Xentino R301M User Manual

Xentino R301M User Manual
XAIR R301M
3G Outdoor Router with 802.11N
USER MANUAL
Xentino XAIR R301M User Manual
Table of Contents
1.
Terminology ........................................................................................ - 4 -
2.
Introduction ........................................................................................ - 6 2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.
Package contents................................................................... - 6 Product Features.................................................................... - 6 Front Panel Description .......................................................... - 7 Rear Panel Description .......................................................... - 8 -
Installation .......................................................................................... - 9 3.1
Hardware Installation ............................................................. - 9 3.1.1 Appearance and Interface Introduction .................................. - 9 3.1.2 Hardware installation steps.................................................. - 11 3.2
Software Installation ............................................................. - 14 4.
Software configuration .................................................................... - 14 4.1
4.2
4.3
Prepare your PC to configure the WLAN Broadband Router- 15 Connect to the WLAN Broadband Router ............................ - 16 Management and configuration on the Outdoor Router ....... - 16 4.3.1
Wizard ........................................................................... - 16 4.3.2
Operation Mode ............................................................ - 25 4.3.3
Internet Settings ............................................................ - 27 4.3.3.1 WAN ....................................................................... - 27 4.3.3.2 LAN ......................................................................... - 33 4.3.3.3 DHCP clients .......................................................... - 34 4.3.3.4 VPN Passthrough ................................................... - 34 4.3.4
Wireless Settings .......................................................... - 35 4.3.4.1 Basic ....................................................................... - 35 4.3.4.2 Advanced ................................................................ - 37 4.3.4.3 Security ................................................................... - 39 4.3.4.4 WDS ....................................................................... - 43 4.3.4.5 WPS ....................................................................... - 44 4.3.5
Firewall.......................................................................... - 45 4.3.5.1 MAC/IP/Port Filtering .............................................. - 45 4.3.5.2 Port Forwarding ...................................................... - 47 4.3.5.3 DMZ ........................................................................ - 49 4.3.5.4 System Security ...................................................... - 50 4.3.5.5 Content Filtering ..................................................... - 51 4.3.6
Administration ............................................................... - 53 4.3.6.1 Management ........................................................... - 53 4.3.6.2 QOS ........................................................................ - 55 4.3.6.3 Upload Firmware ................................................... - 56 4.3.6.4 Settings Management ............................................. - 57 4.3.6.5 Status ..................................................................... - 58 4.3.6.6 System Log ............................................................. - 59 4.4
Configuration Examples ....................................................... - 60 4.4.1
Example one – PPPoE on the WAN ............................. - 60 4.4.2
Example two – fixed IP on the WAN.............................. - 64 4.4.3
Example three –set WLAN to be WAN as WiFi Client ... - 68 -2“focus differently”
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5.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) ..................................... - 72 5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28
5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
5.33
5.34
What and how to find my PC’s IP and MAC address? ......... - 72 What is Wireless LAN? ........................................................ - 72 What are ISM bands? .......................................................... - 72 How does wireless networking work? .................................. - 72 What is BSSID? ................................................................... - 73 What is ESSID? ................................................................... - 73 What are potential factors that may causes interference? ... - 73 What are the Open System and Shared Key authentications?- 73 What is WEP? ...................................................................... - 73 What is Fragment Threshold? .............................................. - 74 What is RTS (Request to Send) Threshold? ........................ - 74 What is Beacon Interval? ..................................................... - 74 What is Preamble Type? ...................................................... - 74 What is SSID Broadcast? ..................................................... - 75 What is Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)? .............................. - 75 What is WPA2? .................................................................... - 75 What is 802.1x Authentication? ............................................ - 75 What is Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)? ................. - 75 What is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)? ................... - 75 What is Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)?........................ - 76 What is Wireless Distribution System (WDS)? ..................... - 76 What is Universal Plug and Play (uPNP)?............................ - 76 What is Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Size? .............. - 76 What is Clone MAC Address? .............................................. - 76 What is DDNS? .................................................................... - 76 What is NTP Client? ............................................................. - 76 What is VPN? ....................................................................... - 76 What is IPSEC? ................................................................... - 76 What is WLAN Block Relay between Clients? ...................... - 77 What is WMM? ..................................................................... - 77 What is WLAN ACK TIMEOUT? ........................................... - 77 What is Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS)? ....................... - 77 What is Frame Aggregation? ................................................ - 77 What is Guard Intervals (GI)?............................................... - 77 -
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1. Terminology
3DES
Triple Data Encryption Standard
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
AP
Access Point
CCK
Complementary Code Keying
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name Server
DH
Diffie-Hellman Algorithm
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
ESP
Encapsulating Security Payload
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IKE
Internet Key Exchange
IP
Internet Protocol
ISM
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
LAN
Local Area Network
MAC
Media Access Control
MD5
Message Digest 5
NAT
Network Address Translation
NT
Network Termination
NTP
Network Time Protocol
PPTP
Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
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PSD
Power Spectral Density
RF
Radio Frequency
SHA1
Secure Hash Algorithm
SNR
Signal to Noise Ratio
SSID
Service Set Identification
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
UPNP
Universal Plug and Play
VPN
Virtual Private Network
WDS
Wireless Distribution System
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
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2. Introduction
The 802.11N/3.5G Outdoor Router is an affordable IEEE 802.11b/g/n specifications and 3.5G
WCDMA of Outdoor Router solution; setting SOHO and enterprise standard for high performance,
secure, manageable and reliable WLAN. This document describes the steps required for the initial IP
address assign and other configuration of the outdoor router. The description includes the
implementation of the above steps.
2.1
Package contents
The package of the WLAN Broadband Router includes the following items,

1 x R301M 802.11N/3.5G Outdoor Router

1 x DC 12V/1.5A Power Adapter

1 x Documentation CD

1 x POE Injector

1 x Tie
2.2
Product Features

Compatible with IEEE 802.11n Specifications provides wireless speed up to 150Mbps data rate.

Compatible with IEEE 802.11g standard to provide wireless speeds of 54Mbps data rate.

Compatible with IEEE 802.11b standard to provide wireless speeds of 11Mbps data rate.

Maximizes the performance and ideal for media-centric applications like streaming video, gaming
and Voice over IP technology.

Support various operation (Bridge/Gateway/Ethernet Converter) modes between wireless and
wired Ethernet interfaces.

