl 8.6
is a 4.2 MB .zip file containing 1540 files.
• Missing Features
Our practice has been: Add/clone the real Tcl feature if/when needed. We welcome
Jim-Tcl improvements, not bloat. Also there are a large number of optional Jim-Tcl
features that are not enabled in OpenOCD.
• Scripts
OpenOCD configuration scripts are Jim-Tcl Scripts. OpenOCD’s command interpreter
today is a mixture of (newer) Jim-Tcl commands, and the (older) original command
interpreter.
• Commands
At the OpenOCD telnet command line (or via the GDB monitor command) one can
type a Tcl for() loop, set variables, etc. Some of the commands documented in this
guide are implemented as Tcl scripts, from a startup.tcl file internal to the server.
• Historical Note
Jim-Tcl was introduced to OpenOCD in spring 2008. Fall 2010, before OpenOCD
0.5 release, OpenOCD switched to using Jim-Tcl as a Git submodule, which greatly
simplified upgrading Jim-Tcl to benefit from new features and bugfixes in Jim-Tcl.
• Need a crash course in Tcl?
See Chapter 24 [Tcl Crash Course], page 141.
Chapter 4: Running
12
4 Running
Properly installing OpenOCD sets up your operating system to grant it access to the debug adapters. On Linux, this usually involves installing a file in /etc/udev/rules.d, so
OpenOCD has permissions. An example rules file that works for many common adapters
is shipped with OpenOCD in the contrib directory. MS-Windows needs complex and confusing driver configuration for every peripheral. Such issues are unique to each operating
system, and are not detailed in this User’s Guide.
Then later you will invoke the OpenOCD server, with various options to tell it how each
debug session should work. The --help option shows:
bash$ openocd --help
--help
| -h
display this help
--version
| -v
display OpenOCD version
--file
| -f
use configuration file <name>
--search
| -s
dir to search for config files and scripts
--debug
| -d
set debug level <0-3>
--log_output | -l
redirect log output to file <name>
--command
| -c
run <command>
If you don’t give any -f or -c options, OpenOCD tries to read the configuration file
openocd.cfg. To specify one or more different configuration files, use -f options. For
example:
openocd -f config1.cfg -f config2.cfg -f config3.cfg
Configuration files and scripts are searched for in
1. the current directory,
2. any search dir specified on the command line using the -s option,
3. any search dir specified using the add_script_search_dir command,
4. $HOME/.openocd (not on Windows),
5. a directory in the OPENOCD_SCRIPTS environment variable (if set),
6. the site wide script library $pkgdatadir/site and
7. the OpenOCD-supplied script library $pkgdatadir/scripts.
The first found file with a matching file name will be used.
Note: Don’t try to use configuration script names or paths which include the
"#" character. That character begins Tcl comments.
4.1 Simple setup, no customization
In the best case, you can use two scripts from one of the script libraries, hook up your JTAG
adapter, and start the server ... and your JTAG setup will just work "out of the box".
Always try to start by reusing those scripts, but assume you’ll need more customization
even if this works. See Chapter 5 [OpenOCD Project Setup], page 14.
If you find a script for your JTAG adapter, and for your board or target, you may be able
to hook up your JTAG adapter then start the server with some variation of one of the
following:
Chapter 4: Running
13
openocd -f interface/ADAPTER.cfg -f board/MYBOARD.cfg
openocd -f interface/ftdi/ADAPTER.cfg -f board/MYBOARD.cfg
You might also need to configure which reset signals are present, using -c ’reset_config
trst_and_srst’ or something similar. If all goes well you’ll see output something like
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.4.0 (2010-01-14-15:06)
For bug reports, read
http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : JTAG tap: lm3s.cpu tap/device found: 0x3ba00477
(mfg: 0x23b, part: 0xba00, ver: 0x3)
Seeing that "tap/device found" message, and no warnings, means the JTAG communication
is working. That’s a key milestone, but you’ll probably need more project-specific setup.
4.2 What OpenOCD does as it starts
OpenOCD starts by processing the configuration commands provided on the command
line or, if there were no -c command or -f file.cfg options given, in openocd.cfg. See
[Configuration Stage], page 32. At the end of the configuration stage it verifies the JTAG
scan chain defined using those commands; your configuration should ensure that this always
succeeds. Normally, OpenOCD then starts running as a daemon. Alternatively, commands
may be used to terminate the configuration stage early, perform work (such as updating
some flash memory), and then shut down without acting as a daemon.
Once OpenOCD starts running as a daemon, it waits for connections from clients (Telnet,
GDB, Other) and processes the commands issued through those channels.
If you are having problems, you can enable internal debug messages via the -d option.
Also it is possible to interleave Jim-Tcl commands w/config scripts using the -c command
line switch.
To enable debug output (when reporting problems or working on OpenOCD itself), use the
-d command line switch. This sets the debug_level to "3", outputting the most information, including debug messages. The default setting is "2", outputting only informational
messages, warnings and errors. You can also change this setting from within a telnet or gdb
session using debug_level<n> (see [debug level], page 98).
You can redirect all output from the daemon to a file using the -l <logfile> switch.
Note! OpenOCD will launch the GDB & telnet server even if it can not establish a connection with the target. In general, it is possible for the JTAG controller to be unresponsive
until the target is set up correctly via e.g. GDB monitor commands in a GDB init script.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
14
5 OpenOCD Project Setup
To use OpenOCD with your development projects, you need to do more than just connect
the JTAG adapter hardware (dongle) to your development board and start the OpenOCD
server. You also need to configure your OpenOCD server so that it knows about your
adapter and board, and helps your work. You may also want to connect OpenOCD to
GDB, possibly using Eclipse or some other GUI.
5.1 Hooking up the JTAG Adapter
Today’s most common case is a dongle with a JTAG cable on one side (such as a ribbon
cable with a 10-pin or 20-pin IDC connector) and a USB cable on the other. Instead of
USB, some cables use Ethernet; older ones may use a PC parallel port, or even a serial port.
1. Start with power to your target board turned off, and nothing connected to your JTAG
adapter. If you’re particularly paranoid, unplug power to the board. It’s important to
have the ground signal properly set up, unless you are using a JTAG adapter which
provides galvanic isolation between the target board and the debugging host.
2. Be sure it’s the right kind of JTAG connector. If your dongle has a 20-pin ARM
connector, you need some kind of adapter (or octopus, see below) to hook it up to
boards using 14-pin or 10-pin connectors ... or to 20-pin connectors which don’t use
ARM’s pinout.
In the same vein, make sure the voltage levels are compatible. Not all JTAG adapters
have the level shifters needed to work with 1.2 Volt boards.
3. Be certain the cable is properly oriented or you might damage your board. In most
cases there are only two possible ways to connect the cable. Connect the JTAG cable
from your adapter to the board. Be sure it’s firmly connected.
In the best case, the connector is keyed to physically prevent you from inserting it
wrong. This is most often done using a slot on the board’s male connector housing,
which must match a key on the JTAG cable’s female connector. If there’s no housing,
then you must look carefully and make sure pin 1 on the cable hooks up to pin 1 on
the board. Ribbon cables are frequently all grey except for a wire on one edge, which
is red. The red wire is pin 1.
Sometimes dongles provide cables where one end is an “octopus” of color coded singlewire connectors, instead of a connector block. These are great when converting from
one JTAG pinout to another, but are tedious to set up. Use these with connector
pinout diagrams to help you match up the adapter signals to the right board pins.
4. Connect the adapter’s other end once the JTAG cable is connected. A USB, parallel,
or serial port connector will go to the host which you are using to run OpenOCD. For
Ethernet, consult the documentation and your network administrator.
For USB-based JTAG adapters you have an easy sanity check at this point: does the
host operating system see the JTAG adapter? If you’re running Linux, try the lsusb
command. If that host is an MS-Windows host, you’ll need to install a driver before
OpenOCD works.
5. Connect the adapter’s power supply, if needed. This step is primarily for non-USB
adapters, but sometimes USB adapters need extra power.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
15
6. Power up the target board. Unless you just let the magic smoke escape, you’re now
ready to set up the OpenOCD server so you can use JTAG to work with that board.
Talk with the OpenOCD server using telnet (telnet localhost 4444 on many systems) or
GDB. See Chapter 21 [GDB and OpenOCD], page 128.
5.2 Project Directory
There are many ways you can configure OpenOCD and start it up.
A simple way to organize them all involves keeping a single directory for your work with
a given board. When you start OpenOCD from that directory, it searches there first for
configuration files, scripts, files accessed through semihosting, and for code you upload to
the target board. It is also the natural place to write files, such as log files and data you
download from the board.
5.3 Configuration Basics
There are two basic ways of configuring OpenOCD, and a variety of ways you can mix them.
Think of the difference as just being how you start the server:
• Many -f file or -c command options on the command line
• No options, but a user config file in the current directory named openocd.cfg
Here is an example openocd.cfg file for a setup using a Signalyzer FT2232-based JTAG
adapter to talk to a board with an Atmel AT91SAM7X256 microcontroller:
source [find interface/signalyzer.cfg]
# GDB can also flash my flash!
gdb_memory_map enable
gdb_flash_program enable
source [find target/sam7x256.cfg]
Here is the command line equivalent of that configuration:
openocd -f
-c
-c
-f
interface/signalyzer.cfg \
"gdb_memory_map enable" \
"gdb_flash_program enable" \
target/sam7x256.cfg
You could wrap such long command lines in shell scripts, each supporting a different development task. One might re-flash the board with a specific firmware version. Another might
set up a particular debugging or run-time environment.
Important: At this writing (October 2009) the command line method has problems with how it treats variables. For example, after -c "set VAR value", or
doing the same in a script, the variable VAR will have no value that can be
tested in a later script.
Here we will focus on the simpler solution: one user config file, including basic configuration
plus any TCL procedures to simplify your work.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
16
5.4 User Config Files
A user configuration file ties together all the parts of a project in one place. One of the
following will match your situation best:
• Ideally almost everything comes from configuration files provided by someone
else.
For example, OpenOCD distributes a scripts directory (probably in
/usr/share/openocd/scripts on Linux). Board and tool vendors can provide these
too, as can individual user sites; the -s command line option lets you say where to
find these files. (See Chapter 4 [Running], page 12.) The AT91SAM7X256 example
above works this way.
Three main types of non-user configuration file each have their own subdirectory in the
scripts directory:
1. interface – one for each different debug adapter;
2. board – one for each different board
3. target – the chips which integrate CPUs and other JTAG TAPs
Best case: include just two files, and they handle everything else. The first is an
interface config file. The second is board-specific, and it sets up the JTAG TAPs and
their GDB targets (by deferring to some target.cfg file), declares all flash memory,
and leaves you nothing to do except meet your deadline:
source [find interface/olimex-jtag-tiny.cfg]
source [find board/csb337.cfg]
Boards with a single microcontroller often won’t need more than the target config file,
as in the AT91SAM7X256 example. That’s because there is no external memory (flash,
DDR RAM), and the board differences are encapsulated by application code.
• Maybe you don’t know yet what your board looks like to JTAG. Once you know the
interface.cfg file to use, you may need help from OpenOCD to discover what’s on the
board. Once you find the JTAG TAPs, you can just search for appropriate target and
board configuration files ... or write your own, from the bottom up. See [Autoprobing],
page 59.
• You can often reuse some standard config files but need to write a few new ones,
probably a board.cfg file. You will be using commands described later in this User’s
Guide, and working with the guidelines in the next chapter.
For example, there may be configuration files for your JTAG adapter and target chip,
but you need a new board-specific config file giving access to your particular flash chips.
Or you might need to write another target chip configuration file for a new chip built
around the Cortex M3 core.
Note: When you write new configuration files, please submit them for inclusion in the next OpenOCD release. For example, a board/newboard.cfg
file will help the next users of that board, and a target/newcpu.cfg will
help support users of any board using that chip.
• You may may need to write some C code. It may be as simple as supporting a new
FT2232 or parport based adapter; a bit more involved, like a NAND or NOR flash
controller driver; or a big piece of work like supporting a new chip architecture.
Reuse the existing config files when you can. Look first in the scripts/boards area, then
scripts/targets. You may find a board configuration that’s a good example to follow.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
17
When you write config files, separate the reusable parts (things every user of that interface,
chip, or board needs) from ones specific to your environment and debugging approach.
• For example, a gdb-attach event handler that invokes the reset init command will
interfere with debugging early boot code, which performs some of the same actions
that the reset-init event handler does.
• Likewise, the arm9 vector_catch command (or its siblings xscale vector_catch and
cortex_m vector_catch) can be a timesaver during some debug sessions, but don’t
make everyone use that either. Keep those kinds of debugging aids in your user config
file, along with messaging and tracing setup. (See [Software Debug Messages and
Tracing], page 119.)
• You might need to override some defaults. For example, you might need to move,
shrink, or back up the target’s work area if your application needs much SRAM.
• TCP/IP port configuration is another example of something which is environmentspecific, and should only appear in a user config file. See [TCP/IP Ports], page 33.
5.5 Project-Specific Utilities
A few project-specific utility routines may well speed up your work. Write them, and keep
them in your project’s user config file.
For example, if you are making a boot loader work on a board, it’s nice to be able to debug
the “after it’s loaded to RAM” parts separately from the finicky early code which sets up
the DDR RAM controller and clocks. A script like this one, or a more GDB-aware sibling,
may help:
proc ramboot { } {
# Reset, running the target’s "reset-init" scripts
# to initialize clocks and the DDR RAM controller.
# Leave the CPU halted.
reset init
# Load CONFIG_SKIP_LOWLEVEL_INIT version into DDR RAM.
load_image u-boot.bin 0x20000000
# Start running.
resume 0x20000000
}
Then once that code is working you will need to make it boot from NOR flash; a different
utility would help. Alternatively, some developers write to flash using GDB. (You might
use a similar script if you’re working with a flash based microcontroller application instead
of a boot loader.)
proc newboot { } {
# Reset, leaving the CPU halted. The "reset-init" event
# proc gives faster access to the CPU and to NOR flash;
# "reset halt" would be slower.
reset init
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
18
# Write standard version of U-Boot into the first two
# sectors of NOR flash ... the standard version should
# do the same lowlevel init as "reset-init".
flash protect 0 0 1 off
flash erase_sector 0 0 1
flash write_bank 0 u-boot.bin 0x0
flash protect 0 0 1 on
# Reboot from scratch using that new boot loader.
reset run
}
You may need more complicated utility procedures when booting from NAND. That often
involves an extra bootloader stage, running from on-chip SRAM to perform DDR RAM
setup so it can load the main bootloader code (which won’t fit into that SRAM).
Other helper scripts might be used to write production system images, involving considerably more than just a three stage bootloader.
5.6 Target Software Changes
Sometimes you may want to make some small changes to the software you’re developing,
to help make JTAG debugging work better. For example, in C or assembly language code
you might use #ifdef JTAG_DEBUG (or its converse) around code handling issues like:
• Watchdog Timers... Watchog timers are typically used to automatically reset systems
if some application task doesn’t periodically reset the timer. (The assumption is that
the system has locked up if the task can’t run.) When a JTAG debugger halts the
system, that task won’t be able to run and reset the timer ... potentially causing resets
in the middle of your debug sessions.
It’s rarely a good idea to disable such watchdogs, since their usage needs to be debugged
just like all other parts of your firmware. That might however be your only option.
Look instead for chip-specific ways to stop the watchdog from counting while the system is in a debug halt state. It may be simplest to set that non-counting mode in your
debugger startup scripts. You may however need a different approach when, for example, a motor could be physically damaged by firmware remaining inactive in a debug
halt state. That might involve a type of firmware mode where that "non-counting"
mode is disabled at the beginning then re-enabled at the end; a watchdog reset might
fire and complicate the debug session, but hardware (or people) would be protected.1
• ARM Semihosting... When linked with a special runtime library provided with many
toolchains2 , your target code can use I/O facilities on the debug host. That library
provides a small set of system calls which are handled by OpenOCD. It can let the
debugger provide your system console and a file system, helping with early debugging
1
2
Note that many systems support a "monitor mode" debug that is a somewhat cleaner way to address such
issues. You can think of it as only halting part of the system, maybe just one task, instead of the whole
thing. At this writing, January 2010, OpenOCD based debugging does not support monitor mode debug,
only "halt mode" debug.
See chapter 8 "Semihosting" in ARM DUI 0203I, the "RealView Compilation Tools Developer Guide". The
CodeSourcery EABI toolchain also includes a semihosting library.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
19
or providing a more capable environment for sometimes-complex tasks like installing
system firmware onto NAND or SPI flash.
• ARM Wait-For-Interrupt... Many ARM chips synchronize the JTAG clock using the
core clock. Low power states which stop that core clock thus prevent JTAG access. Idle
loops in tasking environments often enter those low power states via the WFI instruction
(or its coprocessor equivalent, before ARMv7).
You may want to disable that instruction in source code, or otherwise prevent using that
state, to ensure you can get JTAG access at any time.3 For example, the OpenOCD
halt command may not work for an idle processor otherwise.
• Delay after reset... Not all chips have good support for debugger access right after
reset; many LPC2xxx chips have issues here. Similarly, applications that reconfigure
pins used for JTAG access as they start will also block debugger access.
To work with boards like this, enable a short delay loop the first thing after reset, before
"real" startup activities. For example, one second’s delay is usually more than enough
time for a JTAG debugger to attach, so that early code execution can be debugged or
firmware can be replaced.
• Debug Communications Channel (DCC)... Some processors include mechanisms to
send messages over JTAG. Many ARM cores support these, as do some cores from
other vendors. (OpenOCD may be able to use this DCC internally, speeding up some
operations like writing to memory.)
Your application may want to deliver various debugging messages over JTAG, by linking
with a small library of code provided with OpenOCD and using the utilities there to
send various kinds of message. See [Software Debug Messages and Tracing], page 119.
5.7 Target Hardware Setup
Chip vendors often provide software development boards which are highly configurable, so
that they can support all options that product boards may require. Make sure that any
jumpers or switches match the system configuration you are working with.
Common issues include:
• JTAG setup ... Boards may support more than one JTAG configuration. Examples
include jumpers controlling pullups versus pulldowns on the nTRST and/or nSRST
signals, and choice of connectors (e.g. which of two headers on the base board, or one
from a daughtercard). For some Texas Instruments boards, you may need to jumper
the EMU0 and EMU1 signals (which OpenOCD won’t currently control).
• Boot Modes ... Complex chips often support multiple boot modes, controlled by external jumpers. Make sure this is set up correctly. For example many i.MX boards from
NXP need to be jumpered to "ATX mode" to start booting using the on-chip ROM,
when using second stage bootloader code stored in a NAND flash chip.
Such explicit configuration is common, and not limited to booting from NAND. You
might also need to set jumpers to start booting using code loaded from an MMC/SD
3
As a more polite alternative, some processors have special debug-oriented registers which can be used to
change various features including how the low power states are clocked while debugging. The STM32
DBGMCU CR register is an example; at the cost of extra power consumption, JTAG can be used during
low power states.
Chapter 5: OpenOCD Project Setup
20
card; external SPI flash; Ethernet, UART, or USB links; NOR flash; OneNAND flash;
some external host; or various other sources.
• Memory Addressing ... Boards which support multiple boot modes may also have
jumpers to configure memory addressing. One board, for example, jumpers external
chipselect 0 (used for booting) to address either a large SRAM (which must be preloaded via JTAG), NOR flash, or NAND flash. When it’s jumpered to address NAND
flash, that board must also be told to start booting from on-chip ROM.
Your board.cfg file may also need to be told this jumper configuration, so that it can
know whether to declare NOR flash using flash bank or instead declare NAND flash
with nand device; and likewise which probe to perform in its reset-init handler.
A closely related issue is bus width. Jumpers might need to distinguish between 8 bit
or 16 bit bus access for the flash used to start booting.
• Peripheral Access ... Development boards generally provide access to every peripheral on the chip, sometimes in multiple modes (such as by providing multiple audio
codec chips). This interacts with software configuration of pin multiplexing, where for
example a given pin may be routed either to the MMC/SD controller or the GPIO
controller. It also often interacts with configuration jumpers. One jumper may be used
to route signals to an MMC/SD card slot or an expansion bus (which might in turn
affect booting); others might control which audio or video codecs are used.
Plus you should of course have reset-init event handlers which set up the hardware to
match that jumper configuration. That includes in particular any oscillator or PLL used
to clock the CPU, and any memory controllers needed to access external memory and
peripherals. Without such handlers, you won’t be able to access those resources without
working target firmware which can do that setup ... this can be awkward when you’re
trying to debug that target firmware. Even if there’s a ROM bootloader which handles a
few issues, it rarely provides full access to all board-specific capabilities.
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
21
6 Config File Guidelines
This chapter is aimed at any user who needs to write a config file, including developers and
integrators of OpenOCD and any user who needs to get a new board working smoothly. It
provides guidelines for creating those files.
You should find the following directories under $(INSTALLDIR)/scripts, with config files
maintained upstream. Use them as-is where you can; or as models for new files.
• interface ... These are for debug adapters. Files that specify configuration to use
specific JTAG, SWD and other adapters go here.
• board ... Think Circuit Board, PWA, PCB, they go by many names. Board files
contain initialization items that are specific to a board.
They reuse target configuration files, since the same microprocessor chips are used on
many boards, but support for external parts varies widely. For example, the SDRAM
initialization sequence for the board, or the type of external flash and what address it
uses. Any initialization sequence to enable that external flash or SDRAM should be
found in the board file. Boards may also contain multiple targets: two CPUs; or a
CPU and an FPGA.
• target ... Think chip. The “target” directory represents the JTAG TAPs on a chip
which OpenOCD should control, not a board. Two common types of targets are ARM
chips and FPGA or CPLD chips. When a chip has multiple TAPs (maybe it has both
ARM and DSP cores), the target config file defines all of them.
• more ... browse for other library files which may be useful. For example, there are
various generic and CPU-specific utilities.
The openocd.cfg user config file may override features in any of the above files by setting
variables before sourcing the target file, or by adding commands specific to their situation.
6.1 Interface Config Files
The user config file should be able to source one of these files with a command like this:
source [find interface/FOOBAR.cfg]
A preconfigured interface file should exist for every debug adapter in use today with
OpenOCD. That said, perhaps some of these config files have only been used by the developer who created it.
A separate chapter gives information about how to set these up. See Chapter 8 [Debug
Adapter Configuration], page 36. Read the OpenOCD source code (and Developer’s Guide)
if you have a new kind of hardware interface and need to provide a driver for it.
6.2 Board Config Files
The user config file should be able to source one of these files with a command like this:
source [find board/FOOBAR.cfg]
The point of a board config file is to package everything about a given board that user
config files need to know. In summary the board files should contain (if present)
1. One or more source [find target/...cfg] statements
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
22
2. NOR flash configuration (see [NOR Configuration], page 69)
3. NAND flash configuration (see [NAND Configuration], page 89)
4. Target reset handlers for SDRAM and I/O configuration
5. JTAG adapter reset configuration (see Chapter 9 [Reset Configuration], page 50)
6. All things that are not “inside a chip”
Generic things inside target chips belong in target config files, not board config files. So
for example a reset-init event handler should know board-specific oscillator and PLL
parameters, which it passes to target-specific utility code.
The most complex task of a board config file is creating such a reset-init event handler.
Define those handlers last, after you verify the rest of the board configuration works.
6.2.1 Communication Between Config files
In addition to target-specific utility code, another way that board and target config files
communicate is by following a convention on how to use certain variables.
The full Tcl/Tk language supports “namespaces”, but Jim-Tcl does not. Thus the rule we
follow in OpenOCD is this: Variables that begin with a leading underscore are temporary
in nature, and can be modified and used at will within a target configuration file.
Complex board config files can do the things like this, for a board with three chips:
# Chip #1: PXA270 for network side, big endian
set CHIPNAME network
set ENDIAN big
source [find target/pxa270.cfg]
# on return: _TARGETNAME = network.cpu
# other commands can refer to the "network.cpu" target.
$_TARGETNAME configure .... events for this CPU..
# Chip #2: PXA270 for video side, little endian
set CHIPNAME video
set ENDIAN little
source [find target/pxa270.cfg]
# on return: _TARGETNAME = video.cpu
# other commands can refer to the "video.cpu" target.
$_TARGETNAME configure .... events for this CPU..
# Chip #3: Xilinx FPGA for glue logic
set CHIPNAME xilinx
unset ENDIAN
source [find target/spartan3.cfg]
That example is oversimplified because it doesn’t show any flash memory, or the reset-init
event handlers to initialize external DRAM or (assuming it needs it) load a configuration
into the FPGA. Such features are usually needed for low-level work with many boards, where
“low level” implies that the board initialization software may not be working. (That’s a
common reason to need JTAG tools. Another is to enable working with microcontrollerbased systems, which often have no debugging support except a JTAG connector.)
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
23
Target config files may also export utility functions to board and user config files. Such
functions should use name prefixes, to help avoid naming collisions.
Board files could also accept input variables from user config files. For example, there might
be a J4_JUMPER setting used to identify what kind of flash memory a development board is
using, or how to set up other clocks and peripherals.
6.2.2 Variable Naming Convention
Most boards have only one instance of a chip. However, it should be easy to create a
board with more than one such chip (as shown above). Accordingly, we encourage these
conventions for naming variables associated with different target.cfg files, to promote
consistency and so that board files can override target defaults.
Inputs to target config files include:
• CHIPNAME ... This gives a name to the overall chip, and is used as part of tap identifier
dotted names. While the default is normally provided by the chip manufacturer, board
files may need to distinguish between instances of a chip.
• ENDIAN ... By default little - although chips may hard-wire big. Chips that can’t
change endianness don’t need to use this variable.
• CPUTAPID ... When OpenOCD examines the JTAG chain, it can be told verify the chips
against the JTAG IDCODE register. The target file will hold one or more defaults,
but sometimes the chip in a board will use a different ID (perhaps a newer revision).
Outputs from target config files include:
• _TARGETNAME ... By convention, this variable is created by the target configuration
script. The board configuration file may make use of this variable to configure things
like a “reset init” script, or other things specific to that board and that target. If the
chip has 2 targets, the names are _TARGETNAME0, _TARGETNAME1, ... etc.
6.2.3 The reset-init Event Handler
Board config files run in the OpenOCD configuration stage; they can’t use TAPs or targets,
since they haven’t been fully set up yet. This means you can’t write memory or access
chip registers; you can’t even verify that a flash chip is present. That’s done later in event
handlers, of which the target reset-init handler is one of the most important.
Except on microcontrollers, the basic job of reset-init event handlers is setting up flash
and DRAM, as normally handled by boot loaders. Microcontrollers rarely use boot loaders;
they run right out of their on-chip flash and SRAM memory. But they may want to use
one of these handlers too, if just for developer convenience.
Note: Because this is so very board-specific, and chip-specific, no examples
are included here. Instead, look at the board config files distributed with
OpenOCD. If you have a boot loader, its source code will help; so will configuration files for other JTAG tools (see [Translating Configuration Files], page 30).
Some of this code could probably be shared between different boards. For example, setting
up a DRAM controller often doesn’t differ by much except the bus width (16 bits or 32?)
and memory timings, so a reusable TCL procedure loaded by the target.cfg file might
take those as parameters. Similarly with oscillator, PLL, and clock setup; and disabling the
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
24
watchdog. Structure the code cleanly, and provide comments to help the next developer
doing such work. (You might be that next person trying to reuse init code!)
The last thing normally done in a reset-init handler is probing whatever flash memory
was configured. For most chips that needs to be done while the associated target is halted,
either because JTAG memory access uses the CPU or to prevent conflicting CPU access.
6.2.4 JTAG Clock Rate
Before your reset-init handler has set up the PLLs and clocking, you may need to run
with a low JTAG clock rate. See [JTAG Speed], page 48. Then you’d increase that rate
after your handler has made it possible to use the faster JTAG clock. When the initial low
speed is board-specific, for example because it depends on a board-specific oscillator speed,
then you should probably set it up in the board config file; if it’s target-specific, it belongs
in the target config file.
For most ARM-based processors the fastest JTAG clock1 is one sixth of the CPU clock;
or one eighth for ARM11 cores. Consult chip documentation to determine the peak JTAG
clock rate, which might be less than that.
Warning: On most ARMs, JTAG clock detection is coupled to the core clock, so
software using a wait for interrupt operation blocks JTAG access. Adaptive
clocking provides a partial workaround, but a more complete solution just avoids
using that instruction with JTAG debuggers.
If both the chip and the board support adaptive clocking, use the jtag_rclk command, in
case your board is used with JTAG adapter which also supports it. Otherwise use adapter_
khz. Set the slow rate at the beginning of the reset sequence, and the faster rate as soon
as the clocks are at full speed.
6.2.5 The init board procedure
The concept of init_board procedure is very similar to init_targets (See [The init targets
procedure], page 29.) - it’s a replacement of “linear” configuration scripts. This procedure
is meant to be executed when OpenOCD enters run stage (See [Entering the Run Stage],
page 32,) after init_targets. The idea to have separate init_targets and init_board
procedures is to allow the first one to configure everything target specific (internal flash,
internal RAM, etc.) and the second one to configure everything board specific (reset signals,
chip frequency, reset-init event handler, external memory, etc.). Additionally “linear” board
config file will most likely fail when target config file uses init_targets scheme (“linear”
script is executed before init and init_targets - after), so separating these two configuration stages is very convenient, as the easiest way to overcome this problem is to convert
board config file to use init_board procedure. Board config scripts don’t need to override
init_targets defined in target config files when they only need to add some specifics.
Just as init_targets, the init_board procedure can be overridden by “next level” script
(which sources the original), allowing greater code reuse.
### board_file.cfg ###
# source target file that does most of the config in init_targets
1
A FAQ http://www.arm.com/support/faqdev/4170.html gives details.
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
25
source [find target/target.cfg]
proc enable_fast_clock {} {
# enables fast on-board clock source
# configures the chip to use it
}
# initialize only board specifics - reset, clock, adapter frequency
proc init_board {} {
reset_config trst_and_srst trst_pulls_srst
$_TARGETNAME configure -event reset-init {
adapter_khz 1
enable_fast_clock
adapter_khz 10000
}
}
6.3 Target Config Files
Board config files communicate with target config files using naming conventions as described above, and may source one or more target config files like this:
source [find target/FOOBAR.cfg]
The point of a target config file is to package everything about a given chip that board
config files need to know. In summary the target files should contain
1. Set defaults
2. Add TAPs to the scan chain
3. Add CPU targets (includes GDB support)
4. CPU/Chip/CPU-Core specific features
5. On-Chip flash
As a rule of thumb, a target file sets up only one chip. For a microcontroller, that will often
include a single TAP, which is a CPU needing a GDB target, and its on-chip flash.
More complex chips may include multiple TAPs, and the target config file may need to
define them all before OpenOCD can talk to the chip. For example, some phone chips have
JTAG scan chains that include an ARM core for operating system use, a DSP, another
ARM core embedded in an image processing engine, and other processing engines.
6.3.1 Default Value Boiler Plate Code
All target configuration files should start with code like this, letting board config files express
environment-specific differences in how things should be set up.
# Boards may override chip names, perhaps based on role,
# but the default should match what the vendor uses
if { [info exists CHIPNAME] } {
set _CHIPNAME $CHIPNAME
} else {
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
set
26
_CHIPNAME sam7x256
}
# ONLY use ENDIAN with targets that can change it.
if { [info exists ENDIAN] } {
set _ENDIAN $ENDIAN
} else {
set _ENDIAN little
}
# TAP identifiers may change as chips mature, for example with
# new revision fields (the "3" here). Pick a good default; you
# can pass several such identifiers to the "jtag newtap" command.
if { [info exists CPUTAPID ] } {
set _CPUTAPID $CPUTAPID
} else {
set _CPUTAPID 0x3f0f0f0f
}
Remember: Board config files may include multiple target config files, or the same target
file multiple times (changing at least CHIPNAME).
Likewise, the target configuration file should define _TARGETNAME (or _TARGETNAME0 etc)
and use it later on when defining debug targets:
set _TARGETNAME $_CHIPNAME.cpu
target create $_TARGETNAME arm7tdmi -chain-position $_TARGETNAME
6.3.2 Adding TAPs to the Scan Chain
After the “defaults” are set up, add the TAPs on each chip to the JTAG scan chain. See
Chapter 10 [TAP Declaration], page 55, and the naming convention for taps.
In the simplest case the chip has only one TAP, probably for a CPU or FPGA. The config
file for the Atmel AT91SAM7X256 looks (in part) like this:
jtag newtap $_CHIPNAME cpu -irlen 4 -expected-id $_CPUTAPID
A board with two such at91sam7 chips would be able to source such a config file twice, with
different values for CHIPNAME, so it adds a different TAP each time.
If there are nonzero -expected-id values, OpenOCD attempts to verify the actual tap id
against those values. It will issue error messages if there is mismatch, which can help to
pinpoint problems in OpenOCD configurations.
JTAG tap: sam7x256.cpu tap/device found: 0x3f0f0f0f
(Manufacturer: 0x787, Part: 0xf0f0, Version: 0x3)
ERROR: Tap: sam7x256.cpu - Expected id: 0x12345678, Got: 0x3f0f0f0f
ERROR: expected: mfg: 0x33c, part: 0x2345, ver: 0x1
ERROR:
got: mfg: 0x787, part: 0xf0f0, ver: 0x3
There are more complex examples too, with chips that have multiple TAPs. Ones worth
looking at include:
• target/omap3530.cfg – with disabled ARM and DSP, plus a JRC to enable them
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
27
• target/str912.cfg – with flash, CPU, and boundary scan
• target/ti_dm355.cfg – with ETM, ARM, and JRC (this JRC is not currently used)
6.3.3 Add CPU targets
After adding a TAP for a CPU, you should set it up so that GDB and other commands can
use it. See Chapter 11 [CPU Configuration], page 61. For the at91sam7 example above, the
command can look like this; note that $_ENDIAN is not needed, since OpenOCD defaults to
little endian, and this chip doesn’t support changing that.
set _TARGETNAME $_CHIPNAME.cpu
target create $_TARGETNAME arm7tdmi -chain-position $_TARGETNAME
Work areas are small RAM areas associated with CPU targets. They are used by OpenOCD
to speed up downloads, and to download small snippets of code to program flash chips. If
the chip includes a form of “on-chip-ram” - and many do - define a work area if you can.
