tsim-2.0.44

tsim-2.0.44
.
TSIM2
A generic SPARC architecture simulator capable of
emulating ERC32- and LEON-based computer systems
2016 User's Manual
The most important thing we build is trust
TSIM2 Simulator User's Manual
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 6
1.1. General ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2. Supported platforms and system requirements ..................................................................... 6
1.3. Obtaining TSIM ............................................................................................................. 6
1.4. Problem reports .............................................................................................................. 6
2. Installation ............................................................................................................................... 7
2.1. General ......................................................................................................................... 7
2.2. License installation ......................................................................................................... 7
3. Operation ................................................................................................................................ 8
3.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................... 8
3.2. Starting TSIM ................................................................................................................ 8
3.3. Standalone mode commands ........................................................................................... 11
3.4. Symbolic debug information ........................................................................................... 14
3.5. Breakpoints and watchpoints .......................................................................................... 14
3.6. Profiling ...................................................................................................................... 14
3.7. Code coverage ............................................................................................................. 15
3.8. Check-pointing ............................................................................................................. 16
3.9. Performance ................................................................................................................. 16
3.10. Backtrace ................................................................................................................... 16
3.11. Connecting to gdb ....................................................................................................... 16
3.12. Thread support ........................................................................................................... 17
3.12.1. TSIM thread commands ..................................................................................... 17
3.12.2. GDB thread commands ..................................................................................... 18
3.13. Synchronising TSIM time to external time ....................................................................... 20
4. Emulation characteristics .......................................................................................................... 21
4.1. Common behaviour ....................................................................................................... 21
4.1.1. Timing ............................................................................................................. 21
4.1.2. UARTs ............................................................................................................. 21
4.1.3. Floating point unit (FPU) .................................................................................... 21
4.1.4. Delayed write to special registers .......................................................................... 21
4.1.5. Idle-loop optimisation ......................................................................................... 21
4.1.6. Custom instruction emulation ............................................................................... 22
4.1.7. Chip-specific errata ............................................................................................ 22
4.2. ERC32 specific emulation .............................................................................................. 22
4.2.1. Processor emulation ............................................................................................ 22
4.2.2. MEC emulation ................................................................................................. 22
4.2.3. Interrupt controller ............................................................................................. 24
4.2.4. Watchdog ......................................................................................................... 24
4.2.5. Power-down mode .............................................................................................. 24
4.2.6. Memory emulation ............................................................................................. 24
4.2.7. EDAC operation ................................................................................................ 24
4.2.8. Extended RAM and I/O areas ............................................................................... 24
4.2.9. SYSAV signal ................................................................................................... 25
4.2.10. EXTINTACK signal ......................................................................................... 25
4.2.11. IWDE signal .................................................................................................... 25
4.3. LEON2 specific emulation ............................................................................................. 25
4.3.1. Processor .......................................................................................................... 25
4.3.2. Cache memories ................................................................................................ 25
4.3.3. LEON peripherals registers .................................................................................. 25
4.3.4. Interrupt controller ............................................................................................. 25
4.3.5. Power-down mode .............................................................................................. 25
4.3.6. Memory emulation ............................................................................................. 25
4.3.7. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions ............................................................... 26
4.3.8. FPU emulation ................................................................................................... 26
4.3.9. DSU and hardware breakpoints ............................................................................. 26
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4.4. LEON3 specific emulation .............................................................................................
4.4.1. General ............................................................................................................
4.4.2. Processor ..........................................................................................................
4.4.3. Cache memories ................................................................................................
4.4.4. Power-down mode ..............................................................................................
4.4.5. LEON3 peripherals registers ................................................................................
4.4.6. Interrupt controller .............................................................................................
4.4.7. Memory emulation .............................................................................................
4.4.8. CASA instruction ...............................................................................................
4.4.9. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions ...............................................................
4.4.10. FPU emulation .................................................................................................
4.4.11. DSU and hardware breakpoints ...........................................................................
4.4.12. AHB status registers .........................................................................................
4.5. LEON4 specific emulation .............................................................................................
4.5.1. General ............................................................................................................
4.5.2. Processor ..........................................................................................................
4.5.3. L1 Cache memories ............................................................................................
4.5.4. L2 Cache memory ..............................................................................................
4.5.5. Power-down mode ..............................................................................................
4.5.6. LEON4 peripherals registers ................................................................................
4.5.7. Interrupt controller .............................................................................................
4.5.8. Memory emulation .............................................................................................
4.5.9. CASA instruction ...............................................................................................
4.5.10. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions ..............................................................
4.5.11. FPU emulation .................................................................................................
4.5.12. DSU and hardware breakpoints ...........................................................................
4.5.13. AHB status registers .........................................................................................
5. Loadable modules ...................................................................................................................
5.1. TSIM I/O emulation interface .........................................................................................
5.1.1. simif structure ...................................................................................................
5.1.2. ioif structure ......................................................................................................
5.1.3. Structure to be provided by I/O device ...................................................................
5.1.4. Cygwin specific io_init() .....................................................................................
5.2. LEON AHB emulation interface ......................................................................................
5.2.1. procif structure ..................................................................................................
5.2.2. Structure to be provided by AHB module ...............................................................
5.2.3. Big versus little endianess ...................................................................................
5.3. TSIM/LEON co-processor emulation ...............................................................................
5.3.1. FPU/CP interface ...............................................................................................
5.3.2. Structure elements ..............................................................................................
5.3.3. Attaching the FPU and CP ...................................................................................
5.3.4. Big versus little endianess ...................................................................................
5.3.5. Additional TSIM commands ................................................................................
5.3.6. Example FPU ....................................................................................................
6. TSIM library (TLIB) ...............................................................................................................
6.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................
6.2. Function interface .........................................................................................................
6.3. AHB modules ..............................................................................................................
6.4. I/O interface ................................................................................................................
6.5. UART handling ............................................................................................................
6.6. Linking a TLIB application ............................................................................................
6.7. Limitations ..................................................................................................................
7. Cobham UT699/UT699e AHB module .......................................................................................
7.1. Overview ....................................................................................................................
7.2. Loading the module ......................................................................................................
7.3. UT699e .......................................................................................................................
7.4. Debugging ...................................................................................................................
7.5. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Media Access Controller interface .....................................................
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7.5.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
7.5.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
7.5.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
7.5.4. Ethernet packet server .........................................................................................
7.5.5. Ethernet packet server protocol .............................................................................
7.6. SpaceWire interface with RMAP support ..........................................................................
7.6.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
7.6.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
7.6.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
7.6.4. SpaceWire packet server ......................................................................................
7.6.5. SpaceWire packet server protocol .........................................................................
7.7. PCI initiator/target and GPIO interface .............................................................................
