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Contents
Section 1. Safety and General Information .............................................................................
Section 2. Tools & Aids ............................................................................................................
Section 3. Troubleshooting .....................................................................................................
Section 4. Air Cleaner and Air Intake System .........................................................................
Section 5. Fuel System and Governor ....................................................................................
Section 6. Lubrication System ................................................................................................
Section 7. Retractable Starter ..................................................................................................
Section 8. Electrical System and Components ......................................................................
Section 9. Disassembly ............................................................................................................
Section 10. Internal Components ............................................................................................
Section 11. Reassembly ...........................................................................................................
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Section 2
Tools & Aids
Section 2
Tools & Aids
2
Certain quality tools are designed to help you perform specific disassembly, repair, and reassembly procedures.
By using tools designed for the job, you can properly service engines easier, faster, and safer! In addition, you’ll
increase your service capabilities and customer satisfaction by decreasing engine downtime.
Here is the list of tools and their source.
Separate Tool Suppliers:
Kohler Tools
Contact your source
of supply.
SE Tools
415 Howard St.
Lapeer, MI 48446
Phone 810-664-2981
Toll Free 800-664-2981
Fax 810-664-8181
Design Technology Inc.
768 Burr Oak Drive
Westmont, IL 60559
Phone 630-920-1300
Tools
Description
Source/Part No.
Balance Gear Tim ing Tool (K & M Ser ies)
To hold balance gears in timed position when assembling engine.
Kohler 25 455 06-S
(Formerly Y-357)
Cam shaft Endplay Plat e
For checking camshaft endplay.
S E Tools KLR-82405
Cylinder Leakdow n Test er
For checking combustion retention and if cylinder, piston, rings, or valves are worn.
Kohler 25 761 05-S
Elect r onic Fuel Inject ion (EFI) Diagnost ic Soft w ar e
U se with Laptop or Desktop PC.
EFI Ser vice Kit
For troubleshooting and setting up an EFI engine.
Individual Components Available
Pressure Tester
Noid Light
90° Adapter
Oetiker Clamp Pliers
Code Plug, Red Wire
Code Plug, Blue Wire
Kohler 25 761 23-S
Kohler 24 761 01-S
Design Technology Inc.
DTI-019
DTI-021
DTI-023
DTI-025
DTI-027
DTI-029
Flyw heel Holding Tool (CS Ser ies)
S E Tools KLR-82407
Flyw heel Puller
To remove flywheel from engine.
S E Tools KLR-82408
Flyw heel St r ap Wr ench
To hold flywheel during removal.
S E Tools KLR-82409
2.1
Section 2
Tools & Aids
Tools (cont.)
Description
Source/Part No.
Hydr aulic Valve Lift er Tool
To remove and install hydraulic lifters.
Kohler 25 761 38-S
Ignit ion Syst em Test er
For testing output on all systems, except CD.
For testing output on capacitive discharge (CD) ignition system.
Kohler 25 455 01-S
Kohler 24 455 02-S
Offset Wr ench (K & M Ser ies)
To remove and reinstall cylinder barrel retaining nuts.
S E Tools KLR-82410
Oil Pr essur e Test Kit
To test and verify oil pressure.
Kohler 25 761 06-S
Rect ifier -Regulat or Test er (120 volt cur r ent )
Rect ifier -Regulat or Test er (240 volt cur r ent )
U sed to test rectifier-regulators.
Kohler 25 761 20-S
Kohler 25 761 41-S
Individual Components Available
CS -PRO Regulator Test Harness
S pecial Regulator Test Harness with Diode
Design Technology Inc.
DTI-031
DTI-033
Spar k Advance Module (SAM) Test er
To test the S AM (AS AM and DS AM) on engines with S MART-S PARK™.
Kohler 25 761 40-S
St ar t er Br ush Holding Tool (Solenoid Shift )
To hold brushes during servicing.
S E Tools KLR-82416
St ar t er Ret aining Ring Tool (Iner t ia Dr ive)
To remove and reinstall drive retaining rings (excluding FAS CO starters).
Kohler 25 761 18-S
St ar t er Ser vicing Kit (All St ar t er s)
To remove and reinstall drive retaining rings and brushes.
S E Tools KLR-82411
Individual Component Available
S tarter Brush Holding Tool (S olenoid S hift)
Tachom et er (Digit al Induct ive)
For checking operating speed (RPM) of an engine.
S E Tools KLR-82416
Design Technology Inc.
DTI-110
Vacuum /Pr essur e Test er
Alternative to a water manometer.
Kohler 25 761 22-S
Valve Guide Ream er (K & M Ser ies)
For sizing valve guides after installation.
S E Tools KLR-82413
Valve Guide Ser vice Kit (Cour age, Aegis, Com m and, OHC)
For servicing worn value guides.
S E Tools KLR-82415
2.2
Section 2
Tools & Aids
Aids
Description
Source/Part No.
Cam shaft Lubr icant (Valspar ZZ613)
Kohler 25 357 14-S
Dielect r ic Gr ease (GE/Novaguard G661)
Kohler 25 357 11-S
Dielect r ic Gr ease (Fel-Pro)
2
Lubri-S el
Elect r ic St ar t er Dr ive Lubr icant (Inertia Drive)
Kohler 52 357 01-S
Elect r ic St ar t er Dr ive Lubr icant (S olenoid S hift)
Kohler 52 357 02-S
RTV Silicone Sealant
Loctite® 5900 Heavy Body in 4 oz aerosol dispenser.
Kohler 25 597 07-S
Only oxime-based, oil resistant RTV sealants, such as those listed, are approved for use.
Loctite® Nos. 5900 or 5910 are recommended for best sealing characteristics.
Loctite®
Loctite®
Loctite®
Loctite®
5910
U ltra Black 598
U ltra Blue 587
U ltra Copper
Spline Dr ive Lubr icant
Kohler 25 357 12-S
2.3
Section 2
Tools & Aids
Special Tools You Can Make
Flywheel Holding Tool (Electric Start Models Only)
A flywheel holding tool can be made out of an old
junk flywheel ring gear as shown in Figure 2-1, and
used in place of a strap wrench.
1. Using an abrasive cut-off wheel, cut out a six
tooth segment of the ring gear as shown.
2. Grind off any burrs or sharp edges.
3. Invert the segment and place it between the
ignition bosses on the crankcase so that the tool
teeth engage the flywheel ring gear teeth. The
bosses will lock the tool and flywheel in
position for loosening, tightening or removing
with a puller.
2. Remove the studs of a Posi-Lock rod or grind off
the aligning steps of a Command rod, so the joint
surface is flat.
3. Find a 1 in. long capscrew with the correct
thread size to match the threads in the
connecting rod.
4. Use a flat washer with the correct I.D. to slip on
the capscrew and approximately 1” O.D. (Kohler
Part No. 12 468 05-S). Assemble the capscrew
and washer to the joint surface of the rod, as
shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2. Rocker Arm/Crankshaft Tool.
Figure 2-1. Flywheel Holding Tool.
Rocker Arm/Crankshaft Tool
A spanner wrench to lift the rocker arms or turn the
crankshaft may be made out of an old junk connecting
rod.
1. Find a used connecting rod from a 10 HP or
larger engine. Remove and discard the rod cap.
2.4
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Guide
When troubles occur, be sure to check the simple
causes which, at first, may seem too obvious to be
considered. For example, a starting problem could be
caused by an empty fuel tank.
Some common causes of engine trouble are listed
below. Use these to locate the causing factors.
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start
1. Empty fuel tank.
2. Fuel shut-off valve closed.
3. Key switch or kill switch in “off” position.
4. Low oil level.
5. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
6. Clogged fuel line.
7. Spark plug lead disconnected.
8. Faulty spark plug.
9. Faulty ignition module.
Engine Starts But Does Not Keep Running
1. Restricted fuel cap vent.
2. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
3. Faulty choke or throttle controls.
4. Loose wires or connections that short the kill
terminal of ignition module to ground.
5. Faulty cylinder head gasket.
6. Faulty carburetor.
Engine Starts Hard
1. PTO drive is engaged.
2. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
3. Clogged fuel line.
4. Loose or faulty wires or connections.
5. Faulty choke or throttle controls.
6. Faulty spark plug.
7. Low compression.
8. Faulty ACR mechanism.
9. Weak spark/ignition.
Engine Will Not Crank
1. PTO drive is engaged.
2. Battery (if equipped) is discharged.
3. Safety interlock switch is engaged.
4. Loose or faulty wires or connections.
5. Faulty key switch or ignition switch.
6. Faulty electric starter or solenoid (electric start).
7. Pawls not engaging in drive cup (retractable
start).
8. Seized internal engine components.
Engine Runs But Misses
1. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
2. Spark plug lead loose.
3. Loose wires or connections that intermittently
short the kill terminal of ignition module to
ground.
4. Engine overheated.
5. Faulty ignition module.
6. Faulty spark plug.
7. Carburetor malfunction.
Engine Will Not Idle
1. Restricted fuel cap vent.
2. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
3. Faulty spark plug.
4. Idle fuel adjusting needle improperly set.
5. Idle speed adjusting screw improperly set.
6. Low compression.
7. Stale fuel and/or gum in carburetor.
Engine Overheats
1. Air intake/grass screen, cooling fins, or cooling
shrouds clogged.
2. Excessive engine load.
3. Low crankcase oil level.
4. High crankcase oil level.
5. Faulty carburetor.
Engine Knocks
1. Excessive engine load.
2. Low crankcase oil level.
3. Old/improper fuel.
4. Internal wear or damage.
3.1
3
Section 3
Troubleshooting
Engine Loses Power
1. Low crankcase oil level.
2. High crankcase oil level.
3. Dirty air cleaner element.
4. Dirt or water in the fuel system.
5. Excessive engine load.
6. Engine overheating.
7. Faulty spark plug.
8. Low compression.
9. Exhaust restriction.
Engine Uses Excessive Amount Of Oil
1. Incorrect oil viscosity/type.
2. Overfilled crankcase.
3. Clogged breather.
4. Worn or broken piston rings.
5. Worn cylinder bore.
6. Worn valve stems/valve guides.
Oil Leaks From Oil Seals, Gaskets
1. Crankcase breather is clogged or inoperative.
2. Loose or improperly torqued fasteners.
3. Piston blowby or leaky valves.
4. Restricted exhaust.
External Engine Inspection
Before cleaning or disassembling the engine, make a
thorough inspection of its external appearance and
condition. This inspection can give clues to what
might be found inside the engine (and the cause)
when it is disassembled.
•
•
Check for buildup of dirt and debris on the
crankcase, cooling fins, grass screen and other
external surfaces. Dirt or debris on these areas are
causes of overheating.
Check for obvious fuel and oil leaks, and
damaged components. Excessive oil leakage can
indicate a clogged or improperly assembled
breather, worn or damaged seals and gaskets, or
loose or improperly torqued fasteners.
•
Check the air cleaner cover and base for damage
or indications of improper fit or sealing.
•
Check the air cleaner element. Look for holes,
tears, cracked or damaged sealing surfaces, or
other damage that could allow unfiltered air into
the engine. Also note if the element is dirty or
clogged. These could indicate that the engine has
had inadequate or infrequent maintenance.
•
3.2
Check the carburetor throat for dirt. Dirt in the
throat is further indication that the air cleaner
was not functioning properly.
•
Check the oil level. Note if the oil level is within
the operating range on the dipstick, or if it is low
or overfilled.
•
Check the condition of the oil. Drain the oil into a
container - the oil should flow freely. Dark, dirty,
and/or thick oil could indicate infrequent
maintenance or overheating. Check for metal
chips and other foreign particles.
Sludge is a natural by-product of combustion; a
small accumulation is normal. Excessive sludge
formation could indicate the oil has not been
changed at the recommended intervals, the
incorrect type or weight of oil was used, overrich
carburetion, or weak ignition, to name a few.
NOTE: It is good practice to drain oil at a
location away from the workbench. Be
sure to allow ample time for complete
drainage.
Cleaning the Engine
After inspecting the external condition of the engine,
clean the engine thoroughly before disassembling it.
Also clean individual components as the engine is
disassembled. Only clean parts can be accurately
inspected and gauged for wear or damage. There are
many commercially available cleaners that will
quickly remove grease, oil, and grime from engine
parts. When such a cleaner is used, follow the
manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions
carefully.
Make sure all traces of the cleaner are removed before
the engine is reassembled and placed into operation.
Even small amounts of these cleaners can quickly
break down the lubricating properties of engine oil.
Basic Engine Tests
Crankcase Vacuum Test
A partial vacuum should be present in the crankcase
when the engine is operating at normal temperatures.
Pressure in the crankcase (normally caused by a
clogged breather) can cause oil to be forced out at oil
seals, gaskets, or other available spots.
Crankcase vacuum is best measured with water
manometer or vacuum/pressure tester, see Section 2.
Complete instructions are provided in the kits.
Test the crankcase vacuum, following the instructions,
with the engine running at high idle speed (above
3500 RPM).
Section 3
Troubleshooting
1. The engine should have a minimum of 4 in. of
vacuum. A vacuum less than 4 in. is usually due
to internal wear or a bad gasket or seal allowing
air to leak into the crankcase. A pressure is
usually due to a problem with the breather.
2. Refer to the following chart for possible causes
and solutions.
Low/No Crankcase Vacuum or Pressure in Crankcase
Possible Cause
1. Crankcase breather clogged or inoperative.
Solution
1. Disassemble breather, clean parts thoroughly,
reassemble, and recheck pressure.
3
2. Seals and/or gaskets leaking. Loose or
improperly torqued fasteners.
2. Replace all worn or damaged seals and gaskets.
Make sure all fasteners are tightened securely. Use
appropriate torque values and sequences when
necessary.
3. Piston blowby or leaky valves. (Confirm by
inspecting components.)
3. Recondition piston, rings, cylinder bore, valves, and
valve guides.
4. Restricted exhaust.
4. Repair/replace restricted muffler/exhaust system.
Compression Test
A compression test or a cylinder leakdown test may be
performed to check the condition of an engine.
Insufficient compression pressure will result in a
performance loss and may indicate leaking valves or
damaged/worn piston rings.
Test the compression as follows:
Cylinder leakdown tester is a simple and inexpensive
tester for small engines. The tester includes a quick
disconnect for attaching the adapter hose and a
holding tool.
Test the cylinder leakdown as follows:
1. Run engine for 3-5 minutes to warm it up.
1. Check/perform valve clearance adjustment.
2. Remove spark plug and air filter from engine.
2. Start engine if possible, and run for 3-5 minutes
to warm it up, then stop.
3. Rotate crankshaft until piston (of cylinder being
tested) is at top dead center (TDC) of the
compression stroke. You will need to hold engine
in this position while testing.
3. Disconnect and ground spark plug lead. Remove
the spark plug.
4. Install adapter and compression tester into spark
plug hole.
5. Move the throttle control to the full/wide open
position. Be sure the choke is off.
6. Crank engine over using recoil or electric starter
and check results.
• Standard Compression Pressure:
400-600 kPa (57-85 psi) with ACR mechanism
in operation.
Cylinder Leakdown Test
A cylinder leakdown test can be a valuable alternative
to a compression test, especially on engines with ACR.
By pressurizing the combustion chamber from an
external air source you can determine if the valves or
rings are leaking, and how badly.
a. If the PTO end of the crankshaft is accessible,
the holding tool supplied with the tester can
be used. Loosen the holding tool screws and
expand the opening. Slide the tool onto the
crankshaft as close as possible to the PTO
face of the crankcase. If the slot in the tool can
be aligned with one of the holes on the PTO
face, find a bolt of appropriate length and
thread size. Insert the bolt through the slot,
and thread it into the selected hole, to prevent
the tool from moving. Tighten the screws to
lock the holding tool onto the crankshaft. If a
PTO face hole is not accessible, tighten the
screws to lock the holding tool onto the
crankshaft. Insert the end of a 3/8" breaker
bar into the slot, so the handle of the breaker
bar is perpendicular to the crankshaft.
3.3
Section 3
Troubleshooting
b. If the flywheel end of the engine is more
accessible, you can use a breaker bar and
socket on the flywheel nut/screw or a
flywheel holding tool to hold it in position.
When using these methods, you will need an
assistant to hold it during the test.
5. Connect an adequate air source (70-100 psi) to the
tester.
c. If the engine is mounted in a piece of
equipment, you may be able to hold it by
clamping or wedging a driven component.
Just be certain the engine cannot rotate off of
TDC in either direction.
7. Connect tester quick-disconnect to the adapter.
Note the gauge reading and listen for escaping air
at the carburetor intake, exhaust outlet, and
crankcase breather.
6. Turn the regulator knob in the increase
(clockwise) direction until the gauge needle is in
the yellow “set” area at the low end of the scale.
8. Check your test results against the table below:
4. Install the adapter into the spark plug hole, but
do not attach it to the tester at this time.
Leakdown Test Results
Air escaping from crankcase breather ............................................... Defective rings or worn cylinder walls.
Air escaping from exhaust system ..................................................... Defective exhaust valve.
Air escaping from carburetor .............................................................. Defective intake valve.
Gauge reading in “low” (green) zone ................................................ Piston rings and cylinder in good condition.
Gauge reading in “moderate” (yellow) zone .................................... Engine is still usable, but there is some wear
present. Customer should start planning for
overhaul or replacement.
Gauge reading in “high” (red) zone .................................................. Rings and/or cylinder have considerable wear.
Engine should be reconditioned or replaced.
3.4
Section 4
Air Intake and Air Cleaner System
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
Air Cleaners
General
These engines are equipped with one of three air
cleaner configurations; the standard dual-element air
cleaner assembly, an optional heavy-duty cyclonic air
cleaner assembly, or a third design which uses an
oiled, solid foam element. The first two styles have a
replaceable, high-density paper element surrounded
by an oiled-foam precleaner. See Figures 4-1 and 4-2.
Servicing information for these two styles is on pages
4.1 through 4.4. The third design does not use a paper
element, just the foam. See Figure 4-14. Servicing
information for the third design is on page 4.5. The
heavy-duty air cleaner assemblies also contain a lower
swirl chamber which separates the dirt particles from
the incoming air for extended service intervals.
4
Figure 4-2. Heavy-Duty, Cyclonic Air Cleaner.
Service
Check the air cleaner daily or before starting the
engine. Check for buildup of dirt and debris, along
with loose or damaged components.
NOTE: Operating the engine with loose or damaged
air cleaner components could allow
unfiltered air into the engine causing
premature wear and failure.
Figure 4-1. Standard Dual-Element Air Cleaner.
Figure 4-3. Removing Cover Knob Standard.
4.1
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
To service the precleaner perform the following steps:
1. Remove the air cleaner cover knob (standard air
cleaner) or unsnap the latches (heavy-duty air
cleaner), and remove the cover/housing. See
Figures 4-3 and 4-4.
2. Remove the precleaner from the filter element. If
element is not secured to the air cleaner base with
a wing nut, remove the filter element and
precleaner from the cover/housing, as an
assembly before separating. See Figures 4-5 and
4-6.
Figure 4-4. Unsnapping Heavy-Duty Latches.
3. Wash the precleaner in warm water with
detergent. Rinse the precleaner thoroughly until
all traces of detergent are eliminated. Squeeze out
excess water (do not wring). Allow the precleaner
to air dry.
4. Saturate the precleaner with new engine oil.
Squeeze out all excess oil.
5. Install the precleaner over the paper element. If
the element was not secured with a wing nut
(some heavy-duty air cleaners) install the
element/precleaner assembly, small end first, into
the cover/housing.
Figure 4-5. Standard Element/Precleaner Assembly.
Figure 4-6. Heavy-Duty Element/Precleaner
Assembly.
Precleaner Service
If so equipped, wash and reoil the precleaner every 25
hours of operation (more often under extremely dusty
or dirty conditions).
4.2
6. Reinstall the air cleaner cover/housing assembly.
Secure with the knob or latches.
Figure 4-7. Removing Standard Precleaner.
Section 4
Air Intake and Air Cleaner System
Figure 4-8. Removing Heavy-Duty Precleaner.
Figure 4-11. Installing Heavy-Duty Cover/Housing.
Paper Element Service
Every 100 hours of operation (more often under
extremely dusty or dirty conditions), check the paper
element. Replace the element as necessary. Follow
these steps:
1. Standard Air Cleaner:
Loosen the air cleaner cover knob and remove the
cover. Remove the wing nut and lift off the air
cleaner element with precleaner. Remove the
precleaner from the paper element. Service the
precleaner.
Figure 4-9. Removing Heavy-Duty Lower Chamber.
Heavy-Duty, Cyclonic Air Cleaner:
Unhook the latches and remove the housing
assembly from the mounting base. Remove the
wing nut (some models) securing air cleaner/
precleaner assembly, or pull the complete filter
assembly out of the housing. Remove the
precleaner from the paper element. Service the
precleaner.
2. Do not wash the paper element or use
pressurized air, as this will damage the element.
Replace a dirty, bent, or damaged element with a
genuine Kohler element. Handle new elements
carefully; do not use if the sealing surfaces are
bent or damaged.
Figure 4-10.
4.3
4
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
3. When servicing the air cleaner, check the air
cleaner base, and cover/housing assembly. Make
sure it is secure and not bent or damaged. On a
heavy-duty air cleaner, unsnap the latches and
clean out the lower swirl/dirt chamber. See Figure
4-9. Make sure the air slots in the upper section of
the housing and in the lower chamber are open.
See Figure 4-10. Clean and inspect all
components for damage or improper fit. Replace
any components which are bent or damaged.
Reassemble the lower chamber (heavy duty air
cleaners).
NOTE: Before the air cleaner is reassembled make
sure the rubber seal is in position on the stud
(standard only). Also inspect the foam seal on
the base of the filter element, do not use if the
condition of either is questionable in any way.
Replace it with a new part before
reassembling.
Heavy-Duty Cyclonic Air Cleaner
Make sure the main housing, lower swirl/dirt
chamber, mounting hardware and latches are not
damaged, bent or broken; affecting the sealing ability
and operation of air cleaner housing. Clean and check
all components as well as the airflow passages.
Air Cleaner Base
Make sure the air cleaner base is secured tightly to
carburetor and not cracked, bent or damaged,
preventing a proper seal.