Again using the at91sam7 as an example, this can look like:
$_TARGETNAME configure -work-area-phys 0x00200000 \
-work-area-size 0x4000 -work-area-backup 0
6.3.4 Define CPU targets working in SMP
After setting targets, you can define a list of targets working in SMP.
set _TARGETNAME_1 $_CHIPNAME.cpu1
set _TARGETNAME_2 $_CHIPNAME.cpu2
target create $_TARGETNAME_1 cortex_a -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap \
-coreid 0 -dbgbase $_DAP_DBG1
target create $_TARGETNAME_2 cortex_a -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.dap \
-coreid 1 -dbgbase $_DAP_DBG2
#define 2 targets working in smp.
target smp $_CHIPNAME.cpu2 $_CHIPNAME.cpu1
In the above example on cortex a, 2 cpus are working in SMP. In SMP only one GDB
instance is created and :
• a set of hardware breakpoint sets the same breakpoint on all targets in the list.
• halt command triggers the halt of all targets in the list.
• resume command triggers the write context and the restart of all targets in the list.
• following a breakpoint: the target stopped by the breakpoint is displayed to the GDB
session.
• dedicated GDB serial protocol packets are implemented for switching/retrieving the
target displayed by the GDB session see [Using OpenOCD SMP with GDB], page 130.
The SMP behaviour can be disabled/enabled dynamically. On cortex a following command
have been implemented.
• cortex a smp on : enable SMP mode, behaviour is as described above.
• cortex a smp off : disable SMP mode, the current target is the one displayed in the
GDB session, only this target is now controlled by GDB session. This behaviour is
useful during system boot up.
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
28
• cortex a smp gdb : display/fix the core id displayed in GDB session see following
example.
>cortex_a smp_gdb
gdb coreid 0 -> -1
#0 : coreid 0 is displayed to GDB ,
#-> -1 : next resume triggers a real resume
> cortex_a smp_gdb 1
gdb coreid 0 -> 1
#0 :coreid 0 is displayed to GDB ,
#->1 : next resume displays coreid 1 to GDB
> resume
> cortex_a smp_gdb
gdb coreid 1 -> 1
#1 :coreid 1 is displayed to GDB ,
#->1 : next resume displays coreid 1 to GDB
> cortex_a smp_gdb -1
gdb coreid 1 -> -1
#1 :coreid 1 is displayed to GDB,
#->-1 : next resume triggers a real resume
6.3.5 Chip Reset Setup
As a rule, you should put the reset_config command into the board file. Most things you
think you know about a chip can be tweaked by the board.
Some chips have specific ways the TRST and SRST signals are managed. In the unusual
case that these are chip specific and can never be changed by board wiring, they could go
here. For example, some chips can’t support JTAG debugging without both signals.
Provide a reset-assert event handler if you can. Such a handler uses JTAG operations
to reset the target, letting this target config be used in systems which don’t provide the
optional SRST signal, or on systems where you don’t want to reset all targets at once. Such
a handler might write to chip registers to force a reset, use a JRC to do that (preferable –
the target may be wedged!), or force a watchdog timer to trigger. (For Cortex-M targets,
this is not necessary. The target driver knows how to use trigger an NVIC reset when SRST
is not available.)
Some chips need special attention during reset handling if they’re going to be used with
JTAG. An example might be needing to send some commands right after the target’s TAP
has been reset, providing a reset-deassert-post event handler that writes a chip register
to report that JTAG debugging is being done. Another would be reconfiguring the watchdog
so that it stops counting while the core is halted in the debugger.
JTAG clocking constraints often change during reset, and in some cases target config files
(rather than board config files) are the right places to handle some of those issues. For
example, immediately after reset most chips run using a slower clock than they will use
later. That means that after reset (and potentially, as OpenOCD first starts up) they must
use a slower JTAG clock rate than they will use later. See [JTAG Speed], page 48.
Important: When you are debugging code that runs right after chip reset,
getting these issues right is critical. In particular, if you see intermittent failures
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
29
when OpenOCD verifies the scan chain after reset, look at how you are setting
up JTAG clocking.
6.3.6 The init targets procedure
Target config files can either be “linear” (script executed line-by-line when parsed in configuration stage, See [Configuration Stage], page 32,) or they can contain a special procedure
called init_targets, which will be executed when entering run stage (after parsing all
config files or after init command, See [Entering the Run Stage], page 32.) Such procedure
can be overriden by “next level” script (which sources the original). This concept faciliates code reuse when basic target config files provide generic configuration procedures and
init_targets procedure, which can then be sourced and enchanced or changed in a “more
specific” target config file. This is not possible with “linear” config scripts, because sourcing
them executes every initialization commands they provide.
### generic_file.cfg ###
proc setup_my_chip {chip_name flash_size ram_size} {
# basic initialization procedure ...
}
proc init_targets {} {
# initializes generic chip with 4kB of flash and 1kB of RAM
setup_my_chip MY_GENERIC_CHIP 4096 1024
}
### specific_file.cfg ###
source [find target/generic_file.cfg]
proc init_targets {} {
# initializes specific chip with 128kB of flash and 64kB of RAM
setup_my_chip MY_CHIP_WITH_128K_FLASH_64KB_RAM 131072 65536
}
The easiest way to convert “linear” config files to init_targets version is to enclose every
line of “code” (i.e. not source commands, procedures, etc.) in this procedure.
For an example of this scheme see LPC2000 target config files.
The init_boards procedure is a similar concept concerning board config files (See [The
init board procedure], page 24.)
6.3.7 The init target events procedure
A special procedure called init_target_events is run just after init_targets (See [The
init targets procedure], page 29.) and before init_board (See [The init board procedure],
page 24.) It is used to set up default target events for the targets that do not have those
events already assigned.
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
30
6.3.8 ARM Core Specific Hacks
If the chip has a DCC, enable it. If the chip is an ARM9 with some special high speed
download features - enable it.
If present, the MMU, the MPU and the CACHE should be disabled.
Some ARM cores are equipped with trace support, which permits examination of the instruction and data bus activity. Trace activity is controlled through an “Embedded Trace
Module” (ETM) on one of the core’s scan chains. The ETM emits voluminous data through
a “trace port”. (See [ARM Hardware Tracing], page 105.) If you are using an external trace
port, configure it in your board config file. If you are using an on-chip “Embedded Trace
Buffer” (ETB), configure it in your target config file.
etm config $_TARGETNAME 16 normal full etb
etb config $_TARGETNAME $_CHIPNAME.etb
6.3.9 Internal Flash Configuration
This applies ONLY TO MICROCONTROLLERS that have flash built in.
Never ever in the “target configuration file” define any type of flash that is external to the
chip. (For example a BOOT flash on Chip Select 0.) Such flash information goes in a board
file - not the TARGET (chip) file.
Examples:
• at91sam7x256 - has 256K flash YES enable it.
• str912 - has flash internal YES enable it.
• imx27 - uses boot flash on CS0 - it goes in the board file.
• pxa270 - again - CS0 flash - it goes in the board file.
6.4 Translating Configuration Files
If you have a configuration file for another hardware debugger or toolset (Abatron, BDI2000,
BDI3000, CCS, Lauterbach, SEGGER, Macraigor, etc.), translating it into OpenOCD syntax is often quite straightforward. The most tricky part of creating a configuration script
is oftentimes the reset init sequence where e.g. PLLs, DRAM and the like is set up.
One trick that you can use when translating is to write small Tcl procedures to translate
the syntax into OpenOCD syntax. This can avoid manual translation errors and make it
easier to convert other scripts later on.
Example of transforming quirky arguments to a simple search and replace job:
#
Lauterbach syntax(?)
#
#
Data.Set c15:0x042f %long 0x40000015
#
#
OpenOCD syntax when using procedure below.
#
#
setc15 0x01 0x00050078
proc setc15 {regs value} {
global TARGETNAME
Chapter 6: Config File Guidelines
echo [format "set p15 0x%04x, 0x%08x" $regs $value]
arm mcr 15 [expr ($regs>>12)&0x7] \
[expr ($regs>>0)&0xf] [expr ($regs>>4)&0xf] \
[expr ($regs>>8)&0x7] $value
}
31
Chapter 7: Daemon Configuration
32
7 Daemon Configuration
The commands here are commonly found in the openocd.cfg file and are used to specify
what TCP/IP ports are used, and how GDB should be supported.
7.1 Configuration Stage
When the OpenOCD server process starts up, it enters a configuration stage which is the
only time that certain commands, configuration commands, may be issued. Normally, configuration commands are only available inside startup scripts.
In this manual, the definition of a configuration command is presented as a Config Command, not as a Command which may be issued interactively. The runtime help command
also highlights configuration commands, and those which may be issued at any time.
Those configuration commands include declaration of TAPs, flash banks, the interface used
for JTAG communication, and other basic setup. The server must leave the configuration stage before it may access or activate TAPs. After it leaves this stage, configuration
commands may no longer be issued.
7.2 Entering the Run Stage
The first thing OpenOCD does after leaving the configuration stage is to verify that it can
talk to the scan chain (list of TAPs) which has been configured. It will warn if it doesn’t
find TAPs it expects to find, or finds TAPs that aren’t supposed to be there. You should
see no errors at this point. If you see errors, resolve them by correcting the commands you
used to configure the server. Common errors include using an initial JTAG speed that’s
too fast, and not providing the right IDCODE values for the TAPs on the scan chain.
Once OpenOCD has entered the run stage, a number of commands become available. A
number of these relate to the debug targets you may have declared. For example, the mww
command will not be available until a target has been successfuly instantiated. If you want
to use those commands, you may need to force entry to the run stage.
init
[Config Command]
This command terminates the configuration stage and enters the run stage. This helps
when you need to have the startup scripts manage tasks such as resetting the target,
programming flash, etc. To reset the CPU upon startup, add "init" and "reset" at
the end of the config script or at the end of the OpenOCD command line using the
-c command line switch.
If this command does not appear in any startup/configuration file OpenOCD executes
the command for you after processing all configuration files and/or command line
options.
NOTE: This command normally occurs at or near the end of your openocd.cfg file
to force OpenOCD to “initialize” and make the targets ready. For example: If your
openocd.cfg file needs to read/write memory on your target, init must occur before
the memory read/write commands. This includes nand probe.
[Overridable Procedure]
This is invoked at server startup to verify that it can talk to the scan chain (list of
TAPs) which has been configured.
jtag_init
Chapter 7: Daemon Configuration
33
The default implementation first tries jtag arp_init, which uses only a lightweight
JTAG reset before examining the scan chain. If that fails, it tries again, using a
harder reset from the overridable procedure init_reset.
Implementations must have verified the JTAG scan chain before they return. This is
done by calling jtag arp_init (or jtag arp_init-reset).
7.3 TCP/IP Ports
The OpenOCD server accepts remote commands in several syntaxes. Each syntax uses a
different TCP/IP port, which you may specify only during configuration (before those ports
are opened).
For reasons including security, you may wish to prevent remote access using one or more of
these ports. In such cases, just specify the relevant port number as zero. If you disable all
access through TCP/IP, you will need to use the command line -pipe option.
gdb_port [number]
[Command]
Normally gdb listens to a TCP/IP port, but GDB can also communicate via
pipes(stdin/out or named pipes). The name "gdb port" stuck because it covers
probably more than 90% of the normal use cases.
No arguments reports GDB port. "pipe" means listen to stdin output to stdout, an
integer is base port number, "disable" disables the gdb server.
When using "pipe", also use log output to redirect the log output to a file so as not
to flood the stdin/out pipes.
The -p/–pipe option is deprecated and a warning is printed as it is equivalent to
passing in -c "gdb port pipe; log output openocd.log".
Any other string is interpreted as named pipe to listen to. Output pipe is the same
name as input pipe, but with ’o’ appended, e.g. /var/gdb, /var/gdbo.
The GDB port for the first target will be the base port, the second target will listen
on gdb port + 1, and so on. When not specified during the configuration stage, the
port number defaults to 3333.
Note: when using "gdb port pipe", increasing the default remote timeout in gdb (with
’set remotetimeout’) is recommended. An insufficient timeout may cause initialization
to fail with "Unknown remote qXfer reply: OK".
tcl_port [number]
[Command]
Specify or query the port used for a simplified RPC connection that can be used by
clients to issue TCL commands and get the output from the Tcl engine. Intended
as a machine interface. When not specified during the configuration stage, the port
number defaults to 6666.
telnet_port [number]
[Command]
Specify or query the port on which to listen for incoming telnet connections. This
port is intended for interaction with one human through TCL commands. When not
specified during the configuration stage, the port number defaults to 4444. When
specified as zero, this port is not activated.
Chapter 7: Daemon Configuration
34
7.4 GDB Configuration
You can reconfigure some GDB behaviors if needed. The ones listed here are static and
global. See [Target Configuration], page 63, about configuring individual targets. See
[Target Events], page 66, about configuring target-specific event handling.
gdb_breakpoint_override [hard|soft|disable]
[Command]
Force breakpoint type for gdb break commands. This option supports GDB GUIs
which don’t distinguish hard versus soft breakpoints, if the default OpenOCD and
GDB behaviour is not sufficient. GDB normally uses hardware breakpoints if the
memory map has been set up for flash regions.
gdb_flash_program (enable|disable)
[Config Command]
Set to enable to cause OpenOCD to program the flash memory when a vFlash packet
is received. The default behaviour is enable.
gdb_memory_map (enable|disable)
[Config Command]
Set to enable to cause OpenOCD to send the memory configuration to GDB when
requested. GDB will then know when to set hardware breakpoints, and program flash
using the GDB load command. gdb_flash_program enable must also be enabled for
flash programming to work. Default behaviour is enable. See [gdb flash program],
page 34.
gdb_report_data_abort (enable|disable)
[Config Command]
Specifies whether data aborts cause an error to be reported by GDB memory read
packets. The default behaviour is disable; use enable see these errors reported.
gdb_target_description (enable|disable)
[Config Command]
Set to enable to cause OpenOCD to send the target descriptions to gdb via
qXfer:features:read packet. The default behaviour is enable.
gdb_save_tdesc
[Command]
Saves the target descripton file to the local file system.
The file name is target name.xml.
7.5 Event Polling
Hardware debuggers are parts of asynchronous systems, where significant events can happen
at any time. The OpenOCD server needs to detect some of these events, so it can report
them to through TCL command line or to GDB.
Examples of such events include:
• One of the targets can stop running ... maybe it triggers a code breakpoint or data
watchpoint, or halts itself.
• Messages may be sent over “debug message” channels ... many targets support such
messages sent over JTAG, for receipt by the person debugging or tools.
• Loss of power ... some adapters can detect these events.
• Resets not issued through JTAG ... such reset sources can include button presses
or other system hardware, sometimes including the target itself (perhaps through a
watchdog).
Chapter 7: Daemon Configuration
35
• Debug instrumentation sometimes supports event triggering such as “trace buffer full”
(so it can quickly be emptied) or other signals (to correlate with code behavior).
None of those events are signaled through standard JTAG signals. However, most conventions for JTAG connectors include voltage level and system reset (SRST) signal detection.
Some connectors also include instrumentation signals, which can imply events when those
signals are inputs.
In general, OpenOCD needs to periodically check for those events, either by looking at the
status of signals on the JTAG connector or by sending synchronous “tell me your status”
JTAG requests to the various active targets. There is a command to manage and monitor
that polling, which is normally done in the background.
poll [on|off]
[Command]
Poll the current target for its current state. (Also, see [target curstate], page 66.)
If that target is in debug mode, architecture specific information about the current
state is printed. An optional parameter allows background polling to be enabled and
disabled.
You could use this from the TCL command shell, or from GDB using monitor poll
command. Leave background polling enabled while you’re using GDB.
> poll
background polling: on
target state: halted
target halted in ARM state due to debug-request, \
current mode: Supervisor
cpsr: 0x800000d3 pc: 0x11081bfc
MMU: disabled, D-Cache: disabled, I-Cache: enabled
>
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
36
8 Debug Adapter Configuration
Correctly installing OpenOCD includes making your operating system give OpenOCD access to debug adapters. Once that has been done, Tcl commands are used to select which
one is used, and to configure how it is used.
Note: Because OpenOCD started out with a focus purely on JTAG, you may
find places where it wrongly presumes JTAG is the only transport protocol in
use. Be aware that recent versions of OpenOCD are removing that limitation.
JTAG remains more functional than most other transports. Other transports
do not support boundary scan operations, or may be specific to a given chip
vendor. Some might be usable only for programming flash memory, instead of
also for debugging.
Debug Adapters/Interfaces/Dongles are normally configured through commands in an interface configuration file which is sourced by your openocd.cfg file, or through a command
line -f interface/....cfg option.
source [find interface/olimex-jtag-tiny.cfg]
These commands tell OpenOCD what type of JTAG adapter you have, and how to talk to
it. A few cases are so simple that you only need to say what driver to use:
# jlink interface
interface jlink
Most adapters need a bit more configuration than that.
8.1 Interface Configuration
The interface command tells OpenOCD what type of debug adapter you are using. Depending on the type of adapter, you may need to use one or more additional commands to
further identify or configure the adapter.
interface name
[Config Command]
Use the interface driver name to connect to the target.
[Command]
List the debug adapter drivers that have been built into the running copy of
OpenOCD.
interface_list
interface transports transport name+
[Command]
Specifies the transports supported by this debug adapter. The adapter driver buildsin similar knowledge; use this only when external configuration (such as jumpering)
changes what the hardware can support.
adapter_name
Returns the name of the debug adapter driver being used.
[Command]
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
37
8.2 Interface Drivers
Each of the interface drivers listed here must be explicitly enabled when OpenOCD is
configured, in order to be made available at run time.
[Interface Driver]
Amontec Chameleon in its JTAG Accelerator configuration, connected to a PC’s EPP
mode parallel port. This defines some driver-specific commands:
amt_jtagaccel
parport_port number
[Config Command]
Specifies either the address of the I/O port (default: 0x378 for LPT1) or the
number of the /dev/parport device.
rtck [enable|disable]
[Config Command]
Displays status of RTCK option. Optionally sets that option first.
[Interface Driver]
Olimex ARM-JTAG-EW USB adapter This has one driver-specific command:
arm-jtag-ew
armjtagew_info
[Command]
Logs some status
[Interface Driver]
Supports bitbanged JTAG from the local system, presuming that system is an Atmel
AT91rm9200 and a specific set of GPIOs is used.
at91rm9200
[Interface Driver]
cmsis-dap
ARM CMSIS-DAP compliant based adapter.
cmsis_dap_vid_pid [vid pid]+
[Config Command]
The vendor ID and product ID of the CMSIS-DAP device. If not specified the
driver will attempt to auto detect the CMSIS-DAP device. Currently, up to
eight [vid, pid] pairs may be given, e.g.
cmsis_dap_vid_pid 0xc251 0xf001 0x0d28 0x0204
cmsis_dap_serial [serial]
[Config Command]
Specifies the serial of the CMSIS-DAP device to use. If not specified, serial
numbers are not considered.
[Command]
Display various device information, like hardware version, firmware version,
current bus status.
cmsis-dap info
dummy
[Interface Driver]
A dummy software-only driver for debugging.
[Interface Driver]
Cirrus Logic EP93xx based single-board computer bit-banging (in development)
ep93xx
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
38
[Interface Driver]
FTDI FT2232 (USB) based devices over one of the userspace libraries.
Note that this driver has several flaws and the ftdi driver is recommended as its
replacement.
These interfaces have several commands, used to configure the driver before initializing the JTAG scan chain:
ft2232
ft2232_device_desc description
[Config Command]
Provides the USB device description (the iProduct string) of the FTDI FT2232
device. If not specified, the FTDI default value is used. This setting is only
valid if compiled with FTD2XX support.
ft2232_serial serial-number
[Config Command]
Specifies the serial-number of the FTDI FT2232 device to use, in case the
vendor provides unique IDs and more than one FT2232 device is connected
to the host. If not specified, serial numbers are not considered. (Note that
USB serial numbers can be arbitrary Unicode strings, and are not restricted to
containing only decimal digits.)
ft2232_layout name
[Config Command]
Each vendor’s FT2232 device can use different GPIO signals to control outputenables, reset signals, and LEDs. Currently valid layout name values include:
− axm0432 jtag Axiom AXM-0432
− comstick Hitex STR9 comstick
− cortino Hitex Cortino JTAG interface
− evb lm3s811 TI/Luminary Micro EVB LM3S811 as a JTAG interface, either for the local Cortex-M3 (SRST only) or in a passthrough mode (neither
SRST nor TRST) This layout can not support the SWO trace mechanism,
and should be used only for older boards (before rev C).
− luminary icdi This layout should be used with most TI/Luminary eval
boards, including Rev C LM3S811 eval boards and the eponymous ICDI
boards, to debug either the local Cortex-M3 or in passthrough mode to
debug some other target. It can support the SWO trace mechanism.
− flyswatter Tin Can Tools Flyswatter
− icebear ICEbear JTAG adapter from Section 5
− jtagkey Amontec JTAGkey and JTAGkey-Tiny (and compatibles)
− jtagkey2 Amontec JTAGkey2 (and compatibles)
− m5960 American Microsystems M5960
− olimex-jtag Olimex ARM-USB-OCD and ARM-USB-Tiny
− oocdlink OOCDLink
− redbee-econotag Integrated with a Redbee development board.
− redbee-usb Integrated with a Redbee USB-stick development board.
− sheevaplug Marvell Sheevaplug development kit
− signalyzer Xverve Signalyzer
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
39
− stm32stick Hitex STM32 Performance Stick
− turtelizer2 egnite Software turtelizer2
− usbjtag "USBJTAG-1" layout described in the OpenOCD diploma thesis
ft2232_vid_pid [vid pid]+
[Config Command]
The vendor ID and product ID of the FTDI FT2232 device. If not specified,
the FTDI default values are used. Currently, up to eight [vid, pid] pairs may
be given, e.g.
ft2232_vid_pid 0x0403 0xcff8 0x15ba 0x0003
ft2232_latency ms
[Config Command]
On some systems using FT2232 based JTAG interfaces the FT Read function
call in ft2232 read() fails to return the expected number of bytes. This can
be caused by USB communication delays and has proved hard to reproduce
and debug. Setting the FT2232 latency timer to a larger value increases delays
for short USB packets but it also reduces the risk of timeouts before receiving
the expected number of bytes. The OpenOCD default value is 2 and for some
systems a value of 10 has proved useful.
ft2232_channel channel
[Config Command]
Used to select the channel of the ft2232 chip to use (between 1 and 4). The
default value is 1.
For example, the interface config file for a Turtelizer JTAG Adapter looks something
like this:
interface ft2232
ft2232_device_desc "Turtelizer JTAG/RS232 Adapter"
ft2232_layout turtelizer2
ft2232_vid_pid 0x0403 0xbdc8
ftdi
[Interface Driver]
This driver is for adapters using the MPSSE (Multi-Protocol Synchronous Serial
Engine) mode built into many FTDI chips, such as the FT2232, FT4232 and FT232H.
It is a complete rewrite to address a large number of problems with the ft2232 interface
driver.
The driver is using libusb-1.0 in asynchronous mode to talk to the FTDI device, bypassing intermediate libraries like libftdi of D2XX. Performance-wise it is consistently
faster than the ft2232 driver, sometimes several times faster.
A major improvement of this driver is that support for new FTDI based adapters
can be added competely through configuration files, without the need to patch and
rebuild OpenOCD.
The driver uses a signal abstraction to enable Tcl configuration files to define outputs
for one or several FTDI GPIO. These outputs can then be controlled using the ftdi_
set_signal command. Special signal names are reserved for nTRST, nSRST and
LED (for blink) so that they, if defined, will be used for their customary purpose.
Depending on the type of buffer attached to the FTDI GPIO, the outputs have to
be controlled differently. In order to support tristateable signals such as nSRST,
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
40
both a data GPIO and an output-enable GPIO can be specified for each signal. The
following output buffer configurations are supported:
− Push-pull with one FTDI output as (non-)inverted data line
− Open drain with one FTDI output as (non-)inverted output-enable
− Tristate with one FTDI output as (non-)inverted data line and another FTDI
output as (non-)inverted output-enable
− Unbuffered, using the FTDI GPIO as a tristate output directly by switching data
and direction as necessary
These interfaces have several commands, used to configure the driver before initializing the JTAG scan chain:
ftdi_vid_pid [vid pid]+
[Config Command]
The vendor ID and product ID of the adapter. If not specified, the FTDI default
values are used. Currently, up to eight [vid, pid] pairs may be given, e.g.
ftdi_vid_pid 0x0403 0xcff8 0x15ba 0x0003
ftdi_device_desc description
[Config Command]
Provides the USB device description (the iProduct string) of the adapter. If
not specified, the device description is ignored during device selection.
ftdi_serial serial-number
[Config Command]
Specifies the serial-number of the adapter to use, in case the vendor provides
unique IDs and more than one adapter is connected to the host. If not specified,
serial numbers are not considered. (Note that USB serial numbers can be
arbitrary Unicode strings, and are not restricted to containing only decimal
digits.)
ftdi_location <bus>:<port>[,<port>]...
[Config Command]
Specifies the physical USB port of the adapter to use. The path roots at bus
and walks down the physical ports, with each port option specifying a deeper
level in the bus topology, the last port denoting where the target adapter is
actually plugged. The USB bus topology can be queried with the command
lsusb -t.
ftdi_channel channel
[Config Command]
Selects the channel of the FTDI device to use for MPSSE operations. Most
adapters use the default, channel 0, but there are exceptions.
ftdi_layout_init data direction
[Config Command]
Specifies the initial values of the FTDI GPIO data and direction registers. Each
value is a 16-bit number corresponding to the concatenation of the high and low
FTDI GPIO registers. The values should be selected based on the schematics
of the adapter, such that all signals are set to safe levels with minimal impact
on the target system. Avoid floating inputs, conflicting outputs and initially
asserted reset signals.
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
ftdi_layout_signal name [-data|-ndata data mask]
[-oe|-noe oe mask] [-alias|-nalias name]
41
[Config Command]
Creates a signal with the specified name, controlled by one or more FTDI
GPIO pins via a range of possible buffer connections. The masks are FTDI
GPIO register bitmasks to tell the driver the connection and type of the output
buffer driving the respective signal. data mask is the bitmask for the pin(s)
connected to the data input of the output buffer. -ndata is used with inverting
data inputs and -data with non-inverting inputs. The -oe (or -noe) option
tells where the output-enable (or not-output-enable) input to the output buffer
is connected.
Both data mask and oe mask need not be specified. For example, a simple
open-collector transistor driver would be specified with -oe only. In that case
the signal can only be set to drive low or to Hi-Z and the driver will complain
if the signal is set to drive high. Which means that if it’s a reset signal, reset_
config must be specified as srst_open_drain, not srst_push_pull.
A special case is provided when -data and -oe is set to the same bitmask. Then
the FTDI pin is considered being connected straight to the target without any
buffer. The FTDI pin is then switched between output and input as necessary
to provide the full set of low, high and Hi-Z characteristics. In all other cases,
the pins specified in a signal definition are always driven by the FTDI.
If -alias or -nalias is used, the signal is created identical (or with data
inverted) to an already specified signal name.
ftdi_set_signal name 0|1|z
Set
−
−
−
[Command]
a previously defined signal to the specified level.
0, drive low
1, drive high
z, set to high-impedance
[Command]
Configure TCK edge at which the adapter samples the value of the TDO signal
Due to signal propagation delays, sampling TDO on rising TCK can become
quite peculiar at high JTAG clock speeds. However, FTDI chips offer a possiblity to sample TDO on falling edge of TCK. With some board/adapter configurations, this may increase stability at higher JTAG clocks.
− rising, sample TDO on rising edge of TCK - this is the default
− falling, sample TDO on falling edge of TCK
ftdi_tdo_sample_edge rising|falling
For example adapter definitions, see the configuration files shipped in the
interface/ftdi directory.
[Interface Driver]
Drive JTAG from a remote process. This sets up a UNIX or TCP socket connection
with a remote process and sends ASCII encoded bitbang requests to that process
instead of directly driving JTAG.
The remote bitbang driver is useful for debugging software running on processors
which are being simulated.
remote_bitbang
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
42
remote_bitbang_port number
[Config Command]
Specifies the TCP port of the remote process to connect to or 0 to use UNIX
sockets instead of TCP.
remote_bitbang_host hostname
[Config Command]
Specifies the hostname of the remote process to connect to using TCP, or the
name of the UNIX socket to use if remote bitbang port is 0.
For example, to connect remotely via TCP to the host foobar you might have something like:
interface remote_bitbang
remote_bitbang_port 3335
remote_bitbang_host foobar
To connect to another process running locally via UNIX sockets with socket named
mysocket:
interface remote_bitbang
remote_bitbang_port 0
remote_bitbang_host mysocket
[Interface Driver]
USB JTAG/USB-Blaster compatibles over one of the userspace libraries for FTDI
chips. These interfaces have several commands, used to configure the driver before
initializing the JTAG scan chain:
usb_blaster
usb_blaster_device_desc description
[Config Command]
Provides the USB device description (the iProduct string) of the FTDI FT245
device. If not specified, the FTDI default value is used. This setting is only
valid if compiled with FTD2XX support.
usb_blaster_vid_pid vid pid
[Config Command]
The vendor ID and product ID of the FTDI FT245 device. If not specified,
default values are used. Currently, only one vid, pid pair may be given, e.g. for
Altera USB-Blaster (default):
usb_blaster_vid_pid 0x09FB 0x6001
The following VID/PID is for Kolja Waschk’s USB JTAG:
usb_blaster_vid_pid 0x16C0 0x06AD
usb_blaster_pin (pin6|pin8) (0|1|s|t)
[Command]
Sets the state or function of the unused GPIO pins on USB-Blasters (pins 6
and 8 on the female JTAG header). These pins can be used as SRST and/or
TRST provided the appropriate connections are made on the target board.
For example, to use pin 6 as SRST:
usb_blaster_pin pin6 s
reset_config srst_only
usb_blaster_lowlevel_driver (ftdi|ftd2xx|ublast2)
[Command]
Chooses the low level access method for the adapter. If not specified, ftdi is
selected unless it wasn’t enabled during the configure stage. USB-Blaster II
needs ublast2.
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
43
[Command]
This command specifies path to access USB-Blaster II firmware image. To be
used with USB-Blaster II only.
usb_blaster_firmware path
[Interface Driver]
Gateworks GW16012 JTAG programmer. This has one driver-specific command:
gw16012
parport_port [port number]
[Config Command]
Display either the address of the I/O port (default: 0x378 for LPT1) or the
number of the /dev/parport device. If a parameter is provided, first switch to
use that port. This is a write-once setting.
[Interface Driver]
SEGGER J-Link family of USB adapters. It currently supports JTAG and SWD
transports.
Compatibility Note: SEGGER released many firmware versions for the
many harware versions they produced. OpenOCD was extensively tested
and intended to run on all of them, but some combinations were reported
as incompatible. As a general recommendation, it is advisable to use the
latest firmware version available for each hardware version. However the
current V8 is a moving target, and SEGGER firmware versions released
after the OpenOCD was released may not be compatible. In such cases it
is recommended to revert to the last known functional version. For 0.5.0,
this is from "Feb 8 2012 14:30:39", packed with 4.42c. For 0.6.0, the last
known version is from "May 3 2012 18:36:22", packed with 4.46f.
jlink
[Command]
Display various hardware related information, for example target voltage and
pin states.
jlink hwstatus
jlink freemem
[Command]
Display free device internal memory.
jlink jtag [2|3]
[Command]
Set the JTAG command version to be used. Without argument, show the actual
JTAG command version.
jlink config
[Command]
Display the device configuration.
jlink config targetpower [on|off]
[Command]
Set the target power state on JTAG-pin 19. Without argument, show the target
power state.
jlink config mac [ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff]
[Command]
Set the MAC address of the device. Without argument, show the MAC address.
jlink config ip [A.B.C.D(/E|F.G.H.I)]
[Command]
Set the IP configuration of the device, where A.B.C.D is the IP address, E the
bit of the subnet mask and F.G.H.I the subnet mask. Without arguments, show
the IP configuration.
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
44
jlink config usb [0 to 3]
[Command]
Set the USB address of the device. This will also change the USB Product ID
(PID) of the device. Without argument, show the USB address.
jlink config reset
[Command]
Reset the current configuration.
jlink config write
[Command]
Write the current configuration to the internal persistent storage.
jlink usb <0 to 3>
[Config]
Set the USB address of the interface, in case more than one adapter is connected
to the host. If not specified, USB addresses are not considered. Device selection
via USB address is deprecated and the serial number should be used instead.
As a configuration command, it can be used only before ’init’.
jlink serial <serial number>
[Config]
Set the serial number of the interface, in case more than one adapter is connected to the host. If not specified, serial numbers are not considered.
As a configuration command, it can be used only before ’init’.
[Interface Driver]
Supports PC parallel port bit-banging cables: Wigglers, PLD download cable, and
more. These interfaces have several commands, used to configure the driver before
initializing the JTAG scan chain:
parport
parport_cable name
[Config Command]
Set the layout of the parallel port cable used to connect to the target. This is
a write-once setting. Currently valid cable name values include:
− altium Altium Universal JTAG cable.
− arm-jtag Same as original wiggler except SRST and TRST connections
reversed and TRST is also inverted.
− chameleon The Amontec Chameleon’s CPLD when operated in configuration mode. This is only used to program the Chameleon itself, not a
connected target.
− dlc5 The Xilinx Parallel cable III.
− flashlink The ST Parallel cable.
− lattice Lattice ispDOWNLOAD Cable
− old amt wiggler The Wiggler configuration that comes with some versions
of Amontec’s Chameleon Programmer. The new version available from the
website uses the original Wiggler layout (’wiggler’)
− triton The parallel port adapter found on the “Karo Triton 1 Development
Board”. This is also the layout used by the HollyGates design (see http://
www.lartmaker.nl/projects/jtag/).
− wiggler The original Wiggler layout, also supported by several clones, such
as the Olimex ARM-JTAG
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
45
− wiggler2 Same as original wiggler except an led is fitted on D5.
− wiggler ntrst inverted Same as original wiggler except TRST is inverted.
parport_port [port number]
[Config Command]
Display either the address of the I/O port (default: 0x378 for LPT1) or the
number of the /dev/parport device. If a parameter is provided, first switch to
use that port. This is a write-once setting.
