AN10778 PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages Application note

AN10778 PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages Application note
AN10778
PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Rev. 2 — 15 April 2011
Application note
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
LPC175x, LPC176x, LPC177x, LPC178x, LPC181x, LPC182x, LPC183x,
LPC185x, LPC431x, LPC432x, LPC433x, LPC435x, LPC2220, LPC2292,
LPC2364, LPC2368, LPC2458, LPC2468, LPC2470, LPC2478,
LPC2880, LPC2888, LPC3130, LPC3131, LPC3141, LPC3143,
LPC3152, LPC3154, LPC3180/01, LPC3220, LPC3230, LPC3240,
LPC3250, LH79524, LH7A400, LH7A404, TFBGA100, TFBGA144,
TFBGA208, TFBGA180, TFBGA296, LFBGA208, BGA256, LBGA256,
LFBGA256, LFBGA324, LFBGA320, Layout Guidelines, BGA, PCB, Fanout
Abstract
This application note is focused on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layout
issues when using (L)(LF)(TF)BGA packages from the NXP LPC
Microcontroller family.
AN10778
NXP Semiconductors
PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Revision history
Rev
Date
Description
2
20110415
Added information for LPC1700/1800/4300 LBGA256 package.
1
20090122
Initial release.
Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
1. Introduction
The plastic Ball Grid Array (BGA), including Low-profile Ball Grid Array (LBGA), Lowprofile Fine pitch BGA (LFBGA) and Thin-profile Fine pitch BGA (TFBGA) packages have
become, for many applications, the first choice for designers requiring medium to high
pin-count IC packaging. For this reason many of the LPC Family of Microcontrollers are
available in the LBGA, LFBGA or TFBGA package.
When comparing it to other common alternative packages, such as the Quad Flat Pack
(QFP), the (L)(LF)(TF)BGA device has many advantages, such as:
• The (L)(LF)(TF)BGA has no easy-to-bend leads that can cause deviation from
coplanarity.
• The (L)(LF)(TF)BGA is typically 20 % to 25 % smaller than an equivalently functional
QFP.
• Resolution and smearing problems with respect to the stencil-print process are less
because the pitch is larger, and the apertures are circular.
• The self-alignment property of the component results in a large process window for
automatic placement.
• The (L)(LF)(TF)BGA is compatible with today’s assembly techniques, which means
that no adjustments are necessary to standard machines or materials.
1.1 Scope
The scope of this application note is focused on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layout
issues when using (L)(LF)(TF)BGA packages from the NXP LPC Microcontroller family.
Including:
• Recommended footprint patterns for the TFBGA180, TFBGA208, TFBGA296,
LBGA256 and LFBGA320 pin packages.
• Recommended trace, space and via size for fan-out routing of the TFBGA180,
TFBGA208, TFBGA296, LBGA256 and LFBGA320 pin packages
It is recommended that other assembly topics such as the solder paste chemistry, reflow
solder profile and solder paste stencil etching, which are affected by all components on
the board level assembly and not limited to the Microcontroller BGA alone, be a
collaborative effort between the system designer and the assembly contractor.
2. BGA package description
A cross section of the typical (L)(LF)(TF)BGA is shown in Fig 1.
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Fig 1. (L)(LF)(TF)BGA cross section
This application note applies to BGA packages listed in Table 1.
Table 1.
