HP 9020 CE Technical data

HP 9020 CE Technical data
Agilent X-Series
Signal Analyzer
This manual provides documentation for the
following X-Series Analyzers:
MXA Signal Analyzer N9020A
EXA Signal Analyzer N9010A
N9020A/N9010A
Spectrum Analyzer Mode
Measurement Guide
Notices
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2008
Manual Part Number
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agreement and written consent from Agilent Technologies, Inc. as governed by
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N9060-90022
Supersedes:N9060-90022, August 2008
March 2009
Printed in USA
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CAUTION
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2
Warranty
This Agilent technologies instrument product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for
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its option, either repair or replace products that prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by Agilent
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Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about this analyzer, including firmware
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http://www.agilent.com/find/exa
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http://www.agilent.com/find/tips
3
4
Contents
2. Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Display Annotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Rear-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Front and Rear Panel Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3. Measuring Multiple Signals
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a Reference . . . . . . . . 41
4. Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Reducing Input Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Trace Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5. Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 58
6. Tracking Drifting Signals
Measuring a Source Frequency Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Tracking a Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7. Making Distortion Measurements
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8. Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Band/Interval Density Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5
Table of Contents
1. Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Making a Basic Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Accessories Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Table of Contents
Contents
Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer Noise . . . . . . . . . .89
9. Making Time-Gated Measurements
Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Gated LO Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Gated Video Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Gated FFT Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
10.Measuring Digital Communications Signals
Channel Power Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Occupied Bandwidth Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Making Burst Power Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Spurious Emissions Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
11.Demodulating AM Signals
Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Measuring the Modulation Index of an AM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
12.IQ Analyzer Measurement
Capturing Wideband Signals for Further Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Complex Spectrum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
IQ Waveform (Time Domain) Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
13.Concepts
Resolving Closely Spaced Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Trigger Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Time Gating Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
AM and FM Demodulation Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
IQ Analysis Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Spurious Emissions Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
14.Programming Examples
X-Series Spectrum Analyzer Mode Programing Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
6
1
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer
Measurement Application
This chapter provides some basic information about using the Spectrum Analyzer and IQ Analyzer
Measurement Application Modes. It includes topics on:
“Making a Basic Measurement” on page 8.
•
“Recommended Test Equipment” on page 12.
•
“Accessories Available” on page 13.
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
•
Technical Documentation Summary:
Your Signal Analysis measurement platform:
Getting Started
Turn on process, Windows XP use/configuration, Front and rear panel.
Specifications
Specifications for all available Measurement Applications and optional hardware
(for example, Spectrum Analyzer and W-CDMA).
Functional Testing
Quick checks to verify overall instrument operation.
Instrument Messages
Descriptions of displayed messages of Information, Warnings and Errors.
Measurement Application specific documentation:
(For example, Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application or W-CDMA Measurement Application.)
Measurement Guide and
Programming Examples
Examples of measurements made using the front panel keys or over a remote
interface. The programming examples use a few different programming languages,
and copies of the executable files are available.
User’s/Programmer’s
Reference
Descriptions of front panel key functionality and the corresponding SCPI
commands. May also include some concept information.
7
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Making a Basic Measurement
Making a Basic Measurement
Refer to the description of the instrument front and rear panels to improve your understanding of the
Agilent Signal Analyzer measurement platform. This knowledge will help you with the following
measurement example.
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
This section includes:
•
“Using the Front Panel” on page 9.
•
“Presetting the Signal Analyzer” on page 10.
•
“Viewing a Signal” on page 10.
CAUTION
Make sure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +30
dBm (1 watt).
8
Chapter 1
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Making a Basic Measurement
Using the Front Panel
Entering Data
When setting measurement parameters, there are several ways to enter or modify the value of the active
function:
Increments or decrements the current value.
Arrow Keys
Increments or decrements the current value.
Numeric Keypad
Enters a specific value. Then press the desired terminator (either a unit
softkey, or the Enter key).
Unit Softkeys
Terminate a value that requires a unit-of-measurement.
Enter Key
Terminates an entry when either no unit of measure is needed, or you want
to use the default unit.
Using Menu Keys
Menu Keys (which appear along the right side of the display) provide access to many analyzer functions.
Here are examples of menu key types:
Toggle
Allows you to activate/deactivate states.
Example:
Submenu
Displays a new menu of softkeys.
Example:
Choice
A submenu key allows you to view a new menu of softkeys
related to the submenu key category.
Allows you to make a selection from a list of values.
Example:
Adjust
Toggles the selection (underlined choice) each time you press the
key.
A choice key displays the currently selected submenu choice, in
this example, dBm. When the choice is made, the submenu
automatically returns.
Highlights the softkey and sets the active function.
Examples:
Press this type of key and enter a value.
The default for softkeys with an automatic (Auto) or manual
(Man) choice is automatic. After you enter a value, the selection
changes to manual. You can also press the softkey twice to change
to manual.
Chapter 1
9
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
Knob
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Making a Basic Measurement
Presetting the Signal Analyzer
The preset function provides a known starting point for making measurements. The analyzer has two
main types of preset:
User Preset
Restores the analyzer to a user-defined state.
Mode Preset
This type of preset restores the currently selected mode to a default state.
For details, see the help or User’s and Programmer’s Reference.
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
Creating a User Preset
If you constantly use settings which are not the normal defaults, use the following steps to create a
user-defined preset:
1. Set analyzer parameters as desired.
2. Press User Preset, Save User Preset to set the current parameters as the user preset state.
3. Then press User Preset, User Preset when you want to select the preset state.
Viewing a Signal
1. Press Mode Preset to return the current mode settings to its factory defaults.
2. Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50, MHz. to route the internal 50 MHz signal to the analyzer
input.
3. Press AMPTD Y Scale, 10, dBm to set the reference level to 10 dBm.
4. Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 40, MHz to set the center frequency to 40 MHz.
The 50 MHz reference signal appears on the display.
5. Press SPAN, 50, MHz to set the frequency span to 50 MHz.
Reading Frequency & Amplitude
6. Press Peak Search.
This activates a marker and places it on the highest amplitude signal.
Note that the frequency and amplitude of the marker appear in the active function block in the
upper-right of the display. You can use the knob, the arrow keys, or the softkeys in the Peak Search
menu to move the marker around on the signal.
7. If you have moved the marker, return it to the peak of the 50 MHz signal by pressing Peak Search
again.
Changing Reference Level
8. Press AMPLTD Y Scale and note that reference level (Ref Level) is now the active function. Press
Marker ?, Mkr ? Ref Lvl.
Note that changing the reference level changes the amplitude value of the top graticule line.
10
Chapter 1
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Making a Basic Measurement
Improving Frequency Accuracy
9. To increase the accuracy of the frequency reading in the marker annotation, turn on the frequency
count function.
•
Press Marker, More, Marker Count.
The Marker Count softkeys appear.
Note softkey Counter On Off. If Off is underlined, press the softkey to toggle marker count on.
The marker active function annotation changes from Mkr1 to Cntr1.
•
The displayed resolution in the marker annotation improves.
NOTE
When you use the frequency count function, if the ratio of the resolution bandwidth to the
span is less than 0.002, you would get a display message that you need to reduce the
Span/RBW ratio. This is because the resolution bandwidth is too narrow.
10. Press Marker ?, Mkr ? CF to move the 50 MHz peak to the center of the display.
Valid Marker Count Range
11. Move the marker down the skirt of the 50 MHz peak. Note that although the readout in the active
function changes, as long as the marker is at least 26 dB above the noise, the counted value
(upper-right corner of display) does not change. For an accurate count, the marker does not have to be
exactly at the displayed peak.
NOTE
Marker count functions properly only on CW signals or discrete peaks. For a valid
reading, the marker must be ≥26 dB above the noise.
12. Press BW, Res BW, then enter a new value. This action makes the resolution bandwidth (RBW) the
active function and allows you to experiment with different resolution bandwidth values.
13. Press Marker, Off to turn the marker off.
Chapter 1
11
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
•
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Recommended Test Equipment
Recommended Test Equipment
The following table lists the test equipment you will need to perform the example measurements
described in this manual.
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
NOTE
To find descriptions of specific analyzer functions for the N9060A Spectrum Analyzer
Measurement Application refer to the Agilent Technologies User’s and Programmer’s
Reference.
Test Equipment
Specifications
Recommended Model
0.25 MHz to 4.0 GHz
Ext Ref Input
E443XB series or E4438C
Signal Sources
Signal Generator (2)
Adapters
Type-N (m) to BNC (f) (6)
1250-0780
Cables
BNC, 122 cm (48 in) (3)
10503A
Miscellaneous
Directional Bridge
86205A
12
Chapter 1
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Accessories Available
Accessories Available
A number of accessories are available from Agilent Technologies to help you configure your analyzer
for your specific applications. They can be ordered through your local Agilent Sales and Service Office
and are listed below.
NOTE
For the latest information on Agilent signal analyzer options and upgrade kits, visit the
following Internet URL: http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades.
50 Ohm Load
The Agilent 909 series of loads come in several models and options providing a variety of frequency
ranges and VSWRs. Also, they are available in either 50 ohm or 75 Ohm. Some examples include the:
909A: DC to 18 GHz
909C: DC to 2 GHz
909D: DC to 26.5 GHz
50 Ohm/75 Ohm Minimum Loss Pad
The HP/Agilent 11852B is a low VSWR minimum loss pad that allows you to make measurements on 75
Ohm devices using an analyzer with a 50 Ohm input. It is effective over a frequency range of dc to 2
GHz.
75 Ohm Matching Transformer
The HP/Agilent 11694A allows you to make measurements in 75 Ohm systems using an analyzer with a
50 Ohm input. It is effective over a frequency range of 3 to 500 MHz.
AC Probe
The Agilent 85024A high frequency probe performs in-circuit measurements without adversely loading
the circuit under test. The probe has an input capacitance of 0.7 pF shunted by 1 megohm of resistance
and operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz. High probe sensitivity and low distortion
levels allow measurements to be made while taking advantage of the full dynamic range of the signal
analyzer.
AC Probe (Low Frequency)
The Agilent 41800A low frequency probe has a low input capacitance and a frequency range of 5 Hz to
500 MHz.
Chapter 1
13
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
There are also some instrument options available that can improve your measurements.
Some options can only be ordered when you make your original equipment purchase.
Some are also available as kits that you can order and install later. Order kits through your
local Agilent Sales and Service Office.
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Accessories Available
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
Preamplifiers and power amplifiers can be used with your signal analyzer to enhance measurements of
very low-level signals.
•
The Agilent 8447D preamplifier provides a minimum of 25 dB gain from 100 kHz to 1.3 GHz.
•
The Agilent 87405A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB gain from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. (Power
is supplied by the probe power output of the analyzer.)
•
The Agilent 83006A preamplifier provides a minimum of 26 dB gain from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz.
•
The Agilent 85905A CATV 75 ohm preamplifier provides a minimum of 18 dB gain from 45 MHz to
1 GHz. (Power is supplied by the probe power output of the analyzer.)
•
The 11909A low noise preamplifier provides a minimum of 32 dB gain from 9 kHz to 1 GHz and a
typical noise figure of 1.8 dB.
GPIB Cable
The Agilent 10833 Series GPIB cables interconnect GPIB devices and are available in four different
lengths (0.5 to 4 meters). GPIB cables are used to connect controllers to a signal analyzer.
USB/GPIB Cable
The Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB interface provides a direct connection from the USB port on your laptop
or desktop PC to GPIB instruments. It comes with the SICL and VISA software for Windows® 2000/XP.
Using VISA software, your existing GPIB programs work immediately, without modification. The
82357A is a standard Plug and Play device and you can interface with up to 14 GPIB instruments.
RF and Transient Limiters
The Agilent 11867A and 11693A RF Limiters protect the analyzer input circuits from damage due to
high power levels. The 11867A operates over a frequency range of dc to 1800 MHz and begins reflecting
signal levels over 1 mW up to 10 W average power and 100 watts peak power. The 11693A microwave
limiter (0.1 to 12.4 GHz, usable to 18 GHz) guards against input signals over 1 milliwatt up to 1 watt
average power and 10 watts peak power.
The Agilent 11947A Transient Limiter protects the analyzer input circuits from damage due to signal
transients. It specifically is needed for use with a line impedance stabilization network (LISN). It
operates over a frequency range of 9 kHz to 200 MHz, with 10 dB of insertion loss.
Power Splitters
The Agilent 11667A/B/C power splitters are two-resister type splitters that provide excellent output
SWR, at 50 Ω impedance. The tracking between the two output arms, over a broad frequency range,
allows wideband measurements to be made with a minimum of uncertainty.
11667A: DC to 18 GHz
11667B: DC to 26.5 GHz
11667C: DC to 50 GHz
14
Chapter 1
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Accessories Available
Static Safety Accessories
9300-1367
Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel. Four adjustable links and a 7 mm post-type
connection.
9300-0980
Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft.)
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
Chapter 1
15
Getting Started with the Spectrum
Analyzer Measurement Application
Getting Started with the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
Accessories Available
16
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel Features
2
Front and Rear Panel Features
•
“Front-Panel Features” on page 18.
•
“Display Annotations” on page 22.
•
“Rear-Panel Features” on page 24.
•
“Front and Rear Panel Symbols” on page 26.
17
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Features
Front-Panel Features
Item
Description
#
Name
1
Menu Keys
Key labels appear to the left of the menu keys to identify the current function
of each key. The displayed functions are dependent on the currently selected
Mode and Measurement, and are directly related to the most recent key press.
2
Analyzer Setup Keys
These keys set the parameters used for making measurements in the current
Mode and Measurement.
3
Measurement Keys
These keys select the Mode, and the Measurement within the mode. They also
control the initiation and rate of recurrence of measurements.
4
Marker Keys
Markers are often available for a measurement, to measure a very specific
point/segment of data within the range of the current measurement data.
5
Utility Keys
These keys control system-wide functionality such as:
•
•
•
•
instrument configuration information and I/O setup,
printer setup and printing,
file management, save and recall,
instrument presets.
6
Probe Power
Supplies power for external high frequency probes and accessories.
7
Headphones Output
Headphones can be used to hear any available audio output.
8
Back Space Key
Press this key to delete the previous character when entering alphanumeric
information. It also works as the Back key in Help and Explorer windows.
18
Chapter 2
Item
Description
#
Name
9
Delete Key
Press this key to delete files, or to perform other deletion tasks.
10
USB Connectors
Standard USB 2.0 ports, Type A. Connect to external peripherals such as a
mouse, keyboard, DVD drive, or hard drive.
11
Local/Cancel/(Esc) Key
If you are in remote operation, Local:
•
•
•
returns instrument control from remote back to local (the front panel).
turns the display on (if it was turned off for remote operation).
can be used to clear errors. (Press the key once to return to local control,
and a second time to clear error message line.)
If you have not already pressed the units or Enter key, Cancel exits the
currently selected function without changing its value.
Esc works the same as it does on a pc keyboard. It:
•
•
•
•
exits Windows dialogs
clears errors
aborts printing
cancels operations.
12
RF Input
Connector for inputting an external signal. Make sure that the total power of all
signals at the analyzer input does not exceed +30 dBm (1 watt).
13
Numeric Keypad
Enters a specific numeric value for the current function. Entries appear on the
upper left of the display, in the measurement information area.
14
Enter and Arrow Keys
The Enter key terminates data entry when either no unit of measure is needed,
or you want to use the default unit.
The arrow keys:
•
•
•
•
•
Increment and decrement the value of the current measurement selection.
Navigate help topics.
Navigate, or make selections, within Windows dialogs.
Navigate within forms used for setting up measurements.
Navigate within tables.
Note:
The arrow keys cannot be used to move a mouse pointer around
on the display.
15
Menu/ (Alt) Key
Alt works the same as a PC keyboard. Use it to change control focus in
Windows pull-down menus.
16
Ctrl Key
Ctrl works the same as a PC keyboard. Use it to navigate in Windows
applications, or to select multiple items in lists.
17
Select / Space Key
Select is also the Space key and it has typical PC functionality. For example, in
Windows dialogs, it selects files, checks and unchecks check boxes, and picks
radio button choices. It opens a highlighted Help topic.
18
Tab Keys
Use these keys to move between fields in Windows dialogs.
19
Knob
Increments and decrements the value of the current active function.
20
Return Key
Exits the current menu and returns to the previous menu. Has typical PC
functionality.
Chapter 2
19
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Features
Item
Description
#
Name
21
Full Screen Key
Pressing this key turns off the softkeys to maximize the graticule display area.
Press the key again to restore the normal display.
22
Help Key
Initiates a context-sensitive Help display for the current Mode. Once Help is
accessed, pressing a front panel key brings up the help topic for that key
function.
23
Speaker Control Keys
Enables you to increase or decrease the speaker volume, or mute it.
24
Window Control Keys
These keys select between single or multiple window displays. They zoom the
current window to fill the data display, or change the currently selected
window. They can be used to switch between the Help window navigation
pane and the topic pane.
25
Power Standby/ On
Turns the analyzer on. A green light indicates power on. A yellow light
indicates standby mode.
Note:
The front-panel switch is a standby switch, not a LINE switch
(disconnecting device). The analyzer continues to draw power
even when the line switch is in standby.
The main power cord can be used as the system disconnecting
device. It disconnects the mains circuits from the mains supply.
26
Q Input
Input port for the Q channel when in differential mode.a
27
Q Input
Input port for the Q channel for either single or differential mode.a
28
I Input
Input port for the I channel when in differential mode.a
29
I Input
Input port for the I channel for either single or differential mode.a
30
Cal Out
Output port for calibrating the I, I, Q and Q inputs and probes used with these
inputs.a
a. Status of the LED indicates whether the current state of the port is active (green) or is
not in use (dark).
Overview of key types
The keys labeled FREQ Channel, System, and Marker Functions are all examples of front-panel keys.
Most of the dark or light gray keys access menus of functions that are displayed along the right side of
the display. These displayed key labels are next to a column of keys called menu keys.
Menu keys list functions based on which front-panel key was pressed last. These functions are also
dependant on the current selection of measurement application (Mode) and measurement (Meas).
If the numeric value of a menu key function can be changed, it is called an active function. The function
label of the active function is highlighted after that key has been selected. For example, press AMPTD Y
Scale. This calls up the menu of related amplitude functions. The function labeled Ref Level (the default
selected key in the Amplitude menu) is highlighted. Ref Level also appears in the upper left of the
display in the measurement information area. The displayed value indicates that the function is selected
and its value can now be changed using any of the data entry controls.
20
Chapter 2
Some menu keys have multiple choices on their label, such as On/Off or Auto/Man. The different
choices are selected by pressing the key multiple times. For example, the Auto/Man type of key. To
select the function, press the menu key and notice that Auto is underlined and the key becomes
highlighted. To change the function to manual, press the key again so that Man is underlined. If there are
more than two settings on the key, keep pressing it until the desired selection is underlined.
When a menu first appears, one key label is highlighted to show which key is the default selection. If you
press Marker Function, the Marker Function Off key is the menu default key, and is highlighted.
Some of the menu keys are grouped together by a yellow bar running behind the keys near the left side or
by a yellow border around the group of keys. When you press a key within the yellow region, such as
Marker Noise, the highlight moves to that key to show it has been selected. The keys that are linked are
related functions, and only one of them can be selected at any one time. For example, a marker can only
have one marker function active on it. So if you select a different function it turns off the previous
selection. If the current menu is two pages long, the yellow bar or border could include keys on the
second page of keys.
In some key menus, a key label is highlighted to show which key has been selected from multiple
available choices. And the menu is immediately exited when you press one of the other keys. For
example, when you press the Select Trace key (in the Trace/Detector menu), it brings up its own menu
of keys. The Trace 1 key is highlighted. When you press the Trace 2 key, the highlight moves to that key
and the screen returns to the Trace/Detector menu.
If a displayed key label shows a small solid-black arrow tip pointing to the right, it indicates that
additional key menus are available. If the arrow tip is not filled in solid then pressing the key the first
time selects that function. Now the arrow is solid and pressing it again brings up an additional menu of
settings.
Chapter 2
21
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Display Annotations
Display Annotations
This section describes the display annotation as it is on the Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Application
display. Other measurement application modes will have some annotation differences.
Item
1
Description
Measurement bar - Shows general measurement
settings and information.
Function Keys
All the keys in the Analyzer Setup part of the
front panel.
