Manual 8463773
Q\n llln str att b
of llracticc
VoL. !I.-N o. 56.]
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] "\VIJ.
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l'lg. L- Work Table and Escritoi re shown when comple tely closed.
Fig. 1 A.- Work Table a01d Escritoi re shown when fully opened.
renl lt:t's thi." wee !~ ~lmlCthing tl~:1t is .e~:-:cn- ' ,~· i t lt ~h e :-:idL'''"!f tll L'arti.l·le: .nndm1 th e oppotinlly a ladu.'s' n.rtwlc; and [hope that tt m n~' 1-\t fc :'tde to t ht ' there '" ~tdl auothe r box,
in the eye:-. oi snmc f:1ir- 11r, f<w whi··h is dh·idl'cl int<• eomp:u·tnh' n.t::,:ls :'hown
the matter of that. tl.t rk - lad.\·, who will sue- in Fi~..'i. lu the centre there 1:: n well to
CC!"Sfnlly pcr:snade her hn;;hatlll, hmthcr. .or h o~d lnt):-I.•Jlil~l·c· ... llf tH.'·L·olll·work: etc. Tl~c top,
{.For otlw · Dicrr,,·am~ 111H.i lr()l'kinr~ lhmrin!J S ill11.~- betroth ed. a:-: the ca.;c mar lJc, to tn :tkc one tor bL' tng- t1.1t, alinrd ; a ntL'l' plncc Ior theof
fi~h :
her ; and whn t man is there who W(ltdd not of n. ,·a:-;e of flt,w~rs O l' n globe
trativt of tld~ P ope,·, llt'C Jlfl(''' ;,:L]
t into
WE must _not forget the ln.tlie!i in " ·oRK. make, wh nn it lay in his power, at lea:st one a1ul if the lady·~ :o: kill j,.. ~I:<L' ln:onghshunld
th L· wnrk, a. prctt.y and u,;clul arttdc
Although 1t cannot be calkd, and i!; not hc:wt happ~' '!
meant to be, a ladie~>' jom:nal, I rlare:-ny 1 This article has ~~·hat d e~ij!n e t·~ gene- he ~he rc:-n lt.
1 ho:-;e amnng the hL'gmtH!I'S "hP hnn• n
there are very few among ll!i render:-; who 1 rn.lly tcnn a •· bn,;y · look n.hout 1t: hut
are not possessed of either n wife, siiiter. or there j,; not Yery mnt h work in it, conside r- . knnwlcd .~~ of j Pitterr :mtlicie nt h' enable
hut who
sweetheart.; anJ I know that young lndie!; ing thu seYeral use,; to whi eh it may he put. : t It em tl) put togdhc r :-:mall arti cle,;,try
th L·ir
· gen.era~ly, 1f they may think :-;ome of th e On ono !-:idc we hn.Ye n door that forms a . tlfl not. fl't·l conlidL• nt l'nnttJ.d t tn
pen?dtcals tl.leir mn.le relati,·e:; are in the writin~ -fla p. ~n1l J~igeon -lwlcs f• )r station ery; hand at ~t tdt :1 ,inL as~"' h~.·rt'. "hL''~·n. :-h1~\tld
babtt of readmg arc rather too 1lry fnr ,;,,."'• 1 nn the nppnsttc ~tdc there are twcl \'O ~mall rend t he CXl'clk·nt arttdl•,; g"J\·cn m Yarwns
alwa~s have a wish - which they :-cldom let tlrawcr,;, which will he foutlll \'1'1')' handy for . numl•cr:' of Ylll. I. hy \lr..\dam:-:on. tnko
In dealing- with tltt' lltakin:.!. we will
r~ nuun unsatisfied-to look cwerth e illustra - keeping ~'lllall articles in; on n n oth~.: r side is
n box which is intentlcd. as n. ret·~pta cll~ fur tb~ top part first. Fi.:.!. :1 shl\Ws how the
ttonil,, 0.11q pasg .th~ir opinions upo~ them.
1~ 1S Wlth tlus m v1ew thn.t I gtve to my reels of cott on, and whtch shuti:i up tlush rlllddle board mu:st be cut to allow the
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
movable brackets to fit in and it will be
noticed that the two wb1ch support the
writing-flap are hinged to t he leg block;
while those that support each of the ~wo
t;ide boxes are cut in half ; one ha.lf b~mg
fitted tmder the middle board and a&a1~1st .
the le..,. block, and the other half oemg
l1ingel to it. On the side of the drawers
there is no need to cut any away; but on
the op:posite side, where t he writ~ng-tlap
comes, 1t will be necessary to cut 1t jlway
the whole length. From each of the other
two sides a piece 12 in. in length must be
taken off.
The blocks of the four turned colum.ns
that fit into the corners are each I} m.
square in thickness. In the centre is a space
12 in. square. The two large brackets arc
each 10 m. long, and the four smaller ones 6 in.
Fig. 2 gives the plan of the t op carcase.
'!'he two boards forming respectively the
back of the drawers and pigeon-holes will
each be 23 in. long and 15 in. high. The
four ends to be attached to these backboa.rds
will each be the same height, and 5i in. wide.
I n Fig. 7 we have the half-elevation of the
11igeon-holes for. stat!onery. Each of the!11
will be about 4 m. w1de : the top holes mll
be 2t in. deep, those in the middle 5~ in.
d eep, a nd the bottom ones 6~ in. The part itions dividing them would be substantia.!
enough if made of t in. wood ; and they
should not come flush with the front, as -} in.
sps.ce must be. all~~ed for the writing:-tlap.
On the oppos1te s1de the drawers w1ll, of
course, come flush with the front, and the
]Jartitions dividing them might be either
-i} in. or ~- in. thick. The top drawers will
be 2t in. deep-if the divisions are tin.
thick ; the second row 2t in. ; the third row
:1} in.; and the bottom row 4 in. Some,
however, may prefer them all one size ; and
it will not be a difficult matter to reckon the
size of each, if so. They may be fitted with
knobs or brass handles 1knobs are preferable
if made in light wood, orass handles if made
in dark wood. Each one m~~ht have a small
Jock, one key fitting them au.
The top board should be a trifle more
than 23 in. square, and should be rounded
on the edges.
The board to which the top fretwork
framing is attached should be 18 in. square.
The four side-pieces should en,ch be 23 in.
1ong on their bottom edge, and 18 in. long
on their top edge. They may be any width,
t he top, of course, being ra.ised or lowered
accordmg to the width. The four corner
posts should each be about 31 in. high, and
xhould be surmounted by turned ornaments.
The fretwork may be of any pattern.
We now come to the reel box and its
opposite companion. The reel box will be
} ~ in. wide, 15 in. long, and 2! in. deep.
~ hese measurements include the lid. The
~~ze of the comp_artments is quite optional.
l wo small fastemn~s shoulcl be fitted to it:
one to secure the lie1, the other to secure the
box when flush with the side. Fig. 4 shows
t he elevation of it. The box on the other
side (Fi~. 5) m~ght be the same size exa.ctly,
and sumlarly fitted as regards fastenings.
Unless these two boxes are made to fit
r ather loosely, it will be advisn,ble to make
the front, w~ich comes in contact with the
t op board, e1the.r o~ the cant, as in Fig. 12,
or rounded, ~s m li 1g. 13. as the boxes will
then wo~k m and out the easier. If the
maker '~1shes to do a.way with the fastening:;
on t~e hds of these boxes he had bettet· fix
a str~p of wood across each side of the ln,rge
opemug, so. t~at when. tbey a re in a pm·pen~hcular pos1tlon the lids will not fall down
The writing-flap will he 22 in. long and
15 in. wide.
This, and the two Loxes,
should be secured by means of n, pivot at
each end, which is driven into them and
through the side pieces. If, however, the
maker would prefer hinges, he rnust not cu.t
the boanl (Fig. 3) at th,e ecl[!es, n.s I h~ve
shown. They should then come flush w1th
the pillar blocks, and thus can receive the
hinges. I n this case the !;rackets should be
the make and shape, and should be
fastened 1mder the middle bon,rd: it will
then be found tuut the two boxes and
writing-flap will be on the s!ope when restin~ upon them, instead of quite horizontal, as
1 show them. This may be an advanta ~e in
the case of the writing-flap, and,,
mn,y be preferred on account of its allowing
the introcluctiou of a moulding round the
edge of th e middle board, which can scarcely
be pla.ced ronud it if the flap, etc., work
upon pivots.
'J.'be bottom of the well will be 9 in.
square; the top, 12 in.
The hei~ht from the floor to the top of the
pillars will be 28 in.
Accordiu~ to the
depth of the well so will the length of each
fo ot be. These feet spren,d out from each
corner. Th e most convenient depth for the
well will be 16 in., and 'vhatever the depth
agreed upon, the size of each of the four or
fi\·e boards composing it eau easily be ascertainecl. I say four or five, because, if joined
into the bottom board, only four will be
required ; whereas, if made as ·a separate
box, it will require five boards. If the depth
I have given is decided upon, en,ch of the
four sides " ·ill be 17~ in. long, 13 in. wide
on top, and 10 in. wide at the bottom. A
narrow moulding should be glued round the
bottom of it, to add a finish to it, and to hide
where it joins the bottom board.
The four shaped pieces between the feet
need little commenting upon. It is surprising
what a pretty effect snch pieces produce
upon any article of furniture in which they
are properly introduced.
Fig. 8 shows tlte shape of each of the four
small brackets, if it is intended for the boxes
to work upon pivots. The larger portion of
it l>hould be secured to the pillar b lock and
the under side of the middle board, while the
smaller portion is hinged to it. In ·my
measurements I have allowecl sufficient for
joinery. '!'he large t op, middle, ancl Lottom
boards might each be ~- or -~ in. thick, n.nd
the remainder of the carcase,~- in. thick.
I should 110t advise castors -to be fastened
to the feet, as in that case it would be rather
tlnsteady when used as a writing-table. The
writing-tln,p .is certainly not very large, but
certainly the average young lady would
prefer it to be small.
Fur the ink-bottle and pen-rack there is
plenty of room, or spaces could be purposely
made for them.
I said at the beginning of this article that
a pretty job might be mn.cle by the addition
of the skill of the young lady for whom it is
intended. The reel spn,ces might be lined
with silk, satin, or vlush, and the compartments shown in Fig. 5 might be treated in n,
similar manner. Then a few pieces of satin,
silk, or ivorine might be painted upon, and
secured to the top and sides by mea11s of
plush-headed or brass-headed studs. The
lining of the writing-flnp could also be performed by the lady. The front of the Llap
as well might have n. few flowers painted
upon it, and a few gilt lines round it; so also
could the fi·onts of the boxes.
Then, again, if she is fond of colour, she
might use some pretty enamel to paint the
whole article in ; but some judgment must
[Work-Aprill2, 1890,
be used in selecting the colour or colours
as the job would, in my opinion, be les~
effective if in any Yery dark colour; whereas
the light and shade to be obtained by th~
use of a light and not too glaring enamel
might produce a pretty effect. I t will generally be found that n.1ticles that have much
curved shaping about them look well in
dark colours, by reason of the light reflected
upon the prominent parts ; but that in thinaa
that hn.,·e a square appeamnce, if made in°a
lig ht wood OI' pn,inted in a light colour, the
shadows that are thus cast effect a happy,
contrn,st; and although it seems paradoxical,
a happy contrast is a happy harmony.
S(;ULI,'l' URI~ .
Cos'r-PHF.l>AfU.TIO~-KEEPll\G rr IN 0UDER
-Ruw TO 'l'l~ f:J.T IT WH£:-i THE l\fonEL TS
IT may be said of m?delling that it is the
exact rC\·erse of carvmg. The carver cuts ,
clown to his form, and perfects it by clearing uway all supertluous material; the ;i
lll~otlfeller, on the fother: h andd, b_uilds up to .1
us orm, anc1 per ects 1t 1)y a c1mg material ij
wherever re11uired.
And this essential ,
difference it is well for the young modeller !
to bear in mind, for the beginner, especially
if in any way u~ed to handling the chisel,
will feel tempted to use his tools in cutting
his material into form rather than to use
his thumbs in building it gradually up.
This temptn,tion 'rill have to be resisted.
Various materials have been used for
modelling, but of these the most important,
and the one with which we have to deal at
present, is clay. The best chy for the purpose
is gcncmllyconsidered to be DevonshircEipecla.y. This certainly has all the qua ities.
that n, reasonable modeller can desire. It
is-what is of the first importance-highly
plastic, yielding readily to the touch ; its
cool grey colour is pleasant to the eyes ;
it is cleanly ; and it is in most places
to be procured readily n,nd cheaply. Any
tolerably pure clay will, however, serve
the modeller's J.Hlrpose, and some workers
prefer clay " ' hich, owing to the presence of
iron, has a warm brown tone. This is
merely a matter of taste.
As dug from the pit, no clay is fit for use. .
It needs to be tempered and prepared. If
the modeller buys his clay in the rough, his
ord inn.ry pln.n is to lay it on n, strong tn.b1e or
bench, and thoroughly beat it with an iron
bar, picking out as he does so all stones
and other foreign matters. Borne persons
sift a little fine sa.nd into the clay during
beating to make it work more fre ely, and if
the mOtlelling is to be on a large scale, this.
is an improvement.
On the wharves of most of our large
towns clay is to be bougltt in the rough at,
say, thirty shillings or forty ~hillin~s per
ton ; but mo!;t modellers buy 1t reaay prepared. In this state it is to be bought at
potteries, pipe-makers', n,nd plaster tigure
moulders' by the pound ; a penny a pound
is often charged for it, bnt Ly the hundredweight the price is much lower.
F or use, the clay should be so soft as to .
be easily moulded into any shape an.d ,
spreo.d out smoothly by the tbum b, but 1t ·
should nut be so soft as to be sticky. If
clay is too soft, exposure to the air will
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
Wark- April 12, 1890.]
aoon dry and harden it suffici ently ; if any the clny model does indeed rather nee1l
· lamp should be a triBe t<>o bo.~d, .two . or drying than damping, and has to be left
three boles may be J?Unched m 1t w1th uncovered for a space in order that it may
finger and filled .w1t~ wp.ter 1 and a w~t set. But after thti', which takes but n few
loth wrapped round 1t. rlus will soften 1t hours, more or less, according to the size of
fe,v hours ; but if clo.y shou!d be found the model, wet cloths have t o be kept O\·m·
muqh too bard, .the better J?lan IS to. br~k it., excep t during the time that the mode ller
it up in small p1eces,.soak 1t for a tim~ 10 is at work ; anJ should tills be for long
water and then beat Hi up &oaalD as at first. together, a mois tenin~ now and then will be
Not ~therwise will it be broug ht to that desirable. For throwing water over a. model,
regular consiatency of softness throu ghout some sculptors use a. syringe havin g n rose
which is essential to prope r modelling.
pierced with minut e holes. This is necesThat it may al~ays be ready for t~se, sary fur works of very large size; but for
some arrangement 1s necessary for keepmg bu::.ts and works on a. less ambitious scale,
the clay moist. If the modeUer works on this sprink ling can bc:;t be clone with the
a large scale, he will ~o wel_l to. have a bin instru ment of Natur e's provi Jiug: namely,
made of stout boards, hoed w1th zmc soldert!d the mouth. N othiu g blows a cloud of !'pray
together at the corners, and having a tightly- so ti ne as t o thoroughly moist en all the
fitting lid. For work on a smaller scale, a surface with out running off in streams as
glazed earthen pan with a lid answers the the month. 'fbe plan is to fill th e mouth
purpose admirably. A pan known as a with water, anLl blow it out throu~h a small
''bread J>311!" cap.1.ble of holding euough clay opening at the miJdl e of the lips; the
for a bust, is sold at e.1.rthenware shops ior ku:1ck of doing this is easily acqui red. Th~
about two shillings. If the lid tits well, a un rlt·un liness of the practi ce-if it be
very littlo water in the bottom of the biu u nl·lt:nn ly-i::; a!;; that one soon cea:;es
or pan will keep the clay in prope r work- to notice.
ing order for months.
Before the modd ler leaYes his work he
Should cla.y be allowed t o become perfectly wraps it in wet cloths . In the earlier stn~es
dry, it can be soaked again with water, but it matte r:> little what these cloths ·may Le,
it will then crumble down to a kind of mull, or how they arc put on ; but a~ the work
which will seem for the time to have lost progrcs:)cs ·he pub t olcrn.bly tine calico
its cohesive properties. It will need dryin g nearest to the <:lay, keeping his thick
to some extent, and after that quite ns coarse hempen w1~tps out:;iue. .As more
much beating a.nd tempe ring a.s at tir:-t. It ddica te \~ork is put in, and the surface
is, therefore, better not to let clay get qui re recei ves greate r fin ish, he does not care to
dry, if it can conveniently be kept moist.
ha,·c bi s molle l tonched by any cloth whatIn my preliminary sket ch I mentioned ever. His ordin ary plan for its prote ction
that when the plaste r mould hatl l,een taken, is to stick woode n skewers into those parts
the original clay model was llug from it Ullll where there is no delica te modellin;.: to be
thrown aside ; but by t Li3 it was not injured. By these the cloth is kept away
int-ended to imply that the cb~· formin g from the clay: !'pots are alwa.ys to bc found
that model was of no furthe r Yalue. Clnv where the skewcrs will do no harm ; and
is not only none the worse, but decidc~ll)­ the hole;:; made by them are easily stopped
the better1 for having been used. The before casting.
tempering 1t receives in use makts it work
Sometimes, instead of skewers,
more smoothly and freely than new clny. fram e of ''"ood en spars or of wirea i$regula
When dug from the mould, however, it will t o tit over the !liOJel, and if the ·wurk has
not be fit for immediate use : it will be too be kept in the day for a long time, this plan
hard. The be?t war of t_reat ing it is a t has its ath-anta.zes; bnt wood is better for
once to breAk 1t up mtu p1e-.:es of, say. the such n fram e than nt eta l, for when expo:ed,
sire of walnu ts, and put water to it. After as it must ue, to consta nt damp, iron wire
due. time f~r so~king, it will need beating up ru:-ts and iron-moulds the cloths, and copper
a.gnm, but 1t will want less t empering and pTol\·::; green and poisonous. Fol' bu~t s and
work better than if it had been alloweJ to the likl.!, a large frame covered witb oilget .quite dry; and as in the process of cloth to tit over the inner wrapviugs i::; an
ca.stmg more or less lumps and chips of excellent thing, and thus protec
tcu, t lte
plast~ r are sure t o have found their w;ty model may b~ kept in good
worki ng order
Into 1t, these should be carefully picked out. for month;-;, ancl e\·en for years.
And at this point I would wish to impress
There is anoth er wav
in which mode ls in
upon the )'oun~ modeller the necessity for relief may be kept damp
and that is by
alwayshavmg h1sclay thoroughly beaten and working them on a back•T,round
plaste r :
tempe red ; if it has in it hard lum ps anJ is but this is only applicable to of
not ~f a. regu_lar consistency, it ~\· ill not be and other smallm:1tters which aremeda llions
JlOSSlble for h1m to work smoot hly, rapidly, raised from the background. Thebut little
or plea.santly.
porous natur e of plaste r enables it to take up
~m.e readt:rs ~f these papers, desirous of a great deal of water, and of this
the clay
obtamm~ an lUSigh t into the actual process \vill suck enough ~o keel? it sufiiciently
of modelling, may, perhaps, cons1d er t hat for a reason able tune w1thout wet wraps
the mere management of clay is being dwelt
A minor point in connection with the
upon to a. tedious extent. I t is, however, keepin9 of clay in mode l$ is that of
n~ that this information should be fungoiLL growths. To this
it is well
J!Ve.n ; and for convenience of reference that wlterer er wootlen suppoend
rts are used in
tt 18 bett~r that it should be given the clay they shoul d be of the
altogether m a prelim inary chapt er like kinds. These resino us woods pinc or deal
encou~e present. Such readers can if they rage the growth of fungus asdodonot
elm and
pass o~ to the next chapt er\' and t urn most other timbers, and such g-rowths in
to thiS ~y-a.nd-bye, when tuey find a one's model are, to say t he least, di :;agr~e able
need for the mforma.tion contained in it · th ings ; thouah it must be admit tetl
that in
for ~fore closing it we shall have t o folio~ t his coun try they do not
become so fonnidthe •me subject still farthe r
a.Lle as they sometimes do in Italy.
Something' m118t bo said ~ith regard to
Thus far then with regard to the material
ma.nag~ment of clay in the actua l mode L used
in moulding. In my next paper I wi11
11GC411Mnty for keeping it wet has alread y
epoken of. At the first building up the work.the tools and appliances used in
Jllri~ S
APl'LI.\~ CE S.
in a
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
-----O'rHE R Al'L\ RUN
BY A P I:),
Tll E
11 l VJ·:.
