Genesis NP NPX Application Manual

Genesis NP NPX Application Manual
TM
APPLICATION
MANUAL
Genesis™ NP and NPX
Series
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
Genesis NP & NPX Series Application Manual
Table of contents
TM
Introduction
2
Technical Features
3
Applications
4
Battery Construction
4
Today’s Genesis™ NP Series is the
General Specifications NP Series
5
culmination of more than ten
Terminal Configurations
6
Battery Capacity Selection Charts
7
decades of battery manufacturing
experience. High energy density,
leak proof construction, excellent
performance in either float or
cyclic applications and long
service life combine to make the
Genesis NP Series the most
reliable and versatile maintenance
free rechargeable sealed lead acid
batteries available.
Discharge
7-9
Discharge Characteristics
Over-Discharge (Deep Discharge)
Storage, Self-Discharge, and Shelf Life
9
Self-Discharge
Shelf Life
Recharging Batteries in Storage
Impedance
9-10
Temperature Characteristics
Charging
10-13
Constant Current Charging
Two Step Constant Voltage Charging
Charging Voltage
Initial Charge Current Limit
Top Charging
Temperature Compensation
Charging Efficiency
Solar Powered Charging
Service Life
13
Cyclic Service Life
Float Service Life
Tips & Precautions
Glossary
Limited Warranty
2
www.enersys.com
14
14-15
16
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
TM
Technical Features
Construction
Benefit
The construction and sealing techniques of the Genesis NP
battery guarantee leakproof operation in any position with
no adverse effect to capacity or service life.
Electrolyte Suspension System
All Genesis NP batteries utilize an electrolyte suspension
system consisting of a high porosity, glass fiber material
which in conjunction with plates, totally absorb and
contain the electrolyte. No silica gels or any other
contaminants are used.
Gas Generation
Genesis NP batteries incorporate a built-in design that
controls gas generation and induces recombination of
more than 99% of gases generated during float usage.
Maintenance Free Operation
There is no need to check specific gravity of the electrolyte
or add water to Genesis NP batteries during float service
life. In fact, there is no provision for this type of
maintenance.
Low Pressure Valve Regulated System
All Genesis NP batteries are equipped with safety release
valves, designed to operate between 2 and 5 psi and
automatically reseal. Hence, there is never an excessive
accumulation of gas within the battery.
Heavy Duty Grids
Heavy duty lead calcium tin alloy grids provide an extra
margin of performance and service life in either float or
cyclic applications, even after repeated over discharges.
Cyclic Service Life
More than 1000 discharge/recharge cycles can be realized
from Genesis NP batteries, dependent on the average
depth of discharge.
Float Service Life
Genesis NP Series batteries have an expected life span of
3 to 5 years in float service applications.
Self Discharge - Shelf Life
The self discharge rate of the Genesis NP series at room
temperature is approximately 3% of rated capacity per
month.
Operating Temperature
Genesis NP Batteries may be operated over a broad range
of ambient temperatures.
Deep Discharge Recovery
Genesis NP batteries recover their capacities even after
repeated deep discharges.
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
3
Applications
A partial list of common applications include:
Float Sevice
Burglar and Fire Alarm
Office Machines
Cash Registers
Solar Power Devices
Telecommunications
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) Equipment
Emergency Lighting
Computers
Cyclic Service
Float/Cyclic Service
Audio and Video Equipment
Portable Lights
Electric Wheelchairs
Test Equipment
Geophysical Equipment
Medical Equipment
Communications
Cellular Telephones
Genesis NP Battery Construction
Terminal
Relief Valve
Lid
Sealant
Negative Plate
Container
Electrolyte
Retentive
Separator
Positive Plate
4
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
General Specifications NP Series
GENESIS NPH SERIES
Type
NPH2-12
NPH3.2-12
FR Type*
Volts
NPH2-12FR
NPH3.2-12FR
12
Nominal
Capacity
(10 hr rate - Ah)
2.0
3.2
Length
mm.
(in.)
68.0
2.68
134.0
5.28
Width
mm
51.0
67.0
(in.)
2.01
Overall Height
Incl. Terminals
mm.
(in.)
88.0
3.46
kgs.
0.84
(lbs.)
1.85
2
A
2.64
64.0
1.40
3.09
3
A
Overall Height
Incl. Terminals
mm.
(in.)
54.5
2.15
Layout
Terminals
2.52
Weight
Layout
Terminals
GENESIS NP SERIES
NP1.2-6
NP1.2-6FR
Nominal
Capacity
(20 hr rate - Ah)
1.2
NP2.8-6
NP2.8-6FR
2.8
67.0
2.64
34.0
1.34
3.0
134.0
5.28
34.0
1.33
64.0
2.52
0.65
1.43
1
A
4.0
70.0
2.76
47.0
1.85
105.5
4.15
0.85
1.87
5
A
Type
FR Type*
NP3-6
-
NP4-6
-
NP4.5-6
Volts
6
Length
mm.
(in.)
97.0
3.82
Width
mm
25.0
(in.)
0.98
105.0
4.13
Weight
kgs.
0.30
(lbs.)