7.7.1. Commands ........................................................................................................
7.7.2. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
7.7.3. User supplied dynamic library ..............................................................................
7.7.4. PCI bus model API ............................................................................................
7.7.5. GPIO model API ...............................................................................................
7.8. CAN interface ..............................................................................................................
7.8.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
7.8.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
7.8.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
7.8.4. Packet server .....................................................................................................
7.8.5. CAN packet server protocol .................................................................................
8. Cobham UT700 AHB module ...................................................................................................
8.1. Overview ....................................................................................................................
8.2. Loading the module ......................................................................................................
8.3. SPI bus model API .......................................................................................................
9. Cobham Gaisler GR712 AHB module ........................................................................................
9.1. Overview ....................................................................................................................
9.2. Loading the module ......................................................................................................
9.3. Debugging ...................................................................................................................
9.4. CAN interface ..............................................................................................................
9.4.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
9.4.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
9.4.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
9.4.4. Packet server .....................................................................................................
9.4.5. CAN packet server protocol .................................................................................
9.5. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Media Access Controller interface .....................................................
9.5.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
9.5.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
9.5.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
9.5.4. Ethernet packet server .........................................................................................
9.5.5. Ethernet packet server protocol .............................................................................
9.6. SpaceWire interface with RMAP support ..........................................................................
9.6.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
9.6.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
9.6.3. Debug flags .......................................................................................................
9.6.4. SpaceWire packet server ......................................................................................
9.6.5. SpaceWire packet server protocol .........................................................................
9.7. SPI and GPIO user modules ...........................................................................................
9.7.1. SPI bus model API .............................................................................................
9.7.2. GPIO model API ...............................................................................................
9.8. UART interfaces ..........................................................................................................
9.8.1. Start up options .................................................................................................
9.8.2. Commands ........................................................................................................
10. Atmel AT697 PCI emulation ...................................................................................................
10.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................
10.2. Loading the module .....................................................................................................
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10.3. AT697 initiator mode ..................................................................................................
10.4. AT697 target mode .....................................................................................................
10.5. Definitions .................................................................................................................
10.5.1. PCI command table ..........................................................................................
10.6. Read/write function installed by PCI module ...................................................................
10.7. Read/write function installed by AT697 module ...............................................................
10.8. Registers ...................................................................................................................
10.9. Debug flags ...............................................................................................................
10.10. Commands ...............................................................................................................
11. TPS VxWorks Module ...........................................................................................................
11.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................
11.2. Loading the module .....................................................................................................
11.3. Configuration .............................................................................................................
12. Support ................................................................................................................................
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1. Introduction
1.1. General
TSIM is a generic SPARC1 architecture simulator capable of emulating ERC32- and LEON-based computer systems.
TSIM provides several unique features:
• Emulation of ERC32 and LEON2/3/4 processors
• Superior performance: up to 60 MIPS on high-end PC (Intel i7-2600K @3.4GHz)
• Accelerated processor standby mode, allowing faster-than-realtime simulation speeds
• Standalone operation or remote connection to GNU debugger (gdb)
• Also provided as library to be included in larger simulator frameworks
• 64-bit time for practically unlimited simulation periods
• Instruction trace buffer
• EDAC emulation (ERC32)
• MMU emulation (LEON2/3/4)
• SRAM emulation and functional emulation of SDRAM (with SRAM timing) (LEON2/3/4)
• Local scratch-pad RAM (LEON3/4)
• Loadable modules to include user-defined I/O devices
• Non-intrusive execution time profiling
• Code coverage monitoring
• Instruction trace buffer
• Stack backtrace with symbolic information
• Check-pointing capability to save and restore complete simulator state
• Unlimited number of breakpoints and watchpoints
• Pre-defined functional simulation modules for GR712, UT699, UT700 and AT697
1.2. Supported platforms and system requirements
TSIM supports the following platforms: Solaris 2.8, Linux, Linux-x64, Windows XP/7, and Windows XP/7 with
Cygwin Unix emulation.
1.3. Obtaining TSIM
The primary site for TSIM is the Cobham Gaisler website [http://www.gaisler.com] where the latest version of
TSIM can be ordered and evaluation versions downloaded.
1.4. Problem reports
Please send problem reports or comments to support@gaisler.com.
1
SPARC is a registered trademark of SPARC International
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2. Installation
2.1. General
TSIM is distributed as a tar-file (e.g. tsim-erc32-2.0.44.tar.gz) with the following contents:
Table 2.1. TSIM content
doc
TSIM documentation
samples
Sample programs
iomod
Example I/O modules
tsim/cygwin
TSIM binary for cygwin
tsim/linux
TSIM binary for linux
tsim/linux-x64
TSIM binary for linux-x64
tsim/solaris
TSIM binary for solaris
tsim/win32
TSIM binary for native windows
tlib/cygwin
TSIM library for cygwin
tlib/linux
TSIM library for linux
tlib/linux-x64
TSIM library for linux-x64
tlib/solaris
TSIM library for solaris
tlib/win32
TSIM library for native windows
The tar-file can be installed at any location with the following command:
gunzip -c tsim-erc32-2.0.44.tar.gz | tar xf -
2.2. License installation
TSIM is licensed using a HASP USB hardware key. Before use, a device driver for the key must be installed. See
the simulator download page at the Cobham Gaisler website [http://www.gaisler.com] for information on where
to find the HASP device drivers.
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3. Operation
3.1. Overview
TSIM can operate in two modes: standalone and attached to gdb. In standalone mode, ERC32 or LEON applications can be loaded and simulated using a command line interface. A number of commands are available to
examine data, insert breakpoints and advance simulation. When attached to gdb, TSIM acts as a remote gdb target,
and applications are loaded and debugged through gdb (or a gdb front-end such as ddd).
3.2. Starting TSIM
TSIM is started as follows on a command line:
tsim-erc32 [options] [input_files]
tsim-leon [options] [input_files]
tsim-leon3 [options] [input_files]
tsim-leon4 [options] [input_files]
The following command line options are supported by TSIM:
-ahbm ahb_module
Use ahb_module as loadable AHB module rather than the default ahb.so (LEON only). If multiple -ahbm switches are specified up to 16 AHB modules can be loaded. The enviromental variable
TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
-ahbstatus
Adds AHB status register support.
-asi1noallocate
Makes ASI 1 reads not allocate cache lines (LEON3/4 only).
-at697e
Configure caches according to the Atmel AT697E device (LEON2 only).
-banks ram_banks
Sets how many RAM banks the SRAM is divided on. Supported values are 1, 2 or 4. Default is 1. (LEON
only).
