Manual 8468040

Manual 8468040
THE EFFECTS OF THE CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN FRACTIONS
OF MILK PRODUCTS ON STARTER PIG PERFORMANCE
by
MIKE D. TOKACH
B.S., NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY, 1986
A THESIS
submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
MASTER OF SCIENCE
Department of Animal Science and Industry
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Manhattan, Kansas
1988
Approved by:
A
\iW^
ijor Professor
A112Qfi 130753
TABLE OF CONTENTS
^a§
,74
R5X
c.z
I.
Milk and Isolated Soy Products - Literature Review
A.
Introduction
B.
Processing
.
.
....
~-.
1.
Milk Products
2.
Isolated Soy Protein
1
1
2
2
13
C.
Dried Whey
15
D.
Dried Skim Milk
27
E.
Casein
36
F.
lactose
42
G.
Isolated Soy Protein
45
OF PROTEIN AND/OR CARBOHYDRATE FRACTIONS OF DRIED
WHEY ON PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF WEANLING
II. EFFECT
PIGS
50
Summary
50
B.
Introduction
51
C.
Experimental Procedures
52
D.
Results and Discussion
54
A.
III. EFFECT OF LACTOSE LEVEL AND PROTEIN SOURCE ON STARTER PIG
PERFORMANCE
60
A.
Summary
60
B.
Introduction
61
C.
Experimental Procedures
62
D.
Results
63
E.
Discussion
IV. Literature Cited
ABSTRACT
64
71
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table
II-l
Diet Composition
57
II-2
Analyzed Ingredient Composition
58
II-3
Effect of Dried Whey Fractions on Weanling Pig
Performance
58
II-4
Effect of Dried Whey Fractions on Apparent
Digestibility
59
III-l
Diet Composition, Week
68
III-2
Diet Composition, Week
III-3
Effect of Lactose Level and Protein Source on
Starter Pig Performance (Trial 1)
70
III-4
Effect of Lactose Level and Protein Source on
Starter Pig Performance (Trial 2)
70
to 2
3
to 5
69
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure
1
Milk Processing Flow Chart
4
ACKNOWIEDGEMENTS
I would like to express
serving as my master's
my appreciation to Dr. Jim Nelssen for
advisor.
The sincere
interest that
Dr.
Nelssen showed towards my program, academics and personal life will
never be forgotten.
It is an extreme pleasure to have an advisor
that is also a good friend.
I would also like to extend
Robert H.
Hines
for
serving
my thanks to Drs. Gary
on my master's
L. Allee and
committee.
I
have
benefitted greatly from their incite and working knowledge of the
swine industry.
I
am also greatful
for the assistance of the other graduate
students in data collection and analysis of the results.
However, I
am more appreciative of their friendship and fun and games that made
the months away from my family and friends tolerable.
Finally, I can not fully express my gratitude for the caring and
understanding that my family has shown during my stay at Kansas
State.
They have made countless sacrifices over the years to allow
me to accomplish my goals.
I hope that someday I can repay their
love.
Lastly,
I thank my fiance,
Lisa Thomas.
source that made this thesis possible.
on the other end has made the hard work,
between us bearable.
I
wedding on July 16, 1988.
Her love is the true
Knowing that you are waiting
long hours and distance
am extremely excited about our upcoming
1
INTRODUCTION
Producers are currently weaning pigs at four weeks of age or less
to increase sow productivity.
However, early weaning often results
in a lag in performance, including decreased gain and feed intake and
increased morbidity and mortality.
Nutritionists are presented with
an obvious challenge to devise an economical, nutritional regimen to
In order to recommend a
eliminate the postweaning lag in the pig.
sound nutritional program, the weanling pigs biological status must
be understood.
Three
week
old weanling
enzymatic systems.
A warm,
pigs
have
very
immature
immune
and
dry, draft-free environment can help the
immune system fight disease while it is maturing; however, the pig
also needs time to develop an enzymatically mature digestive system.
The enzymes most prevalent at weaning are capable of digesting milk
products instead of the plant products which are normally fed.
intake is also very low the first two weeks after weaning.
highly
nutritious
and
digestible
diet
performance during this critical period.
is
milk products,
to maximize
With these facts in mind,
numerous researchers have designed complex,
diets for early weaned pigs.
essential
Feed
Thus, a
high nutrient density
These diets commonly contain 20 to 40%
primarily dried whey and
skim milk.
These milk
product additions have proven to be beneficial in increasing gain,
intake and feed efficiency.
to determine whether the
However, limited research has been done
protein or carbohydrate fraction of milk
products is responsible for the improved performance.
2
Five trials were conducted to evaluate the components of milk
products that are essential for performance of the 21-day old pig.
The effect of protein and/or carbohydrate fractions of dried whey on
pig performance and nutrient digestibility was studied.
the
of
effect
lactose
performance was
daily
gain,
daily
on
starter pig
Criteria measured included average
investigated.
average
source
and protein
level
In addition,
feed
feed
intake,
efficiency,
and
digestibility of dry matter, energy and nitrogen.
FBOCESSWG
MIIK rEODUCTS
1.
Milk products originally used in the animal feed industry were
waste by-products of the cheese-making process or milk designated
unfit
for human consumption
(Scott,
1986)
.
Once these products
proved to be economical to produce and valuable feed ingredients for
neonatal runiinants and nonruminants, higher quality sources became
Milk processing methods and ultimate product quality have
available.
been shown to have an effect on the performance of weanling pigs
(Pollmann et al.,
Roy,
1962)
.
1983b; Mahan,
1984)
and young calves (Shillam and
Robinson (1986) also explained that milk proteins are
extremely delicate and can be denatured by heat treatment.
Thus,
processing techniques and their effects on product quality play a
major role in determining the value of milk products in swine diets.
Since
raw
liquid
milk
contains
approximately
90%
water,
the
primary step in obtaining finished milk products used in the swine
3
However, as
industry is the removal of the high moisture content.
figure
1
indicates,
milk encounters a number of other processing
steps before being marketed (Eckles et al., 1951; Webb and Whittier,
1970; Hall and Hendrick, 1971; Lampert, 1975; Warner, 1976; Kessler,
1981; Robinson, 1986; Scott, 1986)
The first processing step for all raw milk must encounter is
pasteurization (Warner,
1976)
.
Pasteurization is a process applied
to a product with the object of minimizing possible health hazards
arising from pathogenic microorganisms associated with milk, by heat
treatment with minimal chemical, physical and organoleptic changes in
Pasteurization is designed to inactivate pathogenic
the product.
organisms originating from within the udder, from the exterior of the
teats and udder, and from the milking and storage equipment.
are many time-temperature combinations,
There
ranging from 63 C for 30
minutes or 77 C for 15 seconds to 100 C for .01 second, approved for
pasteurization
of
Grade
immediately cooled to
10
A
milk.
(Robinson,
C after heating.
relatively mild form of heat treatment.
1986)
.
Milk
Pasteurization
is
is
a
Whey protein denaturation is
low (between 5 and 15 percent) and there is relatively little loss of
other heat sensitive nutrients (Robinson, 1986)
found
that
practically
no
lysine
was
.
Finot (1983) also
rendered
unavailable
by
pasteurization
After being pasteurized, milk is homogenized and sold for human
consumption,
separated to obtain butter and skim milk, or fermented
to yield cheese and whey.
Hcmogenization is simply the breaking up
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of fat globules of milk into very fine particles by forcing them
through minute openings to prevent separation and hardening of the
fat during storage (Eckles et al, 1951)
and
Separation
fermentation
are
processes.
detailed
more
Separation is a process whereby an essentially fat-free portion (skim
is separated from a fat-rich portion
milk)
(cream)
.
The process
relies on the density difference between the milkfat in the globules
and the aqueous phase in which they are dispersed (Robinson, 1986)
If milk is allowed to stand, fat rises and creaming is observed with
a fat-rich fraction collecting at the surface.
Industry uses the
density difference to separate skim milk and cream by centrifugation
(Iampert,
1975)
centrifuges
Early model
.
which
allow
air
separators were open or semi-open
to
flow
the
with
entrainment of air in milk inhibits separation.
however,
milk;
Thus,
hermetic or
air-tight separators were developed to isolate the separation process
from the atmosphere.
Exiting the separator, cream is standardized to the desired fat
content by dilution using skim milk or other cream (Eckles et al.,
1951)
Heat
.
treatment
by
vacreation
then
destroys
pathogenic
organisms and enzymes which may cause spoilage (Robinson, 1986)
vacreator
mixes
steam
with
cream
and
the
condensed
.
The
vapor plus
volatiles are removed by flash evaporation under vacuum (Robinson,
1986)
.
After heat treatment, the finished cream product (half-cream,
coffee cream,
sour cream, whipping cream or butter cream)
for packaging or churned into butter.
is ready
6
Separating cream from whole milk also yields skim milk.
Skim milk
may exit the process here for consumption by diet conscious humans
enticed by the low fat and calorie content (Lampert,
1975)
.
Skim
milk that is not sold as fluid milk is dried for preservation or
further processed to generate casein.
Drying of all milk products is
accomplished in the same basic manner.
80%)
is
The bulk of the water (50 to
first removed by evaporation before the remainder of the
surface absorbed water is removed in a drier
1971)
and Hendrick,
(Hall
The vacuum evaporator used in industry is based on the fact
.
that the boiling point of a liquid is lowered when milk is exposed to
a pressure below atmospheric pressure (Robinson, 1986)
.
Skim milk is
brought to boil at approximately 70 C in an evaporator with negative
pressure to remove the large moisture content.
low temperature is used,
1986)
Since a relatively
nutrient denaturation is small
(Robinson,
Different types of evaporators remove variable portions of
.
water; however, a drier must be used to completely dry the product.
The two type of driers currently being used in industry are roller
and spray driers (Hall and Hendrick, 1971)
.
The principle of roller
drying is that milk is applied in a thin film upon the smooth surface
of a continuously rotating, steam-heated, metal drum with the dried
milk
film being
(Robinson, 1986)
is high,
.
continuously
scraped
off
by a stationary knife
Protein denaturation associated with roller drying
as an extremely high drying temperature (95 to 150 C)
used (Lampert, 1975)
.
is
In addition, Finot (1983) showed that roller
drying renders 20 to 50% of the total lysine in skim milk unavailable
.
7
while spray drying blocks only
to 2%.
Since there is more protein denaturation with roller driers, spray
driers are used to dry nearly all whole milk and about 80% of all
skim milk (Iampert, 1975)
Spray drying is the instantaneous removal
.
of moisture from a liquid
(Robinson,
1986).
The liquid is first
converted into an atomized fog-like mist to increase the surface
The atomized liquid is exposed to a flow of hot air that
area.
evaporates the moisture and carries the water vapor away while the
dry milk particles fall to the bottom of the drying chamber (Lampert,
1975)
The dried product is removed from the drying chamber and
.
cooled as quickly as possible to minimize heat damage
Hendrick,
1971)
.
(Hall
and
Spray drying is a gentle drying method as the
material to be dried is suspended in air and the drying time is very
short (Robinson, 1986)
.
The air inlet temperature can reach 215
C,
but due to evaporation, the product temperature will only reach 65 to
75 C
(Robinson,
before
1986)
.
being packaged
The skim milk is dried to 3 to 4% moisture
and
stored
at
room temperature
(Hall
and
Hendrick, 1971).
Dried skim milk is not graded by heat treatment; however, it is
classified according to the heat treatment to which the raw milk has
been subjected before being converted into powder (Robinson, 1986)
The classification procedure is based upon the level of undenatured
whey proteins in the dried skim milk.
(WEN)
This Whey Protein Nitrogen
index is the amount of undenatured whey protein nitrogen in
skim milk solids measured in milligrams per gram of dried skim milk.
8
The dried skim milk WEN index is normally 8 mg/g.
American
Dry
Milk
Institute,
Inc.
(1971),
the
According to the
heat
treatment
classifications and corresponding WFN indexes for dried skim milk are
low heat, not less than 6 mg/g; medium heat, between 1.5 and 6 mg/g;
These levels correspond to
and high heat, not more than 1.5 mg/g.
less than 25%,
25 to 81%
and over 81% denaturation of the whey
protein, respectively.
The solubility index, which measures the volume of sediment from
50 ml
of reconstituted milk,
quality.
is
another indication of skim milk
Robinson (1986) explained that denatured whey proteins will
redisperse into a stable suspension when skim milk is reconstituted;
however,
casein coagulated by high heat treatment will not form a
stable suspension, but will appear as sediment.
Thus, the solubility
index is mainly a measure of the coagulated casein.
Milk Institute
maximum
(1971)
solubility
The American Dry
requires that extra grade skim milk have a
index
of
.5
ml
of
reconstituted skim milk or be 99% soluble.
sediment
per
50
ml
of
Obviously, the lower heat
treated, lower denaturated, higher soluble, higher quality dried skim
milk is desired for swine diets.
Very
Further processing of skim milk may also yield casein.
little casein is manufactured in the United States as the federally
supported pricing structure for milk encourages the production of
dried skim milk rather than casein (Webb and Whittier, 1970)
.
New
Zealand and Australia are the major casein producers in the world
(Galesloot and Tinbergen, 1984)
.
Acid casein and rennet casein, the
.