When using PPDEV to access the parallel port, use the number of the parallel
port: parport_port 0 (the default). If parport_port 0x378 is specified you
may encounter a problem.
parport_toggling_time [nanoseconds]
[Command]
Displays how many nanoseconds the hardware needs to toggle TCK; the parport
driver uses this value to obey the adapter_khz configuration. When the optional nanoseconds parameter is given, that setting is changed before displaying
the current value.
The default setting should work reasonably well on commodity PC hardware.
However, you may want to calibrate for your specific hardware.
Tip: To measure the toggling time with a logic analyzer or a digital
storage oscilloscope, follow the procedure below:
> parport_toggling_time 1000
> adapter_khz 500
This sets the maximum JTAG clock speed of the hardware, but the
actual speed probably deviates from the requested 500 kHz. Now,
measure the time between the two closest spaced TCK transitions.
You can use runtest 1000 or something similar to generate a large
set of samples. Update the setting to match your measurement:
> parport_toggling_time <measured nanoseconds>
Now the clock speed will be a better match for adapter_khz rate
commands given in OpenOCD scripts and event handlers.
You can do something similar with many digital multimeters, but
note that you’ll probably need to run the clock continuously for
several seconds before it decides what clock rate to show. Adjust
the toggling time up or down until the measured clock rate is a good
match for the adapter khz rate you specified; be conservative.
parport_write_on_exit (on|off)
[Config Command]
This will configure the parallel driver to write a known cable-specific value to
the parallel interface on exiting OpenOCD.
For example, the interface configuration file for a classic “Wiggler” cable on LPT2
might look something like this:
interface parport
parport_port 0x278
parport_cable wiggler
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
46
[Interface Driver]
presto
ASIX PRESTO USB JTAG programmer.
presto_serial serial string
[Config Command]
Configures the USB serial number of the Presto device to use.
[Interface Driver]
rlink
Raisonance RLink USB adapter
[Interface Driver]
usbprog
usbprog is a freely programmable USB adapter.
[Interface Driver]
vsllink
vsllink is part of Versaloon which is a versatile USB programmer.
Note: This defines quite a few driver-specific commands, which are not
currently documented here.
hla
[Interface Driver]
This is a driver that supports multiple High Level Adapters. This type of adapter
does not expose some of the lower level api’s that OpenOCD would normally use to
access the target.
Currently supported adapters include the ST STLINK and TI ICDI. STLINK
firmware version >= V2.J21.S4 recommended due to issues with earlier versions of
firmware where serial number is reset after first use. Suggest using ST firmware
update utility to upgrade STLINK firmware even if current version reported is
V2.J21.S4.
hla_device_desc description
[Config Command]
Currently Not Supported.
hla_serial serial
[Config Command]
Specifies the serial number of the adapter.
hla_layout (stlink|icdi)
[Config Command]
Specifies the adapter layout to use.
hla_vid_pid vid pid
[Config Command]
The vendor ID and product ID of the device.
hla_command command
[Command]
Execute a custom adapter-specific command. The command string is passed as
is to the underlying adapter layout handler.
opendous
[Interface Driver]
opendous-jtag is a freely programmable USB adapter.
ulink
[Interface Driver]
This is the Keil ULINK v1 JTAG debugger.
ZY1000
This is the Zylin ZY1000 JTAG debugger.
[Interface Driver]
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
47
Note: This defines some driver-specific commands, which are not currently
documented here.
power [on|off]
[Command]
Turn power switch to target on/off. No arguments: print status.
[Interface Driver]
This SoC is present in Raspberry Pi which is a cheap single-board computer exposing
some GPIOs on its expansion header.
bcm2835gpio
The driver accesses memory-mapped GPIO peripheral registers directly for maximum
performance, but the only possible race condition is for the pins’ modes/muxing
(which is highly unlikely), so it should be able to coexist nicely with both sysfs
bitbanging and various peripherals’ kernel drivers. The driver restores the previous
configuration on exit.
See interface/raspberrypi-native.cfg for a sample config and pinout.
8.3 Transport Configuration
As noted earlier, depending on the version of OpenOCD you use, and the debug adapter
you are using, several transports may be available to communicate with debug targets (or
perhaps to program flash memory).
[Command]
displays the names of the transports supported by this version of OpenOCD.
transport list
[Command]
Select which of the supported transports to use in this OpenOCD session.
transport select transport_name
When invoked with transport_name, attempts to select the named transport. The
transport must be supported by the debug adapter hardware and by the version of
OpenOCD you are using (including the adapter’s driver).
If no transport has been selected and no transport_name is provided, transport
select auto-selects the first transport supported by the debug adapter.
transport select always returns the name of the session’s selected transport, if any.
8.3.1 JTAG Transport
JTAG is the original transport supported by OpenOCD, and most of the OpenOCD commands support it. JTAG transports expose a chain of one or more Test Access Points
(TAPs), each of which must be explicitly declared. JTAG supports both debugging and
boundary scan testing. Flash programming support is built on top of debug support.
JTAG transport is selected with the command transport select jtag. Unless your
adapter uses [hla interface], page 46, in which case the command is transport select
hla_jtag.
8.3.2 SWD Transport
SWD (Serial Wire Debug) is an ARM-specific transport which exposes one Debug Access
Point (DAP, which must be explicitly declared. (SWD uses fewer signal wires than JTAG.)
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
48
SWD is debug-oriented, and does not support boundary scan testing. Flash programming
support is built on top of debug support. (Some processors support both JTAG and SWD.)
SWD transport is selected with the command transport select swd. Unless your adapter
uses [hla interface], page 46, in which case the command is transport select hla_swd.
swd newdap ...
[Command]
Declares a single DAP which uses SWD transport. Parameters are currently the same
as "jtag newtap" but this is expected to change.
[Command]
Updates TRN (turnaraound delay) and prescaling.fields of the Wire Control Register
(WCR). No parameters: displays current settings.
swd wcr trn prescale
8.3.3 SPI Transport
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a general purpose transport which uses four wire
signaling. Some processors use it as part of a solution for flash programming.
8.4 JTAG Speed
JTAG clock setup is part of system setup. It does not belong with interface setup since any
interface only knows a few of the constraints for the JTAG clock speed. Sometimes the JTAG
speed is changed during the target initialization process: (1) slow at reset, (2) program the
CPU clocks, (3) run fast. Both the "slow" and "fast" clock rates are functions of the
oscillators used, the chip, the board design, and sometimes power management software
that may be active.
The speed used during reset, and the scan chain verification which follows reset, can be
adjusted using a reset-start target event handler. It can then be reconfigured to a
faster speed by a reset-init target event handler after it reprograms those CPU clocks,
or manually (if something else, such as a boot loader, sets up those clocks). See [Target
Events], page 66. When the initial low JTAG speed is a chip characteristic, perhaps because
of a required oscillator speed, provide such a handler in the target config file. When that
speed is a function of a board-specific characteristic such as which speed oscillator is used,
it belongs in the board config file instead. In both cases it’s safest to also set the initial
JTAG clock rate to that same slow speed, so that OpenOCD never starts up using a clock
speed that’s faster than the scan chain can support.
jtag_rclk 3000
$_TARGET.cpu configure -event reset-start { jtag_rclk 3000 }
If your system supports adaptive clocking (RTCK), configuring JTAG to use that is probably
the most robust approach. However, it introduces delays to synchronize clocks; so it may
not be the fastest solution.
NOTE: Script writers should consider using jtag_rclk instead of adapter_khz, but only
for (ARM) cores and boards which support adaptive clocking.
adapter_khz max speed kHz
[Command]
A non-zero speed is in KHZ. Hence: 3000 is 3mhz. JTAG interfaces usually support
a limited number of speeds. The speed actually used won’t be faster than the speed
specified.
Chapter 8: Debug Adapter Configuration
49
Chip data sheets generally include a top JTAG clock rate. The actual rate is often a
function of a CPU core clock, and is normally less than that peak rate. For example,
most ARM cores accept at most one sixth of the CPU clock.
Speed 0 (khz) selects RTCK method. See [FAQ RTCK], page 136. If your system uses
RTCK, you won’t need to change the JTAG clocking after setup. Not all interfaces,
boards, or targets support “rtck”. If the interface device can not support it, an error
is returned when you try to use RTCK.
jtag_rclk fallback speed kHz
[Function]
This Tcl proc (defined in startup.tcl) attempts to enable RTCK/RCLK. If that fails
(maybe the interface, board, or target doesn’t support it), falls back to the specified
frequency.
# Fall back to 3mhz if RTCK is not supported
jtag_rclk 3000
Chapter 9: Reset Configuration
50
9 Reset Configuration
Every system configuration may require a different reset configuration. This can also be
quite confusing. Resets also interact with reset-init event handlers, which do things like
setting up clocks and DRAM, and JTAG clock rates. (See [JTAG Speed], page 48.) They
can also interact with JTAG routers. Please see the various board files for examples.
Note: To maintainers and integrators: Reset configuration touches several
things at once. Normally the board configuration file should define it and assume that the JTAG adapter supports everything that’s wired up to the board’s
JTAG connector.
However, the target configuration file could also make note of something the silicon vendor has done inside the chip, which will be true for most (or all) boards
using that chip. And when the JTAG adapter doesn’t support everything,
the user configuration file will need to override parts of the reset configuration
provided by other files.
9.1 Types of Reset
There are many kinds of reset possible through JTAG, but they may not all work with a
given board and adapter. That’s part of why reset configuration can be error prone.
• System Reset ... the SRST hardware signal resets all chips connected to the JTAG
adapter, such as processors, power management chips, and I/O controllers. Normally
resets triggered with this signal behave exactly like pressing a RESET button.
• JTAG TAP Reset ... the TRST hardware signal resets just the TAP controllers connected to the JTAG adapter. Such resets should not be visible to the rest of the system;
resetting a device’s TAP controller just puts that controller into a known state.
• Emulation Reset ... many devices can be reset through JTAG commands. These resets
are often distinguishable from system resets, either explicitly (a "reset reason" register
says so) or implicitly (not all parts of the chip get reset).
• Other Resets ... system-on-chip devices often support several other types of reset.
You may need to arrange that a watchdog timer stops while debugging, preventing a
watchdog reset. There may be individual module resets.
In the best case, OpenOCD can hold SRST, then reset the TAPs via TRST and send
commands through JTAG to halt the CPU at the reset vector before the 1st instruction
is executed. Then when it finally releases the SRST signal, the system is halted under
debugger control before any code has executed. This is the behavior required to support
the reset halt and reset init commands; after reset init a board-specific script might
do things like setting up DRAM. (See [Reset Command], page 100.)
9.2 SRST and TRST Issues
Because SRST and TRST are hardware signals, they can have a variety of system-specific
constraints. Some of the most common issues are:
• Signal not available ... Some boards don’t wire SRST or TRST to the JTAG connector.
Some JTAG adapters don’t support such signals even if they are wired up. Use the
reset_config signals options to say when either of those signals is not connected.
Chapter 9: Reset Configuration
51
When SRST is not available, your code might not be able to rely on controllers having
been fully reset during code startup. Missing TRST is not a problem, since JTAG-level
resets can be triggered using with TMS signaling.
• Signals shorted ... Sometimes a chip, board, or adapter will connect SRST to TRST,
instead of keeping them separate. Use the reset_config combination options to say
when those signals aren’t properly independent.
• Timing ... Reset circuitry like a resistor/capacitor delay circuit, reset supervisor, or
on-chip features can extend the effect of a JTAG adapter’s reset for some time after
the adapter stops issuing the reset. For example, there may be chip or board requirements that all reset pulses last for at least a certain amount of time; and reset
buttons commonly have hardware debouncing. Use the adapter_nsrst_delay and
jtag_ntrst_delay commands to say when extra delays are needed.
• Drive type ... Reset lines often have a pullup resistor, letting the JTAG interface
treat them as open-drain signals. But that’s not a requirement, so the adapter may
need to use push/pull output drivers. Also, with weak pullups it may be advisable to
drive signals to both levels (push/pull) to minimize rise times. Use the reset_config
trst type and srst type parameters to say how to drive reset signals.
• Special initialization ... Targets sometimes need special JTAG initialization sequences
to handle chip-specific issues (not limited to errata). For example, certain JTAG commands might need to be issued while the system as a whole is in a reset state (SRST
active) but the JTAG scan chain is usable (TRST inactive). Many systems treat combined assertion of SRST and TRST as a trigger for a harder reset than SRST alone.
Such custom reset handling is discussed later in this chapter.
There can also be other issues. Some devices don’t fully conform to the JTAG specifications.
Trivial system-specific differences are common, such as SRST and TRST using slightly
different names. There are also vendors who distribute key JTAG documentation for their
chips only to developers who have signed a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA).
Sometimes there are chip-specific extensions like a requirement to use the normally-optional
TRST signal (precluding use of JTAG adapters which don’t pass TRST through), or needing
extra steps to complete a TAP reset.
In short, SRST and especially TRST handling may be very finicky, needing to cope with
both architecture and board specific constraints.
9.3 Commands for Handling Resets
adapter_nsrst_assert_width milliseconds
[Command]
Minimum amount of time (in milliseconds) OpenOCD should wait after asserting
nSRST (active-low system reset) before allowing it to be deasserted.
adapter_nsrst_delay milliseconds
[Command]
How long (in milliseconds) OpenOCD should wait after deasserting nSRST (activelow system reset) before starting new JTAG operations. When a board has a reset
button connected to SRST line it will probably have hardware debouncing, implying
you should use this.
Chapter 9: Reset Configuration
52
jtag_ntrst_assert_width milliseconds
[Command]
Minimum amount of time (in milliseconds) OpenOCD should wait after asserting
nTRST (active-low JTAG TAP reset) before allowing it to be deasserted.
jtag_ntrst_delay milliseconds
[Command]
How long (in milliseconds) OpenOCD should wait after deasserting nTRST (activelow JTAG TAP reset) before starting new JTAG operations.
reset_config mode flag ...
[Command]
This command displays or modifies the reset configuration of your combination of
JTAG board and target in target configuration scripts.
Information earlier in this section describes the kind of problems the command is
intended to address (see [SRST and TRST Issues], page 50). As a rule this command
belongs only in board config files, describing issues like board doesn’t connect TRST ;
or in user config files, addressing limitations derived from a particular combination
of interface and board. (An unlikely example would be using a TRST-only adapter
with a board that only wires up SRST.)
The mode flag options can be specified in any order, but only one of each type –
signals, combination, gates, trst type, srst type and connect type – may be specified
at a time. If you don’t provide a new value for a given type, its previous value
(perhaps the default) is unchanged. For example, this means that you don’t need to
say anything at all about TRST just to declare that if the JTAG adapter should want
to drive SRST, it must explicitly be driven high (srst_push_pull).
• signals can specify which of the reset signals are connected. For example, If
the JTAG interface provides SRST, but the board doesn’t connect that signal
properly, then OpenOCD can’t use it. Possible values are none (the default),
trst_only, srst_only and trst_and_srst.
Tip: If your board provides SRST and/or TRST through the JTAG
connector, you must declare that so those signals can be used.
• The combination is an optional value specifying broken reset signal implementations. The default behaviour if no option given is separate, indicating everything behaves normally. srst_pulls_trst states that the test logic is reset
together with the reset of the system (e.g. NXP LPC2000, "broken" board layout), trst_pulls_srst says that the system is reset together with the test logic
(only hypothetical, I haven’t seen hardware with such a bug, and can be worked
around). combined implies both srst_pulls_trst and trst_pulls_srst.
• The gates tokens control flags that describe some cases where JTAG may be unvailable during reset. srst_gates_jtag (default) indicates that asserting SRST
gates the JTAG clock. This means that no communication can happen on JTAG
while SRST is asserted. Its converse is srst_nogate, indicating that JTAG
commands can safely be issued while SRST is active.
• The connect type tokens control flags that describe some cases where SRST is
asserted while connecting to the target. srst_nogate is required to use this option. connect_deassert_srst (default) indicates that SRST will not be asserted
while connecting to the target. Its converse is connect_assert_srst, indicating
that SRST will be asserted before any target connection. Only some targets
Chapter 9: Reset Configuration
53
support this feature, STM32 and STR9 are examples. This feature is useful if
you are unable to connect to your target due to incorrect options byte config or
illegal program execution.
The optional trst type and srst type parameters allow the driver mode of each reset
line to be specified. These values only affect JTAG interfaces with support for different
driver modes, like the Amontec JTAGkey and JTAG Accelerator. Also, they are
necessarily ignored if the relevant signal (TRST or SRST) is not connected.
• Possible trst type driver modes for the test reset signal (TRST) are the default
trst_push_pull, and trst_open_drain. Most boards connect this signal to a
pulldown, so the JTAG TAPs never leave reset unless they are hooked up to a
JTAG adapter.
• Possible srst type driver modes for the system reset signal (SRST) are the default
srst_open_drain, and srst_push_pull. Most boards connect this signal to a
pullup, and allow the signal to be pulled low by various events including system
powerup and pressing a reset button.
9.4 Custom Reset Handling
OpenOCD has several ways to help support the various reset mechanisms provided by chip
and board vendors. The commands shown in the previous section give standard parameters.
There are also event handlers associated with TAPs or Targets. Those handlers are Tcl
procedures you can provide, which are invoked at particular points in the reset sequence.
When SRST is not an option you must set up a reset-assert event handler for your
target. For example, some JTAG adapters don’t include the SRST signal; and some boards
have multiple targets, and you won’t always want to reset everything at once.
After configuring those mechanisms, you might still find your board doesn’t start up or
reset correctly. For example, maybe it needs a slightly different sequence of SRST and/or
TRST manipulations, because of quirks that the reset_config mechanism doesn’t address;
or asserting both might trigger a stronger reset, which needs special attention.
Experiment with lower level operations, such as jtag_reset and the jtag arp_* operations
shown here, to find a sequence of operations that works. See Chapter 17 [JTAG Commands],
page 122. When you find a working sequence, it can be used to override jtag_init, which
fires during OpenOCD startup (see [Configuration Stage], page 32); or init_reset, which
fires during reset processing.
You might also want to provide some project-specific reset schemes. For example, on a
multi-target board the standard reset command would reset all targets, but you may need
the ability to reset only one target at time and thus want to avoid using the board-wide
SRST signal.
init_reset mode
[Overridable Procedure]
This is invoked near the beginning of the reset command, usually to provide as much
of a cold (power-up) reset as practical. By default it is also invoked from jtag_init
if the scan chain does not respond to pure JTAG operations. The mode parameter is
the parameter given to the low level reset command (halt, init, or run), setup, or
potentially some other value.
Chapter 9: Reset Configuration
54
The default implementation just invokes jtag arp_init-reset. Replacements will
normally build on low level JTAG operations such as jtag_reset. Operations here
must not address individual TAPs (or their associated targets) until the JTAG scan
chain has first been verified to work.
Implementations must have verified the JTAG scan chain before they return. This is
done by calling jtag arp_init (or jtag arp_init-reset).
[Command]
This validates the scan chain using just the four standard JTAG signals (TMS, TCK,
TDI, TDO). It starts by issuing a JTAG-only reset. Then it performs checks to verify
that the scan chain configuration matches the TAPs it can observe. Those checks
include checking IDCODE values for each active TAP, and verifying the length of
their instruction registers using TAP -ircapture and -irmask values. If these tests
all pass, TAP setup events are issued to all TAPs with handlers for that event.
jtag arp_init
[Command]
This uses TRST and SRST to try resetting everything on the JTAG scan chain (and
anything else connected to SRST). It then invokes the logic of jtag arp_init.
jtag arp_init-reset
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
55
10 TAP Declaration
Test Access Ports (TAPs) are the core of JTAG. TAPs serve many roles, including:
• Debug Target A CPU TAP can be used as a GDB debug target.
• Flash Programming Some chips program the flash directly via JTAG. Others do it
indirectly, making a CPU do it.
• Program Download Using the same CPU support GDB uses, you can initialize a DRAM
controller, download code to DRAM, and then start running that code.
• Boundary Scan Most chips support boundary scan, which helps test for board assembly
problems like solder bridges and missing connections.
OpenOCD must know about the active TAPs on your board(s). Setting up the TAPs is
the core task of your configuration files. Once those TAPs are set up, you can pass their
names to code which sets up CPUs and exports them as GDB targets, probes flash memory,
performs low-level JTAG operations, and more.
10.1 Scan Chains
TAPs are part of a hardware scan chain, which is a daisy chain of TAPs. They also need to
be added to OpenOCD’s software mirror of that hardware list, giving each member a name
and associating other data with it. Simple scan chains, with a single TAP, are common
in systems with a single microcontroller or microprocessor. More complex chips may have
several TAPs internally. Very complex scan chains might have a dozen or more TAPs:
several in one chip, more in the next, and connecting to other boards with their own chips
and TAPs.
You can display the list with the scan_chain command. (Don’t confuse this with the list
displayed by the targets command, presented in the next chapter. That only displays
TAPs for CPUs which are configured as debugging targets.) Here’s what the scan chain
might look like for a chip more than one TAP:
TapName
Enabled IdCode
Expected
IrLen IrCap IrMask
-- ------------------ ------- ---------- ---------- ----- ----- -----0 omap5912.dsp
Y
0x03df1d81 0x03df1d81
38 0x01 0x03
1 omap5912.arm
Y
0x0692602f 0x0692602f
4 0x01 0x0f
2 omap5912.unknown
Y
0x00000000 0x00000000
8 0x01 0x03
OpenOCD can detect some of that information, but not all of it. See [Autoprobing], page 59.
Unfortunately, those TAPs can’t always be autoconfigured, because not all devices provide
good support for that. JTAG doesn’t require supporting IDCODE instructions, and chips
with JTAG routers may not link TAPs into the chain until they are told to do so.
The configuration mechanism currently supported by OpenOCD requires explicit configuration of all TAP devices using jtag newtap commands, as detailed later in this chapter.
A command like this would declare one tap and name it chip1.cpu:
jtag newtap chip1 cpu -irlen 4 -expected-id 0x3ba00477
Each target configuration file lists the TAPs provided by a given chip. Board configuration
files combine all the targets on a board, and so forth. Note that the order in which TAPs
are declared is very important. That declaration order must match the order in the JTAG
scan chain, both inside a single chip and between them. See [FAQ TAP Order], page 139.
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
56
For example, the ST Microsystems STR912 chip has three separate TAPs1 . To configure
those taps, target/str912.cfg includes commands something like this:
jtag newtap str912 flash ... params ...
jtag newtap str912 cpu ... params ...
jtag newtap str912 bs ... params ...
Actual config files typically use a variable such as $_CHIPNAME instead of literals like str912,
to support more than one chip of each type. See Chapter 6 [Config File Guidelines], page 21.
[Command]
Returns the names of all current TAPs in the scan chain. Use jtag cget or jtag
tapisenabled to examine attributes and state of each TAP.
jtag names
foreach t [jtag names] {
puts [format "TAP: %s\n" $t]
}
[Command]
Displays the TAPs in the scan chain configuration, and their status. The set of TAPs
listed by this command is fixed by exiting the OpenOCD configuration stage, but
systems with a JTAG router can enable or disable TAPs dynamically.
scan_chain
10.2 TAP Names
When TAP objects are declared with jtag newtap, a dotted.name is created for the TAP,
combining the name of a module (usually a chip) and a label for the TAP. For example: xilinx.tap, str912.flash, omap3530.jrc, dm6446.dsp, or stm32.cpu. Many other
commands use that dotted.name to manipulate or refer to the TAP. For example, CPU
configuration uses the name, as does declaration of NAND or NOR flash banks.
The components of a dotted name should follow “C” symbol name rules: start with an
alphabetic character, then numbers and underscores are OK; while others (including dots!)
are not.
10.3 TAP Declaration Commands
jtag newtap chipname tapname configparams...
[Command]
Declares a new TAP with the dotted name chipname.tapname, and configured according to the various configparams.
The chipname is a symbolic name for the chip. Conventionally target config files use
$_CHIPNAME, defaulting to the model name given by the chip vendor but overridable.
The tapname reflects the role of that TAP, and should follow this convention:
• bs – For boundary scan if this is a separate TAP;
• cpu – The main CPU of the chip, alternatively arm and dsp on chips with both
ARM and DSP CPUs, arm1 and arm2 on chips with two ARMs, and so forth;
• etb – For an embedded trace buffer (example: an ARM ETB11);
1
See the ST document titled: STR91xFAxxx, Section 3.15 Jtag Interface, Page: 28/102, Figure 3: JTAG
chaining inside the STR91xFA. http://eu.st.com/stonline/products/literature/ds/13495.pdf
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
57
• flash – If the chip has a flash TAP, like the str912;
• jrc – For JTAG route controller (example: the ICEPick modules on many Texas
Instruments chips, like the OMAP3530 on Beagleboards);
• tap – Should be used only for FPGA- or CPLD-like devices with a single TAP;
• unknownN – If you have no idea what the TAP is for (N is a number);
• when in doubt – Use the chip maker’s name in their data sheet. For example,
the Freescale i.MX31 has a SDMA (Smart DMA) with a JTAG TAP; that TAP
should be named sdma.
Every TAP requires at least the following configparams:
• -irlen NUMBER
The length in bits of the instruction register, such as 4 or 5 bits.
A TAP may also provide optional configparams:
• -disable (or -enable)
Use the -disable parameter to flag a TAP which is not linked into the scan
chain after a reset using either TRST or the JTAG state machine’s reset state.
You may use -enable to highlight the default state (the TAP is linked in). See
[Enabling and Disabling TAPs], page 58.
• -expected-id NUMBER
A non-zero number represents a 32-bit IDCODE which you expect to find when
the scan chain is examined. These codes are not required by all JTAG devices.
Repeat the option as many times as required if more than one ID code could
appear (for example, multiple versions). Specify number as zero to suppress
warnings about IDCODE values that were found but not included in the list.
Provide this value if at all possible, since it lets OpenOCD tell when the scan chain
it sees isn’t right. These values are provided in vendors’ chip documentation,
usually a technical reference manual. Sometimes you may need to probe the
JTAG hardware to find these values. See [Autoprobing], page 59.
• -ignore-version
Specify this to ignore the JTAG version field in the -expected-id option. When
vendors put out multiple versions of a chip, or use the same JTAG-level ID for
several largely-compatible chips, it may be more practical to ignore the version
field than to update config files to handle all of the various chip IDs. The version
field is defined as bit 28-31 of the IDCODE.
• -ircapture NUMBER
The bit pattern loaded by the TAP into the JTAG shift register on entry to the
ircapture state, such as 0x01. JTAG requires the two LSBs of this value to
be 01. By default, -ircapture and -irmask are set up to verify that two-bit
value. You may provide additional bits if you know them, or indicate that a TAP
doesn’t conform to the JTAG specification.
• -irmask NUMBER
A mask used with -ircapture to verify that instruction scans work correctly.
Such scans are not used by OpenOCD except to verify that there seems to be no
problems with JTAG scan chain operations.
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
58
10.4 Other TAP commands
jtag cget dotted.name -event event name
jtag configure dotted.name -event event name handler
[Command]
[Command]
At this writing this TAP attribute mechanism is used only for event handling. (It is
not a direct analogue of the cget/configure mechanism for debugger targets.) See
the next section for information about the available events.
The configure subcommand assigns an event handler, a TCL string which is evaluated when the event is triggered. The cget subcommand returns that handler.
10.5 TAP Events
OpenOCD includes two event mechanisms. The one presented here applies to all JTAG
TAPs. The other applies to debugger targets, which are associated with certain TAPs.
The TAP events currently defined are:
• post-reset
The TAP has just completed a JTAG reset. The tap may still be in the JTAG reset
state. Handlers for these events might perform initialization sequences such as issuing
TCK cycles, TMS sequences to ensure exit from the ARM SWD mode, and more.
Because the scan chain has not yet been verified, handlers for these events should not
issue commands which scan the JTAG IR or DR registers of any particular target.
NOTE: As this is written (September 2009), nothing prevents such access.
• setup
The scan chain has been reset and verified. This handler may enable TAPs as needed.
• tap-disable
The TAP needs to be disabled. This handler should implement jtag tapdisable by
issuing the relevant JTAG commands.
• tap-enable
The TAP needs to be enabled. This handler should implement jtag tapenable by
issuing the relevant JTAG commands.
If you need some action after each JTAG reset which isn’t actually specific to any TAP
(since you can’t yet trust the scan chain’s contents to be accurate), you might:
jtag configure CHIP.jrc -event post-reset {
echo "JTAG Reset done"
... non-scan jtag operations to be done after reset
}
10.6 Enabling and Disabling TAPs
In some systems, a JTAG Route Controller (JRC) is used to enable and/or disable specific JTAG TAPs. Many ARM-based chips from Texas Instruments include an “ICEPick”
module, which is a JRC. Such chips include DaVinci and OMAP3 processors.
A given TAP may not be visible until the JRC has been told to link it into the scan chain;
and if the JRC has been told to unlink that TAP, it will no longer be visible. Such routers
address problems that JTAG “bypass mode” ignores, such as:
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
59
• The scan chain can only go as fast as its slowest TAP.
• Having many TAPs slows instruction scans, since all TAPs receive new instructions.
• TAPs in the scan chain must be powered up, which wastes power and prevents debugging some power management mechanisms.
The IEEE 1149.1 JTAG standard has no concept of a “disabled” tap, as implied by the
existence of JTAG routers. However, the upcoming IEEE 1149.7 framework (layered on top
of JTAG) does include a kind of JTAG router functionality.
In OpenOCD, tap enabling/disabling is invoked by the Tcl commands shown below, and is
implemented using TAP event handlers. So for example, when defining a TAP for a CPU
connected to a JTAG router, your target.cfg file should define TAP event handlers using
code that looks something like this:
jtag configure CHIP.cpu -event tap-enable {
... jtag operations using CHIP.jrc
}
jtag configure CHIP.cpu -event tap-disable {
... jtag operations using CHIP.jrc
}
Then you might want that CPU’s TAP enabled almost all the time:
jtag configure $CHIP.jrc -event setup "jtag tapenable $CHIP.cpu"
Note how that particular setup event handler declaration uses quotes to evaluate $CHIP
when the event is configured. Using brackets { } would cause it to be evaluated later, at
runtime, when it might have a different value.
jtag tapdisable dotted.name
[Command]
If necessary, disables the tap by sending it a tap-disable event. Returns the string
"1" if the tap specified by dotted.name is enabled, and "0" if it is disabled.
jtag tapenable dotted.name
[Command]
If necessary, enables the tap by sending it a tap-enable event. Returns the string
"1" if the tap specified by dotted.name is enabled, and "0" if it is disabled.
jtag tapisenabled dotted.name
[Command]
Returns the string "1" if the tap specified by dotted.name is enabled, and "0" if it is
disabled.
Note: Humans will find the scan_chain command more helpful for querying the state of the JTAG taps.
10.7 Autoprobing
TAP configuration is the first thing that needs to be done after interface and reset configuration. Sometimes it’s hard finding out what TAPs exist, or how they are identified.
Vendor documentation is not always easy to find and use.
To help you get past such problems, OpenOCD has a limited autoprobing ability to look at
the scan chain, doing a blind interrogation and then reporting the TAPs it finds. To use this
mechanism, start the OpenOCD server with only data that configures your JTAG interface,
Chapter 10: TAP Declaration
60
and arranges to come up with a slow clock (many devices don’t support fast JTAG clocks
right when they come out of reset).
For example, your openocd.cfg file might have:
source [find interface/olimex-arm-usb-tiny-h.cfg]
reset_config trst_and_srst
jtag_rclk 8
When you start the server without any TAPs configured, it will attempt to autoconfigure
the TAPs. There are two parts to this:
1. TAP discovery ... After a JTAG reset (sometimes a system reset may be needed too),
each TAP’s data registers will hold the contents of either the IDCODE or BYPASS
register. If JTAG communication is working, OpenOCD will see each TAP, and report
what -expected-id to use with it.
2. IR Length discovery ... Unfortunately JTAG does not provide a reliable way to find out
the value of the -irlen parameter to use with a TAP that is discovered. If OpenOCD
can discover the length of a TAP’s instruction register, it will report it. Otherwise you
may need to consult vendor documentation, such as chip data sheets or BSDL files.
In many cases your board will have a simple scan chain with just a single device. Here’s
what OpenOCD reported with one board that’s a bit more complex:
clock speed 8 kHz
There are no enabled taps. AUTO PROBING MIGHT NOT WORK!!
AUTO auto0.tap - use "jtag newtap auto0 tap -expected-id 0x2b900f0f ..."
AUTO auto1.tap - use "jtag newtap auto1 tap -expected-id 0x07926001 ..."
AUTO auto2.tap - use "jtag newtap auto2 tap -expected-id 0x0b73b02f ..."
AUTO auto0.tap - use "... -irlen 4"
AUTO auto1.tap - use "... -irlen 4"
AUTO auto2.tap - use "... -irlen 6"
no gdb ports allocated as no target has been specified
Given that information, you should be able to either find some existing config files to use,
or create your own. If you create your own, you would configure from the bottom up: first
a target.cfg file with these TAPs, any targets associated with them, and any on-chip
resources; then a board.cfg with off-chip resources, clocking, and so forth.
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
61
11 CPU Configuration
This chapter discusses how to set up GDB debug targets for CPUs. You can also access
these targets without GDB (see Chapter 16 [Architecture and Core Commands], page 105,
and [Target State handling], page 99) and through various kinds of NAND and NOR flash
commands. If you have multiple CPUs you can have multiple such targets.
We’ll start by looking at how to examine the targets you have, then look at how to add one
more target and how to configure it.
11.1 Target List
All targets that have been set up are part of a list, where each member has a name. That
name should normally be the same as the TAP name. You can display the list with the
targets (plural!) command. This display often has only one CPU; here’s what it might
look like with more than one:
TargetName
Type
-- ------------------ ---------0* at91rm9200.cpu
arm920t
1 MyTarget
cortex_m
Endian
-----little
little
TapName
-----------------at91rm9200.cpu
mychip.foo
State
-----------running
tap-disabled
One member of that list is the current target, which is implicitly referenced by many
commands. It’s the one marked with a * near the target name. In particular, memory
addresses often refer to the address space seen by that current target. Commands like mdw
(memory display words) and flash erase_address (erase NOR flash blocks) are examples;
and there are many more.
Several commands let you examine the list of targets:
target current
[Command]
Returns the name of the current target.
target names
[Command]
Lists the names of all current targets in the list.
foreach t [target names] {
puts [format "Target: %s\n" $t]
}
targets [name]
[Command]
Note: the name of this command is plural. Other target command names are singular.