Breather Tube
Make sure the breather tube is in good condition and
connected to the air cleaner base or adapter and the
breather cover. Replace the tube if it is cracked or
damaged.
4. Standard Air Cleaner:
Install the serviced precleaner over the element.
Position the element/precleaner assembly on the
base and secure with the wing nut. Reinstall the air
cleaner cover and tighten securely. See Figure 4-5.
Heavy-Duty Cyclonic Cleaner:
Place the precleaner over the element and install
it as an assembly into the cover/housing. Insert
the small end first, into the housing, so the larger
end with the foam seal is out (visible). Secure
with the wing nut (if used). Secure the cover/
housing with the latches. See Figure 4-11.
Figure 4-12. Foam Seal.
Air Cleaner Components
Whenever the air cleaner cover is removed, or the
paper element or precleaner is serviced, check the
following:
Standard Air Cleaner
Make sure the element cover is not bent, distorted or
damaged. Make sure the wing nut and rubber sleeve
seal on the base stud are in place and in good
condition, ensuring the element is sealed against
leakage. (Some models the seal is fixed).
If the air cleaner element has a foam seal on the
bottom, make sure it is in good condition and not
damaged. See Figure 4-12.
4.4
Figure 4-13. Cutaway View.
Section 4
Air Intake and Air Cleaner System
CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) engines use an air cleaner base
with a serviceable rubber base pad to seal the air filter
element on the bottom. See Figure 4-14. Make sure the
pad is installed, clean, and in good condition.
To service the foam element perform the following
steps:
1. Remove the two screws and the outer air cleaner
cover/housing. See Figure 4-16.
Mounting Screw
4
Mounting Screw
Figure 4-14. Serviceable Rubber Base Pad.
Figure 4-16. Mounting Details.
Foam Air Cleaner Element
2. Remove the foam element from the air cleaner
housing. See Figure 4-17.
Foam Air
Cleaner Element
Figure 4-15. Foam Air Cleaner Configuration.
Check the air cleaner daily or before starting the
engine. Check for buildup of dirt and debris, along
with loose or damaged components.
NOTE: Operating the engine with loose or damaged
air cleaner components could allow
unfiltered air into the engine causing
premature wear and failure.
Every 50 hours of operation, wash and reoil the foam
air cleaner element (more often under extremely
dusty, or dirty conditions). Replace the foam element
with a new genuine Kohler element if deteriorated or
damaged in any way.
Figure 4-17. Foam Air Cleaner Element Details.
3. Wash the foam element in warm water with
detergent. Rinse the element thoroughly until all
traces of detergent are eliminated. Squeeze out all
excess water (do not wring). Allow the element to
air dry.
4. Lightly oil the element with new engine oil.
Squeeze element to evenly distribute the oil and
remove any excess.
4.5
Section 4
Air Cleaner and Air Intake System
5. When servicing the foam air cleaner element,
clean and check the air cleaner case and outer
cover for damage, distortion, or an improper seal.
Replace any components which are bent or
damaged.
6. Make sure the square metal fitting plate is
properly positioned within the case. See Figure
4-17.
7. Reinstall the outer cover and secure with the two
screws. See Figure 4-16.
NOTE: Do not operate engine without the air cleaner
element; excessive piston and/or cylinder
wear may result.
4.6
Air Intake/Cooling System
To ensure proper cooling, make sure the grass screen,
cooling fins and other external surfaces of the engine
are kept clean at all times.
Every 100 hours of operation (more often under
extremely dusty or dirty conditions), remove the
blower housing and other cooling shrouds. Clean the
cooling fins and external surfaces as necessary. Make
sure the cooling shrouds are reinstalled.
NOTE: Operating the engine with a blocked grass
screen, dirty or plugged cooling fins, and/or
cooling shrouds removed, will cause engine
damage due to overheating.
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Š“žœȱ‘Žȱ•˜ ȱ’•ŽȱžŽ•ȱ—ŽŽ•Žǯ
ȱ Řǯȱ —’—Žȱ›ž—œȱ›’Œ‘ǯȱǻ—’ŒŠŽȱ
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ȱȱȱŒǯȱ ˜ ȱ’•ŽȱžŽ•ȱ–’¡ž›Žȱ’œȱ’–™›˜™Ž›•¢ȱŠ“žœŽǯȱ“žœȱ•˜ ȱ’•ŽȱžŽ•ȱ
—ŽŽ•Žǯ
ȱȱȱǯȱ •˜Šȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ’œȱ˜˜ȱ‘’‘ǯȱŽ™Š›ŠŽȱŒŠ›‹ž›Ž˜›ȱ‹˜ •ȱ›˜–ȱŒŠ›‹ž›Ž˜›ȱ
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ȱ řǯȱ —’—Žȱ›ž—œȱ•ŽŠ—ǯȱǻ—’ŒŠŽȱ ȱřŠǯȱ ˜ ȱ’•ŽȱžŽ•ȱ–’¡ž›Žȱ’œȱ’–™›˜™Ž›•¢ȱŠ“žœŽǯȱ“žœȱ•˜ ȱ’•ŽȱžŽ•ȱ
‹¢ȱ–’œę›’—ǰȱ•˜œœȱ˜ȱœ™ŽŽȱ
—ŽŽ•Žǯ
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ȱ Ȋȱ Š”Žȱœž›Žȱ‘ŽȱžŽ•ȱŠ—”ȱ’œȱꕕŽȱ ’‘ȱŒ•ŽŠ—ǰȱ›Žœ‘ȱ
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Section 7
Retractable Starter
Section 7
Retractable Starter
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Retractable starters contain a powerful, recoil spring that is under tension. Always wear safety goggles when servicing
retractable starters and carefully follow instructions in this section for relieving spring tension.
Pawl Repair
Kit
Starter
Handle
Drive Cup
Center Screw
Drive Plate
Friction Spring
Drive Pawl
Spring
Starter
Rope
7
Pulley
Recoil
Spring
Starter
Housing
Figure 7-1. Retractable Starter - Exploded View.
To Remove Starter
1. Remove the hex flange screws (three on CS4 and
CS6, four on CS8.5-12) securing the starter
assembly to the blower housing.
2. Remove the starter assembly.
To Install Starter
1. Align the retractable starter with the mounting
locations on the blower housing, and install the
hex flange screws. Leave the screws slightly
loose.
Figure 7-2. Installing Retractable Starter.
7.1
Section 7
Retractable Starter
2. Pull the starter handle out until the pawls engage
the drive cup. Hold the handle in this position
and torque the screws to 5.5 N·m (48 in. lb.). See
Figure 7-3.
5. When all spring tension on the starter pulley is
released, remove the rope from the pulley.
6. Tie a single knot in one end of the new rope.
7. Rotate the pulley counterclockwise to pre-tension
the spring (approximately 4 full turns of pulley
on CS4 and CS6; approximately 5 full turns of
pulley on CS8.5-12).
8. Rotate the pulley until the rope hole in pulley is
aligned with the rope guide bushing of the starter
housing.
NOTE: Do not allow the pulley/spring to
unwind. Enlist the aid of a helper if
necessary.
Figure 7-3. Engage Pawls and Tighten Mounting
Screws.
9. Feed the unknotted end of the rope through the
rope hole in the starter pulley and rope guide
bushing of the housing. See Figure 7-5.
Rope Replacement
The rope can be replaced without complete starter
disassembly.
1. Remove the starter from the engine blower
housing.
2. Pull the rope out approximately 12" and tie a
temporary (slip) knot in it to keep it from
retracting into the starter. See Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-5. Installing Rope.
10. Tie a slip knot approximately 12" from the free
end of rope. Hold the pulley firmly and allow it
to rotate slowly until the slip knot reaches the
guide bushing of the housing.
11. Slip the handle onto the rope. Tie a single knot at
the end of the rope.
Figure 7-4. Removing Starter Handle.
3. Pull the knot end out of the handle, untie the
knot, and slide the handle off.
4. Hold the pulley firmly and untie the slip knot.
Allow the pulley to rotate slowly as the spring
tension is released.
7.2
12. Untie the slip knot and pull on the handle until
the rope is fully extended. Slowly retract the rope
into the starter. If the spring is properly
tensioned, the rope will retract fully and the
handle will stop against the starter housing.
Section 7
Retractable Starter
Pawl (Dogs) Replacement
Only partial disassembly of the starter is necessary to
replace the pawls. Pawl repair kits are available which
include the following components:
CS4 and CS6 Pawl Repair Kit Contains
Qty
Description
Drive Plate
1
Center Screw
1
Clip
1
Starter Pawl (Dog)
2
CS8.5-12 Pawl Repair Kit Contains
Qty
Description
Drive Plate
1
Center Screw
1
Pawl (Dog) Spring
2
Clip
1
Starter Pawl (Dog)
2
2. Unscrew the center screw and lift off the drive
plate. The center screw will be captured by the
clip around the shoulder on backside of plate.
3. Note the positions of the pawls and pawl springs
(CS8.5-12 only) before removing. Remove parts
from pulley.
4. Carefully inspect the components for wear,
cracks, and/or damage. Replace all worn or
damaged components. Use only genuine Kohler
replacement parts as specified in the parts
manuals. All components shown in Figure 7-1 are
available as service parts. Do not use nonstandard
parts.
5. Install pawl springs (CS8.5-12 only) and pawls
onto pawl studs of pulley. All parts must be dry.
Disassembly
Pawl
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Do not remove the center screw from starter until the
spring tension is released. Removing the center screw before
releasing spring tension, or improper starter disassembly,
can cause the sudden and potentially dangerous release of
the spring. Follow these instructions carefully to ensure
personal safety and proper starter disassembly. Make sure
adequate face protection is worn by all persons in the area.
1. Release recoil spring tension by:
CS4, CS6: Loosen the center screw approximately
1 turn. Rotate the pulley against spring tension
until the pulley rope hole with knot is adjacent to
outlet in housing. Lift up the slack in rope
between pulley and housing, slowly allow the
pulley to unwind, releasing the spring tension.
Count the number of rotations for reassembly
later.
7
Pawl Spring
Figure 7-6.
6. Position the drive plate over the pawls, aligning
the actuating slots in the plate with the raised
sections on each drive pawl. Torque the center
screw to 5-6 N·m (44-53 in. lb.). Rotate the pulley
by hand and check operation. See Figure 7-7.
CS8.5-12: Rotate the pulley against spring
tension, until the cutout in pulley is adjacent to
outlet in housing. Lift up the slack in rope
through the cutout and slowly allow pulley to
unwind, releasing spring tension. Count the
number of rotations for reassembly later.
7.3
Section 7
Retractable Starter
1. Release spring tension and remove the handle
and starter rope. (Refer to ‘‘Rope Replacement’’.)
Clip
Drive Plate
2. Unscrew the center screw and lift off the drive
plate. The screw will be captured within plate by
the clip on backside.
3. Carefully note the positions of the pawls and
pawl springs (CS8.5-12 only) before removing
them. Remove the parts from the starter pulley.
Figure 7-7. Drive Plate and Pawl Details.
7. Rehook the slack in rope into notch of pulley and
rotate the pulley counterclockwise (viewed from
pawl side) to re-tension the spring
(approximately 4 full turns on CS4 and CS6;
approximately 5 full turns on CS8.5-12).
Recoil Spring, Pulley, and/or Housing
Replacement
Disassembly
Figure 7-8. Retractable Starter Pawl Assembly
Details.
WARNING: Spring Under Tension!
Do not remove the center screw from starter until the
spring tension is released. Removing the center screw before
releasing spring tension, or improper starter disassembly,
can cause the sudden and potentially dangerous release of
the spring. Follow these instructions carefully to ensure
personal safety and proper starter disassembly. Make sure
adequate face protection is worn by all persons in the area.
7.4
4. Rotate the pulley clockwise (1/2 to 1 full turn) this
will ensure the spring is disengaged from the
starter housing.
5. Carefully lift the pulley out of the recoil housing,
while reaching through the spokes of the pulley
to keep the spring from coming out of the pulley.
6. Wearing adequate eye/face protection, carefully
remove the spring from the pulley cavity.
7. Clean all parts including the starter spring cavity
in pulley and recoil housing of all old grease and
dirt. Inspect all parts for wear or damage and
replace as required.
Figure 7-9. Disassembled Retractable Starter.
Reassembly
1. Generously lubricate the recoil spring with a
commercially available bearing grease.
2. Engage the outer spring hook into the pulley
‘‘slit’’ opening, then carefully wind the spring
counterclockwise into the drum of the pulley
from larger to smaller diameter.
Section 7
Retractable Starter
3. Carefully install pulley into recoil housing,
engaging the spring hook with starter housing
tab. See Figure 7-10.
NOTE: Rotating pulley counterclockwise
slightly will assist engagement.
4. Install the pawl springs (CS8.5-12 only) and
pawls onto pawl studs of pulley.
Figure 7-11. Torque Center Mounting Screw.
6. Tension the spring and install the rope and
handle as outlined in Steps 6 through 12 under
‘‘Rope Replacement.’’
7. Install the recoil starter to engine blower housing
but do not fully tighten the mounting screws.
Figure 7-10. Assembling Starter Pulley to Housing.
5. Mount drive plate over pawls onto pulley,
aligning the actuating slots in plate with the
raised sections on each drive pawl. Torque the
screw to 5-6 N·m (44-53 in. lb.). Rotate the pulley
by hand and check operation. See Figure 7-11.
8. Pull out on recoil handle/rope to engage the
pawls to the drive cup, hold engaged and torque
the mounting screws to 5.5 N·m (47.7 in. lb.). See
Figure 7-3.
7.5
7
Section 7
Retractable Starter
7.6
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
This section covers the operation, service, and repair
of the electrical systems and electrical system
components.
Spark Plug
Engine misfire or starting problems are often caused
by a spark plug that is in poor condition or has an
improper gap setting.
This engine uses the following spark plugs:
Type:
Gap:
Thread Size:
Reach:
Hex Size:
The original spark plug is an NGK
BPR4ES1. The Champion® equivalent
of that NGK spark plug is RN14YC2.
The service replacement is
Champion® RC14YC3 (Kohler Part No.
66 132 01-S). Equivalent alternate
brand spark plugs can also be used.
0.76 mm (0.030 in.)
14 mm
19.1 mm (3/4 in.)
1,2
20.6 mm (13/16 in.)
3
15.9 mm (5/8 in.)
NOTE: Do not clean the spark plug in a machine
which uses abrasive grit. Some grit could
remain on/in the spark plug and enter
the engine, causing extensive wear and
damage.
3. Check the gap using a wire feeler gauge. Adjust
the gap to 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) by carefully
bending the ground electrode. See Figure 8-1.
4. Reinstall the spark plug into the cylinder head.
Torque the spark plug to 20 N·m (177 in. lb.).
Wire Gauge
Spark Plug
8
Spark Plug Service
Every 100 hours of operation, remove the spark plug,
check its condition and reset the gap, or replace it with
a new plug as necessary.
1. Before removing the spark plug, clean the area
around the base of the plug to keep dirt and
debris out of the engine.
2. Remove the plug and check its condition. Replace
the plug if worn or reuse is questionable.
Ground
Electrode
0.76 mm
(0.030 in.) Gap
Figure 8-1. Servicing Spark Plug.
8.1
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Inspection
Inspect the spark plug as soon as it is removed from
the cylinder head. The deposits on the tip are an
indication of the general condition of the piston rings,
valves, and carburetor.
Normal and fouled plugs are shown in the following
photos.
Worn: On a worn plug, the center electrode will be
rounded and the gap will be greater than the specified
gap. Replace a worn spark plug immediately.
Normal: A plug taken from an engine operating under
normal conditions will have light tan or gray colored
deposits. If the center electrode is not worn, a plug in
this condition could be set to the proper gap and
reused.
Wet Fouled: A wet plug is caused by excess fuel or oil
in the combustion chamber. Excess fuel could be
caused by a restricted air cleaner, a carburetor
problem, or operating the engine with too much
choke. Oil in the combustion chamber is usually
caused by a restricted air cleaner, a breather problem,
or internal engine wear.
Carbon Fouled: Soft, sooty, black deposits indicate
incomplete combustion caused by a restricted air
cleaner, overrich carburetion, weak ignition, or poor
compression.
8.2
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Operation
As the flywheel rotates and the magnet assembly
moves past the ignition module, a low voltage is
induced in the primary windings of the module.
When the primary voltage is precisely at its peak, the
module induces a high voltage in its secondary
windings. This high voltage creates a spark at the tip
of the spark plug. This spark ignites the air-fuel
mixture in the combustion chamber.
The timing of the spark is automatically controlled by
the module. Therefore, other than periodically
checking/replacing the spark plug, no maintenance,
timing, or adjustments are necessary or possible with
this system.
Overheated: Chalky, white deposits indicate very high
combustion temperatures. This condition is usually
accompanied by excessive gap erosion. Lean
carburetor settings, an intake air leak, or incorrect
spark timing are normal causes for high combustion
temperatures.
Electronic TCI (Transistor Controlled
Ignition) System
These engines are equipped with a dependable
electronic TCI system providing:
• Maintenance free operation.
• Strong spark output.
• Stable, controlled ignition timing.
The system consists of the following components:
• A magnet assembly which is permanently
affixed to the flywheel.
• A TCI module which mounts on the engine
crankcase.
• An engine stop switch which grounds the
module to stop the engine.
• A spark plug.
Electric Start Engines also contain:
• An electric starter motor.
• A 3-position starter switch.
• A starter solenoid.
• Wiring harness with fuse.
• Rectifier-Regulator.
In the event starting problems should occur which are
not corrected by replacing the spark plug, refer to the
‘‘Troubleshooting Guide’’ for trouble analysis
procedures.
Oil Sentry™ Control System
Most engines are equipped with an Oil Sentry™ oil
monitor control system. When the oil level within the
crankcase falls below the safe level, the engine stops
automatically. Unless the oil level is brought up to the
proper level the oil warning light will flicker for a few
seconds when attempting to start, and the engine will
not start. See Figure 8-2.
Bring Level Up
To Point of
Overflow
Proper
Oil Level
Low Oil
Level
Figure 8-2. Cutaway Showing Proper Oil Level.
Oil Sentry™ systems typically consist of the following
components:
• An oil warning control unit (black box).
• An oil level float switch.
• An indicator light.
8.3
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Troubleshooting Guide
Ignition and Oil Sentry™ Systems
Before testing, be certain all electrical leads are connected and crankcase oil is at the point of overflowing the
filler neck.
Problem
Engine Will
Not Start
Test
1. Disconnect the cap from the spark plug and
attach it to the terminal end of spark tester
Kohler Part No. 25 455 01-S. Attach tester
spring clip to a good ground, not to the spark
plug. Turn ignition/key switch ‘‘on’’ and
crank the engine while observing the firing
tip of the tester.
1. If tester is firing, ignition system is good.
Install a new spark plug and try to start
engine. If it still will not start, check other
possible causes (fuel, compression, etc.). If
tester does not fire, go to step 2.
2. On electric start engines, remove the starter
cover panel. Locate the black/white kill lead
coming from the ignition module inside the
blower housing. Disconnect the bullet
connector where the kill lead plugs into the
harness. Repeat the spark test (step 1).
2. If spark is now present, check for a shorted lead
in the kill circuit or a faulty switch (step 7). If
there is still no spark, go to step 3.
3. Trace the blue lead from the Oil Sentry™
control module. Disconnect the bullet
connector where it joins the lead from the Oil
Sentry™ float switch (black with gray sleeve).
Repeat spark test again.
3. If spark is now present, the control module or
float switch is faulty. Test the control module
(step 4) and the float switch (step 5). If there is
still no spark, test the ignition module (step 6).
4. Connect a jumper lead from the blue lead
terminal to a bare spot on the crankcase
(ground). Turn the ignition switch ‘‘on’’,
crank the engine, and observe the red LED
indicator lamp.
4. If the indicator lamp flashes during cranking,
the control module is functioning, proceed to
step 5. If the lamp was not flashing initially but
did flash in step 4a, the control module is good,
but the ignition switch is probably faulty. Test
the float switch (step 5) and the ignition switch
(step 7).
a. If the indicator lamp was not flashing,
trace the black (manual start models) or
black/white (electric start models) lead
from the ignition switch. Separate the
bullet connector where the switch lead
joins the double red harness lead. Crank
the engine, again observing the red LED
indicator lamp.
5. Set an ohmmeter to the Rx1 scale and zero the
meter. Connect one ohmmeter lead to the Oil
Sentry™ float switch lead (black with gray
sleeve) and touch the other lead to a bare spot
on the crankcase (ground). Drain the oil from
the crankcase and repeat the test.
8.4
Conclusion
5. With the oil at the proper level, no continuity
should have been indicated. After the oil was
drained, continuity should have been indicated.
If test results are other than specified, remove
the closure plate from the engine and remove
the float switch for further testing (5a and 5b).
a. If continuity was indicated with and
without oil above, check if the insulation
has been scraped off the float switch lead.
a. If the lead wire is bare, allowing it to short,
repair with electrical tape or replace float
switch.
b. With the float switch removed, connect
one ohmmeter lead to the float switch lead
terminal and connect the other lead to
mounting bracket. Test resistance with the
switch in the normal position and
inverted.Repeat test 2 or 3 times in each
direction.
b. Switch continuity should be as indicated in
Figure 8-3. If not, replace it.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Problem
Test
6. Set an ohmmeter to the Rx1K or Rx10K scale
and zero. Connect one ohmmeter lead to the
kill lead (black/white) terminal and connect
the other lead into the spark plug cap.
a. Remove the cap from the spark plug lead
and test the resistance of the cap alone.
b. If resistances are other than specified,
remove the blower housing and remove
the ignition module. With the kill lead
and spark plug cap removed, test
resistance from the small spade terminal
to the core of the spark plug lead wire.
Engine Will
Not Start
Conclusion
6. Resistance of the ignition module should be
13.5-18.0 K ohms.
a. Resistance of the cap should be
4-6 K ohms.
b. Resistance should be 9.5-12.9 K ohms . If
resistance is not in this range, replace the
module.
7. Set an ohmmeter to the Rx1 scale and zero the
meter. Test the ignition/key switch as follows.
Continuity
a. On manual start engines, trace the two
black leads from the on/off switch and
separate them from any connections.
Connect the ohmmeter leads to the switch
leads, and check for continuity in both
switch positions.
a. Continuity should be indicated when and
only when switch is in the ‘‘off’’ position.