BGA packages
Package name
NXP outline code
Outline dimensions
Ball pitch
Ball diam
Ball configuration
BGA256
SOT1018-1[4]
17 x 17 x 1.35 mm
1.0 mm
0.50 mm
16 x 16; full matrix
LBGA256
SOT740-2[6]
17 x 17 x 1.55 mm
1.0 mm
0.50 mm
16 x 16; full matrix
TFBGA100
SOT926-1[2]
9 x 9 x 0.7 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
10 x 10; full matrix
TFBGA144
SOT569-2[2]
12 x 12 x 0.7 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
13 x 13; partial matrix
TFBGA180
SOT570-2[2]
12 x 12 x 0.8 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
14 x 14; partial matrix
TFBGA208
SOT950-1[2]
15 x 15 x 0.7 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
17 x 17; partial matrix
LFBGA208
SOT1019-1[5]
14 x 14 x 1.27 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
16 x 16; partial matrix
LFBGA256
SOT1020-1[5]
14 x 14 x 1.25 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
16 x 16; full matrix
TFBGA296
SOT1048-1[1]
15 x 15 x 0.7 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
18 x 18; partial matrix
LFBGA324
SOT1021-1[5]
17 x 17 x 1.25 mm
0.8 mm
0.45 mm
20 x 20; partial matrix
TFBGA208
SOT930-1[2]
12 x 12 x 0.7 mm
0.65 mm
0.40 mm
17 x 17; partial matrix
TFBGA180
SOT640-1[3]
10 x 10 x 0.8 mm
0.5 mm
0.30 mm
18 x 18; partial matrix
LFBGA320
SOT824-1[2]
13 x 13 x 0.9 mm
0.5 mm
0.30 mm
24 x 24; partial matrix
[1]
Reference JEDEC MO-216
[2]
Reference JEDEC MO-275
[3]
Reference JEDEC MO-195
[4]
Reference JEDEC MS-034
[5]
Reference JEDEC MO-205
[6]
Reference JEDEC MO-192
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AN10778
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
3. BGA footprints
When building a BGA footprint the number one consideration is ensuring the ball pattern
and outline matches the device package. This includes correct orientation of ball A1,
matching all ball column x row locations, and the ball-to-ball pitch. Solder joint reliability is
also of primary concern. For cost sensitive applications, minimizing the number of PCB
layers required to route the BGA is a consideration. The BGA land pattern footprint plays
a key role in solder joint reliability, and the number of PCB layers required to route the
balls.
3.1 Land pad design
The PCB BGA land pads have to be designed to ensure solder joint reliability and
provide optimum manufacturability. The two basic types of BGA land pad design are:
• The Solder Mask Defined (SMD) land pad
• The Non-Solder Mask Defined (NSMD) land pad; recommended type for PCB
3.1.1 Solder Mask Defined (SMD) land pad
The SMD type of BGA land pad design is characterized by the copper pad being larger
than the solder mask opening above this pad. Thus the solder joint area of the land pad
is defined by the opening in the solder mask.
3.1.2 Non-Solder Mask Defined (NSMD) land pad
The NSMD type of BGA land pad design is characterized by the copper pad being
smaller than the solder mask opening. Thus the solder joint area of the land pad is
defined by the size of the land pad. The solder mask clearance around the land pad must
be large enough to ensure that no solder mask overlaps the land pad. Typical solder
mask to land pad clearance is in the range 0.06 mm to 0.075 mm, depending on the PCB
manufacturer’s solder mask alignment tolerance.
Fig 2. Solder mask vs. non-solder mask defined land pad
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3.2 Recommended BGA footprint
The NSMD type land pad is recommended for the PCB BGA footprint. In addition to the
top surface of the land pad, the reflowed solder paste will wet to the side wall making a
mechanically stronger solder joint than the SMD type pad. The smaller NSMD land pad
also leaves more space for routing traces between the land pads. It has been shown that
matching the solder joint area of the PCB land pad to that on the BGA package substrate
equalizes the ball solder joint stress between the BGA package and PCB land pad
thereby reducing the chance of a solder joint stress crack. All of the BGA packages
referenced in this application note use SMD type pads. The NSMD type pads on the PCB
should be approximately 10 % to 15 % smaller than the SMD pads on the BGA to
achieve equalized stress. This difference between the BGA package SMD pad and
recommended PCB NSMD pad for each BGA package is reflected in Table 2. A generic
BGA footprint is shown in Fig 3, and the specific dimensions for each BGA package are
listed in Table 2.
Fig 3. Generic BGA footprint
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Table 2.