Supports WPS, 64-bit and 128-bit WEP, WPA, WPA2 encryption to protect the wireless data
transmission.

Support TKIP/AES/TKIPAES of WPA algorithms.

Support IEEE 802.3x full duplex flow control on 10/100M Ethernet interface.

Support DHCP server to provide clients auto IP addresses assignment.

Support DHCP client, static IP, PPPoE, L2TP and PPTP of WAN Interface.

Supports firewall security with port filtering, IP filtering, MAC filtering, port forwarding, DMZ
hosting and URL filtering functions.

Support WEB based management and configuration.

Support System Log.

Support Dynamic DNS

Support NTP
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2.3
Front Panel Description
LED Indicator
1. PWR LED
State
ON
The WLAN Broadband Router is powered ON.
Off
The WLAN Broadband Router is powered Off.
Flashing
2. WLAN LED
Wireless Radio ON.
Off
Wireless Radio Off.
Data is transmitting or receiving on the WAN
interface.
ON
Port linked.
Off
No link.
Flashing
4. LAN LED ACT
Data is transmitting or receiving on the wireless.
ON
Flashing
3. WAN LED ACT
Description
Data is transmitting or receiving on the LAN
interface.
ON
Port linked.
Off
No link.
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2.4
Rear Panel Description
Interfaces
Description
SMA connector
For external antenna. You can use the SMA connector to
connect with 2.4GHz external antenna.
LAN(Middle)
The RJ-45 sockets allow LAN connection through Category 5
cables. Support auto-sensing on 10/100M speed and half/ full
duplex; comply with IEEE 802.3/ 802.3u respectively.
WAN(Right)
The RJ-45 socket allows WAN connection through a Category
5 cable. Support auto-sensing on 10/100M speed and half/ full
duplex; comply with IEEE 802.3/ 802.3u respectively.
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3. Installation
3.1
Hardware Installation
3.1.1 Appearance and Interface Introduction
Notes: The product shot is for reference only please refer to physical product.
LED Panel
Waterproof Sliding Door
Pass trough Ethernet cable from this cable
Push this button to remove upper housing
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Wall Mount
Pole Mount
LAN port with POE
WAN port with POE
SMA connector for external antenna
SIM slot for 3G SIM card
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3.1.2 Hardware installation steps
Step1: Push the button in the side to remove upper housing.
Step2: If you want to use 3G for WAN connection, please insert the 3G SIM card into the SIM slot.
Step3: Pass through Ethernet cable from the hole and insert the cable to LAN port.
Note: RJ-45 8P8C Ethernet cable is required.
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Step4: Install the upper housing and make sure the housing is well installed.
Step5:
Install POE Injector
DC: Insert adapter
POE: This hole is linked to LAN port of the Outdoor Router with RJ-45.
LAN: This hole is linked to LAN side PC/Hub or Router/ADSL modem device with RJ-45
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Step6: Complete the hardware installation as diagram at below.
Notes: Use Reset button on POE injector. Push continually the reset button of POE injector about 5 ~
10 seconds to reset the configuration parameters to factory defaults.
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3.2
Software Installation
There is no software driver or utility installation needed, but only the configuration setting.
Please refer to chapter 4 for software configuration.
Notice: It will take about 50 seconds to complete the boot up sequence after powered on the Outdoor
Router; Power LED will be active, and after that the WLAN Activity LED will be flashing to show the
WLAN interface is enabled and working now.
4. Software configuration
There are web based management and configuration functions allowing you to have the jobs done
easily.
The Outdoor Router is delivered with the following factory default parameters on the Ethernet LAN
interfaces.
Default IP Address
: 192.168.1.254
Default IP subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
WEB login User Name : admin
WEB login Password
: admin
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4.1
Prepare your PC to configure the WLAN Broadband Router
For OS of Microsoft Windows 2000/ XP:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will
appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network and Dial-up Connections icon. Move
mouse and double-click the Local Area Connection icon. The Local Area Connection window will
appear. Click Properties button in the Local Area Connection window.
3. Check the installed list of Network Components. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to
install it; otherwise go to step 6.
4. Select Protocol in the Network Component Type dialog box and click Add button.
5. Select TCP/IP in Microsoft of Select Network Protocol dialog box then click OK button to install the
TCP/IP protocol, it may need the Microsoft Windows CD to complete the installation. Close and go
back to Network dialog box after the TCP/IP installation.
6. Select TCP/IP and click the properties button on the Network dialog box.
7. Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
 IP Address: 192.168.1.1 any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to
connect the Wireless LAN Access Point.
 IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
8. Click OK to complete the IP parameters setting.
For OS of Microsoft Windows Vista / 7:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will
appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network Connections item. The Network
Connections window will appear. Double click Local Area Connection icon, then User Account
Control window shown. Right click Continue button to set properties.
3. In Local Area Connection Properties window, Choose Networking tab, move mouse and click
Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), then click Properties button.
4. Move mouse and click General tab, Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following
example.
 IP Address: 192.168.1.1 any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to
connect the Wireless LAN Access Point.
 IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
5. Click OK to complete the IP parameters setting.
For OS of Microsoft Windows NT:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will
appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network icon. The Network window will appear.
Click Protocol tab from the Network window.
3. Check the installed list of Network Protocol window. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button
4.
5.
6.
7.
to install it; otherwise go to step 6.
Select Protocol in the Network Component Type dialog box and click Add button.
Select TCP/IP in Microsoft of Select Network Protocol dialog box then click OK button to install the
TCP/IP protocol, it may need the Microsoft Windows CD to complete the installation. Close and go
back to Network dialog box after the TCP/IP installation.
Select TCP/IP and click the properties button on the Network dialog box.
Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
 IP Address: 192.168.1.1 any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to
connect the Wireless LAN Access Point.
 IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
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8. Click OK to complete the IP parameters setting.
4.2
Connect to the WLAN Broadband Router
Open a WEB browser, i.e. Microsoft Internet Explore 6.1 SP1 or above, then enter
http://192.168.1.254 on the URL to connect the WLAN Broadband Router.
4.3
Management and configuration on the Outdoor Router
4.3.1 Wizard
This Wizard page guides you to configure Internet connection and Wireless Settings
quickly.
Step 1: configure Internet connection
Click Next button to next step for Internet connection settings. There are six options (DHCP,
Static Mode, PPPOE, L2TP, PPTP, 3G) for Internet connection on WAN port.
a. DHCP (Auto Config)
If you select DHCP option, please click Next button to jump at Step2.
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b. Static Mode (fixed IP)
Item
Description
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Primary DNS
Server
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
Secondary DNS
Server
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
When you finish these settings, then click Next button to jump at Step2.