Replace switch for any other results.
b. On electric start engines, trace the four
leads (red, red/white, black, black/white)
from the key switch and separate them
from any connections. Connect the
ohmmeter leads to the black and
black/white leads and check for continuity
in all three switch positions. Then connect
the ohmmeter leads to the red and
red/white leads and test again in all three
switch positions.
b. Continuity should be indicated between the
black and black/white leads only when the
key switch is in the off position. There
should be continuity between the red and
red/white leads only in the start position.
Replace switch for any other results.
No Continuity
Figure 8-3.
8.5
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Battery Charging Systems
General
CS engines may be equipped with a 7 amp, 10 amp, or 18 amp regulated battery charging system. Refer to the
selection tables below and the appropriate wiring diagram, based upon the specific Model and Spec. No.
Wiring Diagram Selection Tables
The following selection tables and individual wiring diagrams (Figures 8-4 through 8-22) provide a reference for
troubleshooting and servicing. Locate the appropriate diagram based on the Model and Spec. No. involved.
Model No.
CS4T
CS4T
CS4T
CS4TR
CS4TP
CS4T
CS4TG
CS4TR
Spec. No.
901501
901502
901503
901504
901505
901506
901511
901512
Figure No.
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-5
8-5
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.8
8.8
Model No.
CS6T
CS6T
CS6T
CS6TR
CS6TP
CS6TG
S6T
CS6TR
CS6ST
CS6TG
CS6TG
CS6T
CS6ST
CS6T
CS6T
CS6T
CS6TG
CS6TG
CS6TR
Spec. No.
911501
911502
911503
911504
911505
911506
911507
911508
911509
911510
911511
911512
911513
911514
911515
911516
911517
911518
911519
Figure No.
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-5
8-7
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-4
8-4
8-7
8-5
8-4
8-4
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.8
8.9
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.6
Model No.
CS8.5T
CS8.5T
CS8.5TP
CS8.5TR
CS8.5TR
CS8.5TG
CS8.5TG
CS8.5ST
CS8.5ST
CS8.5TG
Spec. No.
921501
921502
921503
921504
921505
921506
921509
921507
921508
921510
Figure No.
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-8
8-9
8-5
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.10
8.10
8.8
Model No.
CS8.5T
CS8.5T
CS8.5T
CS8.5TP
CS8.5TR
CS8.5TR
CS8.5TG
CS8.5TG
CS8.5ST
CS8.5T
CS8.5T
CS8.5TG
CS8.5ST
CS8.5TG
CS8.5ST
CS8.5T
CS8.5T
CS8.5TR
CS8.5T
Spec. No.
951500
951501
951502
951503
951504
951505
951506
951507
951508
951509
951510
951511
951512
951513
951514
951515
951516
951517
951518
Figure No.
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-12
8-14
8-12
8-19
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-21
8-21
Page No.
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.13
8.12
8.15
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.12
8.16
8.16
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Model No.
CS10T
CS10T
CS10TG
CS10TP
CS10TR
CS10TR
CS10STG
CS10ST
CS10S
CS10ST
CS10TG
CS10
CS10T
CS10T
CS10TG
CS10TP
CS10TR
CS10TR
CS10STG
CS10ST
CS10S
CS10ST
CS10TG
CS10TG
CS10STG
CS10TG
CS10TR
CS10T
CS10STG
CS10STG
CS10TG
CS10T
CS10TR
Spec. No.
931501
931502
931503
931504
931505
931506
931507
931508
931509
931510
931511
931512
931601
931602
931603
931604
931605
931606
931607
931608
931609
931610
931611
931612
931614
931615
931616
931617
931618
931619
931620
931621
931622
Figure No.
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-16
8-16
8-16
8-17
8-6
8-6
8-18
8-6
8-22
8-5
8-18
8-18
8-5
8-19
8-19
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.10
8.10
8.10
8.10
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.14
8.14
8.14
8.14
8.9
8.9
8.15
8.9
8.17
8.8
8.15
8.15
8.8
8.15
8.15
Model No.
CS12T
CS12T
CS12TG
CS12TG
CS12TP
CS12TR
CS12TR
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12S
CS12ST
CS12GT
Spec. No.
941501
941502
941503
941511
941504
941505
941506
941507
941512
941508
941509
941510
941513
Figure No.
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-5
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.10
8.10
8.10
8.10
8.10
8.8
Model No.
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12T
CS12S
Spec. No.
941515
941516
941517
941518
941519
941520
941521
Figure No.
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-15
8-10
8-5
8-5
Page No.
8.11
8.11
8.11
8.13
8.11
8.8
8.8
Model No.
CS12T
CS12T
CS12TG
CS12TP
CS12TR
CS12TR
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12S
CS12ST
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12T
Hydro 12.75
CS12S
CS12STG
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12TR
CS12T
CS12ST
CS12STR
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12T
CS12ST
CS12T
CS12TR
CS12ST
CS12TG
Spec. No.
941601
941602
941603
941604
941605
941606
941607
941608
941609
941610
941611
941612
941613
941615
941616
941617
941618
941619
941620
Figure No.
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-16
8-16
8-16
8-17
8-5
8-16
8-5
8-18
8-18
8-18
8-16
8-18
8-6
Page No.
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.14
8.14
8.14
8.14
8.8
8.14
8.8
8.15
8.15
8.15
8.14
8.15
8.9
941621
941622
941623
941624
941625
941626
941627
941628
941629
941630
941631
941632
941633
941634
941635
941636
941637
941638
8-6
8-18
8-5
8-18
8-5
8-5
8-16
8-16
8-18
8-16
8-18
8-16
8-5
8-20
8-19
8-19
8-16
8-5
8.9
8.15
8.8
8.15
8.8
8.8
8.14
8.14
8.15
8.14
8.15
8.14
8.8
8.16
8.15
8.15
8.14
8.8
8.7
8
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Ignition Module
Spark
Plug
Ground
BW
B
Stop
Switch
B
Wire Lead
Electronic Ignition System,
Recoil Start.
Figure 8-4.
B
Wiring Color Codes
Black
B
Blue
L
Red
R
Yellow
Y
White
W
Brown
Br
Green
G
Gray
Gy
Black w/White Stripe
B/W
Red w/White Stripe
R/W
White w/Blue Stripe
W/L
Green w/Red Stripe
G/R
Green w/Yellow Stripe
G/Y
L/W
Blue w/White Stripe
Blue w/Red Stripe
L/R
Green w/Black Stripe
G/B
Oil Sentry™ Gauge Lead Black w/Gray Shielding
Ground
Ignition Module
Spark
Plug
Oil Warning
Unit
Ground
B
BW
R or BR
R or BR
B
Stop
Switch
Electronic Ignition System,
with Oil Sentry™ System.
Recoil Start.
Figure 8-5.
8.8
BW
Oil Sentry™ Gauge
Oil Sentry™ Light
Y
Ground
Ground
B
BW
Wire Lead B
L
Y
Ground
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Oil
Warning
Unit
B
R or BR
R or BR
B
BW
Stop Switch
L
BW
BW
Ground
Oil Sentry™
Light
B
B
Y
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
Wire Lead
W
Ignition Module
Y
B
Ground
Spark
Electronic Ignition System, 7 Amp Plug
Unregulated Charging System, with
Ground
Oil Sentry™ System. Recoil Start.
Ground
W
Stator
Ground
Figure 8-6.
8
Main Switch
Wire Color BW
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
BW
R
RW
Fuse (15 A)
R
W
Y Ignition Module
W
RW
R
R
BW Oil Sentry™
Light
Y
B
Oil Sentry™
Gauge
B
B
B
B
BW
Wire Lead
Start
BR
Y
Ground
RW
R or BR
BW
L
R
On
B B B
R or BR
B
B
Engine
Ground
R
R
R
R
RW
Ground
W
Stator
Ground
Spark
Plug
Ground
W
W
W
B
W
R
R
R
Starter
Solenoid
W
R
B
Battery
Ground
Electronic Ignition System, 7 Amp
Charging System, with RectifierRegulator, and Oil Sentry™ System.
Electric Start (Inertia Drive Starter).
Rectifier-Regulator
Starter
M Motor
Ground
Ground
Figure 8-7.
8.9
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Main Switch
Wire Color BW B
R
RW
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
On
B
R
L
BW
BW
B
BW
BW
Fuse (15 A)
R
W
Y Ignition Module
B
Oil Sentry™
Gauge
RW
R
R
Oil Sentry™
Light
Y
RW
R
B
B
Y
Ground
B
Wire Lead
B
R
BW
B
Start
W
Engine
Ground
R
R
R
R
RW
Ground
W
Stator
Spark
Plug
Ground
W
W
W
B
R
W
Ground
R
R
Starter
Solenoid
W
R
B
Battery
Ground
Electronic Ignition System, 10 Amp
Charging System, with RectifierRegulator, and Oil Sentry™ System.
Electric Start (Inertia Drive Starter).
Rectifier-Regulator
M Starter
Motor
Ground
Figure 8-8.
Main Switch
Wire Color BW B
R
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
Y
BW
B
BW
BW
B
Y
R
RW
BR
RW
R
R
Oil
Sentry™
Light
Fuse (20 A)
R
W
Y Ignition Module
B
B
B
B
BW
BW
Engine
W Ground
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
RW
Ground
Charge Lamp
Spark
Plug
W B
R
R
R
R
WL
R
W
Ground
W
R
Starter
Solenoid
W WL W
R WL B
Battery
Ground
Rectifier-Regulator
Electronic Ignition System, 18 Amp
Charging System, with RectifierRegulator, and Oil Sentry™ System.
Electric Start (Inertia Drive Starter).
8.10
BR
Ground
W
Stator
Figure 8-9.
BR
R
L
Ground
B
Wire Lead
R
On
Start
B
R
RW
M
WL Ground
Charge Lamp
Starter
Motor
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Main Switch
Wire Color BW
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
BW
BW
R
YR
YR
BW
BW
Ground
BW Oil Sentry™
Light
Ignition
Y
Module
R RW
B
B
L
YR
Ground
Rectifier
R
Y
B
RW
On
R
Wire Lead
R
Start
B
B
B
RW
R
R
R
R
Fuse
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
Starter
Solenoid
Spark
Plug
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Battery
Electronic Ignition System, 0.4 or 2 Amp
Charging System, Rectified Only. Oil Sentry™
System. Electric Start (Inertia Drive Starter).
M Starter Motor
Ground
Ground
Figure 8-10.
8
Main Switch
Wire Color BW
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
BW
BW
BW
Y
BW
Oil
Sentry™
Light
Ignition
Module
R RW
YR
YR
L
BW
B
B
R
B
RW
On
B
Wire Lead
R
Start
R
Ground
B
B
YR
Rectifier
RW
R
Y
R
R
R
R
Y
Fuse
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
Y
Ground
Spark
Plug
Ground Ground
Ground
Electronic Ignition System, 1.6 Amp Charging
System, Rectified Only. Oil Sentry™ System.
Electric Start (Inertia Drive Starter).
Ground
Starter
Solenoid
Battery
Starter
Motor M
Ground
Ground
Figure 8-11.
8.11
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Oil
Warning
Unit
Stop Switch
BW
R
B
Engine
Ground
R
B
BW
Ground
L
BW
BW
Ground
B
Y
Oil Sentry™
Light
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
Ignition Module
Y
Ground
Not on All
Models
Electronic Ignition System Oil
Sentry™ System, with Indicator Light
(Some Models), Recoil Start.
Spark
Plug
Stator
Ground
Ground
Figure 8-12.
Main Switch
Wire Color BW
Off
Oil
Warning
Unit
BW
BW
B
B
Engine
Ground
BW
Y
B
Oil
Sentry™
Light
Fuse (10 A)
R
Stator
G
RW
B
R
G
R
R
B
G
Ground
Spark
Plug
G
Ground
RW
R
Y
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
R RW
B
R
B
Ground
Ignition
Module
Wire Lead
B
R
BW
BW
RW
On
L
Ground
R
Start
R
B
B
B
G
R
R
R
R
G
G G
R
B
Ground
Battery
M
Starting Motor
Electronic Ignition System, 3 Amp
Charging System, Rectified Only. Oil
Sentry™ System. Electric Start
(Solenoid Shift Starter).
Figure 8-13.
8.12
Rectifier
Ground
Ground
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Oil
Warning
Unit
Stop
Switch
BW
R
Engine
Ground
B
R
B
BW
L
Ground
BW
BW
Ground
Oil Sentry™
Gauge
Y
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
B
B
Ignition
Module
Y
W
R
W
W
Stator W
Spark
Plug
Ground
W
B
R
R
W
W
Ground
R
W
R
B
Ground
Rectifier
Electronic Ignition System 18 Amp
Charging System, Rectified Only. Oil
Sentry™ System. Recoil Start.
Figure 8-14.
Rectifier Assembly
Rectifier-Regulator
LW GR
(-) (-)
GB
Oil
Sentry™
Light
Y B
(+) (-)
Y
GR B
Y LW
Y LW
GR GB
Y
GR
GR
LW GR
Y
Oil Warning
Unit
BW Y
BW Y
W
L
L
BW
B
Ground
Ground
BW
GB
BW
B
R
RW
Y
LR
R
GR
GR
B
LR
R
LW
LR
R
R
Fuse
(15 amp)
B
B
Carb.
Heater
Fuel Shut-Off
Solenoid
GB
GR BW
L
GB
GR BW
Ignition
Module
B
W
W
R
W
R
W
R RB Y LR
BW
B
R
RW
Y
LR
GB
LW
B
Off
On
Start
R
R
8
Main Switch
B
BW
W
B R R
Electronic Ignition System,
10 Amp Charging System,
with Rectifier-Regulator, and
Oil Sentry™ System. Electric Rectifier-Regulator
Start (Inertia Drive Starter)
Special Generator
Application Options.
W
Stator
Spark
Plug
R
RW
R
R
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
Starter
Solenoid
Ground Ground Ground
Battery
M Starter
Motor
Ground
Ground
Figure 8-15.
8.13
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
10 Amp Charging System with
Rectifier-Regulator and Oil Sentry™
System. Solenoid Shift Electric Starter.
Figure 8-16.
18 Amp Charging System with Rectifier-Regulator
and Oil Sentry™ System. Solenoid Shift Electric
Starter and Provisions for Charge Lamp.
Figure 8-17.
8.14
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
0.4 or 2 Amp Charging System-Rectified Only and
Oil Sentry™ System. Solenoid Shift Electric
Starter. Optional Solenoid Valve (Some Models).
Figure 8-18.
8
18 Amp Charging System with Rectifier-Regulator and
Oil Sentry™ System. Solenoid Shift Electric Starter and
Provisions for Charge Lamp. Spec. Specific Ignition
Switch and Wiring Harness Connectors.
Figure 8-19.
8.15
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
No Charging System, Operational
Off Battery. Oil Sentry™ System.
Solenoid Shift Electric Starter.
Figure 8-20.
Ignition Module
Spark
Plug
Ground
Ground
BW
Wire
Lead
B
Stop
Switch
B
Recoil Start
No Oil Sentry™ System.
Stop Switch Only.
Figure 8-21.
8.16
Ground
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Oil
Warning
Unit
Stop
Switch
BW
R
B
B
R
B
BW
L
Ground
BW
BW
Ground
Y
B
Oil Sentry™
LIght
B
Ignition
Module
Y
Oil
Sentry™
Gauge
W
R
W
W
Ground
Spark
Plug
Stator W
Ground
W
B
R
R
W
W
W
R
R
B
Ground
RectifierRegulator
10 Amp Charging System
Recoil Start Only
Oil Sentry™ System.
Figure 8-22.
8
8.17
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
NOTE: Observe the following guidelines to avoid
damage to the electrical system and
components.
• Make sure the battery polarity is correct. A
negative (-) ground system is used.
• Make sure all ground connections are secure
and in good condition.
• Disconnect both battery cables before doing
electrical welding on the equipment powered by
the engine. Also, disconnect other electrical
accessories in common ground with the engine.
18 Amp Rectifier-Regulator
The 18 amp rectifier-regulators contain a 6-terminal
plug-in configuration, illustrated in Figure 8-23. The
upper center terminal is the control or monitor
terminal, through which the regulator monitors
battery voltage. This terminal is connected internally
to SCRs, which are turned on and off as required,
controlling the battery voltage between 14 and 15
volts. The connection between the B+ (charge) lead
and the monitor terminal lead is made within the
wiring harness. The lower center terminal serves as a
connection for a pilot lamp circuit, to indicate when
the charging system is functioning.
Monitor Terminal (Red)
• Prevent the stator (AC) leads from touching or
shorting while the engine is running. This can
damage the stator.
B+ Charge
(Red)
–
+
Ground
(Black)
Stator
The stator is mounted on the crankcase behind the
flywheel. Should the stator have to be replaced, follow
the procedures in Section 9 Disassembly.
Rectifier-Regulator
The rectifier-regulator is connected to the engine with
a matching wiring harness containing a plug-in
connector. Grounded through the wiring harness, the
rectifier-regulator is secured to the equipment in a
suitable location with two mounting screws. To
replace it, disconnect the plug, and remove the two
mounting screws.
NOTE: When installing the rectifier-regulator, push
the wiring harness plug into the regulator
receptacle until it locks into place.
The rectifier-regulator converts the AC voltage coming
from the stator to DC voltage, while also monitoring
and controlling the battery voltage. There are two
different rectifier-regulators which are used; an 18
amp and a 7/10 amp assembly. Although externally
similar, the internal circuits differ and the two should
not be interchanged.
~
Stator AC Leads (White)
Pilot Lamp
Terminal
Figure 8-23. 18 Amp Rectifier-Regulator.
7/10 Amp Rectifier-Regulator
The 7/10 amp rectifier-regulators contain a 5-terminal
plug-in configuration (See Figure 8-24), with two
differences from the 6-terminal/18 amp system.
Battery voltage is monitored by the internal circuitry
of the rectifier-regulator instead of through the lead
connection at the upper center location. The terminal
in the upper center location serves no function. No
lower center (pilot lamp) terminal exists on the 7/10
amp rectifier-regulator.
B+ Charge
(Red)
+
Stator AC Leads
(White)
~
Ground (Black)
–
Floating/Isolated
Terminal
Figure 8-24. 7/10 Amp Rectifier-Regulator.
8.18
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Rectified Only (Non-Regulated) Systems
Some engines are equipped with a rectified only,
non-regulated charging system, with output ranging
from 0.2 amp to 18 amps. The rectifier is normally
connected to the engine with a matching wiring
harness and secured to the equipment with a single
mounting screw. Grounding is achieved through the
wiring harness. In certain other applications the
rectifier may be integrated within the basic engine
wiring harness. The rectifier converts AC voltage
coming from the stator to DC voltage only. The 3 amp
rectifier is shown in Figure 8-25.
Figure 8-25. 3 Amp Rectifier.
Rectifier-Regulator
DC Voltmeter
Plug in
Connector
(+)
(–)
8
Connect Tester Leads to Female
Bullet Connector (Red Wire)
Ammeter
Battery
Ground
Lead (Black)
Stator AC Leads (White)
Figure 8-26. Connections for Testing Charging Systems.
8.19
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Troubleshooting Guide
Battery Charging System
NOTE: Zero ohmmeters on each scale to ensure accurate readings. Voltage tests should be made with engine
running at 3600 RPM - no load. Battery must be fully charged. Check the specific gravity of battery. If
low, recharge or replace battery as necessary.
Problem
Test
1. Refer to Figure 8-26. Separate the bullet
connector in the red lead from the rectifierregulator. Connect an ammeter from the
female terminal to the positive (+) terminal of
the battery. Connect a DC voltmeter from the
female terminal to the negative (-) terminal of
the battery. Leave the other rectifier-regulator
leads connected in the normal manner. Run
the engine at 3600 RPM and read the voltage
on the voltmeter.
Conclusion
1. If voltage is 14.0-15.0 volts and charge rate
increases when load is applied, the charging
system is OK and the battery was fully
charged.
If voltage is less than 14.0 volts or charge rate
does not increase when load is applied, test
stator (Tests 2 and 3).
If voltage is 14.0 volts or more, place a
minimum load of 5 amps* on battery to
reduce voltage. Observe ammeter.
*NOTE: Turn on lights (if 60 watts or more)
or place a 2.5 ohm, 100 watt resistor
across battery terminals.
No
Charge
to
Battery
2. Separate the bullet connectors in the AC
(white) leads. Connect an AC voltmeter across
the stator leads (female terminals). With
engine running at 3600 RPM, measure the AC
output from the stator.
2. If voltage is 20.0 volts or more, stator is OK.
Rectifier-regulator is faulty. Replace the
rectifier-regulator.
If voltage is less than 20.0 volts, stator is
probably faulty and should be replaced. Test
stator further using an ohmmeter (Test 3).
3a. With engine stopped, measure the resistance 3a. If resistance value obtained is within the range
specified the stator is OK.
across stator/charging leads using an
ohmmeter. Compare the meter reading
Charging S ystem Normal Resistance (ohms)
obtained against the specified range, based on
1.2 and 1.6 amp
0.90 - 1.6 ohms
the charging system involved.
3b. With the engine stopped, measure the
resistance from each stator lead to ground
using an ohmmeter.
0.85 and 3.0 amp
0.28 - 0.50 ohms
7, 10, and 18 amp
0.10 - 0.30 ohms
3b. If the resistance is infinity ohms (no
continuity), the stator is OK (not shorted to
ground).
If resistance (or continuity) is measured, the
stator leads are shorted to ground. Replace
stator.
1. Perform same test as step 1 above.
Battery
Continuously
Charges at
High Rate
8.20
1. If the voltage is 15.0 volts or less the charging
system is OK. The battery is unable to hold a
charge. Service or replace battery as necessary.
If voltage is more than 15.0 volts, the
rectifier-regulator is faulty. Replace the
rectifier-regulator.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Battery
General
A 12 volt battery (not furnished) with a minimum
current rating of 160 (CS4, CS6) or 200 (CS8.5-12) cold
cranking amps should be sufficient for cranking most
electric start engine models. The actual cold cranking
requirement depends on engine size, application and
starting temperatures. Cranking requirements increase
as temperatures decrease and battery capacity shrinks.
Refer to the operating instructions of the equipment
this engine powers for specific battery requirements.