Indicates single/continuous
measurement.
Some measurements include limits that the data is
tested against. A Pass/Fail indication may be shown in
the lower left of the measurement bar.
2
Active Function (measurement bar) - when the current
active function has a settable numeric value, it is
shown here.
22
Currently selected front panel key.
Chapter 2
Item
Description
3
Banner - shows the name of the selected measurement
application and the measurement that is currently
running.
Mode, Meas
4
Measurement title (banner) - shows title information
for the current Measurement, or a title that you created
for the measurement.
Meas
5
Function Keys
View/Display, Display, Title
Settings panel - displays system information that is not
specific to any one application.
•
•
•
•
Input/Output status - green LXI indicates the LAN
is connected. RLTS indicate Remote, Listen, Talk,
SRQ
Input impedance and coupling
Selection of external frequency reference
Setting of automatic internal alignment routine
Local and System, I/O Config
Input/Output, Amplitude, System and others
6
Active marker frequency, amplitude or function value
Marker
7
Settings panel - time and date display.
System, Control Panel
8
Trace and detector information
Trace/Detector, Clear Write (W) Trace
Average (A) Max Hold (M) Min Hold (m)
Trace/Detector, More, Detector, Average (A)
Normal (N) Peak (P) Sample (S) Negative
Peak (p)
9
Key labels that change based on the most recent key
press.
Softkeys
10
Displays information, warning and error messages.
Message area - single events, Status area - conditions.
11
Measurement settings for the data currently being
displayed in the graticule area. In the example above:
center frequency, resolution bandwidth, video
bandwidth, frequency span, sweep time and number of
sweep points.
Chapter 2
Keys in the Analyzer Setup part of the front
panel.
23
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Display Annotations
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
MXA and EXA with Option PC2
EXA
Item
#
1
Description
Name
EXT REF IN
Input for an external frequency reference signal:
For MXA – 1 to 50 MHz
For EXA – 10 MHz.
24
Chapter 2
Item
#
2
Description
Name
GPIB
A General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB, IEEE 488.1) connection that
can be used for remote analyzer operation.
3
USB Connector
USB 2.0 port, Type B. USB TMC (test and measurement class) connects
to an external pc controller to control the instrument and for data
transfers over a 480 Mbps link.
4
USB Connectors
Standard USB 2.0 ports, Type A. Connect to external peripherals such as
a mouse, keyboard, printer, DVD drive, or hard drive.
5
MONITOR
Allows connection of an external VGA monitor.
6
LAN
A TCP/IP Interface that is used for remote analyzer operation.
Line power input
The AC power connection. See the product specifications for more
details.
Removable Disk
Drive
Standard on MXA. Optional on EXA.
9
Digital Bus
Reserved for future use.
10
Analog Out
Reserved for future use.
11
TRIGGER 2
OUT
A trigger output used to synchronize other test equipment with the
analyzer. Configurable from the Input/Output keys.
12
TRIGGER 1
OUT
A trigger output used to synchronize other test equipment with the
analyzer. Configurable from the Input/Output keys.
13
Sync
Reserved for future use.
14
TRIGGER 2 IN
Allows external triggering of measurements.
15
TRIGGER 1 IN
Allows external triggering of measurements.
16
Noise Source
Drive +28 V
(Pulsed)
For use with Agilent 346A, 346B, and 346C Noise Sources.
17
SNS Series
Noise Source
For use with Agilent N4000A, N4001A, N4002A Smart Noise Sources
(SNS).
18
10 MHz OUT
An output of the analyzer internal 10 MHz frequency reference signal. It
is used to lock the frequency reference of other test equipment to the
analyzer.
7
8
Chapter 2
25
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
This symbol is used to indicate power ON (green LED).
This symbol is used to indicate power STANDBY mode (yellow LED).
This symbol indicates the input power required is AC.
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is marked with this symbol when
it is necessary for the user to refer to instructions in the documentation.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European Community.
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the Australian Spectrum Management
Agency.
This is a marking of a product in compliance with the Canadian Interference-Causing
Equipment Standard (ICES-001).
This is also a symbol of an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1 Class A product
(CISPR 11, Clause 4).
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association
International.
This symbol indicates separate collection for electrical and electronic equipment
mandated under EU law as of August 13, 2005. All electric and electronic equipment
are required to be separated from normal waste for disposal (Reference WEEE
Directive 2002/96/EC).
To return unwanted products, contact your local Agilent office, or see
http://www.agilent.com/environment/product/ for more information.
26
Chapter 2
3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Measuring Multiple Signals
27
Measuring Multiple Signals
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Using the analyzer, you can easily compare frequency and amplitude differences between signals, such
as radio or television signal spectra. The analyzer delta marker function lets you compare two signals
when both appear on the screen at one time.
In this procedure, the analyzer 10 MHz signal is used to measure frequency and amplitude differences
between two signals on the same screen. Delta marker is used to demonstrate this comparison.
Figure 3-1
An Example of Comparing Signals on the Same Screen
Step 1. Connect the 10 MHz OUT from the rear panel to the front panel RF input.
Step 2. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 3. Preset the spectrum analyzer mode:
Press Mode Preset.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 4. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level to view the 10 MHz signal and its
harmonics up to 50 MHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 30, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 50, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, dBm.
Step 5. Place a marker at the highest peak on the display (10 MHz):
Press Peak Search.
The Next Pk Right and Next Pk Left softkeys are available to move the marker from peak to
peak. The marker should be on the 10 MHz reference signal:
Step 6. Anchor the first marker and activate a second delta marker:
28
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Press Marker, Delta.
The symbol for the first marker is changed from a diamond to a cross (5) with a label that now
reads 2, indicating that it is the fixed marker (reference point). The second marker symbol is a
diamond labeled 1Δ2, indicating it is the delta marker. When you first press the Delta key,
both markers are at the same frequency with the symbols superimposed over each other. It is
not until you move the delta marker to a new frequency that the different marker symbols are
easy to discern.
Step 7. Move the delta marker to another signal peak using the front-panel knob or by using the Peak
Search key:
Press Peak Search, Next Peak
The amplitude and frequency difference between the markers is displayed in the marker
results block of the screen. Refer to the upper right portion of the screen. Refer to Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2
Using the Delta Marker Function
NOTE
The frequency resolution of the marker readings can be increased by turning on the
marker count function.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Chapter 3
29
Measuring Multiple Signals
Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Measure the frequency and amplitude difference between two signals that do not appear on the screen at
one time. (This technique is useful for harmonic distortion tests when narrow span and narrow
bandwidth are necessary to measure the low level harmonics.)
In this procedure, the analyzer 10 MHz signal is used to measure frequency and amplitude differences
between one signal on screen and one signal off screen. Delta marker is used to demonstrate this
comparison.
Figure 3-3
Comparing One Signal on Screen with One Signal Off Screen
Step 1. Connect the 10 MHz OUT from the rear panel to the front panel RF input.
Step 2. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 3. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 4. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level to view the 10 MHz signal and its
harmonics up to 50 MHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 10, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 5, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, dBm.
Step 5. Place a marker on the 10 MHz peak and then set the center frequency step size equal to the
marker frequency (10 MHz):
Press Peak Search.
Press Marker →, Mkr →CF Step.
30
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta
Step 6. Activate the marker delta function:
Press Marker, Delta.
Step 7. Increase the center frequency by 10 MHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, ↑ .
The first marker and delta markers move to the left edge of the screen, at the amplitude of the
first signal peak.
Step 8. Move the delta marker to the new center frequency:
Press Peak Search.
Figure 3-4 shows the reference annotation for the first marker (52) at the left side of the
display, indicating that the 10 MHz reference signal is at a lower frequency than the frequency
range currently displayed.
The delta marker (1Δ2) appears on the peak of the 20 MHz component. The delta marker
results block displays the amplitude and frequency difference between the 10 and 20 MHz
signal peaks.
Figure 3-4
Delta Marker with Reference Signal Off-Screen
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 9. Turn the markers off:
Press Marker, Off.
Chapter 3
31
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
In this procedure a decrease in resolution bandwidth is used in combination with a decrease in video
bandwidth to resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a frequency separation of 100 kHz. Notice that
the final RBW selection to resolve the signals is the same width as the signal separation while the VBW
is slightly narrower than the RBW.
Step 1. Connect two sources to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-5
Setup for Obtaining Two Signals
Step 2. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set one source to 300 MHz.
Set the frequency of the other source to 300.1 MHz.
Set signal generator #1 amplitude to −20 dBm.
Set signal generator #1 amplitude to −4 dBm.
The amplitude of both signals should be approximately −20 dBm at the output of the
bridge/directional coupler. (The −4 dBm setting plus −16 dB coupling factor of the 86205A
results in a signal −20 dBm signal.)
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Setup the analyzer to view the signals:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press BW, Res BW, 300, kHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 2, MHz.
A single signal peak is visible. See Figure 3-6.
32
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Figure 3-6
Unresolved Signals of Equal Amplitude
Step 6. Change the resolution bandwidth (RBW) to 100 kHz so that the RBW setting is less than or
equal to the frequency separation of the two signals and decrease the video bandwidth to
10 kHz:
Press BW, Res BW, 100, kHz.
Press Video BW, 10, kHz
Notice that the peak of the signal has become two peaks separated by a 2.5 dB dip indicating
that two signals may be present. Refer to Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-7
Unresolved Signals of Equal Amplitude
Measuring Multiple Signals
Chapter 3
33
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Step 7. Decrease the resolution bandwidth (RBW) to 10 kHz:
Press BW, Res BW, 10, kHz.
Two signals are now visible as shown in Figure 3-8. You can use the front-panel knob or step
keys to further reduce the resolution bandwidth and better resolve the signals.
Figure 3-8
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
As the resolution bandwidth is decreased, resolution of the individual signals is improved and the sweep
time is increased. For fastest measurement times, use the widest possible resolution bandwidth. Under
mode preset conditions, the resolution bandwidth is “coupled” (or linked) to the span.
Since the resolution bandwidth has been changed from the coupled value, a # mark appears next to Res
BW in the lower-left corner of the screen, indicating that the resolution bandwidth is uncoupled. (For
more information on coupling refer to the Auto Couple key description in the Agilent Technologies
User’s and Programmer’s Reference N9060A Spectrum Analyzer Mode.)
NOTE
An alternative method for resolving two equal amplitude signals is to use the Auto Tune
Function as follows:
Measuring Multiple Signals
Press Mode Preset.
Press Freq Channel, Auto Tune
The two signals are fully resolved with a marker placed on the highest peak. Refer to
Figure 3-9.
34
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Figure 3-9
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Measuring Multiple Signals
Chapter 3
35
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
This procedure uses narrow resolution bandwidths to resolve two input signals with a frequency
separation of 50 kHz and an amplitude difference of 60 dB.
Step 1. Connect two sources to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10
Setup for Obtaining Two Signals
Step 2. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set signal generator #1 to 300 MHz at −10 dBm.
Set signal generator #2 to 300.05 MHz, so that the signal is 50 kHz higher in frequency than
the first signal.
Set signal generator #2 amplitude to −54 dBm (The −54 dBm setting plus −16 dB coupling
factor of the 86205A results in a signal 60 dB below the first signal).
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 5. Set the analyzer as follows:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press BW, 30, kHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
36
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
Step 6. Set the 300 MHz signal peak to the reference level:
Press Peak Search, Mkr →Ref Lvl.
NOTE
The Signal Analyzer 30 kHz filter shape factor of 4.1:1 has a bandwidth of 123 kHz at the
60 dB point. The half-bandwidth, or 61.5 kHz, is NOT narrower than the frequency
separation of 50 kHz, so the input signals can not be resolved. Refer to Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11
Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz RBW
Step 7. Reduce the resolution bandwidth filter to view the smaller hidden signal. Place a delta marker
on the smaller signal:
Press BW, 10, kHz.
Press Peak Search, Marker Delta, 50, kHz.
The Signal Analyzer 10 kHz filter shape factor of 4.1:1 has a bandwidth of 4.1 kHz at the
60 dB point. The half-bandwidth, or 20.5 kHz, is narrower than 50 kHz, so the input
signals can be resolved. Refer to Figure 3-12.
NOTE
To make the separate signals more clear in the display, you may need to use averaging. To
set the averaging to 10 averages:
Press Meas Setup.
Press Average/Hold Number, 10, Enter.
Chapter 3
37
Measuring Multiple Signals
NOTE
Measuring Multiple Signals
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
Signal Resolution with a 10 kHz RBW
Measuring Multiple Signals
Figure 3-12
38
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal
Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal
Using the analyzer signal track function, you can quickly decrease the span while keeping the signal at
center frequency. This is a fast way to take a closer look at the area around the signal to identify signals
that would otherwise not be resolved.
This procedure uses signal tracking with span zoom to view the analyzer 50 MHz reference signal in a
200 kHz span.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference signal of the analyzer as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50 MHz.
Step 4. Set the start frequency to 20 MHz and the stop frequency to 1 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Start Freq, 20, MHz.
Press FREQ Channel, Stop Freq, 1, GHz.
Step 5. Turn on the signal tracking function to place a marker at the peak and move the signal to the
center of the screen (if it is not already positioned there) and initiate Span Zoom:
Press Span X Scale, Signal Track (Span Zoom) (On).
See the left-side of figure Figure 3-13.
Step 6. Set the 50 MHz calibration signal to the reference level:
Press Mkr →, Mkr →Ref Lvl.
NOTE
Because the signal track function automatically maintains the signal at the center of the
screen, you can reduce the span quickly for a closer look. If the signal drifts off of the
screen as you decrease the span, use a wider frequency span.
Step 7. Reduce span and resolution bandwidth to further zoom in on the marked signal:
Measuring Multiple Signals
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 200, kHz.
See the right-side of figure Figure 3-13.
NOTE
If the span change is large enough, the span decreases in steps as automatic zoom is
completed. See Figure 3-13 on the right side. You can also use the front-panel knob or
step keys to decrease the span and resolution bandwidth values.
Chapter 3
39
Measuring Multiple Signals
Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal
Step 8. Turn off signal tracking:
Press SPAN X Scale, Signal Track (Off).
Figure 3-13
Signal Tracking
Measuring Multiple Signals
LEFT: Signal tracking on before span decrease
RIGHT: After zooming in on the signal
40
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a
Reference
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a
Reference
This section demonstrates a method to measure the complex modulated power of a reference device or
setup and then compare the result of adjustments and changes to that or other devices.
The Delta Band/Interval Power Marker function will be used to capture the simulated signal power of a
reference device or setup and then compare the resulting power level due to adjustments or DUT
changes.
An important key to making accurate Band Power Marker measurements is to insure that the Average
Type under the Meas Setup key is set to “Auto”.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Setup a 4-carrier W-CDMA signal
Set the source frequency to 1.96 GHz.
Set the source amplitude to –10 dBm
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 3-14.
Figure 3-14
Setup for Signal-to-Noise Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Measuring Multiple Signals
Step 5. Tune to the W-CDMA signal and set the analyzer reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Auto Tune
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 0, dBm
Chapter 3
41
Measuring Multiple Signals
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a
Reference
Step 6. Enable trace averaging and the Band/Interval Power Marker function for measuring the total
power of the reference 4-carrier W-CDMA signal.
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace 1, Trace Average
Press Marker Function, Band/Interval Power
Step 7. Center the frequency of the Band/Interval Power marker on the 4-carrier reference signal
envelope:
Press Select Marker, Marker 1, 1.96, GHz
Step 8. Adjust the width (or span) of the Band/Interval Power marker to encompass the entire
4-carrier W-CDMA reference signal. Refer to Figure 3-15:
Note the green vertical lines of Marker 1 representing the span of signals included in the
Band/Interval Power measurement and the carrier power indicated in Markers Result Block.
Press Marker Function, Band Adjust, Band/Interval Span, 20, MHz
Measuring Multiple Signals
Figure 3-15
Measured Power of Reference 4-Carrier W-CDMA Signal using Band/Interval
Power Marker
Step 9. Enable the Delta Band Power Marker functionality which will change the reference Band
Power Marker into a fixed power value (labeled X2) and initiate a second Band Power Marker
(labeled 1?2) to measure any changes in power levels relative to the reference Band Power
Marker X2.
Press Marker, Select Marker, Marker 1, Delta
42
Chapter 3
Measuring Multiple Signals
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a
Reference
Step 10. Simulate a varying power level resulting from either adjustments, changes to the reference
DUT, or a different DUT by lowering the signal source power.
Set the source amplitude to –20 dBm.
Note the Delta Band Power Marker value displayed in the Marker Result Block showing the
10 dB difference between the modulated power of the reference and the changed power level.
Refer to Figure 3-16.
Figure 3-16
Delta Band Power Markers Displaying Lower Modulated Power Level Compared to
a Reference
Measuring Multiple Signals
Chapter 3
43
Measuring Multiple Signals
Measuring Multiple Signals
Easily Measure Varying Levels of Modulated Power Compared to a
Reference
44
Chapter 3
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
4
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
45
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Reducing Input Attenuation
Reducing Input Attenuation
The ability to measure a low-level signal is limited by internally generated noise in the signal analyzer.
The measurement setup can be changed in several ways to improve the analyzer sensitivity.
The input attenuator affects the level of a signal passing through the instrument. If a signal is very close
to the noise floor, reducing input attenuation can bring the signal out of the noise.
CAUTION
Ensure that the total power of all input signals at the analyzer RF input does not exceed
+30 dBm (1 watt).
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −80 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1
Setup for Measuring a Low-Level Signal
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the center frequency, span and reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 5, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 40, −dBm.
46
Chapter 4
Step 6. Move the desired peak (in this example, 300 MHz) to the center of the display:
Press Peak Search, Marker ?, Mkr ? CF.
Step 7. Reduce the span to 1 MHz (as shown in Figure 4-2) and if necessary re-center the peak:
Press Span, 1, MHz.
Step 8. Set the attenuation to 20 dB:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, Mech Atten (Man), 20, dB.
Note that increasing the attenuation moves the noise floor closer to the signal level.
A “#” mark appears next to the Atten annotation at the top of the display, indicating that the
attenuation is no longer coupled to other analyzer settings.
Figure 4-2
Measuring a Low-Level Signal Using Mechanical Attenuation
Chapter 4
47
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Reducing Input Attenuation
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Reducing Input Attenuation
Step 9. To see the signal more clearly, set the attenuation to 0 dB:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, Mech Atten (Man), 0, dB.
See Figure 4-3 shows 0 dB input attenuation.
Figure 4-3
Measuring a Low-Level Signal Using 0 dB Attenuation
CAUTION
When you finish this example, increase the attenuation to protect the analyzer RF input:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, Mech Atten (Auto) or press Auto Couple.
48
Chapter 4
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth
Resolution bandwidth settings affect the level of internal noise without affecting the level of continuous
wave (CW) signals. Decreasing the RBW by a decade reduces the noise floor by 10 dB.
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −80 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-4
Setup for Measuring a Low-Level Signal
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the center frequency, span and reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 50, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 40, −dBm.
Refer to Figure 4-5.
Chapter 4
49
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth
Figure 4-5
Default Resolution Bandwidth
Step 6. Decrease the resolution bandwidth:
Press BW, 47, kHz.
The low-level signal appears more clearly because the noise level is reduced. Refer to Figure
4-6.
Figure 4-6
Decreasing Resolution Bandwidth
A “#” mark appears next to the Res BW annotation in the lower left corner of the screen,
indicating that the resolution bandwidth is uncoupled.
50
Chapter 4
RBW Selections
You can use the step keys to change the RBW in a 1−3−10 sequence.
All the signal analyzer RBWs are digital and have a selectivity ratio of 4.1:1. Choosing the next lower
RBW (in a 1−3−10 sequence) for better sensitivity increases the sweep time by about 10:1 for swept
measurements, and about 3:1 for FFT measurements (within the limits of RBW). Using the knob or
keypad, you can select RBWs from 1 Hz to 3 MHz in approximately 10% increments, plus 4, 5, 6 and 8
MHz. This enables you to make the trade off between sweep time and sensitivity with finer resolution.
Chapter 4
51
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time
Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time
When the analyzer noise masks low-level signals, changing to the average detector and increasing the
sweep time smooths the noise and improves the signal visibility. Slower sweeps are required to average
more noise variations.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −80 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7
Setup for Measuring a Low-Level Signal
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the center frequency, span and reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 5, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 40, −dBm.