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c. PPPOE Connection
Item
Description
User Name
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in the user name
and password to login the PPPoE server.
Password
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in the user name
and password to login the PPPoE server.
Verify Password
Fill in the password again for verification.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the PPPoE connection all the time. Please also
configure the Redial Period field.
On Demand: Please configure the Idle Time field. When time is up, the
PPPoE connection will disconnect. The connection will re-connect when
any outgoing packet arise.
Manual: Let user connect the PPPoE connection manually.
When you finish these settings, then click Next button to jump at Step2.
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d. L2TP
If you select L2TP, please fill in these fields on next page.
Item
Description
L2TP Server IP
Address
Allow user to make a tunnel with remote site directly to secure the data
transmission among the connection. User can use embedded L2TP client
supported by this router to make a VPN connection.
If you select the L2TP support on WAN interface, fill in the IP address for
it.
User Name
Fill in the user name and password to login the L2TP server.
Password
Fill in the user name and password to login the L2TP server.
Address Mode
Static: To configure the IP address information by manually, please fill in
the related setting at below.
Dynamic: The option allows the machine to get IP address information
automatically from DHCP server on WAN side.
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the L2TP connection all the time. Please also configure
the Redial Period field.
Manual: Let user connect the L2TP connection manually.
When you finish these settings, then click Next button to jump at Step2.
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e. PPTP
Item
Description
PPTP Server IP
Address
Allow user to make a tunnel with remote site directly to secure the data
transmission among the connection. User can use embedded PPTP
client supported by this router to make a VPN connection.
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in the IP address for
it.
User Name
Fill in the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
Password
Fill in the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
Address Mode
Static: To configure the IP address information by manually, please fill in
the related setting at below.
Dynamic: The option allows the machine to get IP address information
automatically from DHCP server on WAN side.
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the PPTP connection all the time. Please also configure
the Redial Period field.
Manual: Let user connect the PPTP connection manually.
When you finish these settings, then click Next button to jump at Step2.
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f. 3G
Item
Description
USB 3G Modem
This field is automatically showing the model name of the embedded 3G
modem module.
APN
Please input the access point name.
PIN
Please input Pin Code for your UMTS or HSDPA connection, this is
optional, and only required if your service provider asks you to do so.
Dial Number
Please input Dialed Number for your UMTS or HSDPA connection, the
default is *99#. This field should not be altered except when required by
your service provider.
User Name
Please input user name assigned by your Internet service provider here.
Password
Please input password assigned by your Internet service provider here.
When you finish these settings, then click Next button to jump at Step2.
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Step 2: Configure Wireless Settings
There are three options (Disable, WEP, WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK) for Wireless security
connection.
1. OPENWEP
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2. SHAREDWEP
3. WPA-PSK
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4. WPA2-PSK
Item
Description
Network Mode
Frequency (Channel)
Network Name
(SSID)
Channel Bandwidth
Click to select wireless mode from pull down menu.
Select the wireless communication frequency/channel from pull-down menu.
Security
Please select the security mode related wireless data encryption.
WEP: When you select WEP, please input 5, 13 (ASCII), 10 or 26 (HEX)
characters for WEP Key. WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK: When WPA/WPA2 Preshared key encryption is selected, please fill in the Pre-shared key. The format
can be passphrase or Hex (64 characters).
KEY
It is the wireless network name. The SSID can be 32 bytes long.
Select the operating channel width 20 MHz or 20/40 MHz.
When you finish these settings, then click Apply button to save.
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4.3.2 Operation Mode
a. Bridge:
The Bridge mode allows that all Ethernet and wireless interfaces are bridged into a single
bridge interface.
b. Gateway:
The Gateway mode allows that the first Ethernet port is treated as WAN port and the
Ethernet port and the wireless interface are bridged together and are treated as LAN ports.
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c. Wireless ISP
The Wireless ISP mode allows that the wireless interface is treated as WAN port,
and the Ethernet ports are LAN port.
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4.3.3 Internet Settings
4.3.3.1 WAN
a. STATIC
Item
Description
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Primary DNS
Server
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
Secondary DNS
Server
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
MAC Clone
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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b. DHCP
Item
Description
Hostname
Fill in the host name of Host Name of DHCP server. The default value is
empty.
MAC Clone
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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c. PPPoE
Item
Description
User Name
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in the user name
and password to login the PPPoE server.
Password
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in the user name
and password to login the PPPoE server.
Verify Password
Fill in the password again for verification.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the PPTP connection all the time. Please also
configure the Redial Period field.
Manual: Let user connect the PPTP connection manually.
MAC Clone
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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d. L2TP
Item
Description
Server IP
Allow user to make a tunnel with remote site directly to secure the data
transmission among the connection. User can use embedded L2TP client
supported by this router to make a VPN connection.
If you select the L2TP support on WAN interface, fill in the IP address for it.
User Name
Fill in the user name and password to login the L2TP server.
Password
Fill in the user name and password to login the L2TP server.
Static: To configure the IP address information by manually, please fill in
the related setting at below.
Dynamic: The option allows the machine to get IP address information
automatically from DHCP server on WAN side.
Address Mode
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the L2TP connection all the time. Please also configure
the Redial Period field.
On Demand: Please configure the Idle Time field. When time is up, the
L2TP connection will disconnect. The connection will re-connect when any
outgoing packet arise.
Manual: Let user connect the L2TP connection manually.
MAC Clone
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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e. PPTP
Item
Description
Server IP
Allow user to make a tunnel with remote site directly to secure the data
transmission among the connection. User can use embedded PPTP client
supported by this router to make a VPN connection.
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in the IP address for it.
User Name
Fill in the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
Password
Fill in the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
Address Mode
Static: To configure the IP address information by manually, please fill in
the related setting at below.