.
9
two basic types of casein,
are named according to the coagulating
agent used in production (Lampert,
1975)
Lactic,
.
the most common
casein, hydrochloric and sulfuric casein are the three types of acid
casein
produced
commercially
(Robinson,
1986)
.
Acid
casein
is
produced by adding a dilute acid to liquid skim milk to lower the pH
to approximately 4.1.
caseinate complex,
Lowering the pH will dissociate the calcium
causing the casein to coagulate into a gel-like
(Webb and Whittier,
curd
1970)
.
The curd is washed and dried to
produce dry acid casein (lampert, 1975)
.
Acid casein is insoluble in
water and thus soluble caseinates are produced by adding dilute
alkali to the acid curd or to water treated dry acid casein (Webb and
Whittier, 1970)
commonly
.
used to
Calcium and sodium hydroxide are the alkalis most
produce
caseinates.
Thus,
calcium and
sodium
caseinate are the caseinates most available to the feed industry.
The soluble caseinates must then be roller or spray dried by the
methods discussed previously.
Drying method and temperature are
again very important in maintaining product quality (Robinson, 1986)
Rennet casein is usually used in the plastics industry
1986)
.
(Robinson,
It is produced by adding calf rennet extract to skim milk and
allowing it to coagulate into the gel-like curd which is washed and
dried (Lampert, 1975)
Separating casein from skim milk leaves whey as a by-product;
however, since very little casein is produced in the United States,
the majority of whey used in swine diets is a by-product from the
cheese industry (Webb and Whittier, 1970)
.
The method of obtaining
10
whey and cheese from whole milk is very similar to the method of
deriving whey and casein from skim milk (Lampert,
1975)
In the
.
making of cheese, lactic acid or rennet is added to the milk, causing
it to coagulate and curdle (Kessler, 1981)
.
After this fermentation
process, the curd is removed and processed into cheese leaving liquid
whey as the by-product (Scott, 1986)
.
The liquid whey is segregated
and classified according to acidity, as sweet or acid whey.
Sweet whey typically has
apH
of 5.8 to 6.6 and titratable acidity
of .1 to .2% (Robinson, 1986).
Sweet whey is normally derived from
the rennet processed or hard cheeses
Edars,
etc)
,
(Mozzarella,
Cheddar ,
Gouda,
as rennet extract does not change the pH and acidity
during curd formation (Robinson, 1986)
Conversely, acid whey, the
.
by-product of the cottage, ricotta or cream cheese industry, has a pH
less than 5.0 and titratable acidity greater than .40%
1986)
.
(Robinson,
The feed industry desires sweet whey as the ash and mineral
content are typically lower and the protein and lactose content are
typically higher than that of acid whey
(1986)
(Robinson,
1986)
.
Scott
explains that industry may add neutralizers to acid whey to
increase the pH and lower the acidity to levels representing sweet
whey;
however,
ash
quality is affected.
monitored closely.
levels
will
also
increase
and ultimate whey
Therefore, the level of ash in whey must be
Scott (1986) also theorized that a high quality
liquid sweet whey must be used to obtain a dried whey suitable for
human or livestock consumption.
Some sweet whey is fed to pigs in the liquid form; however, the
11
majority is concentrated and roller or spray dried as previously
discussed in the skim milk section (Hall and Hendrick, 1971)
.
Since
whey solids contain approximately 70% lactose, whey must also be
crystallized before drying
(Robinson,
1986)
Crystallization
.
is
accomplished by concentrating whey until crystals form spontaneously,
a difficult process to control routinely, or by seeding with small
quantities of crystals (Webb and Whittier, 1970)
.
Drying method and
temperature have a tremendous effect on ultimate whey quality as whey
proteins are easily denatured (Robinson, 1986)
.
Renner (1983) found
that roller drying reduced available lysine levels in whey by 35.3%
while spray drying reduced those levels by only 3.5%.
study,
Pollmann
et
al.
also
(1983b)
demonstrated
In a growth
that pigs
fed
roller-dried whey have lower average daily gains than pigs fed spray-
dried whey.
Scott
(1986)
believes
that the product temperature
simply becomes too high during roller drying causing whey proteins to
be denaturated.
The remaining sweet whey and most acid whey is ultraf iltrated for
further processing
(Scott,
1986)
majority of the water from whey.
.
Ultrafiltration will remove a
The semi-concentrated whey may then
be subjected to reverse osmosis to remove varying lactose levels and
some minerals which yields liquid whey protein concentrate
1986)
.
(Scott,
Whey protein concentrate is then spray dried to produce the
product used in the swine and dairy industries.
Lactose removed during reverse osmosis
lactose.
is one source of crude
Centrifugation is another method of separating lactose from
.
12
liquid whey
(Kessler,
Crystallized whey
1981).
yielding crude lactose and the mother liquid,
proteins and minerals (Robinson, 1986)
.
centrifuged,
The crude lactose is further
.
dried to form a 99% lactose finished product
1970)
is
which contains the
(Webb and Whittier,
The mother liquid from centrifuging is often dried down to
produce delactosed whey,
Whittier,
1970)
containing
22
to
24% protein
(Webb
and
Delactosed whey also contains the concentrated
.
mineral portion, and thus, it must be closely analyzed before use as
a feed ingredient.
Liquid whey may be demineralized before the lactose is separated.
The minerals may also be removed from whey protein concentrate to
produce a higher quality demineralized product.
However, the most
prominent use of demineralization is with whole whey (Scott,
1986)
The two main methods for demineralizing whey are ion exchange and
electrodialysis
(Robinson,
1986)
The ion exchange method is more
.
popular since electrodialysis can only achieve 90% demineralization
and is more expensive.
Robinson (1986) explained that ion exchange
is accomplished by trading cations
anions
in
whey
for
bicarbonate
in whey for ammonium ions and
ions.
The
resulting
ammonium
bicarbonate is recovered for reuse while the demineralized whey is
spray dried to create a high quality finished product.
Pure whey protein fractions may also be isolated from liquid whey
(Kessler,
1981)
.
Iampert (1975)
explained that lac^talbumin is the
most prominent whey protein with smaller amounts of lactoglobulins
and immunoglobulins also being present.
Lactalbumin can be extracted
.
13
by simply adding heat and acid to the whey until the protein fraction
liquid
the
from
separates
(Webb
and Whittier,
heating also denatures the lartalbumin,
destroying
Tinbergen,
excellent
the
1984).
as
value
Robinson
(1986)
a
1970).
However,
rendering it insoluble and
and
(Galesloot
foodstuff
lists two recent approaches to
isolating whey protein without denaturizing the product.
The first
method involves passing whey through a column containing porous,
silica microbeads which specifically absorb protein.
The recovered
protein fractions are undenatured and contain less than 3-4% ash.
The second process developed by Bio-Isolates uses ion exchange to
manufacture a
97%
protein powder from whey.
The product has a
digestibility of 99%, biological value of 94% and protein efficiency
ratio of 3.2.
The protein efficiency ratio is lower for whey (3.0),
whey protein concentrate
(3.0),
skim milk (2.8),
casein
and
(2.5)
heat treated lactalbumin (2.8), which provides further evidence of
the effect of manufacturing on milk product quality (Galesloot and
Tinbergen, 1984)
2.
ISOIATED SOY PROTEIN
Soy protein products are available in a number of forms, varying
in composition, particle size, solubility and percent protein (Wolf,
1971)
.
The
Federal
Drug Administration
classifies
soy proteins
according to protein level as soy flour (less than 65% protein)
protein concentrate
and higher protein)
(65-89% protein)
(Campbell,
,
1979).
,
soy
or isolated soy protein (90%
Soy flour and soy protein
.
14
contain
concentrate
a
portion
soy carbohydrate
indigestible
the
of
fraction;
and
insoluble
partly
all carbohydrate
however,
fractions are removed during the production of isolated soy protein.
The process results in a highly digestible product (De, 1971)
Isolated soy protein production for industrial use began in the
1930 's as a replacement for casein in paper coatings
Smith, 1972)
(Circle and
Since an edible grade was developed in 1959, isolated
.
soy protein has been compared to casein in infant formulas (Theuer,
1983)
,
food products (Galeslcot and Tinbergen, 1984) and starter pig
As is the
diets (Mateo and Veum, 1980; and Giesting et al., 1985).
case in milk processing, the method of processing plays a major role
in determining isolated soy protein quality.
found that
De (1971)
industrial and edible grade isolated soy protein vary in amino acid
composition and protein degradation.
Edible isolated soy protein is
usually derived from the highest quality soybeans and thus, varies
less in composition
(Meyer and Williams,
1975)
.
Ihe soybeans are
cracked, dehulled, flaked, solvent extracted and desolventized before
entering the protein isolation process as unheated, defatted flakes
(Smith,
1977)
.
Concentrating the protein by isoelectric separation
is possible since soy protein globulins have a minimum solubility at
pH 4.5,
similar to that of milk
solubilized by dilute alkali
(Meyer,
(pH 7-9),
Ihe protein is
1967).
and the fibrous residue is
removed by screening and centrifugation (Meyer, 1967)
.
The remaining
supernatant is adjusted to pH 4.5 to precipitate the major protein
fraction into a fine white curd (Meyer and Williams, 1975)
.
Ihe curd
15
is
and
separated
then
to
be
may
curd
The
constituents.
washed
remove
dried
defatted
soluble
as
or
such,
it
flake
can
be
neutralized with food-grade alkali to solubilize the protein and then
be dried
(Meyer
and Williams,
Isolated
1975).
soy protein
is
customarily spray dried thus the heat damaging risk of roller drying
is reduced (Meyer, 1967)
CREED WHEY
The
milk
products
manufacturing steps
and Whittier,
according
section
describes
the
numerous
Each step adds to the variability of the final product
dried whey.
(Webb
processing
that raw milk must encounter before yielding
to
season,
1970)
.
The original raw milk may also vary
milking
stage
interval,
of
lactation
and
individual cow breed, condition, and feeding regimen (Eckles et al.,
1951)
.
Therefore, ultimate dried whey chemical analysis values may
vary extensively.
Hall and Hendrick (1971) gave the following ranges
as examples:
%
Lactose
65.0-88.0
Protein
1.0-17.0
Ash
0.7-10.0
Fat
Dry Matter
Lactic Acid
0.5- 2.0
85.0-98.0
0.1-12.0
16
Industry commonly loses less fluctuating values, as listed by Pond and
for lactose (71-74%), protein (12.0-13.4%), ash (7.9-
Maner (1984),
10.3%), and dry matter (93-96.5%); however, when fonnulating starter
diets containing dried whey, nutritionists must still be aware of the
compositional variance.
Analyzed values also indicate little about
the heating severity and consequent protein denaturation related to
whey processing (Robinson, 1986).
Therefore, Pollmann et al.
(1983b)
and Mahan (1984) evaluated whey quality in starter pig diets.
Mahan (1984) compared the effects of edible grade and feed grade
whey on starter pig performance.
in
analysis,
and
acidity
difference
containing
a
12.3
white-yellow
between
whey
The whey sources were very similar
to
12.6%
color.
sources,
compared to 10.7% for feed grade.
as
protein,
Ash
2.24%
content
edible grade
was
titratable
the
contained
major
7.6%
A corn-soybean meal basal diet was
used with 25% being the dried whey inclusion level.
The feed grade
whey source did not improve swine performance over that of pigs fed
the basal diet; whereas,
the edible grade source improved average
daily gain and feed intake.
essential
for young swine.
improvement in daily gain,
fed 0,
Mahan
(1984)
concluded that a high
edible grade product must be used as whey quality appears
quality,
10 or 20%
Stoner et al.
Stoner et al.
feed grade dried whey.
(1985)
(1986)
also
found no
feed intake or feed efficiency for pigs
In a subsequent trial,
discovered that pigs fed a diet containing 20%
edible grade dried whey gained faster and were more feed efficient
than pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet.
17
Pollmann et al.
(1983b)
also demonstrated the importance of whey
quality in a 2 x 3 factorial consisting of two whey sources (roller
At
and three lysine levels (.90, 1.05, 1.20%).
dried, spray dried)
the lowest lysine level, whey source did not effect average daily
gain or feed efficiency.
However,
as lysine level increased, pig
improved and whey source differences became apparent.
performance
Pigs fed the 20% spray dried whey diet had higher average daily gain
and were more feed efficient than pigs fed the 20% roller dried whey
diets at the higher lysine levels.
evaluating the effect of adding
levels
of
discovered
lysine
that
performance.
1.05,
(.90,
roller
1.20%),
whey
dried
In a separate
2x3
factorial,
or 20% roller dried whey at varying
did
et
Pollmann
not
al.
(1983b)
starter
improve
pig
The results of these trials emphasize the importance of
using a high quality whey when formulating starter diets.
Pollmann et al.
(1983b)
was also interested in determining the
optimum lysine level for 20% dried whey starter diets.
One trial
found a linear improvement in average daily gain and feed efficiency
A second
when the lysine level was increased from .90 to 1.20%.
3
factorial,
three
lysine
evaluating two spray dried whey levels
levels
(1.2,
1.3
or
1.4),
(0
2
x
or 20%) and
revealed whey additions
increased gain by 5.6% with the lysine effect being a quadratic
improvement.