IN designing a hive whid1 was to Le a standanl form for my own a1·iary, anti w)Jic;h. (t;r
want of a bettet·, I eaUthe " 1\ pis 11 Hi re,
I was govern ed by the following considerations. It should be capab le ol takiu:; ten
stand ard fram e:;, and n dummy or zinc queen
e~cluuer; it ~houl d bave douLi e walls all
round ; the floor bo:\rLl shonld be movable,
to allow of easy clean ing, the aligh Ling Loa1Ll
should be very Lroatl a nd extend dO\\ ll
almost to the ground. lbhould be ::;uital.J~:
either for doubling or supering, the ~ool
a.l.Jic to hohl a sup c r-~:mte with 0
out any riser. The porch :-hou hl L··~
ample, and allonl a. gootl prvte di•m to
hea ,·iJy -laden worker~ rC;turni ng home
from forac•i ng in shll\\ •~ ry weath er, and Jt
should be }n·ovidec.l with n. gutter , to pn:,·en!.
the water frotH dt ip vin~ un th1! alig htin ~
boanl. The roof, as l ~ :ti d, should Le dcev
enmw h to tak~ a single crate of sectioa ~,
and Le bi orh . pitc!H~d. ~o as to throw off the
rain rapicfty, and not let it lo,lge and soak
into the wood. Fin :~lly, the whole should
be withi n the t·npabili ties of a modera tely
clever amate ur : that is, not very di tticult tomake. Fi:.r. 1 is :t fairly correct view of my
hiYe rompl<.:t e. The floor is nailed to two
n-in. boanl s placed on edge>, and the ali;:rhting board i,; ~cl.! urcd to the same. The
brooll-nc::-t rests on the tioor, und three :)li11S
of wooLl keep it in place. · The porch m11l
:;!ides arc se~:tl rl'd with n. couple of hr<t'iS
i't:rew,-, so that th ~y ran be n:mo,-ed for
dout1ling; the entrance way is cut out or
the tLickness of the bottom, so there.: i.s qo
space to till in the tq•pcr of the doubled
hi ,·es.
The hive, I think , i-s a gooJ one, aml fulfi ls
all that I require of it.
); ow to proceed to its (·•)nst ruct inn. First,
as to the wood requir ed. Yellow pine
" ·onlll ,·crtai nly be the b.:st, but it is fairly
cxpcn:-:,·e. and on that acl.!ount would Le
b. ·yCtntl t lt~ pockets of sumc ; next <:omes reJ
cktl: and last. perha ps, white L!e·\ 1. In a.ny
t' ;I'l ' the wood ::-honl ll be qutte dry :md
N .1:-uti~Ll.
P11r t/i (' ln'•Jud-Jl( :<l tht.! following
picL·cs will be requi retl : viz.-::! pieces,
1i in. x 8t in. x ~i n. ; ..J pieces, 17 iu. x u in. x
~ in. ; ~ piel'e~, ~0~ i11. x D.i n. X~ it~.; 8 pi.eccs,
11 in. x 1 in . x ~ m. : 8. p1eces,. i 10. x l m. ?<
~ in.; these are all fimshcd s1zes .. I . begm
with the hrood-nt:st, becn.ucse 1t 1s the
principal found ation from which ~11 ~ur
other dimen ::-ions must be taken. Its mternal 1nerumreu\ents, when complete, will
• .!..- m.
x tt' l01 •m., tlHIS a llowmg
b c 11 .m. x l ·L~I m.
at eal'h end of t.he stand ard fram es, and the
thickness of the top bar under them, fo r beeway.
I may here remark tha.t it is almost as
quick and ru; easy to two or three
hives as to one, nil the pieces eau be
cut out so ea.'3ily in d.nplicntc ; t he pla.ning
can be done so rapidly whtn the ha.nd is in,
and the gluing and nailin g of tWll is Ullt a
much longer job than of ono. \\-ith regard
t o planing, it canno t be done too partic ularly. It is not enough to hnve the smfaces
smooth, they must be true also ; a nd to
secure this, I gen~rally 11ni~h them with the
Ion" trying plane. 'l'h~ wood should also
be planed to a uniform thickne~s of -~in. ;
the !Hn. board:; of comm erce will, wit.h care,
clean up to this thieknesl:!.
AJthouS!h I h:we given the .tlime nsion~ of
the \·arious pieces as they w11l bo reqmr ed
(Work-April12, lB!JO.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
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I Fig. 2.-
Plan of Carcase. Fig . 3. -Middle Board, showing Brackets. Fig. -i.- Half Elevation of Side
Reel Box. Fig .
BoL Fig. 6. - Ditto, Drawer s. Fig. 7.- Dit to, Stationery Holes. Fig. 8. - l\Iode of cutting Smaller Brackets 1f Bo:tes wor k on Pivots. Fig. SADitto, 1! Hinges are used. Figs. 9. 10, H .- Various Heig hts of Small Top Boards according t o Width of Narrow Side Pieces (A). Figs. 12. l S.
Mode of sh.a Fron t of Reel Box t-o afford freer l'tlotion. Fig. 1'1.- Pivoted Flap in p osition. Fig. 15.- Ditto, as Writln~r Table. Fig. 16. Hinged Flap in p osition. _Fig.
17.- Ditt.o, a s Writing Table. Fig. 18.-Section or Flap 1! Pivots are used. Fig. 19. -Ditto, 1t Binges are used.
_ ____
- - - -- ---
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
(W ork -A pri ll2, 1890.
ove rla p it by pu ttin g a. rebate on its low er
edge. 'l'he top edg e of the ali ght ing bon._rd
uw st be pla ned to a.n ang le, so tha t a.bou t ~ m.
is. horizo ntal, wh ich wil l ser ve as a sup por t
for the slides. Fig . 3 is a sid e vi~w wh ich
sho ws the floor and alig hti ng boa rds and
the ir sup por ts. Fig . 4 is a genera l view of
the whole.
T!te R oof now dem ands our attent ion,
and for it we must ma ke ou t and pla ne up
the fol low ing ~;>ieces : viz., 2, 17 kin . x 9 in. x
ass um e-a bo ut 30° . Then the top pie ce is
In my nex t paper I wil l des crib e bow 1
nai led on to the bev elle d edge, t t' km g car e
to pus h it so far bac k tha t tltl. edg e can ma de my Co wa n Hive, a nd the n I \\il l
be pla ned flat at tho bac k, the n the tri· go on to int eri or fitt ings. A Dra win g-r oom
ang ula r pie ces are fitt ed and nai led in Observa tor y Hiv e I loo k upo n in the liah t
pla ce. Th e ent ire por ch is fas ten ed to the of a lux ury , and so wil l pos tpo ne its c~n­
bro od-nes t by mo ans of a cou ple of bra ss sid era tio n for the pre sen t. If any readers
screws, oiled before the y are ins ert ed so as wis h for a pap er on one, per hap s it ma y
com e late r on.
to be eas ily wit hdr aw n. 'ro pre ven t the
dri p fro m t he por ch fallin g on the alig hting boa rd, I som etim es vlo ugh a gu tter
tin .; 2, 20~m.x4!in.x!in.; 3, 25 in. x alon~ the fro nt of the por
ch, bu t usu all y LAWX !l OWERS : TH EIR CARE A~ D
9 in. xi in. Th e pie ces firs t on the list are I nm l n. slig ht piece
of \vood, rou nde d on
to be cut to the sha pe sho wn in Fig . 5. Th e the t op edg e, to the
por ch. Th is I ben d
cen tre of one bei ng fou nd, a line is to be in the sha pe of a bow, so
ect the
squ are d acr oss it, and 3 in. tow ard s eac h wa ter tow ard s tho sid
es of t he hi~ cs.
end me asu red alo ng the edg e; lines ma y be
The doo rs or s lide
dra wn now fro m the se poi nts to poi nts at ma ini ng to be done. s a re the onl y pa rt re- "WrTH the adv ent of Spr ing , a tho nsa nd and
the end s of the boa rd 4k in. fro m the edqe, bro ugh t to a lev el wit If the bro od- nes t is one readers of Wo RK wil l d oub tles s lay
h the fro nt edg e of aside the ir win ter hob bies, a nd tur
and tria ngu lar pie ces cut out , lea vin g tue the fioo r bon.rd,
n to the ir
it wil l be fou nd tha t the y gar den s, and the ir la·wn
mo we rs wil l be
board as is sho wn by the ins ide lin es (in can sliclo nic ely on
top of the alig hti ng bro ugh t out for ins pec tio n
and use.
Fi~. 5). The nar row pie ces are to be nai led boa rd, on the
hor izo nta l par t pre pared for
Of cou rse it is ver y dir ty, at least nin ety to ton u the sides, and the top ed~es pla ned the m, and at
the sam e tim e break the nin e ou t of eve ry hun dre
dow n to the bev el of the ends. Tw o of the j oin t bet ween broodnes t and floor boa rd. wil l be the obj ect of thi s wil l be, and it
att icl e to briefly
9-in . pieces, 25 in. lon g, may now be nai led to If the por ch is scr
litt le abo ve and con cisely descri be the process nec
the end s and sides, and the top edg es hav inq the lowct· edg e
of the bro od-nes t, it wil l he t o pu t it ~t o worki ng
bee n bevelled, the top piece ma y be nai lea fou nd tha t pie ces 4~
in. x 1-} in. xi in. ·will thr oug h a list of rep airR, inc er. Looki ng
on. All the se pie ces, of course, sho uld be slid e eas ily nncl act
lud ing se\'eral
hun dre d machi nes by dif ferent ma ker!l, we
well rrlued, wh ich wil l ma ke a mu ch bet ter bu tto ns ma y be
att ach ed to them hy wh ich find tha t nea rly one -ha
job tba.n nai ls alo ne. It wo uld be we ll to they can be mo
>erl, bu t it is scarce ly worth typ e, and of the se a larlfgeare of the chnin
hay e the top pie ce 1 in. thi ck in the mid dle , the tro ubl e to d o so.
ma jor ity arc by
1'. Green
and to tap er 1t to ! in. at eac h edg e. This
Fig . rGis an end ·vie w of the porch, wh ich patent ees & Son s, wh o were t he orig ina l
of thi s pat ter n; sin ce, howc\'er,
w1U thr ow off the rai n effectually. I som e- sho ws fai rly its con stru
thc it· pat ent has exp ire d, sev era l oth er protim es hav e the .sid e pieces 11 in. ·wide,
In ma kin g a bi\'c, or ind eed any oth er mi
nen t ma kers hav e ado pte d the thn in,
wh ich wil l per mi t me to hav e the top nar- piece of wo rk,
it is of th e utm ost imp ort - thereb y ack now led gin
g its :su per ior cla im.
row er, and , the ref ore , wi th a gre ate r slo pe. ance, if t hin gs
are to be don e wit h des I will div ide my pap er int o two par ts,
An oth er pla n I sometim es use is to hav e pat ch, to hav e ever
thi ng d one metho dic ally. t aki ng firs t the rep air, and
the roo f con sist of a. num ber of str ips 4~ in. Wh ile the sn.w i:; ~·
the n tbo care, l•f
law n mowe rs.
wid e, ove rla ppi ng eac h oth er aft er the laid out , do all the
saw ing, then do all the
L et us sup pos e tha t the dir ty ma chi n e i:;
ma nne r of we ath er boa rdin g, bu t it is rat her pla nin g a nd glu
so on.
I the ref ore bef ore us, bow sha ll we proceed wit h it and
tro ubl eso me , for end s must be cut int o app end a list of
all the pieces Uust fif ty in wh at spe cia l too ls sha
ll we req ui re 1 'l'a ke
ste ps to sui t the boa rds. An oth er pla n sti llnum ber) req uir ed for thi s hiv e, as far as we th e too
ls first. I wil l sup pose the reauer ha:;
. and per hap s the bes t of the lot -is to cut the hnv e gon e.
thi ckn ess ot' the wo od ma y the spa nne r sup plie d wit
ends, fro m the cen tre of the top to the 41 in. be Yaried ,
bu t the dim ens ion s tha t I hav e these he ma y add a com h eac h ma chi ne; t o
-point, and to boa rd it up lik e the roo f of a giv en in the foll
ow ing tab le wil l, I thi nk, Lrush, an old kni fe, a mo n stitl' scr uuh ing
hou se, 'vit hou t any fiat piece at all at the be fou nd abo ut
lam p chi mn ey brush,
pur pos e in and som e 11ct rol eum ; a han dfu l of cot
top . Th e boa rds ma y be placed edg e to Vle
W :wa ste is o useful.
edge. Then the wh ole top is to be covered --,- ---, -... ,... .
No t a very me cha nical out fit, you rem ark.
wit h a pie ce of strong calico str etc hed
W ell, no ; one mu l't adm it the y sav our more
tis htly, and tackod. und er the eav es wit h a
of a. housem aid 's kit , bu t pm d ice has proved
· "" ::: ~ :shp of wo od cov eri ng the tac k hea ds. A .c·=
R cma1·ks.
' j ~ :::: CS
them to be the mo st sui table arti cle s for
few co~ts of pai nt wil l ma ke thi s qui te ~ ~ ::: I ~ ·cle ani ng a law n mo we r : the y arc em ine ntly
1~ ~ ~
water-ttght~ and as goo d a pro tec tion as it is
possib le to nave.
-- --- -- 1 -- -- -- use ful, and Wo nrr is not hin g unless it is
Ill. I Ill. Ill.
'fh e ven tila tio n hol es I hav e not yet me n1 5S I U 1 , Flo nr bon r d sup - ~rust be cut useful.
Cleaning.- Now tak e you r machine all to
tio ned. Th ey ma y be bored eit her now, or,
lJI.II 'tS
into \\\'0 , as
pieces, tak ing care, if you are~ novice, to
lt'ig. 7.
per haps het tcr , bef ore the roo f wa s pu t to2 18~ 11 ll Flo or bon rd
T o l>e join ed ma rk eac h
par t, so tha t refittm g ma y be
get her . I bor e thr ee or fou r 1-in. boles in
edg e to edg e.
2 lS\1 !I J ~ _·\ li~hlin~ boo .rd no.
don e wit hou t mis tak es as to han d and
eac h end wit h a cen tre-bi t, and nai l a piece
:.! li I S} 0 lil'OI>d- ucs t
F inis hed sizes, pos itio n of each par t.
of p~rfo~·ated zin c ins ide to pre ven t the bees
top bc,· elle d.
gettm~ m.
If it is int end ed to rep ain t the machine
4 l i 1 !)
FiUJsh cd size s.
2 :lOl !J i.t
you ma y bur n oft' the old pai nt, tak ing care
If t!te b~ood- nes t be now placed on the
8 li 1 ~
V o.
to bur n the pai nt and not the cas tin gs ; the
fio~r, 1t Will be fou nd t o ove rha ng it by
8 7
3 22 1
F or slips rou nd l\Iu st be cut to scr ubb ing brush wil l g rea tly ass ist this
; crlll. all rou nd, and the . r9o f
will ove rla p
l>ro od-n cst
lent ;th ns r o· ope rat ion , and , wh en fini she d, the
tlie brood- nest by a sum lar am oun t all
new coa t
rou nd.
2 1i ~ a !l i For r oof
To l>e s lop ed wil l tak e to the iron sm oot hly and well.
for end s .
If, how ever, the mo we r is to ret ain its old
.We ~ust ~ow p~ocure sev en slip s of wo od
2 201 .q t
y be cut coa t, it wil l suffice
2 m. m de, t m. tbt ck, and 22 in. lon g to nai l
to scr ape off the thic kes t
ft·o m one 2ua
of the dir t and the n tho rou ghl y wash and
rou nd the roof and bro od-nes t so as to
in. X !) in. X l
cle an wit h the pet roleum, taking par ticu lar
~over the jun ctio ns of the va; iou s par ts.
3 9"
W ill be cht\ n gcar e tha t the bea1 ings are we ll and thofl1ey sho uld be pla ned at an angle of 45°
crl for tL r oot
eith er wen- rou ghl y cle:tned. If \t is a cha in machi ne,
alm ost to a. fea the r edg e on top, and the
t her bon rdc d
low er a.ngles JUst rou nde d off. Th e roo f wil l
soak, and the n wo rk it well
Ol' cali co cowit h the han ds- a rat her dir ty j ob, but the
hav e shps .all rou nd, bu t the bro od- nes t onl y
,·er cd.
~ Slips
Wil l be cut to pe.t roleum. wil l in tbn.t wa y wo!
on thr ee s1des, the ~ont bei ng res erv ed for
·k out the
rethe porch. Th e slip s ma y lie mi tre d togn t and du t, and r end er the cha m eas.y 9:nd
quit ·cd.
1 181 i 1 P orc h
gat her at the corners, bu t it is alm ost as we ll
To be reb ated pli abl e; fin ally brush it well bot h ms tde
in low ercd go.
t o hav e the m overlap.
and out . Th e cyl ind er ma y be scrape d and
1 ISl G ~
2 i
Tlu P_01'Ch is ma de of fou r pie ces of \vood,
Tr ian gu lar bru she d, bu t on no accoun t sub jec ted . to
pie ces.
hea t, and thi s rem ark hol ds good, too, wtth
tw.? .. bem g th~ of tbe . fro nt.: viz.,
4 ~ I ~ ~ D oors
l84 ~-, and 5 m .?< t m. and 4 m. x 1 m. re1 181 :t t Gut.Ler
To be ben t like the bot tom bla de. T he lam p brush comes
s~ecttvely.. Th e mc h pte ce has a reb ate 1 in.
bow, wit h its in her e and is adm ira bly ada pte d for clean·
hig-hes t pn1· t ing out '
md e an~ ! m . dee p cut in its und er edge, and
cre vic es and cur ves.
tow nrd .s the
the top IS slo ped to the ang le the porch is to
G'r inding .-E ver y par t bei ng c~ean, the
nex t ste p is gri ndi ng. To effect thlS, fit the
'Q-~ 1 ~ f
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
· Work-A p:il 12, 1800.]
~ides to the solo plat~, and get the cyliucler
mto its proper beru·mgs; now prepare the
pa.ste, made of 90-hole emery
powder aod oil mi.'Ced to the consistency of
~ream. Next rig a small cra11~ed han~lo to
the spindle ~nd revol':e the cylmde r (}Ut~kly
,. , in the direct10n oppos1te to that of cuttmg ,
.applying the paste mea~time, until t he
cutting surfaces of the cyhnde r and bottom
blades are true with each other. A simple
tool for applyin g the emery may be mnde
by tacking a piece of leather or cloth on a
wood slat, and then blocking it out with
wood at each end1 so that the leather stands
.clear of the wooa slat. Smear the leather
with the emery, n.nd apply over the whole
len~th of the cylinde r. Grindi ng is ra.tber
tedtous work, but n.bsolutoly essenti al, and
will repay doing thorou~ hly.
To test the edges, mo1st tissue paper i!l a
good test. If t he machin e will clean cut
this at any point over its length, it may be
safely conside red properly ground .
Occasionally the knives in the cylinde r
may be so much out of truth that it is
adviso.ble to have them groun<l true in a.
'Proper mower grinding machin e ; most
-engtoeers one of these, and will
execute the j ob for a few shill ings.
• h.
Bot.tom. lJLade.- A word nbout this important part, which should be quite fJat und
sligbtly tumecl upon itl:l front edge. A warped
sole plate will ouly cut part of its len~th, uml
leaves an objecti onable rib on the In wn
where it misses. When the turned ec.lgo ha.s
1become worn, it will be chen.JJo r to rcpbLcc
with a new one; returni ng and setting the
front edge is difficult and takes a lot of
time and pm.cti~..:!, and an undrill cd phtc
oean be bought for about 2d. or 2 .~ d. vcr
lineal inch.
'f be same remarks apply to t!Jo chnin:.;,
pinions, and other wearin g parts.
You r
Ironmonger will procure any part for you nt
a reasonable charge.
I knew a mnn who untlerto ok to muko
good a. mowt!r chain, which he "diu IJy
• driving out all the rivet~, dt·illing out each
hole in every lin k, and then rivetin g up
again with larger pins ; the j ob took alJllut
ten hours, and finJing that his t ime cost
more than a new cbf\.io, the experiment was
not rel?eated. Chains for machine~ unJcr
thirty wchcl:l cost from os. to G~. Gll.
l~earinus.-A handy tool for borin~ the
cyhudl! r brasses by ha.nd may he made by
forging a. small boring tool on a. h~df- in ch
round rod with a T handle ; both uru.'-sc:-~ fixed in sit1t, with tho tool threa.clcd
thr~mgh one side, which forms a guide
whtle bori}lg tho opposite bras~eH .
tool must be reversed to bore the second.
Th is method is far better tha n filing, to
" do w~ich properly and Lruly roqu irc11 unH:h
JII'O.cttce, anti mdeed is well-nigh iutpo:-.s il,le.
<;>~e otb?~ wearing pa rt iH the wood roller
f1xmg. lhese may readily be ma.c.le gootl
by bushing with u. bm~s plug, and then
drilling to sizo of spindle.