0.66
1
A
0.59
1.30
5
A/D
-
4.5
70.0
2.76
47.0
1.85
107.0
4.21
0.87
1.92
5
A
NP5-6
NP5-6FR
5.0
70.0
2.76
47.0
1.85
107.0
4.21
0.93
2.05
5
A
NP7-6
A/D
NP7-6FR
7.0
151.0
5.95
64.0
1.33
97.5
3.84
1.35
2.98
1
NP8.5-6
-
8.5
98.0
3.86
56.0
2.21
118.0
4.65
1.60
3.53
9
A
NP10-6
NP10-6FR
10.0
151.0
5.95
50.0
1.97
97.5
3.84
2.00
4.41
1
A/D
NP12-6
NP12-6FR
12.0
151.0
5.95
50.0
1.97
101.0
3.98
2.07
4.56
1
A/D
NP0.8-12
NP0.8-12FR**
0.8
96.0
3.78
25.0
0.98
61.5
2.42
0.35
0.77
7
I/L
NP1.2-12
-
1.2
97.0
3.82
48.0
1.89
54.5
2.15
0.57
1.25
3
A
NP2-12
-
2.0
150.0
5.91
20.0
0.79
89.0
3.50
0.70
1.54
8
B
NP2-12-C
-
2.3
182.0
7.17
23.5
0.90
61.0
2.40
0.73
1.61
6
TU
-
NP2.3-12FR
2.3
178.0
7.01
34.0
1.34
64.0
2.52
0.94
2.07
1
A
-
NP2.6-12FR
2.6
134.0
5.28
67.0
2.64
64.0
2.52
1.12
2.47
3
A
NP2.9-12
NP2.9-12FR
2.9
132.0
5.20
33.0
1.30
104.0
4.09
1.16
0.56
1
A/D
NP3-12
NP3-12FR
3.0
132.0
5.20
33.0
1.30
104.5
4.11
1.20
2.65
1
A/D
NP3.4-12FR
3.4
134.0
5.28
67.0
2.64
67.0
2.64
1.37
3.02
3
A/D
NP4-12
NP4-12FR
4.0
90.0
3.54
70.0
2.76
106.0
4.17
1.70
3.74
1
A/D
NP5-12
NP5-12FR
5.0
90.0
3.54
70.0
2.76
106.0
4.17
2.00
4.41
1
A/D
NP7-12
NP7-12FR
7.0
151.0
5.94
65.0
2.56
97.5
3.84
2.65
6.17
4
A/D
NP12-12
NP12-12FR
12.0
151.0
5.94
98.0
3.86
97.5
3.84
4.00
8.82
4
D
NP18-12BFR
17.2
181.0
7.13
76.2
2.99
167.0
6.57
6.20
13.64
2
E
NP24-12
NP24-12FR
24.0
166.0
6.54
175.0
6.89
125.0
4.92
8.65
19.05
2
C
NP33-12
NP33-12FR
32.9
195.3
7.69
132.6
5.22
155.2†
6.11†
10.90
24.00
1
M
-
NP38-12B
38.0
197.0
7.74
165.0
6.50
175.0
6.89
13.80
30.40
2
J
-
NP38-12R
38.0
197.0
7.74
165.0
6.50
175.0
6.89
13.80
30.40
2
K
M
NP3.4-12
NP18-12B
12
NP55-12
NP55-12FR
56.3
250.4
9.86
139.1
5.48
207.0†
8.15†
18.70
41.10
1
NP65-12
NP65-12FR
65.0
350.0
13.78
166.0
6.54
174.0
6.85
22.80
50.20
2
G
NP75-12
NP75-12FR
77.5
281.6
11.09
169.2
6.66
207.0†
8.15†
24.90
54.70
1
M
NP90-12
NP90-12FR
90.0
304.0
11.97
168.0
6.61
229.0
9.12
30.50
67.24
1
G
NP100-12
NP100-12FR
91.6
330.9
13.03
169.2
6.66
207.0†
8.15†
29.80
65.70
1
M
NP120-12
NP120-12FR
120.0
407.0
16.02
173.0
6.81
234.5
9.23
41.30
91.05
1
G
NP150-12
NP150-12FR
150.0
483.0
19.02
170.0
6.69
241.0
9.49
46.80
103.17
1
G
NP200-12
NP200-12FR
200.0
520.0
20.47
260.0
10.24
240.0
9.45
74.00
163.10
3
G
Layout
Terminals
1
1
A/D
D
DATASAFE NPX SERIES
Type
FR Type*
NPX-50
NPX-25
NPX-50FR
NPX-25FR
NPX-35
NPX-80
Volts
6
W/Cell to 1.67
End Voltage
(15 Min Rate)
Length
mm.
(in.)
Width
mm
(in.)
Overall Height
Incl. Terminals
mm.
(in.)
3.84
4.17
kgs.
(lbs.)
2.00
2.00
4.41
4.41
50W/Cell
23W/Cell
151.0
90.0
5.95
3.54
50.0
70.0
1.97
2.75
NPX-35FR
35W/Cell
151.0
5.94
65.0
2.56
97.5
3.84
2.67
6.24
4
A/D
NPX-80FR
80W/Cell
181.0
7.13
76.2
2.99
167.0
6.57
6.60
14.50
2
E
-
NPX-100B
95W/Cell
166.0
6.54
125.0
4.92
175.0
6.89
9.30
20.80
2
J
-
NPX-100R
95W/Cell
166.0
6.54
125.0
4.92
175.0
6.89
9.30
20.80
2
K
12
97.5
106.0
Weight
-
NPX-150B
150W/Cell
197.0
7.76
165.0
6.50
175.0
6.89
15.50
34.10
2
J
-
NPX-150R
150W/Cell
197.0
7.76
165.0
6.50
175.0
6.89
15.50
34.10
2
K
FOOTNOTES:
* FR: UL94-VO, Flame Retardant Case and Cover (Oxygen index: 30)
** FR: UL94-V2, Flame Retardant Case and Cover (Oxygen index: 30)
Recognized by UL File No. MH16464
www.enersys.com
† Height is to top cover. Overall height, including terminal is dependent
on terminal configuration.