Step 6. Select the average detector:
Press Trace/Detector, More, Detector, Average (Log/RMS/V).
The number 1 (Trace 1 indicator) in the Trace/Detector panel (in the upper right-hand corner
of the display) changes from green to white, indicating that the detector has been chosen
manually. In addition, the letter in the Det row has ben set to “A” indicating that the Average
detector has been selected. (see Figure 4-8).
52
Chapter 4
Step 7. Increase the sweep time to 100 ms:
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time (Man), 100, ms.
Note how the noise smooths out, as there is more time to average the values for each of the
displayed data points.
Step 8. With the sweep time at 100 ms, change the average type to log averaging:
Press Meas Setup, Average Type, Log-Pwr Avg (Video).
Note how the noise level drops.
Figure 4-8
Varying the Sweep Time with the Average Detector
Chapter 4
53
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Trace Averaging
Trace Averaging
Averaging is a digital process in which each trace point is averaged with the previous average for the
same trace point. Selecting averaging, when the analyzer is autocoupled, changes the detection mode
from normal to sample. Sample mode may not measure a signal amplitude as accurately as normal mode,
because it may not find the true peak.
NOTE
This is a trace processing function and is not the same as using the average detector (as
described on page 52).
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −80 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 4-9.
Figure 4-9
Setup for Measuring a Low-Level Signal
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the center frequency, span and reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 5, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 40, −dBm.
54
Chapter 4
Step 6. Turn trace averaging on:
Press Trace/Detector, Trace Average.
As the averaging routine smooths the trace, low level signals become more visible.
Avg/Hold >100 appears in the measurement bar near the top of the screen. Refer to Figure
4-10.
Step 7. With trace average as the active function, set the number of averages to 25:
Press Meas Setup, Average/Hold Number, 25, Enter.
Annotation above the graticule in the measurement bar to the right of center shows the type of
averaging, Log-Power. Also, the number of traces averaged is shown on the Average/Hold
Number key.
Changing most active functions restarts the averaging, as does pressing the Restart key. Once
the set number of sweeps completes, the analyzer continues to provide a running average
based on this set number.
NOTE
If you want the measurement to stop after the set number of sweeps, use single sweep:
Press Single and then press the Restart key.
Figure 4-10
Trace Averaging
Chapter 4
55
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Trace Averaging
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Measuring a Low−Level Signal
Trace Averaging
56
Chapter 4
5
Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
57
Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
This procedure uses the signal analyzer internal frequency counter to increase the resolution and
accuracy of the frequency readout.
Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference signal as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50 MHz.
Step 4. Set the center frequency to 50 MHz and the span to 80 MHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 50, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 80, MHz.
Step 5. Turn the frequency counter on:
Press Marker, More, Marker Count, Counter (On).
Figure 5-1
Using Marker Counter
58
Chapter 5
Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Step 6. The marker counter remains on until turned off. Turn off the marker counter:
Press Marker, More, Marker Count, Count (Off)
Or
Press Marker, Off.
Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
Chapter 5
59
Improving Frequency Resolution and
Accuracy
Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy
60
Chapter 5
6
Tracking Drifting Signals
Tracking Drifting Signals
61
Tracking Drifting Signals
Measuring a Source Frequency Drift
Measuring a Source Frequency Drift
The analyzer can measure the short- and long-term stability of a source. The maximum amplitude level
and the frequency drift of an input signal trace can be displayed and held by using the maximum-hold
function. You can also use the maximum-hold function if you want to determine how much of the
frequency spectrum a signal occupies.
This procedure using signal tracking to keep the drifting signal in the center of the display. The drifting is
captured by the analyzer using maximum-hold.
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −20 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 6-1.
Tracking Drifting Signals
Figure 6-1
Setup for Measuring Source Drift
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level.
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 10, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, −dBm.
Step 6. Place a marker on the peak of the signal and turn signal tracking on:
Press Peak Search.
Press SPAN X Scale, Signal Track (On).
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Chapter 6
Tracking Drifting Signals
Measuring a Source Frequency Drift
Step 7. Reduce the span to 500 kHz:
Press SPAN, 500, kHz.
Notice that the signal is held in the center of the display.
Step 8. Turn off the signal track function:
Press SPAN X Scale, Signal Track (Off).
Step 9. Measure the excursion of the signal with maximum hold:
Press Trace/Detector, Max Hold.
As the signal varies, maximum hold maintains the maximum responses of the input signal.
NOTE
Annotation in the Trace/Detector panel, upper right corner of the screen, indicates the
trace mode. In this example, the M in the Type row under TRACE 1 indicates trace 1 is in
maximum-hold mode.
Step 10. Activate trace 2 and change the mode to continuous sweeping:
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace (2).
Press Clear Write.
Trace 1 remains in maximum hold mode to show any drift in the signal.
Step 11. Slowly change the frequency of the signal generator ± 50 kHz in 1 kHz increments. Your
analyzer display should look similar to Figure 6-2.
Tracking Drifting Signals
Figure 6-2
Viewing a Drifting Signal With Max Hold and Clear Write
Chapter 6
63
Tracking Drifting Signals
Tracking a Signal
Tracking a Signal
The signal track function is useful for tracking drifting signals that drift relatively slowly by keeping the
signal centered on the display as the signal drifts. This procedure tracks a drifting signal.
Note that the primary function of the signal track function is to track unstable signals, not to track a
signal as the center frequency of the analyzer is changed. If you choose to use the signal track function
when changing center frequency, check to ensure that the signal found by the tracking function is the
correct signal.
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to −20 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 6-3.
Tracking Drifting Signals
Figure 6-3
Setup for Tracking a Signal
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency at a 1 MHz offset:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 301, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 10, MHz.
Step 6. Turn the signal tracking function on:
Press SPAN X Scale, Signal Track (On).
Notice that signal tracking places a marker on the highest amplitude peak and then brings the
selected peak to the center of the display. After each sweep the center frequency of the
analyzer is adjusted to keep the selected peak in the center.
64
Chapter 6
Tracking Drifting Signals
Tracking a Signal
Step 7. Turn the delta marker on to read signal drift:
Press Marker, Delta.
Step 8. Tune the frequency of the signal generator in 100 kHz increments.
Notice that the center frequency of the analyzer also changes in 100 kHz increments,
centering the signal with each increment.
Figure 6-4
Tracking a Drifting Signal
Tracking Drifting Signals
Chapter 6
65
Tracking Drifting Signals
Tracking Drifting Signals
Tracking a Signal
66
Chapter 6
7
Making Distortion Measurements
Making Distortion Measurements
67
Making Distortion Measurements
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
High level input signals may cause internal analyzer distortion products that could mask the real
distortion measured on the input signal. Using trace 2 and the RF attenuator, you can determine which
signals, if any, are internally generated distortion products.
Using a signal from a signal generator, determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated
by the analyzer.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the frequency of the signal source to 200 MHz.
Set the source amplitude to 0 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1
Setup for Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Making Distortion Measurements
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency, span, and video bandwidth:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 400, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, MHz.
Press BW, Video BW, 30, kHz.
The signal produces harmonic distortion products (spaced 200 MHz from the original 200
MHz signal) in the analyzer input mixer as shown in Figure 7-2.
68
Chapter 7
Making Distortion Measurements
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
Figure 7-2
Harmonic Distortion
Step 6. Change the center frequency to the value of the first harmonic:
Press Peak Search, Next Peak, Mkr→CF.
Step 7. Change the span to 50 MHz and re-center the signal:
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 50, MHz.
Press Peak Search, Mkr→CF.
Step 8. Set the attenuation to 0 dB:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, 0, dB.
Step 9. To determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the analyzer, first
save the trace data in trace 2 as follows:
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace 2, Clear Write.
Step 10. Allow trace 2 to update (minimum two sweeps), then store the data from trace 2 and place a
delta marker on the harmonic of trace 2:
Making Distortion Measurements
Press Trace/Detector, View/Blank, View (Update Off, Display On).
Press Peak Search, Marker Delta.
The analyzer display shows the stored data in trace 2 and the measured data in trace 1. The
ΔMkr1 amplitude reading is the difference in amplitude between the reference and active
markers.
Chapter 7
69
Making Distortion Measurements
Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion
Step 11. Increase the RF attenuation to 10 dB:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, 10, dB.
Notice the ΔMkr1 amplitude reading. This is the difference in the distortion product amplitude
readings between 0 dB and 10 dB input attenuation settings. If the ΔMkr1 amplitude absolute
value is approximately ≥1 dB for an input attenuator change of 10 dB, the distortion is being
generated, at least in part, by the analyzer. In this case more input attenuation is necessary.
Increase the input attenuation until ΔMkr1 amplitude stops increasing or decreasing in value.
Return to the previous attenuator step and the input signal distortion measured will be
minimally impacted by the analyzer internally generated distortion. See Figure 7-3.
RF Attenuation of 10 dB
Making Distortion Measurements
Figure 7-3
70
Chapter 7
Making Distortion Measurements
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Two-tone, third-order intermodulation distortion is a common test in communication systems. When two
signals are present in a non-linear system, they can interact and create third-order intermodulation
distortion products that are located close to the original signals. These distortion products are generated
by system components such as amplifiers and mixers.
This procedure tests a device for third-order intermodulation using markers. Two sources are used, one
set to 300 MHz and the other to 301 MHz.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 7-4 This combination of signal generators, low
pass filters, and directional coupler (used as a combiner) results in a two-tone source with
very low intermodulation distortion. Although the distortion from this setup may be better
than the specified performance of the analyzer, it is useful for determining the TOI
performance of the source/analyzer combination. After the performance of the
source/analyzer combination has been verified, the device-under-test (DUT) (for example, an
amplifier) would be inserted between the directional coupler output and the analyzer input.
Figure 7-4
Third-Order Intermodulation Equipment Setup
NOTE
The coupler should have a high degree of isolation between the two input ports so the
sources do not intermodulate.
Step 2. Set the sources as follows:
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Chapter 7
71
Making Distortion Measurements
Set one signal generator to 300 MHz.
Set the other source to 301 MHz. This produces a frequency separation of 1 MHz.
Set the sources equal in amplitude as measured by the analyzer (in this example, they are set
to −5 dBm).
Making Distortion Measurements
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency and span:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300.5, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 5, MHz.
Step 6. Set the analyzer detector to Peak:
Press Trace/Detector, Detector, Peak.
Step 7. Set the mixer level to improve dynamic range:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, Max Mixer Lvl, –10, dBm.
The analyzer automatically sets the attenuation so that a signal at the reference level has a
maximum value of −10 dBm at the input mixer.
Step 8. Move the signal to the reference level:
Press Peak Search, Mkr →, Mkr →Ref Lvl.
Step 9. Reduce the RBW until the distortion products are visible:
Press BW, Res BW, ↓.
Step 10. Activate the second marker and place it on the peak of the distortion product closest to the
marker test signal using the Next Right key (if the first marker is on the right-hand test signal)
or Next Left key (if the first marker is on the left-hand test signal):
Press Peak Search, Marker Delta, Next Left or Next Right (as appropriate).
Step 11. Measure the other distortion product:
Press Marker, Normal, Peak Search, Next Peak.
Step 12. Activate the second marker and place it on the peak of the distortion product closest to the
marked test signal using the Next Right key (if the first marker is on the right-hand test
signal) or the Next Left key (if the first marker is on the left-hand test signal) (see Figure 7-5):
Making Distortion Measurements
Press Marker, Normal, Marker Delta, Next Left or Next Right (as appropriate).
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Chapter 7
Making Distortion Measurements
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Figure 7-5
Measuring the Distortion Product
Making Distortion Measurements
Chapter 7
73
Making Distortion Measurements
Making Distortion Measurements
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
74
Chapter 7
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
8
75
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise
Signal-to-noise is a ratio used in many communication systems as an indication of noise in a system.
Typically the more signals added to a system adds to the noise level, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio
making it more difficult for modulated signals to be demodulated. This measurement is also referred to
as carrier-to-noise in some communication systems.
The signal-to-noise measurement procedure below may be adapted to measure any signal in a system if
the signal (carrier) is a discrete tone. If the signal in your system is modulated, it is necessary to modify
the procedure to correctly measure the modulated signal level.
In this example the 50 MHz amplitude reference signal is used as the fundamental signal. The amplitude
reference signal is assumed to be the signal of interest and the internal noise of the analyzer is measured
as the system noise. To do this, you need to set the input attenuator such that both the signal and the noise
are well within the calibrated region of the display.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference signal as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50, MHz.
Step 4. Set the center frequency, span, reference level and attenuation:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 50, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 1, MHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, −10, dBm.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, 40, dB.
Step 5. Place a marker on the peak of the signal and then place a delta marker in the noise at a
200 kHz offset:
Press Peak Search, Marker Delta, 200, kHz.
Step 6. Turn on the marker noise function to view the signal-to-noise measurement results:
Press Marker Function, Marker Noise.
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Chapter 8
Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise
Measuring Noise
Figure 8-1
Measuring the Signal-to-Noise
Read the signal-to-noise in dB/Hz, that is with the noise value determined for a 1 Hz noise bandwidth. If
you wish the noise value for a different bandwidth, decrease the ratio by 10 × log ( BW ) . For example, if
the analyzer reading is −70 dB/Hz but you have a channel bandwidth of 30 kHz:
S/N = – 70 dB/Hz + 10 × log ( 30 kHz ) = – 25.23 dB ⁄ ( 30 kHz )
NOTE
When Noise Marker is activated, the display detection mode is set to Average.
NOTE
When using the Noise Marker, if the delta marker is closer than one quarter of a division
from the edge of a discrete signal response, the amplitude reference signal in this case,
there is a potential for error in the noise measurement. See “Measuring Noise Using the
Noise Marker” on page 78.
Chapter 8
77
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker
Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker
This procedure uses the marker function, Marker Noise, to measure noise in a 1 Hz bandwidth. In this
example the noise marker measurement is made near the 50 MHz reference signal to illustrate the use of
Marker Noise.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude reference signal as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50, MHz.
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 49.98, MHz.
Press Span X Scale, Span, 100, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, –10, dBm.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, Mech Atten, 40, dB.
Step 4. Activate the noise marker:
Press Marker Function, Marker Noise.
Note that display detection automatically changes to “Avg”; average detection calculates the
noise marker from an average value of the displayed noise. Notice that the noise marker floats
between the maximum and the minimum displayed noise points. The marker readout is in
dBm (1 Hz) or dBm per unit bandwidth.
For noise power in a different bandwidth, add 10 × log ( BW ) . For example, for noise power in a
1 kHz bandwidth, dBm (1 kHz), add 10 × log ( 1000 ) or 30 dB to the noise marker value.
Step 5. Reduce the variations of the sweep-to-sweep marker value by increasing the sweep time:
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 3, s.
Increasing the sweep time when the average detector is enabled allows the trace to average
over a longer time interval, thus reducing the variations in the results (increases measurement
repeatability).
Step 6. Move the marker to 50 MHz:
Press Marker, 50, MHz.
The noise marker value is based on the mean of 5% of the total number of sweep points
centered at the marker in the initially selected span. The points that are averaged span one-half
of a division. Changing spans after enabling the noise marker will result in the marker
averaging a progressively wider or narrower portion of the newly selected span and
corresponding sweep points. This occurs because the marker is locked to 5% of the initially
selected span.
78
Chapter 8
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker
Measuring Noise
Step 7. To adjust the width of the noise marker relative to the span:
Press Marker Function, Band Adjust, Band/Interval Span, and adjust the value to the
desired marker width.
Notice that the marker does not go to the peak of the signal unless the Band/Interval Span is
set to 0 Hz because otherwise there are not enough points at the peak of the signal. With a
Band/Interval Span greater than 0 Hz, the noise marker is also averaging points below the
peak due to the narrow RBW.
Step 8. Widen the resolution bandwidth to allow the marker to make a more accurate peak power
measurement using the noise marker:
Press BW, Res BW, 10, kHz.
Refer to Figure 8-2.
Figure 8-2
Noise Marker
Step 9. Set the analyzer to zero span at the marker frequency:
Press Mkr →, Mkr →CF.
Press SPAN X Scale, Zero Span.
Press Marker
Note that the marker amplitude value is now correct since all points averaged are at the same
frequency and not influenced by the shape of the bandwidth filter. (See Figure 8-3.)
Remember that the noise marker calculates a value based on an average of the points around
the frequency of interest. Generally when making power measurements using the noise
marker on discrete signals, first tune to the frequency of interest and then make your
measurement in zero span (time-domain).
Chapter 8
79
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker
Figure 8-3
Noise Marker with Zero Span
80
Chapter 8
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Band/Interval Density Markers
Band/Interval Density markers let you measure power over a frequency span. The markers allow you to
easily and conveniently select any arbitrary portion of the displayed signal. However, while the analyzer,
when autocoupled, makes sure the analysis is power-responding (rms voltage-responding), you must set
all of the other parameters.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Set the center frequency, span, reference level and attenuation:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 50, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 100, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, −20, dBm.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Attenuation, 40, dB.
Step 4. Measure the total noise power between the markers:
Press Marker Function, Band/Interval Density.
Step 5. Set the band span:
Press Band Adjust, Band/Interval Span, 40, kHz.
Step 6. Set the resolution and video bandwidths:
Press BW, Res BW, 1, kHz.
Press BW, Video BW, 10, kHz.
Common practice is to set the resolution bandwidth from 1% to 3% of the measurement
(marker) span, 40 kHz in this example.
Step 7. Add a discrete tone to see the effects on the reading. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude
reference signal of the analyzer as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50 MHz.
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Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Band/Interval Density Markers
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Band/Interval Density Markers
Figure 8-4
Band/Interval Density Measurement
Step 8. Set the Band/Interval Density Markers to enable moving the markers (set at 40 kHz span)
around without changing the Band/Interval span. Use the front-panel knob to move the band
power markers and note the change in the power reading:
Press Marker Function, Band/Interval Density, then rotate front-panel knob. Refer to Figure
8-5.
NOTE
Band/Interval Density markers can be changed to read the total absolute power by
pressing Marker Function, Band/Interval Power.
Figure 8-5
Band/Interval Density Measurement
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Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement
You may want to measure the total power of a noise-like signal that occupies some bandwidth. Typically,
channel power measurements are used to measure the total (channel) power in a selected bandwidth for a
modulated (noise-like) signal. Alternatively, to manually calculate the channel power for a modulated
signal, use the noise marker value and add 10 × log ( channel BW ) . However, if you are not certain of the
characteristics of the signal, or if there are discrete spectral components in the band of interest, you can
use the channel power measurement. This example uses the noise of the analyzer, adds a discrete tone,
and assumes a channel bandwidth (integration bandwidth) of 2 MHz. If desired, a specific signal may be
substituted.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 2. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 3. Set the center frequency:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 50, MHz.
Step 4. Start the channel power measurement:
Press Meas, Channel Power.
Step 5. Enable the Bar Graph:
Press View/Display, Bar Graph, On.
Step 6. Add a discrete tone to see the effects on the reading. Enable the internal 50 MHz amplitude
reference signal of the analyzer as follows:
Press Input/Output, RF Calibrator, 50 MHz.
Step 7. Optimize the analyzer attenuation level setting:
Press AMPTD, Attenuation, Adjust Atten for Min Clip.
Your display should be similar to Figure 8-6.
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Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement
Figure 8-6
Measuring Channel Power
The power reading is essentially that of the tone; that is, the total noise power is far enough below that of
the tone that the noise power contributes very little to the total.
The algorithm that computes the total power works equally well for signals of any statistical variant,
whether tone-like, noise-like, or combination.
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Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier
Signal-to-noise (or carrier-to-noise) is a ratio used in many communication systems as indication of the
noise performance in the system. Typically, the more signals added to the system or an increase in the
complexity of the modulation scheme can add to the noise level. This can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio
and impact the quality of the demodulated signal. For example, a reduced signal-to-noise in digital
systems may cause an increase in EVM (error vector magnitude).