(.95,
1.05,
Pollmann et al.
1.15,
1.25,
(1983a)
1.35%)
analyzed varying lysine levels
in 20% dried whey starter diets.
Increasing lysine level to 1.25% improved average daily gain and feed
efficiency; however, gain was reduced at 1.35% lysine.
Consequently,
18
the researchers concluded that pigs weaned at 3 to 4 weeks of age and
fed a corn-soybean meal diet with 20% whey require 1.25% lysine.
Fralick and Cline
1.20%)
(1983)
also compared varying lysine levels
(.90,
in dried whey diets and concluded that pigs fed supplemental
lysine gain faster than those fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet.
Mahan
(
Fralick
(1984),
and
Cline
(1983)
et
Pollmann
and
al.
demonstrated that with the appropriate lysine level and
1983a, b)
whey source, dried whey additions will improve average daily gain and
feed efficiency.
found
no
These data cast some doubt on earlier trials that
response
to dried whey when
low
lysine
levels
or
an
unspecified whey source was used.
In a 2 x 2 factorial, Meade et al.
(1965)
analyzed dried whey
10%) and fish meal (0, 3%) additions to 3-week old starter
(0,
pig diets.
Neither component improved average daily gain or feed efficiency over
the corn-soybean meal control.
(.84 to
.96)
However, the calculated lysine levels
were considerably lower than suggested by Pollmann et
(1983a), and the whey drying method was not specified.
al.
Hendrick (1971)
Hall and
explained that the harsher roller drying was still
very popular during the mid 1960's when this trial was conducted.
Wahlstrom et al. (1974) also found that 10% low lactose dried whey
had no effect on average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or
feed efficiency when added with or without 5% sugar or .5% salt to a
10%
oats,
corn-soybean meal
starter diet.
The low lactose whey
quality may be questioned as it contained 14.1% ash.
explained that
low
lactose whey
is
formed by
Robinson (1986)
simply removing a
19
portion of the
protein
amino
and
The process concentrates the desirable
lactose.
however,
acids;
unless
demineralized,
the
undesirable ash and salt content are also concentrated to extremely
The lysine levels used in the trial were also slightly
high levels.
low at .9 to 1.0%.
Dried
whey
experiments
levels.
additions
have
also
beneficial
proven
Miller et al.
(1971)
some
in
with unspecified whey quality or questionable
lysine
discovered the addition of 7.5% dried
whey improved average daily gain and feed efficiency of pigs fed a
16% protein negative control diet.
The 7.5% dried whey diet also
provided equal performance and less expensive gains than the 19%
protein,
positive control,
complex diet.
Newman (1985)
determined
that pigs fed complex diets containing 15% dried whey gained faster
and were more feed efficient than pigs fed simple corn-soybean meal
or barley-soybean meal diets.
The complex diets also contained 10%
oat groats and 3% lard; thus, dried whey may not be responsible for
the entire increase in performance.
Graham et al.
(1981)
compared a 20% protein, corn-soybean meal,
10% rolled oats diet to diets containing 25% delactosed whey,
lactose or 15% skim milk.
51%
Pigs fed the 25% delactosed whey diet had
higher average daily gain than pigs fed the 15% skim milk or control
diets.
Feed
significant,
efficiency
and
feed
intake
differences
although the numerically highest
were
average daily
not
feed
intake occurred when pigs were fed the 25% delactosed whey diet.
Pope and Allee (1982) also found delactosed whey to be beneficial to
20
starter pig performance.
Delactosed whey from two different sources
and dried whey were compared to a 1.2% lysine, milo-soybean meal
Three-week old pigs fed the 20% dried whey diet or the 20%
diet.
delactosed whey diets were heavier two and five weeks postweaning
than pigs fed the basal diet.
Clarkson and Allee (1982) supplemented
delactosed whey for 20% dried whey on a protein basis rather than by
equal weight and found no difference in pig performance.
However,
pigs fed either whey diet had higher average daily gains at two and
five weeks postweaning than pigs fed the 1.2% lysine, milo-soybean
meal control diet.
In a 2 x 2 factorial, Cera and Mahan (1985) evaluated corn oil
6%) and dried
whey
(0,
25%) additions to starter pig diets.
(0,
The main
effects of the 25% dried whey diets revealed higher average daily
gains during each of the
4
improved
weeks postweaning and
utilization during the first 3 weeks.
feed
The addition of 6% corn oil to
diets containing dried whey did not effect performance; however, a
constant calorie-lysine ratio was not maintained.
(1982)
lard
combined two lysine (1.10, 1.18%), two whey
(0,
6%)
Stanly et al.
(0,
10%)
and two
levels to form eight dietary treatments to analyze the
effects of calorie-lysine ratio, spray-dried whey, and fat on starter
pig performance.
The addition of 10% spray-dried whey improved daily
gain by 7%, feed efficiency by 3%, and survival by 1% during the 4-
week postweaning period.
Average daily feed intake and average daily
gain were depressed by the addition of fat, regardless of the presence
of whey in the diet,
unless a constant calorie-lysine ratio was
21
The dietary inclusion of fat in the corn-soy-whey diets
maintained.
enhanced daily gain and feed efficiency when a constant calorie-
The authors concluded that the presence
lysine ratio was maintained.
of spray-dried whey in the diet enhances the ability of weanling pigs
In cxsncurrence,
to utilize dietary fat.
Cera
and Mahan
(1985)
reported that dried whey additions resulted in an improvement in
Van Wbrmer and Pollmann
apparent fat digestibility.
addition of
found the
efficiency of pigs fed
Thus,
4%
choice white grease
feed
20% spray-dried whey diets.
is
beneficial
to
starter pig
performance when other
dietary nutrients, particularly lysine, are adequate.
unclear.
also
the
it can be concluded that high quality, spray-dried, edible
grade whey
mode of
(1985)
iirproved
action deriving
the
improvement
However, the
in performance
is
still
Among limited research investigating the mode of action,
Cwsley et al.
(1986a)
discovered a 20% dried whey diet was higher in
dry matter and energy digestibility than a corn-soybean meal basal
diet for pigs weaned at 28 days of age.
found
that
pigs
fed
intestinal trypsin,
the 1.2%
the
20%
Owsley et al.
(1986b)
also
dried whey diet had higher total
chymotrypsin and amylase activity than pigs fed
lysine control;
however,
no differences were found when
enzyme activity was calculated as units per kilogram of body weight
or units per gram of pancreas.
The authors theorized that the
increase in feed intake caused by dried whey additions to the diet
immediately
after weaning will
increase pancreas weight
and the
amount of pancreatic enzymes synthesized and secreted, thus improving
22
pig performance.
Graham et al.
also found pigs fed a 25%
(1981)
dried whey diet had the highest amylase and protease enzyme activity
The authors also
in the pancreas and small and large intestines.
felt that enzyme activities appeared to be influenced by the higher
feed consumption and gains for the pigs fed the dried whey diet.
Total lactase activity in the small intestine mucosa and both the
small and large intestine contents was also higher when dried whey
Lindemann et al.
was included in the diet.
(1986)
,
who also examined
the effect of dried whey on digestive enzyme levels, found that pigs
fed a diet containing 20% dried whey tended to have larger pancreases
and
greater pancreatic
and gastric
pancreas for all pancreatic enzymes.
has
sufficient
pancreatic
and
enzyme
activity per gram of
It was concluded that the pig
gastric
enzyme
performance should not be limited; however,
activity
so
that
diet digestibility and
subsequent pig performance may be more directly related to the extent
of release of these enzymes into the intestines.
The data suggests
that the presence of dried whey in the diet will increase the amount
of enzymes presence in the intestinal tract resulting in improved
digestibility and performance.
Cera et al.
(1987)
also investigated
the dried whey mode of action by studying small intestinal growth and
jejunal morphology directly after weaning.
fold reduction
in villus
height by
3
Weaning resulted in a 3-
days postweaning;
however,
addition of 25% dried whey to the basal diet had no influence on the
villus height reduction.
Although the mode of action of dried whey is still controversial,
23
most researchers agree that early weaned pig performance will improve
However, the
when a high quality dried whey is included in the diet.
Becker et al.
optimum inclusion level to be used is also debatable.
(1957)
diets.
conducted the
Ihe
60%.
first work analyzing whey level
in starter
Ihe dried whey levels used in the first trial were
additions.
second
trial
Although
analyzed
dried
whey
0,
10,
20
additions
and
did
performance over a simple corn-soybean meal diet,
30%
not
0,
improve
(1972)
pig
the dried whey
quality was questionable as a roller dried product was used.
al.
30 and
dried whey
Orr et
conducted two feeding trials and one nitrogen balance
trial to investigate the optimum whey level.
A
19% protein diet
containing 10% skim milk and 10% oat groats served as the positive
control with a 16% protein, corn-soybean meal grower ration serving
as the negative control.
Dried whey
corn in the negative control diet.
(5,
10,
15,
or 20%)
replaced
In the first feeding trial, pigs
fed the 15 or 20% dried whey diets gained as rapidly as pigs fed the
positive control.
In the second feeding trial, increasing dried whey
level resulted in a linear improvement in average daily gain.
nitrogen balance study,
increased from
to 15%.
Clarkson and Allee (1982)
10, 20
In the
nitrogen retention improved as whey level
added spray-dried whey at the rate of
or 30% to a milo-soybean meal diet with lysine level remaining
constant at 1.2%.
Pigs fed the 20% dried whey diet gained faster at
two and five weeks postweaning than pigs fed the control. len percent
dried whey did not improve performance over the control,
and 30%
24
Therefore,
dried whey did not have an advantage over 20% dried whey.
Fralick and
20% was concluded to be the optimum inclusion level.
Cline (1983) found similar results when comparing 0, 15 and 30% dried
whey
a
in
corn-soybean meal
starter
Pigs
diet.
fed
the diet
containing 15% dried whey gained faster than those fed the control
and no particular advantage was found at the 30% dried whey level.
When evaluating barley particle size and spray dried whey level
10,
(0,
and
or 20%)
average
increased.
,
Goodband and Hines (1987)
daily
feed
intake
increased
found average daily gain
linearly
as whey
Using the same whey levels, Thaler et al.
found a linear increase in average daily gain,
intake and feed efficiency.
Thaler et al.
(1986)
level
also
average daily feed
(1986)
conducted a second
15 or 20%)
experiment to determine the optimum whey level
(0,
when copper sulfate was present in the diet.
Results indicate that
5,
10,
copper sulfate may enhance the dried whey effect on starter pig
performance as the 5% dried whey addition produced the same response
as the 20% dried whey addition when copper sulfate was present in
both diets.
Edmonds and Baker (1984)
for copper sulfate and dried whey.
also reported an interaction
The inclusion of 25% dried whey
or 250 ppm copper in starter diets improved average daily gain and
feed efficiency as compared to the corn-soybean meal control.
An
additive effect was found as pigs fed diets containing copper sulfate
and dried whey gained faster than pigs
fed diets containing the
additives separately.
Mahan et al. (1981) evaluated the optimum inclusion level of dried
25
The whey levels
whey in diets for pigs weaned at 14 days of age.
evaluated were
average
daily
increased.
0,
15,
feed
20,
25,
30 and 35%.
intake were
improved
Average daily gain and
linearly
as whey
level
Ihe results indicate that the optimum inclusion level for
dried whey may be higher than 20% for pigs weaned earlier than three
weeks of age.
The appropriate weaning age and feeding length for optimum whey
Pollmann et al.
utilization has also been subject to question.
(1983b)
weaned pigs at
2,
3,
4 or 5 weeks and fed a 1.3% lysine,
milo-soybean meal diet with or without 20% dried whey to determine
the weaning age effect.
Pigs weaned at all ages fed the 20% whey
diet weighed more at 8 weeks than those fed the diet without whey.
Pigs weaned at 3 to 5 weeks performed similarly and were heavier at
eight weeks than those weaned at two weeks.
The data suggests that
pigs weaned earlier than three weeks may require higher nutrient
levels than those provided in this trial.
Pope and Allee
(1982)
evaluated the length of time a 20% dried whey diet should be fed to
pigs weaned at three weeks.
4
or 5 weeks postweaning.
performed
similarly
The dried whey diet was fed for
1,
2,
3,
Pigs fed the 20% whey diet for two weeks
to pigs
fed
the whey diet
for
five
weeks.
Feeding dried whey for only two weeks also markedly reduced the cost
of gain.
Martino and Mahan (1983) also examined whey feeding length
by feeding a 25% dried whey diet for
1,
2,
or
3
weeks postweaning.
Pigs consuming the dried whey diet had higher growth rates and feed
intakes with longer access to the dried whey diet.
The improvement
26
in gain and feed intake was also enhanced to a greater extent with
lighter weaning weight pigs (4.54 kg)
.
In a nitrogen balance study,
the lighter weight pigs also had greater relative nitrogen retention
They suggested feeding a
than pigs with a heavier weaning weight.
dried whey diet for 2 to
3
weeks postweaning for pigs weighing less
than 4.54 kg and only for one week for heavier pigs.
In addition to dried whey and delactosed whey, demineralized whey
and whey protein
concentrate
available to the swine industry.
are additional
whey based products
The inclusion of demineralized whey
in starter pig diets has not been investigated.