If the battery charge is not sufficient to turn over the
engine, recharge the battery.
Battery Maintenance
Regular maintenance is necessary to prolong battery
life.
WARNING: Explosive Gas!
Batteries produce explosive hydrogen gas while being
charged. To prevent a fire or explosion, charge batteries only
in well ventilated areas. Keep sparks, open flames, and other
sources of ignition away from the battery at all times. Keep
batteries out of the reach of children. Remove all jewelry
when servicing batteries.
2. Keep the cables, terminals, and external surfaces
of the battery clean. A build-up of corrosive acid
or grime on the external surfaces can cause the
battery to self-discharge. Self-discharge occurs
rapidly when moisture is present.
3. Wash the cables, terminals, and external surfaces
with a mild baking soda and water solution.
Rinse thoroughly with clear water.
NOTE: Do not allow the baking soda solution to
enter the cells as this will destroy the
electrolyte.
Battery Test
To test the battery, you will need a DC voltmeter.
Perform the following steps (See Figure 8-27).
1. Connect the voltmeter across the battery
terminals.
2. Crank the engine. If the battery drops below 9
volts while cranking, the battery is discharged or
faulty.
DC Voltmeter
Before disconnecting the negative (-) ground cable, make
sure all switches are OFF. If ON, a spark will occur at the
ground cable terminal which could cause an explosion if
hydrogen gas or gasoline vapors are present.
8
1. Regularly check the level of electrolyte. Add
distilled water as necessary to maintain the
recommended level.
NOTE: Do not overfill the battery. Poor
performance or early failure due to loss
of electrolyte will result.
Battery
Figure 8-27. Battery Voltage Test.
8.21
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Electric Starting Motors
Electric start engines in this series will use either an
inertia drive, or a solenoid shift starter. Each style has
its own respective starter solenoid incorporated into
the mounting configuration. The inertia drive starters
are covered first, beginning on page 8.25, and the
solenoid shift style covered starting on page 8.31.
Starting Motor Precautions
NOTE: Do not crank the engine continuously for
more than 10 seconds at a time. If the engine
does not start, allow a 60 second cool-down
period between starting attempts. Release the
switch as soon as the engine starts. Failure to
follow these guidelines can burn out the
starter motor.
NOTE: If the engine develops sufficient speed to
disengage the starter but does not keep
running (a false start), the engine rotation
must be allowed to come to a complete stop
before attempting to restart the engine. If the
starter is engages while the flywheel is
rotating, the starter pinion and flywheel ring
gear may clash, resulting in damage of the
starter.
NOTE: If the starter does not crank the engine, shut
off the starter immediately. Check the
condition of the inline fuse and do not make
further attempts to start the engine until the
condition is corrected.
NOTE: Do not drop the starter or strike the starter
housing. Doing so can damage the starter.
Starter Removal and Installation
Refer to the Disassembly and Reassembly sections for
starter removal and installation procedures.
Troubleshooting Guide – Starting Difficulties
Problem
Starter
Does Not
Energize
Possible Fault
Battery
1. Check the specific gravity of battery. If low, recharge or replace
battery as necessary.
Wiring
1. Check fuse condition.
2. Clean corroded connections and tighten loose connections.
3. Replace wires in poor condition and with frayed or broken
insulation.
Starter Switch
or Solenoid
Starter
Energizes
But Turns
Slowly
1. Check the switch or solenoid operation. If starter cranks normally,
replace the faulty components.
Battery
1. Check the specific gravity of battery. If low, recharge or replace
battery as necessary.
Wiring
1. Check for corroded connections, poor ground connection.
Brushes
1. Check for excessively dirty or worn brushes and commutator.
Clean using a coarse cloth (not emery cloth).
2. Replace brushes if excessively or unevenly worn.
Transmission
or
Engine
8.22
Correction
1. Make sure the clutch or transmission is disengaged or placed in
neutral. This is especially important on equipment with
hydrostatic drive. The transmission must be exactly in neutral to
prevent resistance which could keep the engine from starting.
2. Check for seized engine components such as the bearings,
connecting rod, and piston.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Troubleshooting Guide – Electric Starting System
Problem
Test
1. Test battery on unit.
a. Connect a DC voltmeter across the battery
terminals and read battery voltage (key
switch off).
b. Turn key switch to start position and
read battery voltage again. Turn switch off.
2. Remove the electric starter cover panel and check
the fuse inside the plastic holder. The fuse outside
the holder is a spare.
Conclusion
1. a. Battery voltage should be at least 12 volts
If low charge battery.
b. Battery voltage should not fall below 9 volts
during cranking. If it does, battery may be
faulty or there may be a short in the starting
circuit. Have battery load tested. If battery
passes load test, check circuitry.
2. If fuse is blown, check for a wiring problem
(bare wire, short circuit). Correct problem and
replace fuse. Try to start engine. If it still won’t
start, go to step 3.
3. If solenoid engages and starter begins to crank,
3. Disconnect the red/white solenoid lead from red/
the key switch is faulty, or there is a wiring
white switch lead at the bullet connection. Be sure
problem to/from the key switch. Check wiring
transmission is in neutral and PTO is off.
and test key switch circuits with an ohmmeter.
Connect one end of a jumper lead to the positive
terminal of the battery. Connect the other end to
the terminal of the red/white solenoid lead.
Starter
Motor Does
Not Operate
With Key
Switch
4. Use a known, good, fully-charged battery and
jumper cables to test starter motor. Be sure the
transmission is in neutral and PTO is off.
Inertia Drive Starters: Remove the heavy lead
from the post terminal on the starter. Connect one
end of the positive jumper cable to the post
terminal and connect the other end to the positive
terminal of the battery.
Solenoid Shift Starters: Connect one end of the
positive jumper cable to the positive brush lead
attached to the lower stud terminal of solenoid.
Connect the other end to the positive terminal of
the battery.
Connect one end of the negative jumper cable to
the negative terminal of the battery. Touch the
other end of the negative jumper cable to a bare
surface on the crankcase or to the starter housing.
4. When negative jumper cable is touched to
crankcase or starter housing, starter motor
should operate. If it does, continue with step 5.
If starter does not operate, refer to the servicing
procedures for the starter motor and check out
the brushes and armature. Repair or replace as
required.
5. Inertia Drive Starters: Disconnect the leads from
the starter solenoid and remove it from the starter
for testing. See Figure 8-33 on page 8.25.
5. a. The resistance of the energizing coil should
be at least 3.4 ohms. If the meter reading is
less than 3.4 ohms, or an open circuit is
indicated (infinity ohms), the solenoid is
faulty and must be replaced.
a. Set an ohmmeter on the Rx1 scale and zero
the meter. Connect one ohmmeter lead to the
terminal of the red/white lead from the
solenoid. Connect the other ohmmeter lead to
the solenoid mounting bracket.
b. With the ohmmeter still on the Rx1 scale,
connect the leads to the two large post
terminals.
c. Leave the ohmmeter leads connected to the
large terminals. Connect a jumper lead from
the positive terminal of the battery to the
terminal of the red/white solenoid lead.
Connect another jumper lead from the negative
terminal of the battery to the solenoid
mounting bracket.
8
b. The meter should indicate an open circuit
(infinity ohms, no continuity).
c. When the circuit is completed, applying 12
volts to the energizing coil, an audible click
should be heard as the solenoid engages,
and the ohmmeter should then indicate
continuity between the large terminals. If
the results are other than indicated, replace
the solenoid.
Solenoid Shift Starters: Perform the solenoid
tests on page 8.24.
8.23
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Solenoid Test Procedure
Solenoid Shift Style Starters
Disconnect all leads from the solenoid including the
positive brush lead attached to the lower stud
terminal. Remove the mounting hardware and
separate the solenoid from the starter for testing.
Test 1. Solenoid Pull-In Coil/Plunger Actuation
Test.
Use a 12 volt power supply and two test leads.
Connect one lead to the flat spade “S/start” terminal
on the solenoid. Momentarily* connect the other lead
to the lower large post terminal. See Figure 8-28.
When the connection is made the solenoid should
energize (audible click), and the plunger retract.
Repeat the test several times. If the solenoid fails to
activate, it should be replaced.
*NOTE: DO NOT leave the 12 volt test leads
connected to the solenoid for any time over
what is necessary for performing each of the
individual tests. Internal damage to the
solenoid may otherwise occur.
12 volt Test Leads
Momentary
Connection Only
VOM Leads
Figure 8-29. Testing Pull-In Coil/Solenoid Contact
Continuity.
Test 3. Solenoid Hold-In Coil Function Test.
Connect one 12 volt test lead to the flat spade “S/
start” terminal on the solenoid, and the other lead to
the body or mounting surface of the solenoid. Then,
manually push the plunger “In” and check if the
“Hold-In” coil holds the plunger retracted. See Figure
8-30. Do not allow the test leads to remain connected
to the solenoid for a prolonged period of time. If the
plunger fails to stay retracted, the solenoid should be
replaced.
Manually Push
Plunger “In”
12 volt Test Leads
Momentary
Connection Only
Figure 8-28. Testing Pull-In Coil/Plunger Actuation.
Test 2. Solenoid Pull-In Coil/Contact Continuity
Test.
Use an ohmmeter set to the audible or Rx2K scale, and
connect the two ohmmeter leads to the two large post
terminals. Perform the preceding test (1) and check for
continuity. See Figure 8-29. The ohmmeter should
indicate continuity, if no continuity is indicated the
solenoid should be replaced. Repeat test several times
to confirm condition.
8.24
12 volt Test Leads
Connect Only Long
Enough to Test
Figure 8-30. Testing Hold-In Coil/Function Test.
Test 4. Solenoid Hold-In Coil/Contact Continuity
Test.
Use an ohmmeter set to the audible or Rx2K scale, and
connect the two ohmmeter leads to the two large post
terminals. Perform the preceding test (3) and check for
continuity. See Figure 8-31. The meter should indicate
continuity, if no continuity is indicated the solenoid
should be replaced. Repeat test several times to
confirm condition.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Plunger
Pushed “In”
VOM Meter
Leads
12 volt Test Leads
Figure 8-31. Testing Hold-In Coil/Solenoid Contact
Continuity.
Inertia Drive Electric Starters
This subsection covers the operation, troubleshooting,
and repair of the inertia drive, permanent magnet
electric starter.
Operation
When power is applied to the starter, the armature
rotates. As the armature rotates, the drive pinion
moves out on the splined drive shaft and into mesh
with the flywheel ring gear. When the pinion reaches
the end of the drive shaft, it rotates the flywheel and
cranks the engine.
When the engine starts, the flywheel rotates faster
than the starter armature and drive pinion. This moves
the drive pinion out of mesh with the ring gear and
into the retracted position. When power is removed
from the starter, the armature stops rotating and the
drive pinion is held in the retracted position by the
anti-drift spring.
Starter Drive Service
Every 300 hours of operation (or annually, whichever
occurs first), clean and lubricate the splines on the
starter drive shaft. If the drive pinion is worn, or has
chipped or broken teeth, it must be replaced.
It is not necessary to completely disassemble the
starter to service the drive components. Service the
drive as follows:
8
Retaining
Ring
Drive Pinion
Spring
Figure 8-32. Inertia Drive Starter.
Spring
Holder (Collar)
Post Terminals
Red/White
Lead
Figure 8-34. Drive Components.
1. Remove the starter from the engine.
2. Push back the spring holder (collar) to expose the
retaining ring on the armature shaft, which
secures the drive components. Remove the
retaining ring using either of the Kohler retaining
ring removal tools.
Figure 8-33. Solenoid Details.
8.25
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Figure 8-35. Removing Retaining Ring.
3. Remove the spring holder (collar), spring and
drive pinion assembly from the armature shaft.
Figure 8-37. Installing Drive Components.
8. Install a new retaining ring into the groove of the
armature shaft. Squeeze it with a pliers to
compress it into the groove. It must fit into the
recess in the end of the spring holder.
Figure 8-36. Disassembled Drive Components.
4. Use a solvent to thoroughly clean any dirt or old
lubricant from the splines.
5. Inspect the splines and drive components for
wear or damage. If the splines are damaged, it
will be necessary to replace the starter. The drive
components are available as individual service
parts if any of them are worn or damaged.
6. Apply a small amount of molybdenum disulfide
lubricant to the splines.
7. Install the drive pinion, spring, and spring holder
(collar) onto the armature shaft.
8.26
Figure 8-38. Installing Retaining Ring.
Starter Disassembly
1. Remove the retaining ring, spring holder (collar),
spring, and drive pinion assembly from the
armature shaft. Refer to Starter Drive Service.
2. Disconnect the solenoid lead from the starter
terminal. Hold the lower jam nut from turning
with a wrench while loosening the top nut, to
prevent damaging internal components. See
Figure 8-39. The solenoid may be removed or left
in place.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Figure 8-39. Removing Solenoid Lead.
3. Scribe or mark a small line from the starter frame
to each end cap to serve as match marks for
reassembly later. See Figure 8-40.
Figure 8-42. Removing End Cap with Brush Plate.
6. Pull the armature out of the starter frame.
Brush Inspection/Replacement
1. Remove the lower jam nut, metal washer,
insulating washer, and O-Ring from the positive
(+) stud. Carefully push the stud inward to
separate the brush plate assembly from the end
cap. See Figure 8-43.
8
Figure 8-40. Match Marks for Reassembly.
4. Remove the two thru bolts, with sealing O-Rings,
from the starter. See Figure 8-41.
Figure 8-43. Removing Brush Plate.
Figure 8-41. Removing Starter Thru Bolt.
5. Remove the commutator end cap and brush plate
assembly. See Figure 8-42.
8.27
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
2. Inspect both the springs and brushes for wear,
fatigue, or damage. Measure the length of each
brush. The minimum length for each brush must
be 9 mm (0.350 in.). See Figure 8-44. Replace the
brush plate assembly if the condition of parts is
out of specification or questionable.
Depth:
2 mm (0.079 in.)
Brushes
Figure 8-46. Commutator Mica Depth.
Wear limit length:
9 mm (0.35 in.)
Figure 8-44. Brush Checking.
Spring
Spring
Armature Coil
1. Use an ohmmeter set to the Rx1 scale. Touch the
probes between two different segments of the
commutator, and check for continuity. See Figure
8-47. Test all the segments. Continuity must exist
between all or the armature is defective.
2. Check for continuity between the armature coil
segments and the commutator segments. See
Figure 8-47. There should be no continuity. If
continuity exists between any two, the armature
is defective.
3. Check armature windings/insulation for shorting.
See Figure 8-47.
Figure 8-45. Brush Plate Details.
Insulation
Check
x1
–x1k +
Armature Commutator
1. Clean and inspect commutator (outer surface).
Use 600 grit sandpaper to clean if necessary.
2. Measure the mica (insulation depth between the
commutator segments). The depth should be
2 mm (0.079 in.). If less, cut/scrape the mica to the
proper measurement using a hacksaw blade or
similar tool ground to fit between the segments.
See Figure 8-46.
NOTE: The mica insulation of the commutator
must be undercut to ensure proper
operation of the commutator.
8.28
Armature
Coil
Continuity
Check
Figure 8-47. Armature Checking.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Starter Reassembly
1. Position the thrust washer in the recess inside the
drive end cap. Install cover gasket on housing
flange if removed previously.
Figure 8-50. Installing Frame.
Figure 8-48. Installing Thrust Washer and Gasket.
2. Carefully apply one or two drops of oil to the
bronze bushing in the drive end cap and wipe
away any excess. Insert the armature shaft
through the end cap.
4. With the brushes and brush springs in place on
brush plate, align the tabs and install the brush
plate in commutator end cap. Insert the positive
brush stud, with plastic support, through hole in
the end cap from the inside out. Install the
O-Ring, fiber washer, metal washer, and inner hex
jam nut. Tighten nut to secure but do not
overtighten, or damage to the inside plastic
support can occur.
8
Figure 8-49. Installing Armature.
Figure 8-51. Assembled Brush Plate.
3. Install the starter frame (magnet end first) over
the armature, aligning the scribed marks made
earlier. See Figure 8-50.
Figure 8-52. Brush Plate and Terminal Components.
8.29
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
5. Assemble the end cap assembly to the starter,
inserting the commutator below the brushes and
gently guiding the end of the armature shaft into
the bushing within the end cap, against the brush
spring tension. See Figure 8-53.
Figure 8-55. Assembling Starter Lead.
Figure 8-53. Installing End Cap Assembly.
6. Align all scribe marks and install the thru bolts
with O-Rings. Torque the bolts to 5.3 N·m
(48 in. lb.). See Figure 8-54.
Figure 8-56. Installing Solenoid Connections.
8. Apply a light film of molybdenum disulfide to
the splines of armature shaft and install the drive
pinion, spring, and spring holder.
Figure 8-54. Torquing Thru Bolts.
7. Attach the starter lead from the solenoid to the
stud and add the lock washer and outer hex jam
nut to secure. Hold the lower jam nut from
turning with a wrench while tightening the top
nut, to prevent damaging the internal
components. See Figure 8-55.
Reinstall the protective boot over the connection.
If the solenoid was removed from the starter,
reinstall it at this time, and connect the starter
lead to the lower large terminal. See Figure 8-56.
8.30
9. Push the spring holder down and install a new
retaining ring into the groove of the armature
shaft. Squeeze it with a pliers to compress it into
the groove. It must fit into the recess in the end of
the spring holder.
10. Install the starter back onto the engine. Refer to
Section 11 Reassembly.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Solenoid Shift Electric Starter
The following subsection covers the solenoid shift electric starter. Much of the information in the proceeding
subsection relates to this type starter also, so it is not repeated here. A Nippendenso solenoid shift starter is used.
Operation (Solenoid Shift Starter)
When power is applied to the starter, the electric solenoid moves the drive pinion out onto the drive shaft and
into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. When the pinion reaches the end of the drive shaft, it rotates the flywheel
and cranks the engine.
When the engine starts and the start switch is released the starter solenoid is deactivated, the drive lever moves
back, and the pinion moves out of mesh with the ring gear into the retracted position.
Drive
End Cap
Nut
Drive
Lever
Dust
Cover
Starter
Assembly
Solenoid
Frame
Thrust
Washer
Wire
Retainer
Stop Collar
Brushes
Bush
Spring
Brush
Holder
8
Insulator
Nut
Drive
Pinion
Commutator
End Cap
Armature
Thru Bolt
Figure 8-57. Nippendenso Solenoid Shift Starter.
8.31
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Starter Disassembly
1. Remove flange nut and disconnect the braided
wire from lower main solenoid terminal.
2. Remove the two hex flange nuts securing the
solenoid, and carefully separate the solenoid
from the starter assembly (the front end of
solenoid must be lifted slightly to permit
disengagement from drive lever in starter). See
Figure 8-58.
8. Pull outward on the pivot portion of the drive
lever, and remove the drive lever and armature
from the drive end cap. See Figure 8-60.
NOTE: When removing the lever and armature,
be careful not to lose the thrust washer.
Figure 8-60. Removing Drive Lever and Armature.
Figure 8-58. Starter with Solenoid Removed.
3. Remove the two thru bolts.
9. The stop collar is held in place by being snapped
over the retainer from the bottom-up. The
retainer is positioned in a groove in the armature
shaft. To access the retainer, the stop collar must
be pushed back or down towards the drive
pinion. See Figure 8-61.
4. Remove the commutator end cap from the starter
frame and the rubber insulating grommet.
5. Carefully remove the insulator and brush springs
from the brush holder.
6. Lift the four brushes out of their corresponding
slots and remove the brush holder.
7. Remove the frame from around the armature and
drive end cap. See Figure 8-59.
Figure 8-61. Starter Drive and Stop Components.
10. With the stop collar dislodged, the retainer can be
removed from the armature shaft. Do not reuse
the retainer.
11. Remove the drive pinion assembly from the
armature for servicing/replacement.
12. Clean all parts and the splines on the armature as
necessary.
Figure 8-59. Disassembled Starter.
8.32
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
Brush Replacement
The brushes in the starter are part of the starter frame.
The brush kit, Kohler Part No. 52 221 01-S, contains
four replacement brushes and springs. If replacement
is necessary, all four brushes should be replaced.
1. Remove brushes from brush holder, and remove
brush holder from frame.
2. Cut the brush lead wire at the edge of the post
with a pair of nippers.
3. File off burrs on the post.
4. The replacement brushes have a solid portion on
them which should be crimped on the post.
5. Solder the crimped portion to the post.
6. Replace the brush holder in the frame and place
the brushes in the brush holder. Reinstall the
springs.
Starter Service
Clean drive lever and armature shaft. Apply Kohler
electric starter drive lubricant (See Section 2) to lever
and shaft.
Figure 8-62. Lock Collar around Retaining Ring.
5. Install the thrust washer onto the armature shaft
and lightly lubricate the end of the shaft with
drive lubricant.
6. Position the lubricated drive lever around the
drive pinion assembly and insert the assembly
into the drive end cap. Seat the pivot section of
drive lever into the corresponding section within
the housing. See Figure 8-63.
Starter Reassembly
1. Install the drive pinion onto the armature shaft.
8
2. Slide the stop collar onto the armature shaft
below the retaining ring groove. Make sure the
recessed side of the stop collar is up.
3. Position a new retainer in the groove of armature
shaft, and carefully tighten with a pliers to
secure.
NOTE: Always use a new retainer. Do not nick
or damage armature shaft.
Figure 8-63. Installing Armature.
4. Use an open end wrench and slide the stop collar
up until the recessed section encases the retaining
ring and locks the collar into position. See Figure
8-62.
8.33
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
7. Mount the brush holder to rear of starter frame.
Install the four brushes into the corresponding
slots. Then carefully work (set) each of the four
brush springs into position behind the brushes.
Slide the rubber insulating grommet onto the
small corresponding plastic tab on frame. See
Figure 8-64.
Figure 8-66. Tool on end of Armature.
10. Carefully slide the frame with the brush plate
assembly down over the tool and onto armature
and drive end cap, aligning the cutout with lever
section (on top). The rubber insulating grommet
should also be up. See Figure 8-67.
Figure 8-64. Mounting Brush Holder to Frame.
NOTE: Maintain pressure on the insulator while
installing so the springs do not come out.
8. Position the insulator over the brushes and
springs. Hold it firmly in place so the springs do
not come out. See Figure 8-65.
