FD-400 Series
MADE
IN U.S.A.
1 YEAR
WARRANTY
QUICK-START OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
This manual contains detailed operating instructions for all aspects of the
FD-400 flow instrument. The following condensed instructions are
provided to assist the operator in getting the instrument started up and
running as quickly as possible. This pertains to basic operation of the
clamp-on transducer only. If specific instrument features or an alternate
transducer style are to be used or if the installer is unfamiliar with this type
of instrument, refer to the appropriate section in the manual for complete
details.
Location
1. TRANSDUCER LOCATION
A. Determine the appropriate mounting location for the transducers by
referring to Figure 1.1. Pipe must be filled with liquid to ensure
proper operation.
Top View of Pipe
Figure 1.1
Transducer Locations
Pipe Preparation
and Mounting
2. PIPE PREPARATION AND TRANSDUCER MOUNTING
A. The piping surface, where the transducers are to be mounted,
needs to be clean and dry. Remove loose scale, rust and paint to
ensure satisfactory acoustical bonds.
B. Connect the mounting straps around the pipe. Leave the strap
loose enough to slip the transducers underneath.
C. Apply a liberal amount of silicone grease onto the transducer
faces.
D. Place each transducer under the mounting strap, 180° apart on the
pipe. Ensure that the transducer cables are facing the same
direction on the downstream side of the flow. See Figure 1.2 on
page 1.2.
E. Route the transducer cable back to the FD-400 monitor, avoiding
conduits that contain high voltage AC supply wires.
Rev. 03/15
-1.1-
Series FD-400
QUICK-START OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Cables point in the
direction of flow
Top View of Pipe
Figure 1.2
Transducer Direction
Connections
3. TRANSDUCER CONNECTIONS
A. Mount FD-400 monitor within the length of the transducer cables.
While transducer cable extension is not generally recommended, if
additional transducer cable is required, utilize RG59 75 Ohm coaxial
cable and 75 Ohm interconnections such as BNC.
B. Route the transducer cables through the center conduit hole in the
bottom of the FD-400 enclosure and connect to terminal block J4.
The terminal blocks are a pluggable type and can be removed to
simplify wiring access. A wiring diagram is located on the inner
door for reference.
Startup
4. INITIAL SETTINGS AND POWER UP
A. Verify that the FD-400 power supply jumper settings are properly
configured for the power supply that will be utilized. A wiring and
jumper selection diagram is located on the inner door for reference.
NOTE: Power supply selection is specified during order placement
and appropriate jumpers are placed at the factory. If power is
changed from AC to DC or vice versa, the fuse requirement will
change. Fuse ratings are listed on the transmitter’s door.
B. Route power connections through the conduit hole farthest to the
left and in the FD-400 enclosure. Then connect power to the J2
terminal block. See Figure 3.2 on page 3.4.
C. Apply power.
D. On initial power-up, the FD-400 conducts a series of self-diagnostic
tests and buffering operations that take approximately 30 seconds.
E. Enter pipe internal diameter (Pipe ID), measuring units and output
configuration.
Rev. 03/15
-1.2-
Series FD-400
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Quick-Start Operating Instructions
1.1
Introduction
General
1.5
Applications
1.5
Product Specifications
1.7
Transducer Installation
Transducer Mounting Locations
2.1
Pipe Preparation
2.3
Clamp-On Transducer Mounting
2.3
Probe Transducer Mounting
2.6
Transmitter Installation
Mounting Location
3.1
Dimensional Drawing
3.2
Transducer Wiring Connections
3.3
Power Supply Wiring Connections
3.3
Wiring Diagram
3.4
Multiple Meter Synchronization
3.7
ISO Modules—General Information
3.8
4-20 mA Module
3.9
Rev. 03/15
-1.3-
Series FD-400
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Control Relay Module
Rate Pulse Output Module
3.10
3.11
Instrument Programming
Keypad Operation
4.1
Totalizer Reset
4.3
Measurement Units Selection
4.3
Engineering Units Selection
4.4
4-20 mA Programming
4.7
Rate Pulse Programming
4.9
Dual Relay Configuration
4.10
Change Password
4.12
Advanced Set-up
4.12
Startup and Troubleshooting
Startup Requirements
5.1
Troubleshooting
5.2
Appendix
FD-400 Software Map—General Operations
FD-400 Software Map—Output Configurations
Specific Gravity / Fluid Sound Speed Chart
Pipe Dimension Chart: ST, SS, PVC / Cast Iron / Ductile Iron
FPS to GPM Conversion Chart
Rev. 03/15
-1.4-
Series FD-400
PART 1 - INTRODUCTION
General
The FD-400 ultrasonic flow meter is designed to measure volumetric
flow of solids-bearing or aerated liquid within closed conduit. Transducers are available as non-contacting (FD-400C) or insertion probe
(FD-400I) types. FD-400C non-contacting transducers are strapped
to the outside of a pipe and are suitable for most installations where
the pipe material supports the transmission of ultrasound. Some
pipe materials, such as concrete pressure pipe and some plastic
lined pipes do not allow ultrasound to penetrate to the liquid inside.
For these applications, the FD-400I insertion probe will be needed.
The flow meter operates by transmitting an ultrasonic sound from its
transmitting transducer through the pipe wall or from the probe tip
into the moving liquid. The sound will be reflected by useful sonic
reflectors1 suspended within the liquid and recorded by the receiving
transducer. If the sonic reflectors are moving within the sound
transmission path, sound waves will be reflected at a frequency
shifted (Doppler frequency) from the transmitted frequency. The
shift in frequency will be directly related to the speed of the moving
particle or bubble. This shift in frequency is interpreted by the
instrument and converted to various user defined measuring units.
1
What makes a good Doppler reflector? The four criteria are:
 The scattering material must have a sonic impedance (sound
speed difference) at least 10% different from the fluid.
 There must be some particles large enough to cause longitudinal
reflection – particles larger than 35 micron.
 For a given pipe size, the longitudinal reflection must have sufficient energy to overcome the Rayleigh (energy wasting) scattering caused by smaller particles.
 The reflecting material must travel at the same velocity as the
fluid for good accuracy.
Application
Versatility
Rev. 03/15
The FD-400 flow meter can be successfully applied on a wide range
of metering applications. The easy to program transmitter allows
the standard product to be used on pipe sizes ranging from 1 - 120
inch (25 - 3050 mm) pipe I.D. With the small pipe transducer option,
the pipe size range is 0.25 - 1 inch (6 - 25 mm). A variety of liquid
applications can be accommodated: raw sewage, river water, plant
effluent, mining slurries, sludge, etc.
Because the clamp-on
transducers are non-contacting and have no moving parts, the flow
meter is not affected by system pressure, fouling or wear. Standard
transducers are rated to 250 °F (121 °C). Optional high temperature
transducers are rated to operate to 400 °F (204 °C).
-1.5-
Series FD-400
PART 1 - INTRODUCTION
User Safety
The FD-400 employs modular construction and provides electrical
safety for the operator. The enclosure is constructed from rugged
polycarbonate plastic with UV inhibitors. The enclosure does not
contain any conductive materials that can become energized while
the door is closed. The keypad is also manufactured from
polycarbonate and is designed for outdoor use. The AC power
transformer provides 4,000 Volts of isolation from the power supply
mains. The display face contains voltages no greater than 24 Vdc.
Output modules are optically isolated from external power supplies
and provide a great degree of immunity to ground loops.
Data Storage
The FD-400 product retains all user configuration data and totalizer
accumulations in non-volatile FLASH memory indefinitely.
Product
Identification
The serial number and complete model number of each FD-400 is
located on the inside of the monitor’s front cover. Should technical
assistance be required, please provide the Omega Customer
Service Department with this information.
Rev. 03/15
-1.6-
Series FD-400
PART 1 - INTRODUCTION
Rev. 03/15
-1.7-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Unpacking
After unpacking, it is recommended to save the shipping carton and
packing materials in case the instrument is stored or re-shipped.
Inspect the equipment and carton for damage. If there is evidence
of shipping damage, notify the carrier immediately.
Mounting
Locations
The transducers that are utilized by the FD-400 contain piezoelectric
crystals for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic sound energy
through the pipe wall in the case of the Series FD-400C transducer
and from the probe tip of the Series FD-400I. Placement of the
ultrasonic transducer is the most critical step in achieving an accurate and reliable flow reading. All flow meters of this type rely on a
full-pipe of fluid that is flowing symmetrically (evenly) in the pipe.
Flow in partially filled pipes and immediately downstream of elbows,
valves and pumps is unstable and will lead to unstable readings and
non-linearity.
Figure 2.1 illustrates five possible pipe configurations and recommends installation only in locations where it can be guaranteed that
the pipe will be filled at all times when flow measurements are
required. The two locations illustrated in the top two drawings may
allow the meter to operate, but it is unlikely that stable and accurate
Figure 2.1
Pipe Configurations and Installation Recommendations
Rev. 03/15
-2.1-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
flow readings will be realized over a very large range of flow. Since
products like the FD-400 have software algorithms that assume a
full-pipe of liquid, partially-filled pipes can lead to very large flow
measurement errors and should be avoided.
Select a transducer mounting location with adequate straight runs of
pipe, both upstream and downstream, to achieve stable readings 1.
Examples of minimum upstream and downstream requirements are
included in Figure 2.2.
1
2
3
4
Example
* Upstream
Pipe Diameters
** Downstream
1
24
5
2
14
5
3
10
5
4
10
5
5
10
5
6
24
5
Pipe Diameters
5
6
Figure 2.2
Upstream/Downstream Pipe Requirements
1
Rev. 03/15
The FD-400 system will provide repeatable measurements on
piping systems that do not meet these requirements, but the
accuracy may be influenced to various degrees.
-2.2-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Pipe Preparation
Before the transducer heads are mounted to the pipe surface, an
area slightly larger than the flat surface of the transducer face must
be prepared. If pipe insulation is present, it must be peeled back to
expose the pipe surface. Typical preparation involves wire brush
removal of loose paint, rust, scale or dirt. Paint, if bonded well to
the pipe surface, does not need to be removed. The bumps present
on ductile iron pipe do not need to be removed. Thoroughly dry the
mounting surfaces so that the couplant grease will properly bond to
the surface.