-bopt
Enables idle-loop optimisation (see Section 4.1.5).
-bp
Enables emulation of LEON3/4 branch prediction
-c file
Reads commands from file and executes them at startup.
-cfg file
Reads extra configuration options from file.
-cfgreg_and and_mask, -cfgreg_or or_mask
LEON2 only: Patch the Leon Configuration Register (0x80000024). The new value will be: (reg &
and_mask)| or_mask.
-covtrans
Enable MMU translations for the coverage system. Needed when MMU is enabled and not mapping 1-to-1.
-cpm cp_module
Use cp_module as loadable co-processor module file name (LEON). The enviromental variable
TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
-cas
When running a VXWORKS SMP image the SPARCV9 “casa” instruction is used. The option -cas
enables this instruction (LEON3/4 only).
-dcsize size
Defines the set-size (KiB) of the LEON data cache. Allowed values are powers of two in the range 1 - 64
for LEON2 and 1-256 for LEON3/4. Default is 4 KiB.
-dlock
Enable data cache line locking. Default is disabled. (LEON only).
-dlram addr size
Allocates size KiB of local dcache scratchpad memory at address addr. (LEON3/4)
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-dlsize size
Sets the line size of the LEON data cache (in bytes). Allowed values are 16 or 32. Default is 16.
-drepl repl
Sets the replacement algorithm for the LEON data cache. Allowed values are rnd (default for LEON2)
for random replacement, lru (default for LEON3/4) for the least-recently-used replacement algorithm and
lrr for the least-recently-replaced replacement algorithm.
-dsets sets
Defines the number of sets in the LEON data cache. Allowed values are 1 - 4.
-exc2b
Issue 0x2b memory exception on memory write store error (LEON2 only)
-ext nr
Enable extended irq ctrl with extended irq number nr (LEON3/4 only)
-fast_uart
Run UARTs at infinite speed, rather than with correct (slow) baud rate.
-fpm fp_module
Use fp_module as loadable FPU module rather than a built in FPU model or looking for the default fp.so/
dll module (LEON only). The enviromental variable TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated
(‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
-freq system_clock
Sets the simulated system clock (MHz). Will affect UART timing and performance statistics. Default is
14 for ERC32 and 50 for LEON.
-gdb
Listen for GDB connection directly at start-up.
-gdbuartfwd
Forward output from first UART to GDB.
-gr702rc
Set cache parameters to emulate the GR702RC device.
-gr712rc
Set parameters to emulate the GR712RC device. Must be used when using the GR712 AHB module.
-grfpu
Emulate the GRFPU floating point unit, rather then Meiko or GRFPU-lite (LEON only).
-hwbp
Use TSIM hardware breakpoints for gdb breakpoints.
-icsize size
Defines the set-size (KiB) of the LEON instruction cache. Allowed values are powers of two in the range
1 - 64 for LEON2 and 1-256 for LEON3/4. Default is 4 KiB.
-ift
Generate illegal instruction trap on IFLUSH. Emulates the IFT input on the ERC32 processor.
-ilock
Enable instruction cache line locking. Default is disabled.
-ilram addr size
Allocates size bytes of local icache scratchpad memory at address addr. (LEON3/4)
-ilsize size
Sets the line size of the LEON instruction cache (in bytes). Allowed values are 16 or 32. Default is 16 for
LEON2/3 and 32 for LEON4.
-iom io_module
Use io_module as loadable I/O module rather than the default io.so. The enviromental variable
TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
-irepl repl
Sets the replacement algorithm for the LEON instruction cache. Allowed values are rnd (default for
LEON2) for random replacement, lru (default for LEON3/4) for the least-recently-used replacement algorithm and lrr for the least-recently-replaced replacement algorithm.
-isets sets
Defines the number of sets in the LEON instruction cache. Allowed values are 1(default) - 4.
-iwde
Set the IWDE input to 1. Default is 0. (TSC695E only)
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-l2wsize size
Enable emulation of L2 cache (LEON4 only) with size KiB. The size must be binary aligned (e.g. 16,
32, 64 ...).
-logfile filename
Logs the console output to filename. If filename is preceded by ‘+’ output is append.
-mfailok
Do not fail on startup even if explicitely requested io/ahb modules fails to load.
-mflat
This switch should be used when the application software has been compiled with the gcc -mflat option,
and debugging with gdb is done.
-mmu
Adds MMU support (LEON only).
-nb
Do not break on error exceptions when debugging through GDB.
-nfp
Disables the FPU to emulate system without FP hardware. Any FP instruction will generate an FP disabled
trap.
-nomac
Disable LEON MAC instruction. (LEON only).
-noeditline
Disable use of editline for history and tab completion.
-nosram
Disable SRAM on startup. SDRAM will appear at 0x40000000 (LEON only).
-nothreads
Disable threads support.
-notimers
Disable the LEON timer unit.
-nouart
Disable emulation of UARTs. All access to UART registers will be routed to the I/O module.
-nov8
Disable SPARC V8 MUL/DIV instructions (LEON only).
-nrtimers val
Adds support for more than 2 timers. Value val can be in the range of 2 - 8 (LEON3/4 only). Default: 2.
See also the -sametimerirq and -timerirqbase number switches.
-numbp num
Sets the upper limit on number of possible breakpoints.
-numwp num
Sets the upper limit on number of possible watchpoints.
-nwin win
Defines the number of register windows in the processor. The default is 8. Only applicable to LEON3/4.
-port portnum
Use portnum for gdb communication (port 1234 is default)
-pr
Enable profiling.
-ram ram_size
Sets the amount of simulated RAM (KiB). Default is 4096.
-rest file_name
Restore saved state from file_name.tss. See Section 3.8.
-rom rom_size
Sets the amount of simulated ROM (KiB). Default is 2048.
-rom8, -rom16
By default, the PROM area at reset time is considered to be 32-bit. Specifying -rom8 or -rom16 will
initialise the memory width field in the memory configuration register to 8- or 16-bits. The only visible
difference is in the instruction timing.
-rtems ver
Override autodetected RTEMS version for thread support. ver should be 46, 48, 48-edisoft or 410.
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-sametimerirq
Force the irq number to be the same for all timers. Default: separate increasing irqs for each timer.
(LEON3/4 only). See also the -nrtimers val and -timerirqbase number switches.
-sdram sdram_size
Sets the amount of simulated SDRAM (MiB). Default is 0. (LEON only)
-sdbanks <1|2>
Sets the SDRAM banks. This parameter is used to calculate the used SDRAM in conjunction with the
mcfg2.sdramsize field. The actually used SDRAM at runtime is sdbanks*mcfg2.sdramsize. Default:1
(LEON only)
-sym file
Read symbols from file. Useful for self-extracting applications
-timer32
Use 32 bit timers instead of 24 bit. (LEON2 only)
-timerirqbase number
Set the irq number of the first timer to interrupt number number (LEON3/4 only). Default: 8. See also the
-nrtimers val and -sametimerirq switches.