One very common cause of failure is
looseness of knives in the cy linder. 'l'h<•:-~o
are usually fixed with copper wire, anJ
~be defect mn.y be reml!di td by remov.
t ng the old and insertin g new wire.
'opper wire is best on a.ccoun t of its
<luctn.bility, and it should Le of such a
gnyge. that a little pressur e is recJni red to
dr1ve 1~ home. 1'o effect t his eau king, fix
~he cyhuder in a vi ce and insert the knife
In the slots J 'rovide d in the colltns, clt i ve
down the en . of the wire horizon tally bethw~n ~he krufe nnd the collar, then doul.le
t e. Wll'e ~nc~, und repeat the operati on
untjj the w1re 111 on e. level with the collar.
After rccnulking, the cyl i ndor 'lnu.~t Le trnccl
and ground
iu a proper 0···riudcr :ll:l before
As i·egnrds our second part, three brief
rules will enable users to get good results
from thci t· mowers :1. Kf\ep them oi let!.
2. K eep them clenn. ·
3. Keep them adjuste d.
The first should n~quire no commc11t, bnt
experience has taught us thnt mn.ny us~rs
neglect this nil import ant point. No
machin ery works well withou t n proper lnbri cant, and la.wn uwwe1-s nro 110 exception.
Use the best oil, nwl don't forget that the
chain nntl knife edges will equally respond
to the mngic touch of the oilcJ fenLltur;
nen.t~foot, ~-;pcnn, ot· snlnd oi 1:-~ nro lJC:st.
l~ ul o lltttlllu.!r two require s no fmlh cr remark, lmt [ would sug~est that the lamp
bru ·h be kept in the shed, nml u ~cd fm
brnshiu;:; out tho grass thnt necessari ly
~ccuunda t~·s about tlto 1110 we r. .J\d.i usLi ng
1:) ttHlst unport ant ; most nmchtncs nru
providl•d with set screws Ly which the
cylindet· ma.y be raised or lowered to tho
bottom blade. A badly adjuste d mower
will spoi l itself and its user's t em per at lhe time. Adju:4 cd too low, tltu cy linder
a !Ill th e uottom blatlo wi 11 cut cac:h otlwr,
and only mr\ngle the grass, or if set too
h igh it simply won't cut a.t, nncl if unevenly adjuste d n. comhinntiou results, in
wltich one end cuts nothing , the miJdlo may
cut the grass, while at the other cnc l the
cutti ng edges wi ll be engaged itt I he society of cutting- one anol her. The tis~• uu
paper to~t before mcntione<l is n. gt•ntl
method to employ for nJjusli ng.
'1\ro other points of ndjust tnent arc the
llrum fixin g for tighten ing L)t e cha.ins nnd
the wood rollers, whi r.h reg ni :~Lu lhc lengt h
of cut ; hy mising those the grass may be
cut shorter and t•ice vr·rsc'1.
rt New Jll achinP. -A little dis•
interes tecl advice on this point mny not lto
out of place, for, of coun;o, every traclor will
bac:k his own machin e ngn,in:-~t ull other:;.
For general purposes [ rct·ontm erul n.
c· muchin e by any good rnn.kcr, notably
by Ureen & f:;on~->, of Leech; and London, 01"
Hnn~orncs of Ipswich, hoth nf whom tnrn
out ntlmimblo anti rclin.blc nmeltitt cs. Th e
ln.ttcr firm nl ~o protluc:o sornu ex<·l:llt·llt.
genrecl mac·h i ttC!l, ns a.l::;o do Klt:llll;s, of
.Arltroa th n.ncl London.
'l'lt c American type arc tno lltllllt·routs lu
mentio n in detn.i l, but most or t Item arc
admim hly Rttitod I'M long rl!ld tll:Lrsu gra:;:;,
and, if small, f<H" lmnlcrs ttnd ~ l (lpus.
F ur snutlt hwn:-1 :l.tHl ~111:d I iJI(·mneH,
nothing beats ltan ~u mcs' New l'nri~ IIHIWe r,
which is at ~lltCe clt<:a j'~ reli:1h l ~. n111l easy ln
usc-n. t en-111eh m:w 1111e IR ltstt·d nt tJr,:-~.,
wi th ltox, nnd otr tlti:-~ a snltslanLial cash
diseou nt can ustmlly bo obtn.i ucd.
Ju conclusion. nlwnyg bctu in mint! that n.
ln.wn mower is qnile :u; much a machin e :1.'1
a. bic·ycle or sewing m:whino; trent it n.s yon
would either of t.hoRc, nnd it will serve you
r1 uito nR well.
rca~o n
wlty they should be forgott en n.ltogcLite r. "The chest cunLri vcd a doulJle
clcbt to pay, n. uccl hy uight, n. chest of
tlr:t.wers by day," mny IJo as uRcful m·ca~iot• ­
nlly stilt us it wn.!'i when Goldsm ith w mtu
hi :-~" ] lescrloJ Village," and wi th thiH idc14
th e following suggestions nro given :It lltllst not, howeve r, be imnginecl that
the th ing n·fcrrctl to in the nuuve auotntioll nt:Ltmlly fulfilled the purposes of tho
two u.rticlcs of fnmitm e which arc nnmed.
F orlutHtt ei.Y thure aro not many of U:i
wbo arc so prosaic as the individ11al wlt :l
Wll1Hll'retl huw it wns that any ono conic:
allude to 11 Sl'rntons in stones, hook~ in the
nmnin g hrooks, nntl ~ooJ iu c,·crytbing.''
when it ouvitlllsly ought to bo .. snirmow;
in lnti ks, slan cs in brook.~, nntl bnd in
most thin .!.:":-~." or it might be necessa ry to
say Lhat tho t"ltcst euclosed n bedstea d nw l
was ~o (i 11 ished ns lo rcsem blc a chest of
dm,rcr s when closed. 'J'he piece of furn i1ure portrayocl in F ig. 1 is however, noli
design ed to imitate the srLid chest, for, u:-~
the title intli cn. tc:;, it is :t. cupboa rd with
liHle o1· nothing to disting uish it from nu
ortlinnry l-lllnll wardrobe when clo:-;etl. Suclt
nn nppcarn ncc is perhap s to be preferred,
snYottring le!:~:-~ of lhc sham, but tbo
chief feature of tho cout.riv£mce is its ~rent
simplicity. '!'h is will comme nd itself t.,
most of those who are likely to req uiro such
n ''~pa re heel room," for reference to F igs. 2
ru11l :~ wi 11 n ltnost rend et· auy d etailed
U("I"Ollllt SliJII'I"fl ltOilS.
Jo'ig. 2 rl'prt'~c nts the nnangement with
lit e hctbtct td duwn, one d\lor being indicated.
'!'he dt•lled lines sltow the folding 1>art of
lite uctlsteatl within the cu pboard. l~' ig. :l
gives :l. fro11t elevation with the bedsteaLl
unclosm l. Onll doot· is ~hut ; the other, thnt
on the right, open, and Lhrown back to show
Lite hin:;eing, the arrange ment of this being
al:-~o seen on the other, though apt to ~ ~~
ovcdookml by those whose observ ation i:-~
not suflicicntly tminctl to ennblo them to
porc;ei vc tbnt the door is lt in god on, and not
wit ltin tlto ends.
The whole thing is so simple that it cnn
~->1': \.r<'dy Le necessa ry to ~o into the minut~
dt•M-ription. Lhe hi nts to uc given being foL·
lltl'll who may be supposccl to have n.cquired
:L rt•:tsllltn.blo amoun t of ski ll a.nd inte lli~e ncc.
'l'l ll'.Y will know that tho material 1s, of
c·oltl"se, wood, which must be dry, that the
joi 11t~ ll ltl~t be properly made, that t ho more
t·aro tn.lw n wilh tho work genera lly tho
better it wil l ue, n.nd thnt if they !Jrefet· to
adopt nny other detail of constru ction they
tll :ty do so wtlhou t fe eling that they will be
doing \\Tong-. ({l:utce nt the general construeLion : Fi r"t of all we have n full- length bedstead m enst~t·ing G ft. G in. from end to end,
nn<l 1 ft:. a in. h i~h . 'l'ho width is not of much
eonsoqncnce, M it cnn be anything in reason,
thnn~b Fig. a rep rc~cnts tt as being 3 ft.
\V ere it not more than 2 ft. U in., n. singledoor cupbo: ml would du very well, t he door
hcing n.rmngcrl to open at the most convcllient sido. The height of the bedstead when
exto11dc1l mny also be varietl considernbly,
rem eml>c•·ing t 111\t the lowet· it is the lcs~
will be tho depth required of the cupbon rd
A curno.utu mms·rEAD.
from bnr:lc to front, thon,:tlt its height will
BY L. I VOR l'OOL.:.
have to he proport ionatel y increas ed. A::s
repreRentecl 1t is about 1 ft. 7 in. deep l•v
TH AT a berlstcnrl whieh can be folded up
7 ft. :3 in. h igh, includi ng the cOt·nice, whidL
and concealed wiLuin, or nuulo to rcsetnl •lo is mct·ely nn omnme n tt\l foo.ture, o.ntl not a n
some other pieco of furnitu ru, iR 110 now el>R<'n tial pa.rt of the constm ction.
con i ri,·anc:e i!:l wdl known, Lltnngh I o a great
'l'he cupbonrtl entls nro !ihown as being in
ex tent. •• comLi nn tionH" of this class ono piece from top to bottom, b\lt) ns this
gtvcn wa.y to the lighter nnd more conve- may it rn.ther cumhc1·some for 1·emoval,
nient forms of fol di n g-bed::~. 'l'h ey nre, in the n.lternn tive of mu.king it in twopm·tions,
fact, a trifle old-fnshioned, but that is no as frequen tly seen in wardrobes, may be.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
[Work-Arn·i112, 1890.
adopted, the diviarranged to the top
sioa naturally being
of the fixed portion
Fig. I .-Bedstead and
of the side rails, the
between what in
these would be called
advantage of this
the banging part and
construction being
the drawer case. In
that thecontentsmay
Fig. 2 it will be seen
be secured by locking
that the bottom of
the upper doors.
the former and the
Trifling alterations
top of the latter are
of t he details may be
combined by two
advisable, hut these
bearers, one at the
will no cloubtsuggest
back and the other
in front. These, of
The doors are made
course, a re securely
in the usual way, and
fitted into the ends,
may either have two
the best joint for the
'; '
paneb, as in the ill uspurpose being the
traticml', or only one
d ovetail.
p:mcl each. I n fact.
On top of them,
what may be called
and fastened to the
the dccorati ve parends, are the fixed
tion of the \Vork caTb
portiOnS of the bed
UC Yrtricd to almost
rails, the movable
:my extent accordir1g·
parts being hinged
to the ta~ te nn(l skill
on to these as shown.
:::::,_- _
of the maker, the esThe side rails and
:-entia! constructive
foot end are fastened
features remaining
into the legs, and
when it is said that
F ig. 5 gives a sugthe transverse laths
p:estion fo t· a· f0lding
to support the bedfoot.h 0a rd, whi c h ~
cling are dovetailed
hin.~ed as it is ~hown:.
and fastened into the
t o be, occupies ,·eryframe (Fig. 4) to
··- ~
little :::pace, and wilt
prevent them fallno doubt be a cOining when the bed---- ------fort to those whose
----- - toes h nve a propenstead is folded, no
fnrther remarks need
~ity to work down.
be made about this part of the work. I for the ~ake of appearance th:1n anytltin.~ 1 Dy making the supports at t he hot.tom end
The lm~er part of the cupboard m n.y very ! else. Were the plinth furmecl in the u:mal 1 fold under, the cupboard may be shallower
well be utilised as a place to keep extra bed- I way, and put on ldow the bottom, naturally from hack to front than stated. Fig. 6
linen or other articles in. As will be seen, I a good Llenl of the ~pace i n:.:icle would be lost. indieatc.-; how this may be managed, the
it is represented with a fall-clown ft·ont, bnt,
Tbc fall front may be sccnrecl with a legs there being shown connected by a
of course, a drawer may be substituted for spring catch, or with lock ancl key. T o pre- · cou ple of rails or stays, and hinged to the
this, or it may a couple of doors ven t the h inges being ~trained it will be frame instead of as shown in Fig. 2. The
9pening in the usual way. The bottom advisable, if when open it d oe!-:> not rest on hing-es of comi'ie are so arranged that on
IS placed close to the ground in order to
the gmnnd, to fa:-;tcn a j oint stay or chain to mising- the frame the legs hnn~down against
make the available space inside as great. as it. Instl'ad 0f gaining acees:-; to thi::; lower it. By a Yery slight modification they may
possible, so that the plinth is added more 1 r eceptacle from the front, a litl may be 1 be arranged t o fold within the side rails.
. . ....
. -
, '
: ,
., ,
.,,. ,,,,
:rig. 6.
,, ,,
, ,
Tig 5.
' (====~'"
~~ ·
' 1- - - - -1
-- .'
Fig. .-Side Elevation or Cupboard Bedstead. Fig. 3.- Front Elevation of Cupboard Bell stead. (Scale of Figs.
dovetalled to Frame. Fig. 5.-Folding Footboard. Fig. 6. - Folding Legs.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
z a.nd 3, ~ in. to 1 ft.)
Fig. 4.- Latll
• •
Ample space is afforded for a thin mattress
and the necessary articles of bedding in the
cupboard; but if these have a tendency t o
push the frame too far forward so that it is
apt to fall on the doors being open, a turu
buckle on the under side of the frame, fitting
into spaces cut in the ends, will prevent any
Only the general features of the construction have been touched on, as it is hardly
possible to conceive a simpler contrivance,
and the remarks have not been written for
novices altogether, though even they can
hardly meet with any difficulty they cannot
overcome. I don't think it CJtn be necessary
to tell any rea.de1·s of WoRK, however inexperienced they may be, that at the bench
they must stand on their hind le"s, but it
will afford great pleasure to assist ti10se who
don't require quite such elementary directions as far as possible in
"Shop." If, therefore, any
readers feel that they cannot
understand some of the details of construction, they
may be assured of friendly
advice to help them if they
will state where the dittiMy friend,
culty arises.
Dulwits, is not a mechanical genius ; he wants to
learn " how to make all
sorts of things you know,"
beginning at tbe beginning,
but he cannot master the
technical advice to get on
his hind legs : till he does,
I fear very much he 'vill
not be worth anything. It
may interest some who
sympathise with him to
know that he has been advised to consort with the
lower orders of creation,
beginning with the ponythe Jerusalem variety-as
being congenial.
those bellows hung up in that way, made
me almost thin k I was goi ng to demonstrate
I was the cleverest inventor that ever lived
or would live. When a ll was in work inrr
order, and each had tried them, the generJ
feeling was one of disgust, that such a simple and practica.l mode of b nn~ing a pair of
bellows had not been thought of hcfore;
~hey could not tlten see anything "clever "
m 1t.
Seeing a paragraph in WORK on bellows,
signed W. P., on page GOI:i, Vol. I., which says
"1 presume the long bellows you have bought
are second-hand Onl's, as those who now "'0
in for new buy the circular ones, ~s
they are easier hxcd and take up less 1·oom" ·
and thinking many others do not yet kno\\;
of the plan, I thouf{ht I wonld j ust send
yo~1 a sketch and pmticnlnrs, for if hun~ in
tlus manner, they take up less room than
had to fix a weight a.t B to pull the hellows
down, but afterwards they went cltJwn quite
CJUick enough, and blew very much ea.~icr
t oo. The weight on the long end of rack
s keeps A, and hook, 1-:, in J'osition.
There is one great advantage gainc by the
plan, viz., the lcuemge is a.lwayli t he sau1e at
f!l'l'17f pa'rt (Jf tlte st1·okc as t he ful c·rum
·1w,ves: no other plan I have seen drJc~ t his.
T he l e ,· era~c ean also be quickly adjusted.
I have blown and worked with a very
many pair of bellows in my time, but with
none can I acq uire such a degree of " touch"
as wit.h those hung this way. With a skilled
workman, it is not merely a blast he wants
- he can have this with a fan or loTig chimney
- he requires to vary that blnst in the nicest
way possible with some kinds of work i
hence I think, if not generally known, it
, will not be unacceptable to readers of WoitK.
!\1.\{' IUXT·: F<W .F HETSA.W .U .\(' H 17\E.
llY C. H. :\1.
As many sub):cribers take
an illterc:-.t in fret-saw work,
it mny not be out of place
to de,criLe a fret-saw mach i n~, which I made some
time ago from an old sewing
machine, especially as it eml•odies a method of controlling the direction of the cut
whil·h is the reverse of that
generally adopted.
In the ordinary method
of directing the cut, it is
necessary to turn the piece
of work which is being operat ed on so as to feed it
against the t eeth of the saw,
anll the beauty of the
:Fig. l .
curves produced depends
on the steadinl'ss with which
t his can be done.
.Also, however small a.n
opening is bein:; cut out, the
work must at least be reBY JOHN R EWITT.
volved completely round,
-and the size of the piece of
. ~--- .
wood that can be dealt v..;tb
I:r is tust twenty years ago
on any particular machine
to do this seemingly simple Fig. L- Plan to hang Bellows 1n Roof to Ground below available for other is lim1ted to the distance
purposes- J, Joist 1n Roor ; P, Blast Pipe : L, FUlcrum 1n Chains ; C, Rack Staff; that can be reached from
operation. I was waotmg
E, Hook on nell• ws ; A, Iron Plate with Eye for Hook, E, to work in. F1g. 2.- corner to corner.
to move into a more conNow as a sewing maEnlarged View of End of Rack Staff.
venient shOIJ ; one was to
chine has generally o. comlet, but, for. the life of m~ I
could not see bow it would do, unless I could 1 circular ones, can be fixed at r.ny angle to paratively small span, I adopted the
use the ground-floor space, where in ordi- the hearth, and practicn,lly consume no course of making the saw revolve on its
• n~ry usage the bellows should be, whether power in the way of friction in the process axis in place of turning the wood round,
c~rcular or "long shape." The shop was not of blowing, besides being chenpcr m first and with the result. that it was possible to
deal with a. piece of wood twice the width of
!righ enough to hang a pair in the roof, as cost.
I think the sketch"will explain itself. n, the span of the machine and of unlimited
IS usua~ly done, so I was in a. fix ; a larger
shop With two double - handed hearths I Fig. I, are the bellows hung to the roof length.
Although in the first place I tried this
timber, J ; L is a b lock of woocl hunJ:'{ with
must have, and no other could I find.
After thinking over how I could fix a pair chains to the bellows pins, for the rack staff, system because the span of the se,ving
aloft, so as to have the space undemeath, c to work on as a ful crum ; a pi n goes machine was ~>O sma.ll, I found it a great
long and anxiously1. I at last hit on a {Jian, tinough c and L The position and lever- improvement upon the usual method. Oband soon had it au at work in my mmd's arre of rack sta ff, c, is regulated hy the viously, the saw can be turned on its axis
eye; so off I went and took that shop, and p~sition in which this pin pnsses through in a. fmction of the time taken to carefully
began moving into it. When I began fixina both or either, and its height by tho length turn the wood round, and it therefore rethe bellows close to the roof every on~ 'Jf the chains; r is the hlas t pi pe. Fig. 2 sults that curves and an.d es eau be followed
thought I was "cracked," and a'u wanted to shows how the rack statf is connected to much more quickly. The cut is much
know how I was going to blow them · and bellows. At the bottom of all long shape cleaner, and bolder curves and sharper turn~
as ~am very poor, even now, at sketching bellows is a hook, Ej this is engaged in a~ eye can be made.
To appreciate t.he difference in the facility
my tdeas, and could not do so then, I could in plate, A, fastened on t he rack stn.ft, c;
only .say ''wait and see." Scores came to the top side of this eye i,;hou ld be nicely of mn.nipnlation, take a sheet of stifl'J'aper
laugh, even o. practical bellows maker rounded, then, as you .hlow the bello.w~, it with a fret-pattern sketched on it. an . hold
amongst them; and to hear the remarks as roll:; in this hook w1thout any fn ct10n. a pencil in a fixed position, lightly pressto wliat I should certainly be if I blew Previous to hanging the bellows this way, I ing on the paper. Then try to follow the
- ---- -
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
[Wo1·k-Aprill2, 1890,
Fig. I.-Needle Bar of Sewing Machine altered for use in Fret-Saw Machine- A, Piece .ftxed to C to hold Washer.(B) in place; B, Washer with knurled
edge, shown in plan in Fig. 2 ; c C', Bearings through which Bar is driven up and down:. D D, Connecting P1ece ; E, One of the three Set Screws,
the points of wb.1ch project into the Groove in the Bar, and carry it up and down while permitting it to revolve axially ; F F, Part section or
the Lever by which the Bar is driven up and down through the Connecting Piece, D D ; G G, Small Vice at End to hold the Saw; H H, Keyway by
which Bar ta revolved while in motion up and down.