With modern complex digital modulation schemes, measuring the modulated carrier requires capturing
all of its power accurately. This procedure uses the Band Power marker with a RMS average detector to
correctly measure the carrier's power within a user adjustable region. A Noise marker (normalized to a 1
Hz noise power bandwidth) with an adjustable noise region is also employed to allow the user to select
and accurately measure just the system noise of interest. An important key to making accurate Band
Power Marker and Noise Power measurements is to insure that the Average Type under the Meas Setup
key is set to “Auto”.
In this example a 4 carrier W-CDMA digitally modulated carrier is used as the fundamental signal and
the internal noise of the analyzer is measured as the system noise.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Setup a 4 carrier W-CDMA signal.
Set the source frequency to 1.96 GHz.
Set the source amplitude to –10 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 8-7.
Figure 8-7
Setup for Signal-to-Noise Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Tune to the W-CDMA signal:
Press FREQ Channel, Auto Tune
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Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier
Step 6. Enable the Band Power Marker function for measuring the total power of the 4 carrier
W-CDMA signal.
Press Marker Function, Band/Interval Power
Step 7. Center the frequency of the Band Power marker on the signal:
Press Select Marker 1, 1.96, GHz
Step 8. Adjust the width (or span) of the Band Power marker to encompass the entire 4 carrier
W-CDMA signal. Refer to Figure 8-8:
Note the green vertical lines of Marker 1 representing the span of signals included in the Band
Power measurement and the carrier power indicated in Markers Result Block.
Press Marker Function, Band Adjust, Band/Interval Span, 20, MHz
Figure 8-8
4 Carrier W-CDMA Signal Power using Band Power Marker
Step 9. Enable the Noise Marker using marker 2 for measuring the system noise power:
Press Marker Function, Select Marker, Marker 2, Marker Noise
Step 10. Move the Noise Marker 2 to the system noise frequency of interest:
Press Select Marker 2, 1.979, GHz
Step 11. Adjust the width of the noise marker region to encompass the desired noise power. Refer to
Figure 8-9:
Note the green “wings” of Marker 2 outlining the noise region to be included in the
measurement and the resulting noise power expressed in dBm/Hz as shown in the Marker
Results Block.
Press Marker Function, Select Marker, Marker 2, Band Adjust, Band/Interval, 5, MHz.
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Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier
Measuring Noise
Figure 8-9
Noise Marker Measuring System Noise
Step 12. Measure carrier-to-noise by making the Noise Marker relative to the carrier's Band Power
Marker. Refer to Figure 8-10:
Press Marker, Properties, Select Marker, Marker 2, Relative to, Marker 1
Figure 8-10
Signal-to-Noise Measurement
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Measuring Noise
Measuring Signal-to-Noise of a Modulated Carrier
Step 13. Simultaneously measure carrier-to-noise on a second region of the system by enabling another
Noise Marker (up to 11 available).
Press Marker Function, Select Marker, Marker 3, Marker Noise
Press Select Marker 3, 1.941, GHz
Press Return, Band Adjust, Band/Interval, 5, MHz
Press Marker, Properties, Select Marker, Marker 3, Relative to, Marker 1
Step 14. Enable the Marker Table to view results of both carrier-to-noise measurements and all other
markers. Refer to Figure 8-11:
Press Marker, More, Marker Table, On
Figure 8-11
Multiple Signal-to-Noise Measurements with Marker Table
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Measuring Noise
Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer Noise
Making noise power measurements (such as phase noise) near the noise floor of the signal analyzer can
be challenging where every dB improvement is important. Utilizing the analyzer trace math function
Power Diff and 3 separate traces allows measurement of the DUT phase noise in one trace, the analyzer
noise floor in a second trace, and then the resulting subtraction of those two traces displayed in a third
trace with the analyzer noise contribution removed.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Setup an unmodulated signal
Set the source frequency to 1.96 GHz.
Set the source amplitude to –30 dBm
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 8-12.
Figure 8-12
Setup for Phase Noise Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Tune to the unmodulated carrier, adjust the span and RBW:
Press FREQ Channel, Auto Tune
Press Span, Span, 200, kHz
Press BW, Res BW, 910, Hz
Step 6. Measure and store the DUT phase noise plus the analyzer noise using trace 1 with trace
averaging (allow time for sufficient averaging). Refer to Figure 8-13:
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace 1, Trace Average
After sufficient averaging
Press View/Blank, View
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Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer
Noise
Measuring Noise
Measuring Noise
Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer Noise
Figure 8-13
Measurement of DUT and Analyzer Noise
Step 7. Measure only the analyzer noise using trace 2 (blue trace) with trace averaging (allow time for
sufficient averaging). Refer to Figure 8-14:
Turn off or remove the DUT signal to the RF input of the analyzer:
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace 2, Clear Write, Trace Average
After sufficient averaging
Press View/Blank, View
Figure 8-14
Measurement of Analyzer Noise
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Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer Noise
Measuring Noise
Step 8. Subtract the noise from the DUT phase noise measurement using the Power Diff math
function and note the phase noise improvement at 100 kHz offset between trace 1 (yellow
trace) and trace 3 (magenta trace). Refer to Figure 8-15:
Press Trace/Detector, Select Trace, Trace 3, Clear Write
Press More, More, Math, Power Diff, Trace Operands, Operand 1, Trace 1, Operand 2,
Trace 2
Figure 8-15
Improved Phase Noise Measurement
Step 9. Measure the noise measurement improvement with delta Noise markers between traces. Note
the up to 6 dB improvement in the Marker Results Block. Refer to Figure 8-16:
Press Marker, Select Marker, Marker 1, Normal
Press Properties, Select Marker, Marker 1, Marker Trace, Trace 1
Adjust Marker 1 to approximately 90 kHz offset from the carrier on trace 1 using the knob:
Press Return, Select Marker, Marker 2, Normal
Press Properties, Select Marker, Marker 2, Marker Trace, Trace 3
Press Relative To, Marker 1
Adjust Marker 2 to approximately 90 kHz offset from the carrier on trace 3 using the knob:
Press Marker Function, Select Marker, Marker 1, Marker Noise
Press Select Marker, Marker 2, Marker Noise
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Measuring Noise
Improving Phase Noise Measurements by Subtracting Signal Analyzer Noise
Figure 8-16
Improved Phase Noise Measurement with Delta Noise Markers
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Making Time-Gated Measurements
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Traditional frequency-domain spectrum analysis provides only limited information for certain signals.
Examples of these difficult-to-analyze signal include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Pulsed-RF
Time multiplexed
Interleaved or intermittent
Time domain multiple access (TDMA) radio formats
Modulated burst
The time gating measurement examples use a simple frequency-modulated, pulsed-RF signal. The goal
is to eliminate the pulse spectrum and then view the spectrum of the FM carrier as if it were continually
on, rather than pulsed. This reveals low-level modulation components that are hidden by the pulse
spectrum.
When performing these measurements you can use a digitizing oscillascope or your Agilent X-Series
Signal Analyzer (using Gate View) to setup the gated signal. Refer back to these first three steps to setup
the pulse signal, the pulsed-RF FM signal, and the oscilloscope settings when performing the gated LO
procedure (page 101), the gated video procedure (page 104) and gated FFT procedure (page 107).
For an instrument block diagram and instrument connections see “Connecting the Instruments to Make
Time-Gated Measurements” on page 99.
Step 1. Setup the pulse signal with a period of 5 ms and a width of 4 ms:
There are many ways to create a pulse signal. This example demonstrates how to create a
pulse signal using a pulse generator or by using the internal function generator in the ESG. See
Table 9-1 for setup signal generator of the ESG. Select either the pulse generator or a second
ESG to create the pulse signal.
Table 9-1 81100 Family Pulse Generator Settings
Period
5 ms (or pulse frequency equal to 200 Hz)
Pulse width
4 ms
High output level
2.5 V
Waveform
pulse
Low output level
-2.5 V
Delay
0 or minimum
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Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Table 9-2 ESG #2 Internal Function Generator (LF OUT) Settings
FuncGen
LF Out Waveform
Pulse
LF Out Period
5 ms
LF Out Width (pulse width)
4 ms
LF Out Amplitude
2.5 Vp
LF Out
On
RF On/Off
Off
Mod On/Off
On
Step 2. Set up ESG #1 to transmit a pulsed-RF signal with frequency modulation. Set the FM
deviation to 1 kHz and the FM rate to 50 kHz:
ESG #1 generates the pulsed FM signal by frequency modulating the carrier signal and then
pulse modulating the FM signal. The pulse signal created in step 1 is connected to the EXT 2
INPUT (on the front of ESG #1). The ESG RF OUTPUT is the pulsed-RF FM signal to be
analyzed by the spectrum analyzer.
Table 9-3 ESG #1 Instrument Connections
Frequency
40 MHz
Amplitude
0 dBm
Pulse
On
Pulse Source
Ext2 DC
FM
On
FM Path
1
FM Dev
1 kHz
FM Source
Internal
FM Rate
50 kHz
RF On/Off
On
Mod On/Off
On
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
LF Out Source
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Step 3. If you are using your Agilent X-Series Signal Analyzer (using Gate View), set up the analyzer
to view the gated RF signal (see Figure 9-1 and Figure 9-2 for examples of the display):
1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer, Mode Preset.
2. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level:
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 40, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, dBm.
3. Set the analyzer bandwidth:
Press BW, Res BW (Man), 100, kHz.
4. Set the Gate Source to the rear external trigger input:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, More, Gate Source, External 1.
5. Enable Gate View and Gate:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate View (On).
Press Gate View Sweep Time, 10, ms.
6. Set the Gate Delay and Gate Length so that the gate will open during the middle third of
the pulse. For this example, this would result in a Gate Delay of approximately 1.33 ms
and a Gate Length of approximately 1.33 ms. Also, check that the gate trigger is set to
edge:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate Delay, 1.33, ms.
Press Gate Length, 1.33, ms.
Press More, Control (Edge).
Figure 9-1 Gated RF Signal
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Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
7. Set the RBW to auto, gate view to off, gate method to LO, and gate to on:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate View (Off).
Press BW, Res BW (Auto).
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate Method, LO.
Press Gate (On).
Figure 9-2 Gated RF Signal with Auto RBW
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Step 4. If you are using a digitizing oscillascope, set up the oscilloscope to view the trigger, gate and
RF signals (see Figure 9-3 for an example of the oscilloscope display):
Table 9-4 Agilent Infiniium Oscilloscope with 3 or more input channels: Instrument Connections
Timebase
1 ms/div
Channel 1
ON, 2 V/div, OFFSET = 2 V, DC coupled, 1 M Ω input,
connect to the pulse signal (ESG LF OUTPUT or pulse
generator OUTPUT). Adjust channel 1 settings as necessary.
Channel 2
ON, 500 mV/div, OFFSET = 2 V, DC coupled, 1 M Ω input,
connect to the signal analyzer TRIGGER 2 OUT connector.
Adjust channel 2 settings as needed when gate is active.
Channel 3
ON, 500 mV/div, OFFSET = 0 V, Timebase = 20 ns/div, DC
coupled, 50 Ω input, connect to the ESG RF OUTPUT
pulsed-RF signal. Adjust channel 3 settings as necessary.
Channel 4
OFF
Trigger
Edge, channel 1, level = 1.5 V, or as needed
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Figure 9-3
Viewing the Gate Timing With an Oscilloscope
Figure 9-3 oscilloscope channels:
1. Channel 1 (left display, top trace) - the trigger signal.
2. Channel 2 (left display, bottom trace) - the gate signal (gate signal is not active until the
gate is on in the spectrum analyzer).
3. Channel 3 (right display) - the RF output of the signal generator.
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Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements
Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements
Figure 9-4 shows a diagram of the test setup. ESG #1 produces a pulsed FM signal by using an external
pulse signal. The external pulse signal is connected to the front of the ESG #1 to the EXT 2 INPUT to
control the pulsing. The pulse signal is also used as the trigger signal. The oscilloscope is useful for
illustrating timing interactions between the trigger signal and the gate. The Gate View feature of the
X-Series signal analyzer could be used in place of the oscilloscope.
Figure 9-4
Instrument Connection Diagram with Oscilloscope
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Using this measurement setup allows you to view all signal spectra on the spectrum analyzer and all
timing signals on the oscilloscope. This setup is helpful when you perform gated measurements on
unknown signals. If an oscilloscope is not available, begin by using the Gate View feature to set up the
gate parameters and then turn Gate View Off to view the signal spectra. Refer to Figure 9-5.
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements
Instrument Connection Diagram without Oscilloscope
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Figure 9-5
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Gated LO Measurement
Gated LO Measurement
This procedure utilizes gated LO to gate the FM signal. For concept and theory information about gated
LO see “How Time Gating Works” on page 149.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer, Mode Preset.
Step 2. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level:
In Figure 9-7 (left), the moving signals are a result of the pulsed signal. Using delta markers
with a time readout, notice that the period of the spikes is at 5 ms (the same period as the pulse
signal). Using time gating, these signals are blocked out, leaving the original FM signal.
Step 3. Set the gate source to the rear external trigger input:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, More, Gate Source, External 1.
Step 4. Set the gate delay to 2 ms, the gate length to 1 ms, and gate sweep time to 5 ms. Check that the
gate trigger is set to edge:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate Delay, 2, ms.
Press Gate Length, 1, ms.
Press Gate View Sweep Time, 5, ms.
Press More, Control (Edge).
Step 5. Use the analyzer gate view display to confirm the gate “on” time is during the RF burst
interval (alternatively you could also use the oscilloscope to view the gate settings):
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate View (On).
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Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 40, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, dBm.
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated LO Measurement
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Figure 9-6
Viewing the Gate Settings with Gated LO
In Figure 9-6 the blue vertical line (the far left line outside of the RF envelope) represents the
location equivalent to a zero gate delay.
In Figure 9-6 the vertical green parallel bars represent the gate settings. The first (left) bar
(GATE START) is set at the delay time while the second (right) bar (GATE STOP) is set at the
gate length, measured from the first bar. The trace of the signal in this time-domain view is the
RF envelope. The gate signal is triggered off of the positive edge of the trigger signal.
When positioning the gate, a good starting point is to have it extend from 20% to 80% of the
way through the pulse.
While Gate View mode is on, move the Gate Delay, Length and Polarity around. Notice the
changes in the vertical gate bars while making your changes. Set the Gate Delay, Length and
Polarity back to the Step 3 settings.
NOTE
The analyzer time gate triggering mode uses positive edge, negative edge, and level
triggering.
Step 6. Turn the gate view off (see Figure 9-7):
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate View (Off).
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Gated LO Measurement
Figure 9-7
Pulsed-RF FM Signal
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Step 7. Enable the gate settings (see Figure 9-8):
Press Gate (On).
Figure 9-8
Pulsed and Gated FM Signal
Step 8. Turn off the pulse modulation on ESG #1 by pressing Pulse, Pulse so that Off is selected.
Notice that the gated spectrum is much cleaner than the ungated spectrum (as seen in Figure
9-7). The spectrum you see with the gate on is the same as a frequency modulated signal
without being pulsed. The displayed spectrum does not change and in both cases, you can see
the two low-level modulation sidebands caused by the narrow-band FM.
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated Video Measurement
Gated Video Measurement
This procedure utilizes gated video to gate the FM signal. For concept and theory information about
gated video see “How Time Gating Works” on page 149.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer, Mode Preset.
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Step 2. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 40, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 0, dBm.
Step 3. Set analyzer points to 401 and sweep time to 2000 ms:
Press Sweep/Control, Points, 401, Enter.
Press Sweep Time, 2000, ms.
For gated video, the calculated sweep time should be set to at least
( # sweep points – 1 ) × PRI (pulse repetition interval ) to ensure that the gate is on at least once during
each of the 401 sweep points. In this example, the PRI is 5 ms, so you should set the sweep
time to 401 minus 1 times 5 ms, or 2 s. If the sweep time is set too fast, some trace points may
show values of zero power or other incorrect low readings. If the trace seems incomplete or
erratic, try a longer sweep time.
NOTE
Good practices for determining the minimum sweep time for gated video:
In the event that the signal is not noisy, the sweep time can be set to less than
( # sweep points – 1 ) × PRI (pulse repetition interval ) (as calculated above). Instead of using PRI
in the previous sweep time calculation, we can use the “gate off time” where sweep time
equals ( # sweep points – 1 ) × gate off time . (Gate off time is defined as PRI – GL , where GL =
Gate Length.) In our example we could use a sweep time of 400 points times 1 ms
or 400 ms – ( 401 – 1 ) × ( 5ms – 4ms ) = 400ms . Increase the video bandwidth to improve the
probability of capturing the pulse using “gate off time”. If trace points are still showing
values of zero power, increase the sweep time by small increments until there are no more
dropouts.
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated Video Measurement
Figure 9-9
Viewing the Pulsed-RF FM Signal (without gating)
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Step 4. Set the gate delay to 2 ms and the gate length to 1 ms. Check that the gate control is set to
edge:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, More, Control (Edge).
Press More, Gate Delay, 2, ms.
Press Gate Length, 1, ms.
Step 5. Turn the gate on:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate Method, Video
Press Gate (On).
Figure 9-10
Viewing the FM Signal of a Pulsed RF Signal using Gated Video
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated Video Measurement
Step 6. Notice that the gated spectrum is much cleaner than the ungated spectrum (as seen in Figure
9-9). The spectrum you see is the same as a frequency modulated signal without being pulsed.
To prove this, turn off the pulse modulation on ESG #1 by pressing Pulse, Pulse so that Off is
selected. The displayed spectrum does not change.
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Step 7. If you have used an oscilloscope, check the oscilloscope display and ensure that the gate is
positioned under the pulse. The gate should be set so that it is on somewhere between 20% to
80% of the pulse. If necessary, adjust gate length and gate delay. Figure 9-11 shows the
oscilloscope display when the gate is positioned correctly (the bottom trace).
Figure 9-11
The Oscilloscope Display
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated FFT Measurement
Gated FFT Measurement
This procedure utilizes gated FFT to gate the FM signal. For concept and theory information about gated
FFT see “How Time Gating Works” on page 149.
Step 1. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer, Mode Preset.
Step 2. Set the analyzer center frequency, span and reference level:
Making Time-Gated Measurements
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 40, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, 10, dBm.
Step 3. Set the trigger to the external rear trigger input:
Press Trigger, External 1.
Step 4. Set the Gate Method to FFT and Gate to On:
Press Sweep/Control, Gate, Gate Method, FFT
Press Gate (On).
Step 5. Select the minimum resolution bandwidth required:
Press BW, Res BW (Auto).
Figure 9-12
Viewing the Gated FFT Measurement Results
The duration of the analysis required is determined by the RBW. Divide 1.83 by 4 ms to
calculate the minimum RBW. The pulse width in our case is 4 ms so we need a minimum
RBW of 458 Hz. In this case, because the RBW is so narrow, let the analyzer choose the RBW
for the current analyzer settings (span). Check that the RBW is greater than 458 Hz.
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Making Time-Gated Measurements
Gated FFT Measurement
With the above analyzer settings, the RBW should be 4.7 kHz. Note that the measurement
speed is faster than the gated LO example. Typically gated FFT is faster than gated LO for
spans less than 10 MHz.
Vary the RBW settings and note the signal changes shape as the RBW transitions from 1 kHz
to 300 Hz.
Making Time-Gated Measurements
NOTE
If the trigger event needs to be delayed use the Trig Delay function under the Trigger
menu. It is recommended to apply some small amount of trigger delay to allow time for
the device under test to settle.
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10 Measuring Digital Communications Signals
The signal analyzer makes power measurements on digital communication signals fast and repeatable by
providing a comprehensive suite of power-based one-button automated measurements with pre-set
standards-based format setups. The automated measurements also include pass/fail functionality that
allow the user to quickly check if the signal passed the measurement.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
109
Measuring Digital Communications Signals
Channel Power Measurements
Channel Power Measurements
This section explains how to make a channel power measurement on a W-CDMA (3GPP) mobile station.
(A signal generator is used to simulate a base station.) This test measures the total RF power present in
the channel. The results are displayed graphically as well as in total power (dB) and power spectral
density (dBm/Hz).
Measurement Procedure
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set the mode to W-CDMA
Set the frequency of the signal source to 1,920 MHz (Channel Number: 5 × 1,920 = 9,600).
Set the source amplitude to −20 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-1.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-1
Setup for Obtaining Channel Power Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the radio standard and to toggle the device to mobile station:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, 3GPP W-CDMA, 3GPP W-CDMA, Device (MS).