-tsc691
Emulate the TSC691 device, rather than TSC695
-tsc695e
Obsolete. TSIM/ERC32 now always emulates the TSC695 device rather that the early ERC32 chip-set.
-uartX device
Here X, can be 1 or 2. By default, UART1 is connected to stdin/stdout and UART2 is disconnected. This
switch can be used to connect the uarts to other devices. E.g., ‘-uart1 /dev/ptypc’ will attach UART1 to
ptypc. On Linux ‘-uart1 /dev/ptmx‘ can be used in which case the pseudo terminal slave’s name to use will
be printed. If you use minicom to connect to the uart then use minicom’s -p <pseudo terminal> option.
On windows use //./com1, //./com2 etc. to access the serial ports. The serial port settings can be adjusted
by doubleclicking the “Ports (COM and LPT)” entry in controlpanel->system->hardware->devicemanager.
Use the “Port Setting” tab in the dialogue that pops up.
-ut699
Set parameters to emulate the UT699 device. Must be used when using the UT699 AHB module.
-ut699e
Set parameters to emulate the UT699E device. Must be used when using the UT699E AHB module.
-ut700
Set parameters to emulate the UT700 device. Must be used when using the UT700 AHB module.
-wdfreq freq
Specify the frequency of the watchdog clock. (ERC32 only)
input_files
Executable files to be loaded into memory. The input file is loaded into the emulated memory according to
the entry point for each segment. Recognized formats are elf32, aout and srecords.
Command line options can also be specified in the file .tsimcfg in the home directory. This file will be read at
startup and the contents will be appended to the command line.
3.3. Standalone mode commands
If the file .tsimrc exists in the home directory, it will be used as a batch file and the commands in it will be executed
at startup.
Below is a description of commands that are recognized by the simulator when used in standalone mode:
batch file
Execute a batch file of TSIM commands.
+bp, break address
Adds an breakpoint at address.
bp, break
Prints all breakpoints and watchpoints.
-bp, del [num]
Deletes breakpoint/watchpoint num. If num is omitted, all breakpoints and watchpoints are deleted.
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bt
Print backtrace.
cont [count/time]
Continue execution at present position. See the go [address] [count/time] command for how to
specify count or time.
coverage <enable | disable | save [file_name] | clear | print address [len]>
Code coverage control. Coverage can be enabled, disabled, cleared, saved to a file or printed to the console.
dump file address length
Dumps memory content to file file, in whole aligned words. The address argument can be a symbol.
dis [addr] [count]
Disassemble [count] instructions at address [addr]. Default values for count is 16 and addr is the
program counter address.
echo string
Print string to the simulator window.
edac [clear | cerr | merr address]
Insert EDAC errors, or clear EDAC checksums (ERC32 only)
event
Print events in the event queue. Only user-inserted events are printed.
flush [all | icache | dcache | addr]
Flush the LEON caches. Specifying all will flush both the icache and dcache. Specifying icache or dcache
will flush the respective cache. Specifying addr will flush the corresponding line in both caches.
float
Prints the FPU registers
gdb
Listen for gdb connection.
go [address] [count/time]
The go command will set pc to address and npc to address + 4, and resume execution. No other initialisation will be done. If address is not given, the default load address will be assumed. If a count is
specified, execution will stop after the specified number of instructions. If a time is given, execution will
continue until time is reached (relative to the current time). The time can be given in micro-seconds, milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours or days by adding ‘us’, ‘ms’, ‘s’, ‘min’, ‘h’ or ‘d’ to the time expression.
Example: go 0x40000000 400 ms.
NOTE: For the go command, if the count/time parameter is given, address must be specified.
help
Print a small help menu for the TSIM commands.
hist [length]
Enable the instruction trace buffer. The length last executed instructions will be placed in the trace buffer.
A hist command without length will display the trace buffer. Specifying a zero trace length will disable
the trace buffer. See the inst [length] command for displaying only a part of the instruction trace buffer.
icache, dcache
Dumps the contents of tag and data cache memories (LEON only).
inc time
Increment simulator time without executing instructions. Time is given in the same format as for the go
command. Event queue is evaluated during the advancement of time.
inst [length]
Display the latest length (default 30) instructions in the instruction trace buffer. See the hist [length]
command for how to enable the instruction trace buffer.
leon
Display LEON peripherals registers.
load files
Load files into simulator memory.
l2cache
Display contents of L2 cache. (LEON4 only)
mec
Display ERC32 MEC registers.
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mem [addr] [count]
Display memory at addr for count bytes. Same default values as for dis. Unimplemented registers are
displayed as zero.
vmem [vaddr] [count]
Same as mem but does a MMU translation on vaddr first (LEON only).
mmu
Display the MMU registers (LEON only).
quit
Exits the simulator.
perf [reset]
The perf command will display various execution statistics. A ‘perf reset’ command will reset the statistics.
This can be used if statistics shall be calculated only over a part of the program. The run and reset command
also resets the statistic information.
prof [0|1] [stime]
Enable (‘prof 1’) or disable (‘prof 0’) profiling.Without parameters, profiling information is printed. Default
sampling period is 1000 clock cycles, but can be changed by specifying stime.
reg [reg_name value]
Prints and sets the IU registers in the current register window. reg without parameters prints the IU registers.
reg reg_name value sets the corresponding register to value. Valid register names are psr, tbr, wim, y,
g1-g7, o0-o7 and l0-l7. To view the other register windows, use reg wn, where n is 0 - 7.
reset
Performs a power-on reset. This command is equal to run 0.
restore file
Restore simulator state from file.
run [addr] [count/time]
Resets the simulator and starts execution from address addr, the default is 0. The event queue is emptied
but any set breakpoints remain. See the go [address] [count/time] command on how to specify
the time or count.
save file
Save simulator state to file.
shell cmd
Execute the command cmd in the host system shell.
step
Execute and disassemble one instruction. See also trace [num] .
sym [file]
Load symbol table from file. If file is omitted, prints current (.text) symbols.
trace [num]
Executes and disassembles unbounded or up to num instruction(s), until finished, hitting a breakpoint/watchpoint or some other reason to stop.
version
Prints the TSIM version and build date.
walk address [iswrite|isid|issu]*
If the MMU is enabled printout a table walk for the given address. The flags iswrite, isid and issu are
specifying the context: iswrite for a write access (default read), isid for a icache access (default dcache),
issu for a supervisor access (default user).
watch address
Adds a watchpoint at address.
wmem, wmemh, wmemb address value
Write a word, half-word or byte directly to simulated memory.
xwmem asi address value
Write a word to simulated memory using ASI=asi. Applicable to LEON3/4.