. ·'
pattern, first while assuming t~at the
pencil will only mark in one chrectwu and
turnina the paper to follow the pattern, and
secondly, taking it that ~he pencil marks
in any direction and keepmg the same end
of the paper co~stantly towa rds you. The
latter method will be found to be from two
to three times the ·quicker, and a much
more pleasant occupation.
In the next place a sewing machine
generally has a short stroke, say only 1 ~ in.,
but by the method I adopted of m ounting
the saw this was not a disadvantage, except
that fewer teeth being brought into play
the saw becomes blunt, and must be renewed
the sooner. On the other h and brcn.kages
occur less frequently when the wood has
not to be turned round.
The following is the descri~tion of the
alterations to the sewing machme :I. The hole in the bottom of the n eedle
bar plugged up, and a finer hole drilled to
suit the size of the saw to be used, or the
end of the needle bar fitted with a pair of
vice jaws having a central nick to accurately
determine the position of the sa.w when
nipped in place, for it is important that
when the needle bar is revolved the saw
shall run true.
2. A groove turned or filed round the top
of the needle bar, by which it can be driven
up and down without interfering with its
revolving movement.
3. A long keyway cut very truly along
the upper end of the needle bar, by which
the bar can be revolved without interfering
with its upward and downward movement.
The needle bar thus altered is shown in
Fig. l.
4. The saw works through a small h ole in
the surface plate of the machine, and this
hole is bushed wi~ha~ieceo.f steel of extreme
hardness, otherWise 1t rap1dly wears away.
Where the surface plate is cut up with the
feed gear, the plate is filled .in. solid,
~d the hardened steel bush ts mserted w1th
tts small hole accurately under the centre
line ,of the needle bar, this accuracy being
obtamed. by mar~ing off its position by a
sharp pornt fixed m the needle bar for the
pu~pos~ for a moment.
The ~tee! bush,
whtcp. ts at least a quarter of an mch deep,
has 1ts small hole bell mounted top and
avoid cutting edges,
Fig. 1 . - Sliding
Bevel placed as
which would
ntitre at angle
damage the
of 45".
saw, the bottom bell
m outh being
large to facilitate threading the saw
into place.
5. The
means employed of
turnin g
; needle bar is a washer with .a fixed key,
made preferably of steel and wtth a knurled
edge to gtve a good hold to the thumb, by
which it~ mo~ion is pu~ded as the work pro' ceeds. (See Ftg. 2.) fh1s washer and key must
be a good working tit to the needle bar,
that is, the bar should slide through easily
when lubricated, but there should be no
shake, especially in the key and keyway
sideways. The position of this washer is at
the top of the upper bearing of the needle
bar when in place on the machine.
6. The usual prcs!';er, b y which tbe sewing
work is held down, is altered so that at its
lowest position it. rests on its stop, when it
is a little more than the thickness of the
wood above the smface plate. The work
can thus slide freely under the presser,
which holds it from jumping up, but the
presser can be raised against the action of
. 1ts spring when the work has to be taken in
or out.
A wide spreading fork at the
bottom of the presser allows enough of the
pattern to be seen between its jaws.
Beyond dismounting a.\1 the parts of the
sewing machine which are not necessary for
its proper working as a sewing machine a.nd
the fitting of a blower to carry oft" the sawdust, there is no other alteration made to
the machine.
My experience is that there is no necessity whatever, with a short stroked machine
such as I am clescribin~. to highly strain the
saw by screwing it up between the jaws of
a frame, as is done in th e usual hand tool.
I found that the needle ba.r drives it up and
down, while the bush in the face plate
keeps it in proper line above the face
plate. I found a sli~ht tendency for the
loose end b elow the plate to "whip" round,
and so catch and b1·eak, bnt this was easily
pre:rented by ~ttnching ~light elastic cord,
havmg a tens10n sny of from a quarter to
ha.lf a pound.
This attachment may be made by softcning the end of the sa.w in a candle flame
and bending it into the form of a. hook. It
will be found that the steel from which
these saws are made is of very poor quality,
and they will not stand much bending cnm
when soft. It seems a pit.y they are not
made from square wire of a quality equal
to pianoforte wire. Before putting the saw
Broughton's Patent Combined
Square, Mitre, and Bevel
Fig. 2.- Bevcl in Stock when
not required for work.
PATENT .<Ej'----..1
into the machine, the back should be filed
~mo~th and the corners shot~ld be taken off;
1 1t wtll then work better aga.mst the side of
1 th.e round hole in th~ ~m·face . plate, and it
will a.lso turn better m 1ts cuts. As the top
teeth wear out, the top of the saw can be
broken otf, as it is not, of course, necessary
to work with a whole saw when so short a
stroke is made by the machine. This systcm of holding the saw a.t the bottom by a
hook necessitates threading the saw from
below, first through the face plate ancl
then through the wood; if this is not liked I
have n o doubt that a small vice ja.w below
could be used attached to the elastic band,
but probably the ela5tic band would the11
have to be much stronger to set the vice
jaw in motion quickly enough.
When working the machine the wood is
easily guided by one band, since there is no
turning about to do, wl1ile the thumb of the
other ha.nd is kept constantly on the knurled
washer by which the sa.w is turned about,
so that its teeth face the line of the pattern
continually. It is n ot necessary to see the
direction of the teeth ; indeed, this could
hardly be done while the machine is runuing,
but the feel of the cut tells where they are.
The machine is of course driven by foot.
6.- BllOl:GHTo:-;'s P ATE:ST
Tms hand? nppli:mce, the invention of ?!fr.
Valentine l3roughton, 7, Halford's Lane, Smethwick, Birmingham, who also manufactures
and offers it for sale, 'is a useful combination
of the square and be,·el. The bevel is a sliding
one, working on n screw in the stock of the instrument, "'hich passes through a long slot cut
in it. When not in use the bevel may bo placed
in the stock as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1 shows
the bevel placed against the blade of the square
for marking mitres, its proper position being in·
<lirated by a. mark cut diagonally on the blade
of the bevel, the outel' edge of which is graduated
in eighths of an inch. In Fig. 3 the square and
l•cvcl arc shown as set for work rcquit·ed, and br
the combination the change of tools for setting
or mm·king out purposes is obviated. A scriber
can ue fitted and carried in a slot in the stock as
shown in l!'ig.
3, and degrees
cnn be cut on
Fig. 3.-Square and
Bevel set for work
the stock to
set the bevel
to anr angle
required. The
combination is
certainly a· de·
sirable one,
doubtless find
favour with
workmen. I do
not know the
price at which
it is sold.
TRB Eorroa.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
·Work-.Apri112, 1890.]
• • In consequence of tile f11'eat prcs.crztre 1t1JOn tile
• "Shop" eolumn.'l of \Vonr.:, contributm·q are
req 11 ested to be b1·ie/. and concise i1~ all future
questions a ncl1·eplies.
l A answering any of the "Questions S1tbm.illcd to CO?TM·
pondtnts," or in referring to anythinq /hut has appeared m " ShoJI," 1uriters are re']uesWl to re/er to the
number and pnae nf number of WORK i1~ which the sub-
ject unckr cm~WeraJ.ion. appeare<l, a1ul to gi~:e the hcmliot{l
of the par(l{]raph to which reference is made, aud. the
initial~ antt ]>lace of r'sidenc~, or the nonHl~·f'liLinc, of
the writer by whom the question has been askctl Ol' to
1uhom a. reply has bec11. alrtlldy !Jiven. .Answers can11ot
be gLven to que..<tions tuhich do ?tot bl!llr on S1tbftcts that
fo.irl1J conu within the scope oj the Maga:ine.
Cblld's Cot.-F. J. A. (Stoke .Vewinglon) writt's :.. With reference to the reply of J . G. \V. to CLYDE·
BIDE on page 732, Vol. I.. of \ VoRK,I enclose s ketch of
baby's cot which may be useful. I have two or this
pattern now in use, a double one !l ft. 6 in. by 2 ft.
6 in., and a single one 4 ft. by 2 ft.; these dimensions
are very convenient for the purpose, and have the
additional advantage of being • stock sizes,' so that
I sl1onld ha•e nscrl th e luttt'r· mC't.hotl if I ltncl been
acquainted with it at the liurc l made my ('Ois; l t!j it
is, the bu·ge1· one is paintetl in IHtrplt·-ht·ow n nrul
varnished, und the smnllc:r (ll\0 i-. painted wit.h
bluck bicycle enamel picked out with gold ptLint.. "
A Simple, Ea.s y Method to Bra.zo a Band
Saw.-U. \\·· . (Bom·ncmoul/t) hus l;illllly wrilton
on this subject, und his corrtrnnnkntion is nclmowJedged with thanks. It is, howe1·cr·, nnnccc!lsary
to insert it, n.s full instructi11ns on the suhjec:t have
been Jo,.;ven in Lhc article" How to ~rend~~ Broken
llund Saw," in pngc la of this ,·olnme. -Eo.
Straightening Bird - Cage Wire. - H. S.
(Lonclon, N. fV.) writes ;-" In No. Zi of \\'om;: (s ,•o
page 4:!9, Vol. I.) there i:; n flU cry nskcd for st.rai~h tC'umg- bit·tl-cu.;;e wire, anrl I ho)JC the enclosed will
suit him nnd also other r·entlet·s of \Vo ru;:. A i!l a
top plate of it·on ~ in. thick. 10 in. lou;; by ·I in.
wiuo. nnd dots on suuro llent>lo wh(•rc holes nr·c to
be drilled !'or pins lo he inserted und l'in~tcd npon
re1·er-se siclc. u is a plate nf !·in. iron Gin. by 3~ in.,
showiu~ pins which ::.lidc in the slots in .,Jute A .
'!'he t11:o Jlrojcclim~ pie ces, c, on plate u tu·c two
pieces of t it·ou wire tb.t}';ned fo1· hulr th eir lcng-tu
• •. •
. . . . .•
,__ •
0 . •s
c .
: I
. l'ig. 1.
..... w
TJg. .2.
? ·=
Straightening Bird-Cage Wire- A, Top plate o!
iron for block, E ; B, Plate carryi!l~ Pins to
be placed under A; c. Iron to be fc>.stened
to under side of B ; D, Diagr~m showing
slots in side of block for C ; E, Wire draw~
ing block complete, .with Washers, W W,
under Thumbscrews.
two h oles drilled in them nnd
plate n. sons to ri\·et. th e m to unuc.;r side of u, the
(2 in.). and with
. ./"'..
Cblld's Cot.
Ftg. 1. - End. Fig. 2. -Section
through Spindles. Fig. 3. -Section showing
mortising or raUs into uprights and arrange,
ment of laths 1n bottom.
there is not any d ifficnlty In getting mattresses. etc.,
to fit. The four uprights I had turned by 1\'lessrs.
Dult'y & ,Son (at u cost of about ninepence eac h)
ohut of ~m. stuff; the topruil is 1! in. square. with
~ .e top corner 01· edge 1·oundcd olf; the bottom rail
.uth. by 1! in. ; these rails are mortisc!l into the uprJg t.s 118 l!hown iu ~'ig. 3. 'l'he design ntight be
elilborated by ho. ving tlie spindles tu med to match
the J•osts. but mine are made of i ·in. round rods
which can he procured at most wood-yards in J2 ft.
le~gths; holes ate bored in each rail to recei 1·e thcso
rrmdle~. wbh:h ure glued in, and must, o! cour.;;e,
e put m belore tho rails are faslencd to the up~lght~. 1 do not t.bink that sacking nailed to the
tame n.s suggested by J. G. ,V. would be of much
us9 for the bottom, for the simple reason that tho
children IVould dance it out in about n w eek; mine
madp ot l1.1.ths a in. by 1 in. with n. space of 3 in.
.tween; thcr are let into a piece of 2-in. by
l·'tJ·, which is sc1·ewed against the long bottom
ra s. n.s shown In J!'ig. 3. To sirnplify the conslr·uct~~1r rcqulrcd, the four uprights mi~ht be mndc out
· 0 't n.d square stutr, stop-chamfered and ca.stora
~~ IAl • l'.he cot m_u.y b e ti,r~ished by painting or
at&inlng and varnishing, or \vtth A.splnlill's enamel.
other half to be ta!Jpccl or scrcwc.:tl to talce two
small wingnuts Ol' t llllll uscl·ell·s. The whole of it
is mounted on a wood block 1 ft. by H in. by H in.•
nntl has leather wnshcrs lret.wcen top plate!, A, nnd
WOOLJ block UIH]Cl'llent.h the SCrC IV holes in A, SO
that n cnn just slide easily hackwnrds or forwards
in s lots cut in the left side of wooden block. G. C.
should make the top phttc firs t and file the slots,
then put pinto 13 tmdcr it (with 1·i~ht·hand edges
flush with other·), nnd then rtHtrk the places
for holes in u o.hont & in. f1·om rig ht-hand edge.
Next get the two pieces like c ready, and ri\·et
thorn on nftct· :;;crewin){ them. 111111 then cut the
s lols in left-hn.nd side oi wood lrluck lor them to
sliuc in. .A 1-in. screw qe to be put in end of bloclc
so us to s lip ove1· a nail m the bench to hold block
whilst being nscd. Pins to be n.bout H n. iron, nncl
H in. or U in. long. 'l'o use this put wire through
the ataplc and round the curve, nnd on inside of
JlJ'at pin of D, so thut the wire is between pins on A
and o. Then pnt. pres~m·e on with thumbscrews
from left:-h und to ~nit ~,·ire uccordinj; to thiclmc~:~s.
D, showmg slots m s1cle of clock !or c; c to be
fastened to under side of u; E, showing wire dmwing block comylcte. with wm!lret'S, w w, under
wish \VottK C1'e1·r success."
A Simple Incubator.- J. '1'. H. (JYcwca.9fle)
wl'ites in I'CIJIY to A. H. (Mancllrstc·1·) (sec pngn (j.'l l,
Vot. 1.) r·egnrdiug the ln111p, and how it is used:-" I
beg to inform him thut the tu he which runs through
the tan I• is turnerl down or elbowed ut its cntHUicl'.
and turned up at its exit, n.<~ in l•'i:;. l. '!'he chimney of
the lamp is allowerl to ente1· t~1c tub~ at A, nnd <·tu·o
shoul!l be tnl,en that the eluruney IS only a shade
snu~ller than the tube.
Any lamp will do providing
I ht'
COilSlllll pi lOll of oil i!I IIOI l 011 grout for llH) J.IOCket
or lhl'lljl t.: I'Utlol'. A dil1lcu1Ly will, lll Oi:ll llkt;ly, liriKe
ns to whc•·o tire; lnrnp Khou ld s truul. 1 utlopL the Jllan
of allow in~ t ho incubntor to 1•rujr:ct n litLio over the
cnrl u( th<· tahlP, uncl then fllC a bruckt:t ou lbu end
milju!'L sutllci··nrly to _ullo\y ur tha Jump being
tnkcn out for rctllling nnrltrrrnnung. With regard to
tire tlrnwcnmrt its position. l nrn afruirl our mutual
friend, the Editor, hn.s, in his dhJCrction, supprcfi8Cd
some pnrt or my letter an!l okcLchc!!, but a!l I have
1101. ~~ copy of rny communic.:ution, I will not pre88
t ho i mlictme nt. The draw er is t.lto si:r.c of the t.nnk
bollOill in width, plus thU thicknes!l Of pncklng
unct wootl 11t the front in lcu~;th. The uppearunce of
Lite drawer when made is as s!Jown in Fig. 2.
l'ig. 3.
--- ----- ~ -••
, ...
---------------- ------ .....
Tig. .a.
A Simple Incubator.
Th e: rlr:\WCI' hM nnt nnr holtom. nnd a picc<- is cut
on~ ur tir e lmck trie~.:c at n to nllow of the clruwer
Ll:int{ wi1hllr·nw11 without tou ching the damper ,
whi•·h luLlcr urliclc rc-ts on the floor of the incubal o1·. ?\ ow ns t o whe re ~·on put the eg179. U
your dr:t ll't'r is G in. tl ccp. nnd you 11re gomg to
att!'lllpt a hntchin~r of hen eggs. a piece of small
lliC:. h l'o'il'C ne tting s hould bo procured and fastened
nil round the insitle of dmwer Z in. from top.
This is the act.ual bottom of the drawer, upon wWcb.
a vi cce of Jlunncl i!l laid, nncJ upon which the eggs
nrc placed. A lt) square drnwer will hold about
sixly e~s. The damper is placed o"er a hole bored
Lhrougil the floor of incubntor (by the way, said incnbnlor must slaud on feet an inch or so high to
allow air to get to bole), say, H in. diameter.
The damper mnrle o[ Lin is not easy to describe, and
the EdHo1· must, therefore, oblige by reproducing
my sketch. A piece of coarse canvas must be
placed ncross. nnd the edge ltungs over the inner
circle of tin into the water plucctl therein. I trust
this will cnnblc A. R. to unders tand the construction of a renll.r useful incubtttor."
Combination Bedroom Sutte.- .J. S. (London,
]\'.) writes in sequence to '1'. H. H. (.lflt/11 (pn~c 555,
No. :x;, Vol. I.):-" Certuinly I um not oJTendcd by
your remarks. I thank you for your suggestions.
but I cannot quile n~,;rce with you in one or two
thi11~s. (1) Coneeming tbe sitlc door. I may say it
d ol•ti not show the thickness. See reply to Or>E lN
A F1x, pnge 2!!, Vol. II. (2) 'l'he bnck or the looking
~lass might be made less objectionable by Wngeill~ a piece of WQOd 3 Ol' 4 in. wide the whole w idth
of the door, so that it will uus wcr the same purpose
n;; 1ho.t shown when the door is down. (3) U the
wash-hnnd buRin were in a drawer. what would
support that drawer when it is pulled out1 You
mi~ht ha1· c n pnir (lf bmckets hinged like those
unacr a table flap, but tlwr. or, I think, any other
mothon, wonld be equnlly ns unsightly ns the ~lass
door projection. (-1) You will see thnt in my wntten
nrtielo I say thnt SPI\CC, etc.. were what I considered mostly; ther efore. if tbo cupboard is made
ten (lr twelve inches wider in front, it will make a.
much bi~gcr job than I intended. (5) The glass
door cottld most certainly be made lower down it
rcflnired, so thttt the fnstcning can be the ensler
rcuchcd, but the avera;;c Englishman is tall enough
to reach it where I ha l'l\ placed it. However, do
not Lhink that I am following in the footsteps ot
l\f. Eitfcl. by placing the desired object whe.r e it.
will rcCl u ire some exertion to attain it. Personally,
if the fastening were 7 ft. high, I could manage to
r each it without laying myself open to ministerial
reproof. (6) Perhaps, i! some of the wood were
thiCker, it would be preferable, although I stated it
! in. intcnlionally, as the qunntity or wood used in
the article would counlC'rnct . the thin appe.a ranco
it would otherwise present."
Printers' R oller s. etc.-.J. R. 1\f. (Ed,:nburgh).
-J. H. 1VL is impatient. If \\·oRK were twice the
sizo it is, it would be quite impossible for some
or the answera to be published. for a week or
two nftcrwnrds.-J. \V. H.
T aldng Out a Patent.-'l'EST (Clcck!teaton).Probt~bly before this can appear, •rrun will ha,·e
reucl in \\'mm: somo I'Cillat'ks on l't!)o{istntt ion, in
continuation or the '{Japer on Patents. \Vh~thrr •
rcgis tmlion will in h 1s case be suttlcient, depends
on his invention. Registration protects shape or
pnttcm onl~·. which a. patent is said not to do. H
th e in1•cntlon is an instrnlllent buYin~ any mechani·
calnction, n. patent will be needed ; it it consists ill
a shape or pnttern only, registration wlll suflice.
The stamp or form for registering a design (to be
got at a post omce) is 109.-C. c. C.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
' _,.
Vlolln N ecks. - J. ,V. CBattcrsea). - Give the
n eck a s trong coat. of 't'andykc brown rlissolYcd in
a mmonia; this will sink deep into the bars. \\· hen
dry, sponge the colour oil' until vou ge t the s ba<!e
y ou desire. I should not tllln'k or treating any
other po.rt in the same way. You will have pur·
ticulars Cif the whole process wh e n the pa pers on
violin making {which arc waiting their tum) nre
publlshed.- B.
Wainscot Painting .-"'· D. (Tr alsam.-I concluuc it is gTnine tl-ouk colour I ha~ you t•t•qnirc, and
n ot a plain white-lend paiut. F ot· th t• fot·nh:r. g h ·e
your now work two coats of am· li~ht oily paint,
then aconL of hntf, made from 'whitc·lcarl. cnt
driers; and linseed oil and turps. in <'C) nal propo rtions of the lutt <' r. and s tnincd with y ellow ocftre to
a s trong bulf. Then purchase or make yo ur :;t·a ining eoleur. usinl! burnt Turkey nm be t· for 1he has is,
a nd rub on thinly unu comb with one vr two
vnriet ics of steel eo m bs, dt·a wing it nlon j; the ~rain
of th e wood. \Vhen dry, coat with hard drrin~
oak ,·urnis h. Previous queries r ecentlr ttnSWl' red
on gmining will apply equally w ell to' your cn:-c.