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
5
Range Summary
• LAYOUT
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
5
• TERMINAL
Faston tab : 187 A
0.860
0.530
0.430
0.295
Tyco. 1-480318-0 L
U Positive
Terminal
• Standby use: Apply constant voltage charging at 2.275 volts
per cell (or 2.25–2.30VPC).
• Cyclic use: Apply constant voltage charging at 2.40-2.50 VPC.
Initial charging current should be set at less than 0.25CA.
Top charge: Product in storage (ambient temperature 25°C/77°F)
requires a top charge every six months. Apply constant voltage at
2.40 volts per cell, initial charging current should be set at
less than 0.1CA for 15 to 20 hours.
Discharge
• Stop operation when voltage has reached the minimum
permissible voltage. Recharge immediately.
• Do not operate at 6CA or more current continuously.
Storage
• Always store battery in a fully charged condition.
• If battery is to be stored for a long period, apply a recovery
•
6
top-charge every 6 months.
Store batteries in a dry and cool location.
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B
NB
MJ
AP
MG
U
NP33-12
mm
ins
5.1
22.8
28.4
22.8
38.1
22.8
0.20
0.90
1.12
0.90
1.50
0.90
NP55/75/100-12
mm
ins
3.3
21.1
26.9
21.1
36.3
21.1
0.13
0.83
1.06
0.83
1.43
0.83
Note:
Dimensions are in inches (mm)
Tolerances are -+ 0.04 in. (-+1mm)
and +- 0.08 in. (-+ 2mm) for height
dimensions.
MJ Terminal
NB Terminal
Automotive Type
AP Negative
MG Negative
Charging
•
Terminal
Type
Automotive Type
AP Positive
MG Positive
U Negative
Terminal
M
Terminal height above cover
B Terminal
Temperature
• Keep within ambient temperatures of –150C to +500C for both
charging and discharging.
Incorporating battery into equipment
• Encase battery in a well ventilated compartment.
• Avoid installing battery near heated units such as a transformer.
• House the battery in the lowest section of the equipment
enclosure or rack to prevent unnecessary battery temperature
rise.
Others
• Avoid terminal short circuit.
• DO NOT expose to open flame.
• Avoid setting batteries in environments which can cause
direct contact to gasoline, paint thinner, organic solvents,
synthetic resins, oil, etc.
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
Battery Capacity Selection
Discharge
Figures 1 and 2 may be used to determine battery size
(expressed in Ampere Hours of capacity), for a specific
application. To determine the capacity of the battery,
establish the discharge current for the length of discharge
time required. The point where the current and time lines
intersect is the minimum capacity battery needed for the
application. It is recommended you refer to Figures 3, 13, &
17 before making your final decision.
■ Discharge Characteristics
The curves shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, & 4 and the discharge
rates shown in Tables 1, 2, & 3 illustrate the typical discharge
characteristics of Genesis NP and Genesis NPH batteries at an
ambient temperature of 25˚C (77˚F). The symbol “C”
expresses the nominal capacity of the Genesis NP battery,
measured at a 20 hour discharge rate and the Genesis NPH
at a 10 hour discharge rate. Please refer to General
Specifications to determine the nominal capacity rating of
the specific model.
AT 25ºC (77ºF)
HOURS
The industry standard for designating the nominal capacity of
a sealed lead acid battery involves a discharge test for a given
number of hours to a final pre-set end voltage. The average
current value multiplied by the hours of discharge time
determines the capacity rating of that particular battery.
Since manufacturers vary in their rating standards, it is
always a good practice to question the rating standard.
MINUTES
Tables 1 and 2 show how the rated nominal capacity
decreases when the discharge load is higher than the 20
hour rate. These tables should be consulted when selecting
a battery for a high discharge application.
The discharge rates depicted in Table 2.5 reference watts
per cell of the DataSafe NPX series of batteries. These
batteries are designed for Uninterruptable Power Supply
(UPS) applications where high rate discharge performance
(under 30 minutes) is typical. To determine the battery
kilowatt rating required for a UPS system, refer to the
following formula: KVA rating of UPS x Power Factor (Pf)
÷ inverter efficiency = Total Battery Kilowatts (KWB).
DISCHARGE CURRENT
Figure 1. 20-Hour Rate Capacity Selection Chart
NPH Series Characteristics Curves
➞
AT 25ºC (77ºF)