Figure 8-67. Installing Frame with Brush Plate
Assembly.
Figure 8-65. Holding Insulator in Place.
9. Stand the armature/drive end cap assembly on
end so the commutator end is up. Place brush/
armature installation tool over the end of
armature shaft until it rests against the
commutator. See Figure 8-66.
8.34
11. Remove the tool and install the commutator end
cap, aligning the cutout with the insulating
grommet. See Figure 8-68.
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
14. Connect the braided (brush) lead to lower main
solenoid terminal and secure with the loose hex
flange nut. See Figure 8-70.
Figure 8-68. Installing End Cap.
12. Install and tighten the two thru bolts.
13. Make sure the dust cover is in place on solenoid.
Install solenoid engaging the plunger end with
the yoke of the drive lever. Check by pulling
solenoid towards the rear. Mount the solenoid to
the starter using the two hex flange nuts. Tighten
securely. See Figure 8-69.
Figure 8-70. Connecting Brush Lead.
8
Figure 8-69. Installing Thru Bolts.
8.35
Section 8
Electrical System and Components
8.36
Section 9
Disassembly
Section 9
Disassembly
WARNING: Accidental Starts!
Disabling engine. Accidental starting can cause severe injury or death. Before working on the engine or equipment,
disable the engine as follows: 1) Disconnect the spark plug lead(s). 2) Disconnect negative (-) battery cable from battery.
General
Clean all parts thoroughly as the engine is
disassembled. Only clean parts can be accurately
inspected and gauged for wear or damage. There are
many commercially available cleaners that will
quickly remove grease, oil, and grime from engine
parts. When such a cleaner is used, follow the
manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions
carefully.
Make sure all traces of the cleaner are removed before
the engine is reassembled and placed into operation.
Even small amounts of these cleaners can quickly
break down the lubricating properties of engine oil.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Remove flywheel.
Remove ignition module.
Remove stator and protective shield.
Remove reduction assembly.
Remove closure plate.
Remove balance shaft assembly.
Remove camshaft and valve tappets.
Remove connecting rod with piston and rings.
Remove crankshaft.
Remove governor cross shaft.
Remove oil seals and bearings.
* Loosening/removing the electric starter cover panel
will provide access to upper housing mounting
screw.
Typical Disassembly Sequence
The following sequence is suggested for complete
engine disassembly. The sequence can be varied to
accommodate options or special equipment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Disconnect spark plug lead.
Turn fuel shut-off valve to off position.
Drain oil from crankcase.
Remove muffler and heat shield assembly.
Remove air cleaner assembly.
Remove fuel tank and fuel tank support.
Remove external governor, throttle, and choke
linkage.
Remove carburetor.
Remove retractable starter.
Remove blower housing.*
Remove right fuel tank bracket, switch bracket,
electric starter, and housing/cover panel
assembly.
Remove left fuel tank bracket.
Remove governor lever and throttle linkage.
Remove valve cover/breather, air shroud, cylinder
head assembly, and push rods.
Disconnect Spark Plug Lead
9
1. Disconnect the lead from the spark plug. See
Figure 9-1.
NOTE: Pull on boot only, to prevent damage to spark
plug lead.
Figure 9-1. Disconnecting Spark Plug Lead.
9.1
Section 9
Disassembly
Turn Fuel Shut-Off Valve to Off Position
Figure 9-4. Removing Muffler.
Figure 9-2. Fuel Shut-Off Valve.
Drain Oil From Crankcase
1. Remove one of the oil drain plugs and one of the
oil fill caps.
3. Remove the exhaust gasket from the outlet.
Remove Air Cleaner Assembly
Remove the air cleaner components from the air
cleaner base as outlined in Section 4.
Remove the air cleaner base from engine as follows:
1. Remove the hex flange screw(s) securing the air
cleaner base to the mounting bracket(s), based on
the specific model involved. See Figures 9-5, 9-6,
and 9-7.
Drain Plug
Figure 9-3. Oil Drain Plug.
2. Allow ample time for the oil to drain from the
crankcase.
3. On engines with a 2:1 reduction system, tip the
engine toward the flywheel to drain most of the
oil out of the reduction housing; then drain out of
the crankcase.
Remove Muffler and Heat Shield
Assembly
1. Remove the hex nuts from the exhaust studs and
the hex flange screw from the muffler bracket.
2. Remove the muffler assembly from the exhaust
outlet.
9.2
Figure 9-5. CS4, CS6 Air Cleaner Base.
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Fuel Tank
1. Make sure the fuel tank is empty. If the fuel shutoff valve is mounted directly to tank, close the
valve. See Figure 9-2.
2. Loosen the clamp and disconnect the fuel line
from the outlet of shut-off valve (fuel tank
mounted valves) on CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec.
92xxxx), CS10, and CS12 engines. See Figure
9-9. On the CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) loosen the clamp
and disconnect the fuel line from the inlet of the
shut-off valve (blower housing mounted valves).
See Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-6. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Air Cleaner Base.
Figure 9-9. Disconnecting Fuel Line on CS4, CS6,
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12.
Figure 9-7. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) Air Cleaner Base.
9
2. Remove the two hex flange nuts securing the base
to the carburetor mounting studs.
3. Disconnect one end of the breather hose from the
valve cover or air cleaner base.
4. Pull the air cleaner base off the studs.
Figure 9-10. Disconnecting Fuel Line on CS8.5
(spec. 95xxxx).
3. Remove the four fuel tank mounting screws and
lift off the fuel tank assembly.
Figure 9-8. Removing Air Cleaner Base.
9.3
Section 9
Disassembly
4. On CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) remove the five screws
and washers securing the fuel tank support to the
crankcase, and the single screw into the throttle
control bracket. Lift off the fuel tank support. See
Figure 9-11.
Figure 9-13. Loosening Governor Lever.
Figure 9-11. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) Fuel Tank
Support.
Remove External Governor, Throttle, and
Choke Linkage
1. Carefully lift up and unhook the choke link and
spring from the choke lever on the carburetor
(CS8.5, CS10, and CS12 only). The choke link
may stay connected on CS4 and CS6 engines.
Figure 9-14. Removing Governor Lever and
Linkage.
3. On CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) remove the single hex
flange screw securing the throttle control bracket
to the crankcase. See Figure 9-15.
Figure 9-12. Disconnecting Choke Link and
Dampening Spring from CS8.5-CS12 Carburetor.
2. Loosen the hex flange screw securing the governor
lever to the governor shaft.* Mark which hole
location the governor spring is in. Lift off the
governor lever with throttle linkage and spring
attached, unhooking the governor spring from the
throttle lever. Unhook the throttle linkage and
dampening spring from the carburetor throttle
shaft.
9.4
Figure 9-15. Removing Control Bracket on CS8.5
(spec. 95xxxx).
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Carburetor
WARNING:
Gasoline may be present in the carburetor and fuel
system. Gasoline is extremely flammable, and its vapors
can explode if ignited. Keep sparks, open flames and other
sources of ignition away from the engine.
1. Remove the air cleaner base gasket from the two
mounting studs.
2. Pull the carburetor outward and off the
mounting studs.
3. Remove the outer gasket, spacer block, and inner
gasket from the studs.
Figure 9-17. Removing Carburetor Without
Governor Lever Removal.
Remove Retractable Starter
1. Remove the hex flange screws securing the
retractable starter to the blower housing. See
Figure 9-18.
Figure 9-16. Removing Carburetor, Gaskets, and
Spacer.
*If you want to remove the carburetor without
disturbing the governor lever mounting,
proceed as follows.
9
Figure 9-18. Removing Starter Mounting Screws.
1. Gently hold the governor lever in the full throttle
(left/clockwise) position.
2. Pull the carburetor outward and off the mounting
studs. Tilt the carburetor and disconnect the
throttle link and dampening spring from the
throttle lever. See Figure 9-17.
9.5
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Blower Housing
1. Remove the hex flange screws securing the
blower housing. The screw in the upper righthand position may also secure a ground lead on
some models. See Figures 9-20 and 9-21.
NOTE: On models with electric starters,
loosening or removing the starter cover
panel mounting screws will allow easier
access to the screw in the upper righthand position.
Mounting Screws
Figure 9-21. Cover Panel Mounting Screws.
Not on CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx)
Figure 9-19. CS8.5, CS10, and CS12 Blower
Housing Screws.
Upper Mounting Screw
Figure 9-22. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Upper Right-Hand Mounting Screw.
2. Pull the blower housing off.
Figure 9-20. CS4, CS6 Silver Screw with Ground
Lead.
Figure 9-23. Removing the Blower Housing.
9.6
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Right Fuel Tank Bracket (if so
equipped), Switch Bracket, Electric Starter,
and Housing/Cover Panel Assembly
1. Disconnect the wiring harness bullet connectors
for the oil sentry and ignition module. Remove
the mounting screw securing the ground lead.
See Figures 9-24 and 9-25. Disconnect the
rectifier-regulator lead connections if used.
Figure 9-26. CS4, CS6 Right Tank Bracket
Mounting Details.
Figure 9-24. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Ground Lead Location.
Figure 9-27. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Right Tank Mounting Bracket Details.
Electric Start Engines Only
3. Remove the two screws securing the control
panel and mounting bracket for the electrical
components. See Figure 9-28.
Figure 9-25. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) Ground Lead
Location.
2. Remove the two front fuel tank bracket (not used
on CS8.5 [spec. 95xxxx]) mounting screws,
attaching the throttle lever mechanism, switch
and oil sentry light bracket. On electric start
engines the electrical control panel housing will
also be included. Note the washer used on PTO
side screw only. See Figure 9-31.
Figure 9-28. Removing Control Panel Screws.
9.7
9
Section 9
Disassembly
4. Remove the two electric starter mounting bolts.
See Figures 9-29 and 9-30.
Figure 9-31. Inertia Drive Starter and Control Panel
Removed.
Figure 9-29. Removing Inertia Drive Starter
Mounting Bolts.
Starter
Mounting
Bolts
Figure 9-32. Solenoid Shift Starter and Control
Panel Removed.
Figure 9-30. Starter Bolts on Models with Solenoid
Shift Starters.
5. Remove the starter motor, wiring harness and
control panel housing from the engine.
Components may be further disassembled if
required. See Figures 9-31, 9-32, and 9-33.
Figure 9-33. Control Panel and R.H. Tank Bracket.
9.8
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Left Fuel Tank Bracket
1. Remove the left fuel tank mounting bracket by
removing the two screws. Figure 9-34 and 9-35.
Washers are used on the CS4 and CS6 only.
Figure 9-36. Removing Valve Cover Screws on
Models with Attached Support Bracket.
Figure 9-34. CS4, CS6 Left Side Tank Mounting
Bracket Details.
Support Bracket
Screws
Figure 9-37. Support Bracket Screws on CS8.5
(spec. 95xxxx).
Figure 9-35. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Left Side Tank Mounting Bracket Details.
9
2. Remove the valve cover and gasket from the
cylinder head. See Figure 9-38. The breather
assembly is inside the valve cover.
Remove Valve Cover/Breather, Air Shroud,
Cylinder Head Assembly, and Push Rods
1. Remove the four hex flange screws securing the
valve cover. The air cleaner support bracket
(CS8.5-12) may be mounted off two of the screws
or directly to cylinder head. Remove the support
bracket and note the locations of all the screws.
See Figures 9-36 and 9-37.
Figure 9-38. Valve Cover, Gasket, and Air Shroud
Removed.
9.9
Section 9
Disassembly
3. Lift off the air shroud from the cylinder head.
CS4 and CS6 air shrouds have one mounting
screw which must be removed. See Figure 9-39.
Figure 9-41. Cylinder Head and Gasket Removed.
Mounting Screw
Figure 9-39. CS4, CS6 Mounting Screw Location.
4. Remove the four hex flange screws securing
cylinder head. Remove the cylinder head, dowel
pins (2), push rods, and cylinder head gasket.
Disassemble Cylinder Head
1. Remove the spark plug.
2. Slide the rocker shaft out and remove the rocker
arm assemblies on CS8.5-12 engines. Mark or
note position of each part, if it is to be reused.
NOTE: Mark the push rods so they will be
reinstalled in the same location.
Figure 9-42. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, and CS12
Removing Rocker Arms and Spark Plug.
Figure 9-40. Remove Cylinder Head Mounting
Screws.
9.10
3. Using a valve spring compressor, remove the
valves by compressing the valve springs and
removing the keepers. See Figure 9-43.
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Flywheel
NOTE: Whenever possible, an impact wrench should
be used to loosen the flywheel retaining nut.
A flywheel strap wrench, or an approved
holding tool (see Section 2) may also be used
to hold the flywheel when loosening or
tightening the flywheel retaining nut.
Always use a puller to remove the flywheel
from the crankshaft. Do not strike the
flywheel or crankshaft as these parts could
become cracked or damaged.
Figure 9-43. Disassembling Valve Assemblies.
4. Remove and replace the intake valve stem seal
whenever the cylinder head is serviced or
diassembled. See Figure 9-44.
NOTE: Some electric start flywheels require the
ignition module be taken off first, or
loosened, to remove the flywheel from
crankshaft. See Figure 9-46. Perform
"Remove Ignition Module" prior to Step 1 if
applicable.
9
Figure 9-44. Removing Intake Valve Stem Seal.
5. If the cylinder head is being replaced, the
carburetor mounting studs can be removed by
using the air cleaner base nuts locked together.
See Figure 9-45.
Figure 9-45. Removing Carburetor Mounting Studs.
Figure 9-46. Electric Start Flywheel/Module
Configuration (some models).
1. Remove the flywheel retaining nut, washer, and
drive cup. See Figures 9-47 and 9-48.
Figure 9-47. Removing Flywheel Nut using an
Impact Wrench.
9.11
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Ignition Module
1. Remove the two hex flange screws securing the
ignition module to the crankcase. See Figure 9-51.
Figure 9-48. Removing Flywheel Nut Using Holding
Tool.
2. Remove the flywheel from the crankshaft using a
puller. See Figure 9-49 and 9-50.
Figure 9-51. Removing the Ignition Module Screws.
Remove Stator and Protective Shield (If
So Equipped)
1. Remove the mounting screw and protective
shield over the stator leads. See Figure 9-52.
Figure 9-49. Using Puller to Remove Flywheel on
CS8.5-CS12.
Style 1
Figure 9-50. Use External Type Puller to Remove
Flywheel on CS4, CS6.
Style 2
Figure 9-52. Stator and Protective Shield.
3. Remove the flywheel key from keyway.
9.12
Section 9
Disassembly
2. Remove the four hex flange shoulder screws
securing the stator to the crankcase. Remove the
stator and pull the wires through the opening in
the casting. See Figure 9-53.
Figure 9-55. Removing Reduction Housing Screws
on CS8.5-CS12.
3. Pull the reduction housing off the closure plate.
Figure 9-53. Removing Mounting Screws and
Stator.
Remove Reduction Assembly (If So
Equipped)
2:1 Reduction Assembly
1. Remove any drive coupling and the key from the
reduction assembly output shaft. Clean the shaft
and keyway of any burrs/damage.
2. Remove the mounting bolts securing the
reduction system housing onto the crankcase.
Place a flat pan or towel under the housing to
catch any remaining oil. See Figures
9-54 and 9-55.
Figure 9-54. Removing Reduction Housing Screws
on CS4, CS6.
Figure 9-56. Removing Reduction Housing on CS4,
CS6.
Figure 9-57. Removing Reduction Housing on
CS8.5-CS12.
9.13
9
Section 9
Disassembly
4. Remove the screw and washer securing the
crankshaft sprocket/gear.
Figure 9-60. Removing Sprockets and Chain on
CS4, CS6.
Figure 9-58. Removing Screw from Crankshaft on
CS4, CS6.
Figure 9-61. Thrust Washer Behind Crank Sprocket
on CS4, CS6.
Figure 9-59. Removing Screw from Crankshaft on
CS8.5-CS12.
b. On CS8.5-12, remove the crankshaft gear,
counter gear, and output shaft/gear assembly.
See Figure 9-62.
5. Remove the reduction components.
a. On CS4 and CS6, leave the chain intact, and
pull out the two sprockets as an assembly.
See Figure 9-60. Note the position of the wave
washer and remove it from the output shaft.
Also remove the thrust washer from the end
of the crankshaft. See Figure 9-61.
Figure 9-62. CS8.5-CS12 Disassembled Reduction
Assembly.
9.14
Section 9
Disassembly
6. Check the reduction system bearings for wear or
excessive play. See Figure 9-63. If bearing removal
is required, use an internal bearing puller to
remove the housing bearings. An arbor press
should be used for removal of the others.
Figure 9-65. Removing Cover from Reduction
Housing.
4. Remove the ring gear/output shaft assembly. See
Figure 9-66.
Figure 9-63. Checking Bearing Play.
6:1 Reduction Assemblies, CS4 and CS6
1. Remove any drive coupling and the key from the
reduction output shaft. Clean the shaft and
keyway of any burrs/damage.
2. Remove the four reduction cover mounting
screws. Use a flat pan to catch oil when the
screws are removed and the cover is separated.
See Figure 9-64.
9
Figure 9-66. Removing Ring Gear/Shaft.
5. If the reduction housing requires removal from
the closure plate, remove the four mounting
screws and separate the two castings.
Figure 9-64. Loosening Reduction Housing Cover
Screws.
3. Remove the cover from the reduction housing
assembly.
Figure 9-67. Removing Housing Mounting Screws.
9.15
Section 9
Disassembly
6. Remove the gasket(s) and clean the respective
sealing surfaces with a cleaning solvent or aerosol
type gasket remover. Do not nick or scrape the
sealing surfaces.
Figure 9-70. Removing Housing Cover Screws.
3. Remove the cover from the reduction assembly.
Place a flat drain pan or shop towel under the
housing to catch any remaining oil.
Figure 9-68. Separate Reduction Housing from
Closure Plate.
Figure 9-71. Removing Housing Cover.
Figure 9-69. CS4, CS6 6:1 Reduction Assembly
Components.
4. Pull the output shaft/gear assembly out of the
housing cover or closure plate. See Figure 9-72.
7. Check the reduction system bearings for wear or
excessive play. See Figure 9-63. If bearing removal
is required, use an internal bearing puller to
remove the housing bearings. An arbor press
should be used for removal of the others.
6:1 Reduction Assemblies, CS8.5, CS10, and CS12
1. Remove any drive coupling and the key from the
reduction assembly output shaft. Clean the shaft
and keyway of any burrs/damage.
2. Remove the six reduction cover mounting screws.
See Figure 9-70.
Figure 9-72. Removing Output Shaft/Gear from
Cover.
9.16
Section 9
Disassembly
5. Remove the counter gear from the closure plate.
Remove the screw and washer securing the crank
gear and slide the gear off of the crankshaft
splines. See Figure 9-73.
Pry/Tap
Pads
Pry/Tap
Pads
Figure 9-75. CS4, CS6 Closure Plate Mounting
Screws.
Figure 9-73. Removing Counter Gear and Crank
Gear.
Pry/Tap
Pads
6. Remove the dowel pins and gasket. Clean the
gasket surfaces with a cleaning solvent or aerosol
type gasket remover. Do not nick or scrape the
sealing surfaces. See Figure 9-74.
Pry/Tap
Pads
Pry/Tap
Pads
Figure 9-76. CS8.5-CS12 Closure Plate Mounting
Screws.
2. Locate the pry/tap pads on the closure plate. See
Figures 9-75 and 9-76. These areas permit
separation of the closure plate from the crankcase
with a flat screwdriver or by tapping lightly with
a plastic hammer.
Figure 9-74. Removing Dowel Pins and Gasket.
7. Check the reduction system bearings for wear or
excessive play. See Figure 9-63. If bearing removal
is required, use an internal bearing puller to
remove the housing bearings. An arbor press
should be used for removal of the others.
NOTE: Do not pry on the gasket surface of the
crankcase or closure plate, as this can
cause damage and leakage.
Remove Closure Plate
1. Remove the hex flange screws securing the
closure plate to the crankcase (six on CS4 and
CS6; eight on CS8.5-CS12). See Figures 9-75 and
9-76.
9.17
9
Section 9
Disassembly
Figure 9-77. Separating Closure Plate From
Crankcase.
Figure 9-79. Removing Governor Gear.
6. Remove the crankshaft seal. See Figure 9-80.
Steps 3-7 should be performed only if further
disassembly or servicing in the respective areas is
necessary.
3. Remove the two hex flange screws mounting the
oil sentry gauge and the single screw holding the
wire shield in place. See Figure 9-78.
Grommet
Figure 9-80. Removed Crankshaft Seal.
7. Press out the crankshaft bearing using an arbor
press. Use an internal bearing puller to remove
the balance shaft bearing.
Figure 9-78. Removing Shield and Oil Sentry™.
4. Pull the grommet out of the cutout in the casting
and remove the oil sentry gauge. Note the routing
of the wire.
5. Remove the governor gear/flyweight assembly by
carefully applying upward pressure with two
small screwdrivers between the gear and the
closure plate bosses. This will unseat the
retaining ring from the groove, allowing removal
of the gear and mounting components by pulling
upward. Do not pry against the gasket surface.
Note the placement and order of all parts. See
Figure 9-79.
9.18
Figure 9-81. Bearing Removal Using a Press.
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Balance Shaft (If So Equipped)
1. Pull the balance shaft out of the crankcase.
Figure 9-84. Removing Connecting Rod Bolts.
Figure 9-82. Removing Balance Shaft.
NOTE: If a carbon ridge is present at the top of the
cylinder bore, use a ridge reamer to remove
it, before attempting to remove the piston.
Remove Camshaft and Tappets
1. Remove the camshaft from the crankcase.
2. Carefully remove the connecting rod and piston
assembly from the cylinder bore. See Figure
9-85.
9
Figure 9-83. Removing Camshaft and Tappets.
2. Remove and mark the tappets.
Figure 9-85. Removing Piston.
Remove Connecting Rod with Piston and
Rings
1. Remove the two hex flange screws securing the
connecting rod cap. Remove the rod cap.
9.19
Section 9
Disassembly
Remove Crankshaft
1. Carefully remove the crankshaft from the
crankcase.
Remove Flywheel End Main Bearing and
Oil Seal
1. Remove the front oil seal from the crankcase. See
Figure 9-89.
Figure 9-86. Removing Crankshaft.