R c m ernbet· 1hnt each coar must be laid on ll "<~ nly
and not too thick, nnd that end1 in turn is 1hm·uu;..:llly
dry. The dcpt h ot ~;round, or lui>t t·ont, :;on: rns
g encmlly the fini!'hing colour. allowing rot· the
fu1·ther dnt·kcuin~ trom the gruiuinl( colour. lr
you merely r equit·e plain oil )Jaiut. this will be
b est made with whit e-lend nnd ,·cllo w ochre nnd
burnt nmbl·r. in about th e proportinns u( two of
each or the llt-st to one of the untbet·.udcl in;..: pnt eut
or liquid cl riPI'"· und heat up wi th t wu vart:~ husced
oil to ono or turpc ntine.- F. P.
Brazing Cycle Joints.-G. L. (Shr {!id(lt. - (I)
This mar be rc.>udily done on :m ordin ury &mith's
tire. us in~ chnrcoal ins tead of th e ordin.u\- s mitlty
coal. Uorux is a c hemicnl bou;; a po wcicr. :::ipc lter is sint!Jir soft brass turnings ot· tilittg:'. 'l'hc bot·ax
a cts a s llu x in soldering, ponc trntin~ to O\'cr·y jlurt
of the joint. to be brnzed, wh en tl!Jt ~iecl in a moist
state to the hcnterl joint. Proct· etl ns follows :Have the ti ro bright and clcur, without s moke. anrl
gathered t o as small compass us possible; mois tc.>n
some borax in o. saucer; bent the joint o,·er the lire,
but not up t o red ht'nt: apply the hot·nx ull roun cl
the joint, wh en it wil_l.li_zzle and rlow into all parts.
Put some wet boro.x m s tdc the tube. and Je t it run
down to t he joint; put in also some s peltcr in the
same manner. and on the out!>idc : bind a piece of
soft brass wire t·ound the joint-the wire less than
t in. thic k; place the work OYe r the middle of
the -::l~?ur fire, but with~ut allowing the brnsl! on
the JOtnt to touch the cmdcrs ; IJlow s tcndily. and
place U. piece Of W.OOl) 0\'Cr tue joint- tb u burning
w ood will throw 1ts heat down upon the joint:
apply now and then some drr borax on th e joint
at the brass wire. The borax will m e t~ lir·st
!eaving the part wet nnd gr cnsr·looking. When t lH;
1ron is up to a clear red, but not whno, he1lt the
brass wi~c will melt., as also the spelte1· inside. 'The
m oment 1t m elt:! remo,-e from the tiro. se m pc otr the
scale with ~ bit of iron h_oop or o!d knife. and lay
the work as 1de to cool of tlselt. " hen cooled with
water while ~·et red it makes the s teel tube brittle .
(2) To clear sofa ot mot hs, hM·e all the stumn ~ tak en
out and tensed of hair ; coat the fr·umc scn :t·
times wi th paraffin, \.•!.ing a brush: wash the cun,·o._c:; ·
after tensing the hair, burn ~ome s ul!Jhlll' und er it
then let ueholsterer do up the sola. ~ 0 moths after
that.-.A. l:i.
Flattening Sheet Iron.- H. S . (CTanhmn .Tunction).- :::ice" \\' rou¥h~ Iron and Steel (;i irtlcr· \\-ork ··
page lGi, Vol. I .-1•. C.
Sun·Dials:-A~AJ,IA (Asia .Jl!inor).- A paper on
the constructton of sun·rhals, verllcu.l und horizon hi
appou.rcd in WoRn:, Ko. 5:l.
' '
Mioroscope.-A . C. C. (BatterscaRise l asks how
to ~ do~1ble.. ey~-picce .. for t he mi c t·os eopc
descrt bc d 11~ \\ onr~, ~o. t2, how the lc uscs arc
arranged, hkewise the prism." Now I ha,·e to
confes,; tbo.t I do not know what ~\.. C. C. m eans,
u~less he wo.~~s .to know how to make a binoculat·
microscope. !~ts arrangement involves a. second
t u be, nlso a p n s m, but whether this is what the
correspondent means I cann ot. divine. If he will
st.ate whut be requires distinctly, 1 will h elp liint a s
far .ns 1 cnn,.but he mnst understund that to nwke
a. b1noculnt' ~nvolves.much m01·e manipulnti\•o .skill
than an ordmury uuc t·oscope, and wh e n nutde "ill
n ot be of much practical service.- 0 . .B.
.. Glass Grinding. - E. S. (T oltcn!tam) a s ks:<;:an. uny oue tell me th e sort of tools 1 want for
g rmdlng, ond the way to 11et a.hout <loin~ it
when I ho.,·o ~ot the tools1" I s not this somewhat
vague1 For ms to.n cc, one can grinu glnss with a
common grindmg .stone, or, if such a tool is diflic ult
to u se, ~veil th<: u it can be g r ound on a doorste p.
Bu~, ser1ousl~. " :hat does E. :::i. wish to clo or muke1
I s 1 ~ lens ~~mdmg-, speculum grindillg, or whnt 1
Until Lhut 1~ lll!lde clear notliin~ eau be done.
P erh~ps E. S. wdl say what h e wants to do then
w e will help nil we can.-0. B.
Tlnfc ll fo1· Mh:rors.- D. J. C. (Silvcrtown).~ou ? liJ;:-ht to expcnence no di!Ucu lty in procnring
tlllfoil m L ondon. .Any of the maLltemntleal instrument makers, S?Ch us Dal e, in Ludgl\te Hill,
w11l be ~ure to htl\'c 1t. I have sometimes got it at
o. ~hcn ust s shop. If my nwmory servce me, I have
p about. le. 6d. p er lb. OlllSs. when silvered in
this wny, ts not usually po.inted on the back but
IVhen by the chemical process, i t needs painlin'g for
protectlon.- 0. B.
Printers' Roller.- J . R. M . (Edinl>uroh.).-To
[Worlr:-A.pri112, 1890.
m ould a compos.ition r oller !or lettcrpres~ Wf?rk,
t he mould consts ts of two 1ron scnu·edmclrr eu.l
pieces hin~ed together. In it is _placed
WOOlle n
roller-block half its diameter. It is then closed,
o.nrl the compos ition in 11. m elted state is poure d in,
and allowed to cool, when the mouldinl:' box is
opened nnrl the roller tnken out. The s moother the
iron mould is the better is the surface of the roller.
I t should not, however, be used for n dn\· or 1 wo ;
no r should it be kept in a hot place or ntlamp one.
Turpentine will clear from it the ink. whi<-h should
be done c,·ery time it is used. IC it lo:>es il!i s uc tion
or bite ?n the form and table, it may be s pon~cd
on•r wtlh wnter and lort to sto.nd a few tuinut es,
whicb r <' \'iYe:> it. Type may be also cleaned with
turpentine or pnrnllin oil ir of wood. and sh ould bo
Slil-{hlly oilec~ aft erwards .uud wiped with IL t•ng.
i\[e tal type ts cleaned wtth penrl·l.tSh nnd walm·
nn.rl a by us h. and nft <:rwards rmsed m wnter. J\ ny
pnnter s hrokcr w11l ha Ye moulds for Ca !>llllg
roll ers. will supply " compo " r endy mixed Cot·
m elt inj:: nnd running- into the mould, nnd sell r he
roll et· blocks and hundl cs for any size of rolle r. The
COiltpOl'ition mu.r be of any thickness from threcq'!a t·t c t·s o_f un inch to~wice that, or e\·cn more
s ttii. - J. \\.H.
Case for Stuffe d Blrds.-F. 1\f.- 1 send n rouA"h
skl'lch o( birllcasc. but F.:\[. does noL s late th e s ize
he rt•quires it not· how umny birds he wish es to put
i~1. uc i 1h er d oes he !'1\ ,- ir he wis hes it sq uare or cantc cl
stdcs : or co urse nil the nboYe clit·ec·t ious would help
m e to !!in· a mo re corn ple t e clesc ri plion. If \' 0111' correspondent ~:; will gh·c me full detulls I , hall be !Jlcuscd
~· -
--------- --24------------ ->i
.. ------------ --28----...!.. _ __ ___ - - •
Fjg. L
A 'I
P.i g. 2.
~::>~<~ J/\ 8
rig. a.
Case for Stuffed Birds - G G, Groove for Glass ;
AA, Section of End Pieces.
to h elp them, bot I cannot find time to solve th e
J:lfOUl CIO Of wh nt OtlCh indiYidno.} CXUCtly WOntS.
fo make a cnntcd corner cuse to hold. suy. a pair
of groul'c with t·ock work, procure two pieces of d rv
pine 24 in. long. 11 in. wide. and ~ in. thic k ; plane
them u p and join the m together side by side by
~roove n.nd tongue, making a tight joint nnd glumg them securely; then two pieces each 8
in. wide. 3 in. thick, nnd 28 in. long . After pltlning np
cut t h em lil>e .li'ig. 1, then· run a. rabbet round the
front as sh own in section and along each end; th en
procure two more pieces 18} in. high for upl'ight'!
at back ends, the same st r ength us the top nncl
bot torn; run tL groove up on e side of these the
size us the othet·s in the top uud botto111. then nnil
them to"elher, anrl you ba,·e n. case that will look
well with ~ilt moulding ronnel the front am! up th e
an:;les . After nniling the two end pieces on to 1he
top nnd bottom. bo,·cJ the ends us s hown in s ec t ion
of end piece to let the back lie close; trim it tu s ize
required and it on; sandpuper it well up, and
then you will have a case stron~ but light.: you cun
pu~ in yony birds to taste o.nd use gilt ruoulding to
fimsh.- W .
Gold In B ookbinding. - P. C. (.Jfancltcst r r ).If y ou hn\'C a .. blockinl-{·macbi nc.'' ns vou call it
(the propm· term is .. bloeking-)Jrcss "), the method
of proccdut·e in golcl-blocking" is as follows :- Lh;ht
th e gas which is t o h eat th e press, and, of com·.;e,
the s tamp, as you cnn not get gold to stick on auy
bookbinding material without heat. " ' Idle this is
going on, pr epnr e your bool>s or book·COYct·s, ns the
case may be. If thcv nre cloth, g ive the m ono coat
of g in ir e-being nn llflprcntice bookbindl!r you will
surely know whn.t glaire is-and allow them to dry
thoroughly. H they nre or leather, wnsh them tit-st
w ith paste water and give two coats of gla.ire,
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
allowing the first to dry before applying th
W hen all is r eudy, sec that t he press is ho~ second.
and. h lt\'ing arrnngcrl your stamps or bl ekougb.
gauges, ~ay on the !{Old on the eovei-s in t':e ' and.
way, usmg olive oil- spnringly-for cloth an~sual
rocco, and ln1·d for calf. lle careful to la
cieut gold t o cover all po.rts where the ~:i sum..
to np]Jea r . Place th e cover in tbe blocking-pre~5 is
to the gauges and pull the lever or hnndle th
way and bucl~ nt;m.n Rhnrply, if the press is a elitU
too hot, especially m cloth work, as the glue is e
to melt .~nd ~oruc t hr.o ugh. the cover. It may aE!
nocess~us to Icst a wh1lo wlt.h the pressure on th
co,·er m the case of lcntbcr work · take the c 11
out and rub O!t' the s urplus gold with the goldOnlr
n.nd cleun wtth rubber. If you proceed in ~
manner. nnd get plent.y of blocking to do. f OU will
soon becom_e an ettic1cnt blocker. E11:per1ence i8
U1 c teache r m thes e mu.ttcrs.- G. C.
B icycl e R epairs. - A.
-A. W. does n t
sto.t~ whc.>tht'r _h!-l m<;an!! netv tires on new whee~
or stmply ro·\mu·tnt; llres of old or used wheels. To
put ll lie\\' tire On lL new l'illl, clean t he hollow or
rim witl_t 1L Cl<?Lh Uippec\ in parnflin; dissolve the
cement 111 an ll'On ladle over the tire· when it 1a
liquid enouph to t'l~n lil<e syrup, pour 'it evenly o.U
: ou n_d the rtm. htwtn~ tlrst heated the rim by turn.
111~ tt round s lowly over o. fire. 'Then th e rim 1a
futrly ,~·m·m nil l·o!IIHi. .and the cement poured on,
go raptdly round 1t wtth a bot poke1·; t hen ploce
the rubber tire on ull round. ns rapidly o.s possible
l~ll,in~. en r e not to twist it: that is. keep the snme
stdc ot th e rubber up nil round. If the rim and
c ement h~n-c bt•e n S!tllic;icntly hot, the rubber will
h old by s tmply prcsSIIll:j 11 into the hollow with the
hands aud rolling it s If the cement doee
n_ot ooze ont ut th e crlt;cs, t ben the wuler side of the
run must. be heater\ over a gas or lump flame
\\'hen you reel t!t c rubber rolling smoothly, o.nd see
th_c ct·lncut a~ Utc edges, then thtl rubber
w11l h old. '!'he su)Jcrltuous cemen t is cleaned olf
n(tet· it has harrleHcd. 'l'o put on an old tire that
ll as co ut c wholly 01· partly otl', go round the exposed hollow rim with the red hot poker pour new
cement on the places t hat thi n a nd bure place
th e rubber in position, press it with the hnnds, and
operate with the gus tlnme o.s above, if necessary.
C~mt'.n t . ls . per lb. ,~onv . .A. Lloyd, Wo.eman Street,
ll1runng ho.m.- .A. s. P.
Veneers.-P . C. CBtd/o1·rlsllire). -You can get
all kind s of veneers in e,·cry th ickness at either or
the foll o wing .tirms :-J . J..n.thum, tU and 125, Curt ain Hoad, I<... C. : .A. 11. Fnrmer, 49. Austin Street.
Shoredit ch; or L. i\lnrslrull, H , James Street, Old
Su·eet, KC.-A. J . ll.
Dulcime r Dimens ions.- ANXIOUS (Norwich~­
If Axxtol·s will control his anxiety 11 short time
lon!{cl' - that is. 11''' il hu rends this-he will acquire nU the inrm , . lion he seel<s, ns the papers
which appcut·cd in the first volum e of 'VoRK on
··The Dulcimer'' uns wet· Lhe whole of his questions
fully and e xplici tly. In constructing Ills instr11ruent
he c ,·idcntly made the mistuke of supposing that a
simple hollow box would a nswer the purpose, and
so neglected to pt·ovide it with "braces,' "liningblocks ," and "ins ide bridges." If such was th&
cas e, it is no wonder thnt his "back" gave, nnd his
··belly ·• beeame hollow. I t is n ot improbable that
he hus nltoget her roisscd the first po.per that hns
appeared on the s ubject. \Vitb r egurd to the
Xylophone, the best wood for the purpose is rosewood, hut very good instr uments mo.y be made
from rellow pine. They can be made, in fnet, from
u ltnost nny wood th11t is free from knots: the more
dense lcinds g i ving, ns a rule, the best r esults.-
H.. F.
Bamboo Ca.nes.- .J. D. (Edinbt~rnlt).-Apply to
Mr.; F. 'Vestbury.:Gren.t Dover l:)lrcct, .Uoro', London,
S.E.-1 da.resny he would make you up an llSSOrted
bundle of bamboos Cot· 10s. If not you cannot do
bettcl' than get them from some good local cabinet
maker who sells bamboo fancy turuiture.-D. D.
Conv ertin ~ Blinds.-A. L . D. (stok~ NC111ington).- You wul experience norufliculty in removing
the wire go.u~e from the fram es. 'l'hese may a~ter­
wnrds be fi lied with stained glass. llut as thts is
compn.rntivcly costly ono or other of the substitutes
may suit you better. It so I can recommend
"G luciel'," w hi eh is a n excellen t i mitation, ine;cpeosivc, o.nd easily applied. 1 durcsny you ltnow tt con
be got at Perry's, llolborn Vio.duct.-l>. .A.
Articles in WoRK.- T. vV. (Pateley Bridge).Skrtchin~ in wa.tet· colonrs cann ot at present "!>e
tnken up in \Voru\:. .Any pnper you like to se!Jd ll1
on ap;>ro,·o.l will be carefully considered, w1th &
view to publication.
Mail Cart.- H. W .-1 d esigTled Fig. 6 a t the suggestion of u. reader of W OH K. I impro,·ed ~.poo tbe
ordinary mail cnrt by making the seats to hit ~r.fall
to ullow U1e riders to stand up when tired of. slttir.hg.
In Ute desi"n the footboards look stronger than t e
cross-bnrs ,"'whic h in reality should be vice·IIC1"S~
the cross· bar being 1 inch squnre of ash or oa~. nned
t he foot hmtrds ~inch thick. After I had destgn
Fig. 6, the idcu. oceurrcd to m e to improve the mull
curt fnrt.h cr by fixing n box und emooth the seat,
having u hin~cd lid in the centre of the seat to place
sumH purclu\sos. etc., in the box. 'l'he box rnusf t nort
touch the nxle. or 1he springs would not be o aD
use to save tho curt fl•om jolUng. 1'his id~ I»
h appily car riecl out in Fig. 8. .As t hese two dC:~tJtiiS
were specially d esi~ncd tor 'Vomc. a nd .the bn·
provemenls have not been patented, I thtok
n eed not be ntmirl of infringi ng upon them.
Fig. 3 I. however, cannot spcal<, it being
W ork-Aprill2, 1800.]
and showing tho general wuy o f making them. and
85 being ~be principle upon which uU t110 otl.tc1·s are
made.-W. .P.
Iridescent Silver L eaf.-J. H. (Rinninallam).
- Iridedcc nt or "Peacock" silver is of «;crmnn
manufncture and owes its colour (us we imuginc)
to exposiug the leaf to the fumes of some wcatk uci.c
mo.d" warm. If. as we conclude from one of h1s
queries. J . H. is a printer o.nd l'equircs the
leaf fo1· printing pu r poses, we may t ell him that ils
appearance on s mall type scarcely repnys the tt·ouble
ot using it i but that on large type. and l'Specially by
artilicinl Jtght, its eft'cct is exceediugly l:c{OOU. 'J'hc
lea\·es to be procured a t 12s. pc1· 1,000 from l\Lr.
W . HoCer, 37, Upper Thames Street, L ondon , E.C.S. W.
Pruerving Skeletons.-Stm r.F.TOX (London,
TV.C.!.- We would suggest a careful cleaning or the
bones with. so.r. an old tooth brush, and a :.u·ongsolution ot potash or soda. If they arc not then of
a good colour, t.hey can be. further bl~nchcd br ~x­
posure to sun, u1r, a nd clew, or more qmcl•ly chloride
ot lime. For articulating (that is umting- the joints)
wire is best, nod in any cuso tbe \'ertebroo will Iawe
t o bo threaded on wire and the skeleton geuemlly
supportefl l.>y it. I n the case of !!mall bones , ot·
where the surface of contact is broad, n strong
cement (such us isinglass and acetic acid) will
scrre, but this will scarcely do for the muin joint<>
of legs and wings. In small animals the untural
ligaments may ortcn be left to t ic the joints, allll
are safe when well dried. As rcgurd::1 a work on
tnxide1·my, SKELETOX will probnblf find the dh·ections in Dixon's "Rural Hird Life • (Lon~mans. 5:;.)
about what he r equires. \ Vutcrton's syst<·m llf
selLing up birus. etc., w ithout wires. is printed with
the better editions oi his "Wanderings in !:louth
.Amcricu."-hf. M.
Chevn.l Screen.-S. N. (Dalslon. E.).-The olimensious of the chcn·ul screen were uot gi vcu exactly on
1mrpose that every oue who w ished to constrnct it
should modlfy it accordingly. lf you take the
h ci~ht of the desk tlap ut that of an ordin:\l'y
wnting-tuble, the other pmportions 1111Llte1· little.
The uprights and shch·e<> should not. I think. be
0\'er 5' inches wide. The thicknt:s~ dcpl!nus :,o
m uch on the texture of the wood used . \\'hat would
be absu rdly clumsy in rosen·ood would be . Jll'l'hup:;,
insuillcient in ordinal'}' dtml. \\' ood i iuc h thic k
was in r iew when the tlcsi~ns were p repared.
mahogany being quite staple in that thickne:,s.J . ti. w.
.Clock - Case Carving. -(Hl·:r/w.m). -Had you
\·cn the rough fli1nensions of d esi1·eol clot• k ca se,
would have tricu to add a sketch with this·
as, howcn:r, you do not say if it i..; a hl'tH:k ct z{
grandfnthe1·'s, o. miniature, or a lJuLch clock ):ou
would like t o set in cu rved wood I fcur ,·ou m use
wait until a papm· in hunu 011 curved clock cases
finds SllllCe to uppear. - E. ll. S.