Step 6. Set the center frequency to 1.920 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, 1.920, GHz.
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Channel Power Measurements
Step 7. Initiate the channel power measurement:
Press Meas, Channel Power.
The Channel Power measurement result should look like Figure 10-2 The graph window
and the text window showing the absolute power and its mean power spectral density values
over 5 MHz are displayed.
Figure 10-2
Channel Power Measurement Result
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Step 8. To determine what keys are available to change the measurement parameters from their
default condition:
Press Meas Setup.
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Occupied Bandwidth Measurements
Occupied Bandwidth Measurements
This section explains how to make the occupied bandwidth measurement on a W-CDMA (3GPP) mobile
station. (A signal generator is used to simulate a base station.) The instrument measures power across the
band, and then calculates its 99.0% power bandwidth.
Measurement Procedure
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Set the mode to W-CDMA
Set the frequency of the signal source to 1,920 MHz (Channel Number: 5 × 1,920 = 9,600).
Set the source amplitude to −20 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-3.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-3
Setup for Occupied Bandwidth Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the radio standard and to toggle the device to mobile station:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, 3GPP W-CDMA, 3GPP W-CDMA, Device (MS).
Step 6. Set the center frequency to 1.920 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 1.920, GHz.
Step 7. Initiate the occupied bandwidth measurement:
Press Meas, Occupied BW.
The Occupied BW measurement result should look like the Figure 10-4.
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Figure 10-4
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement Result
Troubleshooting Hints
Shoulders on either side of the spectrum shape indicate spectral regrowth and intermodulation. Rounding
or sloping of the top shape can indicate filter shape problems.
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Any distortion, such as harmonics or intermodulation for example, produces undesirable power outside
the specified bandwidth.
Measuring Digital Communications Signals
Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements
Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements
The adjacent channel power (ACP) measurement is also referred to as the adjacent channel power ratio
(ACPR) and adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR). We use the term ACP to refer to this measurement.
ACP measures the total power (rms voltage) in the specified channel and up to six pairs of offset
frequencies. The measurement result reports the ratios of the offset powers to the main channel power.
The following example shows how to make an ACP measurement on a W-CDMA base station signal
broadcasting at 1.96 GHz. (A signal generator is used to simulate a base station.)
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Setup a W-CDMA signal
Set the source frequency to 1.96 GHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −10 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-5.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-5
Setup for ACP Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency to 1.96 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 1.96, GHz.
Step 6. Set the Analyzer Radio mode to W-CDMA as a base station device:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, 3GPP W-CDMA.
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std Setup, Device (BTS).
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Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements
Step 7. Select the adjacent channel power one-button measurement from the measure menu and then
optimize the attenuation setting suitable for the ACP measurement (see Figure 10-6):
Press Meas, ACP.
Press Meas Setup, AMPTD, Attenuation, Adjust Atten for Min Clip.
NOTE
Adjust Atten for Min Clip protects against input signal overloads, but does not
necessarily set the input attenuation and reference level for optimum measurement
dynamic range.
To improve the measurement repeatability, increase the sweep time to smooth out the
trace (average detector must be selected). Measurement repeatability can be traded off
with sweep time.
Step 8. To increase dynamic range, Noise Correction can be used to factor out the added power of
the noise floor effects. Noise correction is very useful when measuring signals near the noise
floor of the analyzer.
Press Meas Setup, More, More, Noise Correction (On).
Figure 10-6
ACP Measurement on a Base Station W-CDMA Signal
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
The frequency offsets, channel integration bandwidths, and span settings, can all be modified
from the default settings selected by the radio standard.
Two vertical white lines, in the center of the screen, indicate the bandwidth limits of the
central channel being measured.
Offsets A and B are designated by the adjacent pairs of white lines, in this case: 5 MHz and
10 MHz from the center frequency respectively.
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Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements
Step 9. View the results using the full screen:
Press Full Screen.
NOTE
Press the Full Screen key again to exit the full screen display without changing any
parameter values.
Step 10. Define a new third pair of offset frequencies:
Press Meas Setup, Offset/Limits, Offset, C, Offset Freq (On), 15, MHz.
This third pair of offset frequencies is offset by 15.0 MHz from the center frequency (the
outside offset pair) as shown in Figure 10-7 Three further pairs of offset frequencies (D, E and
F) are also available.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-7
Measuring a Third Adjacent Channel
Step 11. Set pass/fail limits for each offset:
Press Meas Setup, Offset/Limits, Offset, A, More, Rel Limit (Car), −55, dB, Offset, B, Rel
Limit (Car), −75, dB, Offset, C, Rel Limit (Car), −60, dB.
Step 12. Turn the limit test on:
Press Meas Setup, More, Limit Test (On).
In Figure 10-8 notice that offsets A and C have passed, however offset B has failed. Power
levels that fall above our specified –75 dB for offset B, fail. The offset bar graph and the
associated power level value are shaded red to identify a failure. The offset limits are shown
as dashed lines.
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Figure 10-8
Setting Offset Limits
NOTE
You may increase the repeatability by increasing the sweep time.
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Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF)
Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF)
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) curves characterize a signal by providing
information about how much time the signal spends at or above a given power level. The CCDF
measurement shows the percentage of time a signal spends at a particular power level. Percentage is on
the vertical axis and power (in dB) is on the horizontal axis.
All CDMA signals, and W-CDMA signals in particular, are characterized by high power peaks that occur
infrequently. It is important that these peaks are preserved. Otherwise, separate data channels can not be
received properly. Too many peak signals can also cause spectral regrowth. If a CDMA system works
well most of the time and only fails occasionally, this can often be caused by compression of the higher
peak signals.
The following example shows how to make a CCDF measurement on a W-CDMA signal broadcasting at
1.96 GHz. (A signal generator is used to simulate a base station.)
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Setup a W-CDMA down link signal
Set the source frequency to 1.96 GHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −10 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-9.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-9
Setup for CCDF Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency to 1.96 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 1.96, GHz.
Step 6. Set the analyzer radio mode to W-CDMA as a base station device:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, 3GPP W-CDMA, 3GPP W-CDMA, Device (BTS).
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Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF)
Step 7. Select the CCDF one-button measurement from the measure menu and then optimize the
attenuation level and attenuation settings suitable for the CCDF measurement:
Press Meas, Power Stat CCDF.
Press AMPTD, Attenuation, Adjust Atten for Min Clip.
Figure 10-10 Power Statistics CCDF Measurement on a W-CDMA Signal
Press Trace/Detector, Store Ref Trace.
When the power stat CCDF measurement is first made, the graphical display should show a
signal typical of pure noise. This is labelled Gaussian, and is shown in aqua. Your CCDF
measurement is displayed as a yellow plot. You have stored this measurement plot to make for
easy comparison with subsequent measurements. Refer to Figure 10-10.
Step 9. Display the stored trace:
Press Trace/Detector, Ref Trace (On).
Step 10. Change the measurement bandwidth to 1 MHz:
Press BW, Info BW, 1, MHz.
The stored trace from your last measurement is displayed as a magenta plot (as shown in
Figure 10-11), and allows direct comparison with your current measurement (yellow trace).
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Step 8. Store your current measurement trace for future reference:
Measuring Digital Communications Signals
Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF)
Figure 10-11 Storing and Displaying a Power Stat CCDF Measurement
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
NOTE
If you choose a measurement bandwidth setting that the analyzer cannot display, it
automatically sets itself to the closest available bandwidth setting.
Step 11. Change the number of measured points from 10,000,000 (10.0Mpt) to 1,000 (1kpt):
Press Meas Setup, Counts, 1, kpt.
Reducing the number of points decreases the measurement time. However, the number of
points is a factor in determining measurement uncertainty and repeatability. Notice how the
displayed plot loses a lot of its smoothness. You are gaining speed but reducing repeatability
and increasing measurement uncertainty. Refer to Figure 10-12.
NOTE
The number of points collected per sweep is dependent on the sampling rate and the
measurement interval. The number of samples that have been processed are indicated at
the top of the screen. The graphical plot is continuously updated so you can see it getting
smoother as measurement uncertainty is reduced and repeatability improves.
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Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF)
Figure 10-12 Reducing the Measurement Points to 1 kpt
Step 12. Change the scaling of the X-axis to 1 dB per division to optimize your particular
measurement:
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Press SPAN X Scale, Scale/Div, 1, dB. Refer to Figure 10-13.
Figure 10-13 Reducing the X Scale to 1 dB
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Making Burst Power Measurements
Making Burst Power Measurements
The following example demonstrates how to make a Burst Power measurement on a Bluetooth™ signal
broadcasting at 2.402 GHz. (A signal generator is used to simulate a Bluetooth™ signal.)
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Setup a Bluetooth™ signal transmitting DH1 packets.
Set the source frequency to 2.402 GHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −10 dBm.
Set Burst on.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-14.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-14 Setup for Burst Power Measurement
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency to 2.402 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 2.402, GHz.
Step 6. Set the Analyzer Radio mode to Bluetooth™ and check to make sure packet type DH1 is
selected:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, More, Bluetooth, Bluetooth, DH1.
Step 7. Select the Burst Power One-Button measurement from the measure menu and optimize the
attenuation level:
Press Meas, Burst Power.
Press AMPTD, Attenuation, Adjust Atten for Min Clip.
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Making Burst Power Measurements
Step 8. View the results of the burst power measurement using the full screen (See Figure 10-15):
Press Full Screen.
Figure 10-15 Full Screen Display of Burst Power Measurement Results
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
NOTE
Press the Full Screen key again to exit the full screen display without changing any
parameter values. Refer to Figure 10-16.
Figure 10-16 Normal Screen Display of Burst Power Measurement Results
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Making Burst Power Measurements
Step 9. Select one of the following three trigger methods to capture the bursted signal: Periodic Timer
Triggering, Video, or RF Burst Wideband Triggering (RF Burst is recommended, if available):
Press Trigger, RF Burst.
For more information on trigger selections see “Trigger Concepts” on page 148.
NOTE
Although the trigger level allows the analyzer to detect the presence of a burst, the time
samples contributing to the burst power measurement are determined by the threshold
level, as described next.
Step 10. Set the relative threshold level above which the burst power measurement is calculated:
Press Meas Setup, Trigger Lvl (Rel), −10, dB.
The burst power measurement includes all points above the threshold and no points below.
The threshold level is indicated on the display by the green horizontal line (for video
triggering it is the upper line). In this example, the threshold level has been set to be 10 dB
below the relative level of the burst. The mean power of the burst is measured from all data
above the threshold level. Refer to Figure 10-17.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-17 Burst Power Measurement Results with Threshold Level Set
Step 11. Set the burst width to measure the central 200 μs of the burst and enable bar graph:
Press View/Display, Bar Graph (On)
Press Meas Setup, Meas Method, Measured Burst Width, Burst Width (Man), 200, μs.
The burst width is indicated on the screen by two vertical white lines and a blue power bar.
Manually setting the burst width allows you to make it a long time interval (to include the
rising and falling edges of the burst) or to make it a short time interval, measuring a small
central section of the burst. Refer to Figure 10-18.
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Making Burst Power Measurements
Figure 10-18 Bar Graph Results with Measured Burst Width Set
If you set the burst width manually to be wider than the screen's display, the vertical white
lines move off the edges of the screen. This could give misleading results as only the data
on the screen can be measured.
NOTE
The Bluetooth™ standard states that power measurements should be taken over at least
20% to 80% of the duration of the burst.
Step 12. Increase the sweep time to display more than one burst at a time:
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 6200, μs (or 6.2, ms).
The screen display shows several bursts in a single sweep as in Figure 10-19. The burst power
measurement measures the mean power of the first burst, indicated by the vertical white lines
and blue power bar.
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NOTE
Measuring Digital Communications Signals
Making Burst Power Measurements
Figure 10-19 Displaying Multiple Bursts
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
NOTE
Although the burst power measurement still runs correctly when several bursts are
displayed simultaneously, the timing accuracy of the measurement is degraded. For the
best results, including the best trade-off between measurement variations and averaging
time, it is recommended that the measurement be performed on a single burst.
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Spurious Emissions Measurements
Spurious Emissions Measurements
The following example demonstrates how to make a Spurious Emissions measurement on a multitone
signal used to simulate a spurious emission in a measured spectrum.
Measurement Procedure
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Setup a multitone signal with 8 tones with a 2.0 MHz frequency spacing.
Set the source frequency to 1.950 GHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −50 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-20.
Figure 10-20 Setup for Spurious Emissions Measurement
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency to 1.950 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 1.950, GHz.
Step 6. Select the spurious emissions one-button measurement from the measure menu:
Press Meas, More, Spurious Emissions.
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Spurious Emissions Measurements
Step 7. You may focus the display on a specific spurious emissions signal:
Press Meas Setup, Spur, 1, Enter (or enter the number of the spur of interest).
Press Meas Type to highlight Examine.
The Spurious Emission result should look like Figure 10-21. The graph window and a text
window are displayed. The text window shows the list of detected spurs. Each line item
includes the spur number, the range in which the spur was detected, the power of the spur, and
the limit value against which the spur amplitude is tested.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-21 Spurious Emission Measurement Result
Step 8. You may customize the tested ranges for spurious emissions (initially 5 default ranges and
parameters are loaded into the range table):
Press Meas Setup, Range Table, then select and edit the available parameters.
Troubleshooting Hints
Spurious emissions measurements can reveal the presence of degraded or defective parts in the
transmitter section of the UUT. The following are examples of problems which, once indicated by
testing, may require further attention:
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty DC power supply control of the transmitter power amplifier.
RF power controller of the pre-power amplifier stage.
I/Q control of the baseband stage.
Reduction in the gain and output power level of the amplifier due to a degraded gain control and/or
increased distortion.
Degradation of amplifier linearity and other performance characteristics.
Power amplifiers are one of the final stage elements of a base transmitter and play a critical part in
meeting the important power and spectral efficiency specifications. Measuring the spectral response of
these amplifiers to complex wideband signals is crucial to linking amplifier linearity and other
performance characteristics to the stringent system specifications.
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Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
This section explains how to make the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement on a W-CDMA (3GPP)
mobile station. (A signal generator is used to simulate a mobile station.) SEM compares the total power
level within the defined carrier bandwidth and the given offset channels on both sides of the carrier
frequency, to levels allowed by the standard. Results of the measurement of each offset segment can be
viewed separately.
Measurement Procedure
Step 1. Setup the signal sources as follows:
Setup a W-CDMA uplink signal
Set the source frequency to 1,920 MHz (Channel Number: 5 × 1,920 = 9,600).
Set the source amplitudes to 0 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 10-22.
Figure 10-22 Setup for Spectrum Emissions Mask Measurement
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Step 3. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 4. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 5. Set the analyzer center frequency to 1.920 GHz:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 1.920, GHz.
Step 6. Set the analyzer radio mode to W-CDMA as a mobile station device:
Press Mode Setup, Radio Std, 3GPP W-CDMA, 3GPP W-CDMA, Device (MS).
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Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
Step 7. Initiate the spectrum emission mask measurement.
Press Meas, More, Spectrum Emission Mask.
Measuring Digital Communications
Signals
Figure 10-23 Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement Result - (Default) View
The Spectrum Emission Mask measurement result should look like Figure 10-23. The text
window shows the reference total power and the absolute peak power levels which correspond
to the frequency bands on both sides of the reference channel.
Troubleshooting Hints
This Spectrum Emission Mask measurement can reveal degraded or defective parts in the transmitter
section of the UUT. The following examples are those areas to be checked further.
•
Faulty DC power supply control of the transmitter power amplifier.
•
RF power controller of the pre-power amplifier stage.
•
I/Q control of the baseband stage.
•
Some degradation in the gain and output power level of the amplifier due to the degraded gain control
and/or increased distortion.
•
Some degradation of the amplifier linearity or other performance characteristics.
Power amplifiers are one of the final stage elements of a base or mobile transmitter and are a critical part
of meeting the important power and spectral efficiency specifications. Since spectrum emission mask
measures the spectral response of the amplifier to a complex wideband signal, it is a key measurement
linking amplifier linearity and other performance characteristics to the stringent system specifications.
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Demodulating AM Signals
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Demodulating AM Signals
Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal
Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal
This section demonstrates how to determine parameters of an AM signal, such as modulation rate and
modulation index (depth) by using frequency and time domain measurements (see the concepts chapter
“AM and FM Demodulation Concepts” on page 168 for more information).
To obtain an AM signal, you can either connect a source transmitting an AM signal, or connect an
antenna to the analyzer input and tune to a commercial AM broadcast station. For this demonstration an
RF source is used to generate an AM signal.
Step 1. Connect an Agilent ESG RF signal source to the analyzer RF INPUT. Setup the signal sources
as follows:
Set the source frequency to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −10 dBm.
Set the AM depth to 80%.
Set the AM rate to 1 kHz.
Turn AM on.
Step 2. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 3. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 4. Set the center frequency, span, RBW and the sweep time:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press BW, Res BW, 30, kHz.
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 20, ms.
Step 5. Change the y-scale type to linear:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type (Lin).
The y-axis units will automatically set to volts.
Step 6. Position the signal peak near the first graticule below the reference level:
Demodulating AM Signals
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, (rotate front-panel knob).
Step 7. Set the analyzer in zero span to make time-domain measurements:
Press SPAN X Scale, Zero Span.
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 5, ms.
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Step 8. Use the video trigger to stabilize the trace:
Press Trigger, Video.
Since the modulation is a steady tone, you can use video trigger to trigger the analyzer sweep
on the waveform and stabilize the trace, much like an oscilloscope. See Figure 11-1.
NOTE
If the trigger level is set too high or too low when video trigger mode is activated, the
sweep stops. You need to adjust the trigger level up or down with the front-panel knob
until the sweep begins again.
Press Trigger, Video, Trigger Level, (rotate front-panel knob).
Step 9. Measure the AM rate using delta markers:
Press Peak Search, Marker Delta, Next Right or Next Left.
Use markers and delta markers to measure the AM rate. Place the marker on a peak and then
use a delta marker to measure the time difference between the peaks (this is the AM rate of the
signal)
Measuring Time Parameters
NOTE
Make sure the delta markers above are placed on adjacent peaks. See Figure 11-1. The
frequency or the AM rate is 1 divided by the time between adjacent peaks:
AM Rate = 1/1.0 ms = 1 kHz
The signal analyzer can also make this rate calculation by changing the marker readout to
inverse time.
Press Marker, Properties, X Axis Scale, Inverse Time.
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Demodulating AM Signals
Figure 11-1
Demodulating AM Signals
Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal
Figure 11-2
Measuring Time Parameters with Inverse Time Readout
Demodulating AM Signals
Another way to calculate the modulation rate would be to view the signal in the frequency
domain and measure the delta frequency between the peak of the carrier and the first
sideband.
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Measuring the Modulation Index of an AM Signal
Measuring the Modulation Index of an AM Signal
This procedure demonstrates how to use the signal analyzer as a fixed-tuned (time-domain) receiver to
measure the modulation index as a percent AM value of an AM signal.
Step 1. Connect an Agilent ESG RF signal source to the analyzer RF INPUT. Setup the signal sources
as follows:
Set the source frequency to 300 MHz.
Set the source amplitudes to −10 dBm.
Set the AM depth to 80%.
Set the AM rate to 1 kHz.
Turn AM on.
Step 2. Set the analyzer to the Spectrum Analyzer mode and enable the spectrum analyzer
measurements:
Press Mode, Spectrum Analyzer.
Step 3. Preset the analyzer:
Press Mode Preset.
Step 4. Set the center frequency, span, RBW and the sweep time:
Press FREQ Channel, Center Freq, 300, MHz.
Press SPAN X Scale, Span, 500, kHz.
Press BW, Res BW, 30, kHz.
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 20, ms.
Step 5. Set the y-axis units to volts:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, More, Y-Axis Units, V (Volts).
Step 6. Position the signal peak near the reference level:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, (rotate front-panel knob).
Step 7. Change the y-scale type to linear:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Scale Type (Lin).
Step 8. Set the analyzer in zero span to make time-domain measurements:
Demodulating AM Signals
Press SPAN X Scale, Zero Span.
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 5, ms.
Step 9. Place the analyzer in free run trigger mode:
Press Trigger, Free Run.