10
8
HOURS
6
NPH3.2-12
4
3
➞➞
➞
60
➞
40
NPH2-12
20
MINUTES
DISCHARGE TIME
2
Figure 3. Discharge Characteristic Curves: Genesis NP Batteries
10
6
➞
3
100
➞
200
300 400
mA
600 800 1000
2
➞➞
3
4
6
A
8
10
20
➞
DISCHARGE CURRENT
Figure 2. Capacity Selection Chart Genesis NPH Series
Figure 4. Discharge Characteristic Curves: Genesis NPH Batteries
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
7
Table 1. Discharge Current at Stipulated Discharge Rates
20 Hr.
Capacity
0.8 A
1.2
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
17.2
24.0
26.0
38.0
65.0
Discharge Current
0.05C
0.04 A
0.06
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.35
0.50
0.60
0.86
1.20
1.30
1.90
3.25
0.1C
0.2C
0.08 A
0.12
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.70
1.00
1.20
1.72
2.40
2.60
3.80
6.50
0.4C
0.16 A
0.24
0.40
0.46
0.52
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.40
2.00
2.40
3.44
4.80
5.20
7.60
13.00
0.6C
0.32 A
0.48
0.80
0.92
1.04
1.20
1.60
2.00
2.80
4.00
4.80
6.88
9.60
10.40
15.20
26.00
0.48 A
0.72
1.20
1.38
1.56
1.80
2.40
3.00
4.20
6.00
7.20
10.32
14.40
15.60
22.80
39.00
1C
2C
0.8 A
1.2
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
17.2
24.0
26.0
38.0
65.0
3C
1.6 A
2.4
4.0
4.6
5.2
6.0
8.0
10.0
14.0
20.0
24.0
34.4
48.0
52.0
76.0
130.0
2.4 A
3.6
6.0
6.9
7.8
9.0
12.0
30.0
21.0
30.0
36.0
51.6
72.0
78.0
114.0
195.0
Table 2. Discharge Current at Stipulated Discharge Rates (NPH)
Discharge Current
10 Hr.
Capacity
0.01C
0.2C
0.4C
0.6C
0.8C
1C
2C
3C
2.0
2.3
3.2
0.20
0.23
0.32
0.40
0.46
0.64
0.80
0.92
1.28
1.20
1.38
1.90
1.40
1.50
2.54
2.00
2.30
3.20
4.00
4.60
6.40
6.00
6.90
9.60
Table 2.5 NPX Watts Per Cell to 1.67 End Voltage
NPX-25
NPX-50
NPX-35
NPX-80
NPX-100
NPX-150
5 MIN
10 MIN
15 MIN
20 MIN
47
94
66
155
185
285
31
60
45
104
125
200
23
50
35
80
95
150
18
38
29
65
75
120
Table 3. Discharge Capacity at Various Discharge Rates
Discharge Capacity
20 Hr.
Capacity
0.8 Ah
1.2
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
17.2
24.0
26.0
38.0
65.0
8
www.enersys.com
20 Hr.
10 Hr.
5 Hr.
3 Hr.
1 Hr.
0.05CA to 1.75 V/C
0.093CA to 1.75 V/C
0.17CA to 1.70 V/C
0.25CA to 1.67 V/C
0.60CA to 1.55 V/C
0.68 Ah
1.0
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.6
3.4
4.3
6.0
8.5
10.2
14.6
20.4
22.1
32.3
55.2
0.62 Ah
0.9
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
3.1
3.8
5.4
7.7
9.2
13.2
18.5
20.0
29.3
50.1
0.48 Ah
0.7
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
3.0
4.2
6.0
7.2
10.3
14.4
15.6
22.8
39.0
0.8 Ah
1.2
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
17.2
24.0
26.0
38.0
65.0
0.74 Ah
1.1
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.8
3.7
4.6
6.5
9.3
11.2
16.0
22.3
24.2
35.0
60.5
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
■ Over-Discharge (Deep Discharge)
The dotted line in Figures 3 & 4 indicates the lowest
recommended voltage under load, or cut-off voltage, at
various discharge rates. In general, lead acid batteries are
damaged in terms of capacity and service life if discharged
below the recommended cut-off voltages. It is generally
recognized that all lead calcium alloy grid batteries are subject
to over-discharge damage. For example, if a lead acid battery
were discharged to zero and left in either open or closed
circuit for a long period of time, severe sulfation and shorting
would occur, thus raising the internal resistance abnormally
high. In such an extreme case, the battery may not accept a
charge.
Genesis NP Series batteries however, have been designed to
withstand such occasional over discharge. While it is not
recommended, Genesis NP batteries can recover their full
capacity under normal charging conditions, even when they
have been subjected to extreme over discharge.
lower the charge acceptance. “Brief storage”, ie., a few days,
at temperatures higher than the ranges recommended, will
have no adverse effect on storage time or service life.
However, if such use continues for more than one month, the
storage time must be determined according to the new
ambient temperature.
Table 5 below shows the normal storage time or shelf life at
various ambient temperatures.
Table 5. Shelf Life at Various Temperatures
Temperature
Shelf Life
00C ( 320F) to 200C ( 680F)
210C ( 700F) to 300C ( 860F)
310C ( 880F) to 400C (1040F)
410C (1060F) to 500C (1220F)
12 months
9 months
5 months
2.5 months
Final discharge voltage is as shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Final Discharge Voltage
Discharge Current
Final Discharge (V/Cell)
0.1 C or below, or Intermittent discharge
1.75
0.1 7C or current close to it
1.70
0.26C or current close to it
1.67
0.6C or current close to it
1.60
From 0.6C to 3C
1.50
Current in excess of 3C
1.30
When considering discharge currents exceeding 3C, consult
with an EnerSys Application Engineer.
■ Self-Discharge
The self-discharge rate of Genesis NP batteries is approximately 3% per month when the storage temperature is
maintained at 200C (680F). The self-discharge rate will vary
with storage temperature and the remaining capacity.
Figure 6. Open Circuit Voltage vs. State of Charge
■ Recharging Stored Batteries
In general, to optimize performance and service life, it is
ecommended that Genesis NP batteries which are to be
stored for extended periods of time be given a supplementary
charge, commonly referred to as a “refresh charge”,
periodically. Please refer to the recommendations listed
under REFRESH CHARGING.
Impedance
Storage, Self-Discharge and Shelf Life
The internal resistance (impedance) of a battery is lowest
when the battery is in a fully charged state. The internal
resistance increases gradually during discharge, Figure 7
shows the internal resistance of an Genesis NP battery
measured through a 1,000 Hz AC bridge.
REMAINING CAPACITY
(%)
INTERNAL
RESISTANCE
(mΩ)
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
(V)
BATTERY: NP7-12
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 250C (770F)
MEASURED WITH 1000Hz AC BRIDGE
200C
STORAGE TIME (MONTHS)
Figure 5.