However, Robinson
(1986) explained that removing the minerals in the demineralized whey
production process elevates the lactose and protein content.
Thus,
the expected feeding value for demineralized whey would be equal or
superior to a high quality dried whey.
Cinq-Mars et al.
(1986)
did
examine the effect of whey protein concentrate on early weaned pig
performance.
Pigs fed diets containing 16.2 or 33.7% whey protein
concentrate gained faster and were more feed efficient than pigs fed
diets without whey protein concentrate.
No performance differences
were found between whey protein concentrate levels.
The results
indicate a level of whey protein concentrate of 16.2% is adequate to
improve starter pig performance.
The effect of dried skim milk-dried whey combinations on starter
pig performance has also been investigated.
Danielson et al.
(1960)
found that pigs weaned at 16 days had the highest average daily gain
when fed a diet containing 30% skim milk and 10% dried whey.
The
27
other milk product combinations vised were 40%-0%, 20%-20%, 10%-30%,
and 0%-40%; skim milk and dried whey,
Pigs fed all
respectively.
milk product combinations showed superior performance to those fed
The optimum
the corn-soybean control diet without milk product.
dried skim milk-dried whey ratio can't be determined from this trial
as the whey was roller dried.
Mahan (1983)
,
Results from this trial, Martino and
and Pollmann et al.
(1983b)
indicate light weight pigs
or pigs weaned earlier than three weeks may need higher milk product
inclusion levels than 20% to obtain peak performance.
Nelssen (1986)
reported that pigs fed a high nutrient density diet containing 20%
dried whey
and
20%
skim milk gained
faster and were more
feed
efficient than pigs fed a 20% dried whey diet or a 1.25% lysine,
corn-soybean meal
diet.
Based
on these results,
a
three phase
starter program was recommended for early weaned pigs to optimize
performance
and
minimize
production
costs.
Phase
one
involves
feeding the high nutrient density diet until pigs reached 7.0 kg body
weight.
From 7.0 to 11.5 kg, a 1.25% lysine, corn-soybean meal diet
containing dried whey is fed.
The last phase calls for a 1.10%
lysine, grain-soybean meal diet to be fed from 11.5 to 23 kg.
CRIED SKIM MILK
Research conducted with dried skim milk has taken a different
direction than dried whey research.
Instead of concentrating on
determining the optimum inclusion level, feeding length, or possible
lysine level interaction, most researchers have simply used skim milk
28
in complex diets or as a means of ccnparing milk protein with other
protein sources.
Dried skim milk is an excellent protein source as
it contains 33.5% protein and 2.4% lysine (NRC, 1979)
The main difference between the conposition of whey and skim milk
is that skim milk contains a large casein portion in addition to the
whey fractions (lactose, lactalbumin and minerals)
;
(Robinson, 1986)
The addition of casein allows skim milk to have the higher protein
and amino acid levels while lowering the percentages of mineral and
ash.
Dried skim milk also encounters fewer processing steps and,
thus,
varies less in composition and quality than whey
1975)
.
(lampert,
Processing effects on quality must still be considered as
heat can denature the whey proteins
and insolubilize the casein
(Robinson, 1986)
When feeding a complex diet containing dried skim milk, several
researchers have shown an improvement in performance of pigs weaned
at three weeks.
However,
it is difficult to credit skim milk with
the entire response as other nutrients were also added to form the
complex diet.
A corn-soybean meal diet was used as the simple diet
in the following experiments.
Meade et al.
(1969b)
found pigs fed
complex diets containing 10% dried skim milk, 10% sucrose and 3% fish
meal had higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than
pigs fed the simple diet.
Meade et al. (1969a) fed a similar complex
diet containing 5% skim milk, 5% sucrose and 3% fish meal; however,
no response was found.
(1970)
The complex diet used by Bayley and Carlson
contained 15% skim milk, 25% wheat, 5% oat groats and 5% fish
29
meal.
Pigs fed the complex diet gained faster than pigs fed the
Himmelberg et al. (1985) conducted five trials with 30%
simple diet.
dried skim milk,
10%
5% dried fish solubles and 1% dried
sugar,
Ihe optimum postweaning time for
brewers yeast in the complex diet.
The
changing pigs from a complex to a simple diet was also explored.
complex diet improved average daily gain, average daily feed intake
Average daily gain also increased
and feed efficiency in all trials.
linearly
increased
as
day
from
of change
5
from the
complex to
pronounced for lighter weight pigs.
the
simple
diet
The effect was more
to 20 days postweaning.
Similar to the results of the
dried whey research, these results indicate lighter weight pigs may
require diets containing high levels of milk products to optimize
performance.
Okai et al.
(1976) also investigated the effect of diet complexity
on starter pig performance.
Pigs were allotted to dietary treatment
at 10 days of age and were weaned at three weeks.
complex
or
complex
postweaning phases.
diet.
diets
were
fed
during
the
Simple,
semi-
prestarter
and
The simple diet was a wheat-barley-soybean meal
The semi-complex diet additionally contained 25% oat groats,
6.4% herring meal and 10% skim milk.
The complex diet was semi-
purified and contained dextrose, sucrose, corn starch, soybean meal,
11%
herring
vermiculite.
meal,
20%
dried
skim milk,
15%
dried whey
and
3%
Creep feed intake was extremely low for all diets and
no differences were found in average daily gain or feed efficiency in
the preweaning phase.
In the postweaning period, an increase in diet
30
complexity led to a corresponding increase in feed intake and weight
gain.
The results indicate young pigs utilized the semi-complex and
It is difficult to credit skim milk
complex diets extremely well.
with the entire improvement in performance found in any of these
trials because the diets contained a variety of other ingredients.
Further complicating the results,
lysine level increased linearly
with diet complexity in most trials.
A few researchers have explored the addition of dried skim milk to
starter
diets without
Kbrnegay et al.
(1974)
other
confounding the results.
ingredients
and Wahlstrom et al.
(1974)
compared a corn-
soybean meal diet with a 10% dried skim milk diet with or without 5%
sugar.
No performance differences due to dietary treatment were
found.
The calculated lysine levels
(0.9 to 1.0%)
were lower than those recommended by Pollmann et al.
three-week old pig.
in both trials
(1983a)
for the
Meade et al. (1965) added 10% dried skim milk to
a corn-soybean meal diet containing 20% rolled oats and 10% sucrose.
Pigs fed the 10% dried skim milk diet tended to gain faster and were
more feed efficient than pigs fed the control.
It was suggested that
pigs fed the diet containing skim milk may have digested dry matter
and protein more efficiently than pigs fed the control.
Seve (1984)
also found an improvement in average daily gain when 10 or 15% dried
skim milk was added to the basal diet.
Higher protein quality and
digestibility was again attributed as the reason for the improvement
in
performance.
digestibility
of
Owsley
1.15%
et
al.
lysine,
(1986a)
examined
corn-soybean
meal
the
diets
nutrient
with
or
31
without
control,
addition
the
of 20%
Compared to the
dried skim milk.
the addition of dried skim milk to the diet
nitrogen, energy, and dry matter digestibility.
increased
Graham et al. (1981)
further investigated the digestibility of diets containing skim milk
by analyzing digestive enzyme activity and performance of two-week
old weaned pigs.
Pigs fed the 15% skim milk diet tended to gain
faster and be more feed efficient than pigs fed the 10% rolled oats,
corn-soybean meal diet.
amylase
or
protease
Dietary treatment had no effect on total
activity
in
the
pancreas,
small
and
large
intestine contents, or in the small intestine mucosa; however, total
lactase activity in the small intestinal mucosa and the small and
large intestine contents was higher when dried skim milk was provided
in
the diet.
The high lactase activity would suggest that the
lactose fraction of skim milk may be responsible for a large portion
of the improvement in performance.
Giesting et al. (1985) conducted three trials to determine whether
the major protein (casein) or carbohydrate (lactose) fraction of skim
milk is responsible for the beneficial performance found when skim
milk is fed to the young pig.
Casein,
soy protein concentrate or
isolated soy protein were added along with lactose or corn starch to
the basal diet to simulate the protein and carbohydrate fractions
provided by a 25% dried skim milk diet.
A negative
control, corn-
soybean meal diet and a positive control, corn-soybean meal, 25% skim
milk diet were also fed.
Pigs fed the positive control diet had
higher average daily gains and average daily feed intake than pigs
32
Diets containing lactose or casein also
fed the negative control.
supported higher gains and feed intake than the negative control, but
the corresponding values were lower than those listed for pigs fed
the positive control.
casein
performed
indicating
sources.
an
Pigs fed the diet containing both lactose and
to
similarly
effect
additive
From this trial,
pigs
to
fed
the
positive
the
protein
and
control,
carbohydrate
it appears that casein and lactose are
equally important in explaining the beneficial response found when
feeding dried skim milk to the young pig.
As explained earlier, the majority of the research has used skim
milk as a means of comparing alternative protein sources.
Fish meal,
peanut meal, full-fat soybeans, soybean meal and isolated soy protein
have been compared to skim milk as protein sources.
The same general
results were found in most trials with skim milk being the superior
protein for the young pig.
deMoura and Fowler
(1983)
found pigs gained faster when equal
parts of fish meal and skim milk were used as the protein source as
compared to full-fat soybeans and soybean meal.
also combined fish meal
Lucas et al.
(1959)
and skim milk as a protein source.
No
improvement in performance was found when skim milk was added to the
diet as compared to when fish meal was the only protein source.
However, the skim milk was roller dried and, thus, a portion of the
protein may have
been denatured.
Average
daily
gain
and
feed
efficiency were also poor for all treatments.
Bayley and Holmes (1972) fed semi-purified diets to pigs weaned at
33
ten days of age.
soy
protein
The protein sources analyzed were dried skim milk,
flour,
fish protein
a
and
concentrate
concentrate-dried whey combination.
fish protein
Pigs fed the diet containing
dried skim milk gained faster than pigs fed diets containing the
other protein sources.
Partridge (1981) demonstrated that pigs fed
diets containing dried skim milk as the only protein source gained
faster during the starter phase than pigs fed diets containing a
The pigs consuming the
combination of skim milk and soybean meal.
high skim milk diet during the starter phase also increased their
weight advantage by the completion of the grower period.
Investigating the mode of
used half or total
(1979)
action of dried skim milk,
Newport
replacement of dried skim milk with a
combination of dried whey and fish protein concentrate as the protein
supplement
in
liquid diets
for pigs weaned at two days of age.
Protein digestion was also studied in pigs sacrificed at six days of
age.
A 26-day growth trial was also
conducted.
Average daily gain
was slightly improved when half of the dried skim milk was replaced.
Total replacement of skim milk reduced gain and the gain to feed
ratio.
Increasing the proportion of fish protein reduced apparent
digestibility,
nitrogen
stomach,
trypsin
intestine.
and
retention,
and
total
chymotrypsin
pepsin
activity
activity
in
the
in
the
small
Trypsin and chymotrypsin activity in the pancreas were
not affected by the source of dietary protein.
It was suggested that
total replacement of dried skim milk with fish protein concentrate
and dried whey may increase the flow rate of digesta through the
34
The author theorized that the increased rate of
small intestine.
flow,
and
reduced nitrogen digestibility and reduced amounts of trypsin
c±ymotrypsin
the
in
digesta
could
reduce
the efficiency of
However, using
protein digestion and adversely affect performance.
35-day old pigs, Asche et al. (1987) found digesta flowed faster when
skim milk was the only protein source as compared to soybean meal and
corn gluten meal.
However,
skim milk protein was digested and
absorbed more rapidly than the other proteins.
Combs et al.
(1963)
compared dried skim milk,
fish meal as protein sources for the young pig.
soybean meal and
Pigs fed the diet
containing dried skim milk gained faster, consumed more feed and were
more feed efficient than pigs fed diets containing the other protein
sources.
3
Digestibility information was also collected when pigs were
to 4, 5 to 6 and 7 to 8 weeks of age.
the
protein
source
improved
dry
Including dried skim milk as
matter,
nitrogen
and
energy
digestibility during the periods when pigs were 3 to 4 and 5 to 6
weeks old.
Dietary treatment did not affect digestibility during the
last time period.
Hays et al.
(1959)
was also interested in the
effect of protein source on growth and diet digestibility as the pig
increases in age.
Soybean meal and spray dried skim milk were the
protein sources evaluated in this 35-day growth trial.
Digestibility
determinations were also made at two and five weeks of age.
Pigs fed
diets containing skim milk gained faster and were more feed efficient
than pigs fed diets containing soybean meal.
improved
dry
matter
digestibility,
The skim milk diet also
nitrogen
digestibility
and
35
apparent nitrogen retention for two and five week old pigs.
The
digestibility differences between protein sources were less at five
weeks as the digestibility of the soybean meal diet improved.
Lecce et al.
determined soy flour can replace a portion of
(1979)
dried skim milk as the protein source for pigs over three weeks of
age without adversely affecting performance.
However, average daily
gain was reduced when soy flour was included as a portion of the
protein source for pigs less than three weeks old.
(1964)
Pekas et al.
found pigs gained faster and were more feed efficient from 1
to 28 days of age when skim milk was the only protein source as
compared to soybean meal.
However, dietary treatment had no effect
on four to five week performance.