Monochrome Paper.-H. C. (Beth11al c,·ccll).The bookbintlct··s cuu-puper you enclose is the r·i.,ht
material, but totally uusuilable in des ign. H
memcn·y sen·c:; m e, l\Iessi'S. Johu~ton arc the
makers of \'err pretty vatterns pl'inted in soft
greens, gr·c~·s. cmnamons, and fu.wn s. thllt look excellently well. l~rolmbh· no stationc1· woulu keep
t hese, but. ut the lar-ger binding fuclo1·ies you could
p robublyobLuin 11 few s heets. 'l'hu co~t is notg•·cut,
butthe mukcrd, I expect, sell th em ouly in quires of
twcuty-fou1· sheets of one coloui' and des ign. 'l'hct·c
a1·e ~oft colour patterns in printcol cottons ancl
mushns htu·dly Olot·e costly that nli"ht be usetl but
these would nece~sarilr increase '"ttu.: LrouiJle of
IUUIIU!O.ctUI'O.- E . .U. S.
Rivet Holes in Chair.-J. H . (.lllallcltcstcl·).- lt
you cn!luot manage to find the positions of the rivet
holes from a study of the dmwing, in whic h they
ar? ~hf!wn pretty cleul'ly, you should take u. few
lhln .slips or w ood, cut to the snu1e width ns the
framu~g of tbo c!tuir. and experiment with them,
• th,cm wllh scr ews to rcpre~eut the r h ·cts .
By domg tins you .will be able to shift the positionl:l
or the screws uut1~ the proper place re fouud : yon
c~ then put the r1vcts 1n tile chair to co•·rcspond
• W!th the Scr·ew L~ICS. Of COUrse you IJlliSt noL CX·
pect tbut tbc cha1r when finil:1hcd wi ll fold perfectly
tint; few folding chail·:~ do, but it will fold into u.
m uch snaullet· compa ss thun when in Ut>~) nn d so
c a 1,1 be thu more t·cadily stowed u.wuy,w b e;l not rcqu•red.-G. Lll: H.
Vesetablo Ivory.- J. S. (Sl((lcyb,·hloe). - It is
not wort~ YOU!' whrlo attem pting to m tLkt: a llnl>stit.ute for J\'Ol'Y for turning. T he natuml !:mbs tancc
known us ''cgctuble h·ot·y is only suitublc fo1· sm nil
t hi;nKd. and no~ sulliciehlly gootl tor much work
bcml:f spent O!ltt. Xylonitc is pl ea~;Unt to work in
~d mexpens• ~c. but cannot b e got in pieces O\'Cr
lb mcb ~luck: 'l'he address of the wukcrl! hu:~alrcady
een g1ven m these puges.-D. A .
Metlll .Watch Cases.-S. s.-T um so1-r'· to sur I
~nuot gl\'e any inform ntion on thi::~ s ubjec t
1 bel •e,·e eome are made in .Birmingham : lll'.olmbly uny
r eaders there might belp.-J. '1'. V .
S~dlo Camera.-H. w. (Gate:~lu:acl). - A dcsbenptlo~ of such a ctun c•·a mny uppca1· after u. tiwe,
ut notJusL u.t ).)l'esen t.-E. D.
~ullah,l~g T~ble Ton.:-E · C. (Tlcarll:llfl). --Ccr·
tain ly. · l o ,POII~h you1· p1tch ni n e lablu top, thlc
ordinary white .F r,cnch polish. 'i' his e!Lu be bonJ;ht,
~?u ~ay make 1t yourself, by dil!solvin~ bleached
ednc m methylutetl svirils. 'l'he Jl1'0po•·tions
U8C vary conslder~bly, bu t if you take tl o:t:. t1hellac
to ea clt JJlnt of SPirit ron will do rery ·well. Of
00111116 t.l!e more shellac the thicker the liquid will
be, nnd uicc t·cr.,~<t n rro m applyi ng tlw poli ~h ron
should flll in, tlmt is tu say. :.lllJI up the ~min of
the WOOU Wllh SnlliC lllliug-, O( whidt OIH! Uf the
hest is some whitiu:; mixetl with oil uutl poli"lh.
'l'he oil shoultl bo mw liusecd. unrl s hould hu
slightly in excess of th e polis h. 'l'hc 11llin~ is hest
when of a fair workiu~ consisten cy, nut ~;o ft
cnouf:('h to !low, but "ofte1· lluw puLiy. ltnh Lhis
-..veil iuto tho wood, nud then clean oft' the l:l ttl'plus
befo1·e it beco uws hurd. Yon must th en IJod.v up,
and afterwards s pil·it otr in th e usuul way. If you
nrc con1·crsunt with IH'tlin:uy French poli ~ hiu~ on
darl• wood. you will olJ:-el·,·e I ha Ye gi ,·en you no
directions fo1· oil in!{ ~·o ur pitch pine top. and 111 case
you mar think this Is an O\'CI'Sight. I may ucltl that
oili!'~ s llou14 !.>c •. or ralhcr· nmy, with uunLilla.t;c. IJc
omitted. 01l Will cla•·k en the wood unpl~·a suntly,
and in a short lime c·au::~c it to ass um e a olirl ,. up·
pcnruncc. The s toppila:; you haYe used tu fill up
defects in the woo•l is not a good onC'. Jn.,t ea!l of
beeswax alone a mixtn•·c of it and resin is l.H'I.:ferublc for Ob\' iOUS r e.t:.Oli::..-D. ..:\.
Frame Gilding n nd Varnishing. - .\ . n..
(Roclulafc).- Yuur· l'rie ncl is rplite ri~;ht in t elling
rott thut the gohl bmmdng will b lael;cn. '!'here u1·c
t wo ways of u;;llag tlo e:~c IJronze<> : nn c is to e:o O\'Cl'
the article with \' ILI'IIISh ot• .Japane:;c g"old s i;r.e,
and then. ,ius t bcfot·u il ~c1s hard. to tlu ~t or rub
on the PO\\ dcr w1lh 11 pkce of solt w;u,h ·ll'alhl·r.
The other way is to mix it in solution with :.lwllac
nn•l m l·lhylalctl s pirits, Ol' othe1· :,i milul' al'l icll"'·
nnd apply Wil h U hms h. It is not OII CU IISI'<l \\ il h
gold size, a , rou did it. s inl·e it mn,t IO•l' a !ante
amonnt o( lu·ightne:B in mixing with tlu -; liqttili.
Some bronz.·s lasL lungc1· than othl•r<>. buL 11 is
dirtic ult to Jllll!{o tl tC III when buy in;.:- ns t o this
quality; they all di ~colour m ti111e, huw e \' el·. 'l'h u
smnplc scut i.; a uri~ht gold colour. an•! is . ::o fal',
of good quality. lt )'o)U cousi•let· it \\' <11'1 h ''I tile.
the ln·on.-.e can b e Jll'l··et·vctl 1;,· a Yl'l'l' 1 hiu c •M t
of white -hunt s pil'it I'UI'nish, or a' little wldl u ,.,ltt:llac
di:;soh·ed ill "nwl hrlnl ud" will am;wer. 'l'ltb i, llll'
only \'lll'nish s uitable : uil \'ant ish wutt!.l e:i 1 c th e
Lr·unzo U \'ery COU1'SO tlltU COlt\UlOII uppeurUIICt.:.1<, . 1.).
Plating F lgurcs.-flH \ S:>or.t:\E (Giasrmwl. - I
cx pt.:(:t from out· l'llll'l'i::t.':; lflll:l'Y h l' 111cam; Ll10
lacquer t.hul is $Ollll'liltte::l applied to llll';;c· li~,;m·es.
Hu t he can ubo oiJI:li n that d:u·k I'cd colom· by rn•·nns
of wurkin~ a uyauhle coppc1· solution with a si h ·cr
a nolle. or he cnn do it. also by means of th e U.l'litl e i~ll
colouring mixture . A s uitul>lc lacqu er to use is. di<>soh-c in -~ pint of methylated SJiirit ~ oz. or clcur
secoilac u.Jld ~ o;r.. of dragon's IJloou. These should hu
wl!ll puh·c •·isctl toge ther !Je forc bci n!{ uo lolctl to the
spir·it; this should be don n iu tL gla"s hottlo•. The
hotllc should then be l'lac~u in so111e WU1'111 walCI'
nntl gradually boiled: mt be car eful aud that
the s pirit rlocs not also boil iuto the fire. 011 uccouut
of its bcin;; so inllammable. Colo11rillfl Jlli:t:lttrc.:1\(ix a powoic.r well inn. mortar: sal-ammonia. 1 oz:
coppc1· ucclutl' • .} n;r,. ; saltpetre. { o;r..: :sulphate or
soua (Glaul,c!''s salts) . ~ oz. \\.hen wcllmixetl anu
wantctllo be u~ud , mix it into a paste\\ ith u hltlc
water, an.! CO\'Cl' the article with il: geutly heal
the article lill it turns of a greyis h colour. th c u
allow to cool. and was h the mass off with '' ;tt'ltl
water and polii!h with rouge. This is the 11\l'l h11d
I use. and nlways with ~1·eut success. nnd I belie \'C
it is the method gt·ncrully used in Clerken well lvt·
similar w o1·k. H you do not manage to g et on
with these 1·eccipts wl'ite me again, stulin!{ • our
ililliculty, when I will t1·y antl l1clp you.- F. \\ . 1\l.
Aquarium Dis h. - G. '1'. A . (Sto,·ktun·nu-'l'c cs).The glass 1o•· uquul'ium cu11 hu obtai m·Ll tlo mu~-th
nnr china and glass dealer. ::ilwulol you h:L,-e a11y
ditllculty, however, bur a cheap t' IH'tXno with an
escalloped rush (thnt is what 1 diu). untl kuoc l• on·
the lower part ; rou t hen hn \'C a dish with u central
hole. price about l s. 'l'hejet is nu oruinarr "oil ca n
nozzle ·• (trade term l ; ordc1· frum any lllol s hop. }/'or
geLLing 11 good ell'cct you musL tlx thi~ true, so thut
the column of WtLICI' fnlls equally ull rou nd, 1tnd
~i ,·os ~hut ~1·ctty Hpray which is uiJsent in u l.>ndlylllted JCt.-C. i\1. \\ •
Printer s ' Vn.rnish.-J. A. G. (lf·-cst Rai!lton)." ' c should not nrl\'ise .J. A. G. to aLlclniJl to m uke
p1·intcrs' Vll.l'lli t>h; we nss u1·c him it is eheupc t· to huy
t.hun to nmke. ::!u i:; hoilctl oil, Lo say noLhiug of the
danger of it s takiugo tire, unless it is very Clll'cfullr
wutchcu, or do no hy stl!alu·h ented "juekcletl '
v essels. I f it takes Ure it is useless. lloltl size.
whi ch is :also u se•l in coloured inks, is ul!:!O djtJicult
ami tedious to nud,c, uutl like \·arni::1h uml hoiled
oil is much betlc1· uwdc in large quunl ities by nn
cxpcriencetl!IIU II, in poin~ !lf ee1:tn~nty nntl quulil~,
t.Ju\-0 in tho lilllllll I(IIUIItttiCS W1llun Un UllllLlCUl' S
means. Iokl> .tl't! cheaper 10 · IJuy lhun lo make, but
J . A. G. can . it lw J•r e te l'li it, sn ,.e th e cost in cns h by
sub:.tiwtiug his lu uou•· in th u "'l'iutlin~. 'l'he wl'itcl'
question~ ve1·y much whet her he will snvo e\·en
that. Ill:! e\'cn with n s tenm·powcr miU, the colours
fo1· 2s. colom·cu inl<s arc often ground fourteen t iU\cs
h cfo•·e they tu·o lino enough for use. However,
J . .A. G. can b egin by purchasin:: n.t the paint S!IOJl,
o1· nrtist.'s colou1'11ll\11':<, l.h o dry colours h e r equu·cs,
au t! procec~l to g-J•inrt thc.m with bo!led (linst•cd) oil,
us s tilt' as Ius stl'cllg-th wrll allow ot·, O\'Cl' a nd over
nl!uin. uutil ho can sco 110 pm·ticlcs at. ull,,but avci'Y
SIIIIHJl h s ilky SUI'fi\CO IL!I the llltlllel' lea \'CS il. A s;t!USS
mullt:L' on u runrblo slab. o1· n granite one, gives tho
hest results. \¥hen thoroughly growtd nud n t>inc h
ot su~ur ot lend, a few drops of Jnpun gold sizo,
cnou!{h L. P .. vur·nish t o . l~t it ~o\~·n to t h l! co•.'sistency !'equtrcd, and u J11tle tlun hlho \'1lrfllllh, 1f
required thlnnct· still or Lo be transparen t. 11 a
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
hi' required it may he nhtuirH••l In ont: ,,r Lwo wnys
l'itlll'r by m1in~ flnl<l' whilt· with lht~ t:ultJu r , 1111 L11u
l'i~lat shaole iH nhlaull'll, wlaido h111 bullio:tl t;••l•mr, tJr
hy u s in~ very littlu colour, tlaiullctl dfJwu with litho
V lll'tti ~ h unrll{ol<l t< izo·, till a \'Cry tl'llltHpun:ut KlaiUIO
iR oht.uincd. a~:curolin'-' to 1111, oxl~r: ndt:--. u f Llor: joiJ.
JI!'Waro of u :; in~ tL t;lecl JIIL.17tl!J kuifc fo1r any rLnilino
colou rs; u bone \mpc•··kn lle IS IJclto: J·, M 1ron un d
at eel cause conl-:'11 ntiuu or tlaeMe. V c r·1nili ou iH n~o
black ened souwwhat by Hucb eontnc l. A n lckelplatE'ol pnlellc kuifo iujur el! no colourl!, uml lit
cu'iily clenncd. 'l'cr eiJinc is t he hest cleanser ot
11\ullers, slab::s, nnd kuh·cs.-J . \\o', ll.
Electric Alarum for Clock.-Sl•:A DooTS ( ller
7/IOiackcy).-You will tlnd full inst ru ctions on ho w
to llx an electric uhu·uu1 on nn Amt!ri can clock in
No. 32 of \\' OHK, publi'ihcd on Octobe r 2Hlh . .l<~ urLher
d c luil:. on how to fix the wires. lliHl ctmnect them
to the bell, will be found in t·c•plit•s to 01\E I N l\Y.~O
(C:Qt•cnii'J/1 und 11. :B. (.J. ( Jl 'oQtl/OI'd). 'l'hii correspondent. wishes he bud known WOJl K before, and
say~<, us he is "u poo•· man" he is unable to g et the
IJu~· k 11 mn bm·"· \V ell. l tull n poor mnn, bu t I ha r e got
u tit!)- little library of boola;, unu I don't mind t elli ng
yo u how I gut them. I clo not smoke tobucco, but
t!C l aside my tobacco lltoncy for books. lily book·
ca se. with its ~nodly row!! of books. is n cnso oC
J1et·lu:an cnL ":<make:;." Go nntl do like wise if you
wau~.L nice litllclibl'nn·. H rou really desi re In·
tclll'l'l ual )Jlcas urcs, n111l uro pre\·entcd by luck ot
llll'au:;, r;h·c up so me gi'ILtificution of the animal
11\llll'liLc, and ~me ntlth c moucy on in tcllcctluLI pur,uils. lJy gidu~ up hulf n pint or beer a day for a
Jta oulh, :ill t he un ck uu1n1Je •·;; or \Vo w.: could be
oblainetl. 'l'he lir::IL fon•· chnpt o1-s on Burglar
"' la1·ums arc foWJd in No3. :!U, :!7, 31, aud 3t.G. E. H.
Pntent Iden..-.T. " '· (Ncwca8tle).-J. \Y. cannot
patent. an idea. \\' bat is required for pat~ntingo is
u nmnn er, lllcthotl. o1· mode or doing somctlung,
whie h mu;;L be no,·cl, useful, nnd not in use by tho
public at Lhc tinte of mul;in~or the application. 'rho
purpose menLiouetl by J. \V, is no doubt un important one, untl it has occupied the o1inds of many
pC' r..;oJts fo1· llllLllY yenrs past. If J. \ V.'s mode ot
~at'l')'iu~ out the idea IS simple, p ractical, and
bell er thuu the ot hc•·s . and ho is in the position to
g-et it. tnkcn up by those who would require to use
ir. it mar be wo•·rh while Lo patent it. This, how 1!\' l't', tnw;t be bet ter know n to J. \V. than to us,
anti if he is ~ati sHecl that he can turn it to nccount,
nml dos ircs to ettrry it out, on his sending us
fm·thct· pat·tiuulnrs we can then sur what we think.
Ou1· reade rs should curcfu lly rem em bcr that a mere
iden i s uupatcntablc, oul)• un uctnulity-i.e., the
embodiment of the idctt in n practical form-can be
pn tetttetl, uncl this. if propet·lr done, nud the thing
ts i11 u. new ticld, then it l(h·cs the im·ento1· the
rig-ht. to nnr moue of cun·ymg out the object. and
protects his rights by mnking- improvers pay him
part of their JH'Olits. us they wou.ld have to pur him
for workin~ in his fleld.- Z.
Broken Mainspring. - S. 1\'l. ( Ma11clle.ster).You utig-ht, 1 think, tlo the muinspring nU right.
'J'akc the barrel out. nnd send or take i t to a tool
!<hop o r watchmnkc•·'s. and l-:et a s pring to suit; get
him to punch a holu ill th e und of it, if Lhere is not
Olll', nntl sec thut the hook tits in nieelr. then wind
il in by the tll'lJor: oil the co\'CI' or barrel, also the
h11LLom. und "h·c just u spot or l wo on Lhe spring ;
tf it is a horizOJttnl with, wind up tho
s prin~:; nncl count the turns it mukes-it s hould be
about lhe; set it up hnlf a tm·n-thnt is, put on the
kur. n11d wind it u\> half a turn. nnd put the finger
pil·ce ou. lcttiJtg t 1e shoulder of stop work rest
ugninst tLe solid piece on t he star wheel. then there
will be power on when the slop work is a ll down.
Now the hairspring. 'l'uko out cylinder, a nd send it
or tnkc it to a tool shop with the old spring on it,
a nd get the nearest you cnn. You CI10 roughly
guess if i t will do by holdi ng the end of spring, and
sec how fur tbo cylinrlcr drops: then try the n e w
one by pnssin~ the eylinde1· through the cen tre ot
huirsprin~. aut1 hook it. in the slot. a nd s ee how far
it drops: 1Ctoo iur, take holu of t he spring farther in
from end-say, hulf a turn farther-and r epeat till
you get it as ncnr us possil.>le, to drop the same
rlistnncc: then you hu\·c a guide where to p in the
lou.;c end. Now Luke oil' Lho old one, collet and
ull, tal•c out tho pin tltnt fastens the inner end to
l he collet, pass Uto end of new one in, o.nd replace
collet on the cylinder: t ben the out er end n1ust
buj>alsscd throu~h the stud us fur as where you held
it ust when uicas urin:; tho ch·op, and on looking
either on th e ctlge or top of bnhmce, you \\ill see a
dot mark : bring tbo stud in a lino with the dot and
top cylinder pi,·ot, then it will be in bent ; put in
cylinder. and test it fo1· ti me; it losing, draw 11pring
in through the stud farth l!r, put iL in beat, and t.ry
ngnin, or i~ gaini ng let Lho spring out ot tho stud.
I trust this will bolp you, but it is a rather dclioa.t.e
job to do Cor anO\'lCC.-A. n. c.
Mode l Manchester - J. G. (Man.chcl1lcr).-J. u. wishes to know h ow to wind a small
m ot.lel of a Manchester dynauuo (p ole pieces, 4! in.
by H in. by t In. ; cor es, 3 in. by 1 in.; armature
in. by lA in.) so u.s to Ket the best 1·esult
iul i~ltt in~ 10-volt ioettndcsocnt lamps. W ind 2 1bs. ot
l\u. :l-l silk·covercd copper w iru on tho fields, I lb. on
ench cm·c, n ntl fr om 3 to 4 ounces of the sn me wire
on nn Jl gitdet· m· muLu rc. 'J'ho utmost y ou could
got from such l\ small Uluchino, driven at the rate
or 3.uou rerululions pe1· minute, would be current
cnou~h to li~ht two &mull l t).volt lo.mps. You ru.,not g-eL c\·cn us much current II.S th is, for the per~
f orruance or the tiuy machine will depend much Oil
t he perfection of the wind ing of its coils. ft of
the ,·nrious po.rts, o.ud adjustme~t of t l!e bru:'hc.s.
A little lOOSl' wmding, imperfect msulu.uou, or bad
connection will spoil ull.-G. E. B.
BAttery for Electric Lamp.- .A. 0 .. P. (Bt_1'·
1 nill(7hamJ.- The size of bo.tlcry requtre.d wtll
clepcud upon the voltn.gc of the lnmJ? to be _hghtc~Li
md t ho Cltndlc power of light destred. "\: ou Wt
tlnd full information in my arti cles "Model Elec·
tric Lights,'' wh lch will nppenr sbortly.-G. E. B.