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Step 10. Increase the sweep time and decrease the VBW so that the waveform is displayed as a flat
horizontal signal:
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 5, s.
Press BW, Video BW, 30, Hz.
Step 11. Center the flat waveform at the mid-point of the y-axis and then widen the VBW and decrease
the sweep time to display the waveform as a sine wave:
Press AMPTD Y Scale, Ref Level, (rotate front-panel knob).
Press BW, Video BW, 100, kHz.
Press Sweep/Control, Sweep Time, 5, ms.
Step 12. Measure the modulation index of the AM signal:
To measure the modulation index as % AM, read the trace as follows (see Figure 11-3 for
display examples): 100% AM extends from the top graticule down to the bottom graticule.
80% AM (as in this example) is when the top of the signal is at 1 division below the top
graticule and 1 division above the bottom graticule. To determine % AM of your signal count
each y-axis division as 10%.
Figure 11-3
AM Signal Measured in the Time Domain
Demodulating AM Signals
LEFT: 100% AM Signal (Modulation Index = 1)
RIGHT: 80% AM Signal (Modulation Index = 0.8)
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IQ Analyzer Measurement
12 IQ Analyzer Measurement
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IQ Analyzer Measurement
IQ Analyzer Measurement
Capturing Wideband Signals for Further Analysis
Capturing Wideband Signals for Further Analysis
This section demonstrates how to capture complex time domain data from wide bandwidth RF signals.
This mode preserves the instantaneous vector relationships of time, frequency, phase and amplitude
contained within the selected digitizer span or analysis BW, at the analyzer's center frequency, for output
as IQ data. This IQ data can then be utilized internally or output over LAN, USB or GPIB for use with
external analysis tools. Each measurement description specifies the types of data available remotely for
that measurement.
The standard 10 MHz Analysis BW and optional 25 MHz Analysis BW digitizers used to capture the
wide bandwidth RF signals can be accessed from the front panel in IQ Analyzer (Basic) mode. This IQ
Analyzer mode provides basic setup, RF (FFT based) and IQ analysis tools
Within the IQ Analyzer mode, basic frequency domain, time domain and IQ measurements are available
as initial signal and data verification tools in preparation for deriving the IQ data output.
The Complex Spectrum measurement provides a display in the upper window of power versus frequency
with current (yellow trace) and average (blue trace) data. In addition, an IQ waveform of voltage versus
time is provided in the lower window.
The IQ Waveform measurement provides a time domain view of the RF signal envelope with power
versus time or an IQ waveform of voltage versus time.
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Complex Spectrum Measurement
This section explains how to make a waveform (time domain) measurement on a W-CDMA signal. (A
signal generator is used to simulate a base station.) The measurement of I and Q modulated waveforms
in the time domain disclose the voltages which comprise the complex modulated waveform of a digital
signal.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the mode to W-CDMA 3GPP with 4 carriers.
Set the frequency of the signal source to 1.0 GHz.
Set the source amplitude to -10 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 12-1.
Figure 12-1
Setup for IQ Analysis
Step 3. Set the analyzer to IQ Analyzer mode and enable IQ data availability:
Press Mode, IQ Analyzer (Basic)
Step 4. Preset the analyzer mode:
Press Mode Preset
Step 5. Set the measurement center frequency:
Press Freq Channel, 1, GHz
Step 6. Set the measurement span/analysis bandwidth:
Press Span X Scale, 10, MHz (25 MHz if option B25 installed)
Step 7. Enable the Complex Spectrum measurement:
Press Meas, Complex Spectrum. Refer to the default view in Figure 12-2 or Figure 12-3.
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IQ Analyzer Measurement
Complex Spectrum Measurement
IQ Analyzer Measurement
IQ Analyzer Measurement
Complex Spectrum Measurement
Figure 12-2
Spectrum and I/Q Waveform (Span 10 MHz)
Figure 12-3
Spectrum and I/Q Waveform (Span 25 MHz)
NOTE
A display with both an FFT derived spectrum in the upper window and an IQ Waveform
in the lower window will appear when you activate a Complex Spectrum measurement.
The active window is outlined in green. Changes to Frequency, Span or Amplitude will
affect only the active window. Use the Next Window key to select a different window,
and Zoom key to enlarge the window.
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This section explains how to make a Waveform (time domain) measurement on a W-CDMA signal. (A
signal generator is used to simulate a base station.) The measurement of I and Q modulated waveforms
in the time domain disclose the voltages which comprise the complex modulated waveform of a digital
signal.
Step 1. Setup the signal source as follows:
Set the mode to W-CDMA 3GPP with 4 carriers.
Set the frequency of the signal source to 1.0 GHz.
Set the source amplitude to -10 dBm.
Step 2. Connect the source RF OUTPUT to the analyzer RF INPUT as shown in Figure 12-4.
Figure 12-4
Setup for IQ Analysis
Step 3. Set the analyzer to IQ Analyzer mode and enable IQ data availability:
Press Mode, IQ Analyzer (Basic)
Step 4. Preset the analyzer mode:
Press Mode Preset
Step 5. Set the measurement center frequency:
Press Freq Channel, 1, GHz
Step 6. Set the measurement span/analysis bandwidth:
Press Span X Scale, 10, MHz (25 MHz if option B25 installed)
Step 7. Enable the IQ Waveform measurement:
Press Meas, IQ Waveform
Step 8. View the RF envelope:
Press View/Display, RF Envelope
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Step 9. Set the analysis bandwidth:
Press BW, Info BW, 10, MHz (25 MHz if option B25 installed)
This view provides a waveform display of power versus time of the RF signal in the upper
window with metrics for mean and peak-to-mean in the lower window. Refer to Figure 12-5
or Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-5
IQ Waveform Measurement - Time domain View (10 MHz BW)
Figure 12-6
IQ Waveform Measurement - Time domain View (25 MHz BW)
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Step 10. View the IQ Waveform:
Press View/Display, IQ Waveform
Step 11. Set the time scale:
Press Span X Scale, Scale/Div, 100, ns
Step 12. Enable markers:
Press Marker, Properties, Marker Trace, IQ Waveform, 500, ns
This view provides a display of voltage versus time for the I and Q waveforms. Markers
enable measurement of the individual values of I and Q. Refer to Figure 12-7.
Figure 12-7
IQ Waveform Measurement - with Markers
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Resolving Closely Spaced Signals
Resolving Closely Spaced Signals
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
Concepts
Two equal-amplitude input signals that are close in frequency can appear as a single signal trace on the
analyzer display. Responding to a single-frequency signal, a swept-tuned analyzer traces out the shape of
the selected internal IF (intermediate frequency) filter (typically referred to as the resolution bandwidth
or RBW filter). As you change the filter bandwidth, you change the width of the displayed response. If a
wide filter is used and two equal-amplitude input signals are close enough in frequency, then the two
signals will appear as one signal. If a narrow enough filter is used, the two input signals can be
discriminated and appear as separate peaks. Thus, signal resolution is determined by the IF filters inside
the analyzer.
The bandwidth of the IF filter tells us how close together equal amplitude signals can be and still be
distinguished from each other. The resolution bandwidth function selects an IF filter setting for a
measurement. Typically, resolution bandwidth is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter. However,
resolution bandwidth may also be defined as the 6 dB or impulse bandwidth of the filter.
Generally, to resolve two signals of equal amplitude, the resolution bandwidth must be less than or equal
to the frequency separation of the two signals. If the bandwidth is equal to the separation and the video
bandwidth is less than the resolution bandwidth, a dip of approximately 3 dB is seen between the peaks
of the two equal signals, and it is clear that more than one signal is present.
For Signal Analyzers in swept mode, sweep time is automatically set to a value that is inversely
proportional to the square of the resolution bandwidth (1/BW2),to keep the analyzer measurement
calibrated. So, if the resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 10, the sweep time is increased by a
factor of 100 when sweep time and bandwidth settings are coupled. For the shortest measurement times,
use the widest resolution bandwidth that still permits discrimination of all desired signals. Sweep time is
also a function of which detector is in use, peak and normal detectors sweep as fast or more quickly than
sample or average detectors. The analyzer allows RBW selections up to 8 MHz in 1, 3, 10 steps and it
has the flexibility to fine tune RBWs in increments of 10% for a total of 160 RBW settings.
For best sweep times and keeping the analyzer calibrated set the sweep time (Sweep/Control, Sweep
Time) to Auto, and the sweep type (Sweep/Control, Sweep Setup, Sweep Type) to Auto. Use the
widest resolution bandwidth and the narrowest span that still permits resolution of all desired signals.
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
When dealing with the resolution of signals that are close together and not equal in amplitude, you must
consider the shape of the IF filter of the analyzer, as well as its 3 dB bandwidth. (See “Resolving Signals
of Equal Amplitude” on page 146 for more information.) The shape of a filter is defined by the
selectivity, which is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth. If a small signal is too close
to a larger signal, the smaller signal can be hidden by the skirt of the larger signal.
To view the smaller signal, select a resolution bandwidth such that k is less than a (see Figure 13-1). The
separation between the two signals (a) must be greater than half the filter width of the larger signal (k),
measured at the amplitude level of the smaller signal.
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The digital filters in the analyzer have filter widths about one-third as wide as typical analog RBW
filters. This enables you to resolve close signals with a wider RBW (for a faster sweep time).
Figure 13-1
RBW Requirements for Resolving Small Signals
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Trigger Concepts
Trigger Concepts
NOTE
The trigger functions let you select the trigger settings for a sweep or measurement. When
using a trigger source other than Free Run, the analyzer will begin a sweep only with the
selected trigger conditions are met. A trigger event is defined as the point at which your
trigger source signal meets the specified trigger level and polarity requirements (if any).
In FFT measurements, the trigger controls when the data is acquired for FFT conversion.
Selecting a Trigger
Concepts
1. Free Run Triggering
Pressing this key, when it is not selected, selects free-run triggering. Free run triggering occurs
immediately after the sweep/measurement is initiated.
Press Trigger, Free Run.
2. Video Triggering
The Video trigger condition is met when the video signal (the filtered and detected version of the
input signal, including both RBW and VBW filtering) crosses the video trigger level. Video
triggering triggers the measurement at the point at which the rising signal crosses the video trigger
horizontal green line on the display:
Press Trigger, Video, Video, Trigger Level, −30, dBm. (If Video trigger has not already been
selected, you need to press Video a second time to get to the Trigger Level function.)
3. External Triggering
In the event that you have an external trigger available that can be used to synchronize with the burst
of interest, connect the trigger signal to the rear of the analyzer using either the Trigger 1 In or
Trigger 2 In input connector. It might be necessary to adjust the trigger level by rotating the front
panel knob or by entering the numeric value on the keypad.
Press Trigger, External 1 or External 2, Trigger Level, and adjust as necessary.
4. RF Burst Wideband Triggering
RF burst triggering occurs in the IF circuitry chain, as opposed to after the video detection circuitry
with video triggering. In the event video triggering is used, the detection filters are limited to the
maximum width of the resolution bandwidth filters. Set the analyzer in RF Burst Trigger mode.
Press Trigger, RF Burst.
5. Line Triggering
Line triggering selects the line signal as the trigger. A new sweep/measurement will start
synchronized with the next cycle of the line voltage. Pressing this key, when it is already selected,
access the line trigger setup menu.
Press Trigger, Line.
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6. Periodic Timer Triggering
This feature selects the internal periodic timer signal as the trigger. Trigger occurrences are set by the
Periodic Timer parameter, which is modified by the Sync Source and Offset. Figure 13-2 shows the
action of the periodic timer trigger.
A second way to use this feature would be to use Sync Source temporarily, instead of Offset. In this
case, we might tune to the signal in a narrow span and use the RF Burst trigger to synchronize the
periodic timer. Then we would turn the sync source off so that it would not mistrigger. Mistriggering
can occur when we are tuned so far away from the RF burst trigger that it is no longer reliable.
A third example would be to synchronize to a signal that has a reference time element of much longer
period than the period of interest. In some CDMA applications, it is useful to look at signals with a
short periodicity, by synchronizing that periodicity to the “even-second clock” edge that happens
every two seconds. Thus, we could connect the even-second clock trigger to Ext1 and use then Ext1
as the sync source for the periodic timer.
The figure below illustrates this third example. The top trace represents the even-second clock. It
causes the periodic timer to synchronize with the leading edge shown. The analyzer trigger occurs at
a time delayed by the accumulated offset from the period trigger event. The periodic timer continues
to run, and triggers continue to occur, with a periodicity determined by the analyzer time base. The
timer output (labeled “late event”) will drift away from its ideal time due to imperfect matching
between the time base of the signal being measured and the time base of the analyzer, and also
because of imperfect setting of the period parameter. But the synchronization is restored on the next
even-second clock event. (“Accumulated offset” is described in the in the Offset function section.)
Figure 13-2 Frame Triggering
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A common application is measuring periodic burst RF signals for which a trigger signal is not easily
available. For example, we might be measuring a TDMA radio which bursts every 20 ms. Let's
assume that the 20 ms period is very consistent. Let's also assume that we do not have an external
trigger source available that is synchronized with the period, and that the signal-to-noise ratio of the
signal is not high enough to provide a clean RF burst trigger at all of the analysis frequencies. For
example, we might want to measure spurious transmissions at an offset from the carrier that is larger
than the bandwidth of the RF burst trigger. In this application, we can set the Periodic Timer to a
20.00 ms period and adjust the offset from that timer to position our trigger just where we want it. If
we find that the 20.00 ms is not exactly right, we can adjust the period slightly to minimize the drift
between the period timer and the signal to be measured.
Concepts
Trigger Concepts
a. Period
Sets the period of the internal periodic timer clock. For digital communications signals, this is
usually set to the frame period of your current input signal. In the case that sync source is not set
to OFF, and the external sync source rate is changed for some reason, the periodic timer is
synchronized at the every external synchronization pulse by resetting the internal state of the
timer circuit.
Press Trigger, Periodic Timer.
b. Offset
Concepts
Adjusts the accumulated offset between the periodic timer events and the trigger event. Adjusting
the accumulated offset is different than setting an offset, and requires explanation.
The periodic timer is usually unsynchronized with any external events, so the timing of its output
events has no absolute meaning. Since the timing relative to external events (RF signals) is
important, you need to be able to adjust (offset) it. However, you have no direct way to see when
the periodic timer events occur. All that you can see is the trigger timing. When you want to adjust
the trigger timing, you will be changing the internal offset between the periodic timer events and
the trigger event. Because the absolute value of that internal offset is unknown, we will just call
that the accumulated offset. Whenever the Offset parameter is changed, you are changing that
accumulated offset. You can reset the displayed offset using Reset Offset Display. Changing the
display does not change the value of the accumulated offset, and you can still make additional
changes to accumulated offset.
Press Trigger, Periodic Timer.
c. Reset Offset Display
Resets the value of the periodic trigger offset display setting to 0.0 seconds. The current displayed
trigger location may include an offset value defined with the Offset key. Pressing this key
redefines the currently displayed trigger location as the new trigger point that is 0.0 s offset. The
Offset key can then be used to add offset relative to this new timing
Press Trigger, Periodic Timer.
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Time Gating Concepts
Introduction: Using Time Gating on a Simplified Digital Radio Signal
This section shows you the concepts of using time gating on a simplified digital radio signal. The section
on Making Time-Gated Measurements demonstrates time gating examples.
Figure 13-3 shows a signal with two radios (radio 1 and radio 2) that are time-sharing a single frequency
channel. Radio 1 transmits for 1 ms, then radio 2 transmits for 1 ms.
Figure 13-3
Simplified Digital Mobile-Radio Signal in Time Domain
Concepts
We want to measure the unique frequency spectrum of each transmitter.
A signal analyzer without time gating cannot do this. By the time the signal analyzer has completed its
measurement sweep, which lasts about 50 ms, the radio transmissions switch back and forth 25 times.
Because the radios are both transmitting at the same frequency, their frequency spectra overlap, as shown
in Figure 13-4 The signal analyzer shows the combined spectrum; you cannot tell which part of the
spectrum results from which signal.
Figure 13-4
Frequency Spectra of the Combined Radio Signals
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Concepts
Time gating allows you to see the separate spectrum of radio 1 or radio 2 to determine the source of the
spurious signal, as shown in Figure 13-5.
Figure 13-5
Time-Gated Spectrum of Radio 1
Figure 13-6
Time-Gated Spectrum of Radio 2
Time gating lets you define a time window (or time gate) of when a measurement is performed. This lets
you specify the part of a signal that you want to measure, and exclude or mask other signals that might
interfere.
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How Time Gating Works
Time gating is achieved by the signal analyzer selectively interrupting the path of the detected signal,
with a gate, as shown in Figure 13-8 and Figure 13-9 The gate determines the times at which it captures
measurement data (when the gate is turned “on,” under the Gate menu, the signal is being passed,
otherwise when the gate is “off,” the signal is being blocked). Under the right conditions, the only signals
that the analyzer measures are those present at the input to the analyzer when the gate is on. With the
correct signal analyzer settings, all other signals are masked out.
There are typically two main types of gating conditions, edge and level:
•
With edge gating, the gate timing is controlled by user parameters (gate delay and gate length)
following the selected (rising or falling) edge of the trigger signal. The gate passes a signal on the
edge of the trigger signal (after the gate delay time has been met) and blocks the signal at the end of
the gate length.
•
With level gating, the gate will pass a signal when the gate signal meets the specified level (high or
low). The gate blocks the signal when the level conditions are no longer satisfied (level gating does
not use gate length or gate delay parameters).
Figure 13-7
Edge Trigger Timing Relationships
With Agilent signal analyzers, there are three different implementations for time gating: gated LO, gated
video and gated FFT.
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With edge gating, the gate control signal is usually an external periodic TTL signal that rises and falls
in synchronization with the rise and fall of the pulsed radio signal. The gate delay is the time the
analyzer waits after the trigger event to enable the gate (see Figure 13-7).
Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Gated Video Concepts
Gated video may be thought of as a simple gate switch, which connects the signal to the input of the
signal analyzer. When the gate is “on” (under the Gate menu) the gate is passing a signal. When the gate
is “off,” the gate is blocking the signal. Whenever the gate is passing a signal, the analyzer sees the
signal. In Figure 13-8 notice that the gate is placed after the envelope detector and before the video
bandwidth filter in the IF path (hence “Gated Video”).
Concepts
The RF section of the signal analyzer responds to the signal. The selective gating occurs before the video
processing. This means that there are some limitations on the gate settings because of signal response
times in the RF signal path.
With video gating the analyzer is continually sweeping, independent of the position and length of the
gate. The analyzer must be swept at a minimum sweep time (see the sweep time calculations later in this
chapter) to capture the signal when the gate is passing a signal. Because of this, video gating is typically
slower than gated LO and gated FFT.
Figure 13-8
Gated Video Signal Analyzer Block Diagram
Gated LO Concepts
Gated LO is a very sophisticated type of time gating that sweeps the LO only while the gate is “on” and
the gate is passing a signal. See Figure 13-9 for a simplified block diagram of gated LO operation. Notice
that the gate control signal controls when the scan generator is sweeping and when the gate passes or
blocks a signal. This allows the analyzer to sweep only during the periods when the gate passes a signal.
Gated LO is faster than Gated Video because Gated Video must constrain sweep time so that each point
is long enough to include a burst event. On the other hand, when in Gated LO, multiple points may be
swept during each gate.
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Figure 13-9
Gated LO Signal Analyzer Block Diagram
Concepts
Gated FFT Concepts
Gated FFT (Fast-Fourier Transform) is an FFT measurement which begins when the trigger conditions
are satisfied.
The process of making a spectrum measurement with FFTs is inherently a “gated” process, in that the
spectrum is computed from a time record of short duration, much like a gate signal in swept-gated
analysis.
Using the analyzer in FFT mode, the duration of the time record to be gated is:
1.83FFT Time Record (to be gated) = -----------RBW
The duration of the time record is within a tolerance of approximately 3% for resolution bandwidths up
through 1 MHz. Unlike swept gated analysis, the duration of the analysis in gated FFT is fixed by the
RBW, not by the gate signal. Because FFT analysis is faster than swept analysis (up to 7.99 MHz), the
gated FFT measurements can have better frequency resolution (a narrower RBW) than swept analysis for
a given duration of the signal to be analyzed.