NOTE: Small pits in the piping surface typically do not significantly
impact ultrasonic transmission or signal reception.
Couplant
To assure an acoustically conductive path between the transducer
face and the prepared piping surface, a coupling compound is
employed. Clamp-on ultrasonic meters will not operate without
coupling compound mounted between the pipe wall and the transducer face. Enclosed with the FD-400 system is a tube of coupling
compound that is adequate for general purpose applications. Omega prefers silicone-based valve grease or RTV (Room Temperature
Vulcanizing) products or grease for Doppler installations as they
operate over a very wide temperature range. In some installations,
such as automotive, silicone is not permitted. Alternate petroleumbased products can be utilized, but verify that the grease is rated
not to flow at the maximum surface temperature anticipated on the
pipe.
In general, utilize the following couplants with these transducers:
FD-400C
Clamp-On
Transducer
Mounting
Rev. 03/15
FD-400C
Dow 732 or Dow 111 (or equivalent)
FD-400C-HT
Dow 112 or Pyrogel Grade 100
FD-400I
Not applicable
Clamp-on transducers should be mounted on the pipe 180° apart
and facing each other on the pipe, with the cables on the downstream side of the transducers. If the pipe is horizontal, the
preferred mounting orientation is 3 and 9 o’clock, with 12 o’clock
being the top of the pipe. See Figure 2.3 on page 2.4. Orientation
on vertical pipes does not matter. FD-400I insertion probe transducer installation starts on page 2.6.
-2.3-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Top View of Pipe
Figure 2.3
Transducer Placement
PROCEDURE:
1. Large pipe installations utilize stainless steel straps to secure the
transducers to the outside of the pipe. The FD-400 system is
shipped with four 36 inch (900 mm) straps, which are suitable for
pipes up to 39 inches (1000 mm) diameter. Select the proper
number of transducer straps to allow a complete strap to go
around the circumference of the pipe. If a pipe is larger than 39
inches (1000 mm), it is recommended that a single strap/buckle
arrangement be utilized to reduce the number of strap connections. See Figure 2.4. The straps can be connected together to
make a continuous length. Small pipe installations do not utilize
straps, but use an integral clamping mechanism built into the
transducer.
2. Wrap the strap around the pipe in the area where the
Pipe Sizes
Straps Required
1" to 9"
25 to 225 mm
1
10" to 19"
250 to 480 mm
2
20" to 29"
500 to 740 mm
3
30" to 39"
760 to 1000 mm
4
Figure 2.4
Straps Required vs. Pipe Size
Rev. 03/15
-2.4-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
transducers are to be mounted. Leave the strap loose enough to
allow the transducers to be placed underneath. If multiple straps
are being used, it can be beneficial to wrap electrical tape
around all but one strap connection to secure the strap worm
screws in place.
3. Spread an even layer of coupling compound, approximately
⅛ inch (3mm) thick, to the prepared transducer mounting areas
of the pipe.
4. Spread an even layer of coupling compound, approximately
⅛ inch (3mm) thick, to the flat face of the two transducers.
5. Place each transducer under the strap with the flat face – amber
plastic window – positioned towards the pipe. The notch on the
back of the transducer will provide a mounting surface for the
strap. The transducer cables must be facing in the same
direction and downstream of the transducers for proper
operation.
NOTE: Large pipes may require two people for this procedure.
6. Tighten the strap strong enough to hold the transducers in place,
but not so tight that all of the couplant squeezes out of the gap
between the transducer face and pipe.
Ensure that the
transducers are squarely aligned on the pipe and 180° apart. If
RTV is utilized, avoid moving the transducers during the curing
time – typically 24 hours – as bubbles may form between the
transducer and pipe that can reduce ultrasonic signal transmission to unsatisfactory levels.
7. Route the transducer cables back to the area where the
transmitter will be mounted, avoiding high voltage cable trays
and conduits. Failure to use proper cables can lead to improper
operation of the FD-400 flow meter. Excess cable may be coiled
to take up extra length or cutoff.
8. If the transducers are to be permanently mounted using Dow
732, the RTV must be completely cured before proceeding to
Instrument Start-up. Ensure that no relative motion between the
transducer and pipe occurs during the 24 hour curing process. If
Dow 111 grease was used for temporary operation of the FD400 system, proceed with the Instrument Start-up procedures.
Rev. 03/15
-2.5-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
FD-400I Probe
Transducer
Mounting
The FD-400I insertion transducer that is utilized by the FD-400
contains piezoelectric crystals for transmitting and receiving
ultrasonic sound energy. The black Ultem® plastic tip of the FD-400I
contains these crystals, which are designed to be inserted just into
the path of the flowing liquid.
Select a transducer mounting location that will be completely filled
with liquid when flow measurements are to be made – See Figure
2.1 on page 2.1 – and with adequate straight runs (without
disturbances) of pipe, both upstream and downstream, to achieve
stable and accurate readings. Examples of minimum upstream and
downstream requirements are included in Figure 2.2 on page 2.2.
Note that if adequate straight piping cannot be provided, the FD400 system will operate repeatably, but will probably not achieve
ideal accuracy.
When installing the FD-400I transducer in a horizontal pipe, the
preferred orientation is at least 20 degrees from the top or bottom of
the pipe – See Figure 2.5. Ensure that the mounting location allows
for adequate clearance to install and retract the probe fully from the
pipe.
TOP VIEW
OF PIPE
20°
LL ATION RANG
STA
E
IN
Figure 2.5
Acceptable
Installation Locations
20°
INSTALL MAGPROBE
Install Doppler
Probe
between 1 o’clock
BETWEEN
1 O’CLOCK
and
5 o’clock
thePIPE
pipe
AND
5 O’CLOCK
ONon
THE
The instructions cover hot tapped installations (installations where
it is required to install or remove the transducer probe without
shutting down the process pressure). If the product is being
installed without an isolation valve, ignore the steps that pertain to
its installation. Figure 2.6 on page 2.7 illustrates an exploded view
of an isolation valve assembly and names the various components.
Rev. 03/15
-2.6-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Figure 2.6
Hot Tap Installation
Rev. 03/15
-2.7-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Rev. 03/15
-2.8-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Rev. 03/15
-2.9-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
TO CALCULATE INSERTION DEPTH
Measure and record the following linear distances:
E = PROBE LENGTH
= _______
C = SEAL FITTING TO PIPE WALL
= _______
B = PIPE WALL THICKNESS
= _______
A = 0.125 × PIPE ID
D = INSERTION DEPTH
= _______
= _______
D=E-C-B-A
Figure 2.7
Installation Measurements
Rev. 03/15
-2.10-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Rev. 03/15
-2.11-
Series FD-400
PART 2 - TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
Figure 2.8
Flow Direction
Arrow
Rev. 03/15
-2.12-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
After unpacking, it is recommended to save the shipping carton and
packing materials in case the instrument is stored or re-shipped.
Inspect the equipment and carton for damage. If there is evidence
of shipping damage, notify the carrier immediately.
Mounting
Location
The enclosure should be mounted in an area that is convenient for
servicing, calibration and for observation of the LCD readout.
1. Locate the transmitter within the length of transducer cable that
was supplied with the FD-400 system. If this is not possible, it is
recommended that the cable be exchanged for one that is of
proper length. While transducer cable extension is not generally
recommended, if additional transducer cable is required, use
RG59 75 Ohm coaxial cable and 75 Ohm interconnections such
as BNC terminations. Transducer cables that are up to 990 feet
(300 meters) may be accommodated.
2. Mount the FD-400 transmitter in a location that is:
 Where little vibration exists
 Protected from falling corrosive fluids
 Within ambient temperature limits -40 to +185°F (-40 to +85°C)
 Out of direct sunlight. Direct sunlight may increase transmitter
temperature to above the maximum limit
3. Mounting: Refer to Figure 3.1 on page 3.2 for enclosure and
mounting dimension details. Ensure that enough room is
available to allow for door swing, maintenance and conduit
entrances. Secure the enclosure to a flat surface with four
appropriate fasteners.
4. Conduit holes: Conduit hubs should be used where cables enter
the enclosure. Holes not used for cable entry should be sealed
with plugs.
NOTE: Use NEMA 4 (IP-65) rated fittings/plugs to maintain the
watertight integrity of the enclosure. Generally, the left conduit hole
(viewed from front) is used for line power, the center conduit hole for
transducer connections and the right hole is utilized for ISO-MOD
I/O wiring.
5. If additional holes are required, drill the appropriate size hole in
the enclosure’s bottom. Use extreme care not to run the drill bit
into the wiring or circuit cards.
Rev. 03/15
-3.1-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
Figure 3.1
FD-400 Transmitter Installation Dimensions
Rev. 03/15
-3.2-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
Transducer
Wiring
Connections
To access terminal strips for electronic connectors, loosen the two
screws in the enclosure door and open the door.
1. Guide the transducer terminations through the transmitter
conduit hole located in the bottom-center of the enclosure.
Secure the transducer cable with the supplied conduit nut (if
flexible conduit was ordered with the transducer).
2. The terminals within the FD-400 are a pluggable type – they can
be removed, wired and then plugged back in. Connect the
appropriate wires to J4 at the corresponding screw terminals in
the transmitter. See Figure 3.2 on page 3.4 or the Wiring
Diagram located on the inner door of the transmitter.
NOTE: The transducer cable carries low level high frequency
signals. While transducer cable extension is not generally recommended, if additional transducer cable is required, utilize RG59 75
Ohm coaxial cable and 75 Ohm interconnections such as BNC
terminations. Cables to 990 feet (300 meters) are available.
Power Supply
Wiring
Connections
Connect power to the screw terminal block marked J2 in the FD-400
transmitter. See Figure 3.3 on page 3.5 for AC power supplies and
Figure 3.4 on page 3.6 for DC power supplies. Utilize the conduit
hole on the left side of the enclosure for this purpose. Use wiring
practices that conform to local and national codes (e.g., The
National Electric Code Handbook in the U.S.).
CAUTION: Any other wiring method may be unsafe or cause
improper operation of the instrument.
NOTE: This instrument requires clean electrical line power. Do not
operate this unit on circuits with noisy components (i.e., fluorescent
lights, relays, compressors or variable frequency drives). It is
recommended not to run line power with other signal wires within
the same wiring tray or conduit.