Defective Alarum Battery.-B. D. (17alifax).
-As the battery !!as run d~w n in less than ~L~
m onl hs, it proves, etther that 1t was mu~o up vf i.M d
material, and badly put together, or tt hns been
over\vorked, pro'!>ably by le~age: This !nay ~e due
to defective- swttch, defecuve msulntton m !ho
nlnrum system on the clock. or bare wire touchmg
the swples nnd these dri\·en into dnmp wood, o_t·
thickly pnintcd wood. \Vh on o. bnttcrr tS thus ex·
posed to lenknge, the zim:s soon bluckcn, the porous
cells ,;et contcil with nodules of salt. and n st t·<?ng
odour of ammonia. is gi\·cn off from the cells, whtlst
tltc battery soon ruus down.-G. E. IJ.
Dlolng-room Couch.-W. (If1tddCI·sjiflcp .-Unless you are acquainted with" frame" muktug nnrl
upholstery which I may assume you tu·c not, tt
would b~ 'imposs ible within the limited space of
" Shop" to gi\'C such directions n.'l would bn of use
to you. 'l'o describe the frame or wooden pu•·~ of
the couch at all adequately, would occupy two or
t hree pages, and the upholstery as many more.
'l'hc subject, howe,·er, is noted for trcu.tmcnL on
some future occasion.-D. A.
Rocking Boat for Children. - W. H . (St.
Lco11a1·ds-on-Sca ).-I fear it \\ill be imross iblc to
gin: a cletuilcd description or this for some time.
l·:lennwhilo the following suggestions nmy be of
use to you. A couple of pine rockers of exactly
t he t'ame size and shape. Brace them in the centre
with n. board conn ecting the two. On this board
Jllnco o. scat for two children back to bnck. At
t'llclt cud of the rockers connect by n. plnnk to scn·e
nl:;o ns sents. Such o. boat will do for four children.
lt these hints are not enough let mo know where
your dirllculty lies, and I will try and r cmo,·e thl·m
eill1er in "Shop" or, if possible. by o.nnngin:; for
o. shor t iUustrnted article. The demands on spncc,
h owever, are so great thu.t I cannot promise this.1). A.
Pl\lntlng Articles of Furniture. - \ Y. R.
(Shr.f)icl.dl.-1 am truly sorry for your disnppointmcnL "at not finding names of colour:~ to tin ish
at·ticles in'' gi\'eu in Wom.::. but npurt ft•om the fact
that everrUiing cnunot be treated of first, th e s ub·
ject of colouriug is ruthet· one fo1· SUA'A'CStion than
for didactic tt·cutment. 'l'ho colour or nrticles of
furniture is so much a matter of p ersonal taste,
that not knowin~ what yours may oe. it is almost
impossible to otter you that o.sstsU\nce which I
should wish to. A great deal depends on the su rround ing colom·, that is to snr. the colour of the
walls, curtains, etc., of Lhe room, the furniture is to
be in : you do not tell me this. If I were you I
certainly would not the articles in four
colou~. for t_
he more you h_n,·e the ~~·cater the dilli·
c~lty 111 gettmg a _tn_rt_nomous result. I think ynu
Vit!J do better l•y hnuung the numhcr to t.wo. lle
gwt!cd by the followiug general pl'inciple. 'l'rr to
a voJd tL patchy effect, nnd do not let the colours bo
too \•iolcnt in contrast. Thus. though orAnJ:tc and
blue. gt·ccn and red mny be complcmcntat·y colours,
~nd fot·m n. correct harmony, they ure obt>iously
lllU.ppl•oprlntc for bedroom furniture, for in a betl·
room ouc uatnrnlly wn.uls quiet nllll res tful colours,
colom·~ of low tone. Fot· bedrooms the prcn1ilin~
taste 1s to have the furni ture, when painted in
v_ery ligJ'.L ~olou':'· !illl\3 mc:>re .indeed th nn wi1itc
t 1ntcu. I b_ls, ho\\ ever, IS obJecllonublc to some. or
let ut~ say 111 some rooms, for if the wnlls arc dark,
the !1ghtl~coloured furniture is apt to be gurishloo~ng. J. he endca\'our should be, in n. rcnllr
a rustic room, to have all in harmony bol b in
colo~r .and A skilCul decorator cn n so applv
the oraghtcst colours that they nil blend in one
harmomo\ts wh?le, and. non~ assert undue promi·
nonce. 'I he effect obtn'lncd ts ono of richness and
bloom, ~ut to get this requires artistic pc1·ccption
ll!td lrruning. I qa11not advise :rou yet awhile to
nun at such am b1t1ous work. If you want dark
colour~, try n.ruddy brown and dull g reen, while if
y ou Plefer hght, u se ono pinkish tint, nnd the
other a pnle blue. If you wish to further dccomtc
~oukmny. apply a few lines or simple ornament in
• ar er tmts, JUS~ to emphMise the others. Jlluck
i~ ~scful for th1s when very sparingly and ju.
~ctously ~!nployed.. I do not know the des igns of
~fftir arucles, so <:annot give directions for the
crent p~rts! wht<;:h mu~L be trcnted according
to your O\\ n dtscrcuon. F innlly, after hn~ing endeavou red to sho_w you the principles you should
~~h<:,.~s~i~~ug\ bncfty, for the subject. is almost inf
may recommend you to paint your
umtturc m the two prevailing colours of the
~all P.'~per ot th~ room the lhiJ1gs nre to be placed
i~· df h? ·1 ecorauve ~tfect of the whole can then
a.{ ~ al dto be plcnsmg.. As you htwc o. muker·s
co.oUl car . you can !!llStly name those likely to
~Wt. f lt might ~CCIISIOnniJy be lllOro CQIIVCllient
or a ew readcr:s 1f colours wero to be nlwnys re·
ferrcd to according to a pnrliculnr maker's sam le
cnr:s. bubt Y!>du must remember thut there aro otlrer
ma era eat es ~he one )' Oil name. I t would •1\·c
an undue prommencc to his mnnufacturcs Sund
he rulhnr unfair to others equally ~rood, bes'd
b~mpft·ing tho mojori~y of readers m their }r~!
ae ect on. 0 f course it U1ere were any special
rea.son for nnmin~ any P!lrliculnr f~?-ncy colour. it
would be ~h·cn. but 1 tl11uk you w11l aj!l·eo With
me tbuL these exceptional cases should )'ro,·c t ho
r ule. I shall be J;lad to heat: Wh ltt colou rs yun
adopt. aud Imnr be able to gt \'C you a few more
hints for future ~ni<lo.uce. lL will n ot b e n \'CI'f
serious mn.t.tcr for you to repaint all or pa1·t: and
it' you caJ\ send tL r o1_1gh sketch o~ t.h e ~n.nutnre.
it mu v be of some ass1s t.auce to u1e m ud \'tSlllg you.
-D. .A.
Silve ring Glnss.-J. \V. (U1ti1·ki!'lc). - 'l'his
wot·k is nut snit ub le for an urnutelll', either by
the pu1·e sih·cr or the old nH•t·curial procc~s.
'l'hc lattet·, h oWO\'cr. otrcrs the best .chnnce o( :L
certain nmount of success bcin~; attulllcd. thouc;h
the other is so mne!t less co,;tly that cxce!Jt t\:1 al
mutter of experiment or curiosity you ll!:tY as
well f;i\'e up the idc1\0t' silvering your own mu-rot·s.
Briefly, the process is n.s follows :-The of
the tnblc must bo perfectly smooth und tlllt. On
this sp n•tu l tin foil, und dub it dow n till nil crr~sc::1
nnd \\Tinkles urc gone. Then v.our ~:.omc qmck·
silver on it, uncl work it on tbc foJltill th e two at·c,
to some ex tent, umalt;umuted. Put a little mMe
quicksih·cr on, und OH top of it lay a. sheet of cll'tlll
smooth pupcr. """\bovc this place the g lass, whklt
must be quite clean anti free ft·om gt·ctiS<'. The
paper mav then Le drnwn away to rcHa ovc air. and
tlllY dirt 'thnL mur be tloatin;; on the quicl,~ilvcr.
Let th e glass rc111ain mulisturbed for sc,·eml. snr.
twenty-four, hour:!, after which i~ sh~uld be plnc<;d
on erl~C fOI' t he SUIJCI'fiUOUS qUICkSilVet• tO drlllll
off. tie cat·cfulthat th e tin foil used is pure. .b:nsr
ns the process mar seem, it is one t.hat rcq u in•s ski I·
ful mnnipulm ion, especially when the glass is of uny
consid<'rtll>lc size.- D. A.
Drawing to Scalc.-T. J. (Momno tt/11).-(1) T ..T.
asks how to dt·uw a scale, ancl sug~;csts tlint ''this
mur be a bi~ question." Not nt all. '1'. J. must
firs t sclcet ~~ unit uf s uperficial mcru,uremcnt. s uch
as an inch. aL fOllt, n. :;·arcl, a rood, an ncrc, a srtmare
mile, ot· u I:(~O·•mphil'al cl e~ree of the Sllpcrlil'ial
ur~a of sixt r lllii'cs t~;co;;.l long br sixty mile~" iuc.
Now drnwtnl{ to scale menns simply this, that on
the paper this unit is to be reproduced in true pl·oport iunntc size instead of its uctmtl sizl'. :::uppo:<e
1'. J. takes a foot-rule. 1 in. wide and, of COIII':,C, 12
in. lou~o:. nnd wi!\hcs to !\how it on n very .smull
piece of paper. H e tlwn hns only to druw t wch·e
equnl dh·is1ons for the len:,;th, nmt take one tlwreo[
ior width: nnd wheth r r uis divisions nrc knths,
eigh lhs. qunt·ter;;, or hnl f i nchcs. mat tet·:< not, IM 1 he
proportions an: nccnrntcly rer.rc!\l'ntcd. \'it.. 1:? tu I.
Eulurg-in~;t i:; just the snme. l'al'c nn.r 1:nit. nud in
tJ1e dt'IL\Ylll); llUtkC C\'l!I'S unit. th e Sl\tllC lllllllUCI' of
thne:~ bi~;gc1·: th e provorrion will llo maiutaincll.
So far. uothing can be >impler; now, th en. treat
cvct·y fructiontil part of the unit cho-;en precisely in
the sume way, :;o loll!; us you k eep to th e s;amc pro·
portion and mnkc th e same number of di\'i~1ons
in the smnllscalc or htrl{e scale druwinl-( us rxist in
the chosen unit of the drnwinA" rou arc enhu·,,dn:;
or l'cducing. 'l'hin;;s which arc equal to the same
thiug (or. we mny say. supposed to be t·cpt·cs cntccl
-lut'j'Cl' or smnllcr makes no dillcrence on papct· as
cquu) arc cquul to ouc another. '1'. J. enu buy
uccm·utelr·dh·id cd scales on wood or h·ot-y, term ed
•· Uni1·ersal,'' where the inch is dh·illcd into c,·cry
pos:>iblc uumbcr of parts, which he can follow in
reclncing, only kecpmg in miud th e fact that 11' he
makes one divi~iou of his dr:\win!.!" rcp1·eBcnt ono
di\·ision of his copy, he must represent O\'CtT other
cqnal di,·ision hy nn cnua.l cUvision. nn:l not by nny
clill'crcnt one iu his tlmwing. '!'hat is all. 1:!) The
auhcsirc matct·inl used for posta~c t;t:ltnps is called
''dextrine :·• it is simply starch supc rh c:\lcd 01·
baked ut u. h i;;h t cmpcr:ttnrc. and. when cold, di:;soh·l•d in wutc t· like gum arable. when it foru1s n.
umcila~;c larl{cly u~ed in the u munlnct.n t·in;.{ nrls.
Its adh csh ·cnes:s ns compat·cd with !-larch wns dis·
co,·et·ecl nccidentnllr. nfwr n lnqw li1·~· in n stn rch
wa r ehouse: the heat h:ul con,·el·ted the sta1·ch into
dexLrine- th cn unknowu-nnd t he wn ter usc•l to
CXtillJ;IIbh tbc fl tllliCS had comuiucrl With it, form·
ing o.mucilngc that does n oL mihlcw.-J. \\'. 11.
Wood E n g 1·avin g.-J. D. R (Soulh 1Jrn/c8).'1'he fullest l.l'Cittiso we know is John .lackson·s
"His tory of \Voocl Engraving;" it is. huw e ,·et·
prol.>ahly out of 11rin1·.. A su}.lcrb wm·k on th e t~ n b:
J Cct is by th e grculcst wood engrnYct· that l'\'Cr
Ji\·cd- \V. J. Lintou -uud is now be in~ largely solcl :
its l'ricc- n eccssnrily high-alone linliting- the :-ale
or whnt will be the great standard w01·k on the urt
for nil future Order of your bookscllcr.J. W. H.
Quc,tions h:wc been rccl'h'<'d from the follovnnc: rorresr.ondeuts.:uul un~wcrs on I)· :\W:tiL sp.t.ct-• 111 Snnr. upun wlu dt t h.·r c
Is ~;n·11 l l'fl'd~nro :-D. M. &. 1·.,. (.U<Uifi<~A>Iefl ; J. w. •r.ta..<('"'c);
t;, 11. U.ISu~ell<lcick); \V . W. (SII.<•u); L. & Cu. 1Lo111tu11. I . C. I ·
A. U. tDriltiWIIFe); W ATOIDIAKt: ll; Uti.\TS tSI. LtUllllrd~-ou:
.<;.:a\: A. W. S. (JltJhfa:d: W. ~1. t ll•ru•iuu/umol; Alll:\ utll>~ •
l.'I):SST.I ST lt ~;A Ol!n ; llOA TS t ll'llktolltltl} ; 11.. 11. (l/ i(//oiJII TJJ) ;
A. IJ. 0. (Lou:r.• hllnll; H. U. W. tl'uniiCOI; 1'. ~'. f'. I J/1(11/biii'JI
N.); 0. E. 11. tn<>tll<-rlwml; W. 0. C. ( L~t•cq•ooll : P.•1. ti. tS,,I:
/OTII); .J. IC . (/llll•lmro'l; U. S. (rtldn·•IIM): Z. :r.. :r..; J . '1'. (•\ rw.
p ort); ~·ooUI:l: 1'. A . (Uitu<~llwl: )JA C:~MT; OllO)IIIJI\: !l. (!. T.
(1-.'diuburph); S. ~·. W . (l!;diulllu'ttlll; l'.\1~1' 1111; R. C. &. $11S
(.C:IIIOpl. llOUOII 0Aili'I.:~Tllll; T. J. (/)olrlll<d); W . W . (};I,<Wi<'kl;
TliCil:S ICAL; W. IJ. (//inrk/cJJl; AN llii'BO\'Im ; A . U. t/11111ull·
OII·'L'rent•; .1. H. lt. ('l*hllddl; w. c. tCil·••ttllwl: S. ,J. A.tll•"''{''
>Ifad I: •·luTz (Uptltr JioUou:nv): .1. 0. M. (ll'uol<c<rlll; C. 1.
( C.nmbrr-wdll: T. u. (1'/umouU<l: W. E. ll. tllollu~r/Jam!: A. 11.
tlJr ad.(or,l): U. W. L. ( !:alrngl ; U. J. T S. 1G II<"YII!t)ll : J. R t /.nn.
doll, ,\,t ; UIXA t.ibrrduu)j· R. C.t.4•illon·IIIJ<I~r-/.yue); J . M. ll.
(0udou, lV.); SI.AC"; lt . t&nrboro'); U. 1-!. ICifltlhnm); J. )1.
lf·l•<.$!fOtrl; W. 1-:. t lleel.:mo•ulwik~); K ll. (11'<~/.•nlll; 0. 1'.
(1$/wgt ou , N.) ; W. U. \ ) or/:); To 1'o; S. L. A.llllllnpateod).
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
(Work-April 12, 1890.
Trade Notes nnd Memornndn.
the l ~ct ~res to be gi,·en in the 13Gth
sc><.s ton of the :=;oc1cty ~f .Arts arc the followin~;
- Une _by ) It·. Geor;.;e Fmdlny. the general 111 n11 u,
,:rc·t· ot the London ancl No1·th-\Vestcrn Hailwn
npon ";.\l odern lmprovcmcllls in Fncilitics f~~
Hnilwnv 'l'rnYclting;' nnothet· b\· S ir Doul.dns Gulton
upon ")f. Gimrcl's Sliding- H:iilwuy," ,\·ith whi ch
j\! ~': 91:td!;to~c wns so 111\}Ch stru ck when r ece ntly
nstttn~ Parts: ond n thu·d by 1\lr. Frcde1·ick c
1~!ll\\'Crs upon .. 'l'bo Hccords or the l ndin Otllcc.';
lol,·e cou_rscs of ·• Cantor Lectures"will be delivered,
tlwsc betn~ upon ·• Modern Dc,·clopmcnts of Dreadm~tk ing :·· "The E lcctro mn;;nct :" · · Stereo! n>inK • •·
.. ~OIIIC Con>'idcmt ions Concern in~ Colour anct
Colouring." nnd "SuJ:ar, Ten, l'ot rce and Cocoa ·
th eir Origin, 1'repnru.t ion, and Uses."'
. \\' nEx Tans-re Brothers. the well·known enf! h!Ld but a small concern in St.Paul's Square,
Bn·mm~ha1~1 .. th~y pul·chnscrl th e patent of tL
hydmulie liflwg JtlCk. t1.nll proceeded to manufacture !argc numucrs of the article with wltich n mnn
cnn ltft 1n_or e u.r the pressure of a single tlng-cr thnn
c:u1 be r:usctl lJy tl11.: combined stt·en••th of two Ill en
working the old screw-jack.
llut at that time
labour-sa dng apparatus wus noL so readily U>.ken
up as n o w. nnd tho potent jack remai ned on the
hunds of 'l'angre Brothers so long. that serious
tin~mcial dillicultics , consequent UIJon the capital
iJetng locked up. stnrccl the little 1lrm in the Co.ce
Just at Lhat time the Great EaslCI'Ithad been com:
plo.:tcd. ami unsuccessful attempts mnde to launch
he!'. 'J'hcn ea me an otrer of £10,000 to uny firm who
would undertake to con ,·cy the great ship to thr
wu ter. 'l'an;;)·cs accepted, and with their hydraulic
jncks lifted the lcnatha.n completely from her
natUc. and into the l'iYer . Thus they not onlr
seem ed tho much n ccdctl cnpitul. but nlso t he best,
p,os:.ible:~ch·crt.i~cmrnt Cor their jncks. l\1 r. Hicllu rcl
lang ye, m l dl ut~ the s tory one clay. characteristic•·
nltr co uclntll'll with:-" A ll(l so we launched th£'
Ureat l~m;lcrn, unci the Cit·cat Easlernluuuche d us."
Tll E
J,; l' l'IITIO~
0 Jl ,\ D\'P!IlTI SEliF.STS
W hh._l.\' 1 !\~U £.
e. d.
0 0
JJ:ttC1':.><.· . •
• o tu o
t,tu:trlcl··l':t!;O ·
S 1~ 8
E•~:hth nf ll l':tf:~
· ·
· I 17 0
•Jm··,.,IXl< emit uC n f'Hgc.
I 0 0
In (.'uiUiliii. !'Cr IIICh
0 10 0
Snmll J•rc1m1\l A<h·crtl~rm<'nts, such ns Sltnnaions Wuotc.1
::111<1 ~;xchuu..,o·. Tl\cOl)' w .. r.t~ nr ,,,,,, l)no Sbolltn..,. and ono
P· ·nuy l't'l' \\" unl (•x t r:t If "''••r T"cul\·. :\l.l. Or nt-; n Atht•l'•
tl .. t•mcnls in :-tnh.' :\l •tl t·: ).t'llnll~~ t:•;hr mu ar~ clmr._;t-..1 Urh.:
per Liuu 4U \'Ct':u.: w~
Cl).: Ill.. wu11l~J.
B e it's Paten t E namell~ d Adhes ive \Vater~
Proof Advertisin g Pape x· L etters and Figures
in ;,11 Colours :Uld Slle<.-!-ule :md Origmal i\lanul:.ctury,
17, Arthur Street, New O.~lord Street, " '.C. Agcna~
aptJir. Sample sheet ~;r:ui~.
Complete F o unt o f Rubb er Type.- Two alpha·
bet'<, to form :my word t r n.~m.:. box, !J:td, ink, :tnd holder,
post.frc:e, ' '· 6<1. ; c:stra alpitnbet<, 6d. p.:r set; tigurc~. ~d.
llu't"es.s, addres~, and pocket stamp< equall)' .:heav.\V. C. l'Ri!STitiUCI!, M.mulacaurc:r, Cumbcrland Strtet,
l.lmtol. Estnbl!~hed 1S7o.
[2 R
Rcpouss6 Worn:.-Tc>ols, ~I :Hcrials, and Dc•i~;ns.
Price Li-l pu>l ft cc.- C. Poot., Th.: i\!cclt::~ni cs' Tool Dc ... vt,
.-::7, Hockley, Nou i.. ~ham.