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Figure 13-10 Gated FFT Timing Diagram
Time Gating Basics (Gated LO and Gated Video)
The gate passes or blocks a signal with the following conditions:
•
Trigger condition - Usually an external transistor-transistor logic (TTL) periodic signal for edge
triggering and a high/low TTL signal for level triggering.
•
Gate Delay - The time after the trigger condition is met when the gate begins to pass a signal.
•
Gate Length - The gate length setting determines the length of time a gate begins to pass a signal.
To understand time gating better, consider a spectrum measurement performed on two pulsed-RF signals
sharing the same frequency spectrum. You will need to consider the timing interaction of three signals
with this example:
•
The composite of the two pulsed-RF signals.
•
The gate trigger signal (a periodic TTL level signal).
•
The gate signal. This TTL signal is low when the gate is “off” (blocking) and high when the gate is
“on” (passing).
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The timing interactions between the three signals are best understood if you observe them in the time
domain (see Figure 13-11).
The main goal is to measure the spectrum of signal 1 and determine if it has any low-level modulation or
spurious signals.
Because the pulse trains of signal 1 and signal 2 have almost the same carrier frequency, their spectra
overlap. Signal 2 will dominate in the frequency domain due to its greater amplitude. Without gating,
you won't see the spectrum of signal 1; it is masked by signal 2.
To measure signal 1, the gate must be on only during the pulses from signal 1. The gate will be off at all
other times, thus excluding all other signals. To position the gate, set the gate delay and gate length, as
shown in Figure 13-11, so that the gate is on only during some central part of the pulse. Carefully avoid
positioning the gate over the rising or falling pulse edges. When gating is activated, the gate output
signal will indicate actual gate position in time, as shown in the line labeled “Gate.”
Concepts
Figure 13-11 Timing Relationship of Signals During Gating
Once the signal analyzer is set up to perform the gate measurement, the spectrum of signal 1 is visible
and the spectrum of signal 2 is excluded, as shown in Figure 13-13. In addition, when viewing signal 1,
you also will have eliminated the pulse spectrum generated from the pulse edges. Gating has allowed
you to view spectral components that otherwise would be hidden.
Figure 13-12 Signal within pulse #1 (time-domain view)
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Figure 13-13 Using Time Gating to View Signal 1 (spectrum view)
Concepts
Moving the gate so that it is positioned over the middle of signal 2 produces a result as shown in Figure
13-15. Here, you see only the spectrum within the pulses of signal 2; signal 1 is excluded.
Figure 13-14 Signal within pulse #2 (time-domain view)
Figure 13-15 Using Time Gating to View Signal 2 (spectrum view)
Measuring a Complex/Unknown Signal
NOTE
The steps below help to determine the signal analyzer settings when using time gating.
The steps apply to the time gating approaches using gated LO and gated video.
This example shows you how to use time gating to measure a very specific signal. Most signals requiring
time gating are fairly complex and in some cases extra steps may be required to perform a measurement.
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Step 1. Determine how your signal under test appears in the time domain and how it is synchronized
to the trigger signal.
You need to do this to position the time gate by setting the delay relative to the trigger signal.
To set the delay, you need to know the timing relationship between the trigger and the signal
under test. Unless you already have a good idea of how the two signals look in the time
domain, you can examine the signals with an oscilloscope to determine the following
parameters:
Trigger type (edge or level triggering)
•
Pulse repetition interval (PRI), which is the length of time between trigger events (the
trigger period).
•
Pulse width, or τ .
•
Signal delay (SD), which is the length of time occurring between the trigger event and
when the signal is present and stable. If your trigger occurs at the same time as the signal,
signal delay will be zero.
Figure 13-16 Time-domain Parameters
In Figure 13-16, the parameters are:
•
Pulse repetition interval (PRI) is 5 ms.
•
Pulse width (τ ) is 3 ms.
•
Signal delay (SD) is 1 ms for positive edge trigger (0.6 ms for negative edge trigger).
•
Gate delay (D) is 2.5 ms.
•
Setup time (SUT) is 1.5 ms.
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•
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Time Gating Concepts
Step 2. Set the signal analyzer sweep time:
Gated LO: Sweep time does not affect the results of gated LO unless the sweep time is set too
fast. In the event the sweep time is set too fast, Meas Uncal appears on the screen and the
sweep time will need to be increased.
Concepts
Gated Video: Sweep time does affect the results from gated video. The sweep time must be
set accordingly for correct time gating results. The recommended sweep time is at least the
number of sweep points – 1 multiplied by the PRI (pulse repetition interval). Measurements
can be made with sweep times as fast as (sweep points–1)*(PRI–τ ).
Step 3. Locate the signal under test on the display of the signal analyzer. Set the center frequency and
span to view the signal characteristics that you are interested in measuring. Although the
analyzer is not yet configured for correct gated measurements, you will want to determine the
approximate frequency and span in which to display the signal of interest. If the signal is
erratic or intermittent, you may want to hold the maximum value of the signal with Max Hold
(located under the Trace/Detector menu) to determine the frequency of peak energy.
To optimize measurement speed in the Gated LO case, set the span narrow enough so that the
display will still show the signal characteristics you want to measure. For example, if you
wanted to look for spurious signals within a 200 kHz frequency range, you might set the
frequency span to just over 200 kHz.
Step 4. Determine the setup time and signal delay to set up the gate signal. Turn on the gate and adjust
the gate parameters including gate delay and gate length as shown below.
Generally, the gate should be positioned over a part of the signal that is stable, not over a pulse
edge or other transition that might disturb the spectrum. Starting the gate at the center of the
pulse gives a setup time of about half the pulse width. Setup time describes the length of time
during which that signal is present and stable before the gate comes on. The setup time (SUT)
must be long enough for the RBW filters to settle following the burst-on transients. Signal
delay (SD) is the length of time after the trigger, but before the signal of interest occurs and
becomes stable. If the trigger occurs simultaneously with the signal of interest, SD is equal to
zero, and SUT is equal to the gate delay. Otherwise, SUT is equal to the gate delay minus SD.
See Figure 13-17.
Figure 13-17 Positioning the Gate
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There is flexibility in positioning the gate, but some positions offer a wider choice of
resolution bandwidths. A good rule of thumb is to position the gate from 20 % to 90 % of the
burst width. Doing so provides a reasonable compromise between setup time and gate length.
Figure 13-18 Best Position for Gate
As an example, if you want to use a 1 kHz resolution bandwidth for measurements, you will
need to allow a setup time of at least 3.84 ms.
Note that the signal need not be an RF pulse. It could be simply a particular period of
modulation in a signal that is continuously operating at full power, or it could even be during
the off time between pulses. Depending on your specific application, adjust the gate position
to allow for progressively longer setup times (ensuring that the gate is not left on over another
signal change such as a pulse edge or transient), and select the gate delay and length that offer
the best representation of the signal characteristics of interest on the display.
If you were measuring the spectrum occurring between pulses, you should use the same (or
longer) setup time after the pulse goes away, but before the gate goes on. This lets the
resolution bandwidth filters fully discharge the large pulse before the measurement is made on
the low-level interpulse signal.
Figure 13-19 Setup Time for Interpulse Measurement
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As a general rule, you will obtain the best measurement results if you position the gate
relatively late within the signal of interest, but without extending the gate over the trailing
pulse edge or signal transition. Doing so maximizes setup time and provides the resolution
bandwidth filters of the signal analyzer the most time to settle before a gated measurement is
made. “Relatively late,” in this case, means allowing a setup time of at least 3.84/resolution
bandwidth (see step 5 for RBW calculations).
Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Step 5. The resolution bandwidth will need to be adjusted for gated LO and gated video. The video
bandwidth will only need to be adjusted for gated video.
Resolution Bandwidth:
The resolution bandwidth you can choose is determined by the gate position, so you can trade
off longer setup times for narrower resolution bandwidths. This trade-off is due to the time
required for the resolution-bandwidth filters to fully charge before the gate comes on. Setup
time, as mentioned, is the length of time that the signal is present and stable before the gate
comes on.
Concepts
Figure 13-20 Resolution Bandwidth Filter Charge-Up Effects
Because the resolution-bandwidth filters are band-limited devices, they require a finite
amount of time to react to changing conditions. Specifically, the filters take time to charge
fully after the analyzer is exposed to a pulsed signal.
Because setup time should be greater than filter charge times, be sure that:
3.84
SUT > ------------RBW
where SUT is the same as the gate delay in this example. In this example with SUT equal to
1.5 ms, RBW is greater than 2.56 kHz; that is, RBW is greater than 1333 Hz. The resolution
bandwidth should be set to the next larger value, 2.7 kHz.
Video Bandwidth:
For gated LO measurements the VBW filter acts as a track-and-hold between sweep times.
With this behavior, the VBW does not need to resettle on each restart of the sweep.
Step 6. Adjust span as necessary, and perform your measurement.
The analyzer is set up to perform accurate measurements. Freeze the trace data by activating
single sweep, or by placing your active trace in view mode. Use the markers to measure the
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signal parameters you chose in Step 1. If necessary, adjust span, but do not decrease resolution
bandwidth, video bandwidth, or sweep time.
“Quick Rules” for Making Time-Gated Measurements
This section summarizes the rules described in the previous sections.
Table 1 Determining Signal Analyzer Settings for Viewing a Pulsed RF Signal
Signal Analyzer Setting
Comments
Sweep Time
(gated video
only)
Set the sweep time to be equal to or
greater than
Because the gate must be on at least once per
trace point, the sweep time should be set such that
the sweep time for each trace point is greater than
or equal to the pulse repetition interval.
Gate Delay
The gate delay is equal to the signal
delay plus one-fourth the pulse width:
Gate Length
Resolution
Bandwidth
(number of sweep points - 1) × pulse
repetition interval (PRI):
Gate Delay = Signal Delay + τ /5
The gate delay must be set so that the gating
captures the pulse. If the gate delay is too short or
too long, the gating can miss the pulse or include
resolution bandwidth transient responses.
The gate length minimum is equal to
one-fourth the pulse width (maximum
about one-half):
If the gate length is too long, the signal display
can include transients caused by the signal
analyzer filters.
Gate Length = 0.7 x τ /4
The recommendation for gate placement can be
between 20 % to 90 % of the pulse width.
Set the resolution bandwidth:
The resolution bandwidth must be wide enough
so that the charging time for the resolution
bandwidth filters is less than the pulse width of
the signal.
RBW > 19.5/τ
Figure 13-21 Gate Positioning Parameters
Chapter 13
163
Concepts
Signal Analyzer
Function
Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Most control settings are determined by two key parameters of the signal under test: the pulse repetition
interval (PRI) and the pulse width (τ ). If you know these parameters, you can begin by picking some
standard settings. Table 2 summarizes the parameters for a signal whose trigger event occurs at the same
time as the beginning of the pulse (in other words, SD is 0). If your signal has a non-zero delay, just add
it to the recommended gate delay.
Concepts
Table 2 Suggested Initial Settings for Known Pulse Width (τ ) and Zero Signal Delay
Pulse width (τ )
Gate Delay
(SD + τ /5)
Resolution Bandwidth
(>19.5/τ )
Gate Length
(0.7 x τ /4)
4 μs
0.8 μs
4.875 MHz
0.7 μs
10 μs
2 μs
1.95 MHz
1.753 μs
50 μs
10 μs
390 kHz
8.75 μs
63.5 μs
12.7 μs
307 kHz
11.11 μs
100 μs
20 μs
195 kHz
17.5 μs
500 μs
100 μs
39 kHz
87.5 μs
1 ms
200 μs
19.5 kHz
0.175 μs
5 ms
1 ms
3.9 kHz
0.875 ms
10 ms
2 ms
1.95 kHz
1.75 ms
16.6 ms
3.32 ms
1.175 kHz
2.905 ms
33 ms
6.6 ms
591 Hz
5.775 ms
50 ms
10 ms
390 Hz
8.75 ms
100 ms
20 ms
195 Hz
17.5 ms
≥130 ms
26 ms
151 Hz
22.75 ms
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Chapter 13
Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Table 3 If You Have a Problem with the Time-Gated Measurement
Symptom
Possible Causes
Suggested Solution
Erratic analyzer trace with
dropouts that are not removed
by increasing analyzer sweep
time; oscilloscope view of gate
output signal jumps erratically
in time domain.
Gate delay may be greater than
trigger repetition interval.
Reduce gate delay until it is less than
trigger interval.
Gate does not trigger.
1) Gate trigger voltage may be
wrong.
2) Gate may not be activated.
3) Gate Source selection may
be wrong.
With external gate trigger: ensure that the
trigger threshold is set near the midpoint
of the waveform (view the waveform on
and oscilloscope using high input
impedance, not 50 Ω).
With RF Burst Gate Source: ensure that
the start and stop frequencies are within
10 MHz of the center frequency of the
carrier.
Check to see if other connections to
trigger signal may be reducing voltage. If
using an oscilloscope, check that all
inputs are high impedance, not 50 Ω.
Display spectrum does not
change when the gate is turned
on.
Insufficient setup time.
Increase setup time for the current
resolution bandwidth, or increase
resolution bandwidth.
Displayed spectrum too low in
amplitude.
Resolution bandwidth or video
bandwidth filters not charging
fully.
Widen resolution bandwidth or video
bandwidth, or both.
Check Gate View to make sure the gate
delay is timed properly.
165
Concepts
Chapter 13
Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Using the Edge Mode or Level Mode for Triggering
Depending on the trigger signal that you are working with, you can trigger the gate in one of two
separate modes: edge or level. This gate-trigger function is separate from the normal external trigger
capability of the signal analyzer, which initiates a sweep of a measurement trace based on an external
signal.
Edge Mode
Edge mode lets you position the gate relative to either the rising or falling edge of a trigger signal. The
left diagram of Figure 13-22 shows triggering on the positive edge of the trigger signal while the right
diagram shows negative edge triggering.
Concepts
Example of key presses to initiate positive edge triggering:
Press Sweep, Gate, More, Polarity (Pos).
Figure 13-22 Using Positive or Negative Edge Triggering
Level Mode
In Level Gate-Control mode, an external trigger signal opens and closes the gate. Either the TTL high
level or TTL low level opens the gate, depending on the setting of Trig Slope. Gate delay affects the start
of the gate but not the end. Gate length is applicable when using level mode triggering. Level mode is
useful when your trigger signal occurs at exactly the same time as does the portion of the signal you want
to measure.
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Concepts
Time Gating Concepts
Noise Measurements Using Time Gating
Time gating can be used to measure many types of signals. Noise and noise-like signals are often a
special case in spectrum analysis. With the history of gated measurements, these signals are especially
noteworthy.
The average detector is the best detector to use for measuring noise-like signals because it uses all the
available noise power all the time in its measurement. The sample detector is also a good choice because
it, too, is free from the peak biases of the peak detector, normal and negative peak detectors.
When using the average or sample detector, noise density measurements using the noise marker or
band/interval density marker can be made without any consideration of the use of gating--gated
measurements work just as well as non-gated measurements. Thus, the average detector is recommended
for noise density measurements.
Unlike older analyzers, MXA can make competent measurements of noise density using the noise
marker with all detectors, not just those that are ideal for noise measurements. Thus, MXA can make
noise density measurements with peak detection, compensating for the extent to which peak detection
increases the average response of the analyzer to noise. When comparing a gated video measurement
using the noise marker between MXA and an older analyzer where both use the peak detector, the MXA
answer will be approximately correct, while the older analyzer will need a correction factor. That
correction factor is discussed in Agilent Technologies Application Note 1303, Spectrum Analyzer
Measurements and Noise, in the section on Peak-detected Noise and TDMA ACP Measurements.
When making measurements of Band/Interval Power or Band/Interval Density, the analyzer does not
make compensations for peak detection. For best measurements with these marker functions, average or
sample detection should be used.
Chapter 13
167
Concepts
Older analyzers only had the gated video version of gating available, and these only worked with the
peak detector, so the rest of this section will discuss the trade-offs associated with trying to replicate
these measurements with an MXA.
Concepts
AM and FM Demodulation Concepts
AM and FM Demodulation Concepts
Demodulating an AM Signal Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver
(Time-Domain)
The Zero Span mode can be used to recover amplitude modulation on a carrier signal.
The following functions establish a clear display of the waveform:
•
Concepts
•
•
•
Triggering stabilizes the waveform trace by triggering on the modulation envelope. If the modulation
of the signal is stable, video trigger synchronizes the sweep with the demodulated waveform.
Linear Display mode should be used in amplitude modulation (AM) measurements to avoid
distortion caused by the logarithmic amplifier when demodulating signals.
Sweep time to view the rate of the AM signal.
RBW and VBW are selected according to the signal bandwidth.
Demodulating an FM Signal Using the Analyzer as a Fixed Tuned Receiver
(Time-Domain)
To recover the frequency modulated signal, a spectrum analyzer can be used as a manually tuned
receiver (zero span). However, in contrast to AM, the signal is not tuned into the passband center, but to
one slope of the filter curve as Figure 13-23.
Figure 13-23 Determining FM Parameters using FM to AM Conversion
Here the frequency variations of the FM signal are converted into amplitude variations (FM to AM
conversion) utilizing the slope of the selected bandwidth filter. The reason we want to measure the AM
component is that the envelope detector responds only to AM variations. There are no changes in
amplitude if the frequency changes of the FM signal are limited to the flat part of the RBW (IF filter).
The resultant AM signal is then detected with the envelope detector and displayed in the time domain.
168
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Concepts
IQ Analysis Concepts
IQ Analysis Concepts
Purpose
IQ Analysis (Basic) mode is used to capture complex time domain data from wide bandwidth RF signals.
This mode preserves the instantaneous vector relationships of time, frequency, phase and amplitude
contained within the selected digitizer span or analysis BW, at the analyzer's center frequency, for output
as IQ data. This IQ data can then be utilized internally or output over LAN, USB or GPIB for use with
external analysis tools. Each measurement description specifies the types of data available remotely for
that measurement.
Complex Spectrum Measurement
Purpose
This measurement is FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) based. The FFT-specific parameters are located in the
Advanced menu. The Complex Spectrum measurement provides a display in the upper window of
power versus frequency with current (yellow trace) and average (blue trace) data. In addition, an IQ
waveform of voltage versus time is provided in the lower window. One advantage of having an I/Q view
available while in the spectrum measurement is that it allows you to view complex components of the
same signal without changing settings or measurements.
Measurement Method
The measurement uses digital signal processing to sample the input signal and convert it to the frequency
domain. With the instrument tuned to a fixed center frequency, samples are digitized at a high rate,
converted to I and Q components with DSP hardware, and then converted to the frequency domain with
FFT software.
Troubleshooting Hints
Changes made by the user to advanced spectrum settings, particularly to ADC range settings, can
inadvertently result in spectrum measurements that are invalid and cause error messages to appear. Care
needs to be taken when using advanced features.
Chapter 13
169
Concepts
Within the IQ Analyzer mode, basic frequency domain, time domain and IQ measurements are available
as initial signal and data verification tools in preparation for deriving the IQ data output. This is
accomplished using the Complex Spectrum and IQ Waveform measurements. Although Complex
Spectrum and IQ Waveform are defined as measurements in the IQ Analyzer (Basic) mode, they act
primarily as tools to verify the signals and data as stated above.
Concepts
IQ Analysis Concepts
IQ Waveform Measurement
Purpose
The IQ Waveform measurement provides a time domain view of the RF signal envelope with power
versus time or an IQ waveform with the I and Q signal waveforms in parameters of voltage versus time.
The RF Envelope view provides the power verses time display, and the I/Q Waveform view provides the
voltage versus time display. One advantage of having an I/Q Waveform view available while making a
waveform measurement is that it allows you to view complex components of the same signal without
changing settings or measurements.
The waveform measurement can be used to perform general purpose power measurements in the time
domain with excellent accuracy.
Concepts
Measurement Method
The instrument makes repeated power measurements at a set frequency, similar to the way a swept-tuned
signal analyzer makes Zero Span measurements. The input analog signal is converted to a digital signal,
which then is processed into a representation of a Waveform measurement. The measurement relies on a
high rate of sampling to create an accurate representation of a time domain signal.