Ihe literature indicates the
performance advantage found when feeding dried skim milk as the only
protein source diminishes as the pig becomes older.
Exactly when the
skim milk advantage is lost is still questionable.
Wilson
and Leibholz
(1981a,b,c,d)
conducted the most
in-depth
research investigating milk and soy proteins and their effects on
digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 days of age.
dried
skim
milk
as
the
containing soybean meal,
various experiments.
improved
average
digestibility,
source
were
Diets containing
compared
to
diets
soybean flour or isolated soy protein in
The inclusion of dried skim milk in the diet
daily
gain,
feed
efficiency,
dry
matter
nitrogen digestibility, amino acid digestibility and
nitrogen retention
source.
protein
in
all
trials,
regardless
of the soy protein
Digestibility of the skim milk diets remained similar for
36
pigs at 14 and 35 days of age, while digestibility of the soy protein
The author concluded that
diets increased with increasing pig age.
the reduced performance of young pigs fed soybean protein diets is
the result of the lower digestion of amino acids, nitrogen and dry
matter prior to the ileum as compared to pigs fed milk protein diets.
CASEIN
The
most
abundant
milk
protein
Casein
casein.
is
is
used
principally as an adhesive or binder in paper coating, wood glue,
concrete
and
plastic
(Robinson,
1986)
In
.
recent
years,
been given to the utilization of casein
attention has
nutrition and research trials (Fox, 1983)
more
in human
Casein has been used as a
.
substitute for skim milk by swine researchers interested in comparing
milk protein with other protein sources.
skim milk,
By using casein instead of
the researcher may investigate protein source effects,
while reducing the possibility of a carbohydrate source interaction.
Galesloot
and Tinbergen
(1984)
suggested casein
should be
an
excellent feed ingredient for ronruminant diets, as it contains high
levels of all essential amino acids.
However, the actual performance
response found in feeding trials has been extremely variable.
reason casein hasn't consistently improved pig performance,
fully
understood.
Erbersdobler
(1983)
Poor
casein
demonstrated
quality
that
may
be
overheating
suspected,
casein
processing may reduce total digestibility from 95 to 75%.
Robinson
(1986)
The
is not
as
during
However,
explained that the processing temperature must be
37
significantly higher than normal to cause protein denaturation since
Webb and Whittier
casein is much more stable than whey protein.
also explained that the quality and composition of casein
(1970)
doesn't vary as much as the composition of dried whey and skim milk.
When adding 2% casein to the corn-soybean meal,
Miller et al.
gain
for
improve
old
three-week
demonstrated a
control diet,
found an improvement in rate and efficiency of
(1971)
relatively
Giesting
pigs.
low
As
pig performance.
level
of
et
al.
explained
in
(1985)
also
in the diet will
casein
the
dried
skim milk
section, casein was added to a corn-soybean meal diet to simulate the
Pigs fed the diet
casein fraction provided by a 25% skim milk diet.
containing
casein
had
improved
average
daily
gains
and
feed
efficiency as compared to pigs fed the corn-soybean meal negative
control; however,
the gains of pigs fed the casein diet were still
lower than those of pigs fed a 25% dried skim milk, corn-soybean meal
diet.
These trials indicate that low levels of casein in the diet
will improve pig performance.
The results have been less favorable in experiments where casein
was the only protein supplement.
Walker et al. (1986a) conducted the
only research showing an improvement in performance when high levels
of casein were compared to other protein sources.
Casein,
isolated
soy protein, ethanol extracted soy protein and soybean meal were the
protein sources compared in .91% lysine, corn-based diets for three-
week old pigs.
average
Pigs
daily gains
fed the diet containing casein had higher
than pigs
fed
the
diets
containing ethanol
38
extracted soy protein or soybean meal.
There was no difference in
average daily gain between pigs fed casein or isolated soy protein as
the
protein
Pigs
source.
fed
the
casein
diet were more
feed
efficient than pigs fed any of the soy protein diets during the first
week on trial; however, treatment differences diminished after the
Dry matter,
first week.
lysine,
valine,
methionine and proline
digestibilities were higher for pigs fed the diet containing casein
than for pigs fed any of the soy protein diets.
The authors felt the
difference in digestibility and possibly in amino acid availability
might account for the differences in average daily gain and feed
In a follow-up study, Walker et al.
efficiency.
(1986b)
found no
differences in apparent nitrogen or essential amino acid availability
between
diets
containing
protein or ethanol
casein,
extracted
hydrolyzed
soy protein
casein,
isolated
soy
as the protein source.
However, pigs fed these protein sources had higher apparent nitrogen
and essential amino acid availability than pigs fed diets containing
soybean meal as the protein source.
Roos et al.
(
1986a, b)
formulated corn-soy protein concentrate and
corn-casein diets to evaluate the effect of fumaric acid on starter
pig performance.
There were no differences in average daily gain,
average daily feed intake or feed efficiency due to protein source.
Rodriguez
and Young
performance
when
(1980)
comparing
also
a
herring meal as a protein source.
al.
(1983)
found no
effect
casein-buttermilk
on starter pig
combination
with
In a 2 x 2 factorial, Richard et
examined the effect of protein source (casein or isolated
39
soy protein)
and fat type
(tallow or soybean oil)
performance and body composition.
pig performance,
Etheridge
et
body
al.
digestibility,
bone weight or bone calcium.
composition,
(1984)
found
on starter pig
Protein source had no effect on
no
blood composition or
differences
in
performance,
intestinal microflora between
pigs fed an oat groats-casein diet and those fed a corn-soybean meal
diet.
From
these
trials,
it
appears
that
casein
does
not
significantly improve weanling pig performance when it is used as the
only protein source in the diet.
The response found when pigs were fed diets containing casein as
the only protein source has also been very inconsistent for pigs less
than three-^weeks old.
Pond et al.
(1971)
fed liguid diets containing
33% casein, isolated soy protein or fish protein concentrate to pigs
weaned at two to three days of age.
performance between pigs
There were no differences in
fed casein and fish protein concentrate
diets; however, both diets were superior in average daily gain and
feed efficiency as compared to diets containing isolated soy protein
as the sole protein source.
Since the protein sources have different
amino acid profiles and were added at the same level, the varying
amino acid levels in the diet may have discriminated against isolated
soy protein.
Mateo and Veum (1980) also compared casein and isolated
soy protein as protein sources for 1 to 29 day old pigs.
Pigs fed
the diet containing casein gained faster and were more feed efficient
from 1 to 15 days of age than pigs fed diets containing isolated soy
protein.
Protein source had no effect on pig performance from 15 to
40
29 days of age.
Digestibility criteria were also analyzed from 11 to
Ether extract, crude protein, energy, ash and dry
15 days of age.
matter digestibilities were greater for pigs fed diets containing
casein than for those fed the diets containing isolated soy protein.
Pigs fed a dried skim milk control diet had digestibility values very
similar to those fed the casein diet; however, from 1 to 15 days of
age,
they gained faster and were more feed efficient.
The results
indicate casein is superior to isolated soy protein, but inferior to
skim milk as the sole protein source for the extremely young pig.
However, the advantage over isolated soy protein rapidly deteriorates
over time.
Maner et al.
(1962)
found the rate of passage for soy
protein slows as the pig gets older; whereas, the rate of passage for
casein is constant over time.
The change in the rate of passage for
isolated soy protein may explain the decrease in the advantage for
casein as the pig increases in age.
Leibholz
(1982)
fed
dry
diets
containing
skim milk,
casein,
isolated soy protein, soy protein concentrate, fish meal or soybean
meal as protein sources to pigs between 7 and 28 days of age and
found results similar to Mateo and Veum (1980)
.
Pigs fed the casein
diet had higher average daily gains and were more feed efficient than
pigs fed the diets containing the other protein sources except skim
milk.
Pigs fed the skim milk diet had the highest gains and were the
most feed efficient.
Diets containing dried skim milk and casein
were very similar in digestibility.
casein
diets
had
higher
dry
Pigs fed dried skim milk or
matter
digestibility,
nitrogen
41
digestibility, and nitrogen retention than pigs fed diets containing
Pettigrew et
the other protein sources.
al.
(1977)
compared a
combination of sodium caseinate and dried whey to dried skim milk as
a protein source for pigs weaned at 2 to 3 days of age.
Pigs fed the
dried skim milk diet gained at a faster rate than pigs fed the
There were no differences in digestibility, empty
casein-whey diet.
stomach weight, gut pH or histology of the gastrointestinal tract for
pigs fed the different protein sources.
apparent that
diets
From the literature, it is
casein or skim milk as the
containing
sole
protein source are equal in digestibility; however, skim milk diets
support higher average daily gains.
Ihe reason skim milk and casein
don't provide equivalent performance is not fully understood.
There is some indication in the literature that a certain ratio of
casein to whey proteins must be maintained to optimize performance in
the young pig.
Newport and Henschel (1984) combined spray dried whey
protein concentrate and spray dried skim milk to provide casein: whey
protein ratios of 80:20 or 40:60.
There were no differences in pig
performance due to the casein: whey protein ratio; however, the higher
level of whey proteins reduced the concentration of urea nitrogen in
the blood and the proportion of urea nitrogen
nitrogen.
in total
urinary
Newport and Henschel (1985) also combined spray dried whey
protein concentrate and spray dried skim milk to analyze the effects
of
casein: whey
protein
ratio
metabolism in neonatal pigs.
were 80:20,
60:40,
20:80,
on
growth,
digestion
and
protein
The casein: whey protein ratios analyzed
or 0:100.
A ratio of 60:40 gave maximum
42
growth rate,
feed efficiency and nitrogen retention, and the lowest
blood urea concentration.
From the data, the authors estimated that
the optimum casein: whey protein ratio is approximately 50:50, similar
to that in sow's milk.
Pettigrew et al.
(1977) also suggest that for
maximum performance young pigs may require a dietary source of intact
Since dried whey protein concentrate and dried skim
milk proteins.
milk are intact milk protein sources, further research may be needed
to determine if 50% casein - 50% lactalbumin is the optimum milk
protein combination for the young pig.
IACTOSE
Lactose is the carbohydrate fraction of milk.
Dried skim milk and
dried whey are extremely high in lactose at 50% and 70%, respectively
(Robinson,
whey
to
1986)
.
starter
Since the addition of dried skim milk or dried
diets
improves
pig
performance,
expected to respond favorably to lactose additions.
pigs
would be
Similar to the
response found with other milk products, lactose utilization appears
to be dependent on the age of the pig.
Aherne
et
al.
(1969)
compared
lactose,
glucose,
fructose as energy sources for pigs weaned at two,
days.
sucrose
and
four or seven
Pigs fed diets containing lactose or glucose as the energy
source performed
similarly and gained
faster
and were more
efficient than pigs fed diets containing sucrose or fructose.
feed
Pigs
fed sucrose or fructose diets also had higher mortality rates when
weaned at two and four days than pigs fed lactose or glucose diets.
43
The results indicate lactose and glucose are excellent carbohydrate
sources for the pig during the first week of life.
Entringer et al.
compared lactose, glucose and corn starch
(1975)
These older pigs did not
as carbohydrate sources for 20 kg pigs.
respond as favorably to lactose additions to the diet as pigs in the
Pigs fed the diet containing corn starch had higher
previous trial.
and
nitrogen
dry
matter
digestibilities
as
well
as
improved
performance as compared to pigs fed diets containing lactose.
From
the literature it appears the utilization of lactose by the pig
decreases
sources
over
age,
while
the utilization of other carbohydrate
increase with age.
This
system of the pig as lactase,
corresponds with the enzymatic
the enzyme capable of breaking down
lactose, is high in concentration during the first few weeks of life
and decreases over time.
Amylase,
the enzyme necessary for the
digestion of starch, is low in concentration at birth and increases
as the pig grows older
(Corring et al.
1978)
.
Previous diet and
management scheme may also influence the development of the enzymatic
system, thus, the exact age when lactase level decreases and amylase
concentration increases is not fully understood.
Numerous
researchers
have
investigated
the
effect
of
lactose
additions to the diet on performance of three to four-week old pigs.
Sewell
and West
(1965)
evaluated
the
effect
of
lactose
on
the
efficiency of isolated soy protein as a protein source for the young
pig, as compared to dried skim milk.
In separate diets, two sources
of lactose, beta-lactose and dried whey, were added to the isolated
44
soy protein,
negative control diet to provide the same amount of
lactose as supplied by the 42% dried skim milk,
diet.
positive control
Pigs fed the diets containing lactose gained faster, were more
efficient
in
feed utilization,
and had higher nitrogen and ether
extract digestibilities than pigs fed the negative control diet.
significant differences
No
in performance were observed between pigs
receiving diets containing the various lactose sources.
When adding 13% lactose to a corn-soybean meal diet for three-
week old pigs, Clarkson and Allee (1982) found no effect on average
Giesting et al.
daily gain or feed efficiency.
(1985)
reported pigs
fed diets containing 12.5% lactose had higher average daily gains and
average daily feed intake than pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet.
However, pigs fed the lactose diet were lower in average daily gain
as compared to pigs fed a 25% skim milk,
Corbin and McConnell
(1986)
also
corn-soybean meal diet.
found pigs
fed a
complex diet
containing 50% lactose gained faster and were more feed efficient
than
pigs
improvement
fed
in
a
20%
dried whey,
performance
can
not
corn-soybean meal
be
entirely
diet.