Rev. 03/15
-3.3-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
WIRING DIAGRAM
CAUT IO N! To a void se rious injur y or pro du ct d am a ge ,
d isco n ne ct e lectrical p owe r b e for e se rvicing this m eter.
!
JP 3
Connections
JP 3
2 1
2 1
11 5 VA C
MODULE #2
4 3
4 3
2 1
2 1
2 30 VA C
JP 1
2
4 3
2 1
JP 2
1
9 -28 VD C
4 3
MODULE #1
J4
JP 1/JP 2
Connections
115/230
VA C
J3
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
9 -28 VD C
AC
L1
DC
+V
J2
Fu se (5 x2 0mm )
A C: 0 .1A /25 0 V De lay
DC: 0 .5 A /2 5 0V Del ay
L2
R ED B LK B LK R ED
R eceive Transm it
EA RT H
G N D EA RT H
INT
EX T SY NC
G ND
EX T
SY NC SE LEC T
Figure 3.2
FD-400 Wiring Diagram
Rev. 03/15
-3.4-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
AC Power
Supply
AC POWER CONNECTIONS
1. Verify that the jumpers at JP3 are properly oriented for the power
supply. See Figure 3.2 on page 3.4. Verify that the jumpers at
JP1 and JP2 are not present.
2. Connect L1, L2 and EARTH to the terminals referenced in
Figure 3.2. Phase and neutral connections to L1 and L2 are not
polarized. Do not operate without an earth ground connection.
3. See Figure 3.3 for AC connection schematic. Wire gauges up to
14 AWG can be accommodated in the FD-400 terminal blocks.
NOTE: Jumpers
positioned for
115 VAC operation.
230 VAC operation
requires an
alternate position.
50/60 Hz
@ 5 W Max
Figure 3.3
AC Power Connection
Rev. 03/15
-3.5-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
DC Power
Supply
DC POWER CONNECTIONS
The FD-400 may be operated from a 12-28 VDC source, as long as
the source is capable of supplying a minimum of 2.5 Watts.
12 VDC Supply @ 208 mA minimum
24 VDC Supply @ 104 mA minimum
1. Verify that the jumpers are properly placed. See the Wiring
Diagram located on the inside door of the FD-400 enclosure or
see Figure 3.2 on page 3.4. The jumpers at JP3 should not be
present and the jumpers at JP1 and JP2 will be in place.
2. Connect the DC power source as illustrated in the schematic in
Figure 3.4. Wire up to 14 AWG can be accommodated in the
FD-400 terminal blocks.
+
-
12-28 VDC @ 2.5 W
Figure 3.4
DC Power Connection
Rev. 03/15
-3.6-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
Multiple Meter
Synchronization
Multiple Meter Installations
The FD-400 flow meter contains a provision for synchronizing
multiple FD-400 flow meters together. Synchronization is required
when more than one FD-400 flow meter is mounted on a common
pipe or header system. If meters are not synchronized, a phenomena called “cross-talk” can occur between meters, which can lead to
erroneous readings and inoperability. Cross-talk results from the
small differences in transmitted frequency generated from two or
more different ultrasonic flow meters. By synchronizing the transmitted ultrasonic energy, cross-talk caused by differences in transmitted
frequency is eliminated.
The FD-400 synchronization circuit is designed to interconnect up to
four FD-400 flow meters over a cable length of 100 feet (30 meters).
Utilize 20-22 AWG twisted-pair shielded interconnection wire for this
purpose. See Figure 3.5.
To synchronize multiple meters:
1. Remove power from the FD-400 flow meters.
2. Daisy-chain connect the EXT SYNC and GND terminal blocks
together between the meters to be synchronized, utilizing the
twisted-pair cable described previously. The terminal block is
located on the circuit board that is mounted on the door of the FD
-400 monitor. See Wiring Diagram on page 3.4, the decal on the
inner door of the FD-400 monitor or schematic below.
3. At a single point, connect the shield drain wire from the interconnection cable to earth ground.
4. Configure the SYNC SELECT jumpers on the FD-400 flow
meters. One FD-400 should be configured for INT and the
remaining units configured for EXT (see below).
5. Apply power to the FD-400 system.
Figure 3.5
FD-400 Synchronization Connections
Rev. 03/15
-3.7-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
ISO Modules
The FD-400 utilizes ISO-MODs for input and output functions. ISOMODs are epoxy encapsulated electronic input/output modules that
are simple to install and replace in the field. See Figure 3.6. All
modules are 2,500 V optically isolated from FD-400 power and earth
grounds. This eliminates the potential for ground loops and reduces
the chance of severe damage in the event of an electrical surge.
Three ISO-MOD options are available, including: 4-20 mA, dualrelay and rate pulse. The FD-400 supports any two ISO-MOD input/
output modules. All modules are field configurable by utilizing the
keyboard interface. Field wiring connections to ISO-MODs are
quick and easy using pluggable terminals. Configuration and
connection of the various ISO-MODs are described on the following
pages.
Figure 3.6
Two ISO-MOD I/O Modules Installed
ISO-MOD
Replacement
Rev. 03/15
To remove an ISO-MOD, remove the two machine screws that
secure the module in place and pull the module straight out of the
enclosure. A 10-pin connection is on the bottom of the module that
mates with the circuit board underneath. Installation of a module is
simply the reverse operation of removal. 4-20 mA modules will
require calibration parameters to be entered if the module is replaced. See Part 4 of this manual for instructions on entry of
calibration parameters.
-3.8-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
4-20 mA Output
Module
The 4-20 mA Output Module interfaces with most recording and
logging systems by transmitting an analog current signal that is
proportional to system flow rate. The 4-20 mA ISO-MOD may be
configured via jumper selections for either an internally powered
(Figure 3.7A) or externally powered (Figure 3.7B) mode.
Internal Power Configuration: Ensure that jumpers are in place at
JP1 and JP2 on the module – reference Figure 3.7A. In this
configuration, the 4-20 mA output is driven from a +24 VDC source
located within the FD-400 flow meter. The 24 VDC source is
isolated from DC ground and earth ground connections within the
FD-400 instrument. The module can accommodate loop loads up to
800 Ohms in this configuration.
NOTE: The +24 internal supply, if configured to power the 4-20 mA
output, shares a common ground with another ISO-MOD (if
installed). If another module is connected to earth ground, a ground
loop may occur. The solution to this problem is to configure the 420 mA module for external power and utilize an external isolated
supply to power the 4-20 mA loop.
External Power Configuration: Remove the two jumpers located at
JP1 and JP2 on the module – reference Figure 3.7B. In this
configuration the 4-20 mA module requires power from an external
DC power supply. The voltage of the external power source must
be sufficient to power the module and drive the loop load. The loop
loss attributed to the ISO-MOD is 7 VDC, so the minimum voltage
required to power a loop can be calculated using the following formula:
Loop voltage (min) = (loop load Ohms × 0.02) + 7
Figure 3.7A
Internally Powered
4-20mA
Figure 3.7B
Externally Powered
4-20mA
Rev. 03/15
-3.9-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
Control Relay
Output Module
Two independent SPDT (single-pole, double-throw, Form C) relays
are contained in this module. The relay operations are user
configured via the front panel to act in either a flow rate alarm, error
alarm or totalizing pulse. The relays are rated for 200 VAC
maximum and have a current rating of 0.5 A resistive load (175 VDC
@ 0.25 A resistive). It is highly recommended that a secondary relay
be utilized whenever the Control Relay ISO-MOD is used to control
inductive loads such as solenoids and motors.
Typical relay connections are illustrated in Figure 3.8A. The reed
relays located within the relay module can interface directly with
small pilot lights, PLCs, electronic counters and SCADA systems.
Figure 3.8B describes the connection of an external power relay to
the Relay ISO-MOD. It is recommended that external power relays
are utilized whenever the load to be switched exceeds the switch
rating of the reed relays, or if the load is inductive in nature.
Figure 3.8A
Typical Relay
Connections
Figure 3.8B
External Relay
Connections
Rev. 03/15
-3.10-
Series FD-400
PART 3 - TRANSMITTER INSTALLATION
Rate Pulse
Output Module
The Rate Pulse Output Module is utilized to transmit information to
external counters and PID systems via a frequency output that is
proportional to system flow rate. The frequency output range of the
Rate Pulse Module is 0-2,500 Hz. This module has two types of
outputs: one simulates the output of the coil of a turbine flow meter
and the other is an open-collector type that does not source voltage
at its output. Both outputs may be connected simultaneously.
The turbine meter output creates a 500 mV peak-to-peak saw-tooth
waveform that is not referenced to ground. This output can be run
to electronic monitors that are compatible with variable reluctance
outputs from coils, such as those found in turbine and paddle-wheel
flow meters. The input impedance of the receiving device should
not be smaller than 2,000 Ohms.
The standard pulse output does not output a voltage, but acts as an
“open-collector” output requiring an external power source and pullup resistor. See Figure 3.9. The MOSFET in the Rate Pulse
Module can support loads of 100 V @ 1 A. Resistor selection is
based on the input impedance of the receiving device. Select a
resistor that is a maximum of 10% of the input impedance of the
receiving device, but does not exceed 10k Ohms.
Figure 3.9
Rate Pulse Module
Rev. 03/15
-3.11-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
General
The FD-400 is configured through the keypad interface. All entries
are saved in non-volatile FLASH memory and will be retained
indefinitely in the event of power loss.
Keypad
Operation
The FD-400 contains a four-key tactile feedback keypad interface
that allows the user to view and change configuration parameters
used by the FD-400 operating system.
V
V
Figure 4.1
Keypad Layout
The FD-400 allows two basic sets of programming procedures: list
item selection and numeric value entry.
NOTE: While in RUN mode, pressing both the UP and DOWN
arrow keys will display the current firmware version installed in the
meter.
List Item Selection Procedure
NOTE: If you are already in PROGRAM mode and the selection to
be viewed or changed is already displayed, proceed to step 3
below. If you are in PROGRAM mode and the selection to be
viewed or changed is not displayed, press the UP or DOWN arrow
keys and repeat pressing until the desired selection appears.
Proceed to step 3.
1. Press MENU. PROGRAM appears in the lower left-hand corner
and ID UNITS appears on the lower line of the display.