Dynamic: The option allows the machine to get IP address information
automatically from DHCP server on WAN side.
IP Address
Fill in the IP address for WAN interface.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask for WAN interface.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for WAN interface out going data packets.
Operation Mode
Keep Alive: Keep the PPTP connection all the time. Please also configure
the Redial Period field.
On Demand: Please configure the Idle Time field. When time is up, the PPTP
connection will disconnect. The connection will re-connect when any outgoing
packet arise.
Manual: Let user connect the PPTP connection manually.
MAC Clone
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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f. 3G
Item
Description
USB 3G Modem
This field is automatically showing the model name of the embedded 3G
modem module.
APN
Please input the access point name.
PIN
Dial Number
User Name
Password
MAC Clone
Please input Pin Code for your UMTS or HSDPA connection, this is
optional, and only required if your service provider asks you to do so.
Please input Dialed Number for your UMTS or HSDPA connection, the
default is *99#. This field should not be altered except when required by
your service provider.
Please input user name assigned by your Internet service provider here.
Please input password assigned by your Internet service provider here.
Take NIC MAC address of PC on LAN side as the MAC address of WAN
interface.
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4.3.3.2 LAN
Item
Description
MAC Address
Show the MAC address of LAN interface.
IP Address
Fill in the IP address of LAN interfaces.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask of LAN interfaces.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for LAN interfaces out going data packets.
DHCP Type
Start IP Address
Disable: Disable DHCP server on LAN side.
Server: Enable DHCP server on LAN side.
Fill in the start IP address to allocate a range of IP addresses; client with
DHCP function set will be assigned an IP address from the range.
End IP Address
Fill in the end IP address to allocate a range of IP addresses; client with
DHCP function set will be assigned an IP address from the range.
Lease Time
Fill in the lease time of DHCP server function.
802.1d
Tree
Spanning Select enable or disable the IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree function from
pull-down menu.
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LLTD
Select enable or disable the Link Layer Topology Discover function from
pull-down menu.
IGMP Proxy
Select enable or disable the IGMP proxy function from pull-down menu.
UPNP
Select enable or disable the UPnP protocol from pull-down menu.
DNS Proxy
Select enable or disable the DNS Proxy function from pull-down menu.
4.3.3.3 DHCP clients
The “DHCP clients” page shows all the active DHCP clients. The table window shows the
active clients with their Hostname, MAC address, assigned IP address, and time expired
information.
4.3.3.4 VPN Passthrough
Item
Description
L2TP Passthrough
Select enable or disable the L2TP pass-through function from pulldown menu.
IPSec Passthrough
Select enable or disable the IPSec pass-through function from pull-down
menu.
PPTP Passthrough
Select enable or disable the PPTP pass-through function from pull-down
menu.
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4.3.4 Wireless Settings
4.3.4.1 Basic
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Item
Description
Wireless On/Off
Click Wireless OFF button to turn off wireless RF radio.
Click Wireless ON button to turn on wireless RF radio.
Antenna Switch
Select Internal antenna or External antenna for using.
The default is using Internal antenna.
Wireless Mode
Click to select wireless mode from pull down menu.
SSID
It is the wireless network name. The SSID can be 32 bytes long.
User can use the default SSID or change it.
Broadcast Network
Name (SSID)
Enable or disable the SSID broadcast function.
AP Isolation
MBSSID AP
Isolation
Wireless network is similar to the virtual local area network. All of the
Wireless client devices can access each other completely.
When you enable this function, it will turn off connection between
wireless clients. Only allows connection between wireless client and
this AP router.
Enable this function will turn off connection between clients with different
MBSSID. Example: The client connected with BSSID 1. When enable
this function, it will not connect with BSSID 2. Only can access between
clients with SSID 1.
BSSID
Show the MAC address of Wireless interface.
Frequency
(Channel)
Select the wireless communication frequency/channel from pull-down
menu.
Operating Mode
Select “Mixed Mode” for 11b/g/n mode or “Green Field” for 11n mode.
Channel BandWidth Select the operating channel width 20 MHz or 20/40 MHz.
Guard Interval
Select “Long” or “Auto”. Guard intervals are used to ensure that distinct
transmissions do not interfere with one another. Only effect under Mixed
Mode.
MCS
Select 0~7 or “Auto” from pull down menu. The default is “Auto”. Only
effect under Mixed Mode.
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4.3.4.2 Advanced
Item
Description
B/G Protection
Mode
Default: Auto. You can select the other options including On and Off.
The B/G protection technology is CTS-To-Self. It will try to reserve the
throughput for 11g clients from 11b clients connecting to the device as
AP mode.
Beacon Interval
Beacons are the packets sending by Access point to synchronize the
wireless network. The beacon interval is the time interval between
beacons sending by this unit in AP or AP+WDS operation. The default
and recommended beacon interval is 100 milliseconds.
Data Beacon
Rate(DTM)
This is the Delivery Traffic Indication Map. It is used to alert the clients
that multicast and broadcast packets buffered at the AP will be
transmitted immediately after the transmission of this beacon frame. You
can change the value from 1 to 255. The AP will check the buffered data
according to this value. For example, selecting “1” means to check the
buffered data at every beacon.
Fragment
Threshold
The fragmentation threshold determines the size at which packets are
fragmented (sent as several pieces instead of as one block). Use a low
setting in areas where communication is poor or where there is a great
deal of radio interference. This function will help you to improve the
network performance.
RTS Threshold
The RTS threshold determines the packet size at which the radio issues
a request to send (RTS) before sending the packet. A low RTS Threshold
setting can be useful in areas where many client devices are associating
with the device, or in areas where the clients are far apart and can detect
only the device and not each other. You can enter a setting ranging from
0 to 2347 bytes.
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TX Power
The default TX power is 100%. In case of shortening the distance and the
coverage of the wireless network, input a smaller value to reduce the radio
transmission power. For example, input 80 to apply 80% Tx power.
Short Preamble
Default: Disable. It is a performance parameter for 802.11 b/g mode and
not supported by some of very early stage of 802.11b station cards. If
there is no such kind of stations associated to this AP, you can enable this
function.
Short Slot
It is used to shorten the communication time between this AP and station.
TX Burst
The device will try to send a serial of packages with single ACK reply from
the clients. Enable this function to apply it.
Country Code
Select the country code for wireless from pull down menu.
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4.3.4.3 Security
a. Disable
If you set Security Mode to “Disable”, the wireless data transmission will not include
encryption to prevent from unauthorized access and monitoring.
b. OPEN-WEP // SHARED-WEP
If you set Security Mode to “OPEN-WEP or SHARED-WEP`”, please fill in the related
configurations at below.
Item
Description
Default Key
Specify a Key number for effective.
WEP Keys
(1~4)
When you select WEPAUTO, please input 5, 13 (ASCII), 10 or 26 (HEX)
characters for WEP Key.
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c. WPAPSK/WPA2PSK
If you set Security Mode to “WPAPSKWPA2PSK”, please fill in the related
configurations at below.
Item
Description
WPA Algorithms
Select TKIP, AES, or TKIPAES for WPA algorithms.