The
credited to the
lactose addition as the complex diet also contained 10% fat and was
pelleted.
Turlington et al.
(1987) also suggested that lactose will improve
nutrient digestibility and slow digesta
flow rate as compared to
dextrose as carbohydrate sources for 21 to 35 day old pigs.
The
literature suggests that the addition of lactose to corn-soybean meal
starter diets will improve performance of pigs weaned earlier than
.
45
four weeks
of
increase in
The mode of action may be an
age.
digestibility due to slower digesta flow and a higher concentration
of lactose enzyme or a simple improvement in feed intake.
ISOIATED SOY PROTEIN
As explained
in the
processing section,
protein products are produced.
various types of soy
Soybean meal is the product most
often used in the swine industry; however,
soy flour,
soy protein
concentrate and isolated soy protein are also available (Campbell,
1979)
Soy
flour
(Wilding, 1971)
contains
.
approximately
53%
protein and 3.3%
lysine
Since it is produced by simply removing the fat and
hulls from soybeans, soy flour also contains the insoluble and partly
indigestible soy carbohydrate
(1977)
fraction
(De,
1971)
.
Jones et al.
fed liquid diets to pigs weaned at three weeks of age to
compare soy flour and dried skim milk as protein sources.
Pigs fed
diets containing skim milk were more feed efficient than pigs fed
diets containing soy flour; however, protein source had no effect on
average daily gain.
The data suggests that pigs weaned at three
weeks of age can productively utilize soy flour when fed in liquid
diets on an hourly feeding schedule.
Lecce et al.
(1979)
used the
same hourly feeding schedule to compare soy flour and skim milk as
protein sources for pigs weaned at 14 days of age.
reduced during the
however,
first week on trial
for pigs
Daily gain was
fed soy flour;
after the pigs reached 21 days of age no differences were
46
found.
Soy protein concentrate commonly contains 65 to 70% protein and
to 4.4%
4.2
constituents
lysine
are
(Meyer,
removed
concentrated product
(Meyer,
The water-soluble nonprotein
1967).
from
flour
soy
1967).
to
obtain
the
more
Although the protein level is
increased, the insoluble and indigestible soy carbohydrate portion is
also concentrated, and thus, the value of soy protein concentrate as
a feed ingredient is questionable (De, 1971)
Stanly et al.
meal
as
(1983)
compared soy protein concentrate and soybean
the protein source
Average daily gain,
were depressed
for pigs weaned at 28
days of age.
average daily feed intake and feed efficiency
linearly as
increased in simple,
the level
of soy protein concentrate
corn-soybean meal diets.
However,
when 15%
dried whey was present in the diets, pigs fed diets containing soy
protein concentrate were more feed efficient than pigs fed diets
containing soybean meal.
Leibholz (1982) found apparent nitrogen and
dry matter digestibilities were higher for soy protein concentrate
than for soybean meal when fed to 7 to 28 day old pigs.
However,
since the inclusion of soy protein concentrate in the diet decreased
feed intake, pigs fed the soybean meal diet gained faster.
et al.
(1985)
to lower
feed
concentrate.
Giesting
also found a slight decrease in average daily gain due
intake
for pigs
fed diets
Giesting and Easter
(1985)
containing
soy protein
found no differences in
average daily gain, feed intake or feed efficiency for pigs fed diets
containing soy protein concentrate or soybean meal as the protein
47
source.
Frcm the literature, soy protein concentrate appears to be
more digestible than soybean meal; however, the reduction in feed
intake must be eliminated before soy protein concentrate will improve
pig performance.
Isolated soy protein typically contains 92 to 93% protein and 5.5
to 6.0% lysine (Meyer, 1967).
The high protein content is achieved
by removing the insoluble carbohydrates along with the fat, hulls and
soluble carbohydrates from raw soybeans (De, 1971)
.
Since isolated
soy protein is the most purified soy protein product,
researchers
have used it as a standard for comparing plant proteins with other
protein sources for the young pig.
The
casein
section
lists
numerous
isolated soy protein with casein.
protein
have
protein
(Mateo and Veum,
had
lower
amino acids (Walker et al.,
the sole protein source.
Leibholz,
1986a)
have
compared
Diets containing isolated soy
digestibilities
1980;
that
trials
for
dry matter,
1982)
energy,
and the essential
than diets containing casein as
Walker et al.
(1986b)
found no differences
in apparent nitrogen or amino acid availability between the protein
sources.
results;
Casein appears superior to isolated soy protein from these
however,
performance values indicate the response due to
protein source is age dependent.
al.
(1986a)
found
no
Richard et al. (1983) and Walker et
difference
in
average
daily
gain
or
feed
efficiency for three-week old pigs fed isolated soy protein or casein
as the protein source.
Pond et al.
(1971) and Leibholz (1982)
found
pigs weaned earlier than three weeks gained faster and were more feed
.
48
efficient when fed diets containing casein as corpared to isolated
Maner
protein.
soy
et
al.
(1961)
Mateo
and
and
Veum
(1980)
demonstrated that the digestibility of diets containing isolated soy
protein increases as the pig matures while the digestibility of diets
Ihe increased utilization of
containing casein is constant over age.
isolated soy protein may be due to the maturation of the digestive
and enzymatic systems (Corring et al., 1978) or a slowing of the rate
of passage of soy proteins (Maner et al.
1962)
,
Although the literature indicates casein and isolated soy protein
provide comparable performance when fed to pigs over three weeks of
age,
it
should
not be
assumed
eguivalent for pigs of this age.
demonstrated
that
skim milk,
an
superior to isolated soy protein.
milk
gained
faster,
were
more
that
soy
and milk proteins
are
Wilson and Ieibholz (1981a,b,c,d)
intact
milk protein source,
is
Pigs fed diets containing skim
feed
efficient
and
had
higher
digestibilities of dry matter, nitrogen, energy and essential amino
acids.
Giesting et al. (1985) also found the inclusion of dried skim
milk in the diet improved average daily gain and feed efficiency as
compared to isolated soy protein for pigs weaned at four weeks of
age.
Limited research is available comparing isolated soy protein with
other soy protein sources.
Ieibholz
(1982)
Wilson and Ieibholz
(1981a, b,c,d)
and
corpared isolated soy protein and soybean meal as
protein sources for pigs between 7 and 35 days of age.
Pigs fed
diets containing isolated soy protein had higher digestibilities for
49
dry matter, nitrogen and the essential amino acids than the pigs fed
containing
diets
soybean meal.
Although diet digestibility was
due to a reduction in feed intake, pigs fed isolated soy
higher,
protein diets had lower average daily gains than pigs fed soybean
meal diets.
and
Walker et al.
essential
amino
acid
(1986a, b) also found dry matter, nitrogen
digestibilities
were
higher
for
diets
containing isolated soy protein than diets containing soybean meal
when fed to pigs weaned at three weeks of age.
Feed intake was not
depressed for these older pigs, and thus, isolated soy protein tended
to improve average daily gain and feed efficiency.
(1985)
Giesting et al.
also found the inclusion of isolated soy protein as a portion
of the protein source improved feed efficiency as compared to using
soybean meal as the sole protein source.
isolated soy protein,
The literature indicates
similar to soy protein concentrate,
is more
digestible than soybean meal; however, the reduction in feed intake
must
be
overcome
performance.
before
an
improvement
will
be
seen
in
pig
50
EFFECT OF PROTEIN AND (OR)
CARBOHYDRATE FRACTIONS OF DRIED WHEY ON
PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF WEANLING PIGS
Summary
One hundred and eighty 3-wk old pigs (initial weight 4.8 kg) were
utilized in a 35 d growth trial to determine the effects of the
carbohydrate
and
performance.
In addition, 30 3^wk old pigs (initial weight 4.9 kg)
(or)
protein
fraction
of
dried
whey
on
pig
were used in two digestion trials to study the effects of the whey
fraction on nutrient digestibility.
corn-soybean meal
control
+
14%
control
lactose
(CON),
(CHO)
,
Dietary treatments included a
control + 20% dried whey
control
+
2.1%
lactalbumin
(WHE)
(PRO),
control + 14% lactose + 2.1% lactalbumin (CHO + PRO), and control +
8.4%
whey
protein
concentrate
balanced on an isolysine basis.
(WPC)
.
Diets
were
pelleted
and
Lactose and lactalbumin were added
at the same levels as provided by a 20% dried whey diet.
Pigs fed
diets containing milk products exhibited superior average daily gain;
feed
efficiency;
and
apparent
dry
matter,
energy
and
nitrogen
digestibility (P<.05) compared to pigs fed the control diet.
results indicate that both the carbohydrate
(lactose)
These
and protein
(lactalbumin) fractions of dried whey are important in explaining the
beneficial response to dried whey elicited by the weanling pig.
(Key Words:
Weanling Pigs, Dried Whey, Lactose, lactalbumin, Whey
Protein Concentrate.)
51
Introduction
Several researchers have shown that the inclusion of dried whey in
the starter diet will improve performances of pigs weaned at 3 to 4
wk of age (Miller et al., 1971; Graham et al., 1981; Cera and Mahan,
1985: Goodband and Hines, 1987)
.
Additional research with dried whey
(Mahan et al.,
has investigated the optimum inclusion level
and Allee,
Clarkson
1982;
Fralick and Cline,
weaning age and feeding length (Pope and Allee,
1981;
1983),
appropriate
1982;
Pollmann et
al., 1983b), and possible interaction with fat (Stahly et al.,
Van Wbrmer and Pollmann,
1986)
1985)
or copper sulfate
1982;
(Thaler et al.,
However, few researchers have examined the mode of action of
.
dried whey that derives the beneficial growth response.
Owsley et al.
was higher
in
(1986a)
discovered a diet containing 20% dried whey
dry matter and energy digestibility than a
soybean meal diet for pigs weaned at 28 d.
Lindemann et al.
pigs
fed
(1986)
and Owsley et al.
Graham et al.
corn(1981)
(1986b) also reported that
diet containing dried whey had higher total
intestinal
chymotrypsin, amylase, protease and lactase activity than pigs fed a
corn-soybean meal diet.
The effects of the individual carbohydrate
and protein fractions of dried whey on starter pig performance and
nutrient digestibility have not been determined.
.
Results from Giesting et al.
protein
fractions
of
(1985)
skim milk have
indicate the carbohydrate and
an
additive
effect
on the
performance of starter pigs; however, such research has not been done
with dried whey.
Therefore, the objective of these studies was to
52
determine whether the protein (lactalbumin) or carbohydrate (lactose)
fraction of dried whey provides the beneficial growth response in the
young pig.
Experimental Procedures
Composition of the dietary treatments used in the three trials is
shown in table
1.
10.5% lactalbumin.
Dried whey was assumed to contain 72% lactose and
the 20% dried whey diet (WHE) would
Therefore,
These assumptions were
contain 14.4% lactose and 2.1% lactalbumin.
used
to
formulate
the
PRO
CHO,
and
CHO
+
A diet
PRO diets.
containing whey protein concentrate was also evaluated in the growth
trial
to
further
fractions.
lactalbumin.
This
the
explore
diet
was
practical
also
application
formulated
to
of the whey
contain
All diets were pelleted and contained 1.3% lysine,
2.1%
.8%
calcium, and .7% phosphorus.
Pigs were not allowed access to creep feed during the lactation
period.
During this period, pigs were housed in a total confinement,
environmentally controlled, farrowing facility.
Growth Trial
One hundred and eighty weanling pigs (21 + 3d) were allotted by
litter,
sex
and weight to the
initial weight was 4.8 kg,
six dietary
Average
treatments.
with a range of 2.4 to 7.0 kg.
replications per treatment were used with six pigs/pen.
Five
Pigs were
housed in an environmentally controlled nursery in pens (1.2 m x 1.5
m)
with woven wire floors and a Y-flush gutter,
with one nipple
53
waterer and one four hole self-feeder per pen.
offered ad
Temperature and air
libitum.
Feed and water were
flow were
adjusted to
maintain optimum comfort for the pigs.
Criteria measured were average
The study was conducted for 5 wk.
daily
gain
efficiency
(ADG)
(F/G)
,
average
daily
feed
intake
(ADFI)
,
and
feed
Feeders were checked twice daily and individual
.
pig weights were collected at the end of each 7 d period.
Digestion Trials
In each of two trials,
weaned
at
16-18
15 pigs
(average initial weight 4.9 kg)
d were randomly allotted by litter to dietary
Pigs were housed in individual 37 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm
treatment.
metal cages in an environmentally controlled feeding room maintained
Pigs were fed twice daily and water was offered
between 29 and 32 C.
Pigs were brought to maximum feed intake during a 5 d
ad libitum.
adjustment period, with feces being collected for the next 5 d.
Pigs
were then reallotted by litter in a crossover design to a different
dietary treatment.
5
This was followed by a second 5 d adjustment and
d collection period.
Feces were collected and frozen daily throughout each collection
period.
At the end of each period, the feces were dried in a forced
air oven at 38 C until equilibrated to a constant weight.
Feces,
along with diet samples, were ground in a Thomas-Wylie experimental
grinder equipped with a 1 mm screen.
analyzed
methods.
for
nitrogen
Gross
and
dry
matter
All samples were chemically
according
to
AQAC
(1975)
energy content was determined by adiabetic bomb
54
calorimetry.
Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated for
dry matter, nitrogen and energy.
Statistical Analysis
The data were analyzed vising the General Linear Models .procedure
of the Statistical Analysis System
1979)
(SAS,
Data
.
from the
digestion trials was analyzed for each period and trial; however,
since
no trial
by trial,
trial
by period,
or period by period
interactions were found data was pooled for the final analysis.
was
considered
the
experimental
unit
for
the
growth
Pen
trial.
Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to separate treatment means
in the digestion and growth trials.
were
CON vs
all
other
The orthogonal comparisons made
treatments,
WHE vs
the
containing whey fractions (CHO, PRO, and CHO + PRO)
(CHO
+
PRO)
vs
the
individual
fractions
(CHO,
three
,
treatments
the combination
PRO),
and
the
individual fractions against each other (CHO vs PRO)
Results and Discussion
The dried whey and whey protein concentrate chemical analysis is
shown in Table 2.
The high lactose,
low ash and low salt levels
indicate that a high quality demineralized whey was used, as Lampert
(1975)
reported that edible grade dried whey typically contains 72%
lactose,
8% ash and 3% salt.
The excellent quality dried whey may
have influenced the performance and digestibility of pigs fed the WHE
diet.
Mahan (1984) demonstrated that pigs fed diets containing an
edible grade dried whey with a low ash level had higher ADG and ADFI
55
than pigs fed a feed grade dried whey with a high ash content.
The effect of dried whey fractions on weanling pig performance is
in Table
shown
Pigs
3.
fed diets containing milk products had
improved (P<.05) ADG and F/G at 2 and 5 wk postweaning, as compared
to those fed the control.
(1985), Stahley et al.
Miller et al.
(1981),
(1986), and Thaler et al.
Cera and Mahan
(1986)
also found
that ADG and F/G were improved when dried whey was incorporated in
starter pig diets.
(1981), Clarkson and Allee (1982),
Graham et al.
and Goodband and Hines (1987) also reported pigs fed diets containing
dried whey gained
faster
than pigs
fed
corn-soybean meal
without dried whey; however, there were no differences in F/G.
Mars et al.
(1986)
diets
Cinq-
also reported an improvement in ADG and F/G when
whey protein concentrate was added to starter pig diets.
Pigs
(P<.07)
fed
the PRO diet also tended to be more
than pigs fed the CHO diet after 5 wk.
found in ADFI at 2 and 5 wk.
feed efficient
No differences were
In addition, no differences in ADG at 2
and 5 wk or F/G at 2 wk were found between the lactose (CHO)
lactalbumin (PRO) diets.
and
lactose additions to starter pig diets have
previously been shown to improve pig performance (Sewell and West,
1965;
Giesting et al.,
swine
diets
have
not
1985).
Although lactalbumin additions to
previously
been
evaluated,
these
positive
results were expected since lactalbumin has an excellent amino acid
profile, a digestibility of 99%, biological value of 94% and protein
efficiency ratio of 3.2 (Robinson, 1986)
.
However, no additive effect
was found when the lactose and lactalbumin were added together in the
56
CHO + PRO diet.
Table 4
shows the effect of dried whey fractions on apparent
digestibility.
Pigs fed diets containing milk products had higher
(P<.05) apparent dry matter, nitrogen, and energy digestibility than
pigs fed the control.
As was the case in the growth trial, there
were no differences between the diets
containing the dried whey
fractions for any of the criteria measured.
Owsley et al.
(1986a)
also reported an increase in dry matter and energy digestibility with
the addition of 20% dried whey to a corn-soybean meal diet.
Wilson
and Leibholz (1981b, c) and Leibholz (1982) found similar improvements
in digestibility when
skim milk was
used
as
the milk product.
Lactose has also previously been shown to improve nitrogen and dry
matter digestibility (Sewell and West, 1965)
The results from these trials provide further evidence that milk
products improve performance and nutrient digestibility in 3-wk old
pigs.
It appears that both the carbohydrate (lactose)
and protein
(lactalbumin) fractions of dried whey are important in explaining the
dried whey response; however, when both fractions were present in the
diet, no additive effects were found.
57
Table
1.
Diet Composition, %a
Dietary Treatments13
Ingredients
Corn
Soybean meal
Soybean oil
Dried whey
lactose
lactalbumin
Whey protein concentrate
Dicalcium phosphate
Limestone
Salt
Trace mineral mix
Vitamin mix"
L-Lysine HCL
Selenium mix6
Antibiotic mix^
Copper sulfate*?
CON
WHE
CHO
FR0
CHO + FRO
WPC
55.14
38.07
3.00
41.53
32.25
3.00
20.00
39.30
39.43
3.00
60.28
30.68
3.00
44.48
32.00
3.00
53.68
31.23
3.00
2.10
14.40
2.10
1.60
1.77
8.34
1.49
.89
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
.80
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
.81
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
14.40
1.49
1.14
.85
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
.63
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
1.66
.76
.50
.10
.25
.10
.15
.25
.10
aDiets were calculated to contain 1.3% lysine, .8% calcium,
and .7%
phosphorus.
kcON = control, WHE = control + 20% dried whey, CHO = control + 14.4%
lactose, FRO = control + 2.1% lactalbumin, CHO + FRO = control +
14.4% lactose + 2.1% lactalbumin, WPC = control + 8.34% whey protein
concentrate.
cPercentage composition was Fe,
10; Zn, 10; Mh, 10; Cu, 1; I, .3;
Co,
.1.
aComposition per kg premix: vitamin
A, 1,762,080 IU; vitamin D3,
132,156 IU; vitamin E, 8,810 IU; riboflavin, 1,982 mg; menadione,
683 mg; pantothenic acid, 6,793 mg; niacin, 11,013 mg; choline
chloride, 203,080 mg; vitamin B± , 9.7 mg.
2
®Fremix provided complete diet with .3 ppm supplemental selenium.
tAntibiotic contains
44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine
and 22 g penicillin per kg.
9premix supplied complete diet with 250 ppm supplemented copper.
.
58
Table
2.
Analyzed Ingredient (imposition, %.
Ingredient
Demineralized
Dried Whey
Protein
Lysine
lactose
Ash
Salt
Table
3.
Whey Protein Concentrate
36.64
3.63
50.20
6.08
1.84
13.24
.94
80.50
1.24
.05
Effect of Dried Whey Fractions on Weanling Pig Performance.
Dietary Treatment3
CON
WHE
CH0
PRO
CH0 + PRO
Week
to 2
Daily gain,^
Daily feed,g
Feed/gain13
229
287
1.24
280
329
1.17
289
335
1.15
283
312
1.10
263
294
1.11
262
306
1.17
Week
to 5
Daily gajj^g*3
Daily feed,g
Feed/gain130
369
565
1.52
423
619
1.46
405
605
1.49
408
582
1.42
411
592
1.44
404
581
1.44
WPC
aC0N = control, WHE = control +
20% dried whey, CHO = control + 14.4%
lactose, PRO = control + 2.1% lactalbumin, CHO + PRO = control +
14.4% lactose + 2.1% lactalbumin, WPC = control + 8.34% whey protein
concentrate.
bcontrast, CON vs others (P<.05).
cContrast, PRO vs CHO (P<.07)
59
Table
4.
Effect of Dried Whey Fractions On Apparent Digestibility.
Dietary Treatment3
Apparent digestibility
Dry matter13
Nitrogen13
Energy13
CON
WHE
CHO
FRO
CHO + FRO
86.8
83.2
86.3
88.7
85.2
88.3
88.1
84.2
88.7
87.9
85.3
87.7
88.5
85.8
88.1
(%)
aO0N = control, WHE = control + 20% dried whey, CHO = control + 14.4%
lactose, FRO = control + 2.1% lactalbumin, CHO + FRO = control +
14.4% lactose +2.1% lactalbumin, WFC = control + 8.34% whey protein
concentrate.
kcontrast, CON vs others (P<.05).
60
EFFECT OF IACTOSE LEVEL AND PROTEIN SOURCE ON STARTER PIG PERFORMANCE
Summary
A total of
390 weanling pigs
(21 + 3 d)
2x3
were used in two
factorial experiments to evaluate the effect of lactose level
12.5%,
and protein source
25%)
starter pig performance.
(isolated soy protein,
casein)
(0%,
on
In addition, a corn-soybean meal negative
control diet (0% lactose) was also evaluated in trial 2.
All pigs
received the experimental diet for the first two wk and were fed a
20% dried whey, corn-soybean meal diet for the last three wk of the
five wk trial.
No interaction (P>.05) occurred between lactose level
and protein source in either trial.
The only treatment difference
found in trial 1 was that pigs fed the 25% lactose,
isolated soy
protein diet were less (P<.05) feed efficient (F/G) after two wk than
pigs fed the other diets.
In trial 2, pigs fed the diets containing
isolated soy protein had higher (P<.05) average daily gain (ADG) and
average daily feed intake
casein diets.
In
(ADFI)
addition,
pigs
after two wk than pigs fed the
fed the soybean meal
diet had
improved (P<.01) ADG, ADFI, and F/G after two wk as compared to pigs
fed the
isolated soy protein or casein diets.
The performance
advantages were eliminated during the last three wk of the trials
when all pigs consumed the 20% dried whey diet.
These results
indicate that starter pig performance will not be maximized when
casein or isolated soy protein are used as the only protein source in
the diet.
Furthermore,
the
addition
of lactose
resulted
in
no
61
beneficial effects when casein or isolated soy protein served as the
only protein source.
(Key Words:
Weanling Pigs, Lactose, Casein, Isolated Soy Protein)
Introduction
Performance of young pigs weaned earlier than 28 days of age is
usually improved when starter diets contain protein from milk sources
rather than protein from soybean meal
(Hays et al.,
1959; Combs et
al., 1963; Walker et al., 1986), soy flour (Bayley and Holmes, 1972;
Lecce et al.,
1979),
soy protein concentrate (Giesting and Easter,
1985), or isolated soy protein (Wilson and Leibholz, 1981a; Leibholz,
1982)
.
diets
casein,
Nutrient digestibility is also improved when pigs are fed
containing
skim milk
(Wilson and Leibholz,
the major milk protein,
(Leibholz,
1982;
1981a, b,c,d)
or
Walker et al.,
1986a, b) rather than soybean meal or isolated soy protein as the only
protein source.
The addition of lactose to corn-soybean meal diets has also been
shown to improve starter pig performance
(Giesting et al.,
1985;
Corbin and IfcConnell, 1986) and diet digestibility (Sewell and West,
1965).
Turlington et al.
(1987)
also suggested that the addition of
lactose to corn-casein or corn-soybean meal diets will improve diet
digestibility by slowing the digesta flow rate for pigs between 21
and 35 d of age.
The relative response to lactose was greater for
pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets than for pigs fed corn-casein diets.
Whether an interaction between lactose level and protein source may
.
62
effect starter pig performance has not been reported.
These studies were conducted to determine the effect of lactose
additions to starter pig diets when either isolated soy protein or
casein
is
Pig performance was
utilized as the protein source.
measured from 21 to 35 d of age.
Subsequent performance was also
analyzed from 35 to 56 d of age when all pigs received the same diet.
Experimental Procedures
Two 5-wk growth trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of
lactose level and protein source on starter pig performance.
One
hundred and eighty weanling pigs averaging 6.1 kg (5.0 to 7.0 kg)
were used in trial
1.
In trial 2, 210 weanling pigs averaging 5.5 kg
(4.6 to 6.4 kg) were utilized. In both trials, pigs were weaned at 21
+
3
d
and
allotted
treatments.
Prior
by
to
litter,
weaning,
sex
pigs
and weight
were
to
housed
dietary
the
in
a
total
confinement, environmentally controlled, farrowing facility and were
not allowed access to creep feed.
At weaning, pigs were moved to an
environmentally controlled nursery equipped with 1.2 m x 1.5 m pens
with woven wire floors and a Y-flush gutter, with one nipple waterer
and one four hole self-feeder per pen.
ad
libitum.
Temperature
and
optimum comfort for the pigs.
individual
Feed and water were offered
airflow were
adjusted to maintain
Feeders were checked twice daily and
pig weights were collected at the end of each week.
Criteria measured were average daily gain (ADG)
intake (ADFI)
,
and feed efficiency (F/G)
,
average daily feed
63
A two-phase starter program was used to evaluate the dietary
treatments.
Composition of the diets fed during the first two weeks
is shown in table 1.
A
x
2
factorial consisting of two protein
3
sources (isolated soy protein or casein) and three lactose levels
12.5 or 25%) was used in both trials.
on an equal weight basis.
corn-soybean
meal,
(0,
lactose replaced corn starch
Trial 2 also contained a 25% corn starch,
control
All
diet.
diets
were
pelleted
and
contained 1.4% lysine, .8% calcium, and .7% phosphorus.
At the end of the second week, feeders were weighed and emptied
and the feed was replaced by a corn-soybean meal diet containing 20%
edible grade,
spray dried whey.
shown in table 2.
The composition of this diet is
The diet was formulated to contain 1.25% lysine,
.8% calcium, and .7% phosphorus.