2. Press the DOWN arrow key to move to the desired selection.
3. Press ENTER to view the current selection.
4. If the current selection is desired, press ENTER to confirm. The
unit will automatically advance to the next selection.
5. If the current selection must change, press the UP arrow key and
repeat pressing to scroll through the available choices. Press
ENTER to confirm your selection. The unit will automatically
advance to the next selection.
Rev. 03/15
-4.1-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
6. To exit programming mode, press the MENU key. Depending on
your position in the programming mode, up to three MENU key
presses may be required to exit. The display will change to RUN
mode.
NOTE: The FD-400 firmware revision can be displayed by pressing
both arrow keys simultaneously.
Numeric Value Entry Procedure
NOTE: If you are already in PROGRAM mode and the selection to
be viewed or changed is already displayed, proceed to step 3
below. If you are in PROGRAM mode and the selection to be
viewed or changed is not displayed, press the UP or DOWN arrow
keys and repeat pressing until the desired selection appears.
Proceed to step 3.
1. Press MENU. PROGRAM appears in the lower left-hand corner
and ID UNITS appears on the lower line of the display.
2. Press the DOWN arrow key until the desired selection displays.
The current numeric value for this selection appears on the
upper line of the display.
3. If the current value is desired, press ENTER. The left most
programmable number begins to flash. Press ENTER again to
confirm and keep the current numeric value. The unit will
automatically advance to the next menu selection.
4. If the current selection must be changed, press ENTER. The left
most programmable number begins to flash. Use the UP arrow
key to scroll through the digits 0-9 and change the flashing digit
to the desired value. Use the DOWN arrow key to move the
active digit to the right. Continue using the UP and DOWN arrow
keys until all digits are selected.
5. Press ENTER to confirm your selection. The unit will automatically
advance to the next selection.
6. To exit programming mode, press the MENU key. Depending on
your position in the programming mode, up to three MENU key
presses may be required to exit. The display will change to RUN
mode.
Rev. 03/15
-4.2-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Menu
Structure
The FD-400 software is structured using menus. A menu map of
the user interface is included in the Appendix of this manual. The
map provides a visual path to the configuration parameters that
users can access. This tool should be employed each time
configuration parameters are accessed or revised.
Totalizer
Reset
Press both the ENTER and the MENU keys when in the RUN mode
to reset the totalizer. The message TOTAL RST will be displayed
for a few seconds to indicate that the totalizer had been cleared. If
a password has been set, the user must enter the correct password
for the totalizer to be cleared.
The following sections define
accessible in the program mode.
Measurement
UNITS
Selection
the
configuration
parameters
ID UNITS
INCH
MM
Selects unit of measure for pipe ID entry. The choices are either
inches (English) or millimeters (Metric) units.
Pipe Inside
Diameter
PIPE ID – Pipe Inside Diameter Entry
ENGLSH (Inches)
METRIC (Millimeters)
Enter the pipe inside diameter in inches if INCH was selected as ID
UNITS; in millimeters if MM was selected.
Flow Display
Mode
Rev. 03/15
DISPLAY – Display Mode Selection
RATE
TOTAL
BOTH
DIAG
-4.3-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
To display only the Flow Rate, select RATE. To display only the
Flow Total, select TOTAL. To alternately display the Flow Rate and
the Total, select BOTH. By selecting BOTH, the display will switch
between RATE and TOTAL every 7 seconds.
The DIAG selection places the display in the diagnostics mode.
When selected, the display will show the measured frequency, the
gain setting and the signal strength.
Engineering
Units
RATE
RATE UNT – Engineering Units for Flow Rate
VEL FEET - Velocity in Linear Feet
VEL MTRS - Velocity in Linear Meters
GALLONS - U.S. Gallons
LITERS - Metric Liters
MGAL - Millions of U.S. Gallons
CUBIC FT - Cubic Feet
M CU FT - Millions of Cubic Feet
CUBIC ME - Cubic Meters
MEGLTRS - Millions of Metric Liters
ACRE FT - Acre Feet
OIL BARR - Oil Barrels (42 U.S. Gallons)
LIQ BARR - Liquid Barrels (31.5 U.S. Gallons)
LBS - Pounds
KGS - Kilograms
Select a desired engineering unit for flow rate measurements.
When Pounds (LBS) or Kilograms (KGS) is selected, the specific
gravity for the fluid type must be entered for the SP GRAV setup
parameter.
Engineering
Units
RATE
INTERVAL
RATE INT – Time Interval for Flow Rate
MIN - Minutes
HOUR - Hours
DAY - Days
SEC - Seconds
Select a desired engineering unit for flow rate measurements.
Rev. 03/15
-4.4-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Engineering
Units
TOTALIZER
TOTL UNT – Engineering Units for Flow Totalizer
GALLONS - U.S. Gallons
LITERS - Metric Liters
MGAL - Millions of U.S. Gallons
CUBIC FT - Cubic Feet
M CU FT - Millions of Cubic Feet
CUBIC ME - Cubic Meters
MEGLTRS - Millions of Metric Liters
ACRE FT - Acre Feet
OIL BARR - Oil Barrels (42 U.S. Gallons)
LIQ BARR - Liquid Barrels (31.5 U.S. Gallons)
LBS - Pounds
KGS - Kilograms
Select a desired engineering unit for flow accumulator (totalizer)
measurements.
Engineering
Units
TOTAL
Exponent
TOTL MUL – Flow Totalizer Multiplier
0.01 to 1,000,000
Utilized for setting the flow totalizer exponent. This feature is useful
for accommodating a very large accumulated flow. The exponent is
a ×10n multiplier, where “n” can be from –2 (×0.01) to +6
(×1,000,000). Table 4.1 should be referenced for valid entries and
their influence on the FD-400 display.
Exponent
Display Multiplier
× PT 01
× 0.01
× PT 1
× 0.1
×1
×1
×10
× 10
×100
× 100
×1000
× 1,000
×10000
× 10,000
×100000
× 100,000
×1000000
× 1,000,000
Table 4.1 — Totalizer Exponent Values
Rev. 03/15
-4.5-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Fluid Specific
Gravity
SP GRAV – Fluid Specific Gravity Entry
unitless
Allows adjustments to be made to the specific gravity (density) of
the liquid.
If Pounds (LBS) or Kilograms (KGS) is selected for either the RATE
UNT or the TOTL UNT, a specific gravity must be entered for the
correct mass flow to be calculated. A list of fluids and their
associated specific gravities is located in the Appendix of this
manual.
Low Flow
Cut-off
FL C-OFF – Low Flow Cut-off
Scale
Factor
SCALE F – Scale Factor
A Low Flow Cut-off entry is provided to allow very low flow rates
(that can be present when pumps are off and valves are closed) to
be displayed as Zero flow. The value entered is in actual rate
units.
This function can be used to make the FD-400 system agree with a
different or reference flow meter, or to compensate for an
installation where there is inadequate straight pipe to obtain a
laminar flow profile, by applying a correction factor/multiplier to the
readings and outputs. A factory calibrated system should be set to
1.000. The range of settings for this entry is 0.500 to 5.000. The
following example describes using the SCALE F entry.

Rev. 03/15
The FD-400 meter is indicating a flow rate that is 4% higher than
another flow meter located in the same pipe line. To make the
FD-400 indicate the same flow rate as the other meter, enter a
COR FTR of 0.960, to lower the readings by 4%.
-4.6-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
System
Damping
DAMPING – System Damping
Relative Percent Entry: 0-99%
Flow Filter Damping establishes a maximum adaptive filter value.
Under stable flow conditions (flow varies less than 10% of reading),
this adaptive filter will increase the number of successive flow
readings that are averaged together up to this maximum value. If
flow changes outside of the 10% window, the Flow Filter adapts by
decreasing and allows the meter to react faster. Increasing this
value tends to provide smoother steady-state flow readings and
outputs.
Configure
I/O Module 1
CFG MOD1 – Configure I/O Module 1
Module Type
MOD TYPE – Module Type
This prompt allows access to the setup parameters associated with
installation of the optional ISO-MOD interface modules. If NO is
selected, the unit will skip ahead to CFG MOD2. If YES is selected,
configuration and calibration of the module installed in the first
position is accessible.
NONE - No Module Installed
4-20MA - 4-20mA Analog Output
RATE - Rate Pulse Output
RELAY - Relay Output
Select the type of module installed from the list.
4-20 mA
Programming
Rev. 03/15
ISO-MOD 4-20 mA
FLOW 4MA
FLOW 20MA
CAL 4MA
CAL 20MA
4-20 TEST
-4.7-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Configured via jumper selections for either a passive (current
sinking) or active (current sourcing) transmission mode (see Part 3
for details), the 4-20 mA Output Module interfaces with virtually all
recording and logging systems by transmitting an analog current
signal that is proportional to system flow rate. Independent 4 mA
and 20 mA span settings are established in memory using the flow
measuring range entries. These entries can be set anywhere in the
measuring range of the instrument. Output resolution of the module
is 12-bits (4096 discrete points) and the module can drive up to 800
Ohms of load with its internal 24V isolated power source.
4-20 mA Span
The FLOW 4MA and FLOW 20MA entries are used to set the span
of the 4-20 mA analog output. These entries are volumetric rate
units that are equal to the volumetric units configured as
Engineering Rate Units and Engineering Units Rate Interval.
For example, to span the 4-20 mA output from 0 GPM to +100
GPM, with 12 mA being 50 GPM, set the FLOW 4MA and FLOW
20MA values as follows:
FLOW 4MA = 0.0
FLOW 20MA = 100.0
4-20mA
Calibration
The 4-20 mA ISO-MOD is factory calibrated and should not require
adjustment unless it is replaced.
NOTE: The CAL 4MA and CAL 20MA entries should not be used
in an attempt to set the 4-20 mA range. Utilize FLOW 4MA and
FLOW 20MA, detailed above, for this purpose.
CAL 4MA
The 4-20CAL? entry allows fine adjustments to be made to the
“zero” and span of the 4-20 mA output. Select YES to access
adjustment. To adjust the 4 mA output, a milliammeter or reliable
reference must be connected to the 4-20 mA output.
Procedure:
1. Disconnect one side of the current loop and connect the
milliammeter in series (disconnect either wire at the terminals
labeled +/- on the ISO-MOD 4-20 mA module).