Pre-Shared key
Please fill in a passphrase like ‘test wpa 123’, or a hexadecimal string like
'65E4 E123 456 E1'.
Key Renewal
Interval
Please fill in a number for Group Key Renewal interval time.
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d. WPA-RADIUS
If you set Security Mode to “WPA-RADIUS”, please fill in the related configurations at below.
Item
WPA Cipher
Suite
Key Renewal
Interval
Description
Select TKIP, AES, or TKIPAES for WPA algorithms.
Please fill in a number for Group Key Renewal interval time.
IP Address
Enter the RADIUS Server’s IP Address provided by your ISP.
Port
Enter the RADIUS Server’s port number provided by your ISP. (The
Default is 1812.)
Shared Secret
Enter the password that the Wireless Router shares with the RADIUS
Server.
Session Timeout
Session timeout interval is for 802.1x re-authentication setting. Set to zero
to disable 802.1x re-authentication service for each session. Session
timeout interval unit is second and must be larger than 60.
Idle Timeout
Enter the idle timeout in the column.
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f. 802.1X
Item
Description
IP Address
Enter the RADIUS Server’s IP Address provided by your ISP.
Port
Enter the RADIUS Server’s port number provided by your ISP. (The Default is
1812.)
IP Address
Enter the RADIUS Server’s IP Address provided by your ISP.
Port
Enter the RADIUS Server’s port number provided by your ISP. (The Default is
1812.)
Shared Secret
Enter the password that the Wireless Router shares with the RADIUS Server.
g. Access Policy
Item
Description
Policy
Select the Disabled, Allow or Reject of drop down menu choose wireless
access control mode. This is a security control function; only those clients
registered in the access control list can link to this WLAN Broadband Router.
Add a station
MAC
Fill in the MAC address of client to register this router access capability.
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4.3.4.4 WDS
Item
Description
Encryp
Select WEP,TKIP,or AES for WDS algorithms.
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4.3.4.5 WPS
Item
Description
WPS
Select Enable or Disable the Wi-Fi Protected Setup function. Then click
Apply button to take effect function after change.
WPS Summary
AP PIN
Reset OOB
WPS mode
PIN
After enabling the WPS function, if there is connection the WPS
Summary will show related information and status.
Here shows the AP’s PIN code (Personal Identification Number) that the
enrollee should enter the registrar’s PIN code to make a connection.
Click Generate button to generate a new AP PIN code.
Click Reset OOB button to reset WPS AP to the OOB (out-of-box)
configuration.
Select WPS mode. PIN: Personal Identification Number. PBC: Push
Button Communication.
Input enrollee’s PIN code to AP-registrar.
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4.3.5 Firewall
4.3.5.1 MAC/IP/Port Filtering
Item
Description
MAC/IP/Port
Filtering
Select Enable or Disable the MAC/IP/Port Filtering function.
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Item
Description
Source MAC
address
Fill in the MAC address of source NIC, to restrict data transmission.
Dest IP Address
Fill in the IP address of destination, to restrict data transmission.
Source IP
Address
Fill in the IP address of source, to restrict data transmission.
Protocol
Dest Port Range
Source Port
Range
Select the protocol that you want to restrict. There are four options:
None, TCP, UDP and ICMP.
Fill in the start-port and end-port number of destination, to restrict data
transmission.
Fill in the start-port and end-port number of source, to restrict data
transmission.
Action
Select Accept or Drop to specify the action of filtering policies.
Comment
Make a comment for the filtering policy.
Item
Description
□
Make a mark for next action.
Delete Selected
Click Delete Selected button to delete all that you selected.
Reset
Click Reset button to clear selected items.
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4.3.5.2 Port Forwarding
Item
Description
Port Forwarding
Select Enable or Disable the Port Forwarding function.
IP Address
Port Range
Protocol
Comment
To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP address that
hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall, fill in the IP address.
To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP address that
hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall, fill in the port range.
Specify protocol, TCP&UDP, TCP or UDP.
Make a comment for the port forwarding policy.
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Item
Description
Virtual Server
Select Enable or Disable the Virtual Server function.
IP Address
Public Port
Private Port
To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP address that
hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall, fill in the IP address.
To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP address that
hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall, fill in the public port.
To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP address that
hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall, fill in the private port.
Protocol
Specify protocol, TCP&UDP, TCP or UDP.
Comment
Make a comment for the virtual server policy.
Apply
Make a mark for next action.
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4.3.5.3 DMZ
Item
DMZ Settings
DMZ IP Address
Description
Enable or Disable the DMZ function.
To support DMZ in your firewall design, fill in the IP address of DMZ host
that can be access from the WAN interface.
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4.3.5.4 System Security
Item
Description
Remote
management
Ping form WAN
Filter
Select Deny or Allow for remote management function.
SPI Firewall
Select Disable or Enable for SPI firewall function.
Select Disable or Enable for Ping permit from WAN.
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4.3.5.5 Content Filtering
Item
Description
Filters
Select an option or multi-option for Webs content filter. Then click Apply
button to save or click Reset button to clear all.
URL
Fill in a URL string for URL filter. Then click Add button to save the URL
filter policy or click Reset button to clear the field.
□
Make a mark for next action.
Delete
Click Delete button to delete all that you selected.
Reset
Click Reset button to clear selected items.
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Item
Keyword
Description
Fill in a word for Webs Host Filter policy.
□
Make a mark for next action.
Delete
Click Delete button to delete all that you selected.
Reset
Click Reset button to clear selected items.
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4.3.6 Administration
4.3.6.1 Management
Item
Username
Description
Fill in the user name for web management login control.
Password
Fill in the password for web management login control.
Current Time
It shows the current time.
Time Zone
Select the time zone in your country from pull-down menu..
NTP Server
Fill in NTP server IP address.
NTP
synchronization
Fill in a number to decide the synchronization frequency with NTP server.
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Item
Description
Dynamic DNS
Provider
Click the drop down menu to pick up the right DDNS provider you
registered.
Account
Fill in the account of DDNS you registered.
Password
Fill in the password of DDNS you registered.
DDNS
Fill in the domain name that you registered.
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4.3.6.2 QOS
Item
Uplink Speed
Downlink Speed
Local IP
Address
Uplink
Bandwidth
Downlink
Bandwidth
Description
Input uplink Maximum upload speed
Input downlink Maximum upload speed
Fill in the local IP address
Fill limit upload bandwidth
Fill limit downlink bandwidth
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4.3.6.3 Upload Firmware
Item
Description
Location
Click the Browse button to select the new firmware image file on PC.
And click the Apply button to upgrade firmware.
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4.3.6.4 Settings Management
Item
Description
Export Button
Click Export button to export the current configuration to your PC.
Settings
location
Load
Button
file
Default
Click Browse button to select the configuration file from your PC, then
click Import button to update the configuration.
Click the Load Default button to reset the configuration parameter to
factory defaults.