All pigs received this diet for the
last three weeks of the trial.
The data were analyzed using the General
T.i
of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 1979)
the experimental unit for both trials.
additional
Preplanned
treatment,
orthogonal
the
trials
contrasts
were
r**ar
.
Models procedure
Pen was considered
Since trial 2 contained one
were
used
analyzed
to
separately.
separate
treatment
means, to compare protein and carbohydrate source main effects, and
to check for quadratic or linear effects due to lactose level.
Results
The effect of lactose level and protein source on starter pig
performance for trial 1 is shown in table 3.
Although there were no
64
carbohydrate and protein source interactions (R>.05), the interaction
No differences were found in ADG or ADFI at two
means were reported.
Pigs fed the 25% lactose, isolated soy protein diet were
or five wk.
less
(P<.05)
diets.
feed efficient after two wk than pigs fed the other
However,
this difference was eliminated by the end of the
trial.
The effect of lactose level and protein source on starter pig
performance for trial
2
is shown in table 4.
Although there were
again no carbohydrate by protein source interactions
interaction means
were
reported.
Analysis
of
(P>.05),
the
the main effects
revealed that pigs fed diets containing isolated soy protein as the
only protein source had higher (P<.05) ADG and ADFI at two wk than
pigs fed the casein diets.
Increasing the lactose level in the diet
had no effect on starter pig performance.
Pigs fed the soybean meal
diet had improved (P<.01) ADG, ADFI and F/G after two wk as compared
to pigs fed the diets containing isolated soy protein or casein as
the protein source.
Pigs fed the soybean meal diet for the first two
wk had also consumed more (P<.05)
feed at the end of the five wk
period than pigs fed the other diets; however, the differences in ADG
and F/G were eliminated during the last three wk of the trial when
all pigs consumed the 20% dried whey diet.
Discussion
There were differences in the performance of trial 1 compared to
trial 2.
In trial 2,
pellet guality was poor with an excessive
65
amount of fines present.
a large amount of sorting and feed
Thus,
wastage occurred with the casein and isolated soy protein diets.
feed wastage may have distorted the ADFI and F/G values.
The
The amount
of fines present may have also lowered actual feed consumption and
reduced ADG.
Although the performance tended to be
lower
similar general trends can be seen in both trials.
in the trial
2,
Performance was
not improved when pigs were fed diets containing casein as compared
to pigs fed diets containing isolated soy protein as the sole protein
source.
al.
Richard et al. (1983)
(1986)
,
Etheridge et al. (1984) and Walker et
reported similar results as no performance differences
were found when casein or isolated soy protein was used as the only
protein source in diets for pigs weaned at three to four wk of age.
The response appears to be age dependent as pigs weaned earlier than
three wk of
age
consistently
gained
faster
and were more
feed
efficient when fed diets containing casein as compared to isolated
soy protein
1984)
.
(Pond et
al.,
1971;
Leibholz,
1982;
Mateo and Veum,
Maner et al. (1962) found the rate of passage for soy protein
slows as the pig gets older; whereas, the rate of passage for casein
is
constant over time.
The change in the rate of passage for
isolated soy protein may explain the decrease in the advantage for
casein as the pig increases in age.
The literature suggests that diets containing casein or skim milk
as the only protein source are similar in dry matter digestibility,
nitrogen digestibility and nitrogen retention;
however,
the diets
66
containing dried skim milk consistently support higher ADG (Pettigrew
et al.,
not
1977; Leibholz,
provide
1982).
equivalent
Pettigrew et al.
(1977)
The reason skim milk and casein do
performance
is
not
fully
understood.
suggested that for maximum performance young
pigs may require a dietary source of intact milk proteins.
There is
also some indication from the literature that a certain ratio of
casein to whey proteins must be maintained to optimize performance in
the young pig.
Newport and Henschel
(1984,
1985)
combined spray
dried skim milk and spray dried whey protein concentrate to determine
that 50:50 was the optimum casein: whey protein ratio.
Since dried
whey protein concentrate and dried skim milk are intact milk protein
sources,
further research may be needed to determine if 50% casein-
50% lactalbumin is the optimum milk protein combination for the young
pig.
The results of the second trial indicate that soybean meal is
superior to isolated soy protein and casein when used as the only
protein source for pigs between 21 and 35 d.
When comparing the same
protein sources for pigs weaned at three wk of age, Walker et al.
(1986a)
found different results.
They reported that pigs fed diets
containing isolated soy protein or casein gained faster than pigs fed
diets containing soybean meal; however,
simple corn-protein source
diets with lower nutrient levels and energy density were used.
When
feeding diets containing isolated soy protein, Wilson and Leibholz
(
1981a, b,c,d)
and Leibholz
intake may be a problem.
(1982)
discovered that maintaining feed
They found that pigs fed diets containing
67
isolated
soy
protein had higher digestibilities
for dry matter,
nitrogen and the essential amino acids than pigs fed diets containing
soybean meal; however,
due to a reduction in feed intake, ADG was
lower for pigs fed the diet containing isolated soy protein.
The
lactose
results
may have been
sources used in this trial.
influenced
by the protein
Several researchers have shown that the
addition of lactose to the diet will increase ADG for pigs weaned at
three to four wk of age (Sewell and West, 1965; Aherne et al., 1969;
Giesting et al., 1985; Corbin and McConnell, 1986)
using intact protein sources,
.
Further research
such as soybean meal and dried skim
milk, may be needed to determine whether lactose level and protein
source interact to effect starter pig performance.
68
Table
1.
Diet Composition
(%)
,
to 2. a
Week
Protein Source
ISP15
Lactose level, %
12.5
25
42.86
17.29
42.86
17.29
Corn
ISP
Casein
Soybean meal
Lactose
Hydrolyzed corn
starch
Soybean oil
Dicalcium
phosphate
Limestone
Salt
Trace mineral mix4
Vitamin mix6
Selenium mix*
Antibiotic mix?
Copper sulfate*1
L-Lysine HCL
DL-rMethionine
DL-Tryptophan
L-Threonine
42.86
17.29
SEM°
CASEIN
12.5
25
44.57
44.57
44.57
15.93
15.93
15.93
12.5
25
12.5
10
10
22.37
38.39
25
10
12.5
25
12.5
10
10
25
10
25
10
2.35
2.35
2.35
2.36
2.36
2.36
2.13
.65
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.20
.05
.05
.65
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.20
.05
.05
.65
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.20
.05
.05
.46
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.03
.05
.05
.46
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.03
.05
.05
.46
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.03
.05
.05
.36
.50
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.20
.10
.05
.05
aDiets were calculated to contain 1.4% lysine, .8% calcium, and .7%
phosphorus.
"ISP = Isolated soy protein
°SEM = Diet containing 48.5% protein soybean meal as the protein
source, used only in trial 2.
^Composition per kg premix: vitamin A, 1,762,080 IU; vitamin D3,
132,156 IU; vitamin E, 8,810 IU; riboflavin, 1,982 mg; menadione,
683 mg; pantothenic acid, 6,793 mg; niacin, 11,013 mg; choline
chloride, 203,080 mg; vitamin &, 2 , 9.7 mg.
premix provided complete diet with .3 ppm supplemental selenium.
fAntiobiotic contains 44
g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine
and 22 g penicillin per kg.
9premix provided complete diet with 250 ppm supplemental copper.
69
Table
2.
Diet Composition, week
Ingredient
Corn
Soybean meal
Dried whey
Soybean oil
Dicalcium phosphate
Limestone
Trace mineral mix*3
Vitamin mix
Selenium mix^
Antibiotic mix6
Copper sulfate^
L-Lysine HCL
3
to
5. a
%
42.50
31.80
20.00
3.00
1.28
.47
.10
.25
.15
.25
.10
.10
aDiets were calculated to contain 1.25% lysine, .8% calcium, and .7%
phosphorus.
^Percentage composition was Fe, 10; Zn, 10; Mn, 10; Cu, 1; I, .3;
Co,
.1.
cComposition per kg premix: vitamin A, 1,762,080 IU; vitamin D3,
132,156 IU; vitamin E, 8,810 IU; riboflavin, 1,982 mg; menadione,
683 mg; pantothenic acid, 6,793 mg; niacin, 11,013 mg; choline
chloride, 203,080 mg; vitamin B^, 9.7 mg.
dPremix provided complete diet with .3 ppm supplemental selenium.
eAntibiotic contains 44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine
and 22 g penicillin per kg.
fPremix provided complete diet with 250 ppm supplemental copper.
..
.
70
Table 3.
Effect of Lactose Level and Protein Source on Starter Pig
Performance (Trial 1)
Protein sou tee
ISP3
Lactose lev< al, %
12.5
25
CASEIN
12.5
25
Week
to 2
Daily gain, g
Daily feed, g
Feed/gain13
200
1.10
180
208
1.16
173
253
1.46
231
1.20
197
233
1.18
184
224
1.21
Week
to 5
Daily gain, g
Daily feed, g
Feed/gain
393
592
1.50
412
621
1.47
394
611
1.55
434
644
1.48
424
622
1.47
397
593
1.49
183
194
aISP = isolated soy protein.
kcontrast, 25% lactose - ISP vs other (P<.05)
Table 4.
Effect of Lactose Level and Protein Source on Starter Pig
Performance (Trial 2)
Protein Source
ISP3
Lactose level, %
12.5
25
132
254
1.94
139
263
1.90
138
259
1.90
386
598
1.55
373
596
1.60
359
559
1.56
Week
to 2
Daily gain,
Daily feed,
Feed/gainc
gf*^
g*30
Week
to 5
Daily gain, g
Daily feed, g^
Feed/gain
12.5
25
111
236
2.02
110
207
1.90
112
223
2.00
251
300
1.14
395
606
1.54
372
572
1.54
381
565
1.48
396
632
1.61
3 ISP = isolated soy protein,
SEM = soybean meal.
vs Casein (P<.05).
^Contrast, SEM vs others (P<.01).
^ntrast, SEM vs others (P<.05).
J^Contrast, ISP
SEM3
CASEIN
71
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THE EFFECTS OF THE CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN FRACTIONS
OF MILK PRODUCTS ON STARTER PIG PERFORMANCE
by
MIKE D. TOKACH
B.S. North Dakota State University
AN ABSTRACT OF A MASTER'S THESIS
submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree
MASTER OF SCIENCE
Department of Animal Science and Industry
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Manhattan, Kansas
1988
,
ABSTRACT
Three growth trials and two digestion trials were conducted to
determine the effects of the carbohydrate and protein fractions of
milk products on starter pig performance and diet digestibility.
In the first study, 180 3-wk old pigs (initial weight 4.8 kg) were
utilized in a 35 d growth trial to determine the effects of the
fraction
protein
of
dried
whey
pig
on
carbohydrate
and
performance.
In addition, 30 3-wk old pigs (initial weight 4.9 kg)
(or)
were used in two digestion trials to study the effects of the whey
fraction on nutrient digestibility.
corn-soybean meal control
control
+
14%
lactose
control + 14% lactose
8.4%
whey
(CX3N)
(CHO)
+2.1%
,
Dietary treatments included a
control + 20% dried whey
control
+
2.1%
lactalbumin
(WHE)
(PRO),
lactalbumin (CHD + PRO), and control +
concentrate
protein
,
balanced on an isolysine basis.
(WPC)
.
Diets
were
pelleted
and
Lactose and lactalbumin were added
at the same levels as provided by a 20% dried whey diet.
Pigs fed
diets containing milk products exhibited superior average daily gain;
feed
efficiency;
and
apparent
dry
matter,
energy
and
nitrogen
digestibility (P<.05) compared to pigs fed the control diet.
results indicate that both the carbohydrate
(lactose)
These
and protein
(lactalbumin) fractions of dried whey are important in explaining the
beneficial response to dried whey elicited by the weanling pig.
In the second study, a total of 390 weanling pigs (21 +
used in two
lactose
2x3
level
(0%,
3 d)
were
factorial experiments to evaluate the effect of
12.5%,
25%)
and protein source
(isolated soy
on starter pig performance.
protein or casein)
An additional 0%
lactose,
corn-soybean meal control treatment was also evaluated in
trial 2.
All pigs received the experimental diet for the first two
weeks and were fed a 20% dried whey, corn-soybean meal diet for the
last three weeks on trial.
No interaction (E>.05) occurred between
lactose level and protein source in either trial.
difference
found
in trial
1
was that pigs
isolated soy protein diet were less (P<.05)
two weeks than pigs fed the other diets.
diets
containing
daily gain (ADG)
The only treatment
fed the 25%
lactose,
feed efficient (F/G) at
In trial 2, pigs fed the
isolated soy protein had higher
(P<.05)
average
and average daily feed intake (ADFI) at two weeks
than pigs fed the casein diets.
meal diet had improved
(P<.01)
In addition, pigs fed the soybean
ADG,
ADFI,
and F/G at two weeks as
compared to pigs fed the isolated soy protein or casein diets.
The
performance advantages were eliminated during the last three weeks of
the trials when all pigs consumed the 20% dried whey diet.
These
results indicate that starter pig performance will not be maximized
when casein or isolated soy protein are used as the only protein
source in the diet.
Furthermore, the addition of lactose resulted in
no beneficial effects when casein or isolated soy protein served as
the only protein source.
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