Typing a ‘Ctrl-C’ will interrupt a running simulator. Short forms of the commands are allowed, e.g c, co, or con,
are all interpreted as cont.
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3.4. Symbolic debug information
TSIM will automatically extract (.text) symbol information from elf-files. The symbols can be used where an
address is expected:
tsim> break main
breakpoint 3 at 0x020012f0: main
tsim> dis strcmp 5
02002c04 84120009 or
%o0, %o1, %g2
02002c08 8088a003 andcc
%g2, 0x3, %g0
02002c0c 3280001a bne,a
0x02002c74
02002c10 c64a0000 ldsb
[%o0], %g3
02002c14 c6020000 ld
[%o0], %g3
The sym command can be used to display all symbols, or to read in symbols from an alternate (elf) file:
tsim> sym /opt/rtems/src/examples/samples/dhry
read 234 symbols
tsim> sym
0x02000000 L _text_start
0x02000000 L _trap_table
0x02000000 L text_start
0x02000000 L start
0x0200102c L _window_overflow
0x02001084 L _window_underflow
0x020010dc L _fpdis
0x02001a4c T Proc_3
Reading symbols from alternate files is necessary when debugging self-extracting applications, such as bootproms
created with mkprom or linux/uClinux.
3.5. Breakpoints and watchpoints
TSIM supports execution breakpoints and write data watchpoints. In standalone mode, hardware breakpoints are
always used and no instrumentation of memory is made. When using the gdb interface, the gdb ‘break’ command
normally uses software breakpoints by overwriting the breakpoint address with a ‘ta 1’ instruction. Hardware
breakpoints can be inserted by using the gdb ‘hbreak’ command or by starting tsim with -hwbp, which will force
the use of hardware breakpoints also for the gdb ‘break’ command. Data write watchpoints are inserted using the
‘watch’ command. A watchpoint can only cover one word address, block watchpoints are not available.
3.6. Profiling
The profiling function calculates the amount of execution time spent in each subroutine of the simulated program.
This is made without intervention or instrumentation of the code by periodically sample the execution point and
the associated call tree. Cycles in the call graph are properly handled, as well as sections of the code where no
stack is available (e.g. trap handlers). The profiling information is printed as a list sorted on highest execution time
ration. Profiling is enabled through the prof 1 command. The sampling period is by default 1000 clocks which
typically provides a good compromise between accuracy and performance. Other sampling periods can also be
set through the prof 1 n command. Profiling can be disabled through the prof 0 command. Below is an example
profiling the dhrystone benchmark:
bash$tsim-erc32 /opt/rtems/src/examples/samples/dhry
tsim> pro 1
profiling enabled, sample period 1000
tsim> go
resuming at 0x02000000
Execution starts, 200000 runs through Dhrystone
Stopped at time 23375862 (1.670e+00 s)
tsim> pro
function
samples
ratio(%)
start
36144
100.00
_start
36144
100.00
main
36134
99.97
Proc_1
10476
28.98
Func_2
9885
27.34
strcmp
8161
22.57
Proc_8
2641
7.30
.div
2097
5.80
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Proc_6
Proc_3
Proc_2
.umul
Func_1
Proc_7
Proc_4
Proc_5
Func_3
printf
vfprintf
_vfprintf_r
1412
1321
1187
1092
777
772
731
453
227
8
8
8
3.90
3.65
3.28
3.02
2.14
2.13
2.02
1.25
0.62
0.02
0.02
0.02
tsim>
3.7. Code coverage
To aid software verification, the professional version of TSIM includes support for code coverage. When enabled,
code coverage keeps a record for each 32-bit word in the emulated memory and monitors whether the location has
been read, written or executed. The coverage function is controlled by the coverage command:
coverage enable
enable coverage
coverage disable
disable coverage
coverage save [filename]
write coverage data to file (file name optional)
coverage print address [len]
print coverage data to console, starting at address
coverage clear
reset coverage data
The coverage data for each 32-bit word of memory consists of a 5-bit field, with bit0 (lsb) indicating that the word
has been executed, bit1 indicating that the word has been written, and bit2 that the word has been read. Bit3 and
bit4 indicates the presence of a branch instruction; if bit3 is set then the branch was taken while bit4 is set if the
branch was not taken.
As an example, a coverage data of 0x6 would indicate that the word has been read and written, while 0x1 would
indicate that the word has been executed. When the coverage data is printed to the console or save to a file, it is
presented for one block of 32 words (128 bytes) per line:
tsim> cov print start
02000000 : 1 1 1 1 0 0
02000080 : 0 0 0 0 0 0
02000100 : 0 0 0 0 0 0
02000180 : 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
When the code coverage is saved to file, only blocks with at least one coverage field set are written to the file.
Block that have all the coverage fields set to zero are not saved in order to decrease the file size.
NOTE: Only the internally emulated memory (PROM, SRAM and SDRAM) are subject for code coverage. Any
memory emulated in the user's I/O module must be handled by a user-defined coverage function.
The address ranges that are monitored are based on TSIM's startup parameters. For instance, the range corresponding to the SDRAM for LEON will begin at address 0x40000000 if TSIM was started with -nosram or -ram 0,
or will begin at 0x60000000 otherwise. Reconfiguration of the memory controller during execution will not be
taken into account for monitored address ranges. Coverage information on memory reads will be recorded even
for cache hits.
NOTE on MMU and coverage: The monitored ranges are based on physical addresses. The TSIM coverage system
does no address translations by default, for performance reasons. To get proper physical address coverage when
the MMU is is enabled and not mapping 1-to-1, use the -covtrans option. There is no support for getting virtual
address coverage.
When coverage is enabled, disassembly will include an extra column after the address, indicating the coverage
data. This makes it easier to analyse which instructions has not been executed:
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tsim> di
02000000
02000004
02000008
0200000c
02000010
02000014
02000018
start
1 a0100000
1 29008004
1 81c52000
1 01000000
0 91d02000
0 01000000
0 01000000
clr
sethi
jmp
nop
ta
nop
nop
%l0
%hi(0x2001000), %l4
%l4
0x0
The coverage data is not saved or restored during check-pointing operations. When enabled, the coverage function
reduces the simulation performance of about 30%. When disabled, the coverage function does not impact simulation performance. Individual coverage fields can be read and written using the TSIM function interface using the
tsim_coverage() call (see Section 6.2). Enabling and disabling the coverage functionality from the function
interface should be done using tsim_cmd().