With no parameter, this command displays a table of all known targets in a user
friendly form.
With a parameter, this command sets the current target to the given target with the
given name; this is only relevant on boards which have more than one target.
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
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11.2 Target CPU Types
Each target has a CPU type, as shown in the output of the targets command. You need
to specify that type when calling target create. The CPU type indicates more than just
the instruction set. It also indicates how that instruction set is implemented, what kind
of debug support it integrates, whether it has an MMU (and if so, what kind), what corespecific commands may be available (see Chapter 16 [Architecture and Core Commands],
page 105), and more.
It’s easy to see what target types are supported, since there’s a command to list them.
[Command]
Lists all supported target types. At this writing, the supported CPU types are:
• arm11 – this is a generation of ARMv6 cores
• arm720t – this is an ARMv4 core with an MMU
• arm7tdmi – this is an ARMv4 core
• arm920t – this is an ARMv4 core with an MMU
• arm926ejs – this is an ARMv5 core with an MMU
• arm966e – this is an ARMv5 core
• arm9tdmi – this is an ARMv4 core
• avr – implements Atmel’s 8-bit AVR instruction set. (Support for this is preliminary and incomplete.)
• cortex_a – this is an ARMv7 core with an MMU
• cortex_m – this is an ARMv7 core, supporting only the compact Thumb2 instruction set.
• dragonite – resembles arm966e
• dsp563xx – implements Freescale’s 24-bit DSP. (Support for this is still incomplete.)
• fa526 – resembles arm920 (w/o Thumb)
• feroceon – resembles arm926
• mips_m4k – a MIPS core
• xscale – this is actually an architecture, not a CPU type. It is based on the
ARMv5 architecture.
• openrisc – this is an OpenRISC 1000 core. The current implementation supports
three JTAG TAP cores:
− OpenCores TAP (See: jtag)
− Altera Virtual JTAG TAP (See: http: / /www .altera .com /literature /
ug/ug_virtualjtag.pdf)
− Xilinx BSCAN_* virtual JTAG interface (See: http://www.xilinx.com/
support/documentation/sw_manuals/xilinx14_2/spartan6_hdl.pdf)
target types
And two debug interfaces cores:
− Advanced debug interface (See: adv debug sys)
− SoC Debug Interface (See: dbg interface)
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
63
To avoid being confused by the variety of ARM based cores, remember this key point:
ARM is a technology licencing company. (See: http://www.arm.com.) The CPU name
used by OpenOCD will reflect the CPU design that was licenced, not a vendor brand which
incorporates that design. Name prefixes like arm7, arm9, arm11, and cortex reflect design
generations; while names like ARMv4, ARMv5, ARMv6, and ARMv7 reflect an architecture
version implemented by a CPU design.
11.3 Target Configuration
Before creating a “target”, you must have added its TAP to the scan chain. When you’ve
added that TAP, you will have a dotted.name which is used to set up the CPU support.
The chip-specific configuration file will normally configure its CPU(s) right after it adds all
of the chip’s TAPs to the scan chain.
Although you can set up a target in one step, it’s often clearer if you use shorter commands
and do it in two steps: create it, then configure optional parts. All operations on the target
after it’s created will use a new command, created as part of target creation.
The two main things to configure after target creation are a work area, which usually has
target-specific defaults even if the board setup code overrides them later; and event handlers
(see [Target Events], page 66), which tend to be much more board-specific. The key steps
you use might look something like this
target create MyTarget cortex_m -chain-position mychip.cpu
$MyTarget configure -work-area-phys 0x08000 -work-area-size 8096
$MyTarget configure -event reset-deassert-pre { jtag_rclk 5 }
$MyTarget configure -event reset-init { myboard_reinit }
You should specify a working area if you can; typically it uses some on-chip SRAM. Such
a working area can speed up many things, including bulk writes to target memory; flash
operations like checking to see if memory needs to be erased; GDB memory checksumming;
and more.
Warning: On more complex chips, the work area can become inaccessible when
application code (such as an operating system) enables or disables the MMU.
For example, the particular MMU context used to acess the virtual address
will probably matter ... and that context might not have easy access to other
addresses needed. At this writing, OpenOCD doesn’t have much MMU intelligence.
It’s often very useful to define a reset-init event handler. For systems that are normally
used with a boot loader, common tasks include updating clocks and initializing memory
controllers. That may be needed to let you write the boot loader into flash, in order to
“de-brick” your board; or to load programs into external DDR memory without having run
the boot loader.
target create target name type configparams...
[Command]
This command creates a GDB debug target that refers to a specific JTAG tap. It
enters that target into a list, and creates a new command (target_name) which is
used for various purposes including additional configuration.
• target name ... is the name of the debug target. By convention this should be
the same as the dotted.name of the TAP associated with this target, which must
be specified here using the -chain-position dotted.name configparam.
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
64
This name is also used to create the target object command, referred to here as
$target_name, and in other places the target needs to be identified.
• type ... specifies the target type. See [target types], page 62.
• configparams ... all parameters accepted by $target_name configure are permitted. If the target is big-endian, set it here with -endian big.
You must set the -chain-position dotted.name here.
$target_name configure configparams...
[Command]
The options accepted by this command may also be specified as parameters to target
create. Their values can later be queried one at a time by using the $target_name
cget command.
Warning: changing some of these after setup is dangerous. For example, moving a
target from one TAP to another; and changing its endianness.
• -chain-position dotted.name – names the TAP used to access this target.
• -endian (big|little) – specifies whether the CPU uses big or little endian
conventions
• -event event name event body – See [Target Events], page 66. Note that this
updates a list of named event handlers. Calling this twice with two different
event names assigns two different handlers, but calling it twice with the same
event name assigns only one handler.
• -work-area-backup (0|1) – says whether the work area gets backed up; by
default, it is not backed up. When possible, use a working area that doesn’t need
to be backed up, since performing a backup slows down operations. For example,
the beginning of an SRAM block is likely to be used by most build systems, but
the end is often unused.
• -work-area-size size – specify work are size, in bytes. The same size applies
regardless of whether its physical or virtual address is being used.
• -work-area-phys address – set the work area base address to be used when no
MMU is active.
• -work-area-virt address – set the work area base address to be used when an
MMU is active. Do not specify a value for this except on targets with an MMU.
The value should normally correspond to a static mapping for the -work-areaphys address, set up by the current operating system.
• -rtos rtos type – enable rtos support for target, rtos type can be one of
auto|eCos|ThreadX| FreeRTOS|linux|ChibiOS|embKernel|mqx See [RTOS
Support], page 131.
11.4 Other $target name Commands
The Tcl/Tk language has the concept of object commands, and OpenOCD adopts that
same model for targets.
A good Tk example is a on screen button. Once a button is created a button has a name
(a path in Tk terms) and that name is useable as a first class command. For example in
Tk, one can create a button and later configure it like this:
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
65
# Create
button .foobar -background red -command { foo }
# Modify
.foobar configure -foreground blue
# Query
set x [.foobar cget -background]
# Report
puts [format "The button is %s" $x]
In OpenOCD’s terms, the “target” is an object just like a Tcl/Tk button, and its object
commands are invoked the same way.
str912.cpu
mww 0x1234 0x42
omap3530.cpu mww 0x5555 123
The commands supported by OpenOCD target objects are:
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Internal OpenOCD scripts (most notably startup.tcl) use these to deal with specific
reset cases. They are not otherwise documented here.
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
arp_examine
arp_halt
arp_poll
arp_reset
arp_waitstate
$target_name array2mem arrayname width address count
$target_name mem2array arrayname width address count
[Command]
[Command]
These provide an efficient script-oriented interface to memory. The array2mem primitive writes bytes, halfwords, or words; while mem2array reads them. In both cases,
the TCL side uses an array, and the target side uses raw memory.
The efficiency comes from enabling the use of bulk JTAG data transfer operations.
The script orientation comes from working with data values that are packaged for use
by TCL scripts; mdw type primitives only print data they retrieve, and neither store
nor return those values.
• arrayname ... is the name of an array variable
• width ... is 8/16/32 - indicating the memory access size
• address ... is the target memory address
• count ... is the number of elements to process
$target_name cget queryparm
[Command]
Each configuration parameter accepted by $target_name configure can be individually queried, to return its current value. The queryparm is a parameter name accepted
by that command, such as -work-area-phys. There are a few special cases:
• -event event name – returns the handler for the event named event name. This
is a special case because setting a handler requires two parameters.
• -type – returns the target type. This is a special case because this is set using
target create and can’t be changed using $target_name configure.
For example, if you wanted to summarize information about all the targets you might
use something like this:
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
66
foreach name [target names] {
set y [$name cget -endian]
set z [$name cget -type]
puts [format "Chip %d is %s, Endian: %s, type: %s" \
$x $name $y $z]
}
[Command]
Displays the current target state: debug-running, halted, reset, running, or
unknown. (Also, see [Event Polling], page 34.)
$target_name curstate
[Command]
Displays a table listing all event handlers currently associated with this target. See
[Target Events], page 66.
$target_name eventlist
$target_name invoke-event event name
[Command]
Invokes the handler for the event named event name. (This is primarily intended for
use by OpenOCD framework code, for example by the reset code in startup.tcl.)
$target_name mdw addr [count]
$target_name mdh addr [count]
$target_name mdb addr [count]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Display contents of address addr, as 32-bit words (mdw), 16-bit halfwords (mdh), or
8-bit bytes (mdb). If count is specified, displays that many units. (If you want to
manipulate the data instead of displaying it, see the mem2array primitives.)
$target_name mww addr word
$target_name mwh addr halfword
$target_name mwb addr byte
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Writes the specified word (32 bits), halfword (16 bits), or byte (8-bit) pattern, at the
specified address addr.
11.5 Target Events
At various times, certain things can happen, or you want them to happen. For example:
• What should happen when GDB connects? Should your target reset?
• When GDB tries to flash the target, do you need to enable the flash via a special
command?
• Is using SRST appropriate (and possible) on your system? Or instead of that, do you
need to issue JTAG commands to trigger reset? SRST usually resets everything on the
scan chain, which can be inappropriate.
• During reset, do you need to write to certain memory locations to set up system clocks
or to reconfigure the SDRAM? How about configuring the watchdog timer, or other
peripherals, to stop running while you hold the core stopped for debugging?
All of the above items can be addressed by target event handlers. These are set up by
$target_name configure -event or target create ... -event.
The programmer’s model matches the -command option used in Tcl/Tk buttons and events.
The two examples below act the same, but one creates and invokes a small procedure while
the other inlines it.
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
67
proc my_attach_proc { } {
echo "Reset..."
reset halt
}
mychip.cpu configure -event gdb-attach my_attach_proc
mychip.cpu configure -event gdb-attach {
echo "Reset..."
# To make flash probe and gdb load to flash work
# we need a reset init.
reset init
}
The following target events are defined:
• debug-halted
The target has halted for debug reasons (i.e.: breakpoint)
• debug-resumed
The target has resumed (i.e.: gdb said run)
• early-halted
Occurs early in the halt process
• examine-start
Before target examine is called.
• examine-end
After target examine is called with no errors.
• gdb-attach
When GDB connects. This is before any communication with the target, so this can
be used to set up the target so it is possible to probe flash. Probing flash is necessary
during gdb connect if gdb load is to write the image to flash. Another use of the flash
memory map is for GDB to automatically hardware/software breakpoints depending
on whether the breakpoint is in RAM or read only memory.
• gdb-detach
When GDB disconnects
• gdb-end
When the target has halted and GDB is not doing anything (see early halt)
• gdb-flash-erase-start
Before the GDB flash process tries to erase the flash (default is reset init)
• gdb-flash-erase-end
After the GDB flash process has finished erasing the flash
• gdb-flash-write-start
Before GDB writes to the flash
• gdb-flash-write-end
After GDB writes to the flash (default is reset halt)
• gdb-start
Before the target steps, gdb is trying to start/resume the target
• halted
The target has halted
Chapter 11: CPU Configuration
68
• reset-assert-pre
Issued as part of reset processing after reset_init was triggered but before either
SRST alone is re-asserted on the scan chain, or reset-assert is triggered.
• reset-assert
Issued as part of reset processing after reset-assert-pre was triggered. When such a
handler is present, cores which support this event will use it instead of asserting SRST.
This support is essential for debugging with JTAG interfaces which don’t include an
SRST line (JTAG doesn’t require SRST), and for selective reset on scan chains that
have multiple targets.
• reset-assert-post
Issued as part of reset processing after reset-assert has been triggered. or the target
asserted SRST on the entire scan chain.
• reset-deassert-pre
Issued as part of reset processing after reset-assert-post has been triggered.
• reset-deassert-post
Issued as part of reset processing after reset-deassert-pre has been triggered and
(if the target is using it) after SRST has been released on the scan chain.
• reset-end
Issued as the final step in reset processing.
• reset-init
Used by reset init command for board-specific initialization. This event fires after
reset-deassert-post.
This is where you would configure PLLs and clocking, set up DRAM so you can download programs that don’t fit in on-chip SRAM, set up pin multiplexing, and so on.
(You may be able to switch to a fast JTAG clock rate here, after the target clocks are
fully set up.)
• reset-start
Issued as part of reset processing before reset_init is called.
This is the most robust place to use jtag_rclk or adapter_khz to switch to a low
JTAG clock rate, when reset disables PLLs needed to use a fast clock.
• resume-start
Before any target is resumed
• resume-end
After all targets have resumed
• resumed
Target has resumed
• trace-config
After target hardware trace configuration was changed
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
69
12 Flash Commands
OpenOCD has different commands for NOR and NAND flash; the “flash” command works
with NOR flash, while the “nand” command works with NAND flash. This partially reflects
different hardware technologies: NOR flash usually supports direct CPU instruction and
data bus access, while data from a NAND flash must be copied to memory before it can be
used. (SPI flash must also be copied to memory before use.) However, the documentation
also uses “flash” as a generic term; for example, “Put flash configuration in board-specific
files”.
Flash Steps:
1. Configure via the command flash bank
Do this in a board-specific configuration file, passing parameters as needed by the
driver.
2. Operate on the flash via flash subcommand
Often commands to manipulate the flash are typed by a human, or run via a script in
some automated way. Common tasks include writing a boot loader, operating system,
or other data.
3. GDB Flashing
Flashing via GDB requires the flash be configured via “flash bank”, and the GDB flash
features be enabled. See [GDB Configuration], page 33.
Many CPUs have the ablity to “boot” from the first flash bank. This means that misprogramming that bank can “brick” a system, so that it can’t boot. JTAG tools, like
OpenOCD, are often then used to “de-brick” the board by (re)installing working boot
firmware.
12.1 Flash Configuration Commands
flash bank name driver base size chip width bus width target
[driver options]
[Config Command]
Configures a flash bank which provides persistent storage for addresses from base to
base+size−1. These banks will often be visible to GDB through the target’s memory
map. In some cases, configuring a flash bank will activate extra commands; see the
driver-specific documentation.
• name ... may be used to reference the flash bank in other flash commands. A
number is also available.
• driver ... identifies the controller driver associated with the flash bank being declared. This is usually cfi for external flash, or else the name of a microcontroller
with embedded flash memory. See [Flash Driver List], page 72.
• base ... Base address of the flash chip.
• size ... Size of the chip, in bytes. For some drivers, this value is detected from
the hardware.
• chip width ... Width of the flash chip, in bytes; ignored for most microcontroller
drivers.
• bus width ... Width of the data bus used to access the chip, in bytes; ignored
for most microcontroller drivers.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
70
• target ... Names the target used to issue commands to the flash controller.
• driver options ... drivers may support, or require, additional parameters. See
the driver-specific documentation for more information.
Note: This command is not available after OpenOCD initialization has
completed. Use it in board specific configuration files, not interactively.
[Command]
Prints a one-line summary of each device that was declared using flash bank, numbered from zero. Note that this is the plural form; the singular form is a very different
command.
flash banks
[Command]
Retrieves a list of associative arrays for each device that was declared using flash
bank, numbered from zero. This returned list can be manipulated easily from within
scripts.
flash list
flash probe num
[Command]
Identify the flash, or validate the parameters of the configured flash. Operation
depends on the flash type. The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
Most flash commands will implicitly autoprobe the bank; flash drivers can distinguish
between probing and autoprobing, but most don’t bother.
12.2 Erasing, Reading, Writing to Flash
One feature distinguishing NOR flash from NAND or serial flash technologies is that for
read access, it acts exactly like any other addressible memory. This means you can use
normal memory read commands like mdw or dump_image with it, with no special flash
subcommands. See [Memory access], page 101, and [Image access], page 102.
Write access works differently. Flash memory normally needs to be erased before it’s written.
Erasing a sector turns all of its bits to ones, and writing can turn ones into zeroes. This is
why there are special commands for interactive erasing and writing, and why GDB needs
to know which parts of the address space hold NOR flash memory.
Note: Most of these erase and write commands leverage the fact that NOR
flash chips consume target address space. They implicitly refer to the current
JTAG target, and map from an address in that target’s address space back to a
flash bank. A few commands use abstract addressing based on bank and sector
numbers, and don’t depend on searching the current target and its address
space. Avoid confusing the two command models.
Some flash chips implement software protection against accidental writes, since such buggy
writes could in some cases “brick” a system. For such systems, erasing and writing may
require sector protection to be disabled first. Examples include CFI flash such as “Intel
Advanced Bootblock flash”, and AT91SAM7 on-chip flash. See [flash protect], page 72.
flash erase_sector num first last
[Command]
Erase sectors in bank num, starting at sector first up to and including last. Sector
numbering starts at 0. Providing a last sector of last specifies "to the end of the
flash bank". The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
71
flash erase_address [pad] [unlock] address length
[Command]
Erase sectors starting at address for length bytes. Unless pad is specified, address
must begin a flash sector, and address + length − 1 must end a sector. Specifying
pad erases extra data at the beginning and/or end of the specified region, as needed
to erase only full sectors. The flash bank to use is inferred from the address, and the
specified length must stay within that bank. As a special case, when length is zero
and address is the start of the bank, the whole flash is erased. If unlock is specified,
then the flash is unprotected before erase starts.
flash fillw address word length
flash fillh address halfword length
flash fillb address byte length
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Fills flash memory with the specified word (32 bits), halfword (16 bits), or byte (8-bit)
pattern, starting at address and continuing for length units (word/halfword/byte).
No erasure is done before writing; when needed, that must be done before issuing this
command. Writes are done in blocks of up to 1024 bytes, and each write is verified by
reading back the data and comparing it to what was written. The flash bank to use
is inferred from the address of each block, and the specified length must stay within
that bank.
flash write_bank num filename offset
[Command]
Write the binary filename to flash bank num, starting at offset bytes from the beginning of the bank. The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
flash read_bank num filename offset length
[Command]
Read length bytes from the flash bank num starting at offset and write the contents
to the binary filename. The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
flash verify_bank num filename offset
[Command]
Compare the contents of the binary file filename with the contents of the flash num
starting at offset. Fails if the contents do not match. The num parameter is a value
shown by flash banks.
flash write_image [erase] [unlock] filename [offset] [type]
[Command]
Write the image filename to the current target’s flash bank(s). Only loadable sections
from the image are written. A relocation offset may be specified, in which case it is
added to the base address for each section in the image. The file [type] can be specified
explicitly as bin (binary), ihex (Intel hex), elf (ELF file), s19 (Motorola s19). mem,
or builder. The relevant flash sectors will be erased prior to programming if the
erase parameter is given. If unlock is provided, then the flash banks are unlocked
before erase and program. The flash bank to use is inferred from the address of each
image section.
Warning: Be careful using the erase flag when the flash is holding data
you want to preserve. Portions of the flash outside those described in the
image’s sections might be erased with no notice.
• When a section of the image being written does not fill out all the
sectors it uses, the unwritten parts of those sectors are necessarily
also erased, because sectors can’t be partially erased.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
72
• Data stored in sector "holes" between image sections are also affected. For example, "flash write_image erase ..." of an image
with one byte at the beginning of a flash bank and one byte at the
end erases the entire bank – not just the two sectors being written.
Also, when flash protection is important, you must re-apply it after it has
been removed by the unlock flag.
12.3 Other Flash commands
flash erase_check num
[Command]
Check erase state of sectors in flash bank num, and display that status. The num
parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
flash info num
[Command]
Print info about flash bank num The num parameter is a value shown by flash
banks. This command will first query the hardware, it does not print cached and
possibly stale information.
flash protect num first last (on|off)
[Command]
Enable (on) or disable (off) protection of flash sectors in flash bank num, starting at
sector first and continuing up to and including last. Providing a last sector of last
specifies "to the end of the flash bank". The num parameter is a value shown by
flash banks.
flash padded_value num value
[Command]
Sets the default value used for padding any image sections, This should normally
match the flash bank erased value. If not specified by this comamnd or the flash
driver then it defaults to 0xff.
program filename [verify] [reset] [exit] [offset]
[Command]
This is a helper script that simplifies using OpenOCD as a standalone programmer.
The only required parameter is filename, the others are optional. See Chapter 13
[Flash Programming], page 96.
12.4 Flash Driver List
As noted above, the flash bank command requires a driver name, and allows driver-specific
options and behaviors. Some drivers also activate driver-specific commands.
[Flash Driver]
This is a special driver that maps a previously defined bank to another address. All
bank settings will be copied from the master physical bank.
virtual
The virtual driver defines one mandatory parameters,
• master bank The bank that this virtual address refers to.
So in the following example addresses 0xbfc00000 and 0x9fc00000 refer to the flash
bank defined at address 0x1fc00000. Any cmds executed on the virtual banks are
actually performed on the physical banks.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
73
flash bank $_FLASHNAME pic32mx 0x1fc00000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
flash bank vbank0 virtual 0xbfc00000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME $_FLASHNAME
flash bank vbank1 virtual 0x9fc00000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME $_FLASHNAME
12.4.1 External Flash
cfi
[Flash Driver]
The “Common Flash Interface” (CFI) is the main standard for external NOR flash
chips, each of which connects to a specific external chip select on the CPU. Frequently
the first such chip is used to boot the system. Your board’s reset-init handler
might need to configure additional chip selects using other commands (like: mww to
configure a bus and its timings), or perhaps configure a GPIO pin that controls the
“write protect” pin on the flash chip. The CFI driver can use a target-specific working
area to significantly speed up operation.
The CFI driver can accept the following optional parameters, in any order:
• jedec probe ... is used to detect certain non-CFI flash ROMs, like AM29LV010
and similar types.
• x16 as x8 ... when a 16-bit flash is hooked up to an 8-bit bus.
• bus swap ... when data bytes in a 16-bit flash needs to be swapped.
To configure two adjacent banks of 16 MBytes each, both sixteen bits (two bytes)
wide on a sixteen bit bus:
flash bank $_FLASHNAME cfi 0x00000000 0x01000000 2 2 $_TARGETNAME
flash bank $_FLASHNAME cfi 0x01000000 0x01000000 2 2 $_TARGETNAME
To configure one bank of 32 MBytes built from two sixteen bit (two byte) wide parts
wired in parallel to create a thirty-two bit (four byte) bus with doubled throughput:
flash bank $_FLASHNAME cfi 0x00000000 0x02000000 2 4 $_TARGETNAME
[Flash Driver]
Several FPGAs and CPLDs can retrieve their configuration (bitstream) from a SPI
flash connected to them. To access this flash from the host, the device is first programmed with a special proxy bitstream that exposes the SPI flash on the device’s
JTAG interface. The flash can then be accessed through JTAG.
Since signaling between JTAG and SPI is compatible, all that is required for a
proxy bitstream is to connect TDI-MOSI, TDO-MISO, TCK-CLK and activate the
flash chip select when the JTAG state machine is in SHIFT-DR. Such a bitstream
for several Xilinx FPGAs can be found in contrib/loaders/flash/fpga/xilinx_
bscan_spi.py. It requires migen (http://github.com/m-labs/migen) and a Xilinx
toolchain to build.
This flash bank driver requires a target on a JTAG tap and will access that tap
directly. Since no support from the target is needed, the target can be a "testee"
dummy. Since the target does not expose the flash memory mapping, target commands that would otherwise be expected to access the flash will not work. These
include all *_image and $target_name m* commands as well as program. Equivalent functionality is available through the flash write_bank, flash read_bank, and
flash verify_bank commands.
jtagspi
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
74
• ir ... is loaded into the JTAG IR to map the flash as the JTAG DR. For the
bitstreams generated from xilinx_bscan_spi.py this is the USER1 instruction.
• dr length ... is the length of the DR register. This will be 1 for xilinx_bscan_
spi.py bitstreams and most other cases.
target create $_TARGETNAME testee -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.fpga
set _XILINX_USER1 0x02
set _DR_LENGTH 1
flash bank $_FLASHNAME spi 0x0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME $_XILINX_USER1 $_DR_LENGTH
[Flash Driver]
NXP’s LPC43xx and LPC18xx families include a proprietary SPI Flash Interface
(SPIFI) peripheral that can drive and provide memory mapped access to external
SPI flash devices.
The lpcspifi driver initializes this interface and provides program and erase functionality for these serial flash devices. Use of this driver requires a working area of at least
1kB to be configured on the target device; more than this will significantly reduce
flash programming times.
The setup command only requires the base parameter. All other parameters are
ignored, and the flash size and layout are configured by the driver.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME lpcspifi 0x14000000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
lpcspifi
[Flash Driver]
Some devices form STMicroelectronics (e.g. STR75x MCU family, SPEAr MPU
family) include a proprietary “Serial Memory Interface” (SMI) controller able to drive
external SPI flash devices. Depending on specific device and board configuration, up
to 4 external flash devices can be connected.
SMI makes the flash content directly accessible in the CPU address space; each external device is mapped in a memory bank. CPU can directly read data, execute code
and boot from SMI banks. Normal OpenOCD commands like mdw can be used to
display the flash content.
The setup command only requires the base parameter in order to identify the memory
bank. All other parameters are ignored. Additional information, like flash size, are
detected automatically.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stmsmi 0xf8000000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
stmsmi
[Flash Driver]
This driver supports QSPI flash controller of Marvell’s Wireless Microcontroller platform.
The flash size is autodetected based on the table of known JEDEC IDs hardcoded in
the OpenOCD sources.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME mrvlqspi 0x0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME 0x46010000
mrvlqspi
12.4.2 Internal Flash (Microcontrollers)
[Flash Driver]
The ADUC702x analog microcontrollers from Analog Devices include internal flash
and use ARM7TDMI cores. The aduc702x flash driver works with models ADUC7019
aduc702x
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
75
through ADUC7028. The setup command only requires the target argument since all
devices in this family have the same memory layout.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME aduc702x 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
[Flash Driver]
All members of the ATSAMD, ATSAMR, ATSAML and ATSAMC microcontroller
families from Atmel include internal flash and use ARM’s Cortex-M0+ core. This
driver uses the same cmd names/syntax as See [at91sam3], page 76.
at91samd
[Command]
Issues a complete Flash erase via the Device Service Unit (DSU). This can be
used to erase a chip back to its factory state and does not require the processor
to be halted.
at91samd chip-erase
[Command]
Secures the Flash via the Set Security Bit (SSB) command. This prevents
access to the Flash and can only be undone by using the chip-erase command
which erases the Flash contents and turns off the security bit. Warning: at this
time, openocd will not be able to communicate with a secured chip and it is
therefore not possible to chip-erase it without using another tool.
at91samd set-security
at91samd set-security enable
[Command]
Shows or sets the EEPROM emulation size configuration, stored in the User
Row of the Flash. When setting, the EEPROM size must be specified in bytes
and it must be one of the permitted sizes according to the datasheet. Settings
are written immediately but only take effect on MCU reset. EEPROM emulation requires additional firmware support and the minumum EEPROM size
may not be the same as the minimum that the hardware supports. Set the
EEPROM size to 0 in order to disable this feature.
at91samd eeprom
at91samd eeprom
at91samd eeprom 1024
[Command]
Shows or sets the bootloader size configuration, stored in the User Row of the
Flash. This is called the BOOTPROT region. When setting, the bootloader size
must be specified in bytes and it must be one of the permitted sizes according
to the datasheet. Settings are written immediately but only take effect on MCU
reset. Setting the bootloader size to 0 disables bootloader protection.
at91samd bootloader
at91samd bootloader
at91samd bootloader 16384
[Command]
This command releases internal reset held by DSU and prepares reset vector
catch in case of reset halt. Command is used internally in event event resetdeassert-post.
at91samd dsu_reset_deassert
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
76
[Flash Driver]
All members of the AT91SAM3 microcontroller family from Atmel include internal
flash and use ARM’s Cortex-M3 core. The driver currently (6/22/09) recognizes the
AT91SAM3U[1/2/4][C/E] chips. Note that the driver was orginaly developed and
tested using the AT91SAM3U4E, using a SAM3U-EK eval board. Support for other
chips in the family was cribbed from the data sheet. Note to future readers/updaters:
Please remove this worrysome comment after other chips are confirmed.
The AT91SAM3U4[E/C] (256K) chips have two flash banks; most other chips have
one flash bank. In all cases the flash banks are at the following fixed locations:
# Flash bank 0 - all chips
flash bank $_FLASHNAME at91sam3 0x00080000 0 1 1 $_TARGETNAME
# Flash bank 1 - only 256K chips
flash bank $_FLASHNAME at91sam3 0x00100000 0 1 1 $_TARGETNAME
Internally, the AT91SAM3 flash memory is organized as follows. Unlike the
AT91SAM7 chips, these are not used as parameters to the flash bank command:
• N-Banks: 256K chips have 2 banks, others have 1 bank.
• Bank Size: 128K/64K Per flash bank
• Sectors: 16 or 8 per bank
• SectorSize: 8K Per Sector
• PageSize: 256 bytes per page. Note that OpenOCD operates on ’sector’ sizes,
not page sizes.
at91sam3
The AT91SAM3 driver adds some additional commands:
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
With no parameters, show or show all, shows the status of all GPNVM bits.
With show number, displays that bit.
With set number or clear number, modifies that GPNVM bit.
at91sam3
at91sam3
at91sam3
at91sam3
gpnvm
gpnvm clear number
gpnvm set number
gpnvm show [all|number]
[Command]
This command attempts to display information about the AT91SAM3 chip.
First it read the CHIPID_CIDR [address 0x400e0740, see Section 28.2.1, page
505 of the AT91SAM3U 29/may/2009 datasheet, document id: doc6430A] and
decodes the values. Second it reads the various clock configuration registers
and attempts to display how it believes the chip is configured. By default, the
SLOWCLK is assumed to be 32768 Hz, see the command at91sam3 slowclk.
at91sam3 info
at91sam3 slowclk [value]
[Command]
This command shows/sets the slow clock frequency used in the at91sam3 info
command calculations above.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the AT91SAM4 microcontroller family from Atmel include internal
flash and use ARM’s Cortex-M4 core. This driver uses the same cmd names/syntax
as See [at91sam3], page 76.
at91sam4
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
77
[Flash Driver]
All members of the AT91SAM4L microcontroller family from Atmel include internal
flash and use ARM’s Cortex-M4 core. This driver uses the same cmd names/syntax
as See [at91sam3], page 76.
The AT91SAM4L driver adds some additional commands:
at91sam4l
[Command]
This command releases internal reset held by SMAP and prepares reset vector
catch in case of reset halt. Command is used internally in event event resetdeassert-post.
at91sam4l smap_reset_deassert
[Flash Driver]
All members of the ATSAMV, ATSAMS, and ATSAME families from Atmel include internal flash and use ARM’s Cortex-M7 core. This driver uses the same cmd
names/syntax as See [at91sam3], page 76.
atsamv
[Flash Driver]
All members of the AT91SAM7 microcontroller family from Atmel include internal
flash and use ARM7TDMI cores. The driver automatically recognizes a number of
these chips using the chip identification register, and autoconfigures itself.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME at91sam7 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
For chips which are not recognized by the controller driver, you must provide additional parameters in the following order:
• chip model ... label used with flash info
• banks
• sectors per bank
• pages per sector
• pages size
• num nvm bits
• freq khz ... required if an external clock is provided, optional (but recommended)
when the oscillator frequency is known
at91sam7
It is recommended that you provide zeroes for all of those values except the clock
frequency, so that everything except that frequency will be autoconfigured. Knowing
the frequency helps ensure correct timings for flash access.
The flash controller handles erases automatically on a page (128/256 byte) basis, so
explicit erase commands are not necessary for flash programming. However, there is
an “EraseAll“ command that can erase an entire flash plane (of up to 256KB), and
it will be used automatically when you issue flash erase_sector or flash erase_
address commands.
at91sam7 gpnvm bitnum (set|clear)
[Command]
Set or clear a “General Purpose Non-Volatile Memory” (GPNVM) bit for the
processor. Each processor has a number of such bits, used for controlling features such as brownout detection (so they are not truly general purpose).
Note: This assumes that the first flash bank (number 0) is associated with the appropriate at91sam7 target.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
avr
78
[Flash Driver]
The AVR 8-bit microcontrollers from Atmel integrate flash memory. The current
implementation is incomplete.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the EFM32 microcontroller family from Energy Micro include internal
flash and use ARM Cortex M3 cores. The driver automatically recognizes a number
of these chips using the chip identification register, and autoconfigures itself.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME efm32 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
The current implementation is incomplete. Unprotecting flash pages is not supported.
efm32
fm3
[Flash Driver]
All members of the FM3 microcontroller family from Fujitsu include internal flash
and use ARM Cortex M3 cores. The fm3 driver uses the target parameter to select
the correct bank config, it can currently be one of the following: mb9bfxx1.cpu,
mb9bfxx2.cpu, mb9bfxx3.cpu, mb9bfxx4.cpu, mb9bfxx5.cpu or mb9bfxx6.cpu.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME fm3 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
[Flash Driver]
Kx and KLx members of the Kinetis microcontroller family from Freescale include
internal flash and use ARM Cortex M0+ or M4 cores. The driver automatically
recognizes flash size and a number of flash banks (1-4) using the chip identification
register, and autoconfigures itself.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME kinetis 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
kinetis
[Command]
Checks status of device security lock. Used internally in examine-end event.
kinetis mdm check_security
[Command]
Issues a complete Flash erase via the MDM-AP. This can be used to erase a
chip back to its factory state. Command removes security lock from a device
(use of SRST highly recommended). It does not require the processor to be
halted.
kinetis mdm mass_erase
[Command]
For FlexNVM devices only (KxxDX and KxxFX). Command shows or sets data
flash or EEPROM backup size in kilobytes, sets two EEPROM blocks sizes in
bytes and enables/disables loading of EEPROM contents to FlexRAM during
reset.