Rev. 03/15
-4.8-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
2. Using the arrow keys, increase the numerical value to increase
the current in the loop to 4 mA. Decrease the value to decrease
the current in the loop to 4 mA. Typical values range between
40-80 counts.
3. Re-connect the 4-20 mA output circuitry as required.
CAL 20MA
Calibration of the 20 mA setting is conducted much the same way
as the 4 mA adjustments.
Procedure:
1. Disconnect one side of the current loop and connect the
milliammeter in series (disconnect either wire at the terminals
labeled +/- on the ISO-MOD 4-20 mA module).
2. Using the arrow keys, increase the numerical value to increase
the current in the loop to 20 mA. Decrease the value to
decrease the current in the loop to 20 mA. Typical values range
between 3700-3900 counts.
3. Re-connect the 4-20mA output circuitry as required.
4-20mA Test
4-20TEST – 4-20mA Output Test
Allows a simulated value to be output from the 4-20 mA output. By
incrementing this value, the 4-20 mA output will transmit the
indicated current value.
Rate Pulse
Programming
ISO-MOD RATE PULSE
FLOW 0HZ
FL MAXHZ
RATE TST
The Rate Pulse Output Module is utilized to transmit information to
external counters and PID systems via a frequency output that is
proportional to system flow rate. Independent Zero and Span
settings are established in memory using the flow measuring range
entries. Output resolution of the module is 12-bits (4096 discrete
points) and the maximum output frequency setting is 2,500 Hz. The
module has two output modes, turbine meter simulation and “open
Rev. 03/15
-4.9-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
collector”. The turbine meter simulation sources a non-ground
referenced saw-tooth waveform with a maximum peak amplitude of
approximately 500 mV p-p. The open-collector output utilizes a
0.21 Ohm MOSFET output that is rated to operate at 100 V and 1 A
maximum. If the open-collector output type is utilized, an external
voltage source and limit resistor must be present. See Part 1 of this
manual for connection information.
Rate Pulse
Span
The FLOW 0HZ and FL MAXHZ entries are used to set the span of
the 0-2.5 kHz frequency output. These entries are volumetric rate
units that are equal to the volumetric units configured as
Engineering Rate Units and Engineering Units Rate Interval.
For example, to span the 0-2.5 kHz output from 0 GPM to +100
GPM, with 1.25 kHz being 50 GPM, set the FLOW 0HZ and FL
MAXHZ values as follows:
FLOW 0HZ = 0
FL MAXHZ = 100.0
Rate Pulse
Test
RATE TST – Rate Pulse Output Test
Allows a simulated value to be output from the rate pulse output. By
incrementing this value, the rate pulse output will transmit the
indicated frequency in terms of percentage of the maximum output
frequency.
For example, if the maximum output frequency is 2500 Hz,
increment the displayed value to 50 to output a test frequency of
1250 Hz.
Dual Relay
Configuration
ISO-MOD Dual Relay
RELAY 1 AND RELAY 2
NONE
TOTAL
FLOW
OFF
ON
ERRORS
Rev. 03/15
-4.10-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Two independent SPDT (single-pole, double-throw, Form C) relays
are contained in this module. The relay operations are user
configured via the keypad to act in either a total pulse output, flow
rate alarm or error alarm mode. The relays are rated for 200 VAC
maximum and a have current rating of 0.5A resistive load (175 VDC
@ 0.25A resistive). It is highly recommended that a secondary relay
be utilized whenever the Control Relay ISO-MOD is used to control
inductive loads such as solenoids and motors.
Totalizer Relay
TOTAL mode configures the relay to output a 50 mSec pulse
(contact changeover) each time the display totalizer increments.
Flow Rate
Relay
Flow Rate Relay configuration permits relay changeover at two
separate flow rates allowing operation with an adjustable switch
deadband. Figure 4.2 illustrates how the setting of the two set
points influences Rate Alarm operation.
A single-point flow rate alarm would place the ON> setting slightly
higher than the OFF< setting – allowing a switch deadband to be
established. If a deadband is not established, switch chatter (rapid
switching) may result if the flow rate is very close to the switch point.
Maximum flow
Set ON >
Set OFF <
Minimum flow
Relay ON
Relay OFF
Deadband
Figure 4.2
Single Point Alarm Operation
Error Alarm
Relay
Rev. 03/15
When a relay is set to ERROR mode, the relay will activate when
any error occurs in the flow meter that has caused the meter to stop
measuring reliably. See the Appendix of this manual for a list of
potential error codes.
-4.11-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Configure
I/O Module 2
CFG MOD2 – Configure I/O Module 2
Change
Password
PASSWORD – Change the Security Password
The I/O configurations for CFG MOD2 are identical to those detailed
in CFG MOD1.
0-9999
By changing the Security Password from 0000 to some other value
(any value between 0001-9999), configuration parameters will not
be accessible without first entering that value when prompted. If the
value is left at 0000, no security is invoked and unauthorized
changes could be made. Access to resetting of the Totalizer is also
protected by this password.
Advanced
Setup
AD SETUP – Advance Setup Mode
Advance setup mode allows access to the following parameters.
Select YES to access these parameters.
AGC MODE - Automatic Gain Control
GAIN POT - Digital Gain Control
FILTER - Hardware Filter Control
LINEAR - 10 Point Linearization
AGC Mode
AGC MODE – Automatic Gain Control Mode of Operation
NORMAL - Standard Configuration
HIGH - Used for low signal strength
MANUAL - AGC disabled
GAIN POT - Digital Gain Control
FILTER - Hardware Filter Control
Select the desired mode of operation. A basic understanding of the
AGC logic is required in order to know when to use any selection
other than NORMAL.
Rev. 03/15
-4.12-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
When the unit is powered up, there is a delay before the unit begins
transmitting sound into the pipe. During this time, the signal
strength is measured and a base signal level is obtained. Typically
this is a value of about 20. The unit measures flow by measuring
the Doppler frequency shift. The frequency shift is approximately
70Hz per foot per second. For every foot per second increase in
velocity, the signal strength should increase by 1. The unit
automatically adjusts the gain and selects the proper hardware filter
for the measured velocity. The control can be observed when the
DISPLAY mode is set to DIAG. See Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3
Diagnostic Display
Manual
Operations
When NORMAL is selected, the unit will automatically control the
gain and front end hardware filter for optimum measurement of the
Doppler signal.
Select HIGH for applications where the unit reads flow rates
consistently, but much lower than the actual flow rate. This may be
required when sound is not getting through the pipe as well.
Selecting HIGH will cause the unit to look for the signal strength to
increase by 2 for every foot per second increase in flow rate.
Basically, the gain is doubled, but still automatically controlled.
For applications where the flow is constant, but you may need to
tune the unit to filter out extraneous noise, select the MANUAL
mode. Typically, this would only be required at very low flow rates.
When MANUAL mode is selected, the GAIN POT and FILTER
settings are manually set. Automatic control is disabled.
Rev. 03/15
-4.13-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Gain Control
GAIN POT – Digital Gain Pot
0-64
Using the arrow keys, increase or decrease the numerical value to
set the signal gain level. Typically, optimum flow measurement is
made when this value is between 10 and 50. Use the lowest value
that provides an accurate and stable flow reading. This adjustment
must be made in conjunction with the FILTER setting, and may be
an iterative process.
Hardware
Filter
FILTER – Hardware Filter Selection
NONE - No Filter
LOW - (1600Hz Cutoff)
MEDIUM - (350Hz Cutoff)
HIGH - (250Hz Cutoff)
Select the hardware filter with a cutoff frequency that is above the
Doppler shift frequency to be measured.
The Doppler shift
frequency is found by multiplying the flow velocity (in FPS) by 80.
For example, if the flow velocity is 4 FPS then the cutoff frequency
is 4 × 80 or 320 Hz. The filter with the next highest frequency would
be 350 Hz.
Transducer
Type
XDCR TYPE – Transducer Type
DT9 - Clamp-on Transducers
PROBE - Insertion Probe Transducer
Select the appropriate transducer type to be connected to the FD400 transmitter. The selection invokes optimum hardware and
software settings unique to the transducer architecture.
Rev. 03/15
-4.14-
Series FD-400
PART 4 - INSTRUMENT PROGRAMMING
Linearization
LINEAR – Entry of Linearization Data
The Linearization feature allows for correction of flow readings
caused by non-linear flow measurement. This typically occurs when
there is insufficient straight piping before or after the location where
the transducers are mounted.
Up to 10 linearization points may be entered. The microprocessor
will perform a linear interpolation between data points entered in the
linearization table and apply the associated correction factor to the
measured flow rate.
Start by entering the number of linearization points to be entered at
the NUM PTS prompt. If a value of 00 is entered, linearization is
disabled.
The unit will then prompt for FREQ 1 to be entered. Enter the
measured frequency corresponding to the flow rate for the first
point. This can be obtained by running actual flow with the
DISPLAY mode set to DIAG and reading the measured frequency,
or by calculating the frequency if the flow rate in feet per second is
known using the following formulas:
FD-400C Clamp-On Transducer:
Freq = Velocity (FPS) × 80 Hz
FD-400I Insertion Probe Transducer:
Freq = Velocity (FPS) × 80 Hz
The unit will then prompt for COEFF 1 to be entered. This is the
value that the measured flow rate will be multiplied by at this point.
Enter the coefficient or correction factor to be applied. The value
entered must be between 0.5 and 1.5.
Repeat this procedure for all of the linearization points. When all of
the points have been entered, the unit will return to the NUM PTS
prompt. Press the Menu key to return to the main menu LINEAR
prompt. Then using the arrow keys, move to the next setup
parameter.
Rev. 03/15
-4.15-
Series FD-400
PART 5 - STARTUP AND TROUBLESHOOTING
FD-400 Startup
Requirements
NOTE: The FD-400 flow meter system requires a full pipe of
flowing liquid before a successful startup evaluation can be
completed. Do not attempt to make adjustments or make Manual
configuration changes until a full pipe of flowing liquid is verified.
NOTE: If an RTV sealant was utilized to couple the transducers to
the pipe, the sealant must fully cure before power is applied to the
instrument. Most RTVs require 24 hours to cure satisfactorily. It is
very important that the transducers are not moved during the curing
process – air bubbles can form between the transducer and the pipe
wall and influence performance. If silicone grease was utilized as a
couplant, the curing time is not required.