Recommended BGA footprints
Package Name
Ball Pitch Ball
BGA substrate
PCB land pad Solder mask
diameter
Land diameter
diameter
diameter
Outline X & Y
(L)BGA256
1.0
0.50
0.45
0.45[4]
0.6
17.6
TFBGA100
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.35[4]
0.5
9.6
TFBGA144
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.35[4]
0.5
12.6
TFBGA180
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.35[4]
0.5
12.6
TFBGA208 (SOT950-1)
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.35[4]
0.5
15.6
LFBGA208
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.30[4]
0.42
14.6
LFBGA256
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.30[4]
0.42
14.6
TFBGA296
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.35[4] [6]
0. 5
15.6
TFBGA296
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.30[4] [7]
0. 42
15.6
LFBGA324
0.8
0.45
0.4
0.30[4]
0.42
17.6
TFBGA208 (SOT930-1)
0.65
0.4
0.26
0.25[5]
0.37
12.4
TFBGA180 (SOT640-1)
0.5
0.3
n/a
0.25[5]
0.36
10.4
LFBGA320
0.5
0.3
0.25
0.25[5]
0.36
13.4
Notes:
[1]
All dimensions are in millimeters
[2]
All BGA substrate land pads are SMD type
[3]
All PCB land pads are NSMD type
[4]
The recommended solder paste diameter is the same as the PCB land pad
[5]
The recommended solder paste diameter is 0.02 mm larger than the PCB land pad
[6]
Used for routing 1 trace between land pads
[7]
Used for routing 2 traces between land pads
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AN10778
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
4. Recommended fan-out trace / space guidelines
The small pitch between BGA balls and their matrix arrangement makes it impractical to
route all of the BGA balls away from the BGA on a single layer. Fan-out vias (also called
escape vias) are required to route the balls to other layers on the PCB. There are several
via technologies used on PCB’s. They are: Through-via, Blind via, Buried via, Micro via
and In-pad via. Through-vias, where the drilled via hole goes through all layers on the
PCB, cost considerably less than Blind, Buried, Micro and In-pad vias. Through-vias are
generally larger than the other types of vias as well. All recommended fan-out examples
in this application note use the through-via exclusively.
4.1 Recommended 1.0 mm and 0.8 mm pitch BGA via fan-out pattern
For 1 mm and 0.8 mm pitch BGA’s, the recommended via fan-out pattern centers each
via within the space between four adjacent BGA land pads as shown in Fig 4. Generally,
a single trace is routed between adjacent BGA land pads, allowing the two outer rows of
balls to be routed without a fan-out via. For BGAs with larger than 0.8 mm ball pitch one
or two traces may be routed between adjacent BGA land pads, allowing the three outer
most rows of balls to be routed without a fan out via. By reducing the BGA land pad,
trace width and trace-to-pad space design rules for the 0.8 mm ball pitch TFBGA296, two
traces may be routed between the BGA land pads. See Table 3 for the layout tool design
rules for 1.0 mm and 0.8 mm pitch BGA via fan-out.
Fig 4. 1.0 and 0.8mm pitch BGA Via fan-out pattern
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Table 3.
BGA
Pitch
1.0 mm and 0.8 mm pitch BGA layout design rules
BGA land Via
pad
Pad
Drill size Inner plane
/ finished layer antihole size pad
Land pad Between vias
to via
Trace /
# of traces
space
space
Between Land pads
Trace /
space
# of traces
1.0
0.45
0.55
0.3 / 0.18
0.800
0.2
0.15
1
0.18
1
1.0
0.45
0.485
0.25 / 0.1
0.695
0.24
0.1
2
0.11
2
0.8
0.35
0.485
0.25 / 0.1
0.695
0.148
0.105
1
0.15
1
0.8
0.30
0.485
0.25 / 0.1
0.695
0.173
0.105
1
0.1
2
4.2 Recommended 0.65 mm pitch BGA via fan-out pattern
For 0.65 mm pitch BGA’s, the recommended via fan-out pattern centers each via within
the space between four adjacent BGA land pads. Instead of placing the vias 0.65 mm
apart they are placed 1.3 mm from each other, skipping every other location, and
staggering them between adjacent rows, as the partial fan-out example is shown in Fig 5.