Tools f o r C:u-pentc1·s, J oiners, Co.b!nct~
m u k e rs. Ga ~·t11•., etc. List one
!>L:unp.-J>o<H, 1\ own,.:hnm.
Tools. Tools , T ools.-The chenoc<t hou~e in the for l::n~th•hnud American toolsi• Lt.S1 ',;, :97, H:tckn.:r
Road, London, E. Send stnmp tor reduced price list. l ~ £
"Roll Call " Pipes.- Heahhful, Luxurious, TIIIRST·
r.F.S!o :\nti-mcolincs.
Uri::1rs Post free, 1s. Sd.-:\LLKN
fJF\\·sxAP, 65, Pikes L.·mc, Clo<sop.
Is R
The "Postable ·• Floral Tripod (see WaR.-, ]:111.
ZSlh),J>OSt free, IS. 6d.; pnir, ZS. gd. lS~IIIUOOS suppued.
-S. . EATC\N & Co., 3, New Jnn Yard, Touenlt::lnl
Court J.-oad, \\'. Agencies t;ram.:d.
(1 s
Notlee.- Wc take in Exchange L~thes and varic>u!tools •or l.>cucr. Cawlostuc, 6 stamps. List of Secontl-h:llld,
2d. -llrit.annia C.:o., Colch~ster.
Largest Stock of Ens:inecrs· :tnd Mechanics' Lath•~.
Shap~r., etc. ~locks and Uies. Forg.:s, ctc. -Brit:~onni.l
Co., too, Hound.ditch, London.
Call and select from our stock at tco, Hounrlsdi1ch ;
bu1 a\llettcrsaddrcs.e d Uri tannoa Tool Factory, Colche~tcr.
B .r ltnnnia Co. >Upply Gas or St~am En~;incs, and fit
up wo• kshop~ complete. Terms, Cash or easy term~. (S R
Wall,er's Turning Patterns, accurately dr:~wn,
1st and znd >cries. I S, 7d. each.-WAL.-ER, 41, St. Hclcn's,
[2 :Dla.mond s for Drlllln~ China and
U,;u;,l s1zes, 6d., Su., tod., and t s. cn, h, best quali ty.- A.
l\1 J;LVI LLE, Market Place, Salisl.>ury. .b:stab. 1777·
[s s
l\1ie rose o>pe Slldes.-Gorgcou s polarising, brilli~ n l
opaque, :mu cn tcnainins :)lidcs, JX '• ss. dozen. Catalogue
free; mi..:rosco.,cs1 mount ing apparatus, etc.- HKNRV
Eoli .~CE, J H, Calcu nian Road, Loudon.
14 S
Designs.-too Fretwork, 100 C~rving, too Repouss~.
100 ::.i~n ::.tencils, (all full siz~), soo Turning. 400 Stencils,
soo Sbtel<Li, ctc E:tch IJ3Cke t, ts. 100 Decor:ltl)r's Stencils,
6o sheets, :2s. 6d. All post free. Lists fn:e.-F. COULT HARD, E:ll>t Cliff Terrace, Bournemouth.
(s S
W ork-April
12, 1890.J
EA.~ 1 1
C O.,
JJRURJLLli, N 01l FO/.,Ji ,
J. H. S. & CO. hO'lvc uow ll lar~: c t·.t t••r-v \\llltolLCul nln••• •·•tlllll wr 11 11•
..,•.,hi~ 0 1 zouworl..mcn . wlt1d! 1S u ~ctl C\~lu"''clr lt•t tl 1c 1t1.wu :11 tuJ•• ,,f
J'hOlll)!r:tf•ll c. ;\ 01 C\CI)' tJc:.C• Il_H IVII, 1rv m tlu.: c.hto.lpt~l tu lllO
Ul05l C>;J"!H'I\'C.,
• •
~'i·lllfJ C I' } ·arcJJ: , •'tiii'/U(f ttlltl / '/tt nill(l Jll i/1.111 r ttfJI' I'IItU tll1.,,,._
~.' avo Ac·r(:N , ,.a;· }(tt tlu·"!l :itutitJn,
'J he proce~s a~ sunpltCH)' u~dr. f'ulllnstruc.u tons su pplacU wath c.ach set.
The Eclipse Camera Set.
Complete. r onsisting- of:\ r._,llt~hcd !\l:thu~.:.~ny Sh_tHn~ Odi\IW .. , !t ·p:1n.te
Camc r., to Jlh lltllJ! r.q;h f uii·M<e:c (:t rtt··di.!·\' IS11 t·.;, \\ll h l· ••cu !t,.· ro.. cu.
1 10\rl: ~hde. Hr:&,,•11\0t1Utc. 1 Lens, HrO\~ot F1U1u~ .... I lt.:\''''"i'·n..: ''"'' l-:xw.:Sf'lluth>H"•, l'~lckct uf f>,y J'l.ue~. nuJ run rn .. trt•t:hUH<;, en tloi 1 1H.: .\ll)' a uta•
tf'llr to , .,kc a .:oocJ lJhowt; r;\ph, )'net: :Jt>. bd., ur sccutcl)· p.i~kt'tl l,y
Parcel Pn~t. 4&.
Complet e Photographic Outfit.
E very Set is c:lr\!full)· c;o;;;,mined bcrore bc.tng sent out, o.nd
i;•:cd 1.0 he in \\ urJ:tUJ.! o r dt..r.
N .B.-If App;oratus does not j:>;ive satisfaction,
and is re t urned uninjured within three d .. ys of
r eceipt, we guarantee to refund purchase mon ey.
n.... uer Sets. l OS. Gll., Z1S •• •r:5 . J OO~.. 0\11\l Ufl\\:'Jrtl$.,
Cmu1 Jk cc C.u,&lu:.:•*t" nf l,~h•J\ PI.!r•'l'lllc ~\ pr:1r.ttu<, nHt
"·""I '· J. H. SKlNN:ER
\\ hoolo.,.ole Accl<t for l.c.n<lr•n-1. MO TII !!RS ILL.
1 ~~~
' "'
6:t. ll ll tw;&v l·h .. itl. j\: , ;m(l t., !:toulh :uu,..~to·• l{ttw, where
"-,1•1\Jol o·
''' 1\' l •~· ~· ,.11
H·• q rl ... '- .,. nut.t wol '1•1•'1111).! \ \" .. I, S t. , .1n•l 200,000
FULL·S I:ZOX: D !:SI G NS f o r F retw o rl<, Wood
f.: ', o.:c . , l f'' t t ~ ·•11 Jmut ·1:,c; St k ''' J n 1• t ,
T. •ul Ch' ..,l,, i·r'-·tw••' k Vnlllh, t Jt 111,. :-- ,w Fr.•Hic..'i, II ...:.J
auLI T r ..::uU•; :'\ u.:~. !).1w l~l.tdc~. ~ c . : ... c.
C ..J r v i
Specialities Sor 18C8 &. 1 SSO. - Ilnoks ,.,r 'lew
Com rn<inJ:r E C UI'S E C.\~IERA SET. os ohovc: ol'o I'IIOTQ.
CH. A I ' J If C PRINT I ~·G A PI '.\ H. AT US. t.oll'- !ttiiiJ: 0 1 lt.u . h' P ' h I l 'unt UlJ:'
Fr:amc, \\llh l ha5\ SpdnJ,: H.u.k, $cn~lli.,ctl Al1•n11111111\Cd P.,;-h :r , t;dtl
..J Ol ll11l! ~oluuun, l·IXIIt~ s.Auu •11, Gl;l.SS l'od:,, <: lrd~ fo.Jr ~fhlll .lllli!, w •tlt
cn•upli"·tc Ius 1ut:t ton:.. Ab,o lt;'lnh,uod foh.huJ,: Tn1•od !'JL•nd oJH•l l·r•l u s·
sin~-: (.h')th. 1'n"u7u. 6d. ScC:Uftly p:ttkt:d, pust rrt·c. 8 s.bt1
I 1 1M 'I. ~tl
m por t.• hlc wooJ c:,sc:, \Hlh huiJ.:t.:d J11.l a nJ lcatht:r scr.1p. as 111 UluMr.l\IOn.
T. 11. S . & Cf) kc•,·p r•'I.!"Ufrt rh· in !'otock :\hou t 1 20. 0 00
Flt.~·rw O u D, ,,I<.S .. ud 11•1\ . ",, · r ..
..\;. _ , 1......, .. .., .l vt•J) l.·r~ · · q t.ll L ut: ·., J•l .. u l .•• 1.d
F l:I:T OF
J \',' ui.:J~ ~u. l, c ..: ll.111llllg I .J I !i r1!cSiu.•t·ts.
:\~,.~. ':', I..••IH.\ lUII I;!" ~0 ~l.~o..:b t- f;.,:• r ,111d 1111 lt:
d .d•,,r,,;e l '.lth' rlh, ';.'i <-··1. !look t. l \\'ll &ll · ., ,n ~: i '-' '"'''' •
C dU tJ. Hill;.! q l'.l t\ t rt::., rru:c l S : tile ... ·lrC" .ut i'\c\\ P.ttlt. r:l'l •
n t. t :.·~Id m .tny Hhl.o'r I tu 111, ;tnd \\t•ultl, u ,u:tl ''-'l •·tr.lkh·.
c ,..,, l!u·u· o r (~,. u r lltlll" tltc :urH&nH (h.ln:cd . J•r•;twc.r:.: t·r·..
11 tlllito\!Ul,; nurl \\'t.•r~ .... ~. p LuhJc. J •UC:t: JS. r\~.,:\lo' 1Jc:,IJ!U5..
.t\JI l"!l. ;: rl!.HI} r·.d:u:c .l m l •Ut..c.
o~ ~ ..: l l!'>.
pncc IS.
Co r.'1pl eto F ret worlt Outfit, <"' llllprio.,in;.: t:-·inch
S t cd l r .. u.~ . ... ~ ~-'''""· .\,d, I· sic, 4 I J• I.,!H . p·,uh \t1111Ctcut
J~l.t!lul \\o •u•1 , ~ r.ttl' '· ,) l !t. ILu~o iloo~o•l; u tt Fut'"•(k,
lJtiCt! .)S l.d., t...ttll.t.t!co l •.ah.l, 1:1 (o•ct A "..!.U rh.:.l I'L,wu,l J· rt.:t·
\\'Ot)d, ,;-s. e,d.
• o:ir Sped,,) f'retwf\ r l:
).: a;cs• )'
nc-.coi;.•n, in
J u ••1h.:c. si .. ·..:. 1(, 111
((') 11 1111~11H)r:\lin n o(
~ ~\'. ..,,
J lt -1, !I' , \\ loH4 ( , ,\• \ , , n, J• '~' "'•
J,J , ... ;:,, &."l"' , \'1t I 'h . l l.J l l• •ll .. , .t l,1 · t 11•••, ' ' .,tJ
'it\\., '
•d 1 · r ....... ' , ... , • , .... ' ' ol I" r ,fl• 1 "'·
) LH l1 I t " •
as a
Strengthenin g auc1 Invig~ r at ing :Beverage.
I •)' .'0 t h ,, '• 1 11.. ~.: :."S t..1l.
W nll Brack o L
Pr;ce 6d.
Indispensable f or enl, ichi ng Gt, avies,
preparing Soups, Ent1,ees, &c.
Pure, Palatable,
instantly prepared.
L a d ies note this!
c·,,,"l '"- ' 't'":,·
Si' ·:·-.... ~pri:H: B Ttllr'! ... nH'l· :;
• t 'fl
rn.,.... r.
I ''··· t ......t f!' .. IO;,lr' :'
t :mn la ) ), '-' t .•t , ,.., 'dth till· ,l'~~j .. • .III,"C I ( J ~IOJ, •11.., ~1"'1 ,dltlo. •: } to1!11it! loo) t:
, .. "'' ,~r, l n •lll a t•r .. t \\'.._,t l.n•l ~h· 'i'· ~n t.:t:ith.:-:1 !:'> 1lk JI.n~ \\d! 1 c hl\ t:l1 ;l, p r1..:•·, l\,ir
ll oillh.: ,tnd
1 ull f•.ut .c..ul.:r., J'H•'t
1t.! <.ld l~h)'
lh.c frutu
DANIEL JUDSON & SON, Limited, 77, Southwark Street, London, S.E.
,1 f..l XCF. t r;1'UJl t .; r: 0 1•'
Works, Brown Royd. Br(]dford.
Registered Mitr e-Cutting
Wi1h J:ooTJJ
t-- - }.
\\'ithOlll pr<!\.1011' in,trUCllOil Or pr.lC··
tic~. c:111 make a Pictllrl! Fr:uu~. '1 hi s .\[a~hinc i< llCIW
u •c<l in the Trade , nearly 6,0<JO" L,·~n Stlld. W r;ll'
- -=--
D ·rty from, t ltf' JJCA JC EnS. the Oltlt•.,t T<:.~tufJ/i.~lu!<l
<llttl tlw llt:.<t J/Qil .<IJ in Luu tl un.
NOTE:-.Our New Illustrated 200-P age Catalogue is now re::tdy, contammg 700 Illustrations of all the La1est Improved Tools for Carpenters,
J oiners, Engineers, and all M etal W orkers,
Carvers, Fretw o rkers, et c .
By post, 6d.
:111)" pcr<Oil,
ll!u,trat~~~~;;; ti~~~;~~~RS,
0 0 L
J L t K 1.; R S,
1) C' 1: L I X .
L:\Rt;E :\~1) C IIUI C[ s·t"llCK. B\"
:\LL THE DE!)T :\ i{ Tlo..;T::-;.
A Great Variety
Hunting-, Coach in~, and other l'ictures of all
kind::. at Ln~rc-; t Price~ .
GEO. R EES, 115, Strand (Corner of Savoy St.);
Ilf twldi"'' H .. , , ..
t 81n.
NO r R TH!!
2..> In.
:t-4 i11.
l\.1p o r I b ( RIJl.
C.\ 10, 1.\v li I' AIIJ.
MOSELEY & SON, 323, High Holborn, W.C.
N01'ltE. - •.J .~ J,·
41. 4'2. 43. Russcll St.. Covent Gnrdcn. L ondon
n l.<l jiec (ll/,7f/'litaliull.
0 ..:1 .•;s r:: r, 1. ' ·"'
C /, A -;s I 1•' 1 t·: n
( '. 1 '/'. 1 [ .(J(i ( f .R.
a n idcn
au i n'·~nt t•'ll l•r\'l1 PNT it
l'.trCI"uJ.u' .ual l'.nup hl\! t : 1•''-=·
f~ 1 r
,. , • 11 ·\:00:( I R Y I \'1
l~· r :t
P,H.,~ nt
uu\.a,.: ,.•h .
A f:cnts
•'-:I'•"· F , .
uook ...dle J· to .s!lo w 11 on ('opic.<~ of' CASSELL & COMPANY'S NEW SERIAL PUB LI CATI ONS.
• • • A List 1Nl/ l•t: s~ut J us/ .fuc " " n foplica l :fiiL /fl
CASSELL & CO~PANY, LIMITRD, LuJ;:.llt Hill, London.
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
[Work-Aorill2 , 1890.
' .- ..
· ·l
,~---. '-i-·
',,._ ...
. UI81~ 'B.
Te s t irnonials fi'OITI the Queen o f
S w ede n,
M archio ness of Salisbury,
"Si mply P e rfection."-T
Made in over lOO Colours. Sold in T ins, 4~d . , ls. 3d., and 2s. 6d. For Baths (to resist H ot
Water), ls. 6d. and 3s. P ost free, 7d., l s. 6d. , 3s.; 9d., ls. 9d., and 3s. 6d .
RE.-ID Y F uR {/SE.
S. E.
H i g h Est Award - Gold Medn.l for Tools
and P att e rns .
No. 730.
Machines, Designs, Tools, Wood, Mirrors,
Hinges and Fittings, Varnish, etc.
T. N. writes:-" I got a First Prize from
one of your Desig·ns."
R. W. A.: - " Re ceived your Cata logue t od ay, and conside1· it the best I b ave seeu."
R . B. M.:- "l'IIaclline to hand, am highly
p leased with it.'"
J . A. S. :-" I have taken Eight F irst a nd
One Second Prize with v arious patterns of
Cnfaloynf' n{ (Ill T onl.t,
ttlltl .;oo ,.1 /illi llture Debi!J"·' • j'n·c j"or ~i.c ::itun~p.~.
l lln~f••ttft• tf
, .,,ul, ,.,,...
Harger Brother s,
fLO W( I\ O R LA..,,.
s TAW.
SI!. ~ Jl'l .t ll' l " S'
RE univcr:s:1lly admitted to be worth a Gu inea a Box for
8eecha rn's Pi/Is A
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beechan1's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecharn's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beechan1's Pills
I ldio us and :'\n1 uus l>l..,onh:r.;, !>uch as \\' ind a nd Pain 1n th e Stun • :~ cl; ,
~1ck I k .1d.1chc, Gidd1n..:;.,, Fuilll'~S :1111 ! !'\I dl111t; ~fll·r i\li:al~ . DJa i!!C!>S and IJrow-
o r r, r,;;; IJf Appetite, ::.\hortlll'SS of Breath,
C•>'> ti\'t•nc~s, ~cu1 1')' nnd 1\lotchcs o n th l· !'-kin. IJ1 ~LHrl>cd :--.lco•p. Fnt: lnful Dr·::lms ,
nnd a ll .:'\ l!r\'Oll:i and T1 emiTting !-',•lh.\llo n..,, &:c. The tir~ t dos~: \\ill f:in• r<·lid 1n
t\H'nty minutes. 1.::\·cry "ulfe1er is carm:~tly inntcd to U'y on~ Hux of these Pills,
a nu they ''ill l>e ackno\\ ledgcd to Ul!
SliH'~'> .
Fl u~ Jung<;
F or 1--.: ma les of nll a~cs th ese l'ill::. are invaluable, as a few dose:. of them carry
off all llUI!lOUiS, and bnn;! abo ut allth.Lt is requm.:d. :'\o fcmal..: ~hould Le without
t hcm. Thc rc is no mctlicmc to be fountl l'CJlta.l to H.:ccha m's Pill.; fnr remonng any
o bs truction or irrcgul.~rity of the "ys te m. lf taken according tr) th e dTro.:ction:. gi\ cn
\\'tth each box. they\\ 111 soon restorc f..:males of a ll agc.:s to so und and rol>ust hc:al th.
' I hi'> h:Ls lJccn proved by t h ou ~ands who tried them, a nd found the benefi ts
wh ic h an• ensured ily their use.
For a \\'eak ~tomach, l mp.lircd Dif:cstion, and nil Disorders of the L i\·er. they
act like n1.1~ ic. a nJ a f..:w u o-c.; \I i11 l>e found to work wondcrs on th e mo::.t impoltaut o rg.u1s in the human madunc. They stren~thcn the whole muscul:tr sy::.tcm,
rc::.t•.JII! the long-lo·;t complexiOn, lmn~ b.1ck the kee n ed ge of appetiH'. and arouse
inw acuon \\ ith t he ro~cbutl o f healt h the whole phy~1cal energy of the hum:lll
fr:unc·. ' I h~c :m~ F.\C 1., te-.uh ...,l continually by mc111bcrs of all d.tsst:::. of soei..:ty,
anti onc of the best gu.U"ant.:cs to the .:'\.:rvou::. a nti Debilitated is, HEECHAi\l '.::i
PILL::.\ huv.: th.: l.ll:~cst Sr~k if uiiY P.tlc:nt Jl! cdicim iu lite: ~I '<Jrld.
B eecham 's Mag-ic Cough Pills.
As a Rt:mcdy for Coughs in g.::ncr.1l , .-\ s tlm1a, nronehi.d Affections, Hoarseness,
Shortness of l!.r<·a th, TJglnncss anu Oppression of th..: Chcl>l, \Vh..:czin~. &c.. these
Pill, s tand unriv.1llecl. ' llwy nr..: th c best en•r u lf.:rcd to the public, anti Wi ll
speedily rcmo\'C that sense uf o ppresSIOn a nd di!'tic uhy of hrc.nhing- which mghtly
depnv.:: t he patient of T('~t. Let any person gi\'C HI~ECI l.r\i\I'S COUG H P lLL.::i a
tn .1l, and the most violent Cou~h \1111 111 a short time be rcmovetl.
Pn: pared only, and sold \\'hok;.alc and Retail, by the l'ropr ietor, THO i\1:\S
DEEL:IIAM, ST. HI, LI'=":., LA:\C:\'oollltn., in Hoxl's, t s. t ~J. anu 2s. gd. each.
J\'. B.-Fu/1
~old by all Druggists ami l 'atent Medicine D t:alcrs everywhere.
Dir,·cti<JIIS lfrt! gi'<~<':l willt .:ttdl B tJ:r.
Beechan1 's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecha1r/s Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills i
Beecham's Pills
Beecham's Pills
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
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