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4.3.6.5 Status
This page shows the current status and some basic settings of the device, includes system info,
Internet Configurations and Local Network.
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4.3.6.6 System Log
This page is used to view system logs.
Item
Description
Refresh
Click the Refresh button to refresh the log shown on the screen.
Clear
Click the Clear button to clear the log display screen.
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4.4
Configuration Examples
4.4.1 Example one – PPPoE on the WAN
Sales division of Company ABC likes to establish a WLAN network to support mobile
communication on sales’ Notebook PCs. MIS engineer collects information and plans the
WLAN Broadband Router implementation by the following configuration.
WAN configuration:PPPoE
User Name
user123
Password
password123
Note: User Name and password that ISP provided.
LAN configuration:
IP Address
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
DHCP Client Range
192.168.1.100 –192.168.1.200
WLAN configuration:
SSID
xentino
Channel Number
AutoSelect
1. Configure the WAN interface:
Open “Wide Area Network (WAN) Settings” page, select PPPoE then enter the User Name
“user123” and Password “password123”, the password is encrypted to display on the screen.
Press “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting.
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2. Configure the LAN interface:
Open “Local Area Network (LAN) settings” page, enter the IP Address “192.168.1.254”,
Subnet Mask “255.255.255.0”. Enable DHCP Server, DHCP client range “192.168.1.100” to
“192.168.1.200”, default Gateway “192.168.1.254” .
Press “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting.
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3. Configure the WLAN interface:
Open “Basic Wireless Settings” page, enter the SSID ”xentino”, Channel Number
”AutoSelect”.
Press “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting.
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4.4.2 Example two – fixed IP on the WAN
Company ABC likes to establish a WLAN network to support mobile communication on all
employees’ Notebook PCs. MIS engineer collects information and plans the WLAN
Broadband Router implementation by the following configuration.
WAN configuration : Fixed IP
IP Address
10.10.10.10
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
10.10.10.1
Primary DNS Address
168.95.1.1
LAN configuration:
IP Address
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
DHCP Client Range
192.168.1.50 – 192.168.1.150
WLAN configuration:
SSID
xentino
Channel Number
AutoSelect
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1. Configure the WAN interface:
Open “Wide Area Network (WAN) Settings” page, select STATIC(fixed IP) then enter IP
Address “10.10.10.10”, subnet mask “255.255.255.0”, Default gateway “10.10.10.1”.
Press “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting.
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2. Configure the LAN interface:
Open “Local Area Network (LAN) settings” page, enter the IP Address “192.168.1.254”,
Subnet Mask “255.255.255.0”. Enable DHCP Server, DHCP client range “192.168.1.50” to
“192.168.1.150”, default Gateway “192.168.1.254” .
Press “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting
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3. Configure the WLAN interface:
Open “Basic Wireless Settings” page, enter the SSID ”xentino”, Channel Number
”AutoSelect”.
Press
“Apply”
button
to
confirm
the
configuration
setting.
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4.4.3 Example three – set WLAN to be WAN as WiFi Client
User Mr. ABC likes to configure this WLAN Broadband Router to be a
WiFi client. In order to communicate with another AP. Mr. ABC collects
information and plans the WLAN Broadband Router implementation by
the following configuration.
WAN configuration: DHCP (Auto config)
IP Address
n/a
Subnet Mask
n/a
Default Gateway
n/a
Primary DNS Address
n/a
LAN configuration:
IP Address
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
DHCP Client Range
192.168.1.100 –192.168.1.200
WLAN configuration:
SSID
xentino
Channel Number
1
WISP configuration:
SSID
xentino
Channel Number
Channel 1
Wireless Encryption
n/a
DHCP server
192.168.88.50~192.168.88.150
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1. Configure the Operation Mode:
Open “Operation Mode Configuration” page, select Ethernet Converter,
then click “Apply” button to confirm the configuration setting and reboot
the WLAN Broadband Router. After reboot, the wireless LAN will become
to WAN interface.
2. Site Survey:
Open “Site Survey” page under Wireless Settings, and select the AP
“xentino”.
Press “Connect” button to connect with the AP.
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3. Wireless encryption setting:
If the AP has encryption setting, it will pop out a window for you filling
the encryption setting.
Please fill up the encryption code and click “Apply” button to connect
with the AP.
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4. Station Link Status:
After connection with AP, you can open “Link Status” page under
Wireless Settings to check Link Status.
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5. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
Enter topic text here.
5.1
What and how to find my PC’s IP and MAC address?
IP address is the identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP
protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a
32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to
255. For example, 191.168.1.254 could be an IP address
The MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number. (On an
Ethernet LAN, it's the same as your Ethernet address.) When you're connected to the Internet from
your computer (or host as the Internet protocol thinks of it), a correspondence table relates your IP
address to your computer's physical (MAC) address on the LAN.
To find your PC’s IP and MAC address,
 Open the Command program in the Microsoft Windows.
 Type in “ipconfig /all”, then press the Enter button.
 Your PC’s IP address is the one entitled IP Address and your PC’s MAC address is the one
entitled Physical Address.
5.2
What is Wireless LAN?
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a network that allows access to Internet without the need for any wired
connections to the user’s machine.
5.3
What are ISM bands?
ISM stands for Industrial, Scientific and Medical; radio frequency bands that the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) authorized for wireless LANs. The ISM bands are located at 915
+/-13 MHz, 2450 +/-50 MHz and 5800 +/-75 MHz.
5.4
How does wireless networking work?
The 802.11 standard define two modes: infrastructure mode and ad hoc mode. In infrastructure mode,
the wireless network consists of at least one access point connected to the wired network
infrastructure and a set of wireless end stations. This configuration is called a Basic Service Set
(BSS). An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a set of two or more BSSs forming a single sub-network.
Since most corporate WLANs require access to the wired LAN for services (file servers, printers,
Internet links) they will operate in infrastructure mode.
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Example 1: wireless Infrastructure Mode
Ad hoc mode (also called peer-to-peer mode or an Independent Basic Service Set, or IBSS) is simply
a set of 802.11 wireless stations that communicate directly with one another without using an access
point or any connection to a wired network. This mode is useful for quickly and easily setting up a
wireless network anywhere that a wireless infrastructure does not exist or is not required for services,
such as a hotel room, convention center, or airport, or where access to the wired network is barred
(such as for consultants at a client site).
Example 2: wireless Ad Hoc Mode
5.5
What is BSSID?
A six-byte address is that distinguish a particular a particular access point from others. Also know as
just SSID. Serve as a network ID or name.
5.6
What is ESSID?
The Extended Service Set ID (ESSID) is the name of the network you want to access. It is used to
identify different wireless networks.
5.7
What are potential factors that may causes interference?
Factors of interference:



Obstacles: walls, ceilings, furniture… etc.
Building Materials: metal door, aluminum studs.
Electrical devices: microwaves, monitors and electrical motors.
Solutions to overcome the interferences:




5.8
Minimizing the number of walls and ceilings.
Position the WLAN antenna for best reception.
Keep WLAN devices away from other electrical devices, eg: microwaves, monitors, electric
motors…etc.
Add additional WLAN Access Points if necessary.
What are the Open System and Shared Key authentications?
IEEE 802.11 supports two subtypes of network authentication services: open system and shared key.
Under open system authentication, any wireless station can request authentication. The station that
needs to authenticate with another wireless station sends an authentication management frame that
contains the identity of the sending station. The receiving station then returns a frame that indicates
whether it recognizes the sending station. Under shared key authentication, each wireless station is
assumed to have received a secret shared key over a secure channel that is independent from the
802.11 wireless network communications channel.
5.9
What is WEP?
An option of IEEE 802.11 function is that offers frame transmission privacy similar to a wired network.
The Wired Equivalent Privacy generates secret shared encryption keys that both source and
destination stations can use to alert frame bits to avoid disclosure to eavesdroppers.
WEP relies on a secret key that is shared between a mobile station (e.g. a laptop with a wireless
Ethernet card) and an access point (i.e. a base station). The secret key is used to encrypt packets
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before they are transmitted, and an integrity check is used to ensure that packets are not modified in
transit.
5.10 What is Fragment Threshold?
The proposed protocol uses the frame fragmentation mechanism defined in IEEE 802.11 to achieve
parallel transmissions. A large data frame is fragmented into several fragments each of size equal to
fragment threshold. By tuning the fragment threshold value, we can get varying fragment sizes. The
determination of an efficient fragment threshold is an important issue in this scheme. If the fragment
threshold is small, the overlap part of the master and parallel transmissions is large. This means the
spatial reuse ratio of parallel transmissions is high. In contrast, with a large fragment threshold, the
overlap is small and the spatial reuse ratio is low. However high fragment threshold leads to low
fragment overhead. Hence there is a trade-off between spatial re-use and fragment overhead.
Fragment threshold is the maximum packet size used for fragmentation. Packets larger than the size
programmed in this field will be fragmented.
If you find that your corrupted packets or asymmetric packet reception (all send packets, for example).
You may want to try lowering your fragmentation threshold. This will cause packets to be broken into
smaller fragments. These small fragments, if corrupted, can be resent faster than a larger fragment.
Fragmentation increases overhead, so you'll want to keep this value as close to the maximum value
as possible.
5.11 What is RTS (Request to Send) Threshold?
The RTS threshold is the packet size at which packet transmission is governed by the RTS/CTS
transaction. The IEEE 802.11-1997 standard allows for short packets to be transmitted without RTS/
CTS transactions. Each station can have a different RTS threshold. RTS/CTS is used when the data
packet size exceeds the defined RTS threshold. With the CSMA/CA transmission mechanism, the
transmitting station sends out an RTS packet to the receiving station, and waits for the receiving
station to send back a CTS (Clear to Send) packet before sending the actual packet data.
This setting is useful for networks with many clients. With many clients, and a high network load, there
will be many more collisions. By lowering the RTS threshold, there may be fewer collisions, and
performance should improve. Basically, with a faster RTS threshold, the system can recover from
problems faster. RTS packets consume valuable bandwidth, however, so setting this value too low will
limit performance.
5.12 What is Beacon Interval?
In addition to data frames that carry information from higher layers, 802.11 include management and
control frames that support data transfer. The beacon frame, which is a type of management frame,
provides the "heartbeat" of a wireless LAN, enabling stations to establish and maintain
communications in an orderly fashion.
Beacon Interval represents the amount of time between beacon transmissions. Before a station enters
power save mode, the station needs the beacon interval to know when to wake up to receive the
beacon (and learn whether there are buffered frames at the access point).
5.13 What is Preamble Type?
There are two preamble types defined in IEEE 802.11 specification. A long preamble basically gives
the decoder more time to process the preamble. All 802.11 devices support a long preamble. The
short preamble is designed to improve efficiency (for example, for VoIP systems). The difference
between the two is in the Synchronization field. The long preamble is 128 bits, and the short is 56 bits.
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5.14 What is SSID Broadcast?
Broadcast of SSID is done in access points by the beacon. This announces your access point
(including various bits of information about it) to the wireless world around it. By disabling that feature,
the SSID configured in the client must match the SSID of the access point.
Some wireless devices don't work properly if SSID isn't broadcast (for example the D-link DWL-120
USB 802.11b adapter). Generally if your client hardware supports operation with SSID disabled, it's
not a bad idea to run that way to enhance network security. However it's no replacement for WEP,
MAC filtering or other protections.
5.15 What is Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)?
Wi-Fi’s original security mechanism, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), has been viewed as insufficient
for securing confidential business communications. A longer-term solution, the IEEE 802.11i standard,
is under development. However, since the IEEE 802.11i standard is not expected to be published until
the end of 2003, several members of the WI-Fi Alliance teamed up with members of the IEEE 802.11i
task group to develop a significant near-term enhancement to Wi-Fi security. Together, this team
developed Wi-Fi Protected Access.
To upgrade a WLAN network to support WPA, Access Points will require a WPA software upgrade.
Clients will require a software upgrade for the network interface card, and possibly a software update