Procedure:
1. Verify that the FD-400C or FD-400I transducer has been
properly installed and wired – See Part 2.
2. Verify that the FD-400 power supply jumper settings are properly
configured for the power supply that will be utilized – See Part 3.
3. Verify that the FD-400 is properly programmed – See Part 4.
4. Apply power.
5. On initial power-up, the FD-400 microprocessor conducts a
series of self-diagnostic tests, base-line measurements and
begins to buffer liquid velocity data. During this start-up,
approximately 30 seconds, flow rate readings and outputs will be
inhibited.
6. After the start-up routine has completed running, the meter will
begin to display flow rate and/or total as configured.
7. If an ERROR appears on the FD-400 lower display, pleaser refer
to the following Troubleshooting pages for resolution.
Rev. 03/15
-5.1-
Series FD-400
PART 5 - STARTUP AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Troubleshooting
Symptom
Resolution
Display does not light up
1. Insufficient power to FD-400 monitor – measure
voltage at J2
2. Power supply not properly wired to J2 – See Part 3
3. Fuse F1 is open or not installed
4. Power supply jumpers are not installed properly –
See Part 3
5. Ribbon cable between the door and enclosure back
is not fully engaged into the two sockets
ERROR on the FD-400 Display
1. Transducers not properly coupled to the pipe –
couplant not present or pipe not properly prepared
2. Transducer not properly wired to the J4 Terminal
block inside the FD-400 – review the Wiring
Diagram on the inside door of the FD-400
3. More than one FD-400 installed on the piping
system – See Part 3: Multiple Unit Installation
4. Insufficient particles over 35 microns – inject air
upstream of the transducers
5. Too many particles that are smaller than 35 micron
– ultrasonic meters likely will not operate
6. Transducer failure – unplug transducer cable from
J4, measure capacitance between red/black
Receive and Transmit. Verify that the capacitance
on each set is approximately 2 nF (nano Farads) –
and within 0.02 nF of each other
Unstable Flow Reading
1. Relocate transducer to a pipe position with less
hydraulic disturbance
2. Increase Damping value
Inaccurate Flow Reading
1. Verify that pipe ID is entered correctly
2. Verify that an erroneous Scale Factor has not been
entered
3. Verify that erroneous Linearization values have not
been entered
4. Verify that AGC is set to Normal
5. Verify that the transducers are mounted square
and 180 degrees apart on the pipe
6. Relocate transducer to a pipe position with greater
straight run length
7. DP7 Probe not aligned in the pipe
Rev. 03/15
-5.2-
Series FD-400
PART 5 - STARTUP AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Troubleshooting
Symptom
Resolution
Analog output does not match
data collection system
1. Verify 4-20 mA calibration
2. Verify 4 mA and 20 mA flow settings
3. Verify that the loop load is within the supply voltage
range
4. Run 4-20mA TEST feature – verify that mA outputs
coincide with expected data collection system
readings
Rate Pulse output does not match 1. Verify 0 Hz and MAX Hz flow settings
data collection system
2. Place oscilloscope or frequency counter on the
Rate Pulse module outputs and verify frequency
output
3. Run output TEST feature – verify that the Hz output
coincides with expected data collection system
readings
4. Verify that “K-factor” has been calculated correctly:
K-factor = Hz/(flow/second)
Example:
Max Hz (2,500 Hz) = 10,000 Gallons/Minute
K-factor = 2,500 Hz / 166.7 Gallons/Second
K-factor = 15 pulses/gallon
5. Verify that the data collection system is accepting
the pulses from the FD-400 – connect to Turbine
out or OUT/IN as required
FD-400 does not capture short
flow pulses
Rev. 03/15
When run in AUTO mode, the FD-400 utilizes a series
of filters that optimize readings for a particular flow
range. The flow meter will take several seconds to
adjust to a step change in flow. To make the flow
meter respond quickly to changes in flow, decrease
DAMPING, place the meter into MANUAL AGC and
lock the FILTER at NONE.
-5.3-
Series FD-400
APPENDIX
SERIES )' SOFTWARE MAP - General Operations
Y
M
TOTL MUL (Totalizer Exponent)
X PT 01 (Totalizer Resolution X.XX)
X PT 1 (Totalizer Resolution X.X)
X1 (Totalizer Resolution X)
X10 (Totalizer Resolution X x10)
X100 (Totalizer Resolution X x100)
X1000 (Totalizer Resolution X x1,000)
X10000 (Totalizer Resolution X x10,000)
X100000 (Totalizer Resolution X x100,000)
X1000000 (Totalizer Resolution X x1,000,000)
GAIN POT (Gain Potentiometer)
0-64 (Higher values=more Gain)
SCALE F (Scale Factor)
0.1 - 2.0
LINEAR (Linearization Table)
YES
NO
DAMPING
0-99 (Higher values increase damping)
CFG MOD1 (Configure Output Module #1)
YES
NO
FREQ N (Frequency at N)
0-9999 (Doppler Frequency)
N
CFG MOD2 (Configure Output Module #2)
YES
NO
NUM PTS (Quantity of Points)
0-10 (0=no linearization)
COEFF N (Coefficient at N)
0.5-5.0
Y
Y
NOTE:
Shaded boxes indicate Numerical Entries
Unshaded boxes indicate List Entries
FILTER (Hardware Filter)
NONE (Filters Off)
LOW (1,600 Hz knee)
MEDIUM (350 Hz knee)
HIGH (250 Hz knee)
XDCR TYP (Transducer Type)
DT9
PROBE
FL C-OFF (Low Flow Cut Off)
0.0+ (Entry in selected flow rate units)
N
RATE INT (Flow Rate Interval)
SEC
MIN
HOUR
DAY
AGC MODE
NORMAL
HIGH
MANUAL (GAIN and FILTER selection)
Y
RATE UNT (Flow Rate Units)
GALLONS
LITERS
MGAL (Million Gallons)
CUBIC FT (Cubic Feet)
M CU FT (Million Cubic Feet)
CUBIC ME (Cubic Meters)
MEGLTRS (Million Liters)
ACRE FT
OIL BARR (42 Gallons)
LIQ BARR (31.5 Gallons)
LBS (Pounds—Requires Specific Gravity)
KGS (Kilograms—Requires Specific Gravity)
VEL FEET (Velocity in Feet)
VEL MTRS (Velocity in Meters)
AD SETUP (Advanced Setup)
YES
NO
N or H
DISPLAY (Run Display Mode)
RATE (Flow Rate Only)
TOTAL (Totalizer Flow Only)
BOTH (Alternate between Rate and Total)
DIAG (Diagnostic Display)
PASSWORD (Locks Keypad)
XXXX (Other than 0000—Locks Keypad)
0000 (Keypad Unlocked)
N
ID (Pipe Internal Diameter)
INCHES
MM
TOTL UNT (Flow Totalizer Units)
GALLONS
LITERS
MGAL (Million Gallons)
CUBIC FT (Cubic Feet)
M CU FT (Million Cubic Feet)
CUBIC ME (Cubic Meters)
MEGLTRS (Million Liters)
ACRE FT
OIL BARR (42 Gallons)
LIQ BARR (31.5 Gallons)
LBS (Pounds—Requires Specific Gravity)
KGS (Kilograms—Requires Specific Gravity)
N
ID UNIT (Pipe Measurement Units)
INCH (Inches)
MM (Millimeters)
VER 1.04-1.05
See “Output Configuration Map”
To Beginning of “General Operations” Entry List
SERIES )' SOFTWARE - Output Configuration Map
4-20MA
FLOW 4MA (Flow Rate at 4 mA output)
FLOW20MA (Flow Rate at 20 mA output)
N
Y
4MA OUT (~40 Counts typical)
20MA OUT (~3800 Counts typical)
4-20TEST (4-20 Integer values)
CFG MOD2 (Configure Output Module #2)
YES
NO (Returns to PASSWORD entry)
Y
Y
4-20CAL?
YES
NO
N
4-20MA
From “General Operations” Software Map
Configuration of Output 1 and 2 are essentially identical, so
only Output 1 configuration is detailed.