Self Discharge Characteristics
■ Shelf Life
In general, when lead acid batteries of any type are stored in a
discharged condition for extended periods of time, lead
sulfate is formed on the negative plates of the batteries. This
phenomenon is referred to as “sulfation”. Since the lead
sulfate acts as an insulator, it has a direct detrimental effect
on charge acceptance. The more advanced the sulfation, the
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DISCHARGE TIME (HOURS)
Figure 7. Internal Resistance of NP Battery
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9
■ Temperature characteristics
■ Two Step Constant Voltage Charging
At higher temperatures, the electrical capacity that can be
taken out of a battery increases. At lower temperatures, the
electrical capacity that can be taken out of a battery
decreases. Figure 8 shows the temperature effects in relation
to battery capacity.
Two step constant voltage charging is the recommended
method for charging a sealed lead-acid battery in a short
period of time, and maintaining the battery in a fully charged
standby or float condition,thereafter. Figure 10 illustrates the
characteristics of a two step constant voltage charger.
Figure 8. Temperature Effects in Relation to Battery Capacity
Figure 10. Charging Characteristics of a Two Step Constant-Voltage
Charger
Charging
Proper charging is one of the most important factors to
consider when using maintenance free sealed lead-acid
batteries. Battery performance and service life will be directly
effected by the efficiency of the charger selected. The two
charging methods are:
■ Constant Current Charging
■ Two Step Constant-Voltage Charging
■ Constant-Current Charging
This charging method is not often utilized for sealed lead- acid
batteries, but is an effective method for charging a multiple
number of batteries at one time, and/or as an equalizing
charge to correct variances in capacity between batteries in a
group. Caution should be exercised when charging by
constantcurrent. If the charge is continued at the same rate
for an extended period of time after the battery has reached a
fully charged state, severe overcharge may occur, resulting in
damage to the battery. Figure 9 shows the characteristics of
an Genesis NP battery under continuous overcharge
conditions.
The characteristics shown in Figure 10 are those of a constant
voltage, constant current charger. In the initial charging
stage, the battery is charged by constant current. The
charging voltage rises, as the charge continues, until it
reaches 2.45 volts per cell, at which point the charging mode
automatically changes to constant voltage charging. During
the constant current charging stage (A-B) the charging current
which has decreased to point B is sensed, and the charging
voltage is switched to the float level of 2.3 volts per cell from
the recovery level of 2.45 volts per cell. The switch to
constant voltage trickle charging occurs after the battery has
recovered approximately 80% of the rated capacity over a
given period of time. This charging method is one of the most
efficient. The recharge time is minimized during the initial
charging stage while the battery is protected from overcharge
by the system switching over to float charge at the switching
point B.
OVERCHARGING CURRENT:0.6A (0.1CA)
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 25ºC (77ºF)
CAPACITY TEST: 1.5A to 10.2V EVERY 100 HOURS
n=2
Figure 9. Overcharge Characteristics of NP7-12 Under
Continuous Overcharge
10
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
■ Charging Voltage
■ Refresh Charging
The charging voltage should be regulated according to the
type of service in which the battery will be used. Generally,
the following voltages are used at 25˚C (77˚F).
Since any battery loses capacity through self-discharge, it is
recommended that a “refresh charging” be applied to any
battery which has been stored for a long period of time, prior
to putting the battery into service. Excepting conditions in
which storage temperature have been abnormally high,
refresh charging is recommended within the following
parameters:
For standby (float) use . . . . . . . 2.25 to 2.30 volts per cell
For cyclic use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.40 to 2.50 volts per cell
In a constant voltage charging system, a large amount of
current will flow during the initial stage of charging, and
decreases as the charging progresses. When charging at 2.30
volts per cell, charging current at the final stage of charging
will drop to as little as 0.002CA.
Charging voltage should be regulated in relation to the
ambient temperature. When the temperature is higher, the
charging voltage should be lower. When the temperature is
lower, the charging voltage should be higher. For specific
recommendations, please refer to the section on Temperature
Compensation. Similarly, capacity (measured in amperehours) attainable over time will vary in direct relation to the
ambient temperature. The capacity in a given period of time
will be larger at higher temperatures, and smaller at lower
temperatures.
■ Initial Charge Current Limit
A discharged battery will accept a high charging current at the
initial stage of charging. High charging current can cause
abnormal internal heating which may damage the battery.
Therefore, it is recommended that the charging current be
normally limited to 0.25CA. However, in standby use, Genesis
NP batteries are designed so that even if the charging current
is higher than the recommended limit, they will not accept
more than 2CA, and the charging current will be reduced to a
relatively small value in a very brief period of time. Therefore,
in standby use, no current limit is required. Figure 11 shows
current acceptance in Genesis NP batteries charged at
constant voltage, with no current limit.
When designing a charger, it is recommended that a current
limiting function be provided in the charger in order to
prevent charger failure due to overheating of the transformer,
or other damage resulting from mishandling, i.e., short
circuiting or reversing polarity.
CHARGE VOLTAGE: 2.30V/C
TEMPERATURE: 25ºC (77ºF)
Figure 11.
Battery Age
Refresh Charging Recommendations
Within 6 months
after manufacture
4 to 6 hours at constant current of 0.1CA, or 15 to 20
hours at constant voltage of 2.40 volts per cell.
Within 12 months
after manufacture
8 to 10 hours at constant current of 0.1CA, or 20 to 24
hours at constant voltage of 2.40 volts per cell.