for the operating system. For enterprise networks, an authentication server, typically one that supports
RADIUS and the selected EAP authentication protocol, will be added to the network.
5.16 What is WPA2?
It is the second generation of WPA. WPA2 is based on the final IEEE 802.11i amendment to the
802.11 standard.
5.17 What is 802.1x Authentication?
802.1x is a framework for authenticated MAC-level access control, defines Extensible Authentication
Protocol (EAP) over LANs (WAPOL). The standard encapsulates and leverages much of EAP, which
was defined for dial-up authentication with Point-to-Point Protocol in RFC 2284.
Beyond encapsulating EAP packets, the 802.1x standard also defines EAPOL messages that convey
the shared key information critical for wireless security.
5.18 What is Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)?
The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, pronounced tee-kip, is part of the IEEE 802.11i encryption
standard for wireless LANs. TKIP is the next generation of WEP, the Wired Equivalency Protocol,
which is used to secure 802.11 wireless LANs. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing, a message
integrity check and a re-keying mechanism, thus fixing the flaws of WEP.
5.19 What is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)?
Security issues are a major concern for wireless LANs, AES is the U.S. government’s next-generation
cryptography algorithm, which will replace DES and 3DES.
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5.20 What is Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)?
The IEEE 802.11f Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) supports Access Point Vendor interoperability,
enabling roaming of 802.11 Stations within IP subnet.
IAPP defines messages and data to be exchanged between Access Points and between the IAPP and
high layer management entities to support roaming. The IAPP protocol uses TCP for inter-Access
Point communication and UDP for RADIUS request/response exchanges. It also uses Layer 2 frames
to update the forwarding tables of Layer 2 devices.
5.21 What is Wireless Distribution System (WDS)?
The Wireless Distribution System feature allows WLAN AP to talk directly to other APs via wireless
channel, like the wireless bridge or repeater service.
5.22 What is Universal Plug and Play (uPNP)?
UPnP is an open networking architecture that consists of services, devices, and control points. The
ultimate goal is to allow data communication among all UPnP devices regardless of media, operating
system, programming language, and wired/wireless connection.
5.23 What is Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Size?
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) indicates the network stack of any packet is larger than this value
will be fragmented before the transmission. During the PPP negotiation, the peer of the PPP
connection will indicate its MRU and will be accepted. The actual MTU of the PPP connection will be
set to the smaller one of MTU and the peer’s MRU.
5.24 What is Clone MAC Address?
Clone MAC address is designed for your special application that request the clients to register to a
server machine with one identified MAC address. Since that all the clients will communicate outside
world through the WLAN Broadband Router, so have the cloned MAC address set on the WLAN
Broadband Router will solve the issue.
5.25 What is DDNS?
DDNS is the abbreviation of Dynamic Domain Name Server. It is designed for user owned the DNS
server with dynamic WAN IP address.
5.26 What is NTP Client?
NTP client is designed for fetching the current timestamp from internet via Network Time protocol.
User can specify time zone, NTP server IP address.
5.27 What is VPN?
VPN is the abbreviation of Virtual Private Network. It is designed for creating point-to point private link
via shared or public network.
5.28 What is IPSEC?
IPSEC is the abbreviation of IP Security. It is used to transferring data securely under VPN.
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5.29 What is WLAN Block Relay between Clients?
An Infrastructure Basic Service Set is a BSS with a component called an Access Point (AP). The
access point provides a local relay function for the BSS. All stations in the BSS communicate with the
access point and no longer communicate directly. All frames are relayed between stations by the
access point. This local relay function effectively doubles the range of the IBSS.
5.30 What is WMM?
WMM is based on a subset of the IEEE 802.11e WLAN QoS draft standard. WMM adds prioritized
capabilities to Wi-Fi networks and optimizes their performance when multiple concurring applications,
each with different latency and throughput requirements, compete for network resources. By using
WMM, end-user satisfaction is maintained in a wider variety of environments and traffic conditions.
WMM makes it possible for home network users and enterprise network managers to decide which
data streams are most important and assign them a higher traffic priority.
5.31 What is WLAN ACK TIMEOUT?
ACK frame has to receive ACK timeout frame. If remote does not receive in specified period, it will be
retransmitted.
5.32 What is Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS)?
MCS is Wireless link data rate for 802.11n. The throughput/range performance of an AP will depend
on its implementation of coding schemes. MCS includes variables such as the number of spatial
streams, modulation, and the data rate on each stream. Radios establishing and maintaining a link
must automatically negotiate the optimum MCS based on channel conditions and then continuously
adjust the selection of MCS as conditions change due to interference, motion, fading, and other
events.
5.33 What is Frame Aggregation?
Every 802.11 packet, no matter how small, has a fixed amount of overhead associated with it. Frame
Aggregation combines multiple smaller packets together to form one larger packet. The larger packet
can be sent without the overhead of the individual packets. This technique helps improve the
efficiency of the 802.11n radio allowing more end user data to be sent in a given time.
5.34 What is Guard Intervals (GI)?
A GI is a period of time between symbol transmission that allows reflections (from multipath) from the
previous data transmission to settle before transmitting a new symbol. The 802.11n draft specifies two
guard intervals: 400ns (short) and 800ns (long). Support of the 400ns GI is optional for transmit and
receive. The purpose of a guard interval is to introduce immunity to propagation delays, echoes, and
reflections to which digital data is normally very sensitive.
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