Remove Governor Cross Shaft
1. Remove the hitch pin and plain washer from the
governor cross shaft. See Figure 9-87.
Figure 9-87. Removing Governor Cross Shaft Hitch
Pin.
2. Remove the cross shaft out through the inside of
the crankcase.
Figure 9-88. Removing Governor Cross Shaft with
Inner Washer.
9.20
Figure 9-89. Oil Seal Removed.
2. Remove the front main bearing from the
crankcase using an arbor press. See Figure 9-90.
Figure 9-90. Removing Main Bearing with Press.
Remove Balance Shaft Bearing
1. Remove the balance shaft bearing using an
internal bearing puller.
Section 10
Internal Components
Section 10
Internal Components
This section covers the operation, inspection, and repair/reconditioning of major internal engine components. The
following components are not covered in this section, they are covered in their own sections:
Air Cleaner, Section 4
Carburetor & External Governor, Section 5
Retractable Starter, Section 7
Ignition, Charging, & Electric Starter, Section 8
Clean all parts thoroughly. Only clean parts can be accurately inspected and gauged for wear or damage. There
are many commercially available cleaners that will quickly remove grease, oil, and grime from engine parts.
When such a cleaner is used, follow the manufacturer’s instructions and safety precautions carefully.
Make sure all traces of the cleaner are removed before the engine is reassembled and placed into operation. Even
small amounts of these cleaners can quickly break down the lubricating properties of engine oil.
Refer to A Guide to Engine Rebuilding (TP-2150-A) for additional information. Measurement Guide (TP-2159-B)
and Engine Inspection Data Record (TP-2435) are also available; use these to record inspection results.
Automatic Compression Release (ACR)
These engines are equipped with an Automatic
Compression Release (ACR) mechanism. ACR lowers
compression at cranking speeds to make starting
easier.
When the engine is stopped, the spring returns the
lever and control pin assembly to the compression
release position, ready for the next start.
Operation
The ACR mechanism consists of a spring-loaded arm
and sliding pin mounted to the camshaft. When the
engine is rotating at low cranking speeds (600 RPM or
less) the arm holds the pin so it protrudes above the
heel of the exhaust cam. This holds the exhaust valve
off of its seat during the first part of the compression
stroke.
Engine at Start
Pin
Return Spring
Pin
After the engine speed increases above approximately
600 RPM, centrifugal force causes the spring-loaded
arm to move outward causing the pin to retract. When
in this position the pin has no effect on the exhaust
valve and the engine operates at full compression and
power.
Engine in
Operation
Decomp Weight
Figure 10-1. ACR Operation Details.
10.1
10
Section 10
Internal Components
Benefits
As a result of the reduced compression at cranking
speeds, several important benefits are obtained:
1. Manual (retractable) starting is much easier.
Without ACR, manual starting would be virtually
impossible.
Inspect
2. Electric start models can use a smaller starter and
battery that are more practical for the application.
3. ACR eliminates the need for a spark retard/
advance mechanism. A spark retard/advance
mechanism would be required on engines
without ACR to prevent the kickback that would
occur during starting. ACR eliminates this
kickback making manual starting safer.
4. The choke control setting is less critical with
ACR. In the event of flooding, excess fuel is
blown out the opened exhaust valve and does not
hamper starting.
Inspect
Figure 10-2. Camshaft and Tappet Inspection
Points.
Measure the cam lobe profile, A and B, as shown
using an outside micrometer and compare with
specifications listed.
A
5. Engines with ACR start much faster in cold
weather than engines without ACR.
6. Engines with ACR can be started with spark
plugs that are worn or fouled. Engines without
ACR are more difficult to start with those same
spark plugs.
Camshaft & Tappets
Inspection and Service
Inspect the gear teeth of the camshaft. If the teeth are
badly worn, chipped, or some are missing,
replacement of the camshaft will be necessary. If
unusual wear or damage is evident on either lobe or
the mating tappet, the camshaft and both tappets must
be replaced. Check the condition and operation of the
ACR mechanism. See Figure 10-2.
10.2
Figure 10-3. Cam Lobe Checking ‘‘A’’.
Cam Lobe Dimension–A
Intake
CS4, CS6
26.9 ± 0.05 mm
(1.06 ± 0.002 in.)
Exhaust
26.68 ± 0.05 mm
(1.05 ± 0.002 in.)
CS8.5, CS10, 32.55 ± 0.05 mm
CS12
(1.28 ± 0.002 in.)
32.55 ± 0.05 mm
(1.28 ± 0.002 in.)
Section 10
Internal Components
Crankshaft
B
Inspection and Service
Inspect the gear teeth of the crankshaft. If the teeth are
badly worn, chipped, or some are missing,
replacement of the crankshaft will be necessary.
Figure 10-4. Cam Lobe Checking ‘‘B’’.
Inspect the crankshaft keyways. If worn or chipped,
replacement of the crankshaft will be necessary.
Cam Lobe Dimension–B
Intake
22.0 ± 0.05 mm
(0.87 ± 0.002 in.)
Exhaust
22.0 ± 0.05 mm
(0.87 ± 0.002 in.)
CS8.5, CS10, 26.08 ± 0.05 mm
CS12
(1.03 ± 0.002 in.)
26.08 ± 0.05 mm
(1.03 ± 0.002 in.)
CS4, CS6
Inspect the crankshaft bearing surfaces for scoring,
grooving, etc. Do not replace the main bearings unless
they shown signs of damage or are out of running
clearance specifications. If the crankshaft turns easily
and noiselessly, and there is no evidence of scoring,
grooving, etc., on the races or bearing surfaces, the
bearings can be reused.
Measure the camshaft journals, which fit in the ball
bearings, for wear using a micrometer. Compare with
specifications listed.
Figure 10-5. Camshaft Journal Checking.
Inspect the crankpin for score marks or metallic
pickup. Slight score marks can be cleaned with crocus
cloth soaked in oil. If wear limits, as stated in
Specifications and Tolerances are exceeded, it will be
necessary to replace the crankshaft.
Crankcase
Inspection and Service
Check all gasket surfaces to make sure they are free of
gasket fragments. Gasket surfaces must also be free of
deep scratches or nicks.
Check the cylinder bore for wear, scoring, or vertical
scratches. In severe cases, unburned fuel can cause
scuffing and scoring of the cylinder wall, it washes the
necessary lubricating oils off the piston and cylinder
wall. As raw fuel seeps down the cylinder wall, the
piston rings make metal to metal contact with the
wall. Scoring of the cylinder wall can also be caused
by localized hot spots resulting from blocked cooling
fins or from inadequate or contaminated lubrication.
Measure the cylinder bore using an inside micrometer
or bore gauge. See Figure 10-6. Compare readings
with specifications in Section 1.
Camshaft Journal Specifications
CS4, CS6
CS8.5, CS10,
CS12
Limit
14.95 mm (0.589 in.)
15.965-15.990 mm
(0.6285-0.6295 in.)
15.95 mm (0.6280 in.)
10.3
10
Section 10
Internal Components
a
b
A
B
3. When the bore is within 0.064 mm (0.0025 in.) of
desired size, remove the coarse stones and
replace with burnishing stones. Continue with
the burnishing stones until within 0.013 mm
(0.0005 in.) of desired size and then use finish
stones (220-280 grit) and polish to final size. A
crosshatch should be observed if honing is done
correctly. The crosshatch should intersect at
approximately 20° off the horizontal. Too flat an
angle could cause the rings to skip and wear
excessively; too steep an angle will result in high
oil consumption. See Figure 10-7.
C
Figure 10-6. Measuring Cylinder Bore.
If the cylinder bore is badly scored, excessively worn,
tapered, or out of round, resizing is necessary. Use a
measuring device (inside micrometer, etc.) to
determine the amount of wear (refer to the
Specifications, Tolerances, and Special Torque Values,
in Section 1), then select the nearest suitable oversize
of either 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) or 0.50 mm (0.020 in.).
Resizing to one of these oversizes will allow usage of
the available oversize piston and ring assemblies.
Initially, resize using a boring bar, then use the
following procedures for honing the cylinder.
Honing
While most commercially available cylinder hones can
be used with either portable drills or drill presses, the
use of a low speed drill press is preferred as it
facilitates more accurate alignment of the bore in
relation to the crankshaft crossbore. Honing is best
accomplished at a drill speed of about 250 RPM and
60 strokes per minute. After installing coarse stones in
hone, proceed as follows:
1. Lower hone into bore and after centering, adjust
so that the stones are in contact with the cylinder
wall. Use of a commercial cutting-cooling agent is
recommended.
2. With the lower edge of each stone positioned
even with the lowest edge of the bore, start drill
and honing process. Move the hone up and down
while resizing to prevent the formation of cutting
ridges. Check the size frequently.
NOTE: Keep in mind the temperatures caused by
honing may cause inaccurate measurements.
Make sure the bore is cool when measuring.
10.4
Figure 10-7. Cylinder Bore Crosshatch after
Honing.
4. After resizing, check the bore for roundness,
taper, and size. Use an inside micrometer,
telescoping gauge, or bore gauge to take
measurements. The measurements should be
taken at three locations in the cylinder – at the
top, middle, and bottom. Two measurements
should be taken (perpendicular to each other) at
each of the three locations. See Figure 10-6.
Clean Cylinder Bore After Honing
Proper cleaning of the cylinder walls following boring
and/or honing is very critical to a successful overhaul.
Machining grit left in the cylinder bore can destroy an
engine in less than one hour of operation after a
rebuild.
The final cleaning operation should always be a
thorough scrubbing with a brush and hot, soapy water.
Use a strong detergent that is capable of breaking down
the machining oil while maintaining a good level of
suds. If the suds break down during cleaning, discard
the dirty water and start again with more hot water and
detergent. Following the scrubbing, rinse the cylinder
with very hot, clear water. Dry it completely, and apply
a light coating of engine oil to prevent rusting.
Section 10
Internal Components
Closure Plate and Crankcase
1. Clean the sealing surfaces of the closure plate and
crankcase of all gasket material.
NOTE: Do not scrape the surfaces when cleaning as
this will damage the surfaces and could cause
leaks. The use of a gasket-removing solvent
or aerosol spray is recommended.
x
For CS4, CS6: x = 5 mm (0.197 in.)
For CS8.5-12: x = 10 mm (0.394 in.)
Figure 10-9. Measuring Piston Diameter.
Use the following procedure to accurately measure
the piston-to-bore clearance:
1. Use a micrometer and measure the diameter of
the piston at location indicated above the bottom
of the piston skirt and perpendicular to the piston
pin. See Figure 10-9.
Figure 10-8. Removing Gasket with Aerosol Spray.
Measuring Piston-to-Bore Clearance
Before installing the piston into the cylinder bore, it is
necessary that the clearance be accurately checked.
This step is often overlooked, and if the clearances are
not within specifications, engine failure will usually
result.
NOTE: Do not use a feeler gauge to measure
piston-to-bore clearance – it will yield
inaccurate measurements. Always use a
micrometer.
2. Use an inside micrometer, telescoping gauge, or
bore gauge and measure the cylinder bore. Take
the measurement approximately 40 mm (1.6 in.)
below the top of the bore and perpendicular to
the piston pin.
3. Piston-to-bore clearance is the difference between
the bore diameter and the piston diameter (step 2
minus step 1).
Flywheel
Inspection
Inspect the flywheel for cracks, and the flywheel
keyway for damage. Replace flywheel if cracked.
Replace the flywheel, the crankshaft, and the key if
flywheel key is sheared or the keyway damaged.
Inspect the ring gear for wear, cracks, or damage.
Kohler does not provide ring gears as a serviceable
part. Replace the flywheel if the ring gear is damaged.
10.5
10
Section 10
Internal Components
Cylinder Head and Valves
Inspection and Service
Carefully inspect the valve mechanism parts. Inspect the valve springs and related hardware for excessive wear
or distortion. Check the valves and valve seat area for evidence of deep pitting, cracks, or distortion. Check
clearance of the valve stems in guides. See Figure 10-10 for valve details and specifications.
D
B
D
D
C
A
E
Figure 10-10. Valve and Valve Seat Measuring Locations.
CS4, CS6 Valve Specifications
Dimension
A
B
C
D
E
10.6
Head Diameter (CS4)
Head Diameter (CS6)
Stem Diameter
Length (CS4)
Length (CS6)
Face/Seat Width
Face/Seat Limit
Face/Seat Angle (Insert Area)
Valve Stem Bend Limit
Valve Guide
Guide Inside Diameter
Stem to Guide Clearance
Valve Clearance
Valve Seat Contact Width
Std.
Limit
Intake
Exhaust
21.0 mm (0.83 in.)
24.0 mm (0.94 in.)
5.5 mm (0.22 in.)
64.5 mm (2.54 in.)
65.9 mm (2.59 in.)
0.7 mm (0.0276 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
90°
0.01 mm (0.0004 in.)
19.0 mm (0.75 in.)
22.0 mm (0.87 in.)
5.5 mm (0.22 in.)
64.5 mm (2.54 in.)
64.5 mm (2.54 in.)
0.7 mm (0.0276 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
90°
0.01 mm (0.0004 in.)
5.5 mm (0.22 in.)
0.04/0.06 mm (0.0016/0.002 in.)
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
5.5 mm (0.22 in.)
0.06/0.08 mm (0.002/0.003 in.)
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
0.7 mm (0.03 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
0.7 mm (0.03 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
Section 10
Internal Components
CS8.5, CS10, CS12 Valve Specifications
Dimension
A
B
Head Diameter
Stem Diameter
C
D
Length
Face/Seat Width
Face/Seat Limit
Face/Seat Angle (Insert Area)
Valve Stem Bend Limit
Valve Guide
Guide Inside Diameter
Stem to Guide Clearance
E
Valve Clearance
Valve Seat Contact Width
Std.
Limit
Intake
Exhaust
32.0 mm (1.26 in.)
5.948/5.963 mm
(0.2342/0.2348 in.)
88.1 mm (3.47 in.)
0.7/0.9 mm (0.0276/0.0354 in.)
1.4 mm (0.055 in.)
90°
0.01 mm (0.0004 in.)
27.0 mm (1.06 in.)
5.940/5.955 mm
(0.2339/0.2344 in.)
87.9 mm (3.46 in.)
0.7/0.9 mm (0.0276/0.0354 in.)
1.4 mm (0.055 in.)
90°
0.01 mm (0.0004 in.)
6.0/6.012 mm (0.2362/0.2367 in.)
0.037/0.064 mm
(0.00146/0.00252 in.)
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
6.0/6.012 mm (0.2362/0.2367 in.)
0.045/0.072 mm
(0.00177/0.00283 in.)
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
0.7 mm (0.03 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
0.7 mm (0.03 in.)
1.7 mm (0.067 in.)
Hard starting, or loss of power accompanied by high fuel consumption may be symptoms of faulty valves.
Although these symptoms could also be attributed to worn rings, remove and check the valves first. After
removal, clean the valve heads, faces, and stems with a power wire brush. Then, carefully inspect each valve for
defects such as warped head, excessive corrosion, or worn stem end. Replace valves found to be in bad condition.
A normal valve and valves in bad condition are shown in the accompanying illustrations.
10
Normal: Even after long hours of operation a valve
can be reconditioned and reused if the face and
margin are in good shape. If a valve is worn to where
the margin is less than 1/32 in. do not reuse it. The
valve shown was in operation for almost 1000 hours
under controlled test conditions.
Bad Condition: The valve depicted here should be
replaced. Note the warped head; margin damaged and
too narrow. These conditions could be attributed to
excessive hours or a combination of poor operating
conditions.
10.7
Section 10
Internal Components
Leakage: A poor grind on face or seat of valve will
allow leakage resulting in a burned valve on one side
only.
Coking: Coking is normal on intake valves and is not
harmful. If the seat is good, the valve could be reused
after cleaning.
Excessive Combustion Temperatures: The white
deposits seen here indicate very high combustion
temperatures, usually due to a lean fuel mixture.
10.8
Gum: Gum deposits usually result from using stale
gasoline. Gum is a prevalent cause of valve sticking.
The cure us to ream the valve guides and clean or
replace the valves, depending on their condition.
Stem Corrosion: Moisture in the fuel, or condensation
are the most common causes of valve stem corrosion.
Condensation occurs from improper preservation
during storage and when engine is repeatedly stopped
before it has a chance to reach normal operating
temperatures. Replace corroded valves.
Section 10
Internal Components
Valve Seat
Cover (Typical)
Pilot
Overheating: An exhaust valve subject to
overheating will have a dark dicoloration in the area
above the valve guide. Worn guides and faulty valve
springs may cause this condition. Also check for
clogged air intake, blocked fins, and lean fuel mixture
when this condition is noted.
Valve Guides
If a valve guide is worn beyond specifications, it will
not guide the valve in a straight line. This may result
in burnt valve faces or seats, loss of compression, and
excessive oil consumption.
To check valve guide-to-stem clearance, thoroughly
clean the valve guide and, using a split-ball gauge,
measure the inside diameter. Then, using an outside
micrometer, measure the diameter of the valve stem at
several points on the stem where it moves in the valve
guide. Use the largest stem diameter to calculate the
clearance. Compare measurements and clearance to
the specifications listed (See Figure 10-10) for the
individual model involved. Determine whether the
valve stem or the guide is responsible for the excessive
clearance. The valve guides are not replaceable.
Figure 10-11. Standard Valve Seat Cutter.
Lapping Valves
Reground or new valves must be lapped in, to provide
proper fit. Use a hand valve grinder for final lapping.
Lightly coat valve face with fine grade of grinding
compound, then rotate valve on seat with grinder.
Continue grinding until smooth surface is obtained on
seat and on valve face. Thoroughly clean valve and
cylinder head in soap and hot water to remove all
traces of grinding compound. After drying, apply a
light coating of SAE 10 oil to prevent rusting.
Intake Valve Stem Seal
These engines use a valve stem seal on the intake
valve. Always use a new seal when the intake valve is
removed from the cylinder head. The seal should be
replaced if deteriorated or damaged in any way.
Never reuse an old seal.
10
Valve Seat Inserts
The valve seats are not replaceable. If the seats become
badly pitted, worn, or distorted, the inserts can be
reconditioned.
Use a standard valve seat cutter (see Figure 10-11) and
cut seat to dimensions shown in Figure 10-10. (Valve
details illustration.)
Figure 10-12. Valve Stem Seal.
10.9
Section 10
Internal Components
Pistons and Rings
Inspection
Scuffing and scoring of pistons and cylinder walls
occurs when internal temperatures approach the
melting point of the piston. Temperatures high
enough to do this are created by friction, which is
usually attributed to improper lubrication, and/or
overheating of the engine.
Normally, very little wear takes place in the piston
boss-piston pin area. If the original piston and
connecting rod can be reused after new rings are
installed, the original pin can also be reused but new
piston pin retainers are required. The piston pin is
included as part of the piston assembly–if the pin boss
in the piston or the pin are worn or damaged, a new
piston assembly is required.
Ring wear/failure is usually indicated by excessive oil
consumption and blue exhaust smoke. When rings fail,
oil is allowed to enter the combustion chamber where
it is burned along with the fuel. High oil consumption
can also occur when the piston ring end gap is
incorrect because the ring cannot properly conform to
the cylinder wall under this condition. Oil control is
also lost when ring gaps are not staggered during
installation.
Stuck, Broken Rings
Abrasive Scratched Rings
When cylinder temperatures get too high, lacquer and
varnish collect on the piston causing the rings to stick,
which results in rapid wear. A worn ring usually takes
on a shiny or bright appearance.
Scratches on rings and pistons are caused by abrasive
material such as carbon, dirt, or pieces of hard metal.
Detonation damage occurs when a portion of the fuel
charge ignites spontaneously from heat and pressure
shortly after ignition. This creates two flame fronts
which meet and explode to create extreme hammering
pressures on a specific area of the piston. Detonation
generally occurs from using low octane fuels.
Preignition or ignition of the fuel charge before the
timed spark can cause damage similar to detonation.
Preignition damage is often more severe than
detonation damage. Preignition is caused by a hot
spot in the combustion chamber from sources such as:
glowing carbon deposits, blocked fins, improperly
seated valve, or wrong spark plug.
See Figure 10-13 for common types of piston and ring
damage.
10.10
Abrasive Worn Rings
Scored Piston and Rings
Figure 10-13. Common Types of Piston and Ring
Damage.
Section 10
Internal Components
Replacement pistons are available in STD bore size,
and in 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) and 0.50 mm (0.20 in.)
oversizes. Replacement pistons include new piston
ring sets and new piston pins.
Service replacement piston ring sets are also available
separately for STD pistons, and for 0.25 mm (0.010 in.)
and 0.50 mm (0.020 in.) oversized pistons. Always use
new piston rings when installing pistons. Never reuse
old rings.
The cylinder bore must be deglazed before service
ring sets are used.
4. After installing the new rings on the piston, check
piston-to-ring side clearance. Maximum
recommended side clearance is:
Top ring 0.04/0.08 mm (0.0016/0.0033 in.)
2nd ring CS4, CS6: 0.02/0.06 mm (0.0008/0.0024 in.)
CS8.5-12: 0.03/0.07 mm (0.0012/0.0028 in.)
Piston Ring Side Clearance Limit 0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
If side clearance is greater than specified, a new piston
must be used. Refer to Figure 10-15.
Some important points to remember when servicing
piston rings:
1. If the cylinder bore does not need reboring and
the old piston is within wear limits, and free of
score or scuff marks, the old piston may be
reused.
2. Remove old rings and clean up grooves. Never
reuse old rings.
3. Before installing the rings on the piston, place the
top two rings, each in turn, in its running area in
the cylinder bore, and check end gap. See Figure
10-14. This gap should be a maximum of 0.9 mm
(0.035 in.) in a used cylinder bore and 0.2 mm/
0.4 mm (0.008/0.016 in.) in a new cylinder bore.
Figure 10-15. Measuring Piston Ring Side
Clearance.
10
Figure 10-14. Measuring Piston Ring End Gap.
10.11
Section 10
Internal Components
Install Piston Rings
To install piston rings, proceed as follows:
NOTE: Rings must be installed correctly. Ring
installation instructions are usually included
with new ring sets. Follow instructions
carefully. Use a piston ring expander to
install rings. Install the bottom (oil control)
ring first and the top compression ring last.