Example scripts for annotating C code using saved coverage information from TSIM can be found in the coverage
sub-directory.
3.8. Check-pointing
The professional version of TSIM can save and restore its complete state, allowing to resume simulation from
a saved check-point. Saving the state is done with the save command:
tsim> save file_name
The state is saved to file_name.tss. To restore the state, use the restore command:
tsim> restore file_name
The state will be restored from file_name.tss. Restore directly at startup can be performed with the ‘rest file_name’ command line switch.
NOTE: TSIM command line options are not stored (such as alternate UART devices, etc.).
NOTE: AT697, UT699, UT700 and GR712 simulation modules do not support check-pointing.
3.9. Performance
TSIM is highly optimised, and capable of simulating ERC32 systems faster than realtime. On high-end Athlon
processors, TSIM achieves more than 1 MIPS / 100 MHz (CPU frequency of host). Enabling various debugging
features such as watchpoints, profiling and code coverage can however reduce the simulation performance with
up to 40%.
3.10. Backtrace
The bt command will display the current call backtrace and associated stack pointer:
tsim> bt
%pc
#0
0x0200190c
#1
0x02001520
#2
0x02001208
#3
0x02001014
%sp
0x023ffcc8
0x023ffd38
0x023ffe00
0x023ffe40
Proc_1 + 0xf0
main + 0x230
_start + 0x60
start + 0x1014
3.11. Connecting to gdb
TSIM can act as a remote target for gdb, allowing symbolic debugging of target applications. To initiate gdb
communication, start the simulator with the -gdb switch or use the TSIM gdb command:
bash-2.04$ ./tsim -gdb
TSIM/LEON - remote SPARC simulator, build 2001.01.10 (demo version)
serial port A on stdin/stdout
allocated 4096 K RAM memory
allocated 2048 K ROM memory
gdb interface: using port 1234
Then, start gdb in a different window and connect to TSIM using the extended-remote protocol:
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bash-2.04$ sparc-rtems-gdb t4.exe
(gdb) target extended-remote localhost:1234
Remote debugging using localhost:1234
0x0 in ?? ()
(gdb)
To interrupt simulation, Ctrl-C can be typed in both gdb and TSIM windows. The program can be restarted using
the gdb run command but a load has first to be executed to reload the program image into the simulator:
(gdb) load
Loading section .text, size 0x14e50 lma 0x40000000
Loading section .data, size 0x640 lma 0x40014e50
Start address 0x40000000 , load size 87184
Transfer rate: 697472 bits/sec, 278 bytes/write.
(gdb) run
The program being debugged has been started already.
Start it from the beginning? (y or n) y
Starting program: /home/jgais/src/gnc/t4.exe
If gdb is detached using the detach command, the simulator returns to the command prompt, and the program can
be debugged using the standard TSIM commands. The simulator can also be re-attached to gdb by issuing the gdb
command to the simulator (and the target command to gdb). While attached, normal TSIM commands can be
executed using the gdb monitor command. Output from the TSIM commands is then displayed in the gdb console.
TSIM translates SPARC traps into (Unix) signals which are properly communicated to gdb. If the application
encounters a fatal trap, simulation will be stopped exactly on the failing instruction. The target memory and register
values can then be examined in gdb to determine the error cause.
Profiling an application executed from gdb is possible if the symbol table is loaded in TSIM before execution
is started. gdb does not download the symbol information to TSIM, so the symbol table should be loaded using
the monitor command:
(gdb) monitor sym t4.exe
read 158 symbols
When an application that has been compiled using the gcc -mflat option is debugged through gdb, TSIM should
be started with -mflat in order to generate the correct stack frames to gdb.
3.12. Thread support
TSIM has thread support for the RTEMS operating system. Additional OS support will be added to future versions.
The GDB interface of TSIM is also thread aware and the related GDB commands are described later.
3.12.1. TSIM thread commands
thread info - lists all known threads. The currently running thread is marked with an asterisk. (The wide example
output below has been split into two parts.)
tsim> thread info
Name | Type
| Id
| Prio | Time (h:m:s) | Entry point
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Int. | internal | 0x09010001 | 255 |
5:30.682722 | bsp_idle_thread
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------UI1 | classic | 0x0a010001 | 100 |
0.041217 | system_init
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ntwk | classic | 0x0a010002 | 100 |
0.251199 | soconnsleep
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ETH0 | classic | 0x0a010003 | 100 |
0.000161 | soconnsleep
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------* TA1 | classic | 0x0a010004 |
1 |
0.034739 | prep_timer
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------TA2 | classic | 0x0a010005 |
1 |
0.025740 | prep_timer
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
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TA3 | classic | 0x0a010006 |
1 |
0.021357 | prep_timer
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTCP | classic | 0x0a010007 | 100 |
0.002914 | rtems_ttcp_main
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
| PC
| State
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| READY
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| SUSP
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| READY
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| Wevnt
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40006a28 printf + 0x4
| READY
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| DELAY
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| DELAY
------------------------------------------------------| 0x40044bec _Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
| Wevnt
-------------------------------------------------------
thread bt id prints a backtrace of a thread.
tsim> thread bt 0x0a010007
#0
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
%%pc
0x40044bec
0x400418f8
0x40031eb4
0x40032050
0x40033d48
0x4000366c
_Thread_Dispatch + 0xd8
rtems_event_receive + 0x74
rtems_bsdnet_event_receive + 0x18
soconnsleep + 0x50
accept + 0x60
rtems_ttcp_main + 0xda0
A backtrace of the current thread (equivalent to normal bt command):
tsim> thread bt
%pc
#0
0x40006a28
#1
0x40001c04
#2
0x4005c88c
#3
0x4005c78c
%sp
0x4008d7d0
0x4008d838
0x4008d8d0
0x4008d930
printf + 0x0
Test_task + 0x178
_Thread_Handler + 0xfc
_Thread_Evaluate_mode + 0x58
3.12.2. GDB thread commands
TSIM needs the symbolic information of the image that is being debugged to be able to check for thread information. Therefore the symbols needs to be read from the image using the sym command before issuing the gdb
command. When a program running in GDB stops TSIM reports which thread it is in. The command info threads
can be used in GDB to list all known threads.
Program received signal SIGINT, Interrupt.