For details see device reference manual, Flash Memory Module, Program Partition command.
Setting is possible only once after mass erase. Reset the device after partition
setting.
Show partition size:
kinetis nvm_partition info
Set 32 KB data flash, rest of FlexNVM is EEPROM backup. EEPROM has
two blocks of 512 and 1536 bytes and its contents is loaded to FlexRAM during
reset:
kinetis nvm_partition
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
79
kinetis nvm_partition dataflash 32 512 1536 on
Set 16 KB EEPROM backup, rest of FlexNVM is a data flash. EEPROM has
two blocks of 1024 bytes and its contents is not loaded to FlexRAM during
reset:
kinetis nvm_partition eebkp 16 1024 1024 off
[Command]
For Kx devices only (KLx has different COP watchdog, it is not supported).
Command disables watchdog timer.
kinetis disable_wdog
fm4
[Flash Driver]
All members of the FM4 microcontroller family from Spansion (formerly Fujitsu)
include internal flash and use ARM Cortex-M4 cores. The fm4 driver uses a family
parameter to select the correct bank config, it can currently be one of the following:
MB9BFx64, MB9BFx65, MB9BFx66, MB9BFx67, MB9BFx68, S6E2Cx8, S6E2Cx9, S6E2CxA
or S6E2Dx, with x treated as wildcard and otherwise case (and any trailing characters)
ignored.
flash bank ${_FLASHNAME}0 fm4 0x00000000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME S6E2CCAJ0A
flash bank ${_FLASHNAME}1 fm4 0x00100000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME S6E2CCAJ0A
The current implementation is incomplete. Protection is not supported, nor is Chip
Erase (only Sector Erase is implemented).
[Flash Driver]
This is the driver to support internal flash of all members of the LPC11(x)00 and
LPC1300 microcontroller families and most members of the LPC800, LPC1500,
LPC1700, LPC1800, LPC2000, LPC4000 and LPC54100 microcontroller families
from NXP.
Note: There are LPC2000 devices which are not supported by the lpc2000
driver: The LPC2888 is supported by the lpc288x driver. The LPC29xx
family is supported by the lpc2900 driver.
The lpc2000 driver defines two mandatory and one optional parameters, which must
appear in the following order:
• variant ... required, may be lpc2000_v1 (older LPC21xx and LPC22xx)
lpc2000_v2 (LPC213x, LPC214x, LPC210[123], LPC23xx and LPC24xx)
lpc1700 (LPC175x and LPC176x and LPC177x/8x) lpc4300 - available also
as lpc1800 alias (LPC18x[2357] and LPC43x[2357]) lpc800 (LPC8xx) lpc1100
(LPC11(x)xx and LPC13xx) lpc1500 (LPC15xx) lpc54100 (LPC541xx)
lpc4000 (LPC40xx) or auto - automatically detects flash variant and size for
LPC11(x)00, LPC8xx, LPC13xx, LPC17xx and LPC40xx
• clock kHz ... the frequency, in kiloHertz, at which the core is running
• calc_checksum ... optional (but you probably want to provide this!), telling the
driver to calculate a valid checksum for the exception vector table.
Note: If you don’t provide calc_checksum when you’re writing the
vector table, the boot ROM will almost certainly ignore your flash
image. However, if you do provide it, with most tool chains verify_
image will fail.
lpc2000
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
80
LPC flashes don’t require the chip and bus width to be specified.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME lpc2000 0x0 0x7d000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME \
lpc2000_v2 14765 calc_checksum
lpc2000 part_id bank
[Command]
Displays the four byte part identifier associated with the specified flash bank.
[Flash Driver]
The LPC2888 microcontroller from NXP needs slightly different flash support from
its lpc2000 siblings. The lpc288x driver defines one mandatory parameter, the programming clock rate in Hz. LPC flashes don’t require the chip and bus width to be
specified.
lpc288x
flash bank $_FLASHNAME lpc288x 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME 12000000
[Flash Driver]
This driver supports the LPC29xx ARM968E based microcontroller family from NXP.
lpc2900
The predefined parameters base, size, chip width and bus width of the flash bank
command are ignored. Flash size and sector layout are auto-configured by the driver.
The driver has one additional mandatory parameter: The CPU clock rate (in kHz)
at the time the flash operations will take place. Most of the time this will not be the
crystal frequency, but a higher PLL frequency. The reset-init event handler in the
board script is usually the place where you start the PLL.
The driver rejects flashless devices (currently the LPC2930).
The EEPROM in LPC2900 devices is not mapped directly into the address space. It
must be handled much more like NAND flash memory, and will therefore be handled
by a separate lpc2900_eeprom driver (not yet available).
Sector protection in terms of the LPC2900 is handled transparently. Every time a
sector needs to be erased or programmed, it is automatically unprotected. What is
shown as protection status in the flash info command, is actually the LPC2900
sector security. This is a mechanism to prevent a sector from ever being erased or
programmed again. As this is an irreversible mechanism, it is handled by a special command (lpc2900 secure_sector), and not by the standard flash protect
command.
Example for a 125 MHz clock frequency:
flash bank $_FLASHNAME lpc2900 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME 125000
Some lpc2900-specific commands are defined. In the following command list, the
bank parameter is the bank number as obtained by the flash banks command.
lpc2900 signature bank
[Command]
Calculates a 128-bit hash value, the signature, from the whole flash content.
This is a hardware feature of the flash block, hence the calculation is very fast.
You may use this to verify the content of a programmed device against a known
signature. Example:
lpc2900 signature 0
signature: 0x5f40cdc8:0xc64e592e:0x10490f89:0x32a0f317
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
81
lpc2900 read_custom bank filename
[Command]
Reads the 912 bytes of customer information from the flash index sector, and
saves it to a file in binary format. Example:
lpc2900 read_custom 0 /path_to/customer_info.bin
The index sector of the flash is a write-only sector. It cannot be erased! In order to
guard against unintentional write access, all following commands need to be preceeded
by a successful call to the password command:
lpc2900 password bank password
[Command]
You need to use this command right before each of the following commands:
lpc2900 write_custom, lpc2900 secure_sector, lpc2900 secure_jtag.
The password string is fixed to "I know what I am doing". Example:
lpc2900 password 0 I_know_what_I_am_doing
Potentially dangerous operation allowed in next command!
lpc2900 write_custom bank filename type
[Command]
Writes the content of the file into the customer info space of the flash index
sector. The filetype can be specified with the type field. Possible values for type
are: bin (binary), ihex (Intel hex format), elf (ELF binary) or s19 (Motorola
S-records). The file must contain a single section, and the contained data length
must be exactly 912 bytes.
Attention: This cannot be reverted! Be careful!
Example:
lpc2900 write_custom 0 /path_to/customer_info.bin bin
lpc2900 secure_sector bank first last
[Command]
Secures the sector range from first to last (including) against further program
and erase operations. The sector security will be effective after the next power
cycle.
Attention: This cannot be reverted! Be careful!
Secured sectors appear as protected in the flash info command. Example:
lpc2900 secure_sector 0 1 1
flash info 0
#0 : lpc2900 at 0x20000000, size
# 0: 0x00000000 (0x2000
# 1: 0x00002000 (0x2000
# 2: 0x00004000 (0x2000
0x000c0000, (...)
8kB) not protected
8kB) protected
8kB) not protected
lpc2900 secure_jtag bank
[Command]
Irreversibly disable the JTAG port. The new JTAG security setting will be
effective after the next power cycle.
Attention: This cannot be reverted! Be careful!
Examples:
lpc2900 secure_jtag 0
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
mdr
82
[Flash Driver]
This drivers handles the integrated NOR flash on Milandr Cortex-M based controllers.
A known limitation is that the Info memory can’t be read or verified as it’s not memory
mapped.
flash bank <name> mdr <base> <size> \
0 0 <target#> type page_count sec_count
• type - 0 for main memory, 1 for info memory
• page count - total number of pages
• sec count - number of sector per page count
Example usage:
if { [info exists IMEMORY] && [string equal $IMEMORY true] } {
flash bank ${_CHIPNAME}_info.flash mdr 0x00000000 0x01000 \
0 0 $_TARGETNAME 1 1 4
} else {
flash bank $_CHIPNAME.flash mdr 0x00000000 0x20000 \
0 0 $_TARGETNAME 0 32 4
}
[Flash Driver]
This drivers handles the integrated NOR flash on NIIET Cortex-M4 based controllers.
Flash size and sector layout are auto-configured by the driver. Main flash memory
is called "Bootflash" and has main region and info region. Info region is NOT memory mapped by default, but it can replace first part of main region if needed. Full
erase, single and block writes are supported for both main and info regions. There
is additional not memory mapped flash called "Userflash", which also have division
into regions: main and info. Purpose of userflash - to store system and user settings.
Driver has special commands to perform operations with this memmory.
niietcm4
flash bank $_FLASHNAME niietcm4 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some niietcm4-specific commands are defined:
niietcm4 uflash_read_byte bank (’main’|’info’) address
[Command]
Read byte from main or info userflash region.
niietcm4 uflash_write_byte bank (’main’|’info’) address value
[Command]
Write byte to main or info userflash region.
niietcm4 uflash_full_erase bank
[Command]
Erase all userflash including info region.
niietcm4 uflash_erase bank (’main’|’info’) first sector
[Command]
last sector
Erase sectors of main or info userflash region, starting at sector first up to and
including last.
niietcm4 uflash_protect_check bank (’main’|’info’)
Check sectors protect.
[Command]
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
niietcm4 uflash_protect bank (’main’|’info’) first sector
last sector (’on’|’off’)
83
[Command]
Protect sectors of main or info userflash region, starting at sector first up to
and including last.
niietcm4 bflash_info_remap bank (’on’|’off’)
[Command]
Enable remapping bootflash info region to 0x00000000 (or 0x40000000 if external memory boot used).
niietcm4 extmem_cfg bank
[Command]
(’gpioa’|’gpiob’|’gpioc’|’gpiod’|’gpioe’|’gpiof’|’gpiog’|’gpioh’) pin num
(’func1’|’func3’)
Configure external memory interface for boot.
niietcm4 service_mode_erase bank
[Command]
Perform emergency erase of all flash (bootflash and userflash).
niietcm4 driver_info bank
[Command]
Show information about flash driver.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the nRF51 microcontroller families from Nordic Semiconductor include internal flash and use ARM Cortex-M0 core.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME nrf51 0 0x00000000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some nrf51-specific commands are defined:
nrf51
[Command]
Erases the contents of the code memory and user information configuration
registers as well. It must be noted that this command works only for chips that
do not have factory pre-programmed region 0 code.
nrf51 mass_erase
ocl
[Flash Driver]
This driver is an implementation of the “on chip flash loader” protocol proposed by
Pavel Chromy.
It is a minimalistic command-response protocol intended to be used over a
DCC when communicating with an internal or external flash loader running
from RAM. An example implementation for AT91SAM7x is available in
contrib/loaders/flash/at91sam7x/.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME ocl 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
[Flash Driver]
The PIC32MX microcontrollers are based on the MIPS 4K cores, and integrate flash
memory.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME pix32mx 0x1fc00000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
flash bank $_FLASHNAME pix32mx 0x1d000000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some pic32mx-specific commands are defined:
pic32mx
pic32mx pgm_word address value bank
[Command]
Programs the specified 32-bit value at the given address in the specified chip
bank.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
84
pic32mx unlock bank
[Command]
Unlock and erase specified chip bank. This will remove any Code Protection.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the PSoC 41xx/42xx microcontroller family from Cypress include
internal flash and use ARM Cortex M0 cores. The driver automatically recognizes a
number of these chips using the chip identification register, and autoconfigures itself.
psoc4
Note: Erased internal flash reads as 00. System ROM of PSoC 4 does not implement
erase of a flash sector.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME psoc4 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
psoc4-specific commands
psoc4 flash_autoerase num (on|off)
[Command]
Enables or disables autoerase mode for a flash bank.
If flash autoerase is off, use mass erase before flash programming. Flash erase
command fails if region to erase is not whole flash memory.
If flash autoerase is on, a sector is both erased and programmed in one system
ROM call. Flash erase command is ignored. This mode is suitable for gdb load.
The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
psoc4 mass_erase num
[Command]
Erases the contents of the flash memory, protection and security lock.
The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the SiM3 microcontroller family from Silicon Laboratories include
internal flash and use ARM Cortex M3 cores. It supports both JTAG and SWD
interface. The sim3x driver tries to probe the device to auto detect the MCU. If this
failes, it will use the size parameter as the size of flash bank.
sim3x
flash bank $_FLASHNAME sim3x 0 $_CPUROMSIZE 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
There are 2 commands defined in the sim3x driver:
[Command]
Erases the complete flash. This is used to unlock the flash. And this command
is only possible when using the SWD interface.
sim3x mass_erase
sim3x lock
[Command]
Lock the flash. To unlock use the sim3x mass_erase command.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the Stellaris LM3Sxxx, LM4x and Tiva C microcontroller families
from Texas Instruments include internal flash. The driver automatically recognizes a
number of these chips using the chip identification register, and autoconfigures itself.1
stellaris
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stellaris 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
1
Currently there is a stellaris mass_erase command. That seems pointless since the same effect can be
had using the standard flash erase_address command.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
85
[Command]
Performs the Recovering a "Locked" Device procedure to restore the flash and
its associated nonvolatile registers to their factory default values (erased). This
is the only way to remove flash protection or re-enable debugging if that capability has been disabled.
Note that the final "power cycle the chip" step in this procedure must be
performed by hand, since OpenOCD can’t do it.
Warning: if more than one Stellaris chip is connected, the procedure
is applied to all of them.
stellaris recover
[Flash Driver]
All members of the STM32F0, STM32F1 and STM32F3 microcontroller families from
ST Microelectronics include internal flash and use ARM Cortex-M0/M3/M4 cores.
The driver automatically recognizes a number of these chips using the chip identification register, and autoconfigures itself.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stm32f1x 0 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Note that some devices have been found that have a flash size register that contains
an invalid value, to workaround this issue you can override the probed value used by
the flash driver.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stm32f1x 0 0x20000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
If you have a target with dual flash banks then define the second bank as per the
following example.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stm32f1x 0x08080000 0 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some stm32f1x-specific commands2 are defined:
stm32f1x
stm32f1x lock num
[Command]
Locks the entire stm32 device. The num parameter is a value shown by flash
banks.
stm32f1x unlock num
[Command]
Unlocks the entire stm32 device. The num parameter is a value shown by flash
banks.
stm32f1x options_read num
[Command]
Read and display the stm32 option bytes written by the stm32f1x options_
write command. The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
stm32f1x options_write num (SWWDG|HWWDG)
(RSTSTNDBY|NORSTSTNDBY) (RSTSTOP|NORSTSTOP)
[Command]
Writes the stm32 option byte with the specified values. The num parameter is
a value shown by flash banks.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the STM32F2 and STM32F4 microcontroller families from ST Microelectronics include internal flash and use ARM Cortex-M3/M4 cores. The driver
stm32f2x
2
Currently there is a stm32f1x mass_erase command. That seems pointless since the same effect can be had
using the standard flash erase_address command.
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
86
automatically recognizes a number of these chips using the chip identification register,
and autoconfigures itself.
Note that some devices have been found that have a flash size register that contains
an invalid value, to workaround this issue you can override the probed value used by
the flash driver.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stm32f2x 0 0x20000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some stm32f2x-specific commands are defined:
stm32f2x lock num
[Command]
Locks the entire stm32 device. The num parameter is a value shown by flash
banks.
stm32f2x unlock num
[Command]
Unlocks the entire stm32 device. The num parameter is a value shown by flash
banks.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the STM32L microcontroller families from ST Microelectronics include
internal flash and use ARM Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M0+ cores. The driver automatically recognizes a number of these chips using the chip identification register, and
autoconfigures itself.
Note that some devices have been found that have a flash size register that contains
an invalid value, to workaround this issue you can override the probed value used by
the flash driver. If you use 0 as the bank base address, it tells the driver to autodetect
the bank location assuming you’re configuring the second bank.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME stm32lx 0x08000000 0x20000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
Some stm32lx-specific commands are defined:
stm32lx
stm32lx mass_erase num
[Command]
Mass erases the entire stm32lx device (all flash banks and EEPROM data).
This is the only way to unlock a protected flash (unless RDP Level is 2 which
can’t be unlocked at all). The num parameter is a value shown by flash banks.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the STR7 microcontroller family from ST Microelectronics include
internal flash and use ARM7TDMI cores. The str7x driver defines one mandatory
parameter, variant, which is either STR71x, STR73x or STR75x.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME str7x \
0x40000000 0x00040000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME STR71x
str7x
str7x disable_jtag bank
[Command]
Activate the Debug/Readout protection mechanism for the specified flash bank.
[Flash Driver]
Most members of the STR9 microcontroller family from ST Microelectronics include
internal flash and use ARM966E cores. The str9 needs the flash controller to be
configured using the str9x flash_config command prior to Flash programming.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME str9x 0x40000000 0x00040000 0 0 $_TARGETNAME
str9x flash_config 0 4 2 0 0x80000
str9x
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87
str9x flash_config num bbsr nbbsr bbadr nbbadr
[Command]
Configures the str9 flash controller. The num parameter is a value shown by
flash banks.
• bbsr - Boot Bank Size register
• nbbsr - Non Boot Bank Size register
• bbadr - Boot Bank Start Address register
• nbbadr - Boot Bank Start Address register
[Flash Driver]
Only use this driver for locking/unlocking the device or configuring the option bytes.
Use the standard str9 driver for programming. Before using the flash commands the
turbo mode must be enabled using the str9xpec enable_turbo command.
str9xpec
Here is some background info to help you better understand how this driver works.
OpenOCD has two flash drivers for the str9:
1. Standard driver str9x programmed via the str9 core. Normally used for flash
programming as it is faster than the str9xpec driver.
2. Direct programming str9xpec using the flash controller. This is an ISC compilant (IEEE 1532) tap connected in series with the str9 core. The str9 core does
not need to be running to program using this flash driver. Typical use for this
driver is locking/unlocking the target and programming the option bytes.
Before we run any commands using the str9xpec driver we must first disable the str9
core. This example assumes the str9xpec driver has been configured for flash bank
0.
# assert srst, we do not want core running
# while accessing str9xpec flash driver
jtag_reset 0 1
# turn off target polling
poll off
# disable str9 core
str9xpec enable_turbo 0
# read option bytes
str9xpec options_read 0
# re-enable str9 core
str9xpec disable_turbo 0
poll on
reset halt
The above example will read the str9 option bytes. When performing a unlock remember that you will not be able to halt the str9 - it has been locked. Halting the core
is not required for the str9xpec driver as mentioned above, just issue the commands
above manually or from a telnet prompt.
Several str9xpec-specific commands are defined:
str9xpec disable_turbo num
Restore the str9 into JTAG chain.
[Command]
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str9xpec enable_turbo num
[Command]
Enable turbo mode, will simply remove the str9 from the chain and talk directly
to the embedded flash controller.
str9xpec lock num
[Command]
Lock str9 device. The str9 will only respond to an unlock command that will
erase the device.
str9xpec part_id num
[Command]
Prints the part identifier for bank num.
str9xpec options_cmap num (bank0|bank1)
[Command]
Configure str9 boot bank.
str9xpec options_lvdsel num (vdd|vdd_vddq)
[Command]
Configure str9 lvd source.
str9xpec options_lvdthd num (2.4v|2.7v)
[Command]
Configure str9 lvd threshold.
str9xpec options_lvdwarn bank (vdd|vdd_vddq)
[Command]
Configure str9 lvd reset warning source.
str9xpec options_read num
[Command]
Read str9 option bytes.
str9xpec options_write num
[Command]
Write str9 option bytes.
str9xpec unlock num
[Command]
unlock str9 device.
[Flash Driver]
Most members of the TMS470 microcontroller family from Texas Instruments include
internal flash and use ARM7TDMI cores. This driver doesn’t require the chip and
bus width to be specified.
Some tms470-specific commands are defined:
tms470
tms470 flash_keyset key0 key1 key2 key3
[Command]
Saves programming keys in a register, to enable flash erase and write commands.
tms470 osc_mhz clock mhz
[Command]
Reports the clock speed, which is used to calculate timings.
tms470 plldis (0|1)
[Command]
Disables (1) or enables (0) use of the PLL to speed up the flash clock.
[Flash Driver]
All members of the XMC4xxx microcontroller family from Infineon. This driver does
not require the chip and bus width to be specified.
Some xmc4xxx-specific commands are defined:
xmc4xxx
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xmc4xxx flash_password bank id passwd1 passwd2
[Command]
Saves flash protection passwords which are used to lock the user flash
xmc4xxx flash_unprotect bank id user level[0-1]
[Command]
Removes Flash write protection from the selected user bank
12.5 NAND Flash Commands
Compared to NOR or SPI flash, NAND devices are inexpensive and high density. Today’s
NAND chips, and multi-chip modules, commonly hold multiple GigaBytes of data.
NAND chips consist of a number of “erase blocks” of a given size (such as 128 KBytes),
each of which is divided into a number of pages (of perhaps 512 or 2048 bytes each). Each
page of a NAND flash has an “out of band” (OOB) area to hold Error Correcting Code
(ECC) and other metadata, usually 16 bytes of OOB for every 512 bytes of page data.
One key characteristic of NAND flash is that its error rate is higher than that of NOR
flash. In normal operation, that ECC is used to correct and detect errors. However, NAND
blocks can also wear out and become unusable; those blocks are then marked "bad". NAND
chips are even shipped from the manufacturer with a few bad blocks. The highest density
chips use a technology (MLC) that wears out more quickly, so ECC support is increasingly
important as a way to detect blocks that have begun to fail, and help to preserve data
integrity with techniques such as wear leveling.
Software is used to manage the ECC. Some controllers don’t support ECC directly; in
those cases, software ECC is used. Other controllers speed up the ECC calculations with
hardware. Single-bit error correction hardware is routine. Controllers geared for newer
MLC chips may correct 4 or more errors for every 512 bytes of data.
You will need to make sure that any data you write using OpenOCD includes the apppropriate kind of ECC. For example, that may mean passing the oob_softecc flag when
writing NAND data, or ensuring that the correct hardware ECC mode is used.
The basic steps for using NAND devices include:
1. Declare via the command nand device
Do this in a board-specific configuration file, passing parameters as needed by the
controller.
2. Configure each device using nand probe.
Do this only after the associated target is set up, such as in its reset-init script or in
procures defined to access that device.
3. Operate on the flash via nand subcommand
Often commands to manipulate the flash are typed by a human, or run via a script in
some automated way. Common task include writing a boot loader, operating system,
or other data needed to initialize or de-brick a board.
NOTE: At the time this text was written, the largest NAND flash fully supported by
OpenOCD is 2 GiBytes (16 GiBits). This is because the variables used to hold offsets and
lengths are only 32 bits wide. (Larger chips may work in some cases, unless an offset or
length is larger than 0xffffffff, the largest 32-bit unsigned integer.) Some larger devices
will work, since they are actually multi-chip modules with two smaller chips and individual
chipselect lines.
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12.5.1 NAND Configuration Commands
NAND chips must be declared in configuration scripts, plus some additional configuration
that’s done after OpenOCD has initialized.
nand device name driver target [configparams...]
[Config Command]
Declares a NAND device, which can be read and written to after it has been configured
through nand probe. In OpenOCD, devices are single chips; this is unlike some
operating systems, which may manage multiple chips as if they were a single (larger)
device. In some cases, configuring a device will activate extra commands; see the
controller-specific documentation.
NOTE: This command is not available after OpenOCD initialization has completed.
Use it in board specific configuration files, not interactively.
• name ... may be used to reference the NAND bank in most other NAND commands. A number is also available.
• driver ... identifies the NAND controller driver associated with the NAND device
being declared. See [NAND Driver List], page 93.
• target ... names the target used when issuing commands to the NAND controller.
• configparams ... controllers may support, or require, additional parameters. See
the controller-specific documentation for more information.
[Command]
Prints a summary of each device declared using nand device, numbered from zero.
Note that un-probed devices show no details.
nand list
> nand list
#0: NAND 1GiB 3,3V
blocksize:
#1: NAND 1GiB 3,3V
blocksize:
>
8-bit (Micron) pagesize: 2048, buswidth: 8,
131072, blocks: 8192
8-bit (Micron) pagesize: 2048, buswidth: 8,
131072, blocks: 8192
nand probe num
[Command]
Probes the specified device to determine key characteristics like its page and block
sizes, and how many blocks it has. The num parameter is the value shown by nand
list. You must (successfully) probe a device before you can use it with most other
NAND commands.
12.5.2 Erasing, Reading, Writing to NAND Flash
nand dump num filename offset length [oob option]
[Command]
Reads binary data from the NAND device and writes it to the file, starting at the
specified offset. The num parameter is the value shown by nand list.
Use a complete path name for filename, so you don’t depend on the directory used to
start the OpenOCD server.
The offset and length must be exact multiples of the device’s page size. They describe
a data region; the OOB data associated with each such page may also be accessed.
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NOTE: At the time this text was written, no error correction was done on the data
that’s read, unless raw access was disabled and the underlying NAND controller driver
had a read_page method which handled that error correction.
By default, only page data is saved to the specified file. Use an oob option parameter
to save OOB data:
• no oob * parameter
Output file holds only page data; OOB is discarded.
• oob_raw
Output file interleaves page data and OOB data; the file will be longer than
"length" by the size of the spare areas associated with each data page. Note that
this kind of "raw" access is different from what’s implied by nand raw_access,
which just controls whether a hardware-aware access method is used.
• oob_only
Output file has only raw OOB data, and will be smaller than "length" since it
will contain only the spare areas associated with each data page.
nand erase num [offset length]
[Command]
Erases blocks on the specified NAND device, starting at the specified offset and continuing for length bytes. Both of those values must be exact multiples of the device’s
block size, and the region they specify must fit entirely in the chip. If those parameters are not specified, the whole NAND chip will be erased. The num parameter is
the value shown by nand list.
NOTE: This command will try to erase bad blocks, when told to do so, which will
probably invalidate the manufacturer’s bad block marker. For the remainder of the
current server session, nand info will still report that the block “is” bad.
nand write num filename offset [option...]
[Command]
Writes binary data from the file into the specified NAND device, starting at the
specified offset. Those pages should already have been erased; you can’t change zero
bits to one bits. The num parameter is the value shown by nand list.
Use a complete path name for filename, so you don’t depend on the directory used to
start the OpenOCD server.
The offset must be an exact multiple of the device’s page size. All data in the file
will be written, assuming it doesn’t run past the end of the device. Only full pages
are written, and any extra space in the last page will be filled with 0xff bytes. (That
includes OOB data, if that’s being written.)
NOTE: At the time this text was written, bad blocks are ignored. That is, this routine
will not skip bad blocks, but will instead try to write them. This can cause problems.
Provide at most one option parameter. With some NAND drivers, the meanings of
these parameters may change if nand raw_access was used to disable hardware ECC.
• no oob * parameter
File has only page data, which is written. If raw acccess is in use, the OOB area
will not be written. Otherwise, if the underlying NAND controller driver has a
write_page routine, that routine may write the OOB with hardware-computed
ECC data.
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• oob_only
File has only raw OOB data, which is written to the OOB area. Each page’s data
area stays untouched. This can be a dangerous option, since it can invalidate the
ECC data. You may need to force raw access to use this mode.
• oob_raw
File interleaves data and OOB data, both of which are written If raw access is
enabled, the data is written first, then the un-altered OOB. Otherwise, if the
underlying NAND controller driver has a write_page routine, that routine may
modify the OOB before it’s written, to include hardware-computed ECC data.
• oob_softecc
File has only page data, which is written. The OOB area is filled with 0xff,
except for a standard 1-bit software ECC code stored in conventional locations.
You might need to force raw access to use this mode, to prevent the underlying
driver from applying hardware ECC.
• oob_softecc_kw
File has only page data, which is written. The OOB area is filled with 0xff, except
for a 4-bit software ECC specific to the boot ROM in Marvell Kirkwood SoCs.
You might need to force raw access to use this mode, to prevent the underlying
driver from applying hardware ECC.
nand verify num filename offset [option...]
[Command]
Verify the binary data in the file has been programmed to the specified NAND device,
starting at the specified offset. The num parameter is the value shown by nand list.
Use a complete path name for filename, so you don’t depend on the directory used to
start the OpenOCD server.
The offset must be an exact multiple of the device’s page size. All data in the file
will be read and compared to the contents of the flash, assuming it doesn’t run past
the end of the device. As with nand write, only full pages are verified, so any extra
space in the last page will be filled with 0xff bytes.
The same options accepted by nand write, and the file will be processed similarly to
produce the buffers that can be compared against the contents produced from nand
dump.
NOTE: This will not work when the underlying NAND controller driver’s write_
page routine must update the OOB with a hardward-computed ECC before the data
is written. This limitation may be removed in a future release.
12.5.3 Other NAND commands
nand check_bad_blocks num [offset length]
[Command]
Checks for manufacturer bad block markers on the specified NAND device. If no
parameters are provided, checks the whole device; otherwise, starts at the specified
offset and continues for length bytes. Both of those values must be exact multiples of
the device’s block size, and the region they specify must fit entirely in the chip. The
num parameter is the value shown by nand list.
NOTE: Before using this command you should force raw access with nand raw_access
enable to ensure that the underlying driver will not try to apply hardware ECC.
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93
nand info num
[Command]
The num parameter is the value shown by nand list. This prints the one-line summary from "nand list", plus for devices which have been probed this also prints any
known status for each block.
nand raw_access num (enable|disable)
[Command]
Sets or clears an flag affecting how page I/O is done. The num parameter is the value
shown by nand list.
This flag is cleared (disabled) by default, but changing that value won’t affect all
NAND devices. The key factor is whether the underlying driver provides read_page
or write_page methods. If it doesn’t provide those methods, the setting of this flag
is irrelevant; all access is effectively “raw”.
When those methods exist, they are normally used when reading data (nand dump or
reading bad block markers) or writing it (nand write). However, enabling raw access
(setting the flag) prevents use of those methods, bypassing hardware ECC logic. This
can be a dangerous option, since writing blocks with the wrong ECC data can cause
them to be marked as bad.
12.5.4 NAND Driver List
As noted above, the nand device command allows driver-specific options and behaviors.
Some controllers also activate controller-specific commands.
[NAND Driver]
This driver handles the NAND controllers found on AT91SAM9 family chips from
Atmel. It takes two extra parameters: address of the NAND chip; address of the
ECC controller.
nand device $NANDFLASH at91sam9 $CHIPNAME 0x40000000 0xfffffe800
AT91SAM9 chips support single-bit ECC hardware. The write_page and read_page
methods are used to utilize the ECC hardware unless they are disabled by using the
nand raw_access command. There are four additional commands that are needed to
fully configure the AT91SAM9 NAND controller. Two are optional; most boards use
the same wiring for ALE/CLE:
at91sam9
at91sam9 cle num addr line
[Command]
Configure the address line used for latching commands. The num parameter is
the value shown by nand list.
at91sam9 ale num addr line
[Command]
Configure the address line used for latching addresses. The num parameter is
the value shown by nand list.
For the next two commands, it is assumed that the pins have already been properly
configured for input or output.
at91sam9 rdy_busy num pio base addr pin
[Command]
Configure the RDY/nBUSY input from the NAND device. The num parameter
is the value shown by nand list. pio base addr is the base address of the PIO
controller and pin is the pin number.
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94
at91sam9 ce num pio base addr pin
[Command]
Configure the chip enable input to the NAND device. The num parameter is
the value shown by nand list. pio base addr is the base address of the PIO
controller and pin is the pin number.
[NAND Driver]
This driver handles the NAND controllers found on DaVinci family chips from Texas
Instruments. It takes three extra parameters: address of the NAND chip; hardware
ECC mode to use (hwecc1, hwecc4, hwecc4_infix); address of the AEMIF controller
on this processor.
nand device davinci dm355.arm 0x02000000 hwecc4 0x01e10000
All DaVinci processors support the single-bit ECC hardware, and newer ones also
support the four-bit ECC hardware. The write_page and read_page methods are
used to implement those ECC modes, unless they are disabled using the nand raw_
access command.
davinci
[NAND Driver]
These controllers require an extra nand device parameter: the clock rate used by the
controller.
lpc3180
lpc3180 select num [mlc|slc]
[Command]
Configures use of the MLC or SLC controller mode. MLC implies use of hardware ECC. The num parameter is the value shown by nand list.
At this writing, this driver includes write_page and read_page methods. Using nand
raw_access to disable those methods will prevent use of hardware ECC in the MLC
controller mode, but won’t change SLC behavior.
mx3
[NAND Driver]
This driver handles the NAND controller in i.MX31. The mxc driver should work for
this chip aswell.
mxc
[NAND Driver]
This driver handles the NAND controller found in Freescale i.MX chips. It has support
for v1 (i.MX27 and i.MX31) and v2 (i.MX35). The driver takes 3 extra arguments,
chip (mx27, mx31, mx35), ecc (noecc, hwecc) and optionally if bad block information
should be swapped between main area and spare area (biswap), defaults to off.
nand device mx35.nand mxc imx35.cpu mx35 hwecc biswap
mxc biswap bank num [enable|disable]
[Command]
Turns on/off bad block information swaping from main area, without parameter
query status.
[NAND Driver]
These controllers require an extra nand device parameter: the address of the controller.
nand device orion 0xd8000000
These controllers don’t define any specialized commands. At this writing, their drivers
don’t include write_page or read_page methods, so nand raw_access won’t change
any behavior.
orion
Chapter 12: Flash Commands
95
[NAND Driver]
[NAND Driver]
[NAND Driver]
[NAND Driver]
[NAND Driver]
These S3C family controllers don’t have any special nand device options, and don’t
define any specialized commands. At this writing, their drivers don’t include write_
page or read_page methods, so nand raw_access won’t change any behavior.
s3c2410
s3c2412
s3c2440
s3c2443
s3c6400
12.6 mFlash
12.6.1 mFlash Configuration
mflash bank soc base RST pin target
[Config Command]
Configures a mflash for soc host bank at address base. The pin number format
depends on the host GPIO naming convention. Currently, the mflash driver supports
s3c2440 and pxa270.