With this pattern the TFGBA208 package can use 0.125 mm (0.005”) trace and space
design rules. With a single trace routed between adjacent BGA land pads, the two outer
rows of balls can be routed without a fan-out via. See Table 4 for the layout tool design
rules for 0.65 mm pitch BGA via fan-out.
(1) Note: no connect pins on the LPC3152/54
Fig 5. Recommended 0.65 mm pitch BGA via fan-out pattern
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Table 4.
BGA Pitch
0.65 mm pitch BGA layout design rules
BGA land
pad
Via
Pad
0.65
0.25
0.425
Land pad to Between
via space
vias
Drill size Inner
/ finished plane layer
hole size anti-pad
0.2 / 0.05
0.6
0.122
Between
Land pads
Trace /
space
Trace /
# of
space
traces
0.125
0.125
1
4.3 Recommended 0.5 mm pitch BGA via fan-out pattern
The pattern of centering the through-via within the four adjacent BGA land pads can not
be used with 0.5 mm pitch BGA’s. This is due to the smallest through-via pad being too
large to fit in the space available between the land pads. With a single trace routed
between adjacent BGA land pads, the two outer rows of balls can be routed without a
fan-out via. The two inner rows of balls must be routed to vias in the center area of the
BGA and escape routed on other layers. An example fan-out of the LFBGA320 package
is shown in Fig 6. See Table 5 for the layout tool design rules for 0.5 mm pitch BGA via
fan-out.
Fig 6. Example fan-out of LFBGA320
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
Table 5.
BGA Pitch
0.5 mm pitch BGA layout design rules
BGA land
pad
Via
Pad
0.5
0.25
0.4
Land pad to Between
via space
vias
Drill size Inner
/ finished plane layer
hole size anti-pad
0.2 / 0.05
0.6
0.1
Between
Land pads
Trace /
space
Trace /
# of
space
traces
0.1
0.08
1
5. Board cost considerations
PCB cost is affected by many factors, generally increasing in cost as:
1. Overall PCB area increases
2. As the number of layers increases
3. Using in-pad via, blind via, buried via, micro via
4. As the diameter of the through-via decreases
5. As the trace width decreases below 0.125 mm (5 mils)
6. As the space between metal features decreases below 0.125 mm (5 mils)
Therefore, selecting via size, trace width and spacing for fan-out routing of the BGA
requires a balance between feature size, number of PCB layers and overall board area to
get the most economical layout.
5.1 Area rules
On many boards the design rules for via size, trace width and space for fan-out routing of
the BGA may require smaller feature sizes than any other area on the board. If your
layout tool is capable of defining multiple rule areas, it may be cost effective to limit the
area around the BGA to the smaller feature sizes and use larger vias and larger trace
widths and spacing for the balance of the board. In other words if all but the BGA fan-out
can use 5 or 6 mil trace and space rules, then limiting 3 or 4 mil trace and space rules to
the BGA fan-out area may have only a small cost premium.
5.2 How many PCB layers to fan-out the BGA
Generally one trace is routed between adjacent BGA land pads, enabling the two outer
rows of BGA balls to be routed on the same layer as the BGA is mounted on. The next
two rows in can be routed on the next signal layer, provided the vias are spaced far
enough apart to allow one trace between them, as is the case for the 1.0 mm, 0.8 mm
and 0.65 mm recommended fan-out via patterns in Fig 4 and Fig 5. Each additional BGA
row will take one additional PCB layer to fan-out. For example, the TFBGA296 has balls
seven rows deep and will take 5 PCB layers to fan-out, including power and ground.
Because PCB’s are constructed in even number layers, a PCB using the TFBGA296
package would require a minimum of six layers, including one split power plane and one
ground plane.