[Switching to Thread 167837703]
0x40001b5c in console_outbyte_polled (port=0, ch=113 ’q’) at ../../../../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/c/src/lib/libbsp/sparc/leon3/console/debugputs.c:38
38
while ( (LEON3_Console_Uart[LEON3_Cpu_Index+port]->status &amp; LEON_REG_UART_STATUS_THE)
== 0 );
(gdb) info threads
8 Thread 167837702 (FTPD Wevnt) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
7 Thread 167837701 (FTPa Wevnt) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
6 Thread 167837700 (DCtx Wevnt) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
5 Thread 167837699 (DCrx Wevnt) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
4 Thread 167837698 (ntwk ready) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
3 Thread 167837697 (UI1 ready) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
2 Thread 151060481 (Int. ready) 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems-
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4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
* 1 Thread 167837703 (HTPD ready ) 0x40001b5c in console_outbyte_polled (port=0, ch=113 ’q’)
at ../../../../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/c/src/lib/libbsp/sparc/leon3/console/debugputs.c:38
Using the thread command a specified thread can be selected:
(gdb) thread 8
[Switching to thread 8 (Thread 167837702)]#0 0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../
../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
109
_Context_Switch( &amp;executing->Registers, &amp;heir->Registers );
Then a backtrace of the selected thread can be printed using the bt command:
(gdb) bt
#0
0x4002f760 in _Thread_Dispatch () at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threaddispatch.c:109
#1
0x40013ee0 in rtems_event_receive (event_in=33554432, option_set=0, ticks=0,
event_out=0x43fecc14)
at ../../../../leon3/lib/include/rtems/score/thread.inl:205
#2
0x4002782c in rtems_bsdnet_event_receive (event_in=33554432, option_set=2, ticks=0,
event_out=0x43fecc14)
at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/libnetworking/rtems/rtems_glue.c:641
#3
0x40027548 in soconnsleep (so=0x43f0cd70) at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/libnetworking/rtems/rtems_glue.c:465
#4
0x40029118 in accept (s=3, name=0x43feccf0, namelen=0x43feccec) at ../../../../../../rtems4.6.5/cpukit/libnetworking/rtems/rtems_syscall.c:215
#5
0x40004028 in daemon () at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/c/src/libnetworking/rtems_servers/
ftpd.c:1925
#6
0x40053388 in _Thread_Handler () at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/score/src/threadhandler.c:123
#7
0x40053270 in __res_mkquery (op=0, dname=0x0, class=0, type=0, data=0x0, datalen=0,
newrr_in=0x0, buf=0x0, buflen=0)
at ../../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/cpukit/libnetworking/libc/res_mkquery.c:199
It is possible to use the frame command to select a stack frame of interest and examine the registers using the info
registers command. Note that the info registers command only can see the following registers for an inactive
task: g0-g7, l0-l7, i0-i7, o0-o7, pc and psr. The other registers will be displayed as 0:
(gdb) frame 5
#5 0x40004028 in daemon () at ../../../../../../rtems-4.6.5/c/src/libnetworking/rtems_servers/
ftpd.c:1925
1925
ss = accept(s, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, &addrLen);
(gdb) info reg
g0
g1
g2
g3
g4
g5
g6
g7
o0
o1
o2
o3
o4
o5
sp
o7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
i0
i1
i2
i3
i4
i5
0x0
0
0x0
0
0xffffffff
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x3
3
0x43feccf0
0x43feccec
0x0
0
0xf34000e4
0x4007cc00
0x43fecc88
0x40004020
0x4007ce88
0x4007ce88
0x400048fc
0x43feccf0
0x3
3
0x1
1
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x40003f94
0x0
0
0x43ffafc8
0x0
0
0x4007cd40
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0x43fecc88
1073758240
1074253448
1074253448
1073760508
1140772080
1073758100
1140830152
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fp
i7
y
psr
wim
tbr
pc
npc
fsr
csr
0x43fecd08
0x40053380
0x0
0
0xf34000e0
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x40004028
0x4000402c
0x0
0
0x0
0
0x43fecd08
1074082688
-213909280
0x40004028 <daemon+148>
0x4000402c <daemon+152>
It is not supported to set thread specific breakpoints. All breakpoints are global and stops the execution of all
threads. It is not possible to change the value of registers other than those of the current thread.
3.13. Synchronising TSIM time to external time
To maximise simulation performance, TSIM executes as fast as possible doing no synchronisation of the simulation time with any external notion of time. This is especially apparent when the processor is in power-down mode
and simulation time is increased by the events in the event queue alone.
To synchronise the simulation time with an external notion of time, events that handles synchronisation needs to
be added to the event queue. The walltimesync example AHB module in the iomod directory provides an
example that makes sure that TSIM does not execute faster than real time. This example can be used as a template
for synchronising to other notions of time. See Chapter 5 on how to use modules.
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4. Emulation characteristics
4.1. Common behaviour
4.1.1. Timing
The simulator time is maintained and incremented according the IU and FPU instruction timing. The parallel execution between the IU and FPU is modelled, as well as stalls due to operand dependencies. Instruction timing has
been modelled after the real devices. Integer instructions have a higher accuracy than floating-point instructions
due to the somewhat unpredictable operand-dependent timing of the ERC32 and LEON MEIKO FPU. Typical
usage patterns have higher accuracy than atypical ones, e.g. having vs. not having caches enabled on LEON systems. Tracing using the inst or hist command will display the current simulator time in the left column. This time
indicates when the instruction is fetched. Cache misses, waitstates or data dependencies will delay the following
fetch according to the incurred delay.
4.1.2. UARTs
If the baudrate register is written by the application software, the UARTs will operate with correct timing. If the
baudrate is left at the default value, or if the -fast_uart switch was used, the UARTs operate at infinite speed.
This means that the transmitter holding register always is empty and a transmitter empty interrupt is generated
directly after each write to the transmitter data register. The receivers can never overflow or generate errors.
Note that with correct UART timing, it is possible that the last character of a program is not displayed on the
console. This can happen if the program forces the processor in error mode, thereby terminating the simulation,
before the last character has been shifted out from the transmitter shift register. To avoid this, an application
should poll the UART status register and not force the processor in error mode before the transmitter shift registers
are empty. The real hardware does not exhibit this problem since the UARTs continue to operate even when the
processor is halted.
4.1.3. Floating point unit (FPU)
The simulator maps floating-point operations on the hosts floating point capabilities. This means that accuracy
and generation of IEEE exceptions is sometimes host dependent and will not always be identical to the actual
ERC32/LEON hardware. For GRFPU we have seen no discrepancies for any calculations or IEEE exceptions on
any host. On Windows and Linux hosts, the only known discrepancies for calculations or IEEE exceptions for
the Meiko on LEON2 and GRFPU-lite are that NaN:s can differ in significand bits. No discrepancies has been
seen in the signalling/quiet bit.