2. Middle Compression Ring: Locate and identify
the compression ring with the R marking. Using
a piston ring expander, install this ring in the
middle groove with the R up towards the top of
the piston. See Figure 10-17.
Top Ring
2nd Ring
(Has R Marking)
Oil Ring
1. Oil Control Ring (Bottom Groove): Place the
expander in the lowest groove. The ends of the
expander must butt. Do not allow the ends to
overlap; incorrect tension and a loss of oil control
will result.
Place one end of a rail between the upper side of
the expander and groove, and ‘‘wind’’ into
position. Be careful that the end of rail does not
scratch the piston. Repeat this procedure with the
second rail on the lower side of the expander.
Position rail gaps 90° from the expander gap and
180° from each other. Check the assembly to ensure
freedom of movement in the groove. See Figure
10-16.
Figure 10-17. Middle Compression Ring.
3. Top Compression Ring: Using a piston ring
expander, install the compression ring, with no
markings, into the top groove. It is symmetrical in
design, so it may be installed with either side up.
4. Stagger/position the two compression rings, so
the end gaps are spaced 120° apart, as well as
from the expander gap. See Figure 10-18.
2
Expander Gap
120°
120°
Install Top Rail in This
Direction Over
Expander Gap
4
3
120°
Start Rail as
Indicated
Expander Gap
Install Top Rail in
This Direction Over
Expander Gap
Start Rail as
Indicated
Expander Gap
Figure 10-16. Oil Control Ring Details.
10.12
Figure 10-18. Ring Gap Positioning.
Connecting Rods
Inspection and Service
Check bearing area (big end) for excessive wear, score
marks, running and side clearances (Refer to Section
1, Specifications, Tolerances, and Special Torque
Values). Replace rod if scored or excessively worn.
Section 10
Internal Components
Governor Gear
Inspection and Service
Inspect the governor gear teeth, look for any evidence
of worn, chipped, or cracked teeth. Check the
condition of flyweights and pivot pins for wear or
damage. Movement must be free but not sloppy. If any
of these conditions or problems are noted, the
governor gear must be replaced.
Removal
The governor gear is held onto the governor gear shaft
by a small retaining clip located near the center
section of the gear, within the flyweight assemblies.
The mounting of the governor gear also retains the
governor regulating pin and thrust washer in place.
The gear can be removed by using two small
screwdrivers and carefully applying upward pressure
from beneath the gear and against the bosses in the
closure plate. Do not pry against or nick/damage the
gasket surface of the closure plate. See Figure 10-19.
Governor Shaft Position (In Closure Plate)
The governor shaft is pressed into the closure plate to
a specified height and normally should not require
removal or servicing. The position is critical to proper
operation of the governor gear and the entire governor
assembly. If, for any reason the mounted position of
the governor shaft is changed, or affected, it must be
reset to the specified height as shown in Figure 10-20.
Governor
Gear Shaft
Housing
Surface
A
Figure 10-20. Governor Shaft Position Details.
Exposed Shaft Length–A
CS4, CS6
29.2 ± 0.2 mm (1.149 ± 0.007 in.)
CS8.5, CS10,
CS12
36.0 ± 0.6 mm (1.417 ± 0.023 in.)
10
Figure 10-19. Governor Gear Removal.
10.13
Section 10
Internal Components
Governor Reassembly
1. Install one thrust washer onto the governor shaft,
followed by the governor gear/flyweight
assembly.
2. Start the retaining clip over the end of the shaft.
3. Raise the gear up on the shaft sufficiently to
install the other thrust washer and governor
regulating pin under the outer fingers of the
flyweights. See Figure 10-21.
Excessive
wear
Standard
Figure 10-22. Sprocket Wear/Inspection on CS4,
CS6.
b. Clean the chain (CS4 and CS6) in solvent to
remove as much dirt as possible. Dry and
then check the condition of the chain. If any
links are tight and do not pivot freely (see
Figure 10-25), or the chain has stretched
beyond the specified limit measured across 10
pitches (see Figure 10-24), it must be replaced.
Figure 10-21. Installing Governor Gear Assembly.
4. Push the governor regulating pin down until the
retaining ring locks into place in the shaft groove.
Governor gear should now be retained on shaft
and operate freely. Check gear and flyweight
operation.
Gear Reduction Assemblies
Clean and inspect all components for wear and
damage. Remove the housing gasket and dowel pins,
then clean the gasket surfaces with a cleaning solvent
or aerosol type gasket remover. Do not nick or scrape
the sealing surfaces.
a. Inspect all sprocket/gear teeth for excessive
wear. If teeth are worn to a point, the gear(s)/
sprocket(s) and chain (CS4 and CS6) should
be replaced. See Figure 10-22.
Figure 10-23. Clean Chain Using Solvent.
1 2
3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10
89.5 mm (3.5 in.)
Figure 10-24. Chain Stretch Limit.
10.14
Section 10
Internal Components
Figure 10-25. Inspect for Binding.
Figure 10-27. CS8.5-12 Oil Passage.
5. Check to see that the closure plate/oil passages to
the reduction assembly are open and not
restricted. See Figures 10-26 and 10-27.
Figure 10-26. CS4, CS6 Oil Passage.
10
10.15
Section 10
Internal Components
10.16
Section 11
Reassembly
Section 11
Reassembly
General
NOTE: Make sure the engine is assembled using all
specified torque values, tightening sequences,
and clearances. Failure to observe
specifications could cause severe engine wear
or damage. Always use new gaskets.
Typical Reassembly Sequence
The following sequence is suggested for complete
engine reassembly. This procedure assumes that all
components are new or have been reconditioned, and
all component subassembly work has been completed.
The sequence may vary to accommodate options or
special equipment. Detailed procedures can be found
in subsequent subsections.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Install oil seals and bearings.
Install governor cross shaft.
Install crankshaft.
Install connecting rod with piston and rings.
Install camshaft and valve tappets.
Install balance shaft assembly (CS8.5-12 only).
Install oil sentry gauge and governor gear to
closure plate.
Install closure plate assembly.
Install reduction assembly (some models).
Install stator and wire shield.
Install flywheel.
Install ignition module.
Assemble and install cylinder head.
Install push rods, rocker arms, studs, and rocker
shaft.
Install valve cover.
Install fuel tank supports, throttle lever, wiring
and electrical components.
Install governor lever, throttle and governor
springs.
Connect electrical leads and install electric starter
(electric starter only).
Install blower housing (and electric starter cover
panel).
Install carburetor.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Install air cleaner base and element.
Adjust/Set governor.
Install fuel tank and fuel tank support.
Install outer air cleaner cover.
Install retractable starter.
Install muffler.
Install Oil Seals and Bearings
1. Make sure there are no nicks, burrs, or damage in
the bores for the bearings. The closure plate and
crankcase must be clean.
2. Use an arbor press to make sure the bearings are
installed straight, into their respective bores, until
fully seated.
NOTE: Install the bearings and oil seals (step 3)
with their manufacturer’s marks or
numbers visible, facing you.
Oil the bearings liberally with engine oil when
installing.
11
Figure 11-1. Installing Bearings Using a Press.
11.1
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-2. Installing Bearing in Closure Plate.
Figure 11-4. Installing Governor Shaft.
3. Use a seal driver and install the crankshaft oil
seals (manufacturer’s numbers visible) into
crankcase and closure plate. Seals should be
installed to a depth of 2 mm (0.080 in.) below
outer surface. See Figure 11-3. Apply a light
coating of lithium grease to seal lips when
installing.
2 mm
(0.08 in.)
Figure 11-5. Installing Outer Washer.
Grease
Figure 11-3. Installing Oil Seal.
Install Governor Cross Shaft
1. Install the governor shaft seal, with the
manufacturer’s marks out, into the governor shaft
bore in crankcase until flush with the top. A 1/2
in. O.D. seal driver or round stock may be used to
install.
2. Install one thrust washer onto the governor cross
shaft and slide the shaft up through the inside of
the crankcase.
11.2
3. Install the second flat washer onto the shaft.
Position the shaft so the lower flat section faces to
the right (3 o’clock position) and insert the hitch
pin so the end of the clip comes in contact with
the raised section of the housing boss, limiting
the inward movement of the arm. See Figures
11-6 and 11-7.
NOTE: Verify that correct installation has been
made at this time.
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Connecting Rod with Piston and
Rings
1. If the piston and/or connecting rod has been
changed or removed, make sure the following is
correct before installing.
Figure 11-6. CS4, CS6. Installing Hitch Pin.
Figure 11-9.
a. The locating mark on piston is down. See
Figure 11-10.
Figure 11-7. CS8.5-12. Installing Hitch Pin.
Install Crankshaft
1. Carefully slide the flywheel end of the crankshaft
through the main ball bearing and seal.
Figure 11-10. Piston Installation Details.
11
Figure 11-8. Installing Crankshaft.
11.3
Section 11
Reassembly
b. The connecting rod offset is down and oil hole
is in the 3 o’clock position. Match marks
should align as shown with dipper down. See
Figure 11-11.
Oil Hole
Match Marks
Dipper
Down
Figure 11-11. Connecting Rod Details.
2. Stagger the piston rings in the grooves until the
end gaps are 120º apart. See Figure 11-12. The oil
ring rails should also be staggered.
Figure 11-13. Installing Piston Using a Ring
Compressor.
6. Install the connecting rod cap to the connecting
rod so the dipper is down, and the match marks
are aligned. See Figure 11-14.
Torque in increments to:
CS4, CS6: 12 N·m (106 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 20 N·m (177 in. lb.)
2
120º
120º
4
3
120º
Figure 11-14. Rod Cap/Dipper Position.
Figure 11-12. Piston Ring Gap Positioning.
3. Lubricate cylinder bore, piston, piston pin, and
piston rings with engine oil. Compress the rings
using a piston ring compressor.
4. Lubricate the crankshaft journal and connecting
rod bearing surfaces with engine oil.
5. Make sure ‘‘∇’’ stamping on piston is facing
down toward the base of the engine. Use a
hammer handle with a rubber grip and gently tap
the piston into the cylinder as shown in Figure
11-13. Be careful that the oil ring rails do not
spring free between the bottom of the ring
compressor and the top of the cylinder.
11.4
Install Valve Tappets and Camshaft
1. Identify the valve tappets as to their proper
locations. Lubricate the face and stem of each
tappet with engine oil. Install each into their
respective bores.
2. Lubricate the camshaft bearing surfaces and cam
lobes as well as the camshaft bore in the
crankcase with engine oil.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Rotate the crankshaft to TDC so the timing mark
(dimple) on crankgear (smaller gear) is in the 4
o’clock position. Install the camshaft into the
crankcase, aligning the timing marks on the two
gears. See Figures 11-15 and 11-16.
2. Install the balance shaft, aligning the timing mark
(hole) with the timing mark (dimple) on the
larger crankgear. See Figure 11-17.
NOTE: Timing mark is the hole on CS4, CS6 and
the small dimple on CS8.5-12.
Figure 11-17. CS8.5-12. Aligning Balance Shaft and
Crankgear Timing Marks.
Install Governor Assembly
Figure 11-15. CS4, CS6. Aligning Crankshaft and
Camshaft Timing Marks.
The governor gear assembly is located inside the
closure plate. If servicing was performed or the
governor was removed, reassemble as per procedures
under Governor Reassembly in Section 10.
Install Oil Sentry™ Gauge
1. Mount the Oil Sentry™ gauge into the closure
plate using two M6x1.0 hex flange screws. Route
the wire lead and seat the grommet in the cutout
as shown in Figure 11-18.
Figure 11-16. CS8.5-12. Aligning Crankshaft and
Camshaft Timing Marks.
11
Install Balance Shaft (CS8.5-12, If So
Equipped)
1. Position the crankshaft so the timing mark
(dimple) on the larger crankgear is in the 8
o’clock position.
Figure 11-18. Oil Sentry™ Gauge Mounting and
Lead Routing Details.
11.5
Section 11
Reassembly
2. Install shield for lead and secure with the M6x1.0
hex flange screw. Torque all three screws to
10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.). See Figure 11-19.
Dowel
Pin
Dowel
Pin
Figure 11-21. CS8.5-12. Internal Details.
3. Install the closure plate to the crankcase. Carefully
seat the ends of the camshaft and balance shaft
into their mating bearings. Rotate the crankshaft
slightly to help engage the governor gear teeth.
Figure 11-19. Tightening Mounting Screws.
Install Closure Plate Assembly
1. Check to make sure the sealing surfaces of the
crankcase and closure plate are clean and free of
nicks/burrs.
2. Install the two dowel pins into the locations
shown in the crankcase. Install the new closure
plate gasket (dry) onto the dowel pins. Make sure
the governor lever is facing towards the right
(cylinder side).
Completed assembly, before closure plate is
installed, should look like Figures 11-20 and 11-21.
4. On pump (threaded crankshaft) models only,
install two or three of the fasteners securing the
closure plate to the crankcase. Check crankshaft
end play using a dial indicator. End play must be
0.0/0.2 mm (0.0/0.007 in.). If end play is not within
the specified range, shims are available in the
following thicknesses: 0.1 mm (0.0039 in.),
0.2 mm (0.007 in.), and 0.3 mm (0.011 in.) for CS4
and CS6; 0.1 mm (0.0039 in.), 0.2 mm
(0.007 in.), 0.3 mm (0.011 in.), and 0.4 mm
(0.015 in.) for CS8.5-12. When proper end play has
been established, install all screws and torque in
the sequence shown in Figure 11-22 or 11-23.
On all other models, install the hex flange screws
securing the closure plate to the crankcase. See
Figure 11-22 or 11-23.
Dowel
Pin
Torque Screws to 22 N·m (195 in. lb.).
1
Dowel
Pin
3
6
5
Figure 11-20. CS4, CS6. Internal Details.
4
2
Figure 11-22. CS4, CS6. Closure Plate Torque
Sequence.
11.6
Section 11
Reassembly
Torque Screws to 30 N·m (265 in. lb.)
1
5
8
3
4
7
6
2
Figure 11-23. CS8.5-12. Closure Plate Torque
Sequence.
Install Reduction System (If So Equipped)
2:1 Reduction Assemblies
1. If any bearings were removed, press the new
bearing(s) into the housing so the manufacturer’s
marks are visible. Pre-lube the bearings with
engine oil on installation. See Figures 11-24 and
11-25.
Figure 11-25. CS8.5-12. Installing Bearing.
2. Install a new oil seal into the cover to a depth of
2 mm (0.08 in.). See Figure 11-26. Apply a light
coating of lightweight lithium grease to lip of
seal.
2 mm
(0.08 in.)
Figure 11-26. Oil Seal Installation Depth.
3. Pre-lube all bearing surfaces with engine oil.
Figure 11-24. CS4, CS6. Installing Bearing.
4. CS4, CS6: Reinstall the washer (behind
crankshaft key) and crankshaft key. Install the
chain around both the crankshaft sprocket and
the output shaft/sprocket assembly, then slide the
complete assembly into place. Reinstall the wave
washer onto the output shaft. See Figures 11-27,
11-28, and 11-29.
11.7
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-27. CS4, CS6. Installing Thrust Washer.
Figure 11-30. Installing Mounting Bolt and Washer.
Figure 11-28. CS4, CS6. Installing Sprockets and
Chain.
Figure 11-31. Torquing Mounting Bolt.
CS8.5-12: Install the key into the keyway of the
crankshaft. Install the crankshaft gear onto the
engine crankshaft. Secure with the flat washer
and hex flange screw. See Figure 11-32.
Torque the screw to:
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
60-70 N·m (44-51 ft. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx): 22 N·m (195 in. lb.)
Figure 11-29. CS4, CS6. Installing Wave Washer.
Install hex flange screw and flat washer into
crankshaft. Torque the screw to 20-24 N·m
(177-212 in. lb.). See Figures 11-30 and 11-31.
Figure 11-32.
11.8
Section 11
Reassembly
Install the counter gear into the pre-oiled bearing
boss in the closure plate, engaging teeth with gear
on crankshaft.
Install the output shaft/gear assembly into the
corresponding pre-oiled bearing boss in the
closure plate. See Figure 11-33.
Figure 11-35. CS8.5-12. Installing Dowel Pins and
Gasket.
6. Assemble the cover onto the closure plate,
aligning the dowel pin and hole locations.
Figure 11-33. CS8.5-12. Installing Counter Gear and
Output Shaft/Gear Assembly.
7. Install the cover mounting screws and torque to:
CS4,CS6: 10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 30 N·m (265 in. lb.)
5. Install the dowel pins into their respective
locations in the closure plate, and install a new
gasket (dry) onto the dowel pins. See Figures
11-34 and 11-35.
Figure 11-36. CS4, CS6. Torquing Cover Mounting
Screws.
11
Figure 11-34. CS4, CS6. Installing Dowel Pins and
Gasket.
Figure 11-37. CS8.5-12. Torquing Cover Mounting
Screws.
11.9
Section 11
Reassembly
C Oil seal installation depth
13
2 mm
(0.08 in.)
9
6
7
3
2
11
12
10
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Description
Bolt
Chain Case Cover
Gasket
Dowel Pin
Oil Seal
Bearing
Washer
Bolt/Washer
Shaft 2
Idle Sprocket
Chain
Washer
Straight Key
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Description
Chain Case Cover
Gasket
Dowel Pins
Oil Seal
Bearing
Bolt/Washer
Idle Gear
Straight Key
Shaft
8
D Tightening sequence
4
1
4
5
A 22 N·m (195 in. lb.)
1
B 10 N·m (88 in. lb.)
2
3
5
Figure 11-38. CS4, CS6. 2:1 Reduction Assembly Components.
C Oil seal installation depth
2 mm
(0.08 in.)
9
5
8
7
3
6
65 N·m (48 ft. lb.)
30 N·m (265 in. lb.)
Figure 11-39. CS8.5-12. 2:1 Reduction Assembly Components.
11.10
3
2 1
4
Section 11
Reassembly
6:1 Reduction Assemblies
CS4 and CS6
1. If any bearings were removed, press the new
bearing(s) into the housing or cover, so the
manufacturer’s marks are visible. Pre-lube the
bearings with engine oil on installation.
5. Install the reduction housing to the closure plate
as shown and secure with the four hex flange
screws. Torque the screws to 20-24 N·m
(177-212 in. lb.).
2. Install a new oil seal into the cover to a depth of
2 mm (0.08 in.). See Figure 11-40. Apply a light
coating of lightweight lithium grease to the lip of
the seal.
Figure 11-42. Torquing Housing Mounting Screws.
2 mm
(0.08 mm)
6. Lubricate the teeth of the ring gear/output shaft
assembly with oil and install. Engage teeth with
splines on crankshaft and slide assembly into the
bearing bore in the housing.
Figure 11-40. Oil Seal Installation Depth.
3. Pre-lube all bearing surfaces with engine oil.
4. Install a new gasket between the reduction
housing and closure plate.
Figure 11-43. Installing Ring/Gear Output Shaft
Assembly.
Figure 11-41. Installing Gasket and 6:1 Reduction
Housing.
11.11
11
Section 11
Reassembly
7. Install a new gasket (dry) onto the housing and
attach the cover with the four mounting screws,
so the Oil Fill and Oil Level port locations are
positioned exactly as shown. Torque the screws to
20-24 N·m (177-212 in. lb.).
Figure 11-46. Fill/Vent Plug Installation.
Figure 11-44. Installing Cover Assembly.
CS8.5-12
1. If any bearings were removed, press the new
bearing(s) into the housing so the manufacturer’s
marks are visible. Pre-lube the bearings with
engine oil on installation.
2. Install a new oil seal in cover, to a depth of 2 mm
(0.08 in.) See figure 11-47. Apply a light coating of
lightweight lithium grease to the lip of the seal.
2 mm
(0.08 in.)
Figure 11-45. Torquing Cover Mounting Screws.
8. Add oil. Use the same weight oil as in the engine.
Fill through the fill plug hole (on top) until oil is
even with bottom of level plug hole (on side).
Capacity=0.15 liter (5.02 fl. oz.).
9. Install the level plug and fill plug into their
respective locations. The fill plug contains a vent
hole and must be installed on top. See Figure
11-46. Torque the plugs to 15-19 N·m
(133-168 in. lb.).
11.12
Figure 11-47. Oil Seal Installation Depth.
Section 11
Reassembly
3. Slide the crankshaft gear onto the splines of the
crankshaft. Secure with the flat washer and hex
flange screw. Torque the screw to 20-24 N·m
(177-212 in. lb.).
Figure 11-50. Installing Output Shaft Assembly.
6. Reinstall the two dowel pins into their respective
locations in the closure plate. Install a new
housing/cover gasket (dry) onto the dowel pins.
Figure 11-48. Installing Crankshaft Gear, Mounting
Screw, and Washer.
4. Lubricate the bearing surfaces with oil, and
install the counter gear into the closure plate
bore, engaging teeth with gear on crankshaft.
Figure 11-51. Installing Dowel Pins and Gasket.
7. Install the reduction housing cover, and secure
with the six mounting screws. Torque the screws
to 28-32 N·m (247-283 in. lb.).
Figure 11-49. Installing Counter Gear Assembly.
11
5. Lubricate the bearing surfaces with oil, and
install the output shaft/gear assembly into the
cover. See Figure 11-50.
Figure 11-52. Installing Cover.
11.13
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-53. Torquing Mounting Screws.
1
2
4
Figure 11-55. Stator Screws Torque Sequence.
2. Route the stator leads along the formed channel
and out through the hole in the crankcase casting.
Install Stator and Wire Shield (If So
Equipped)
1. Align stator holes with mounting bosses of
crankcase so the leads are at the 1 o’clock position
and toward the crankcase. Install the four M6
shoulder screws and torque the screws in
sequence shown (as applicable) to 5-8 N·m
(44-70 in. lb.).
Style 1
Style 2
Figure 11-54. Installing Stator Mounting Screws.
11.14
3
3. Install the protective wire shield over the channel
and secure in place with the M6x1.0 screw.
Torque screw to 10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.). See Figure
11-56.
Figure 11-56. Installing Shield.
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Flywheel
WARNING: Damaging Crankshaft and
Flywheel Can Cause Personal Injury!
Using improper procedures to install the flywheel can crack
or damage the crankshaft and/or flywheel. This not only
causes extensive engine damage, but can also cause personal
injury, since broken fragments could be thrown from the
engine. Always observe and use the following precautions
and procedures when installing the flywheel.