Genesis NP batteries must not be allowed to self-discharge to
less than 2.08 volts per cell on open circuit. To recover deeply
discharged batteries, charge them for 24 hours using a
constant voltage charger set at 2.40 volts per cell at 25˚C
(77˚F) with a maximum current of 0.15C. A 16-hour recovery
charge is possible by setting the charge voltage at 2.45 volts
per cell and a maximum current of 0.25C.
In view of the above, consideration should be given to the fact
that if the charging method used is constant voltage in which
the charger employs current sensing for either state of charge
indication or for reducing voltage (a two step charger), during
the initial stage of charging an over-discharged battery the
charger may give a false “full charge” indication, or may
initiate charge at a float voltage.
■ Temperature Compensation
As temperature rises, electrochemical activity in a battery
increases. Similarly, as temperature falls, electrochemical
activity decreases. Therefore, conversely, as temperature
rises, charging voltage should be reduced to prevent
overcharge, and increased as temperature falls to avoid
undercharge. In general, to assure optimum service life, use
of a temperature compensated charger is recommended.
The recommended compensation factor for Genesis NP
batteries is -3mV/0C/Cell (stand by) and -4mV/0C/Cell (cyclic
use). The standard center point for temperature compensation is 250C (770F). Figure 12 shows the relationship between
temperatures and charging voltages in both cyclic and
standby applications.
Constant-Voltage Charge Characteristics with no
Current Limit
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
11
The charging efficiency varies depending upon the state of
charge of the battery, temperature, and charging rate. Figure
13 illustrates the concept of the state of charge and charging
efficiency. As shown in Figure 14, Genesis NP batteries
exhibit very high charging efficiency, even when charged at
low charging rates. It is interesting to note that the charging
efficiency of Genesis NP sealed lead-acid batteries is superior
to that of other batteries at relatively low charge rates.
CY
CLE
STAN
D- B Y
USE
USE
Figure 12. Relationship Between Charging Voltage and Temperature
In actual use in indoor applications (50C to 400C or 410F to
1040F), it is not necessary to provide the charger with a
temperature compensation function, but it is desirable to set
the voltage at the value shown in Figure 12 which
corresponds most closely to the average ambient temperature
of the battery during service.
When designing a charger equipped with temperature
compensation, the temperature sensor must sense only the
temperature of the battery. Therefore, consideration should
be given to isolating the battery and temperature sensor from
other heat generating components of a system.
■ Charging Efficiency
The charging efficiency (η) of a battery is expressed by the
following formula:
η=
AH Discharged After Charged
AH Delivered To The Battery During Charge
Figure 14. Charging Efficiency
■ Solar Powered Chargers
A battery is an indispensable component of any solar
powered system designed for demand-energy use. Since
solar cells have inherent constant voltage characteristics,
Genesis NP batteries can be charged directly from the solar
array using a simple diode regulated circuit as shown in
Figure15.
In designing a solar system, consideration should be given to
the fact that, in addition to normal periods of darkness,
weather conditions may be such that solar energy is limited,
or virtually unavailable for long periods of time. In extreme
cases, a system may have to operate for 10 to 20 days with
little or no power available for charging. Therefore, when
selecting the correct battery for a solar application, the
capacity should be determined based upon maximum load
conditions for the maximum period of time the system may
be expected to be without adequate solar input.
In many instances the battery capacity will be 10 to 50 times
greater than the maximum output of the solar panels. Under
these circumstances, the maximum output of the solar array
should be dedicated to charging the battery with no loadsharing or intervening control devices of any kind.
Naturally, in cases where the output of the solar array exceeds
the capacity of the battery, and weather conditions are such
that the potential for overcharging the battery exists,
appropriate regulated charging circuitry between the solar
panels and the battery is recommended.
Figure 13. Charging Efficiency vs. State of Charge
12
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
expected, and the depth of discharge is readily apparent. In
relation to a specified discharge rate, if the application
requires a longer cyclic life than is obtainable by selecting the
battery capacity according common practice, select a battery
with larger capacity. Thus, at the specified discharge rate
over the specified time, the depth of discharge will be
shallower and cyclic service life will be longer.
■ Float Service Life
Genesis NP batteries are designed to operate in standby
(float) service for approximately 5 years, based upon a normal
service condition in which float charge voltage is maintained
between 2.25 and 2.30 volts per cell in an ambient
temperature of approximately 250C (770F).
Figure 17 shows the float service life characteristics of
Genesis NP batteries when discharged once every three (3)
months to 100% depth of discharge.
Figure 15. Block Diagram of a Solar System
Remote site, or other outdoor applications for solar systems is
commonplace. When designing a solar system for this class
of application, a great deal of consideration must be given to
environmental conditions. For example, enclosures which
may be used to house batteries and other equipment may be
subject to extremely high internal temperatures when
exposed to direct sunlight. Under those conditions, insulating
the enclosure and/or treating the surface of the enclosure with
a highly reflective, heat resistive material is recommended.In
general, when designing a solar system, consultation with the
solar panel manufacturer and battery manufacturer is
recommended.
Expected Service Life of Genesis
NP Batteries
■ Cyclic Service Life
There are a number of factors that will effect the length
of cyclic service of a battery. The most significant are
ambient operating temperature, discharge rate, depth of
discharge, and the manner in which the battery is recharged.
Generally speaking, the most important factor is depth of
discharge. Figure 16 illustrates the effects of depth of
discharge on cyclic life.