Example for s3c2440 mflash where RST pin is GPIO B1:
mflash bank $_FLASHNAME s3c2440 0x10000000 1b 0
Example for pxa270 mflash where RST pin is GPIO 43:
mflash bank $_FLASHNAME pxa270 0x08000000 43 0
12.6.2 mFlash commands
mflash config pll frequency
[Command]
Configure mflash PLL. The frequency is the mflash input frequency, in Hz. Issuing this command will erase mflash’s whole internal nand and write new pll. After
this command, mflash needs power-on-reset for normal operation. If pll was newly
configured, storage and boot(optional) info also need to be update.
[Command]
Configure bootable option. If bootable option is set, mflash offer the first 8 sectors
(4kB) for boot.
mflash config boot
[Command]
Configure storage information. For the normal storage operation, this information
must be written.
mflash config storage
mflash dump num filename offset size
[Command]
Dump size bytes, starting at offset bytes from the beginning of the bank num, to the
file named filename.
mflash probe
[Command]
Probe mflash.
mflash write num filename offset
[Command]
Write the binary file filename to mflash bank num, starting at offset bytes from the
beginning of the bank.
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96
13 Flash Programming
OpenOCD implements numerous ways to program the target flash, whether internal or
external. Programming can be acheived by either using GDB [Programming using GDB],
page 130, or using the cmds given in [Flash Programming Commands], page 70.
To simplify using the flash cmds directly a jimtcl script is available that handles the programming and verify stage. OpenOCD will program/verify/reset the target and optionally
shutdown.
The script is executed as follows and by default the following actions will be peformed.
1. ’init’ is executed.
2. ’reset init’ is called to reset and halt the target, any ’reset init’ scripts are executed.
3. flash write_image is called to erase and write any flash using the filename given.
4. verify_image is called if verify parameter is given.
5. reset run is called if reset parameter is given.
6. OpenOCD is shutdown if exit parameter is given.
An example of usage is given below. See [program], page 72.
# program and verify using elf/hex/s19. verify and reset
# are optional parameters
openocd -f board/stm32f3discovery.cfg \
-c "program filename.elf verify reset exit"
# binary files need the flash address passing
openocd -f board/stm32f3discovery.cfg \
-c "program filename.bin exit 0x08000000"
Chapter 14: PLD/FPGA Commands
97
14 PLD/FPGA Commands
Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) and the more flexible Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are both types of programmable hardware. OpenOCD can support programming them. Although PLDs are generally restrictive (cells are less functional, and there are
no special purpose cells for memory or computational tasks), they share the same OpenOCD
infrastructure. Accordingly, both are called PLDs here.
14.1 PLD/FPGA Configuration and Commands
As it does for JTAG TAPs, debug targets, and flash chips (both NOR and NAND),
OpenOCD maintains a list of PLDs available for use in various commands. Also, each
such PLD requires a driver.
They are referenced by the number shown by the pld devices command, and new PLDs
are defined by pld device driver_name.
pld device driver name tap name [driver options]
[Config Command]
Defines a new PLD device, supported by driver driver name, using the TAP named
tap name. The driver may make use of any driver options to configure its behavior.
pld devices
[Command]
Lists the PLDs and their numbers.
pld load num filename
[Command]
Loads the file filename into the PLD identified by num. The file format must be
inferred by the driver.
14.2 PLD/FPGA Drivers, Options, and Commands
Drivers may support PLD-specific options to the pld device definition command, and may
also define commands usable only with that particular type of PLD.
virtex2 [no jstart]
[FPGA Driver]
Virtex-II is a family of FPGAs sold by Xilinx. It supports the IEEE 1532 standard
for In-System Configuration (ISC).
If no jstart is non-zero, the JSTART instruction is not used after loading the bitstream. While required for Series2, Series3, and Series6, it breaks bitstream loading
on Series7.
virtex2 read_stat num
[Command]
Reads and displays the Virtex-II status register (STAT) for FPGA num.
Chapter 15: General Commands
98
15 General Commands
The commands documented in this chapter here are common commands that you, as a
human, may want to type and see the output of. Configuration type commands are documented elsewhere.
Intent:
• Source Of Commands
OpenOCD commands can occur in a configuration script (discussed elsewhere) or typed
manually by a human or supplied programatically, or via one of several TCP/IP Ports.
• From the human
A human should interact with the telnet interface (default port: 4444) or via GDB
(default port 3333).
To issue commands from within a GDB session, use the monitor command, e.g. use
monitor poll to issue the poll command. All output is relayed through the GDB
session.
• Machine Interface The Tcl interface’s intent is to be a machine interface. The default
Tcl port is 5555.
15.1 Daemon Commands
[Command]
exit
Exits the current telnet session.
help [string]
[Command]
With no parameters, prints help text for all commands. Otherwise, prints each helptext containing string. Not every command provides helptext.
Configuration commands, and commands valid at any time, are explicitly noted in
parenthesis. In most cases, no such restriction is listed; this indicates commands
which are only available after the configuration stage has completed.
sleep msec [busy]
[Command]
Wait for at least msec milliseconds before resuming. If busy is passed, busy-wait
instead of sleeping. (This option is strongly discouraged.) Useful in connection with
script files (script command and target_name configuration).
shutdown [error]
[Command]
Close the OpenOCD daemon, disconnecting all clients (GDB, telnet, other). If option
error is used, OpenOCD will return a non-zero exit code to the parent process.
debug_level [n]
[Command]
Display debug level. If n (from 0..3) is provided, then set it to that level. This affects
the kind of messages sent to the server log. Level 0 is error messages only; level 1 adds
warnings; level 2 adds informational messages; and level 3 adds debugging messages.
The default is level 2, but that can be overridden on the command line along with
the location of that log file (which is normally the server’s standard output). See
Chapter 4 [Running], page 12.
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echo [-n] message
[Command]
Logs a message at "user" priority. Output message to stdout. Option "-n" suppresses
trailing newline.
echo "Downloading kernel -- please wait"
log_output [filename]
[Command]
Redirect logging to filename; the initial log output channel is stderr.
add_script_search_dir [directory]
[Command]
Add directory to the file/script search path.
15.2 Target State handling
In this section “target” refers to a CPU configured as shown earlier (see Chapter 11 [CPU
Configuration], page 61). These commands, like many, implicitly refer to a current target
which is used to perform the various operations. The current target may be changed by
using targets command with the name of the target which should become current.
reg [(number|name) [(value|’force’)]]
[Command]
Access a single register by number or by its name. The target must generally be
halted before access to CPU core registers is allowed. Depending on the hardware,
some other registers may be accessible while the target is running.
With no arguments: list all available registers for the current target, showing number,
name, size, value, and cache status. For valid entries, a value is shown; valid entries
which are also dirty (and will be written back later) are flagged as such.
With number/name: display that register’s value. Use force argument to read directly
from the target, bypassing any internal cache.
With both number/name and value: set register’s value. Writes may be held in a
writeback cache internal to OpenOCD, so that setting the value marks the register as
dirty instead of immediately flushing that value. Resuming CPU execution (including
by single stepping) or otherwise activating the relevant module will flush such values.
Cores may have surprisingly many registers in their Debug and trace infrastructure:
> reg
===== ARM registers
(0) r0 (/32): 0x0000D3C2 (dirty)
(1) r1 (/32): 0xFD61F31C
(2) r2 (/32)
...
(164) ETM_contextid_comparator_mask (/32)
>
halt [ms]
wait_halt [ms]
[Command]
[Command]
The halt command first sends a halt request to the target, which wait_halt doesn’t.
Otherwise these behave the same: wait up to ms milliseconds, or 5 seconds if there
is no parameter, for the target to halt (and enter debug mode). Using 0 as the ms
parameter prevents OpenOCD from waiting.
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Warning: On ARM cores, software using the wait for interrupt operation
often blocks the JTAG access needed by a halt command. This is because
that operation also puts the core into a low power mode by gating the
core clock; but the core clock is needed to detect JTAG clock transitions.
One partial workaround uses adaptive clocking: when the core is interrupted the operation completes, then JTAG clocks are accepted at least
until the interrupt handler completes. However, this workaround is often
unusable since the processor, board, and JTAG adapter must all support
adaptive JTAG clocking. Also, it can’t work until an interrupt is issued.
A more complete workaround is to not use that operation while you work
with a JTAG debugger. Tasking environments generaly have idle loops
where the body is the wait for interrupt operation. (On older cores, it
is a coprocessor action; newer cores have a wfi instruction.) Such loops
can just remove that operation, at the cost of higher power consumption
(because the CPU is needlessly clocked).
resume [address]
[Command]
Resume the target at its current code position, or the optional address if it is provided.
OpenOCD will wait 5 seconds for the target to resume.
step [address]
[Command]
Single-step the target at its current code position, or the optional address if it is
provided.
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Perform as hard a reset as possible, using SRST if possible. All defined targets will
be reset, and target events will fire during the reset sequence.
reset
reset run
reset halt
reset init
The optional parameter specifies what should happen after the reset. If there is no
parameter, a reset run is executed. The other options will not work on all systems.
See Chapter 9 [Reset Configuration], page 50.
− run Let the target run
− halt Immediately halt the target
− init Immediately halt the target, and execute the reset-init script
[Command]
Requesting target halt and executing a soft reset. This is often used when a target
cannot be reset and halted. The target, after reset is released begins to execute code.
OpenOCD attempts to stop the CPU and then sets the program counter back to the
reset vector. Unfortunately the code that was executed may have left the hardware
in an unknown state.
soft_reset_halt
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15.3 I/O Utilities
These commands are available when OpenOCD is built with --enable-ioutil. They are
mainly useful on embedded targets, notably the ZY1000. Hosts with operating systems
have complementary tools.
Note: there are several more such commands.
append_file filename [string]*
[Command]
Appends the string parameters to the text file filename. Each string except the last
one is followed by one space. The last string is followed by a newline.
cat filename
[Command]
Reads and displays the text file filename.
cp src filename dest filename
[Command]
Copies contents from the file src_filename into dest_filename.
[Command]
ip
No description provided.
[Command]
ls
No description provided.
[Command]
mac
No description provided.
[Command]
Display available RAM memory on OpenOCD host. Used in OpenOCD regression
testing scripts.
meminfo
[Command]
peek
No description provided.
[Command]
poke
No description provided.
rm filename
[Command]
Unlinks the file filename.
trunc filename
[Command]
Removes all data in the file filename.
15.4 Memory access commands
These commands allow accesses of a specific size to the memory system. Often these are
used to configure the current target in some special way. For example - one may need to
write certain values to the SDRAM controller to enable SDRAM.
1. Use the targets (plural) command to change the current target.
2. In system level scripts these commands are deprecated. Please use their TARGET
object siblings to avoid making assumptions about what TAP is the current target, or
about MMU configuration.
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mdw [phys] addr [count]
mdh [phys] addr [count]
mdb [phys] addr [count]
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Display contents of address addr, as 32-bit words (mdw), 16-bit halfwords (mdh), or
8-bit bytes (mdb). When the current target has an MMU which is present and active,
addr is interpreted as a virtual address. Otherwise, or if the optional phys flag is
specified, addr is interpreted as a physical address. If count is specified, displays that
many units. (If you want to manipulate the data instead of displaying it, see the
mem2array primitives.)
mww [phys] addr word
mwh [phys] addr halfword
mwb [phys] addr byte
[Command]
[Command]
[Command]
Writes the specified word (32 bits), halfword (16 bits), or byte (8-bit) value, at the
specified address addr. When the current target has an MMU which is present and
active, addr is interpreted as a virtual address. Otherwise, or if the optional phys
flag is specified, addr is interpreted as a physical address.
15.5 Image loading commands
dump_image filename address size
[Command]
Dump size bytes of target memory starting at address to the binary file named
filename.
[Command]
Loads an image stored in memory by fast_load_image to the current target. Must
be preceeded by fast load image.
fast_load
fast_load_image filename address [bin|ihex|elf|s19]
[Command]
Normally you should be using load_image or GDB load. However, for testing purposes or when I/O overhead is significant(OpenOCD running on an embedded host),
storing the image in memory and uploading the image to the target can be a way to
upload e.g. multiple debug sessions when the binary does not change. Arguments
are the same as load_image, but the image is stored in OpenOCD host memory, i.e.
does not affect target. This approach is also useful when profiling target programming
performance as I/O and target programming can easily be profiled separately.
load_image filename address [[bin|ihex|elf|s19] min_addr
max_length]
[Command]
Load image from file filename to target memory offset by address from its load address.
The file format may optionally be specified (bin, ihex, elf, or s19). In addition the
following arguments may be specifed: min addr - ignore data below min addr (this
is w.r.t. to the target’s load address + address) max length - maximum number of
bytes to load.
proc load_image_bin {fname foffset address length } {
# Load data from fname filename at foffset offset to
# target at address. Load at most length bytes.
load_image $fname [expr $address - $foffset] bin \
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$address $length
}
test_image filename [address [bin|ihex|elf]]
[Command]
Displays image section sizes and addresses as if filename were loaded into target
memory starting at address (defaults to zero). The file format may optionally be
specified (bin, ihex, or elf)
verify_image filename address [bin|ihex|elf]
[Command]
Verify filename against target memory starting at address. The file format may
optionally be specified (bin, ihex, or elf) This will first attempt a comparison using
a CRC checksum, if this fails it will try a binary compare.
15.6 Breakpoint and Watchpoint commands
CPUs often make debug modules accessible through JTAG, with hardware support for
a handful of code breakpoints and data watchpoints. In addition, CPUs almost always
support software breakpoints.
bp [address len [hw]]
[Command]
With no parameters, lists all active breakpoints. Else sets a breakpoint on code
execution starting at address for length bytes. This is a software breakpoint, unless
hw is specified in which case it will be a hardware breakpoint.
(See [arm9 vector catch], page 110, or see [xscale vector catch], page 114, for similar
mechanisms that do not consume hardware breakpoints.)
rbp address
[Command]
Remove the breakpoint at address.
rwp address
[Command]
Remove data watchpoint on address
wp [address len [(r|w|a) [value [mask]]]]
[Command]
With no parameters, lists all active watchpoints. Else sets a data watchpoint on data
from address for length bytes. The watch point is an "access" watchpoint unless the
r or w parameter is provided, defining it as respectively a read or write watchpoint.
If a value is provided, that value is used when determining if the watchpoint should
trigger. The value may be first be masked using mask to mark “don’t care” fields.
15.7 Misc Commands
profile seconds filename [start end]
[Command]
Profiling samples the CPU’s program counter as quickly as possible, which is useful
for non-intrusive stochastic profiling. Saves up to 10000 samples in filename using
“gmon.out” format. Optional start and end parameters allow to limit the address
range.
version
Displays a string identifying the version of this OpenOCD server.
[Command]
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virt2phys virtual address
104
[Command]
Requests the current target to map the specified virtual address to its corresponding
physical address, and displays the result.
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16 Architecture and Core Commands
Most CPUs have specialized JTAG operations to support debugging. OpenOCD packages
most such operations in its standard command framework. Some of those operations don’t
fit well in that framework, so they are exposed here as architecture or implementation (core)
specific commands.
16.1 ARM Hardware Tracing
CPUs based on ARM cores may include standard tracing interfaces, based on an “Embedded
Trace Module” (ETM) which sends voluminous address and data bus trace records to a
“Trace Port”.
• Development-oriented boards will sometimes provide a high speed trace connector for
collecting that data, when the particular CPU supports such an interface. (The standard connector is a 38-pin Mictor, with both JTAG and trace port support.) Those
trace connectors are supported by higher end JTAG adapters and some logic analyzer
modules; frequently those modules can buffer several megabytes of trace data. Configuring an ETM coupled to such an external trace port belongs in the board-specific
configuration file.
• If the CPU doesn’t provide an external interface, it probably has an “Embedded Trace
Buffer” (ETB) on the chip, which is a dedicated SRAM. 4KBytes is one common ETB
size. Configuring an ETM coupled only to an ETB belongs in the CPU-specific (target)
configuration file, since it works the same on all boards.
ETM support in OpenOCD doesn’t seem to be widely used yet.
Issues: ETM support may be buggy, and at least some etm config parameters
should be detected by asking the ETM for them.
ETM trigger events could also implement a kind of complex hardware breakpoint, much more powerful than the simple watchpoint hardware exported by
EmbeddedICE modules. Such breakpoints can be triggered even when using the
dummy trace port driver.
It seems like a GDB hookup should be possible, as well as tracing only during
specific states (perhaps handling IRQ 23 or calls foo()).
There should be GUI tools to manipulate saved trace data and help analyse
it in conjunction with the source code. It’s unclear how much of a common
interface is shared with the current XScale trace support, or should be shared
with eventual Nexus-style trace module support.
At this writing (November 2009) only ARM7, ARM9, and ARM11 support for
ETM modules is available. The code should be able to work with some newer
cores; but not all of them support this original style of JTAG access.
16.1.1 ETM Configuration
ETM setup is coupled with the trace port driver configuration.
etm config target width mode clocking driver
[Config Command]
Declares the ETM associated with target, and associates it with a given trace port
driver. See [Trace Port Drivers], page 107.
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Several of the parameters must reflect the trace port capabilities, which are a function of silicon capabilties (exposed later using etm info) and of what hardware is
connected to that port (such as an external pod, or ETB). The width must be either
4, 8, or 16, except with ETMv3.0 and newer modules which may also support 1, 2,
24, 32, 48, and 64 bit widths. (With those versions, etm info also shows whether the
selected port width and mode are supported.)
The mode must be normal, multiplexed, or demultiplexed. The clocking must be
half or full.
Warning: With ETMv3.0 and newer, the bits set with the mode and
clocking parameters both control the mode. This modified mode does not
map to the values supported by previous ETM modules, so this syntax
is subject to change.
Note: You can see the ETM registers using the reg command. Not all
possible registers are present in every ETM. Most of the registers are
write-only, and are used to configure what CPU activities are traced.
[Command]
Displays information about the current target’s ETM. This includes resource counts
from the ETM_CONFIG register, as well as silicon capabilities (except on rather old
modules). from the ETM_SYS_CONFIG register.
etm info
[Command]
Displays status of the current target’s ETM and trace port driver: is the ETM idle,
or is it collecting data? Did trace data overflow? Was it triggered?
etm status
etm tracemode [type context id bits cycle accurate branch output]
[Command]
Displays what data that ETM will collect. If arguments are provided, first configures
that data. When the configuration changes, tracing is stopped and any buffered trace
data is invalidated.
• type ... describing how data accesses are traced, when they pass any ViewData
filtering that that was set up. The value is one of none (save nothing), data
(save data), address (save addresses), all (save data and addresses)
• context id bits ... 0, 8, 16, or 32
• cycle accurate ... enable or disable cycle-accurate instruction tracing. Before
ETMv3, enabling this causes much extra data to be recorded.
• branch output ... enable or disable. Disable this unless you need to try reconstructing the instruction trace stream without an image of the code.
etm trigger_debug (enable|disable)
[Command]
Displays whether ETM triggering debug entry (like a breakpoint) is enabled or
disabled, after optionally modifying that configuration. The default behaviour is
disable. Any change takes effect after the next etm start.
By using script commands to configure ETM registers, you can make the processor enter debug state automatically when certain conditions, more complex than supported
by the breakpoint hardware, happen.
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16.1.2 ETM Trace Operation
After setting up the ETM, you can use it to collect data. That data can be exported to
files for later analysis. It can also be parsed with OpenOCD, for basic sanity checking.
To configure what is being traced, you will need to write various trace registers using reg
ETM_* commands. For the definitions of these registers, read ARM publication IHI 0014,
“Embedded Trace Macrocell, Architecture Specification”. Be aware that most of the relevant
registers are write-only, and that ETM resources are limited. There are only a handful of
address comparators, data comparators, counters, and so on.
Examples of scenarios you might arrange to trace include:
• Code flow within a function, excluding subroutines it calls. Use address range comparators to enable tracing for instruction access within that function’s body.
• Code flow within a function, including subroutines it calls. Use the sequencer and
address comparators to activate tracing on an “entered function” state, then deactivate
it by exiting that state when the function’s exit code is invoked.
• Code flow starting at the fifth invocation of a function, combining one of the above
models with a counter.
• CPU data accesses to the registers for a particular device, using address range comparators and the ViewData logic.
• Such data accesses only during IRQ handling, combining the above model with sequencer triggers which on entry and exit to the IRQ handler.
• ... more
At this writing, September 2009, there are no Tcl utility procedures to help set up any
common tracing scenarios.
[Command]
Reads trace data into memory, if it wasn’t already present. Decodes and prints the
data that was collected.
etm analyze
etm dump filename
[Command]
Stores the captured trace data in filename.
etm image filename [base address] [type]
[Command]
Opens an image file.
etm load filename
[Command]
Loads captured trace data from filename.
etm start
[Command]
Starts trace data collection.
etm stop
Stops trace data collection.
[Command]
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16.1.3 Trace Port Drivers
To use an ETM trace port it must be associated with a driver.
[Trace Port Driver]
Use the dummy driver if you are configuring an ETM that’s not connected to anything
(on-chip ETB or off-chip trace connector). This driver lets OpenOCD talk to the
ETM, but it does not expose any trace data collection.
dummy
etm_dummy config target
[Config Command]
Associates the ETM for target with a dummy driver.
etb
[Trace Port Driver]
Use the etb driver if you are configuring an ETM to use on-chip ETB memory.
etb config target etb tap
[Config Command]
Associates the ETM for target with the ETB at etb tap. You can see the ETB
registers using the reg command.
etb trigger_percent [percent]
[Command]
This displays, or optionally changes, ETB behavior after the ETM’s configured
trigger event fires. It controls how much more trace data is saved after the
(single) trace trigger becomes active.
• The default corresponds to trace around usage, recording 50 percent data
before the event and the rest afterwards.
• The minimum value of percent is 2 percent, recording almost exclusively
data before the trigger. Such extreme trace before usage can help figure
out what caused that event to happen.
• The maximum value of percent is 100 percent, recording data almost exclusively after the event. This extreme trace after usage might help sort
out how the event caused trouble.
[Trace Port Driver]
This driver isn’t available unless OpenOCD was explicitly configured with the -enable-oocd_trace option. You probably don’t want to configure it unless you’ve
built the appropriate prototype hardware; it’s proof-of-concept software.
oocd_trace
Use the oocd_trace driver if you are configuring an ETM that’s connected to an
off-chip trace connector.
oocd_trace config target tty
[Config Command]
Associates the ETM for target with a trace driver which collects data through
the serial port tty.
oocd_trace resync
[Command]
Re-synchronizes with the capture clock.
oocd_trace status
Reports whether the capture clock is locked or not.
[Command]
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16.2 Generic ARM
These commands should be available on all ARM processors. They are available in addition
to other core-specific commands that may be available.
arm core_state [arm|thumb]
[Command]
Displays the core state, optionally changing it to process either arm or thumb instructions. The target may later be resumed in the currently set core state. (Processors
may also support the Jazelle state, but that is not currently supported in OpenOCD.)
arm disassemble address [count [thumb]]
[Command]
Disassembles count instructions starting at address. If count is not specified, a single
instruction is disassembled. If thumb is specified, or the low bit of the address is set,
Thumb2 (mixed 16/32-bit) instructions are used; else ARM (32-bit) instructions are
used. (Processors may also support the Jazelle state, but those instructions are not
currently understood by OpenOCD.)
Note that all Thumb instructions are Thumb2 instructions, so older processors (without Thumb2 support) will still see correct disassembly of Thumb code. Also, ThumbEE opcodes are the same as Thumb2, with a handful of exceptions. ThumbEE
disassembly currently has no explicit support.
arm mcr pX op1 CRn CRm op2 value
[Command]
Write value to a coprocessor pX register passing parameters CRn, CRm, opcodes
opc1 and opc2, and using the MCR instruction. (Parameter sequence matches the
ARM instruction, but omits an ARM register.)
arm mrc pX coproc op1 CRn CRm op2
[Command]
Read a coprocessor pX register passing parameters CRn, CRm, opcodes opc1 and
opc2, and the MRC instruction. Returns the result so it can be manipulated by
Jim scripts. (Parameter sequence matches the ARM instruction, but omits an ARM
register.)
[Command]
Display a table of all banked core registers, fetching the current value from every core
mode if necessary.
arm reg
arm semihosting [enable|disable]
[Command]
Display status of semihosting, after optionally changing that status.
Semihosting allows for code executing on an ARM target to use the I/O facilities on
the host computer i.e. the system where OpenOCD is running. The target application
must be linked against a library implementing the ARM semihosting convention that
forwards operation requests by using a special SVC instruction that is trapped at the
Supervisor Call vector by OpenOCD.
16.3 ARMv4 and ARMv5 Architecture
The ARMv4 and ARMv5 architectures are widely used in embedded systems, and introduced core parts of the instruction set in use today. That includes the Thumb instruction
set, introduced in the ARMv4T variant.
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16.3.1 ARM7 and ARM9 specific commands
These commands are specific to ARM7 and ARM9 cores, like ARM7TDMI, ARM720T,
ARM9TDMI, ARM920T or ARM926EJ-S. They are available in addition to the ARM
commands, and any other core-specific commands that may be available.
arm7_9 dbgrq [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the flag controlling use of the the EmbeddedIce DBGRQ signal
to force entry into debug mode, instead of breakpoints. If a boolean parameter is
provided, first assigns that flag.
This should be safe for all but ARM7TDMI-S cores (like NXP LPC). This feature
is enabled by default on most ARM9 cores, including ARM9TDMI, ARM920T, and
ARM926EJ-S.
arm7_9 dcc_downloads [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the flag controlling use of the debug communications channel
(DCC) to write larger (>128 byte) amounts of memory. If a boolean parameter is
provided, first assigns that flag.
DCC downloads offer a huge speed increase, but might be unsafe, especially with
targets running at very low speeds. This command was introduced with OpenOCD
rev. 60, and requires a few bytes of working area.
arm7_9 fast_memory_access [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the flag controlling use of memory writes and reads that don’t
check completion of the operation. If a boolean parameter is provided, first assigns
that flag.
This provides a huge speed increase, especially with USB JTAG cables (FT2232),
but might be unsafe if used with targets running at very low speeds, like the 32kHz
startup clock of an AT91RM9200.
16.3.2 ARM720T specific commands
These commands are available to ARM720T based CPUs, which are implementations of
the ARMv4T architecture based on the ARM7TDMI-S integer core. They are available in
addition to the ARM and ARM7/ARM9 commands.
arm720t cp15 opcode [value]
[Command]
DEPRECATED – avoid using this. Use the arm mrc or arm mcr commands instead.
Display cp15 register returned by the ARM instruction opcode; else if a value is
provided, that value is written to that register. The opcode should be the value of
either an MRC or MCR instruction.
16.3.3 ARM9 specific commands
ARM9-family cores are built around ARM9TDMI or ARM9E (including ARM9EJS) integer
processors. Such cores include the ARM920T, ARM926EJ-S, and ARM966.
arm9 vector_catch [all|none|list]
[Command]
Vector Catch hardware provides a sort of dedicated breakpoint for hardware events
such as reset, interrupt, and abort. You can use this to conserve normal breakpoint
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resources, so long as you’re not concerned with code that branches directly to those
hardware vectors.
This always finishes by listing the current configuration. If parameters are provided, it
first reconfigures the vector catch hardware to intercept all of the hardware vectors,
none of them, or a list with one or more of the following: reset undef swi pabt dabt
irq fiq.
16.3.4 ARM920T specific commands
These commands are available to ARM920T based CPUs, which are implementations of
the ARMv4T architecture built using the ARM9TDMI integer core. They are available in
addition to the ARM, ARM7/ARM9, and ARM9 commands.
[Command]
Print information about the caches found. This allows to see whether your target is
an ARM920T (2x16kByte cache) or ARM922T (2x8kByte cache).
arm920t cache_info
arm920t cp15 regnum [value]
[Command]
Display cp15 register regnum; else if a value is provided, that value is written to that
register. This uses "physical access" and the register number is as shown in bits 38..33
of table 9-9 in the ARM920T TRM. (Not all registers can be written.)
arm920t cp15i opcode [value [address]]
[Command]
DEPRECATED – avoid using this. Use the arm mrc or arm mcr commands instead.
Interpreted access using ARM instruction opcode, which should be the value of either
an MRC or MCR instruction (as shown tables 9-11, 9-12, and 9-13 in the ARM920T
TRM). If no value is provided, the result is displayed. Else if that value is written
using the specified address, or using zero if no other address is provided.
arm920t read_cache filename
[Command]
Dump the content of ICache and DCache to a file named filename.
arm920t read_mmu filename
[Command]
Dump the content of the ITLB and DTLB to a file named filename.
16.3.5 ARM926ej-s specific commands
These commands are available to ARM926ej-s based CPUs, which are implementations of
the ARMv5TEJ architecture based on the ARM9EJ-S integer core. They are available in
addition to the ARM, ARM7/ARM9, and ARM9 commands.
The Feroceon cores also support these commands, although they are not built from
ARM926ej-s designs.
arm926ejs cache_info
[Command]
Print information about the caches found.
16.3.6 ARM966E specific commands
These commands are available to ARM966 based CPUs, which are implementations of the
ARMv5TE architecture. They are available in addition to the ARM, ARM7/ARM9, and
ARM9 commands.
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arm966e cp15 regnum [value]
[Command]
Display cp15 register regnum; else if a value is provided, that value is written to that
register. The six bit regnum values are bits 37..32 from table 7-2 of the ARM966E-S
TRM. There is no current control over bits 31..30 from that table, as required for
BIST support.
16.3.7 XScale specific commands
Some notes about the debug implementation on the XScale CPUs:
The XScale CPU provides a special debug-only mini-instruction cache (mini-IC) in which
exception vectors and target-resident debug handler code are placed by OpenOCD. In order
to get access to the CPU, OpenOCD must point vector 0 (the reset vector) to the entry of
the debug handler. However, this means that the complete first cacheline in the mini-IC is
marked valid, which makes the CPU fetch all exception handlers from the mini-IC, ignoring
the code in RAM.
To address this situation, OpenOCD provides the xscale vector_table command, which
allows the user to explicity write individual entries to either the high or low vector table
stored in the mini-IC.
It is recommended to place a pc-relative indirect branch in the vector table, and put the
branch destination somewhere in memory. Doing so makes sure the code in the vector table
stays constant regardless of code layout in memory:
_vectors:
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
ldr
pc,[pc,#0x100-8]
.org 0x100
.long real_reset_vector
.long real_ui_handler
.long real_swi_handler
.long real_pf_abort
.long real_data_abort
.long 0 /* unused */
.long real_irq_handler
.long real_fiq_handler
Alternatively, you may choose to keep some or all of the mini-IC vector table entries synced
with those written to memory by your system software. The mini-IC can not be modified
while the processor is executing, but for each vector table entry not previously defined using
the xscale vector_table command, OpenOCD will copy the value from memory to the
mini-IC every time execution resumes from a halt. This is done for both high and low
vector tables (although the table not in use may not be mapped to valid memory, and in
this case that copy operation will silently fail). This means that you will need to briefly
halt execution at some strategic point during system start-up; e.g., after the software has
Chapter 16: Architecture and Core Commands
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initialized the vector table, but before exceptions are enabled. A breakpoint can be used to
accomplish this once the appropriate location in the start-up code has been identified. A
watchpoint over the vector table region is helpful in finding the location if you’re not sure.
Note that the same situation exists any time the vector table is modified by the system
software.
The debug handler must be placed somewhere in the address space using the xscale
debug_handler command. The allowed locations for the debug handler are either (0x800 0x1fef800) or (0xfe000800 - 0xfffff800). The default value is 0xfe000800.
XScale has resources to support two hardware breakpoints and two watchpoints. However,
the following restrictions on watchpoint functionality apply: (1) the value and mask arguments to the wp command are not supported, (2) the watchpoint length must be a power
of two and not less than four, and can not be greater than the watchpoint address, and
(3) a watchpoint with a length greater than four consumes all the watchpoint hardware
resources. This means that at any one time, you can have enabled either two watchpoints
with a length of four, or one watchpoint with a length greater than four.
These commands are available to XScale based CPUs, which are implementations of the
ARMv5TE architecture.
xscale analyze_trace
[Command]
Displays the contents of the trace buffer.
xscale cache_clean_address address
[Command]
Changes the address used when cleaning the data cache.
xscale cache_info
[Command]
Displays information about the CPU caches.
xscale cp15 regnum [value]
[Command]
Display cp15 register regnum; else if a value is provided, that value is written to that
register.
xscale debug_handler target address
[Command]
Changes the address used for the specified target’s debug handler.
xscale dcache [enable|disable]
[Command]
Enables or disable the CPU’s data cache.
xscale dump_trace filename
[Command]
Dumps the raw contents of the trace buffer to filename.
xscale icache [enable|disable]
[Command]
Enables or disable the CPU’s instruction cache.
xscale mmu [enable|disable]
[Command]
Enables or disable the CPU’s memory management unit.
xscale trace_buffer [enable|disable [fill [n] | wrap]]
[Command]
Displays the trace buffer status, after optionally enabling or disabling the trace buffer
and modifying how it is emptied.
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xscale trace_image filename [offset [type]]
[Command]
Opens a trace image from filename, optionally rebasing its segment addresses by
offset. The image type may be one of bin (binary), ihex (Intel hex), elf (ELF file),
s19 (Motorola s19), mem, or builder.
xscale vector_catch [mask]
[Command]
Display a bitmask showing the hardware vectors to catch. If the optional parameter
is provided, first set the bitmask to that value.
The mask bits correspond with bit 16..23 in the DCSR:
0x01
0x02
0x04
0x08
0x10
0x20
0x40
0x80
Trap Reset
Trap Undefined Instructions
Trap Software Interrupt
Trap Prefetch Abort
Trap Data Abort
reserved
Trap IRQ
Trap FIQ
xscale vector_table [(low|high) index value]
[Command]
Set an entry in the mini-IC vector table. There are two tables: one for low vectors (at
0x00000000), and one for high vectors (0xFFFF0000), each holding the 8 exception
vectors. index can be 1-7, because vector 0 points to the debug handler entry and
can not be overwritten. value holds the 32-bit opcode that is placed in the mini-IC.