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Chapter 13
Concepts
Spurious Emissions Measurement Concepts
Spurious Emissions Measurement Concepts
Purpose
Spurious signals can be caused by different combinations of signals in the transmitter. The spurious
emissions from the transmitter should be minimized to guarantee minimum interference with other
frequency channels in the system. Harmonics are distortion products caused by nonlinear behavior in the
transmitter. They are integer multiples of the transmitted signal carrier frequency.
This measurement verifies the frequency ranges of interest are free of interference by measuring the
spurious signals specified by the user defined range table.
The table-driven measurement has the flexibility to set up custom parameters such as frequency, span,
resolution bandwidth, and video bandwidth. Up to the top 40 spurs can be viewed.
For each range that you specify and activate, the analyzer scans the band using the specified Range Table
settings. Then using the Peak Excursion and Peak Threshold values determines which spurs to report.
As each band is swept, any signal which is above the Peak Threshold value and has a peak excursion of
greater than the Peak Excursion value, will be added to a list of spurs displayed in the lower results
window. A total of 200 spurs can be recorded for one measurement, with a limit of 10 spurs per
frequency range. To improve repeatability, you can increase the number of averages.
From the spurs in the list, those with peak amplitude greater than the absolute limit for that range will be
logged as a measurement failure and denoted by an 'F' in the 'Amplitude' column of the table. If no spurs
are reported, but the measured trace exceeds the limit line for any range, the fail flag is set to fail.
This measurement has the ability to display two traces using different detectors on the display
simultaneously. All spur detection and limit line testing are only applied to the trace associated with
Detector 1, which will be colored yellow. The trace associated with Detector 2 will be colored cyan.
If the sweep time for the range exceeds 2 seconds, a flashing message “Sweeping...Please Wait” will
appear in the annunciator area. This advises you that the time to complete the sweep is between 2 and
2000 seconds, and is used as without it the display would appear stagnant and you may think the
measurement is not functional.
Chapter 13
171
Concepts
Measurement Method
Concepts
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement Concepts
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement Concepts
Purpose
Concepts
The Spectrum Emission Mask measurement includes the in-band and out-of-band spurious emissions.
As it applies to W-CDMA (3GPP), this is the power contained in a specified frequency bandwidth at
certain offsets relative to the total carrier power. It may also be expressed as a ratio of power spectral
densities between the carrier and the specified offset frequency band.
This Spectrum Emission Mask measurement is a composite measurement of out-of-channel emissions,
combining both in-band and out-of-band specifications. It provides useful figures-of-merit for the
spectral regrowth and emissions produced by components and circuit blocks, without the rigor of
performing a full spectrum emissions mask measurement.
Measurement Method
The Spectrum Emission Mask measurement measures spurious signal levels in up to five pairs of
offset/region frequencies and relates them to the carrier power. The reference channel integration
bandwidth method is used to measure the carrier channel power and offset/region powers. When Offset
is selected, Spectrum Emission Mask measurements are made, relative to the carrier channel frequency
bandwidth. When Region is selected, Spurious Emission Absolute measurements are made, set by
specifying start and stop RF frequencies. The upper frequency range limit is 3.678 GHz.
This integration bandwidth method is used to perform a data acquisition. In this process, the reference
channel integration bandwidth (Meas BW) is analyzed using the automatically defined resolution
bandwidth (Res BW), which is much narrower than the channel bandwidth. The measurement computes
an average power of the channel or offset/region over a specified number of data acquisitions,
automatically compensating for resolution bandwidth and noise bandwidth.
This measurement requires the user to specify the measurement bandwidths of carrier channel and each
of the offset/region frequency pairs up to 5. Each pair may be defined with unique measurement
bandwidths. The results are displayed both as relative power in dBc, and as absolute power in dBm.
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Chapter 13
Concepts
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement Concepts
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement Concepts
Purpose
Occupied bandwidth measures the bandwidth containing 99.0 of the total transmission power.
The spectrum shape of a signal can give useful qualitative insight into transmitter operation. Any
distortion to the spectrum shape can indicate problems in transmitter performance.
Measurement Method
The total absolute power within the measurement frequency span is integrated for its 100% of power.
The lower and upper frequencies containing 0.5% each of the total power are then calculated to get
99.0% bandwidth.
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173
Concepts
The instrument uses digital signal processing (DSP) to sample the input signal and convert it to the
frequency domain. With the instrument tuned to a fixed center frequency, samples are digitized at a high
rate with DSP hardware, and then converted to the frequency domain with FFT software.
Concepts
Concepts
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement Concepts
174
Chapter 13
14
Programming Examples
•
The programming examples were written for use on an IBM compatible PC.
•
The programming examples use C, Visual Basic, or VEE programming
languages.
•
The programming examples use VISA interfaces (GPIB, LAN, or USB).
•
Some of the examples use the IVI-COM drivers.
Interchangeable Virtual Instruments COM (IVI-COM) drivers: Develop system
automation software easily and quickly. IVI-COM drivers take full advantage
of application development environments such as Visual Studio using Visual
Basic, C# or Visual C++ as well as Agilent's Test and Measurement Toolkit.
You can now develop application programs that are portable across computer
platforms and I/O interfaces. With IVI-COM drivers you do not need to have in
depth test instrument knowledge to develop sophisticated measurement
software. IVI-COM drivers provide a compatible interface to all .COM
environments. The IVI-COM software drivers can be found at the URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/ivi-com.
•
Most of the examples are written in C, Visual Basic, VEE, or LabVIew using
the Agilent VISA transition library.
The Agilent I/O Libraries Suite must be installed and the GPIB card, USB to
GPIB interface, or Lan interface USB interface configured. The latest Agilent
I/O Libraries Suite is available at: www.agilent.com/find/iolib.
•
The STATus subsystem of commands is used to monitor and query hardware
status. These hardware registers monitor various events and conditions in the
instrument. Details about the use of these commands and registers can be found
in the manual/help in the Utility Functions section on the STATus subsystem.
Visual Basic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
175
Programming Examples
X-Series Spectrum Analyzer Mode Programing Examples
X-Series Spectrum Analyzer Mode Programing
Examples
The following examples work with Spectrum Analyzer mode. These examples use
one of the following programming languages: Visual Basic® 6, Visual
Basic.NET®, MS Excel®, C++, ANSI C, C#.NET, and Agilent VEE Pro.
These examples are available in either the “progexamples” directory on the Agilent
Technologies Spectrum Analyzer documentation CD-ROM or the “progexamples”
directory in the analyzer. The file names for each example is listed at the end of the
example description. The examples can also be found on the Agilent Technologies,
Inc. web site at URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_programming
NOTE
These examples have all been tested and validated as functional in the Spectrum
Analyzer mode. They have not been tested in all other modes. However, they
should work in all other modes except where exceptions are noted.
Programming using Visual Basic® 6, Visual Basic.NET® and MS Excel®:
•
Transfer Screen Images from your Spectrum Analyzer using Visual Basic 6
This example program stores the current screen image on the instrument flash
memory as “D:\PICTURE.PNG”. It then transfers the image over GPIB or LAN
and stores the image on your PC in the current directory as “PICTURE.PNG”.
The file “D:\PICTURE.PNG” is then deleted on the instrument flash memory.
File name: _screen.bas
•
Binary Block Trace data transfer from your Spectrum Analyzer using Visual
Basic 6
This example program queries the IDN string from the instrument and then
reads the trace data in Spectrum Analysis mode in binary format (Real,32 or
Real,64 or Int,32). The data is then stored to a file “bintrace.txt”. This data
transfer method is faster than the default ASCII transfer mode, because less
data is sent over the bus.
File name: bintrace.bas
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Chapter 14
Programming Examples
X-Series Spectrum Analyzer Mode Programing Examples
Programming using C++, ANSI C and C#.NET:
•
Serial Poll for Sweep Complete using C++
This example demonstrates how to:
1. Perform an instrument sweep.
2. Poll the instrument to determine when the operation is complete.
3. Perform an instrument sweep.
File name: _Sweep.c
•
Service Request Method (SRQ) determines when a measurement is done by
waiting for SRQ and reading Status Register using C++.
This example demonstrates how:
1. Set the service request mask to assert SRQ when either a measurement is
uncalibrated or an error message has occurred,
2. Initiate a sweep and wait for the SRQ interrupt,
3. Poll all instruments and report the nature of the * interrupt on the spectrum
analyzer.
The STATus subsystem of commands is used to monitor and query hardware
status. These hardware registers monitor various events and conditions in the
instrument. Details about the use of these commands and registers can be found
in the manual/help in the Utility Functions section on the STATus subsystem.
File name: _SRQ.C
•
Relative Band Power Markers using C++
This example demonstrates how to set markers as Band Power Markers and
obtain their band power relative to another specified marker.
File name: _BPM.c
•
Trace Detector/Couple Markers using C++
This example demonstrates how to:
1. Set different types of traces (max hold, clear and write, min hold)
2. Set markers to specified traces
3. Couple markers
Note: The Spectrum Analyzer is capable of multiple simultaneous detectors
(i.e. peak detector for max hold, sample for clear and write, and negative peak
for min hold).
File name: _tracecouple.c
Chapter 14
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Programming Examples
X-Series Spectrum Analyzer Mode Programing Examples
•
Phase Noise using C++
This example demonstrates how to:
1. Remove instrument noise from the phase noise
2. Calculate the power difference between 2 traces
File name: _phasenoise.c
Programming using Agilent VEE Pro:
•
Transfer Screen Images from my Spectrum Analyzer using Agilent VEE Pro
This example program stores the current screen image on the instrument flash
memory as “D:\scr.png”. It then transfers the image over GPIB and stores the
image on your PC in the desired directory as “capture.gif”. The file “D:\scr.png”
is then deleted on the instrument flash memory.
File name: _ScreenCapture.vee
•
Transfer Trace Data data transfer using Agilent VEE Pro
This example program transfers the trace data from your Spectrum Analyzer.
The program queries the IDN string from the instrument and supports Integer
32, real 32, real 64 and ASCII data. The program returns 1001 trace points for
the signal analyzer.
File name: transfertrace.vee
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Chapter 14
Programming Examples
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples
The following examples work with 89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Mode. These
examples use one of the following programming languages: Visual Basic® 6,
Visual Studio 2003 .NET®, and Agilent VEE Pro.
These examples are available in either the “progexamples” directory on the Agilent
Technologies 89601X VXA documentation CD-ROM or the “progexamples”
directory in the analyzer. The file names for each example is listed at the end of the
example description. The examples can also be found on the Agilent Technologies,
Inc. web site at URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_programming
NOTE
These examples have all been tested and validated as functional in 89601X VXA
Signal Analyzer Mode.
Programming using Visual Basic® 6 and Visual Basic.NET®:
•
Setting up a Vector Measurement on your 89601X VXA using Visual Basic 6.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Vector Measurement.
— Configures the Vector Measurement.
— Starts the Vector Measurement.
— Reads the trace data in Real 64 data format
File name: VXA-MeasDemo.vbs
•
Setting up a Digital Demod Measurement on your 89601x VXA using Visual
Basic 6.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Configures the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Starts the Digital Measurement.
— Reads the trace data, EVM, and demodulated bits.
File name: VXA-DigDemodDemo.vbs
Chapter 14
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Programming Examples
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples
Programming using Agilent VEE Pro:
•
Setting up a VSA Measurement on your 89601X VXA using VEE.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Vector Measurement.
— Configures the Vector Measurement.
— Starts the Vector Measurement.
— Reads the trace data in Real 32, Real 64 and ASCII data format
File name: VXA-MeasDemo.vee
•
Setting up a Digital Demod Measurement on your 89601X VXA VEE.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Configures the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Starts the Digital Measurement.
— Reads the trace data, EVM, and demodulated bits.
File name: VXA-DigDemodDemo.vee
Programming using Visual Studio® 2003 .NET:
•
Setting up a VSA Measurement on your 89601X VXA using Visual Basic 6.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Vector Measurement.
— Configures the Vector Measurement.
— Starts the Vector Measurement.
— Reads the trace data in Real 64 data format
File name: VXA-MeasDemo.sln
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Chapter 14
Programming Examples
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples
•
Setting up a Digital Demod Measurement on your 89601X VXA using Visual
Basic 6.
This example program:
— Sets up the VSA Mode.
— Sets the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Configures the Digital Demod Measurement.
— Starts the Digital Measurement.
— Reads the trace data, EVM, and demodulated bits.
File name: VXA-DigDemodDemo.sln
Chapter 14
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Programming Examples
89601X VXA Signal Analyzer Programming Examples
182
Chapter 14
Index
Numerics
10 MHz reference, turning on 10
50 ohm load 13
50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss pad 13
75 ohm matching transformer 13
A
AC probe 13
Accessories 13
accessories
50 ohm load 13
50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss pad
13
75 ohm matching transformer 13
AC probe 13
broadband preamplifiers 14
GPIB cable 14
power splitters 14
RF limiters 14
transient limiters 14
ACP key
MEAS key 115
Meas key 115
ACP measurement 114
active function 20
Adjacent Channel Power measurement
114
AM demodulation
time-domain demodulation,
manually calculating 168
AM signal demodulation 132
amplifiers 14
analyzer distortion products 68
annotations, display 22
arrow keys, using 9
attenuation
input, reducing 46
setting automatically 48
setting manually 47
averaging
description 54
types 54
B
band power marker 85
Bluetooth power measurement 122
broadband preamplifiers 14
Burst Power key
Meas key 122
Burst Power measurement 122
D
data, entering from front panel 9
DC probes
use of 13
delta band marker function 41
delta marker 28
demodulating
AM 132
AM overview 132
detectors, average 52
display annotations 22
distortion measurements
identifying distortion products 68
identifying TOI distortion 71
overview 68
distortion products 68
drifting signals 64
E
Enter key, using 9
equipment 12
ESD safety accessories 15
examples
AM demodulation
manual demodulation 132
average detector, using 52
averaging, trace 54
distortion
identify distortion products 68
TOI 71
frequency accuracy 11
frequency drift 62
input attenuation, reducing 46
marker counter 58
measuring
low-level signals 52
noise
band power marker 81
channel power, using 83
noise marker 78
overview 76
signal to noise 76
resolution bandwidth, reducing 49
signals
low-level, overview 46
off-screen, comparing 30
on-screen, comparing 28
resolving, equal amplitude 32
resolving, small signals hidden by
large signals 36
signals, viewing 10
time gating
ESA-E time gate 104
PSA gated FFT 107
PSA gated sweep 101
trace averaging 54
tracking a signal 64
external reference (10 MHz), turning
on 10
F
factory preset, description 10
finding hidden signals 146
FM demodulation
time-domain demodulation,
manually calculating 168
frequency accuracy, increasing 11
frequency count, using 11
frequency readout resolution increased
58
front panel
connectors and keys 18
display annotations 22
entering data 9
symbols 26
G
gate delay
setting the gate delay, time gating 161
gate length
setting the gate length, time gating
161
gated FFT (PSA), concepts 155
gated LO (PSA), concepts 154
gated video (ESA), concepts 154
GPIB cable 14
183
Index
C
cable
GPIB 14
CCDF measurement 118
CCDP key
Meas key 119
Channel Power key
Meas key 111
Channel power measurement 110
channel power measurement
noise-like signals 83
comparing signals
two signals 28
two signals not on the same screen 30
complex spectrum measurement 169
Concepts
AM demodulation 168
FM demodulation 168
concepts
gated FFT (PSA) 155
gated LO (PSA) 154
gated video (ESA) 154
IF filter, defined 146
resolving signals of equal amplitude
146
resolving small signals hidden by
large signals 146
time gating 151
connectors, front panel 18
Index
H
harmonic distortion
measuring low-level signals 30
hold, maximum 63
I
identifying distortion products 68
initial setting for time gating 164
input attenuation, reducing 46
intermodulation distortion, third order
71
interval power marker function 41
iq waveform measurement 170
K
key overview 20
keypad, using 9
keys 18
knob, using 9
Index
L
limiters
RF and transient 14
load, 50 ohm 13
low-level signals
harmonics, measuring 30
input attenuation, reducing 46
resolution bandwidth, reducing 49
sweep time, reducing 52
trace averaging 54
M
marker
frequency and amplitude, reading 10
moving
to peak 10
to reference level 10
with knob or arrow key 10
turning off 11
marker annotation
change with frequency count 11
location 10
marker counter example
marker frequency resolution 58
marker function
delta band 41
interval power 41
markers
band power 81
delta 28
noise marker 76, 78
span pair 81
markers, advanced
band power 85
markers, advances
184
noise marker 85
Max Hold key 63
maximum hold 63
MEAS key
ACP key 115
Meas key
ACP key 115
Burst Power key 122
CCDP key 119
Channel Power key 111
Occupied BW key 112
Spectrum Emission Mask key 130
measure complex modulation power 41
measurement
ACP or spurious emissions mask 171
occupied bandwidth 173
spectrum shape 173
spectrum emission mask 172
measurements
distortion 68
identifying 68
TOI 71
frequency drift 62, 64
noise
band power marker 81
channel power 83
noise marker 78
overview 76
signal to noise 76
time gating 93
ESA-E time gate 104
PSA gated FFT 107
PSA gated sweep 101
menu keys 20
moving signals 64
N
navigating
tables 21
noise marker 85
noise measurements
band power marker, using 81
channel power, using 83
noise marker, using 78
overview 76
signal to noise 76
sweep time, reducing 52
noise power measurement near noise
floor 89
numeric keypad, using 9
O
occupied bandwidth
99.0% bandwidth 173
measurement method 173
purpose 173
total absolute power 173
Occupied Bandwidth measurement 112
Occupied BW key
Meas key 112
overview, keys and key menus 20
overviews
distortion 68
low-level signal 46
noise 76
resolving signals 146
time gating 151
P
positioning the gate, time gating 161
power amplifiers 14
power diff
trace math function 89
power splitters 14
preamplifiers 14
preset
factory 10
types 10
user, creating 10
probes
AC and DC 13
R
RBW selections 51
rear panel
symbols 26
rear panel features 24
reference level, setting 10
reference, turning on 10 MHz 10
resolution bandwidth
adjusting 49
resolving signals 146
resolving signals
small signals hidden by large signals
146
resolving two signals
equal amplitude 32, 146
resolving, equal amplitude 146
RF limiters 14
RPG, using 9
rules for time gating 163
S
screen annotation 22
signal parameters for a time-gated
measurement 159
signal tracking
example 64
marker tracking 39
using to resolve signals 39
signals
low-level, overview 46
off-screen, comparing 30
Index
on-screen, comparing 28
resolving, overview 146
separating, overview 146
signals, increasing accuracy 11
signals, viewing 10
softkeys, auto and man mode 9
softkeys, basic types 9
Span Zoom key 63
Spectrum (Frequency Domain) key
169
Spectrum analysis measurement
application 109
channel power 83
spectrum emission mask
in-band and out-of-band spurious
emissions 172
integration bandwidth method 172
measurement method 172
offset or region frequency pairs 172
purpose 172
reference channel integration
bandwidth 172
spectral regrowth 172
Spectrum Emission Mask key
Meas key 130
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement
129
spectrum measurement
method 169
splitters 14
static safety accessories 15
Statistical Power measurement 118
sweep time and sensitivity trade off 51
sweep time for a time-gated
measurement 104, 160
sweep time, changing 52
symbols, on front and rear panels 26
PSA gated sweep, using 101
rules 163
setting sweep time 164
setting the gate length 161
setting the resolution bandwidth 161,
162
setting the span 160, 162
setting the video bandwidth 161
signal parameters 159
steps for measuring unknown signals
158
sweep time 104, 160
triggering
edge mode 166
level mode 166
negative edge 166
positive edge 166
troubleshooting 165
time gating measurement 93
trace math function
power diff 89
tracking unstable signals 64
transient limiter 14
troubleshooting
time-gated measurements 165
U
unit softkeys, using 9
unstable signals 64
user preset
creating 10
description 10
W
waveform
method 170
Waveform (Time Domain) key 170
Index
T
tab key 21
table
navigation 21
test equipment 12
third order intermodulation distortion
example 71
time gating
description 151
ESA-E time gate, using 104
example 93
gated FFT (PSA), concepts 155
gated LO (PSA), concepts 154
gated video (ESA), concepts 154
how time gating works 153
initial settings 164
keys 160
positioning the gate 102, 161
PSA gated FFT, using 107
185
Index
Index
186
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