CFG MOD1 (Configure Output Module #1)
YES
NO
VER 1.04-1.05
RELAY
RATE
NONE
RATE (0-2,500 Hz Output)
FLOW 0HZ (Flow Rate at 0 Hz output)
FL MAXHZ (Flow Rate at 2,500 Hz output)
RATE TST
RATE PCT (0-100 Percent in10% increments)
RELAY N (MOD#1: N=1,2; MOD#2: N=3,4)
NONE (No function)
TOTAL (Pulse with Totalizer Increment)
FLOW (Flow Rate Alarm)
ERRORS (Alarm on Errors)
FLOW (ON/OFF Settings for Rate Relay)
N OFF < (Relay N OFF at Flow Rate less than)
N ON > (Relay N ON at Flow Rate greater than)
NOTE:
Shaded boxes indicate Numerical Entries
Unshaded boxes indicate List Entries
Return to “General Operations” Software Map
PASSWORD
NONE or TOTAL or ERRORS
MOD TYPE (Module Type)
NONE (No Module present in the position)
4-20MA (Analog Output)
RATE (0-2,500 Hz Rate Pulse)
RELAY (Dual Relay)
Fluid Properties
Original Date:
Revision:
Revision Date:
Fluid
Acetate, Butyl
Acetate, Ethyl
Acetate, Methyl
Acetate, Propyl
Acetone
Alcohol
Alcohol, Butyl
Alcohol, Ethyl
Alcohol, Methyl
Alcohol, Propyl
Alcohol, Propyl
Ammonia
Anlline
Benzene
Benzol, Ethyl
Bromine
n-Butane
Butyrate, Ethyl
Carbon dioxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloro-benezene
Chloroform
Diethyl ether
Diethyl Ketone
Diethylene glycol
Ethanol
Ethyl alcohol
Ether
Ethyl ether
Ethylene glycol
Freon R12
Gasoline
Glycerin
Glycol
Isobutanol
Iso-Butane
Isopentane
Isopropanol
Isopropyl alcohol
Kerosene
Linalool
Linseed Oil
Methanol
Methyl alcohol
Methylene chloride
Methylethyl Ketone
Motor Oil (SAE 20/30)
Octane
7/30/1999
A
9/10/2003
Specific Gravity
20 degrees C
0.901
0.934
0.79
0.79
0.83
0.83
0.791
0.78
0.77
1.02
0.88
0.867
2.93
0.60
1.10
1.60
1.11
1.49
0.71
1.12
0.79
0.79
0.71
0.71
1.11
0.7
1.26
1.11
0.81
0.62
0.79
0.79
0.81
.925-.939
0.79
0.79
1.33
.88-.935
0.70
Sound Speed
m/s
ft/s
1270
1085
1211
1280
1174
1207
1270
1180
1120
1170
1222
1729
1639
1306
1338
889
1085
1170
839
926
1273
979
985
1310
1586
1207
1207
985
985
1658
774.2
1250
1904
1658
1212
1219.8
980
1170
1170
1324
1400
1770
1076
1076
1070
1210
1487
1172
4163.9
3559.7
3973.1
4196.7
3851.7
3960.0
4163.9
3868.9
3672.1
3836.1
4009.2
5672.6
5377.3
4284.8
4389.8
2916.7
3559.7
3836.1
2752.6
3038.1
4176.5
3211.9
3231.6
4295.1
5203.4
3960.0
3960.0
3231.6
3231.6
5439.6
2540
4098.4
6246.7
5439.6
3976.4
4002
3215.2
3838.6
3838.6
4343.8
4590.2
5803.3
3530.2
3530.2
3510.5
3967.2
4875.4
3845.1
delta-v/degree C
m/s/degree C
Kinematic Viscosity
Centistokes
Absolute Viscosity
Centipoise
4.4
0.489
0.407
0.441
0.380
4.5
4.0
3.3
4
2.92
0.399
1.396
3.239
1.396
0.695
0.316
1.101
2.688
1.159
0.550
2.549
0.292
3.630
0.711
0.797
0.323
1.988
0.225
3.710
0.625
0.691
0.946
7.7
2.5
3.6
3.4
4.9
0.137
0.607
0.722
0.550
0.311
0.151
0.968
0.799
0.819
0.222
2.4
4.0
4.0
4.9
4.9
2.1
1.390
1.396
0.311
0.311
17.208
1.097
1.101
0.222
0.222
19.153
2.2
2.1
757.100
953.946
4.8
0.340
2.718
2.718
0.211
2.134
2.134
2.92
2.92
3.94
0.695
0.695
0.310
0.550
0.550
0.411
4.14
0.730
0.513
6.7
4.0
4.7
3.0
5.8
3.6
Oil, Castor
Oil, Diesel
Oil (Lubricating X200)
Oil (Olive)
Oil (Peanut)
Paraffin Oil
Pentane
Petroleum
1-Propanol
Refrigerant 11
Refrigerant 12
Refrigerant 14
Refrigerant 21
Refrigerant 22
Refrigerant 113
Refrigerant 114
Refrigerant 115
Refrigerant C318
Silicone (30 cp)
Toluene
Transformer Oil
Trichlorethylene
1,1,1-Trichloro-ethane
Turpentine
Water, distilled
Water, heavy
Water, sea
Wood Alcohol
m-Xylene
o-Xylene
p-Xylene
0.97
0.80
0.91
0.94
0.626
0.876
0.78
1.49
1.52
1.75
1.43
1.49
1.56
1.46
1.62
0.99
0.87
1.33
0.88
0.996
1
1.025
0.791
0.868
0.897
1477
1250
1530
1431
1458
1420
1020
1290
1222
828.3
774.1
875.24
891
893.9
783.7
665.3
656.4
574
990
1328
1390
1050
985
1255
1498
1400
1531
1076
1343
1331.5
1334
4845.8
4101
5019.9
4694.9
4783.5
4655.7
3346.5
4229.5
4009.2
2717.5
2539.7
2871.5
2923.2
2932.7
2571.2
2182.7
2153.5
1883.2
3248
4357
4557.4
3442.6
3231.6
4117.5
4914.7
4593
5023
3530.2
4406.2
4368.4
4376.8
3.6
0.670
0.649
2.75
100.000
91.200
0.363
0.227
4.27
30.000
0.644
29.790
0.558
-2.4
0.902
1.400
1.000
1.200
1.232
0.996
1.000
0.695
0.749
0.903
0.662
1.025
0.550
0.650
0.810
3.56
4.24
6.61
3.97
4.79
3.44
3.73
4.42
3.88
-2.4
2.92
4.1
Steel, Stainless Steel, P.V.C.
Standard Schedules
Nominal
OUTSIDE
Pipe Size
DIAMETER
Inches
SCH.
5
SCH. 10
(LTWALL)
SCH. 20
SCH. 30
ID
ID
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
Wall
Wall
STD.
ID
Wall
SCH. 40
SCH. 60
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
X STG.
SCH. 80
SCH. 100
SCH. 120
SCH. 140
SCH. 180
ID
ID
ID
ID
Wall
0.815
1.160
1.338
1.687
2.125
2.624
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.344
0.375
0.438
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
1
1.25
1.5
2
2.5
3
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
1.185
1.530
1.770
2.245
2.709
3.334
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.083
0.083
1.097
1.442
1.682
2.157
2.635
3.260
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.120
0.120
1.049
1.380
1.610
2.067
2.469
3.068
1.049
1.380
1.610
2.067
2.469
3.068
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.957
1.278
1.500
1.939
2.323
2.900
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.957
1.278
1.500
1.939
2.323
2.900
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
3.5
4
5
6
8
10
4.000
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750
3.834
4.334
5.345
6.407
8.407
10.482
0.083
0.083
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.134
3.760
4.260
5.295
6.357
8.329
10.42
0.120
0.120
0.134
0.134
0.148 8.125 0.250 8.071 0.277
0.165 10.25 0.250 10.13 0.310
3.548
4.026
5.047
6.065
7.981
10.02
3.548
0.237 4.026
0.258 5.047
0.280 6.065
0.322 7.981
0.365 10.020
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
7.813
9.750
0.406
0.500
3.364
3.826
4.813
5.761
7.625
9.750
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.500
3.364
3.826
4.813
5.761
7.625
9.562
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.594
7.437
9.312
12
14
16
18
20
24
12.750
14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
24.000
12.420 0.165 12.39
13.50
15.50
17.50
19.50
23.50
0.180
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
12.00
13.25
15.25
17.25
19.25
23.25
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
11.938
13.124
15.000
16.876
18.814
22.626
0.406
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.593
0.687
11.626
12.814
14.688
16.564
18.376
22.126
0.562
0.593
0.656
0.718
0.812
0.937
11.750
13.000
15.000
17.000
19.000
23.000
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
11.370
12.500
14.310
16.120
17.930
21.560
0.690
0.750
0.845
0.940
1.035
1.220
11.060
12.310
13.930
15.680
17.430
20.930
30
36
42
48
30.000
36.000
42.000
48.000
29.37 0.315 29.00 0.500 29.00 0.500 29.25
35.37 0.315 35.00 0.500 35.00 0.500 35.25
41.25
47.25
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
29.250
35.250
41.250
47.250
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
29.000
35.000
41.000
47.000
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
12.25
13.37
15.37
17.37
19.25
23.25
0.250
0.315
0.315
0.315
0.375
0.375
12.09
13.25
15.25
17.12
19.25
23.25
0.330
0.375
0.375
0.440
0.375
0.375
Wall
Wall
Wall
0.594
0.719
3.624
4.563
5.501
7.187
9.062
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.719
0.844
3.624
4.563
5.501
7.187
9.062
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.719
0.844
3.438
4.313
5.187
6.183
8.500
0.531
0.625
0.719
1.221
1.125
0.845
0.845
1.035
1.160
1.285
1.535
10.750
11.810
13.560
15.250
17.000
20.930
1.000
1.095
1.220
1.375
1.500
1.535
10.750
11.810
13.560
15.250
17.000
20.930
1.000
1.095
1.220
1.375
1.500
1.535
10.120
11.180
12.810
14.430
16.060
19.310
1.315
1.410
1.595
1.785
1.970
2.345
March, 2015
Cast Iron Pipe
Standard Classes
CLASS A
Size O.D.
(Inches) Inch
CLASS B
CLASS C
CLASS D
CLASS E
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
O.D.
I.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
CLASS F
CLASS G
CLASS H
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
I.D.
O.D.
Wall
Inch
Inch
I.D.