Without arguments, the current settings are displayed.
16.4 ARMv6 Architecture
16.4.1 ARM11 specific commands
arm11 memwrite burst [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the memwrite burst-enable flag, which is enabled by default. If
a boolean parameter is provided, first assigns that flag. Burst writes are only used
for memory writes larger than 1 word. They improve performance by assuming that
the CPU has read each data word over JTAG and completed its write before the next
word arrives, instead of polling for a status flag to verify that completion. This is
usually safe, because JTAG runs much slower than the CPU.
arm11 memwrite error_fatal [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the memwrite error fatal flag, which is enabled by default. If
a boolean parameter is provided, first assigns that flag. When set, certain memory
write errors cause earlier transfer termination.
arm11 step_irq_enable [enable|disable]
[Command]
Displays the value of the flag controlling whether IRQs are enabled during single
stepping; they are disabled by default. If a boolean parameter is provided, first
assigns that.
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arm11 vcr [value]
[Command]
Displays the value of the Vector Catch Register (VCR), coprocessor 14 register 7. If
value is defined, first assigns that.
Vector Catch hardware provides dedicated breakpoints for certain hardware events.
The specific bit values are core-specific (as in fact is using coprocessor 14 register 7
itself) but all current ARM11 cores except the ARM1176 use the same six bits.
16.5 ARMv7 Architecture
16.5.1 ARMv7 Debug Access Port (DAP) specific commands
These commands are specific to ARM architecture v7 Debug Access Port (DAP), included
on Cortex-M and Cortex-A systems. They are available in addition to other core-specific
commands that may be available.
dap apid [num]
[Command]
Displays ID register from AP num, defaulting to the currently selected AP.
dap apsel [num]
[Command]
Select AP num, defaulting to 0.
dap baseaddr [num]
[Command]
Displays debug base address from MEM-AP num, defaulting to the currently selected
AP.
dap info [num]
[Command]
Displays the ROM table for MEM-AP num, defaulting to the currently selected AP.
dap memaccess [value]
[Command]
Displays the number of extra tck cycles in the JTAG idle to use for MEM-AP memory
bus access [0-255], giving additional time to respond to reads. If value is defined, first
assigns that.
dap apcsw [0 / 1]
[Command]
fix CSW SPROT from register AP REG CSW on selected dap. Defaulting to 0.
dap ti_be_32_quirks [enable]
[Command]
Set/get quirks mode for TI TMS450/TMS570 processors Disabled by default
16.5.2 ARMv7-A specific commands
cortex_a cache_info
[Command]
display information about target caches
[Command]
Work around issues with software breakpoints when the program text is mapped readonly by the operating system. This option sets the CP15 DACR to "all-manager" to
bypass MMU permission checks on memory access. Defaults to ’off’.
cortex_a dacrfixup [on|off]
[Command]
Initialize core debug Enables debug by unlocking the Software Lock and clearing
sticky powerdown indications
cortex_a dbginit
Chapter 16: Architecture and Core Commands
cortex_a smp_off
116
[Command]
Disable SMP mode
cortex_a smp_on
[Command]
Enable SMP mode
cortex_a smp_gdb [core id]
[Command]
Display/set the current core displayed in GDB
cortex_a maskisr [on|off]
[Command]
Selects whether interrupts will be processed when single stepping
cache_config l2x [base way]
[Command]
configure l2x cache
16.5.3 ARMv7-R specific commands
[Command]
Initialize core debug Enables debug by unlocking the Software Lock and clearing
sticky powerdown indications
cortex_r dbginit
cortex_r maskisr [on|off]
[Command]
Selects whether interrupts will be processed when single stepping
16.5.4 ARMv7-M specific commands
tpiu config (disable | ((external | internal (filename | -))
[Command]
(sync port_width | ((manchester | uart) formatter_enable))
TRACECLKIN_freq [trace_freq]))
ARMv7-M architecture provides several modules to generate debugging information
internally (ITM, DWT and ETM). Their output is directed through TPIU to be
captured externally either on an SWO pin (this configuration is called SWV) or on a
synchronous parallel trace port.
This command configures the TPIU module of the target and, if internal capture mode
is selected, starts to capture trace output by using the debugger adapter features.
Some targets require additional actions to be performed in the trace-config handler
for trace port to be activated.
Command options:
− disable disable TPIU handling;
− external configure TPIU to let user capture trace output externally (with an
additional UART or logic analyzer hardware);
− internal filename configure TPIU and debug adapter to gather trace data and
append it to filename (which can be either a regular file or a named pipe);
− internal - configure TPIU and debug adapter to gather trace data, but not
write to any file. Useful in conjunction with the tcl_trace command;
− sync port_width use synchronous parallel trace output mode, and set port width
to port width;
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− manchester use asynchronous SWO mode with Manchester coding;
− uart use asynchronous SWO mode with NRZ (same as regular UART 8N1)
coding;
− formatter enable is on or off to enable or disable TPIU formatter which needs
to be used when both ITM and ETM data is to be output via SWO;
− TRACECLKIN freq this should be specified to match target’s current TRACECLKIN frequency (usually the same as HCLK);
− trace freq trace port frequency. Can be omitted in internal mode to let the
adapter driver select the maximum supported rate automatically.
Example usage:
1. STM32L152 board is programmed with an application that configures PLL to
provide core clock with 24MHz frequency; to use ITM output it’s enough to:
#include <libopencm3/cm3/itm.h>
...
ITM_STIM8(0) = c;
...
(the most obvious way is to use the first stimulus port for printf, for that this
ITM STIM8 assignment can be used inside write(); to make it blocking to avoid
data loss, add while (!(ITM_STIM8(0) & ITM_STIM_FIFOREADY)););
2. An FT2232H UART is connected to the SWO pin of the board;
3. Commands to configure UART for 12MHz baud rate:
$ setserial /dev/ttyUSB1 spd_cust divisor 5
$ stty -F /dev/ttyUSB1 38400
(FT2232H’s base frequency is 60MHz, spd cust allows to alias 38400 baud with
our custom divisor to get 12MHz)
4. itmdump -f /dev/ttyUSB1 -d1
5. OpenOCD invocation line:
openocd -f interface/stlink-v2-1.cfg \
-c "transport select hla_swd" \
-f target/stm32l1.cfg \
-c "tpiu config external uart off 24000000 12000000"
itm port port (0|1|on|off)
[Command]
Enable or disable trace output for ITM stimulus port (counting from 0). Port 0 is
enabled on target creation automatically.
itm ports (0|1|on|off)
[Command]
Enable or disable trace output for all ITM stimulus ports.
16.5.5 Cortex-M specific commands
cortex_m maskisr (auto|on|off)
[Command]
Control masking (disabling) interrupts during target step/resume.
The auto option handles interrupts during stepping a way they get served but don’t
disturb the program flow. The step command first allows pending interrupt handlers
Chapter 16: Architecture and Core Commands
118
to execute, then disables interrupts and steps over the next instruction where the core
was halted. After the step interrupts are enabled again. If the interrupt handlers don’t
complete within 500ms, the step command leaves with the core running.
Note that a free breakpoint is required for the auto option. If no breakpoint is
available at the time of the step, then the step is taken with interrupts enabled, i.e.
the same way the off option does.
Default is auto.
cortex_m vector_catch [all|none|list]
[Command]
Vector Catch hardware provides dedicated breakpoints for certain hardware events.
Parameters request interception of all of these hardware event vectors, none of them,
or one or more of the following: hard_err for a HardFault exception; mm_err for
a MemManage exception; bus_err for a BusFault exception; irq_err, state_err,
chk_err, or nocp_err for various UsageFault exceptions; or reset. If NVIC setup
code does not enable them, MemManage, BusFault, and UsageFault exceptions are
mapped to HardFault. UsageFault checks for divide-by-zero and unaligned access
must also be explicitly enabled.
This finishes by listing the current vector catch configuration.
cortex_m reset_config (srst|sysresetreq|vectreset)
[Command]
Control reset handling. The default srst is to use srst if fitted, otherwise fallback to
vectreset.
− srst use hardware srst if fitted otherwise fallback to vectreset.
− sysresetreq use NVIC SYSRESETREQ to reset system.
− vectreset use NVIC VECTRESET to reset system.
Using vectreset is a safe option for all current Cortex-M cores. This however has
the disadvantage of only resetting the core, all peripherals are uneffected. A solution
would be to use a reset-init event handler to manually reset the peripherals. See
[Target Events], page 66.
16.6 Intel Architecture
Intel Quark X10xx is the first product in the Quark family of SoCs. It is an IA-32 (Pentium
x86 ISA) compatible SoC. The core CPU in the X10xx is codenamed Lakemont. Lakemont version 1 (LMT1) is used in X10xx. The CPU TAP (Lakemont TAP) is used for
software debug and the CLTAP is used for SoC level operations. Useful docs are here:
https://communities.intel.com/community/makers/documentation
• Intel Quark SoC X1000 OpenOCD/GDB/Eclipse App Note (web search for doc num
330015)
• Intel Quark SoC X1000 Debug Operations User Guide (web search for doc num 329866)
• Intel Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet (web search for doc num 329676)
16.6.1 x86 32-bit specific commands
The three main address spaces for x86 are memory, I/O and configuration space. These
commands allow a user to read and write to the 64Kbyte I/O address space.
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x86_32 idw address
[Command]
Display the contents of a 32-bit I/O port from address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
x86_32 idh address
[Command]
Display the contents of a 16-bit I/O port from address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
x86_32 idb address
[Command]
Display the contents of a 8-bit I/O port from address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
x86_32 iww address
[Command]
Write the contents of a 32-bit I/O port to address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
x86_32 iwh address
[Command]
Write the contents of a 16-bit I/O port to address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
x86_32 iwb address
[Command]
Write the contents of a 8-bit I/O port to address range 0x0000 - 0xffff.
16.7 OpenRISC Architecture
The OpenRISC CPU is a soft core. It is used in a programmable SoC which can be
configured with any of the TAP / Debug Unit available.
16.7.1 TAP and Debug Unit selection commands
tap_select (vjtag|mohor|xilinx_bscan)
[Command]
Select between the Altera Virtual JTAG , Xilinx Virtual JTAG and Mohor TAP.
du_select (adv|mohor) [option]
[Command]
Select between the Advanced Debug Interface and the classic one.
An option can be passed as a second argument to the debug unit.
When using the Advanced Debug Interface, option = 1 means the RTL core is configured with ADBG USE HISPEED = 1. This configuration skips status checking
between bytes while doing read or write bursts.
16.7.2 Registers commands
addreg [name] [address] [feature] [reg group]
[Command]
Add a new register in the cpu register list. This register will be included in the
generated target descriptor file.
[feature] must be "org.gnu.gdb.or1k.group[0..10]".
[reg group] can be anything. The default register list defines "system", "dmmu",
"immu", "dcache", "icache", "mac", "debug", "perf", "power", "pic" and "timer"
groups.
example:
addreg rtest 0x1234 org.gnu.gdb.or1k.group0 system
readgroup (group)
[Command]
Display all registers in group.
group can be "system", "dmmu", "immu", "dcache", "icache", "mac", "debug",
"perf", "power", "pic", "timer" or any new group created with addreg command.
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16.8 Software Debug Messages and Tracing
OpenOCD can process certain requests from target software, when the target uses appropriate libraries. The most powerful mechanism is semihosting, but there is also a lighter
weight mechanism using only the DCC channel.
Currently target_request debugmsgs is supported only for arm7_9 and cortex_m cores.
These messages are received as part of target polling, so you need to have poll on active to
receive them. They are intrusive in that they will affect program execution times. If that
is a problem, see [ARM Hardware Tracing], page 105.
See libdcc in the contrib dir for more details. In addition to sending strings, characters,
and arrays of various size integers from the target, libdcc also exports a software trace
point mechanism. The target being debugged may issue trace messages which include a
24-bit trace point number. Trace point support includes two distinct mechanisms, each
supported by a command:
• History ... A circular buffer of trace points can be set up, and then displayed at any
time. This tracks where code has been, which can be invaluable in finding out how
some fault was triggered.
The buffer may overflow, since it collects records continuously. It may be useful to use
some of the 24 bits to represent a particular event, and other bits to hold data.
• Counting ... An array of counters can be set up, and then displayed at any time. This
can help establish code coverage and identify hot spots.
The array of counters is directly indexed by the trace point number, so trace points
with higher numbers are not counted.
Linux-ARM kernels have a “Kernel low-level debugging via EmbeddedICE DCC channel”
option (CONFIG DEBUG ICEDCC, depends on CONFIG DEBUG LL) which uses this
mechanism to deliver messages before a serial console can be activated. This is not the
same format used by libdcc. Other software, such as the U-Boot boot loader, sometimes
does the same thing.
target_request debugmsgs [enable|disable|charmsg]
[Command]
Displays current handling of target DCC message requests. These messages may be
sent to the debugger while the target is running. The optional enable and charmsg
parameters both enable the messages, while disable disables them.
With charmsg the DCC words each contain one character, as used by Linux with
CONFIG DEBUG ICEDCC; otherwise the libdcc format is used.
trace history [clear|count]
[Command]
With no parameter, displays all the trace points that have triggered in the order they
triggered. With the parameter clear, erases all current trace history records. With
a count parameter, allocates space for that many history records.
trace point [clear|identifier]
[Command]
With no parameter, displays all trace point identifiers and how many times they
have been triggered. With the parameter clear, erases all current trace point counters. With a numeric identifier parameter, creates a new a trace point counter and
associates it with that identifier.
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Important: The identifier and the trace point number are not related except by this
command. These trace point numbers always start at zero (from server startup, or
after trace point clear) and count up from there.
Chapter 17: JTAG Commands
122
17 JTAG Commands
Most general purpose JTAG commands have been presented earlier. (See [JTAG Speed],
page 48, Chapter 9 [Reset Configuration], page 50, and Chapter 10 [TAP Declaration],
page 55.) Lower level JTAG commands, as presented here, may be needed to work with
targets which require special attention during operations such as reset or initialization.
To use these commands you will need to understand some of the basics of JTAG, including:
• A JTAG scan chain consists of a sequence of individual TAP devices such as a CPUs.
• Control operations involve moving each TAP through the same standard state machine
(in parallel) using their shared TMS and clock signals.
• Data transfer involves shifting data through the chain of instruction or data registers
of each TAP, writing new register values while the reading previous ones.
• Data register sizes are a function of the instruction active in a given TAP, while instruction register sizes are fixed for each TAP. All TAPs support a BYPASS instruction
with a single bit data register.
• The way OpenOCD differentiates between TAP devices is by shifting different instructions into (and out of) their instruction registers.
17.1 Low Level JTAG Commands
These commands are used by developers who need to access JTAG instruction or data
registers, possibly controlling the order of TAP state transitions. If you’re not debugging
OpenOCD internals, or bringing up a new JTAG adapter or a new type of TAP device
(like a CPU or JTAG router), you probably won’t need to use these commands. In a debug
session that doesn’t use JTAG for its transport protocol, these commands are not available.
drscan tap [numbits value]+ [-endstate tap state]
[Command]
Loads the data register of tap with a series of bit fields that specify the entire register.
Each field is numbits bits long with a numeric value (hexadecimal encouraged). The
return value holds the original value of each of those fields.
For example, a 38 bit number might be specified as one field of 32 bits then one of
6 bits. For portability, never pass fields which are more than 32 bits long. Many
OpenOCD implementations do not support 64-bit (or larger) integer values.
All TAPs other than tap must be in BYPASS mode. The single bit in their data
registers does not matter.
When tap state is specified, the JTAG state machine is left in that state. For example
drpause might be specified, so that more instructions can be issued before re-entering
the run/idle state. If the end state is not specified, the run/idle state is entered.
Warning: OpenOCD does not record information about data register
lengths, so it is important that you get the bit field lengths right. Remember that different JTAG instructions refer to different data registers,
which may have different lengths. Moreover, those lengths may not be
fixed; the SCAN N instruction can change the length of the register accessed by the INTEST instruction (by connecting a different scan chain).
Chapter 17: JTAG Commands
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[Command]
Returns the number of times the JTAG queue has been flushed. This may be used
for performance tuning.
For example, flushing a queue over USB involves a minimum latency, often several
milliseconds, which does not change with the amount of data which is written. You
may be able to identify performance problems by finding tasks which waste bandwidth
by flushing small transfers too often, instead of batching them into larger operations.
flush_count
irscan [tap instruction]+ [-endstate tap state]
[Command]
For each tap listed, loads the instruction register with its associated numeric
instruction. (The number of bits in that instruction may be displayed using the
scan_chain command.) For other TAPs, a BYPASS instruction is loaded.
When tap state is specified, the JTAG state machine is left in that state. For example
irpause might be specified, so the data register can be loaded before re-entering the
run/idle state. If the end state is not specified, the run/idle state is entered.
Note: OpenOCD currently supports only a single field for instruction register values, unlike data register values. For TAPs where the instruction
register length is more than 32 bits, portable scripts currently must issue
only BYPASS instructions.
jtag_reset trst srst
[Command]
Set values of reset signals. The trst and srst parameter values may be 0, indicating
that reset is inactive (pulled or driven high), or 1, indicating it is active (pulled or
driven low). The reset_config command should already have been used to configure
how the board and JTAG adapter treat these two signals, and to say if either signal
is even present. See Chapter 9 [Reset Configuration], page 50.
Note that TRST is specially handled. It actually signifies JTAG’s reset state. So if
the board doesn’t support the optional TRST signal, or it doesn’t support it along
with the specified SRST value, JTAG reset is triggered with TMS and TCK signals
instead of the TRST signal. And no matter how that JTAG reset is triggered, once the
scan chain enters reset with TRST inactive, TAP post-reset events are delivered
to all TAPs with handlers for that event.
pathmove start state [next state ...]
[Command]
Start by moving to start state, which must be one of the stable states. Unless it is the
only state given, this will often be the current state, so that no TCK transitions are
needed. Then, in a series of single state transitions (conforming to the JTAG state
machine) shift to each next state in sequence, one per TCK cycle. The final state
must also be stable.
[Command]
Move to the run/idle state, and execute at least num cycles of the JTAG clock
(TCK). Instructions often need some time to execute before they take effect.
runtest num_cycles
verify_ircapture (enable|disable)
[Command]
Verify values captured during ircapture and returned during IR scans. Default
is enabled, but this can be overridden by verify_jtag. This flag is ignored when
validating JTAG chain configuration.
Chapter 17: JTAG Commands
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verify_jtag (enable|disable)
[Command]
Enables verification of DR and IR scans, to help detect programming errors. For IR
scans, verify_ircapture must also be enabled. Default is enabled.
17.2 TAP state names
The tap state names used by OpenOCD in the drscan, irscan, and pathmove commands
are the same as those used in SVF boundary scan documents, except that SVF uses idle
instead of run/idle.
• RESET ... stable (with TMS high); acts as if TRST were pulsed
• RUN/IDLE ... stable; don’t assume this always means IDLE
• DRSELECT
• DRCAPTURE
• DRSHIFT ... stable; TDI/TDO shifting through the data register
• DREXIT1
• DRPAUSE ... stable; data register ready for update or more shifting
• DREXIT2
• DRUPDATE
• IRSELECT
• IRCAPTURE
• IRSHIFT ... stable; TDI/TDO shifting through the instruction register
• IREXIT1
• IRPAUSE ... stable; instruction register ready for update or more shifting
• IREXIT2
• IRUPDATE
Note that only six of those states are fully “stable” in the face of TMS fixed (low except
for reset) and a free-running JTAG clock. For all the others, the next TCK transition
changes to a new state.
• From drshift and irshift, clock transitions will produce side effects by changing
register contents. The values to be latched in upcoming drupdate or irupdate states
may not be as expected.
• run/idle, drpause, and irpause are reasonable choices after drscan or irscan commands, since they are free of JTAG side effects.
• run/idle may have side effects that appear at non-JTAG levels, such as advancing
the ARM9E-S instruction pipeline. Consult the documentation for the TAP(s) you are
working with.
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18 Boundary Scan Commands
One of the original purposes of JTAG was to support boundary scan based hardware testing.
Although its primary focus is to support On-Chip Debugging, OpenOCD also includes some
boundary scan commands.
18.1 SVF: Serial Vector Format
The Serial Vector Format, better known as SVF, is a way to represent JTAG test patterns
in text files. In a debug session using JTAG for its transport protocol, OpenOCD supports
running such test files.
svf filename [quiet]
[Command]
This issues a JTAG reset (Test-Logic-Reset) and then runs the SVF script from
filename. Unless the quiet option is specified, each command is logged before it is
executed.
18.2 XSVF: Xilinx Serial Vector Format
The Xilinx Serial Vector Format, better known as XSVF, is a binary representation of SVF
which is optimized for use with Xilinx devices. In a debug session using JTAG for its
transport protocol, OpenOCD supports running such test files.
Important: Not all XSVF commands are supported.
xsvf (tapname|plain) filename [virt2] [quiet]
[Command]
This issues a JTAG reset (Test-Logic-Reset) and then runs the XSVF script from
filename. When a tapname is specified, the commands are directed at that TAP.
When virt2 is specified, the xruntest command counts are interpreted as TCK
cycles instead of microseconds. Unless the quiet option is specified, messages are
logged for comments and some retries.
The OpenOCD sources also include two utility scripts for working with XSVF; they are not
currently installed after building the software. You may find them useful:
• svf2xsvf ... converts SVF files into the extended XSVF syntax understood by the xsvf
command; see notes below.
• xsvfdump ... converts XSVF files into a text output format; understands the OpenOCD
extensions.
The input format accepts a handful of non-standard extensions. These include three opcodes corresponding to SVF extensions from Lattice Semiconductor (LCOUNT, LDELAY,
LDSR), and two opcodes supporting a more accurate translation of SVF (XTRST, XWAITSTATE). If xsvfdump shows a file is using those opcodes, it probably will not be usable with
other XSVF tools.
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19 Utility Commands
19.1 RAM testing
There is often a need to stress-test random access memory (RAM) for errors. OpenOCD
comes with a Tcl implementation of well-known memory testing procedures allowing the
detection of all sorts of issues with electrical wiring, defective chips, PCB layout and other
common hardware problems.
To use them, you usually need to initialise your RAM controller first; consult your SoC’s
documentation to get the recommended list of register operations and translate them to the
corresponding mww/mwb commands.
Load the memory testing functions with
source [find tools/memtest.tcl]
to get access to the following facilities:
memTestDataBus address
[Command]
Test the data bus wiring in a memory region by performing a walking 1’s test at a
fixed address within that region.
memTestAddressBus baseaddress size
[Command]
Perform a walking 1’s test on the relevant bits of the address and check for aliasing.
This test will find single-bit address failures such as stuck-high, stuck-low, and shorted
pins.
memTestDevice baseaddress size
[Command]
Test the integrity of a physical memory device by performing an increment/decrement
test over the entire region. In the process every storage bit in the device is tested as
zero and as one.
runAllMemTests baseaddress size
[Command]
Run all of the above tests over a specified memory region.
19.2 Firmware recovery helpers
OpenOCD includes an easy-to-use script to facilitate mass-market devices recovery with
JTAG.
For quickstart instructions run:
openocd -f tools/firmware-recovery.tcl -c firmware_help
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20 TFTP
If OpenOCD runs on an embedded host (as ZY1000 does), then TFTP can be used to access
files on PCs (either the developer’s PC or some other PC).
The way this works on the ZY1000 is to prefix a filename by "/tftp/ip/" and append the
TFTP path on the TFTP server (tftpd). For example,
load_image /tftp/10.0.0.96/c:\temp\abc.elf
will load c:\temp\abc.elf from the developer pc (10.0.0.96) into memory as if the file was
hosted on the embedded host.
In order to achieve decent performance, you must choose a TFTP server that supports a
packet size bigger than the default packet size (512 bytes). There are numerous TFTP
servers out there (free and commercial) and you will have to do a bit of googling to find
something that fits your requirements.
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21 GDB and OpenOCD
OpenOCD complies with the remote gdbserver protocol and, as such, can be used to debug
remote targets. Setting up GDB to work with OpenOCD can involve several components:
• The OpenOCD server support for GDB may need to be configured. See [GDB Configuration], page 33.
• GDB’s support for OpenOCD may need configuration, as shown in this chapter.
• If you have a GUI environment like Eclipse, that also will probably need to be configured.
Of course, the version of GDB you use will need to be one which has been built to know
about the target CPU you’re using. It’s probably part of the tool chain you’re using. For
example, if you are doing cross-development for ARM on an x86 PC, instead of using the
native x86 gdb command you might use arm-none-eabi-gdb if that’s the tool chain used
to compile your code.
21.1 Connecting to GDB
Use GDB 6.7 or newer with OpenOCD if you run into trouble. For instance GDB 6.3 has
a known bug that produces bogus memory access errors, which has since been fixed; see
http://osdir.com/ml/gdb.bugs.discuss/2004-12/msg00018.html
OpenOCD can communicate with GDB in two ways:
1. A socket (TCP/IP) connection is typically started as follows:
target remote localhost:3333
This would cause GDB to connect to the gdbserver on the local pc using port 3333.
It is also possible to use the GDB extended remote protocol as follows:
target extended-remote localhost:3333
2. A pipe connection is typically started as follows:
target remote | openocd -c "gdb_port pipe; log_output openocd.log"
This would cause GDB to run OpenOCD and communicate using pipes (stdin/stdout).
Using this method has the advantage of GDB starting/stopping OpenOCD for the
debug session. log output sends the log output to a file to ensure that the pipe is not
saturated when using higher debug level outputs.
To list the available OpenOCD commands type monitor help on the GDB command line.
21.2 Sample GDB session startup
With the remote protocol, GDB sessions start a little differently than they do when you’re
debugging locally. Here’s an example showing how to start a debug session with a small
ARM program. In this case the program was linked to be loaded into SRAM on a CortexM3. Most programs would be written into flash (address 0) and run from there.
$ arm-none-eabi-gdb example.elf
(gdb) target remote localhost:3333
Remote debugging using localhost:3333
...
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(gdb) monitor reset halt
...
(gdb) load
Loading section .vectors, size 0x100 lma 0x20000000
Loading section .text, size 0x5a0 lma 0x20000100
Loading section .data, size 0x18 lma 0x200006a0
Start address 0x2000061c, load size 1720
Transfer rate: 22 KB/sec, 573 bytes/write.
(gdb) continue
Continuing.
...
You could then interrupt the GDB session to make the program break, type where to show
the stack, list to show the code around the program counter, step through code, set
breakpoints or watchpoints, and so on.
21.3 Configuring GDB for OpenOCD
OpenOCD supports the gdb qSupported packet, this enables information to be sent by the
GDB remote server (i.e. OpenOCD) to GDB. Typical information includes packet size and
the device’s memory map. You do not need to configure the packet size by hand, and the
relevant parts of the memory map should be automatically set up when you declare (NOR)
flash banks.
However, there are other things which GDB can’t currently query. You may need to set
those up by hand. As OpenOCD starts up, you will often see a line reporting something
like:
Info : lm3s.cpu: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
You can pass that information to GDB with these commands:
set remote hardware-breakpoint-limit 6
set remote hardware-watchpoint-limit 4
With that particular hardware (Cortex-M3) the hardware breakpoints only work for code
running from flash memory. Most other ARM systems do not have such restrictions.
Another example of useful GDB configuration came from a user who found that single
stepping his Cortex-M3 didn’t work well with IRQs and an RTOS until he told GDB to
disable the IRQs while stepping:
define hook-step
mon cortex_m maskisr on
end
define hookpost-step
mon cortex_m maskisr off
end
Rather than typing such commands interactively, you may prefer to save them in a file and
have GDB execute them as it starts, perhaps using a .gdbinit in your project directory or
starting GDB using gdb -x filename.
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21.4 Programming using GDB
By default the target memory map is sent to GDB. This can be disabled by the following
OpenOCD configuration option:
gdb_memory_map disable
For this to function correctly a valid flash configuration must also be set in OpenOCD. For
faster performance you should also configure a valid working area.
Informing GDB of the memory map of the target will enable GDB to protect any flash
areas of the target and use hardware breakpoints by default. This means that the
OpenOCD option gdb_breakpoint_override is not required when using a memory map.
See [gdb breakpoint override], page 34.
To view the configured memory map in GDB, use the GDB command info mem. All other
unassigned addresses within GDB are treated as RAM.
GDB 6.8 and higher set any memory area not in the memory map as inaccessible. This can
be changed to the old behaviour by using the following GDB command
set mem inaccessible-by-default off
If gdb_flash_program enable is also used, GDB will be able to program any flash memory
using the vFlash interface.
GDB will look at the target memory map when a load command is given, if any areas to
be programmed lie within the target flash area the vFlash packets will be used.
If the target needs configuring before GDB programming, an event script can be executed:
$_TARGETNAME configure -event EVENTNAME BODY
To verify any flash programming the GDB command compare-sections can be used.
21.5 Using OpenOCD SMP with GDB
For SMP support following GDB serial protocol packet have been defined :
• j - smp status request
• J - smp set request
OpenOCD implements :
• jc packet for reading core id displayed by GDB connection. Reply is XXXXXXXX (8 hex
digits giving core id) or E01 for target not smp.
• JcXXXXXXXX (8 hex digits) packet for setting core id displayed at next GDB continue
(core id -1 is reserved for returning to normal resume mode). Reply E01 for target not
smp or OK on success.
Handling of this packet within GDB can be done :
• by the creation of an internal variable (i.e _core) by mean of function
allocate computed value allowing following GDB command.
set $_core 1
#Jc01 packet is sent
print $_core
#jc packet is sent and result is affected in $
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• by the usage of GDB maintenance command as described in following example (2 cpus
in SMP with core id 0 and 1 see [Define CPU targets working in SMP], page 27).
# toggle0 : force display of coreid 0
define toggle0
maint packet Jc0
continue
main packet Jc-1
end
# toggle1 : force display of coreid 1
define toggle1
maint packet Jc1
continue
main packet Jc-1
end
21.6 RTOS Support
OpenOCD includes RTOS support, this will however need enabling as it defaults to disabled.
It can be enabled by passing -rtos arg to the target See [RTOS Type], page 64.
An example setup is below:
$_TARGETNAME configure -rtos auto
This will attempt to auto detect the RTOS within your application.
Currently supported rtos’s include:
• eCos
• ThreadX
• FreeRTOS
• linux
• ChibiOS
• embKernel
• mqx
Note: Before an RTOS can be detected, it must export certain symbols; otherwise, it cannot be used by OpenOCD. Below is a list of the required symbols
for each supported RTOS.
eCos symbols
Cyg Thread::thread list, Cyg Scheduler Base::current thread.
ThreadX symbols
tx thread current ptr, tx thread created ptr, tx thread created count.
FreeRTOS symbols
pxCurrentTCB, pxReadyTasksLists, xDelayedTaskList1, xDelayedTaskList2,
pxDelayedTaskList, pxOverflowDelayedTaskList, xPendingReadyList, uxCurrentNumberOfTasks, uxTopUsedPriority.
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linux symbols
init task.
ChibiOS symbols
rlist, ch debug, chSysInit.
embKernel symbols
Rtos::sCurrentTask, Rtos::sListReady, Rtos::sListSleep, Rtos::sListSuspended,
Rtos::sMaxPriorities, Rtos::sCurrentTaskCount.
mqx symbols
mqx kernel data, MQX init struct.
For most RTOS supported the above symbols will be exported by default. However for
some, eg. FreeRTOS, extra steps must be taken.
These RTOSes may require additional OpenOCD-specific file to be linked along with the
project:
FreeRTOS
contrib/rtos-helpers/FreeRTOS-openocd.c
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22 Tcl Scripting API
22.1 API rules
Tcl commands are stateless; e.g. the telnet command has a concept of currently active
target, the Tcl API proc’s take this sort of state information as an argument to each proc.
There are three main types of return values: single value, name value pair list and lists.
Name value pair. The proc ’foo’ below returns a name/value pair list.
>
>
>
>
set
set
set
set
foo(me) Duane
foo(you) Oyvind
foo(mouse) Micky
foo(duck) Donald
If one does this:
>
set foo
The result is:
me Duane you Oyvind mouse Micky duck Donald
Thus, to get the names of the associative array is easy:
foreach { name value } [set foo] {
puts "Name: $name, Value: $value"
}
Lists returned should be relatively small. Otherwise, a range should be passed in to the
proc in question.
22.2 Internal low-level Commands
By "low-level," we mean commands that a human would typically not invoke directly.
Some low-level commands need to be prefixed with "ocd "; e.g. ocd_flash_banks is the
low-level API upon which flash banks is implemented.
• mem2array <varname> <width> <addr> <nelems>
Read memory and return as a Tcl array for script processing
• array2mem <varname> <width> <addr> <nelems>
Convert a Tcl array to memory locations and write the values
• ocd flash banks <driver> <base> <size> <chip width> <bus width> <target> [driver
options ...]
Return information about the flash banks
• capture <command>
Run <command> and return full log output that was produced during its execution.
Example:
> capture "reset init"
OpenOCD commands can consist of two words, e.g. "flash banks". The startup.tcl
"unknown" proc will translate this into a Tcl proc called "flash banks".
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22.3 OpenOCD specific Global Variables
Real Tcl has ::tcl platform(), and platform::identify, and many other variables. JimTCL, as
implemented in OpenOCD creates $ocd HOSTOS which holds one of the following values:
• cygwin Running under Cygwin
• darwin Darwin (Mac-OS) is the underlying operating sytem.
• freebsd Running under FreeBSD
• openbsd Running under OpenBSD
• netbsd Running under NetBSD
• linux Linux is the underlying operating sytem
• mingw32 Running under MingW32
• winxx Built using Microsoft Visual Studio
• ecos Running under eCos
• other Unknown, none of the above.
Note: ’winxx’ was choosen because today (March-2009) no distinction is made between
Win32 and Win64.
Note: We should add support for a variable like Tcl variable tcl_
platform(platform), it should be called jim_platform (because it is jim,
not real tcl).
22.4 Tcl RPC server
OpenOCD provides a simple RPC server that allows to run arbitrary Tcl commands and
receive the results.
To access it, your application needs to connect to a configured TCP port (see tcl_port).
Then it can pass any string to the interpreter terminating it with 0x1a and wait for the
return value (it will be terminated with 0x1a as well). This can be repeated as many times
as desired without reopening the connection.
Remember that most of the OpenOCD commands need to be prefixed with ocd_ to get the
results back. Sometimes you might also need the capture command.