TESTING CONDITIONS: FLOATING VOLTAGE: 2.25 to 2.30V/CELL
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 20ºC TO 22ºC (68ºF TO 72ºF)
Figure 17. Float Service Life
In normal float service, where charging voltage is maintained
2.25 to 2.30 volts per cell, the gases generated inside and
Genesis NP battery are continually recombined, and return to
the water content of the electrolyte. Therefore, electrical
capacity is not lost due to “drying up” of the electrolyte.
Actually, through the gradual and very slow corrosion of the
electrodes, the battery will eventually lose capacity and come
to the end of service life. It should be noted that the corrosive
process will be accelerated by high ambient operating
temperatures and/or high charging voltage. When designing
a float service system, always consider the following:
LENGTH OF SERVICE LIFE WILL BE DIRECTLY
EFFECTED BY THE NUMBER OF DISCHARGE CYCLES,
DEPTH OF DISCHARGE, AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, AND
CHARGING VOLTAGE.
PERCENTAGE OF CAPACITY AVAILABLE
TESTING CONDITIONS: DISCHARGE CURRENT: 0.17C AMP. (F.V. 1.7V/CELL)
CHARGING CURRENT: 0.09C AMP.
CHARGING VOLUME: 125% OF DISCHARGED CAPACITY
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 20°C TO 25°C (68°F TO 77°F)
(AH%)
120
100
80
60
100% D.O.D.
50% D.O.D.
30% DEPTH OF DISCHARGE
40
20
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
NUMBER OF CYCLES (CYCLES)
Figure 16. Cyclic Service Life in Relation to Depth of Discharge
Genesis NP Series
The relationship between the number of cycles which can be
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
13
Tips and Precautions
Genesis NP Series batteries are truly efficient maintenance free electro-chemical systems and are designed to provide years
of trouble free service. Their performance and service life can be greatly maximized by observing the following guidelines.
1. Heat
kills batteries. Avoid installation and/or
operation in close proximity to heat sources of any kind.
While the operating temperature range is -15°C to 50°C,
and ideal service life will be realized when the battery is
operated in an ambient temperature of 20°C (for cyclic
service applications, a range of 5°C to 35°C is
recommended).
8. When batteries are connected together in a series-parallel
arrangement, the inter-connecting cables must be of equal
length and resistance to insure equalization of the load.
9. For maximum life expectancy, the R.M.S. ripple
current should be regulated to no more than 0.1C (10% of
battery's rating).
2. If the battery is to be installed in an air or water tight
10. Do not crush, incinerate or dismantle the battery. The
container, ventilation must be provided. Batteries may
generate ignitable gases which must not be contained.
Because of this, batteries should not be installed near
spark producing equipment.
electrolyte contains sulfuric acid which can cause serious
damage to eyes and skin. Should this occur, flush
profusely with water and seek medical attention.
11. Mixing batteries of different capacities, age and/or
3. Avoid installing the battery in an atmosphere where
organic solvents or adhesives may be present. Do not
clean the battery with oils, thinners or similar substances.
Use water only. The case and cover of the battery is ABS
plastic resin which may suffer damage from these
chemicals.
4. Soldering to the battery terminals is NOT recommended.
If soldering is unavoidable, it must be accomplished within 3 seconds, using a maximum 100 watt soldering iron.
manufacture is not recommended. Please consult with an
application engineer if it is unavoidably necessary.
12. Battery life is dependent on its operating conditions.
Please refer to the life curves published in this
Applications Manual. These curves represent typical
results under optimum operating conditions. Actual life
will vary greatly due to variability of these conditions. To
obtain optimum battery performance for standby service,
EnerSys recommends that within five years of use, the NP
batteries be replaced.
5. If installed in a heavy vibration or shock application, the
battery must be securely fastened with shock absorbing
materials.
6. Provide free air space between batteries when more than
two are grouped together. The recommended distance is
0.2" to 0.4" (5mm to 10mm).
7. Always wear insulated gloves when handling batteries;
especially when series and parallel connecting groups of
batteries.
13. Observe the external appearance of the battery. If, at any
time, cracks, deformation or other damage is found on the
battery case or cover, or if any leakage of the electrolyte is
observed, immediately replace the battery.
Note: If a battery with any irregular appearance as
stated above is used continuously, a decrease in
capacity, leak age of electrolyte, short circuits and
a potential for a smoke and/or fire incident may occur.
Glossary of Terms
Active Material
The active electro-chemical materials used in the manufacture of
positive and negative electrodes.
Ambient Temperature
The average temperature seen by the battery.
Ambient Capacity
The capacity from the battery based on its state of charge, rate of
discharge, and ambient temperature.
Battery
Two or more cells, series connected together. A single cell is some
times referred to as a battery.
C-Rate
CA
C Ampere; the C-rate of a battery measured in amperes.
Capacity Fade
Loss of capacity due to inadequate recharging.
Cell
The minimum unit of which a storage battery is composed. Note:
The nominal voltage of a single lead acid cell is 2.0 volts.
Closed Circuit Voltage Test
A test method in which the battery is briefly discharged at a constant
current while the voltage is measured.
Closed Voltage Test
14
A current rate expressed in amperes or milliamperes, in direct
relation to a battery's ampere hour rating. Ex: 6 Ah rating, 1C = 6
amps; 3C = 18 Amps; 0.05C = 300 milliamps.
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A method of charging batteries by applying a fixed voltage and
allowing the current to vary. Recommended for sealed lead
acid batteries. (Also called constant potential charge).
Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
Glossary of Terms (Continued)
Cutoff Voltage
The final voltage of a cell or battery at the end of charge or discharge.
Cycle
A single charge and discharge of a cell or battery.
Discharge Rate
Current taken from a cell or battery and expressed as a fraction
of C (Ampere-hour rating of the cell or battery).