NOTE: Before installing the flywheel make sure the
crankshaft taper and flywheel hub are clean,
dry, and completely free of lubricants. The
presence of lubricants can cause the flywheel
to be over-stressed and damaged when the
flange screw is torqued to specifications.
Figure 11-58. Clean and Dry Flywheel Hub.
2. Install the flywheel onto the crankshaft being
careful not to shift the woodruff key.
3. Install the drive cup (with grass screen if so
equipped) engaging it with the flywheel. Hold in
position and install the large flat washer and hex
nut. Finger tighten to keep cup engaged.
Figure 11-57. Clean and Dry Taper of Crankshaft.
NOTE: Make sure the flywheel key is installed
properly in the keyway. The flywheel can
become cracked or damaged if the key is not
installed properly.
1. Install the woodruff key into the keyway of the
crankshaft. Make sure that the key is properly
seated and parallel with taper of shaft.
Figure 11-59. Carefully Align Keyway to Key.
4. Use a flywheel holding tool and torque wrench to
tighten flywheel nut. Torque the hex nut to:
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx):
65 N·m (48 ft. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
120 N·m (88 ft. lb.)
11.15
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-60. Tightening Flywheel Nut.
Figure 11-61. CS4, CS6. Setting Air Gap.
Install Ignition Module
1. Turn the flywheel so the magnet is away from the
location where the ignition module will be
installed.
2. Install the ignition module loosely to the bosses
with the two hex flange screws. Move the module
as far away from the flywheel as possible, then
tighten the screws just enough to hold it in
position.
3. Route the ignition module lead as shown in
Figure 11-61 or 11-62.
4. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until
the magnet is under the legs of the ignition
module.
5. Insert a 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) flat feeler gauge
between each leg of module and magnet. Loosen
the screws allowing the magnet to draw the
module against the gauge(s). Push against
module to hold legs tight against the feeler
gauge(s) while tightening screws. Tighten the
lower screw first. Torque screws to 10 N·m
(88.5 in. lb.). See Figures 11-61 and 11-62.
Figure 11-62. CS8.5-12. Setting Air Gap.
6. Rotate the flywheel back and forth, checking to
make sure the magnet does not strike the module.
Connect the kill lead to the terminal.
Assemble Cylinder Head
1. Lubricate all the valve train components with
engine oil. Pay particular attention to the lip of
the valve stem seal, valve stems and valve guides.
Figure 11-63. Intake Valve Stem Seal.
11.16
Section 11
Reassembly
NOTE: The engine utilizes a valve stem seal on the
intake valve. Always use a new seal when
valves are installed in the cylinder head.
Replace the seal if it is deteriorated or
damaged in any way. Never reuse an old seal.
2. Install the valves, valve springs, and retainers into
their respective locations in the cylinder head.
3. Compress each valve spring/retainer assembly
with a valve spring compressor and lock in place
with lock clip. Install the lock clip with its
rounded edges down.
Figure 11-65. Installing Dowel Pins and New Head
Gasket.
5. Install the cylinder head and start the four hex
flange screws. Torque the screws in several
increments, using the sequence shown (See
Figures 11-66 and 11-67) to:
CS4, CS6: 20 N·m (177 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 50 N·m (36 ft. lb.)
Figure 11-64. Installing Valves Using Valve Spring
Compressor.
4. If intake or exhaust port studs were removed
previously reinstall them at this time. Torque the
studs to:
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx):
4-5 N·m (35-44 in. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
12-19 N·m (106-168 in. lb.)
Figure 11-66. Tightening Cylinder Head Screws.
Install Cylinder Head
1. Check to make sure there are no nicks or burrs on
the sealing surfaces of the cylinder head or
crankcase.
11
2
4
2. Rotate the crankshaft to position the piston at
TDC on compression stroke.
3. Install the dowel pins into the recesses around
the lower cylinder head bolt holes.
1
3
4. Install a new cylinder head gasket.
Figure 11-67. Cylinder Head Screws Torquing
Sequence.
11.17
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Push Rods, Rocker Arms, Studs,
and Rocker Shaft
NOTE: Push rods should always be installed in the
original location.
1. Identify the proper position of each push rod.
Dip the ends of the push rods in engine oil and
install them in their respective locations, seating
each into the tappet socket.
Figure 11-70. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx).
Assembled Rocker Arms in Position.
Figure 11-68. Installing Push Rods.
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12: Install the
rocker arms and adjuster assemblies into their
original locations. Seat the push rods into the
cupped end of the rocker arms. Oil the rocker
arm shaft and install it through the cylinder head
supports and rocker arms. Center the rocker arm
shaft so it does not protrude out either side. See
Figures 11-71 and 11-72.
2. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx): Install the push
rod guide plate, aligning the holes for the rocker
arm studs. Screw in the rocker arm studs and
torque to 10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.). See Figure 11-69.
Figure 11-71. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Assembling Rocker Arms and Pivot Shaft.
Figure 11-69. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx).
3. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx): Assemble the
rocker arms, adjusters, and locknuts onto the
studs and push rods.
11.18
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-72. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Figure 11-74. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Adjusting Valve to Rocker Arm Clearance.
4. Adjust the valve tappet clearance as follows:
a. Make sure the piston is still at the top of the
compression stroke.
b. Insert a flat feeler gauge between the rocker
arm and the valve stem. The recommended
valve to rocker arm clearance for both intake
and exhaust is 0.1 mm (0.004 in.).
d. Hold the adjuster from turning and tighten
the locknut. Torque locknut to:
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx):
10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
7 N·m (62 in. lb.)
5. Use a new Champion® RN14YC, Champion®
RC14YC (Kohler Part No. 66 132 01-S), or
equivalent spark plug.
6. Set gap to 0.76 mm (0.030 in.). Install the spark
plug in the cylinder head and torque to 20 N·m
(177 in. lb.).
Figure 11-73. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx).
Adjusting Valve to Rocker Arm Clearance.
11
c. Adjust clearance as required by loosening the
locknut and turning* the adjuster.
Turn clockwise to decrease clearance.
Turn counterclockwise to increase
clearance.
Figure 11-75. Installing and Torquing New Spark
Plug.
*On CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
Hold the adjuster up when making
adjustment.
11.19
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Valve Cover
1. Install a new valve cover gasket onto the cylinder
head.
2. Install the valve cover assembly.
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx): Install the four
hex flange screws and torque to 10-12 N·m
(88-106 in. lb.).
Figure 11-76. Installing Cylinder Air Shroud.
7. Install the cylinder air shroud. Matching the
alignment slot on the ends with the
corresponding raised groove in the crankcase.
CS4, CS6: Install and torque the single M6x1.0
mounting screw to 10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.) See
Figure 11-77.
Figure 11-78. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx).
Torquing Valve Cover Screws.
CS8.5-12: Install the four valve cover screws.
Mount the air cleaner base support bracket off the
two right side valve cover locations, or to the
cylinder head boss locations (based upon the
model involved) using the two longer screws.
Torque all the screws to 10-12 N·m
(88-106 in. lb.). See Figure 11-79 and 11-80.
Figure 11-77. CS4, CS6. Cylinder Air Shroud
Mounting Bolt Location.
8. Position the spark plug lead within the
corresponding cutout in the air shroud.
Figure 11-79. CS8.5-12. Torquing Valve Cover
Screws.
11.20
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-80. CS8.5-12. Torquing Screws.
Install Fuel Tank Supports (If So
Equipped), Throttle Lever, Wiring
Harness, Ignition Switch, and Oil Sentry™
Control Module
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12:
1. Attach the left fuel tank support to the crankcase
bosses with the two hex flange screws and flat
washers under the heads (CS4 and CS6 only).
Torque screws to:
CS4, CS6: 22-26 N·m (195-230 in. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12: 27-31 N·m
(237-274 in. lb.)
Figure 11-82. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Mounting Left Fuel Tank Support.
2. Assemble the right fuel tank support and
attached electrical components* to the crankcase
bosses. Mount the throttle control bracket off the
flywheel side screw as shown in Figures 11-83
and 11-84. Install a flat washer under the head of
screw on PTO side only. Torque screws to:
CS4, CS6: 22-26 N·m (195-230 in. lb.)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12: 27-31 N·m
(238-274 in. lb.)
*The fuel tank support may have the ignition
switch, wiring harness, oil sentry control
module, starter and warning light attached
(based on model/spec. involved).
11
Figure 11-81. CS4, CS6. Mounting Left Fuel Tank
Support.
Figure 11-83. CS4, CS6. Mounting Right Fuel Tank
Support.
11.21
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-84. CS8.5 (Spec 92xxxx) 10, CS-12
Mounting Right Fuel Tank Support.
CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx): Align and mount the
throttle control bracket to the top of the crankcase
with the hex flange screw. Make sure the hole in
the bracket for mounting the base pan is aligned
with the threaded hole in the crankcase. Torque
the screw to 10-13 N·m (88-106 in. lb.). On
retractable start engines, mount the Oil Sentry™
control module to the crankcase and attach the
ground lead to the same mounting screw. Torque
the screw to 10-12 N·m (88-106 in. lb.). On
electric start engines mount the bracket with
control panel attached to the crankcase using the
two hex flange head screws. Torque the screws to
10-12 N·m (88-106 in. lb.).
Figure 11-85. CS8.5-12. Ground Lead Location.
Install Governor Lever, Throttle Link,
Throttle and Governor Springs
1. Install the governor lever onto the shaft. Do not
tighten at this time. Adjustment will be made
later.
3. Check that the ground leads are secured at the
bracket locations, as shown in Figures 11-83
through 11-85.
CS8.5-12: Reattach the ignition system ground
lead to the crankcase boss adjacent to the
governor shaft (See Figure 11-85), or to the
control module mounting bolt location based on
model involved.
11.22
Figure 11-86. CS4, CS6. Governor Lever Details.
2. Connect the governor spring to the arm of the
governor lever and into the slot in the throttle
lever. See Figures 11-89, 11-90, and 11-91
according to model number for proper assembly
if necessary.
Section 11
Reassembly
1
Figure 11-87. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Governor Lever Installation.
2
Figure 11-89. CS4, CS6. Spring Hole Position.
3. Connect the throttle link and the shorter end of
dampening spring, from the top down, into the
hole(s) in long end of governor lever as shown in
Figures 11-86, 11-87, and 11-88.
Figure 11-90. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Spring Hole Position.
Figure 11-88. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Governor Linkage Connected to Governor Arm.
Model
CS4 All models
CS6 All models except listed
specs.
CS6 Specs: 911510
CS8.5 All models except listed
specs.
CS8.5 Spec: 921509
CS8.5 Spec: 951511
CS10 All models except listed
specs.
CS10 Specs: 931512, 931612
931614, 931615
CS10 Spec: 931618
Figure
Number
Hole
Position
11-89
11-89
2
1
11-89
11-90
2
3
11-90
11-90
11-90
1
2
3
11-91
4
11-91
2
11
Figure 11-91. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx). Spring Hole
Position.
11.23
Section 11
Reassembly
Spec.
No.
Figure
Number
Hole
Position
(CS12)
CS12T
CS12T
CS12TG
CS12TP
CS12TR
CS12TR
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12S
CS12ST
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12GT
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12T
CS12S
941501
941502
941503
941504
941505
941506
941507
941508
941509
941510
941511
941512
941513
941515
941516
941517
941518
941519
941520
941521
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-91
11-91
11-90
11-90
11-91
11-91
11-90
N/A
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
2
2
4
4
1
3
4
4
3
(Application
Governed)
CS12T
CS12T
CS12TG
CS12TP
CS12TR
CS12TR
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12S
CS12ST
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12STG
CS12SG
CS12STG
CS12T
CS12S
941601
941602
941603
941604
941605
941606
941607
941608
941609
941610
941611
941612
941613
941615
941616
941617
941618
941619
941620
941621
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-91
11-91
11-90
11-90
11-91
11-91
11-90
N/A
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
2
2
4
4
1
3
4
4
3
(Application
Governed)
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
4
Model
CS12STG
CS12TG
CS12STG
CS12TR
CS12T
CS12ST
CS12STR
CS12STG
CS12ST
CS12STG
CS12STG
11.24
941622
941623
941624
941625
941626
941627
941628
941629
941630
941631
941632
11-91
11-90
11-91
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-91
11-90
11-90
11-90
Model
Spec.
No.
Figure
Number
Hole
Position
CS12T
CS12ST
CS12T
CS12TR
CS12ST
CS12TG
941633
941634
941635
941636
941637
941638
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
11-90
3
3
3
3
3
3
Figure 11-90. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Spring Hole Position.
Figure 11-91. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx). Spring Hole
Position.
Section 11
Reassembly
Connect Electrical Leads and Install
Electric Starter (If So Equipped)
CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12 with Inertia
Drive Starters
1. Mount the electric starter, with the control panel
and solenoid attached, onto the crankcase. Install
and torque the two hex flange screws to 30 N·m
(265 in. lb.). Leave the three cover panel screws
out at this time.
Figure 11-94. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Reconnect Solenoid/Wiring Harness Lead.
CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx), CS10, CS12 with Solenoid
Shift Starters
1. Align and mount the electric starter motor to the
crankcase. Install and torque the two hex flange
screws to 30 N·m (265 in. lb.). See Figure 11-95.
Figure 11-92. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Installing Electric Starter.
2. Connect the electrical leads for the Oil Sentry™,
ignition module, keyswitch, solenoid, and starter.
Attach the red/white wire harness lead to the
solenoid terminal opposite the terminal
containing the starter lead.
Mounting
Screws
Figure 11-95. Solenoid Shift Starter Mounting.
2. Connect the electrical leads for the Oil Sentry™,
ignition module, keyswitch, solenoid, and starter.
Attach the red/white wire harness lead to the
spade terminal of solenoid. Attach the red
harness lead with the ring terminal, to the main
(upper) terminal on the solenoid that is attached
to the battery cable. Secure the wires together and
out of the way using the beaded tie.
Figure 11-93. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Reconnect Electrical Leads.
11.25
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Blower Housing and Electric
Starter Cover Panel (If So Equipped)
1. Install the blower housing behind the throttle link
and dampening spring. Start all the hex flange
screws. On CS4 and CS6 engines, secure the
ground lead with the silver screw in the upper
right hand location. See Figures 11-96, 11-97, and
11-98. Torque the screws to 7 N·m (62 in. lb.).
Figure 11-98. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Blower Housing Installed.
2. Attach the electric starter cover panel (if so
equipped) to the right tank support with the three
phillips head screws and one flange nut. See
Figure 11-99.
Figure 11-96. Installing Blower Housing.
Figure 11-99. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
Attaching Electrical Starter Cover Panel.
Figure 11-97. CS4, CS6. Silver Screw and Ground
Lead Location.
11.26
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Carburetor
1. Install a new carburetor spacer gasket onto the
carburetor studs, followed by the carburetor
spacer and another spacer gasket. See Figure
11-100.
Figure 11-102. CS8.5-12. Assembling Linkage.
Figure 11-100. Carburetor Spacer and Gaskets.
3. CS8.5-12: Connect Z end of choke link and
dampening spring to choke lever on blower
housing or control bracket. Then connect the
angled end of the link and spring into the holes of
the choke lever on the carburetor as shown in
Figure 11-103.
2. Tilt the carburetor to hook the throttle link and
dampening spring into the hole(s) of the throttle
lever. See Figures 11-101 and 11-102.
Figure 11-103. CS8.5-12. Attaching Choke Link and
Dampening Spring.
Figure 11-101. CS4, CS6. Assembling Linkage.
4. Push the carburetor and linkage all the way onto
the studs.
11.27
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Install Air Cleaner Base and Element
1. Install the air cleaner base gasket onto the
mounting studs. Attach the breather hose onto
the air cleaner base connection port. Then install
the air cleaner base onto the studs. Connect the
opposite end of the breather hose to the valve
cover. Secure the base with the two hex flange
nuts on the mounting studs and the one or two
hex flange screw(s) into the support bracket(s),
depending on the model involved. See Figures
11-104, 11-105, and 11-106. On models using a
separate rubber seal between the air filter element
and base, install or make sure the rubber seal for
the air cleaner is clean, installed, and in good
condition. See Figure 11-106.
Torque hex flange nuts to:
CS4, CS6: 5-8 N·m (44-71 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 10-12 N·m (88-106 in. lb.)
Torque hex flange screw(s) to:
5-8 N·m (44-71 in. lb.)
Rubber Seal
Figure 11-106. CS8.5 Air Cleaner Base and Rubber
Seal. (Some Models).
2. Make sure the seal is on the air cleaner base stud
(fixed on some models). See Figures 11-104,
11-105, and 11-106. Install the filter element with
precleaner and secure with the wing nut. Do not
install the outer air cleaner cover and knob at this
time.
Seal
Figure 11-104. CS4, CS6. Installing Air Cleaner
Base.
Seal
Figure 11-107. Installing Air Filter Element,
Precleaner, and Wing Nut.
Adjust/Set Governor
1. Adjust and set the governor as follows (See
Figures 108 and 109):
a. Rotate the governor lever clockwise until it
stops.
b. Turn the governor shaft clockwise until it
stops.
Figure 11-105. CS8.5-12. Installing Air Cleaner
Base.
11.28
c. Torque the clamp bolt to:
CS4, CS6: 8 N·m (71 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 10 N·m (88.5 in. lb.)
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-108. CS4, CS6. Adjusting Governor.
Figure 11-110. CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx),
CS10, CS12. Shut-Off Valve Orientation.
2. Install the fuel tank assembly onto the mounting
brackets. Secure with the four M6 hex flange
screws and a flat washer [CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx),
CS10, CS12 only] under each screw head. Torque
the screws to 8-12 N·m (71-106 in. lb.).
3. Connect the fuel line to the shut-off valve and
secure with the clamp.
Figure 11-109. CS8.5-12. Adjusting Governor.
Install Fuel Tank
CS4, CS6, CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12
1. If the fuel shut-off valve was removed or serviced
separately, install and secure with the flange nut
so the outlet faces directly to the left. The O-Ring
on the fitting must be in good condition. Replace
if deteriorated in any way.
Figure 11-111. Tightening Fuel Tank Mounting
Screws.
11
CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx)
1. Install the fuel tank support to top of crankcase.
Align the four mounting holes with the crankcase
locations. Install and finger tighten the four M8
hex flange screws, with flat washers under each
head. Install the single M6 hex flange screw in the
hole, as shown, and thread it into the throttle
control bracket. Torque the four M8 screws to
27-31 N·m (238-274 in. lb.) and the single M6
screw to 8-12 N·m (71-106 in. lb.). See Figure
11-112.
11.29
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-112. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx) Installing Fuel
Tank Support.
2. Install the fuel tank assembly, with the fuel line
connected to the outlet fitting, into the fuel tank
support. Route the fuel hose beneath the linkages
and align the mounting holes. Secure with the
four M6 hex flange screws. Torque the screws to
8-12 N·m (71-106 in. lb.).
3. If the fuel shut-off valve was removed or serviced
separately, reassemble it and secure it to the
mounting bracket. Torque the top mounting
screw to 8-12 N·m (71-106 in. lb.). See Figure
11-113.
Figure 11-114. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx). Mounting
Shut-Off Valve.
5. Connect the fuel line to the outlet of the shut-off
valve and the carburetor inlet. Secure with the
clamps.
Install Outer Air Cleaner Cover
1. Install the outer air cleaner cover onto the stud,
over the element. Secure with the knob.
Figure 11-115. Installing Outer Air Cleaner Cover
and Knob.
Install the Retractable Starter
Figure 11-113. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx). Shut-Off Valve
Details.
4. Connect the fuel line from the fuel tank to the
inlet fitting of the shut-off valve and secure with
the clamp. Mount the bracket/shut-off valve
assembly to the blower housing aligning the
indexing mark and screw hole. Install the hex
flange head screw and torque to 8-12 N·m
(71-106 in. lb.). See Figure 11-114.
11.30
1. Install the retractable starter using the hex flange
screws. Finger tighten the mounting screws only.
2. Pull the rope handle to engage the pawls,
centering the starter to the drive cup. Hold in this
position and torque the mounting screws to
6.5-7 N·m (57-62 in. lb.).
Section 11
Reassembly
Prepare the Engine for Operation
The engine is now reassembled. Before starting or
operating the engine be sure to do the following:
1. Make sure all hardware is properly torqued.
2. Make sure the oil drain plugs and oil sentry
control unit are tightened securely.
3. Fill the crankcase with the correct oil. Refer to the
oil recommendations and procedures in the
General Information and Lubrication System
sections.
Figure 11-116. Engage Pawls and Torque Mounting
Screws.
Install Muffler
1. Install a new exhaust gasket onto the exhaust
studs.
2. Install the muffler and heat shield assembly.
Install the hex flange screw, with a flat washer,
through the front support bracket, into the
crankcase boss.
Torque hex flange nuts to:
CS4, CS6: 6-8 N·m (53-71 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 18-22 N·m (159-195 in. lb.)
Torque hex flange screw to:
CS4, CS6: 7 N·m (62 in. lb.)
CS8.5-12: 15 N·m (133 in. lb.)
4. Reconnect the rectifier-regulator, if so equipped.
Testing the Engine
It is recommended that the engine be operated on a
test stand or bench prior to installation on a piece of
equipment.
1. Set the engine up on a test stand. Check gas and
oil levels. Start the engine and run for 5-10
minutes between idle and midrange. Adjust the
carburetor settings as required. Low idle speed
should be set to 2000 RPM (+ 150) or application
specifications.
2. Make sure the maximum engine speed does not
exceed:
Type/Engine Speed
Tapered Shaft Models
Others
Maximum
3750 ± 100 RPM
3800 ± 100 RPM
Adjust the throttle, choke, and/or high speed
stop screw as necessary. See Figures 11-118, 11119, and 11-120 on page 11.32. Refer also to Fuel
System and Governor section.
Figure 11-117. Torquing Muffler Mounting Screws.
11.31
11
Section 11
Reassembly
Figure 11-118. CS4, CS6. High Speed Stop Screw.
Figure 11-119. CS8.5 (spec. 92xxxx), CS10, CS12.
High Speed Stop Screw.
11.32
Figure 11-120. CS8.5 (spec. 95xxxx). High Speed
Stop Screw.
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