See contrib/rpc_examples/ for specific client implementations.
22.5 Tcl RPC server notifications
Notifications are sent asynchronously to other commands being executed over the RPC
server, so the port must be polled continuously.
Target event, state and reset notifications are emitted as Tcl associative arrays in the
following format.
type target_event event [event-name]
type target_state state [state-name]
type target_reset mode [reset-mode]
tcl_notifications [on/off]
[Command]
Toggle output of target notifications to the current Tcl RPC server. Only available
from the Tcl RPC server. Defaults to off.
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22.6 Tcl RPC server trace output
Trace data is sent asynchronously to other commands being executed over the RPC server,
so the port must be polled continuously.
Target trace data is emitted as a Tcl associative array in the following format.
type target_trace data [trace-data-hex-encoded]
tcl_trace [on/off]
[Command]
Toggle output of target trace data to the current Tcl RPC server. Only available
from the Tcl RPC server. Defaults to off.
See an example application here:
https: / / github . com / apmorton /
OpenOcdTraceUtil [OpenOcdTraceUtil]
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23 FAQ
1. RTCK, also known as: Adaptive Clocking - What is it?
In digital circuit design it is often refered to as “clock synchronisation” the JTAG
interface uses one clock (TCK or TCLK) operating at some speed, your CPU target is
operating at another. The two clocks are not synchronised, they are “asynchronous”
In order for the two to work together they must be synchronised well enough to work;
JTAG can’t go ten times faster than the CPU, for example. There are 2 basic options:
1. Use a special "adaptive clocking" circuit to change the JTAG clock rate to match
what the CPU currently supports.
2. The JTAG clock must be fixed at some speed that’s enough slower than the CPU
clock that all TMS and TDI transitions can be detected.
Does this really matter? For some chips and some situations, this is a non-issue, like
a 500MHz ARM926 with a 5 MHz JTAG link; the CPU has no difficulty keeping up
with JTAG. Startup sequences are often problematic though, as are other situations
where the CPU clock rate changes (perhaps to save power).
For example, Atmel AT91SAM chips start operation from reset with a 32kHz system
clock. Boot firmware may activate the main oscillator and PLL before switching to a
faster clock (perhaps that 500 MHz ARM926 scenario). If you’re using JTAG to debug
that startup sequence, you must slow the JTAG clock to sometimes 1 to 4kHz. After
startup completes, JTAG can use a faster clock.
Consider also debugging a 500MHz ARM926 hand held battery powered device that
enters a low power “deep sleep” mode, at 32kHz CPU clock, between keystrokes unless
it has work to do. When would that 5 MHz JTAG clock be usable?
Solution #1 - A special circuit
In order to make use of this, your CPU, board, and JTAG adapter must all support
the RTCK feature. Not all of them support this; keep reading!
The RTCK ("Return TCK") signal in some ARM chips is used to help with this
problem. ARM has a good description of the problem described at this link: http://
www.arm.com/support/faqdev/4170.html [checked 28/nov/2008]. Link title: “How
does the JTAG synchronisation logic work? / how does adaptive clocking work?”.
The nice thing about adaptive clocking is that “battery powered hand held device
example” - the adaptiveness works perfectly all the time. One can set a break point
or halt the system in the deep power down code, slow step out until the system speeds
up.
Note that adaptive clocking may also need to work at the board level, when a boardlevel scan chain has multiple chips. Parallel clock voting schemes are good way to
implement this, both within and between chips, and can easily be implemented with a
CPLD. It’s not difficult to have logic fan a module’s input TCK signal out to each TAP
in the scan chain, and then wait until each TAP’s RTCK comes back with the right
polarity before changing the output RTCK signal. Texas Instruments makes some
clock voting logic available for free (with no support) in VHDL form; see http://
tiexpressdsp.com/index.php/Adaptive_Clocking
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Solution #2 - Always works - but may be slower
Often this is a perfectly acceptable solution.
In most simple terms: Often the JTAG clock must be 1/10 to 1/12 of the target clock
speed. But what that “magic division” is varies depending on the chips on your board.
ARM rule of thumb Most ARM based systems require an 6:1 division; ARM11 cores
use an 8:1 division. Xilinx rule of thumb is 1/12 the clock speed.
Note: most full speed FT2232 based JTAG adapters are limited to a maximum of
6MHz. The ones using USB high speed chips (FT2232H) often support faster clock
rates (and adaptive clocking).
You can still debug the ’low power’ situations - you just need to either use a fixed and
very slow JTAG clock rate ... or else manually adjust the clock speed at every step.
(Adjusting is painful and tedious, and is not always practical.)
It is however easy to “code your way around it” - i.e.: Cheat a little, have a special
debug mode in your application that does a “high power sleep”. If you are careful 98% of your problems can be debugged this way.
Note that on ARM you may need to avoid using the wait for interrupt operation in
your idle loops even if you don’t otherwise change the CPU clock rate. That operation
gates the CPU clock, and thus the JTAG clock; which prevents JTAG access. One
consequence is not being able to halt cores which are executing that wait for interrupt
operation.
To set the JTAG frequency use the command:
# Example: 1.234MHz
adapter_khz 1234
2. Win32 Pathnames Why don’t backslashes work in Windows paths?
OpenOCD uses Tcl and a backslash is an escape char. Use { and } around Windows
filenames.
> echo \a
> echo {\a}
\a
> echo "\a"
>
3. Missing: cygwin1.dll OpenOCD complains about a missing cygwin1.dll.
Make sure you have Cygwin installed, or at least a version of OpenOCD that claims
to come with all the necessary DLLs. When using Cygwin, try launching OpenOCD
from the Cygwin shell.
4. Breakpoint Issue I’m trying to set a breakpoint using GDB (or a frontend like
Insight or Eclipse), but OpenOCD complains that "Info: arm7 9 common.c:213
arm7 9 add breakpoint(): sw breakpoint requested, but software breakpoints not
enabled".
GDB issues software breakpoints when a normal breakpoint is requested, or to implement source-line single-stepping. On ARMv4T systems, like ARM7TDMI, ARM720T
Chapter 23: FAQ
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
138
or ARM920T, software breakpoints consume one of the two available hardware breakpoints.
LPC2000 Flash When erasing or writing LPC2000 on-chip flash, the operation fails at
random.
Make sure the core frequency specified in the flash lpc2000 line matches the clock
at the time you’re programming the flash. If you’ve specified the crystal’s frequency,
make sure the PLL is disabled. If you’ve specified the full core speed (e.g. 60MHz),
make sure the PLL is enabled.
Amontec Chameleon When debugging using an Amontec Chameleon in its JTAG Accelerator configuration, I keep getting "Error: amt jtagaccel.c:184 amt wait scan busy():
amt jtagaccel timed out while waiting for end of scan, rtck was disabled".
Make sure your PC’s parallel port operates in EPP mode. You might have to try
several settings in your PC BIOS (ECP, EPP, and different versions of those).
Data Aborts When debugging with OpenOCD and GDB (plain GDB, Insight, or
Eclipse), I get lots of "Error: arm7 9 common.c:1771 arm7 9 read memory(): memory
read caused data abort".
The errors are non-fatal, and are the result of GDB trying to trace stack frames beyond
the last valid frame. It might be possible to prevent this by setting up a proper "initial"
stack frame, if you happen to know what exactly has to be done, feel free to add this
here.
Simple: In your startup code - push 8 registers of zeros onto the stack before calling
main(). What GDB is doing is “climbing” the run time stack by reading various values
on the stack using the standard call frame for the target. GDB keeps going - until one of
2 things happen #1 an invalid frame is found, or #2 some huge number of stackframes
have been processed. By pushing zeros on the stack, GDB gracefully stops.
Debugging Interrupt Service Routines - In your ISR before you call your C code, do
the same - artifically push some zeros onto the stack, remember to pop them off when
the ISR is done.
Also note: If you have a multi-threaded operating system, they often do not in the
intrest of saving memory waste these few bytes. Painful...
JTAG Reset Config I get the following message in the OpenOCD console (or log file):
"Warning: arm7 9 common.c:679 arm7 9 assert reset(): srst resets test logic, too".
This warning doesn’t indicate any serious problem, as long as you don’t want to debug
your core right out of reset. Your .cfg file specified jtag_reset trst_and_srst srst_
pulls_trst to tell OpenOCD that either your board, your debugger or your target uC
(e.g. LPC2000) can’t assert the two reset signals independently. With this setup, it’s
not possible to halt the core right out of reset, everything else should work fine.
USB Power When using OpenOCD in conjunction with Amontec JTAGkey and the
Yagarto toolchain (Eclipse, arm-elf-gcc, arm-elf-gdb), the debugging seems to be unstable. When single-stepping over large blocks of code, GDB and OpenOCD quit with
an error message. Is there a stability issue with OpenOCD?
No, this is not a stability issue concerning OpenOCD. Most users have solved this issue
by simply using a self-powered USB hub, which they connect their Amontec JTAGkey
to. Apparently, some computers do not provide a USB power supply stable enough for
the Amontec JTAGkey to be operated.
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11.
12.
13.
14.
139
Laptops running on battery have this problem too...
USB Power When using the Amontec JTAGkey, sometimes OpenOCD crashes with the
following error messages: "Error: ft2232.c:201 ft2232 read(): FT Read returned: 4"
and "Error: ft2232.c:365 ft2232 send and recv(): couldn’t read from FT2232". What
does that mean and what might be the reason for this?
First of all, the reason might be the USB power supply. Try using a self-powered hub
instead of a direct connection to your computer. Secondly, the error code 4 corresponds
to an FT IO ERROR, which means that the driver for the FTDI USB chip ran into
some sort of error - this points us to a USB problem.
GDB Disconnects When using the Amontec JTAGkey, sometimes OpenOCD crashes
with the following error message: "Error: gdb server.c:101 gdb get char(): read:
10054". What does that mean and what might be the reason for this?
Error code 10054 corresponds to WSAECONNRESET, which means that the debugger
(GDB) has closed the connection to OpenOCD. This might be a GDB issue.
LPC2000 Flash In the configuration file in the section where flash device configurations
are described, there is a parameter for specifying the clock frequency for LPC2000
internal flash devices (e.g.
flash bank $_FLASHNAME lpc2000 0x0 0x40000 0 0
$_TARGETNAME lpc2000_v1 14746 calc_checksum), which must be specified in
kilohertz. However, I do have a quartz crystal of a frequency that contains fractions
of kilohertz (e.g. 14,745,600 Hz, i.e. 14,745.600 kHz). Is it possible to specify real
numbers for the clock frequency?
No. The clock frequency specified here must be given as an integral number. However,
this clock frequency is used by the In-Application-Programming (IAP) routines of the
LPC2000 family only, which seems to be very tolerant concerning the given clock
frequency, so a slight difference between the specified clock frequency and the actual
clock frequency will not cause any trouble.
Command Order Do I have to keep a specific order for the commands in the configuration file?
Well, yes and no. Commands can be given in arbitrary order, yet the devices listed
for the JTAG scan chain must be given in the right order (jtag newdevice), with the
device closest to the TDO-Pin being listed first. In general, whenever objects of the
same type exist which require an index number, then these objects must be given in
the right order (jtag newtap, targets and flash banks - a target references a jtag newtap
and a flash bank references a target).
You can use the “scan chain” command to verify and display the tap order.
Also, some commands can’t execute until after init has been processed. Such commands include nand probe and everything else that needs to write to controller registers, perhaps for setting up DRAM and loading it with code.
JTAG TAP Order Do I have to declare the TAPS in some particular order?
Yes; whenever you have more than one, you must declare them in the same order used
by the hardware.
Many newer devices have multiple JTAG TAPs. For example: ST Microsystems
STM32 chips have two TAPs, a “boundary scan TAP” and “Cortex-M3” TAP. Example: The STM32 reference manual, Document ID: RM0008, Section 26.5, Figure
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140
259, page 651/681, the “TDI” pin is connected to the boundary scan TAP, which then
connects to the Cortex-M3 TAP, which then connects to the TDO pin.
Thus, the proper order for the STM32 chip is: (1) The Cortex-M3, then (2) The
boundary scan TAP. If your board includes an additional JTAG chip in the scan chain
(for example a Xilinx CPLD or FPGA) you could place it before or after the STM32
chip in the chain. For example:
• OpenOCD TDI(output) -> STM32 TDI Pin (BS Input)
• STM32 BS TDO (output) -> STM32 Cortex-M3 TDI (input)
• STM32 Cortex-M3 TDO (output) -> SM32 TDO Pin
• STM32 TDO Pin (output) -> Xilinx TDI Pin (input)
• Xilinx TDO Pin -> OpenOCD TDO (input)
The “jtag device” commands would thus be in the order shown below. Note:
• jtag newtap Xilinx tap -irlen ...
• jtag newtap stm32 cpu -irlen ...
• jtag newtap stm32 bs -irlen ...
• # Create the debug target and say where it is
• target create stm32.cpu -chain-position stm32.cpu ...
15. SYSCOMP Sometimes my debugging session terminates with an error. When I
look into the log file, I can see these error messages: Error: arm7 9 common.c:561
arm7 9 execute sys speed(): timeout waiting for SYSCOMP
TODO.
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
141
24 Tcl Crash Course
Not everyone knows Tcl - this is not intended to be a replacement for learning Tcl, the
intent of this chapter is to give you some idea of how the Tcl scripts work.
This chapter is written with two audiences in mind. (1) OpenOCD users who need to
understand a bit more of how Jim-Tcl works so they can do something useful, and (2) those
that want to add a new command to OpenOCD.
24.1 Tcl Rule #1
There is a famous joke, it goes like this:
1. Rule #1: The wife is always correct
2. Rule #2: If you think otherwise, See Rule #1
The Tcl equal is this:
1. Rule #1: Everything is a string
2. Rule #2: If you think otherwise, See Rule #1
As in the famous joke, the consequences of Rule #1 are profound. Once you understand
Rule #1, you will understand Tcl.
24.2 Tcl Rule #1b
There is a second pair of rules.
1. Rule #1: Control flow does not exist. Only commands
For example: the classic FOR loop or IF statement is not a control flow item, they are
commands, there is no such thing as control flow in Tcl.
2. Rule #2: If you think otherwise, See Rule #1
Actually what happens is this: There are commands that by convention, act like control
flow key words in other languages. One of those commands is the word “for”, another
command is “if”.
24.3 Per Rule #1 - All Results are strings
Every Tcl command results in a string. The word “result” is used deliberatly. No result is
just an empty string. Remember: Rule #1 - Everything is a string
24.4 Tcl Quoting Operators
In life of a Tcl script, there are two important periods of time, the difference is subtle.
1. Parse Time
2. Evaluation Time
The two key items here are how “quoted things” work in Tcl. Tcl has three primary quoting
constructs, the [square-brackets] the {curly-braces} and “double-quotes”
By now you should know $VARIABLES always start with a $DOLLAR sign. BTW: To set
a variable, you actually use the command “set”, as in “set VARNAME VALUE” much like
the ancient BASIC langauge “let x = 1” statement, but without the equal sign.
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
142
• [square-brackets]
[square-brackets] are command substitutions. It operates much like Unix Shell ‘backticks‘. The result of a [square-bracket] operation is exactly 1 string. Remember Rule
#1 - Everything is a string. These two statements are roughly identical:
# bash example
X=‘date‘
echo "The Date is: $X"
# Tcl example
set X [date]
puts "The Date is: $X"
• “double-quoted-things”
“double-quoted-things” are just simply quoted text. $VARIABLES and [squarebrackets] are expanded in place - the result however is exactly 1 string. Remember
Rule #1 - Everything is a string
set x "Dinner"
puts "It is now \"[date]\", $x is in 1 hour"
• {Curly-Braces}
{Curly-Braces} are magic: $VARIABLES and [square-brackets] are parsed, but are
NOT expanded or executed. {Curly-Braces} are like ’single-quote’ operators in BASH
shell scripts, with the added feature: {curly-braces} can be nested, single quotes can
not. {{{this is nested 3 times}}} NOTE: [date] is a bad example; at this writing,
Jim/OpenOCD does not have a date command.
24.5 Consequences of Rule 1/2/3/4
The consequences of Rule 1 are profound.
24.5.1 Tokenisation & Execution.
Of course, whitespace, blank lines and #comment lines are handled in the normal way.
As a script is parsed, each (multi) line in the script file is tokenised and according to the
quoting rules. After tokenisation, that line is immedatly executed.
Multi line statements end with one or more “still-open” {curly-braces} which - eventually
- closes a few lines later.
24.5.2 Command Execution
Remember earlier: There are no “control flow” statements in Tcl. Instead there are COMMANDS that simply act like control flow operators.
Commands are executed like this:
1. Parse the next line into (argc) and (argv[]).
2. Look up (argv[0]) in a table and call its function.
3. Repeat until End Of File.
It sort of works like this:
for(;;){
ReadAndParse( &argc, &argv );
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
143
cmdPtr = LookupCommand( argv[0] );
(*cmdPtr->Execute)( argc, argv );
}
When the command “proc” is parsed (which creates a procedure function) it gets 3 parameters on the command line. 1 the name of the proc (function), 2 the list of parameters, and 3
the body of the function. Not the choice of words: LIST and BODY. The PROC command
stores these items in a table somewhere so it can be found by “LookupCommand()”
24.5.3 The FOR command
The most interesting command to look at is the FOR command. In Tcl, the FOR command
is normally implemented in C. Remember, FOR is a command just like any other command.
When the ascii text containing the FOR command is parsed, the parser produces 5 parameter strings, (If in doubt: Refer to Rule #1) they are:
0. The ascii text ’for’
1. The start text
2. The test expression
3. The next text
4. The body text
Sort of reminds you of “main( int argc, char **argv )” does it not? Remember Rule #1
- Everything is a string. The key point is this: Often many of those parameters are in
{curly-braces} - thus the variables inside are not expanded or replaced until later.
Remember that every Tcl command looks like the classic “main( argc, argv )” function in
C. In JimTCL - they actually look like this:
int
MyCommand( Jim_Interp *interp,
int *argc,
Jim_Obj * const *argvs );
Real Tcl is nearly identical. Although the newer versions have introduced a byte-code parser
and intepreter, but at the core, it still operates in the same basic way.
24.5.4 FOR command implementation
To understand Tcl it is perhaps most helpful to see the FOR command. Remember, it is a
COMMAND not a control flow structure.
In Tcl there are two underlying C helper functions.
Remember Rule #1 - You are a string.
The first helper parses and executes commands found in an ascii string. Commands can
be seperated by semicolons, or newlines. While parsing, variables are expanded via the
quoting rules.
The second helper evaluates an ascii string as a numerical expression and returns a value.
Here is an example of how the FOR command could be implemented. The pseudo code
below does not show error handling.
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
144
void Execute_AsciiString( void *interp, const char *string );
int Evaluate_AsciiExpression( void *interp, const char *string );
int
MyForCommand( void *interp,
int argc,
char **argv )
{
if( argc != 5 ){
SetResult( interp, "WRONG number of parameters");
return ERROR;
}
// argv[0] = the ascii string just like C
// Execute the start statement.
Execute_AsciiString( interp, argv[1] );
// Top of loop test
for(;;){
i = Evaluate_AsciiExpression(interp, argv[2]);
if( i == 0 )
break;
// Execute the body
Execute_AsciiString( interp, argv[3] );
// Execute the LOOP part
Execute_AsciiString( interp, argv[4] );
}
// Return no error
SetResult( interp, "" );
return SUCCESS;
}
Every other command IF, WHILE, FORMAT, PUTS, EXPR, everything works in the same
basic way.
24.6 OpenOCD Tcl Usage
24.6.1 source and find commands
Where: In many configuration files
Example: source [find FILENAME]
Remember the parsing rules
1. The find command is in square brackets, and is executed with the parameter FILE-
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
145
NAME. It should find and return the full path to a file with that name; it uses an
internal search path. The RESULT is a string, which is substituted into the command
line in place of the bracketed find command. (Don’t try to use a FILENAME which
includes the "#" character. That character begins Tcl comments.)
2. The source command is executed with the resulting filename; it reads a file and executes as a script.
24.6.2 format command
Where: Generally occurs in numerous places.
Tcl has no command like printf(), instead it has format, which is really more like sprintf().
Example
set x 6
set y 7
puts [format "The answer: %d" [expr $x * $y]]
1. The SET command creates 2 variables, X and Y.
2. The double [nested] EXPR command performs math
The EXPR command produces numerical result as a string.
Refer to Rule #1
3. The format command is executed, producing a single string
Refer to Rule #1.
4. The PUTS command outputs the text.
24.6.3 Body or Inlined Text
Where: Various TARGET scripts.
#1 Good
proc someproc {} {
... multiple lines of stuff ...
}
$_TARGETNAME configure -event FOO someproc
#2 Good - no variables
$_TARGETNAME confgure -event foo "this ; that;"
#3 Good Curly Braces
$_TARGETNAME configure -event FOO {
puts "Time: [date]"
}
#4 DANGER DANGER DANGER
$_TARGETNAME configure -event foo "puts \"Time: [date]\""
1. The $ TARGETNAME is an OpenOCD variable convention.
$ TARGETNAME represents the last target created, the value changes each time a
new target is created. Remember the parsing rules. When the ascii text is parsed, the
$ TARGETNAME becomes a simple string, the name of the target which happens to
be a TARGET (object) command.
2. The 2nd parameter to the -event parameter is a TCBODY
There are 4 examples:
Chapter 24: Tcl Crash Course
1.
2.
3.
4.
The
The
The
The
TCLBODY
TCLBODY
TCLBODY
TCLBODY
is
is
is
is
146
a simple string that happens to be a proc name
several simple commands seperated by semicolons
a multi-line {curly-brace} quoted string
a string with variables that get expanded.
In the end, when the target event FOO occurs the TCLBODY is evaluated. Method
#1 and #2 are functionally identical. For Method #3 and #4 it is more interesting.
What is the TCLBODY?
Remember the parsing rules. In case #3, {curly-braces} mean the $VARS and [squarebrackets] are expanded later, when the EVENT occurs, and the text is evaluated. In
case #4, they are replaced before the “Target Object Command” is executed. This
occurs at the same time $ TARGETNAME is replaced. In case #4 the date will never
change. {BTW: [date] is a bad example; at this writing, Jim/OpenOCD does not have
a date command}
24.6.4 Global Variables
Where: You might discover this when writing your own procs
In simple terms: Inside a PROC, if you need to access a global variable you must say so.
See also “upvar”. Example:
proc myproc { } {
set y 0 #Local variable Y
global x #Global variable X
puts [format "X=%d, Y=%d" $x $y]
}
24.7 Other Tcl Hacks
Dynamic variable creation
# Dynamically create a bunch of variables.
for { set x 0 } { $x < 32 } { set x [expr $x + 1]} {
# Create var name
set vn [format "BIT%d" $x]
# Make it a global
global $vn
# Set it.
set $vn [expr (1 << $x)]
}
Dynamic proc/command creation
# One "X" function - 5 uart functions.
foreach who {A B C D E}
proc [format "show_uart%c" $who] { } "show_UARTx $who"
}
Appendix A: The GNU Free Documentation License.
147
Appendix A The GNU Free Documentation
License.
Version 1.2, November 2002
c
Copyright 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and
useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom
to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
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This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document
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We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because
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notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
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A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document
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The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as
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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that
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be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties:
any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no
effect on the meaning of this License.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or
noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license
notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and
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4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
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distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of
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A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the
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be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as
a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
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B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
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O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify
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titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These
titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
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must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
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You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted
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that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called
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152
an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When
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If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document,
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8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations
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license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you
also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and
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prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require
changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or
distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
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License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full
compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free
Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit
to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document
specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version”
applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by
the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
Software Foundation.
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153
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the
document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ‘‘GNU
Free Documentation License’’.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the
“with. . . Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three,
merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing
these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
OpenOCD Concept Index
154
OpenOCD Concept Index
A
about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
adaptive clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 136
Architecture Specific Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
ARM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
ARM semihosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 109
ARM11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
ARM7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
ARM720T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
ARM9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
ARM920T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
ARM926ej-s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
ARM966E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
ARMv4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
ARMv5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
ARMv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
ARMv7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
at91sam3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
at91sam4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
at91sam4l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
at91samd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
atsamv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
autoprobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Debug Access Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
directory search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
disassemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
dongles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
dotted name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
E
ETB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
ETM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105, 116
event, reset-init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 58, 66
F
B
faq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Firmware recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
flash configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
flash erasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
flash reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
FPGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
FTDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
board config file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
breakpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
bscan spi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
G
C
CFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
command line options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Common Flash Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
config command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
config file, board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
config file, interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
config file, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
config file, target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
config file, user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
configuration stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Connecting to GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Core Specific Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Cortex-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Cortex-M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Cortex-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
CPU type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 128
GDB configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
GDB server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
GDB target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Generic JTAG2SPI driver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
H
halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
I
image dumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
image loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
init board procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
init target events procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
init targets procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
interface config file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ITM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
D
J
DAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
DCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110, 120
Jim-Tcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
jrc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
OpenOCD Concept Index
155
JTAG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 47
JTAG autoprobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
JTAG Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
JTAG Route Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
jtagspi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
K
kinetis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
L
libdcc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Linux-ARM DCC support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
logfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
lpcspifi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
M
memory access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
message level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
mFlash commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mFlash Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
RTCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 49, 136
RTOS Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
S
scan chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Serial Peripheral Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Serial Vector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Serial Wire Debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
SMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 130
SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 73
SPIFI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
STMicroelectronics Serial Memory Interface . . . . 74
stmsmi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
str9xpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
SVF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
SWD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
SWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
SWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
T
N
NAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND erasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND other commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91,
NAND reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAND writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NXP SPI Flash Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
90
91
92
92
90
92
91
74
O
object command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
P
PLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
printer port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Programming using GDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
R
RAM testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Reset Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
reset-init handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
RPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
RPC Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
RPC trace output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
TAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
TAP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
TAP declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
TAP events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
TAP naming convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
TAP state names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
target config file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
target events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
target initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
target type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
target, current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
target, list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
tcl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Tcl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Tcl Scripting API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Tcl scripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
TCP port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
TFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
TPIU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
tracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105, 116, 120
translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
U
USB Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
user config file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Utility Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
V
variable names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
vector catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 110, 114, 115, 118
OpenOCD Concept Index
156
vector table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
X
W
Xilinx Serial Vector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
XScale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
XSVF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
watchpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
wiggler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Z
zy1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Command and Driver Index
157
Command and Driver Index
$
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
$target_name
arp_examine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
arp_halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
arp_poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
arp_reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
arp_waitstate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
array2mem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
configure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
curstate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
eventlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
invoke-event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mdw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mem2array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mwb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mwh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mww . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
64
66
66
66
66
66
66
65
66
66
66
A
adapter_khz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
adapter_name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
adapter_nsrst_assert_width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
adapter_nsrst_delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
add_script_search_dir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
addreg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
aduc702x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
amt_jtagaccel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
append_file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
arm core_state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm disassemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm mcr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm mrc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm reg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm semihosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
arm-jtag-ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
arm11 memwrite burst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
arm11 memwrite error_fatal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
arm11 step_irq_enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
arm11 vcr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
arm7_9 dbgrq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
arm7_9 dcc_downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
arm7_9 fast_memory_access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
arm720t cp15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
arm9 vector_catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
arm920t cache_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm920t cp15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm920t cp15i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm920t read_cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm920t read_mmu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm926ejs cache_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
arm966e cp15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
armjtagew_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91rm9200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 gpnvm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 gpnvm clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 gpnvm set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 gpnvm show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 info. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam3 slowclk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam4l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam4l smap_reset_deassert . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam7 gpnvm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam9 ale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam9 ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam9 cle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91sam9 rdy_busy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd bootloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd chip-erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd dsu_reset_deassert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd eeprom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at91samd set-security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
atsamv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
avr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
77
77
77
77
93
93
94
93
93
75
75
75
75
75
75
77
78
B
bcm2835gpio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
bp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
C
cache_config l2x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
cfi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
cmsis-dap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
cmsis-dap info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
cmsis_dap_serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
cmsis_dap_vid_pid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
cortex_a cache_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
cortex_a dacrfixup [on|off] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
cortex_a dbginit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
cortex_a maskisr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cortex_a smp_gdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cortex_a smp_off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cortex_a smp_on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cortex_m maskisr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
cortex_m reset_config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
cortex_m vector_catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
cortex_r dbginit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
cortex_r maskisr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Command and Driver Index
cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
D
dap apcsw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap apid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap apsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap baseaddr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap memaccess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dap ti_be_32_quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
davinci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
debug_level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
drscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
du_select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
dummy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 108
dump_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
E
echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
efm32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
ep93xx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
etb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
etb config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
etb trigger_percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
etm analyze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
etm dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
etm load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
etm stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
etm tracemode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
etm trigger_debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
etm_dummy config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
F
fast_load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
fast_load_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
flash bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
flash banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash erase_address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash erase_check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
flash erase_sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash fillb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash fillh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash fillw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
flash list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash padded_value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
flash probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
flash protect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
flash read_bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
158
flash verify_bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash write_bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flash write_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
flush_count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
fm3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
fm4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
ft2232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ft2232_channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ft2232_device_desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ft2232_latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ft2232_layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ft2232_serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ft2232_vid_pid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ftdi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ftdi_channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
ftdi_device_desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
ftdi_layout_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
ftdi_layout_signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ftdi_location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
ftdi_serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
ftdi_set_signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ftdi_tdo_sample_edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ftdi_vid_pid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
G
gdb_breakpoint_override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_flash_program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_memory_map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_report_data_abort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_save_tdesc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gdb_target_description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gw16012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
34
34
33
34
34
34
43
H
halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla_command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla_device_desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla_layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla_serial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hla_vid_pid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
98
46
46
46
46
46
46
I
init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
init_reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
interface transports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
interface_list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
irscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
itm port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
itm ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Command and Driver Index
159
J
M
jlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink config ip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink config mac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink config reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
jlink config targetpower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink config usb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
jlink config write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
jlink freemem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink hwstatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink jtag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
jlink serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
jlink usb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
jtag arp_init. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
jtag arp_init-reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
jtag cget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
jtag configure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
jtag names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
jtag newtap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
jtag tapdisable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
jtag tapenable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
jtag tapisenabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
jtag_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
jtag_ntrst_assert_width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
jtag_ntrst_delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
jtag_rclk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
jtag_reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
jtagspi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
mac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
mdb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
mdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
mdr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
mdw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
meminfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
memTestAddressBus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
memTestDataBus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
memTestDevice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
mflash bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash config boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash config pll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash config storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mflash write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
mrvlqspi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
mwb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
mwh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
mww . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
mx3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
mxc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
mxc biswap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
K
kinetis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kinetis disable_wdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kinetis mdm check_security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kinetis mdm mass_erase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kinetis nvm_partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
79
78
78
78
L
load_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
log_output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
lpc2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
lpc2000 part_id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
lpc288x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
lpc2900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
lpc2900 password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
lpc2900 read_custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
lpc2900 secure_jtag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
lpc2900 secure_sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
lpc2900 signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
lpc2900 write_custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
lpc3180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
lpc3180 select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
lpcspifi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
N
nand check_bad_blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand raw_access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand verify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nand write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 bflash_info_remap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 driver_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 extmem_cfg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 service_mode_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_full_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_protect_check . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_read_byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
niietcm4 uflash_write_byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nrf51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nrf51 mass_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
90
90
91
93
90
90
93
92
91
82
83
83
83
83
82
82
83
82
82
82
83
83
O
ocl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
oocd_trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
oocd_trace config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
oocd_trace resync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
oocd_trace status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Command and Driver Index
160
opendous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
orion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
P
parport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
parport_cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
parport_port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 43, 45
parport_toggling_time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
parport_write_on_exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
pathmove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
peek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
pic32mx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
pic32mx pgm_word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
pic32mx unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
pld device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
pld devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
pld load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
poke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
presto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
presto_serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
psoc4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
psoc4 flash_autoerase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
psoc4 mass_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
R
rbp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
readgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
reg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
remote_bitbang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
remote_bitbang_host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
remote_bitbang_port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
reset halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
reset init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
reset run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
reset_config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
resume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
rlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
rm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
rtck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
runAllMemTests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
runtest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
rwp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
S
s3c2410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
s3c2412 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
s3c2440 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
s3c2443 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
s3c6400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
scan_chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
95
95
95
95
56
shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
sim3x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
sim3x lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
sim3x mass_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
soft_reset_halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
stellaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
stellaris recover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
stm32f1x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f1x lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f1x options_read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f1x options_write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f1x unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f2x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
stm32f2x lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
stm32f2x unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
stm32lx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
stm32lx mass_erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
stmsmi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
str7x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
str7x disable_jtag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
str9x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
str9x flash_config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
str9xpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
str9xpec disable_turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
str9xpec enable_turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_cmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_lvdsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_lvdthd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_lvdwarn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec options_write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec part_id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
str9xpec unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
svf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
swd newdap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
swd wcr trn prescale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
T
tap_select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
target create. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
target current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
target names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
target types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
target_request debugmsgs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
tcl_notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
tcl_port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
tcl_trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
telnet_port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
test_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
tms470 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
tms470 flash_keyset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
tms470 osc_mhz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
tms470 plldis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Command and Driver Index
161
tpiu config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
trace history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
trace point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
transport list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
transport select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
trunc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
wp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
X
verify_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
verify_ircapture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
verify_jtag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
virt2phys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
virtex2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
virtex2 read_stat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
virtual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
vsllink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
x86_32 idb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
x86_32 idh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
x86_32 idw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
x86_32 iwb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
x86_32 iwh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
x86_32 iww . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
xmc4xxx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
xmc4xxx flash_password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
xmc4xxx flash_unprotect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
xscale analyze_trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale cache_clean_address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale cache_info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale cp15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale dcache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale debug_handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale dump_trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale icache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale mmu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale trace_buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
xscale trace_image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
xscale vector_catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
xscale vector_table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
xsvf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
W
Z
wait_halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
ZY1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
U
ulink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster_device_desc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster_firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster_lowlevel_driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster_pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usb_blaster_vid_pid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usbprog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
42
42
43
42
42
42
46
V
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