Inch
Wall
3
3.80
3.02 0.39 3.96
3.12 0.42 3.96
3.06 0.45 3.96
3.00 0.48
4
4.80
3.96 0.42 5.00
4.10 0.45 5.00
4.04 0.48 5.00
3.96 0.52
6
6.90
6.02 0.44 7.10
6.14 0.48 7.10
6.08 0.51 7.10
6.00 0.55 7.22
6.06 0.58 7.22
6.00 0.61 7.38
6.08 0.65 7.38
6.00
0.69
8
9.05
8.13 0.46 9.05
8.03 0.51 9.30
8.18 0.56 9.30
8.10 0.60 9.42
8.10 0.66 9.42
8.10 0.66 9.60
8.10 0.75 9.60
8.00
0.8
10
11.10 10.10 0.50 11.10 9.96 0.57 11.40 10.16 0.62 11.40 10.04 0.68 11.60 10.12 0.74 11.60 10.00 0.80 11.84 10.12 0.86 11.84 10.00 0.92
12
13.20 12.12 0.54 13.20 11.96 0.62 13.50 12.14 0.68 13.50 12.00 0.75 13.78 12.14 0.82 13.78 12.00 0.89 14.08 12.14 0.97 14.08 12.00 1.04
14
15.30 14.16 0.57 15.30 13.98 0.66 15.65 14.17 0.74 15.65 14.01 0.82 15.98 14.18 0.90 15.98 14.00 0.99 16.32 14.18 1.07 16.32 14.00 1.16
16
17.40 16.20 0.60 17.40 16.00 0.70 17.80 16.20 0.80 17.80 16.02 0.89 18.16 16.20 0.98 18.16 16.00 1.08 18.54 16.18 1.18 18.54 16.00 1.27
18
19.50 18.22 0.64 19.50 18.00 0.75 19.92 18.18 0.87 19.92 18.00 0.96 20.34 18.20 1.07 20.34 18.00 1.17 20.78 18.22 1.28 20.78 18.00 1.39
20
21.60 20.26 0.67 21.60 20.00 0.80 22.06 20.22 0.92 22.06 20.00 1.03 22.54 20.24 1.15 22.54 20.00 1.27 23.02 20.24 1.39 23.02 20.00 1.51
24
25.80 24.28 0.76 25.80 24.02 0.89 26.32 24.22 1.05 26.32 24.00 1.16 26.90 24.28 1.31 26.90 24.00 1.45 27.76 24.26 1.75 27.76 24.00 1.88
30
31.74 29.98 0.88 32.00 29.94 1.03 32.40 30.00 1.20 32.74 30.00 1.37 33.10 30.00 1.55 33.46 30.00 1.73
36
37.96 35.98 0.99 38.30 36.00 1.15 38.70 35.98 1.36 39.16 36.00 1.58 39.60 36.00 1.80 40.04 36.00 2.02
42
44.20 42.00 1.10 44.50 41.94 1.28 45.10 42.02 1.54 45.58 42.02 1.78
48
50.50 47.98 1.26 50.80 47.96 1.42 51.40 47.98 1.71 51.98 48.00 1.99
54
56.66 53.96 1.35 57.10 54.00 1.55 57.80 54.00 1.90 58.40 53.94 2.23
60
62.80 60.02 1.39 63.40 60.06 1.67 64.20 60.20 2.00 64.82 60.06 2.38
72
75.34 72.10 1.62 76.00 72.10 1.95 76.88 72.10 2.39
84
87.54 84.10 1.72 88.54 84.10 2.22
March, 2015
Ductile Iron Pipe
Standard Classes
Outside
Pipe
Diameter
Size
(inches) (inches)
Class 50
Class 51
Class 52
Class 53
Class 54
Class 55
Class 56
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
ID
Wall
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.34
3.40
4.22
6.28
8.39
10.40
12.46
0.28
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.35
0.37
3.34
4.16
6.22
8.33
10.34
12.40
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
3.28
4.10
6.16
8.27
10.28
12.34
0.34
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.43
3.22
4.04
6.10
8.21
10.22
12.28
0.37
0.38
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.46
3.14
3.93
6.04
8.15
10.16
12.22
0.41
0.44
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.49
Cement Lining
Std./Double
Thickness
3
4
6
8
10
12
3.96
4.80
6.90
9.05
11.10
13.20
6.40
8.51
10.32
12.58
0.25
0.27
0.39
0.31
3.46
4.28
6.34
8.45
10.46
12.52
14
16
18
20
24
15.30
17.40
19.50
21.60
25.80
14.64
16.72
18.80
20.88
25.04
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.36
0.38
14.58
16.66
18.74
20.82
24.98
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.41
14.52
16.60
18.68
20.76
24.92
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.42
0.44
14.46
16.54
18.62
20.70
24.86
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.47
14.40
16.48
18.56
20.64
24.80
0.45
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.50
14.34
16.42
18.50
20.58
24.74
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.51
0.53
14.28
16.36
18.44
20.52
24.68
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.56
.1875/.375
30
36
42
48
54
32.00
38.30
44.50
50.80
57.10
31.22
37.44
43.56
49.78
55.96
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.51
0.57
31.14
37.34
43.44
49.64
55.80
0.43
0.48
0.53
0.58
0.65
31.06
37.06
43.32
49.50
55.64
0.47
0.62
0.59
0.65
0.73
30.98
37.14
43.20
49.36
55.48
0.51
0.58
0.65
0.72
0.81
30.90
37.40
43.08
49.22
55.32
0.55
0.45
0.71
0.79
0.89
30.82
36.94
42.96
49.08
55.16
0.59
0.68
0.77
0.86
0.97
30.74
36.84
42.84
48.94
55.00
0.63
0.73
0.83
0.93
1.05
.250/.500
.123/.250
March, 2015
FPS TO GPM CROSS - REFERENCE (Schedule 40)
Nominal
I.D.
Pipe
INCH
(Inches)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
1
1.05 2.6989 4.0484 5.3978 6.7473
8.097
9.4462 10.796 12.145 13.490 14.844 16.190 17.540 18.890 20.240 21.590 22.941 24.290
1.25
1.38 4.6620 6.9929 9.3239 11.655
13.99
16.317 18.648 20.979 23.310 25.641 27.970 30.300 32.630 34.960 37.300 39.627 41.958
1.5
1.61 6.3454 9.5182 12.691 15.864
19.04
22.209 25.382 28.555 31.730 34.900 38.070 41.250 44.420 47.590 50.760 53.936 57.109
2
2.07 10.489 15.734 20.979 26.224
31.47
36.713 41.958 47.202 52.450 57.692 62.940 68.180 73.430 78.670 83.920 89.160 94.405
2.5
2.47 14.935 22.402 29.870 37.337
44.80
52.272 59.740 67.207 74.670 82.142 89.610 97.080 104.50 112.00 119.50 126.95 134.41
3
3.07 23.072 34.608 46.144 57.680
69.22
80.752 92.288 103.82 115.40 126.90 138.40 150.00 161.50 173.00 184.60 196.11 207.65
3.5
3.55 30.851 46.276 61.702 77.127
92.55
107.98 123.40 138.83 154.30 169.68 185.10 200.50 216.00 231.40 246.80 262.23 277.66
4
4.03 39.758 59.636 79.515 99.394
119.3
139.15 159.03 178.91 198.80 218.67 238.50 258.40 278.30 298.20 318.10 337.94 357.82
5
5.05 62.430 93.645 124.86 156.07
187.3
218.50 249.72 280.93 312.10 343.36 374.60 405.80 437.00 468.20 499.40 530.65 561.87
6
6.06 89.899 134.85 179.80 224.75
269.7
314.65 359.60 404.55 449.50 494.45 539.40 584.30 629.30 674.20 719.20 764.14 809.09
8
7.98 155.89 233.83 311.78 389.72
467.7
545.61 623.56 701.50 779.40 857.39 935.30 1013.0 1091.0 1169.0 1247.0 1325.1 1403.0
10
10.02 245.78 368.67 491.56 614.45
737.3
860.23 983.12 1106.0 1229.0 1351.8 1475.0 1598.0 1720.0 1843.0 1966.0 2089.1 2212.0
12
11.94 348.99 523.49 697.99 872.49 1047.0 1221.5 1396.0 1570.5 1745.0 1919.5 2094.0 2268.0 2443.0 2617.0 2792.0 2966.5 3141.0
14
13.13 422.03 633.04 844.05 1055.1 1266.0 1477.1 1688.1 1899.1 2110.0 2321.1 2532.0 2743.0 2954.0 3165.0 3376.0 3587.2 3798.2
16
15.00 550.80 826.20 1101.6 1377.0 1652.0 1927.8 2203.2 2478.6 2754.0 3029.4 3305.0 3580.0 3856.0 4131.0 4406.0 4681.8 4957.2
FPS TO GPM: GPM = (PIPE ID)² X VELOCITY IN FPS X 2.45
GPM
GPM TO FPS: FPS =
(ID)² X 2.45
FPS X .3048 = MPS
GPM X .0007 = GPD
GPM X 3.7878 = LPM
FPS TO GPM CROSS - REFERENCE (Schedule 40)
Nominal
I.D.
Pipe
INCH
(Inches)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
18
16.88 697.52 1046.3 1395.0 1743.8 2093.0 2441.3 2790.1 3138.8 3488.0 3836.3 4185.0 4534.0 4883.0 5231.0 5580.0 5928.9 6277.7
20
18.81 866.14 1299.0 1732.0 2165.3 2598.4 3031.5 3464.6 3897.6 4330.7 4763.8 5196.8 5629.9 6063.0 6496.0 6929.1 7362.2 7795.3
24
22.63 1253.7 1880.0 2507.0 3134.1 3761.0 4387.8 5014.6 5641.5 6268.3 6895.1 7522.0 8148.8 8775.6 9402.4
10029
10656
11283
26
25.25 1560.7 2341.0 3121.0 3901.9 4682.2 5462.6 6243.0 7023.4 7803.7 8584.1 9364.5
10145
10925
11706
12486
13266
14047
28
27.25 1817.8 2727.0 3636.0 4544.5 5453.4 6362.3 7271.2 8180.0 9088.9 9997.8
10907
11816
12725
13633
14542
15451
16360
30
29.25 2094.4 3142.0 4189.0 5236.0 6283.2 7330.4 8377.6 9424.9
10472
11519
12566
13614
14661
15708
16755
17803
18850
32
31.25 2390.6 3586.0 4781.0 5976.5 7171.9 8367.2 9562.5
10758
11953
13148
14344
15539
16734
17930
19125
20320
21516
34
33.25 2706.4 4060.0 5413.0 6766.0 8119.2 9472.4
10826
12179
13532
14885
16238
17592
18945
20298
21651
23004
24358
36
35.25 3041.8 4563.0 6084.0 7604.5 9125.4
10646
12167
13688
15209
16730
18251
19772
21292
22813
24334
25855
27376
42
41.25 4165.4 6248.0 8331.0 10414
12496
14579
16662
18744
20827
22910
24992
27075
29158
31241
33323
35406
37489
48
47.99 5637.8 8457.0 11276 14095
16913
19732
22551
25370
28189
31008
33827
36646
39465
42284
45103
47922
50740
54
53.98 7133.1 10700 14266 17833
21399
24966
28532
32099
35665
39232
42798
46365
49931
53498
57065
60631
64198
60
60.09 8839.2 13259 17678 22098
26518
30937
35357
39777
44196
48616
53035
57455
61875
66294
70714
75134
79553
72
72.10 12726 19089 25451 31814
38177
44540
50903
57266
63628
69991
76354
82717
89080
95443 101805 108168 114531
84
84.10 17314 25971 34628 43285
51943
60600
69257
77914
86571
95228 103885 112542 121199 129856 138514 147171 155828
FPS TO GPM: GPM = (PIPE ID)² X VELOCITY IN FPS X 2.45
GPM
GPM TO FPS: FPS =
(ID)² X 2.45
FPS X .3048 = MPS
GPM X .0007 = GPD
GPM X 3.7878 = LPM
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