End-of-Charge Voltage
The voltage reached by the cell of battery at the end-of-charge,
while the charger is still attached.
Electrolyte
Conducts ions in the cell. Lead acid batteries use a sulfuric acid
solution.
Energy Density
Ratio of cell or battery energy to unit weight (pound or kilogram)
or unit volume (cubic inch or cubic meter)
Gas Absorption
The ability of the negative plate to absorb oxygen gas generated
within the battery; the greater this ability, the greater the charge
current capability.
High-Rate Discharge
A very rapid discharge of the battery. Normally in multiples of C
(Ampere-hour rating of the cell or battery).
Internal Impedance
The resistive value of the battery to an AC current, expressed in
ohms. Normally measured at 1 khz at full charge.
Low Voltage Cutoff
A sensing device designed to end discharge at a predetermined
voltage level.
Nominal Capacity
The nominal value of rated capacity. In sealed lead acid batteries,
nominal capacity is usually measured at the 20 hour rate.
Nominal Voltage
The nominal value of rated voltage. In lead acid batteries, nominal
voltage is 2 volts per cell.
Open Circuit Voltage
The measured voltage of the cell or battery without a load attached.
Overcharge
The continuous charging of a cell after it achieves 100% of
capacity. Battery life is reduced by prolonged over charging.
Parallel Connection
Connection of a group of batteries by inter-connecting all
terminals of the same polarity, thereby increasing the capacity of
the battery group. (Note: Differing brands and/or capacities should
not be connected together).
Primary Cell
A cell which can be discharged only once. Example: Manganese
zinc and alkaline.
Rated Capacity
The capacity of the cell expressed in ampere hours. Commonly, a
constant current for a designated number of hours to a specified
depth of discharge at room temperature.
Resealable Safety Vent
The safety device built into the cell to allow the release of excess
gases and prevent case rupture.
Secondary Battery
A battery which can be charged and discharged repeatedly.
Example: Lead acid and nickel cadmium batteries.
Self Discharge
The loss of capacity of a battery while in stored or unused
condition without external drain.
Separator
The materials which separate the electrodes. In a sealed lead acid
battery, they are usually constructed of micro-porous glass fiber
and additionally serve to retain the electrolyte.
Series Connection
Connection of a group of batteries by interconnecting all terminals
of the opposite polarity, thereby increasing the voltage of the
battery group. (Note: The same rule applies as with parallel
connections).
Service Life
Expected life of a battery expressed in the number of total cycles
or years of standby service to a designated remaining percentage
of original capacity.
Shelf Life
The maximum period of time a battery can be stored under
specific conditions, without supplementary charging.
Standby Service
A general term for an application in which the battery is
maintained in a fully charged condition by trickle or float charging
and always ready for use.
Trickle Charge
Continuous charging by means of a small current designed to
compensate for self discharge in an unloaded battery.
Voltage Cutoff
A sensing device used to terminate a charge or discharge when
the battery reaches a predetermined voltage level.
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Publication No: US-NP-AM-002 • June 2006
15
Limited Warranty:
General Product Limited Warranty
EnerSys Delaware Inc. (“EnerSys”) warrants Genesis® NP, Genesis® NP-GEL and DataSafe™
NPX batteries against defective materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) full year from
the date the battery was manufactured.
A. If initial physical inspection identifies flaws in material or workmanship that would impair
life of the battery, as defined by this warranty, or product performance, as defined by
EnerSys’ electrical and physical specification as published at the time of shipment and these
flaws are not due to transportation damage or installation abuse;
OR
B. If on initial “Acceptance Test”, as defined in IEEE Std. 1188, “IEEE Recommended Practice
for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Batteries
for Stationary Applications”, the properly installed battery and/or string fails to meet the
published performance ratings* per EnerSys’ latest published catalog data at the time of
shipment;
If EnerSys determines the battery is physically or electrically unsound due to defective materials
or workmanship on the part of EnerSys, the defective battery(s) will be repaired or replaced at the
option of EnerSys without charge to the purchaser (user) for replacement materials. However,
costs of replacement installation including but not limited to equipment, travel expenses of
EnerSys representatives(s), and costs of material transportation expenses shall be borne by the
purchaser (user).
* Published performance ratings. Initial capacity shall be a minimum of 90 percent of the rated string capacity upon shipment per IEEE-1188.
When ordering new batteries, also remember the need to properly dispose (recycle) your old
lead-acid batteries.
Most federal and state regulations require lead-acid batteries be recycled. EnerSys’ nationwide
service organization can arrange pickup, transportation, and recycling to any one of our company
affiliated smelters. Call 1-800-972-7372 for more information.
NON-SPILLABLE
EnerSys
P.O. Box 14145
Reading, PA 19612-4145
USA
Tel:+1-610-208-1991
+1-800-538-3627
www.enersys.com
EnerSys EMEA
Brussels, Belgium
Tel:+32 (0)2 247 94 47
EnerSys Asia
Guangdong, China
Tel:+86 755 2689 3639
Represented by:
Printed in U.S.A.
© 2006 EnerSys. All rights reserved.
Trademarks and logos are the property of
EnerSys and its affiliates unless otherwise noted.
Publication No: US-NP-AM-001 • June 2006 • Subject to revisions without prior notice. E.& O.E.
In the event of either A or B above, then contact your nearest EnerSys sales
representative to request instructions. You will be instructed either a) to
return the equipment to an EnerSys factory or service center location, FOB
Destination-Freight Prepaid, for examination, or b) to wait until an EnerSys
representative arrives at the site to inspect the equipment.
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