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PCB layout guidelines for NXP MCUs in BGA packages
6. BGA power and ground
NXP LPC Microcontroller family devices have many power and ground pins. This is due
to having multiple power domains, and the potential for large simultaneous switching
currents when all 16-bit or 32-bit external data bus outputs change from all low to all
high, or all high to all low, at the same time. It is recommended that the MCU VDD(core)
and VDD(IO) power nets and VSSx be distributed on a plane layer of the PCB instead of
routed by the thin traces, like those used for carrying other signals. BGA power and
ground balls are typically routed to a near by fan-out via the same as any signal. It is
recommended that the short trace between the BGA ball and fan-out via be no wider
than 0.15 mm (6 mils). Although it is common to use a wider trace (0.5 mm) to route
power and ground from other IC packages (SOIC, QFP, TSOP, etc.), using larger than
0.15 mm may begin to act like a heat sink that could adversely affect the solder joint. If a
BGA power or ground pin must be routed more than 1 mm to get to a fan-out via, the
trace should be routed the first 1mm with a <= 0.15 mm trace then up sized for the
balance of the route. It is recommended that all power and ground vias that tie into a
plane do so as a solid 360 degree connection, as shown Fig 7a. This provides a lower
inductance connection to the plane and will provide a more solid ground plane
throughout the BGA area. Avoid the use of thermal (4-point) connections, as shown in
Fig 7b.
a. Direct via connection to the plane
b. Thermal (4-point) connection to the plane
Fig 7. Via to plane connection
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7. Legal information
7.1 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences
of use of such information.
7.2 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation lost profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal
or replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability
towards customer for the products described herein shall be limited in
accordance with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP
Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of
NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and
therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
customer’s applications and products planned, as well as for the planned
application and use of customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should
provide appropriate design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks
associated with their applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from national authorities.
Evaluation products — This product is provided on an “as is” and “with all
faults” basis for evaluation purposes only. NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates
and their suppliers expressly disclaim all warranties, whether express,
implied or statutory, including but not limited to the implied warranties of noninfringement, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire
risk as to the quality, or arising out of the use or performance, of this product
remains with customer.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors, its affiliates or their suppliers be
liable to customer for any special, indirect, consequential, punitive or
incidental damages (including without limitation damages for loss of
business, business interruption, loss of use, loss of data or information, and
the like) arising out the use of or inability to use the product, whether or not
based on tort (including negligence), strict liability, breach of contract, breach
of warranty or any other theory, even if advised of the possibility of such
damages.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever (including without limitation, all damages referenced above and
all direct or general damages), the entire liability of NXP Semiconductors, its
affiliates and their suppliers and customer’s exclusive remedy for all of the
foregoing shall be limited to actual damages incurred by customer based on
reasonable reliance up to the greater of the amount actually paid by
customer for the product or five dollars (US$5.00). The foregoing limitations,
exclusions and disclaimers shall apply to the maximum extent permitted by
applicable law, even if any remedy fails of its essential purpose.
7.3 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and
trademarks are property of their respective owners.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP
Semiconductors accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or
customer product design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine
whether the NXP Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the
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8. Contents
1.
1.1
2.
3.
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.2
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.
5.1
5.2
6.
7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.
Introduction ......................................................... 3
Scope ................................................................. 3
BGA package description ................................... 3
BGA footprints..................................................... 5
Land pad design ................................................. 5
Solder Mask Defined (SMD) land pad ................ 5
Non-Solder Mask Defined (NSMD) land pad...... 5
Recommended BGA footprint ............................ 6
Recommended fan-out trace / space guidelines
.............................................................................. 8
Recommended 1.0 mm and 0.8 mm pitch BGA
via fan-out pattern .............................................. 8
Recommended 0.65 mm pitch BGA via fan-out
pattern ................................................................ 9
Recommended 0.5 mm pitch BGA via fan-out
pattern .............................................................. 10
Board cost considerations ............................... 11
Area rules ......................................................... 11
How many PCB layers to fan-out the BGA ....... 11
BGA power and ground .................................... 12
Legal information .............................................. 13
Definitions ........................................................ 13
Disclaimers....................................................... 13
Trademarks ...................................................... 13
Contents ............................................................. 14
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in the section 'Legal information'.
© NXP B.V. 2011.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: salesaddresses@nxp.com
Date of release: 15 April 2011
Document identifier: AN10778
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