The models for the ERC32 FPU, GRFPU-lite and GRFPU models supports parallel IU and FPU execution, deferred
floating point traps and the floating point deferred trap queue. The GRFPU model does not however simulate the
possibility of multiple outstanding floating point operations. The model for the Meiko FPU on LEON2 models
the FPU setup for AT697E and AT7913E with no parallel IU and FPU execution, no floating point queue and
no deferred floating point traps.
The simulator implements (to some extent) data-dependant execution timing for the ERC32 FPU, the Meiko FPU
and GRFPU-lite. The complex timing of the GRFPU is not modelled in detail.
4.1.4. Delayed write to special registers
The SPARC architecture defines that a write to the special registers (%psr, %wim, %tbr, %fsr, %y) may have up to
3 delay cycles, meaning that up to 3 of the instructions following a special register write might not ‘see’ the newly
written value due to pipeline effects. While ERC32 and LEON have between 2 and 3 delay cycles, TSIM has 0.
This does not affect simulation accuracy or timing as long as the SPARC ABI recommendations are followed that
each special register write must always be followed by three NOP. If the three NOP are left out, the software might
fail on real hardware while still executing ‘correctly’ on the simulator.
4.1.5. Idle-loop optimisation
To minimise power consumption, LEON and ERC32 applications will typically place the processor in power-down
mode when the idle task is scheduled in the operation system. In power-down mode, TSIM increments the event
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queue without executing any instructions, thereby significantly improving simulation performance. However,
some (poorly written) code might use a busy loop (BA 0) instead of triggering power-down mode. The -bopt
switch will enable a detection mechanism which will identify such behaviour and optimise the simulation as if
the power-down mode was entered.
4.1.6. Custom instruction emulation
TSIM/LEON allows the emulation of custom (non-SPARC) instructions. A handler for non-standard instruction
can be installed using the tsim_ext_ins() callback function (see Section 6.2). The function handler is called each
time an instruction is encountered that would cause an unimplemented instruction trap. The handler is passed the
opcode and all processor registers in a pointer, allowing it to decode and emulate a custom instruction, and update
the processor state.
The definition for the custom instruction handler is:
int myhandler (struct ins_interface *r);
The pointer *r is a structure containing the current instruction opcode and processor state:
struct ins_interface {
uint32
psr;
uint32
tbr;
uint32
wim;
uint32
g[8];
uint32
r[128];
uint32
y;
uint32
pc;
uint32
npc;
uint32
inst;
uint32
icnt;
uint32
asr17;
uint32
asr18;
};
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
Processor status registers */
Trap base register */
Window maks register */
Global registers */
Windowed register file */
Y register */
Program counter *
Next program counter */
Current instruction */
Clock cycles in curr inst */
SPARC uses an overlapping windowed register file, and accessing registers must be done using the current window
pointer (%psr[4:0]). To access registers %r8 - %r31 in the current window, use:
cwp = r->psr & 7;
regval = r->r[((cwp << 4) + RS1) % (nwindows * 16)];
Note that global registers (%r0 - %r7) should always be accessed by r->g[RS1].
The return value of the custom handler indicates which trap the emulated instruction has generated, or 0 if no
trap was caused. If the handler could not decode the instruction, 2 should be returned to cause an unimplemented
instruction trap.
The number of clocks consumed by the instruction should be returned in r->icnt; This value is by default 1, which
corresponds to a fully pipelined instruction without data interlock. The handler should not increment the %pc or
%npc registers, as this is done by TSIM.
4.1.7. Chip-specific errata
Incorrect behavior described in errata documents for specific devices are not emulated by TSIM in general.
4.2. ERC32 specific emulation
4.2.1. Processor emulation
TSIM/ERC32 emulates the behaviour of the TSC695 processor from Atmel by default. The parallel execution
between the IU and FPU is modelled, as well as stalls due to operand dependencies (IU & FPU). Starting TSIM
with the -tsc691 will enable TSC691 emulation (3-chip ERC32).
4.2.2. MEC emulation
The following table outlines the implemented MEC registers:
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Table 4.1. Implemented MEC registers
Register
Address
Status
MEC control register
0x01f80000
implemented
Software reset register
0x01f80004
implemented
Power-down register
0x01f80008
implemented
Memory configuration register
0x01f80010
partly implemented
IO configuration register
0x01f80014
implemented
Waitstate configuration register
0x01f80018
implemented
Access protection base register 1
0x01f80020
implemented
Access protection end register 1
0x01f80024
implemented
Access protection base register 2
0x01f80028
implemented
Access protection end register 2
0x01f8002c
implemented
Interrupt shape register
0x01f80044
implemented
Interrupt pending register
0x01f80048
implemented
Interrupt mask register
0x01f8004c
implemented
Interrupt clear register
0x01f80050
implemented
Interrupt force register
0x01f80054
implemented
Watchdog acknowledge register
0x01f80060
implemented
Watchdog trap door register
0x01f80064
implemented
RTC counter register
0x01f80080
implemented
RTC counter program register
0x01f80080
implemented
RTC scaler register
0x01f80084
implemented
RTC scaler program register
0x01f80084
implemented
GPT counter register
0x01f80088
implemented
GPT counter program register
0x01f80088
implemented
GPT scaler register
0x01f8008c
implemented
GPT scaler program register
0x01f8008c
implemented
Timer control register
0x01f80098
implemented
System fault status register
0x01f800A0
implemented
First failing address register
0x01f800A4
implemented
GPI configuration register
0x01f800A8
I/O module callback
GPI data register
0x01f800AC
I/O module callback
Error and reset status register
0x01f800B0
implemented
Test control register
0x01f800D0
implemented
UART A RX/TX register
0x01f800E0
implemented
UART B RX/TX register
0x01f800E4
implemented
UART status register
0x01f800E8
implemented
The MEC registers can be displayed with the mec command, or using mem (‘mem 0x1f80000 256’). The registers
can also be written using wmem (e.g. ‘wmem 0x1f80000 0x1234’). When written, care has to be taken not to write
an unimplemented register bit with ‘1’, or a MEC parity error will occur.
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4.2.3. Interrupt controller
Internal interrupts are generated as defined in the MEC specification. All 15 interrupts can be tested via the interrupt
force register. External interrupts can be generated through loadable modules.
4.2.4. Watchdog
The watchdog timer operate as defined in the MEC specification. The frequency of the watchdog clock can be
specified using the -wdfreq switch. The frequency is specified in MHz.
4.2.5. Power-down mode
The power-down register (0x01f800008) is implemented as in the specification. A Ctrl-C in the simulator window
will exit the power-down mode. In power-down mode, the simulator skips time until the next event in the event
queue, thereby significantly increasing the simulation speed.
4.2.6. Memory emulation
The amount of simulated memory is configured through the -ram and -rom switches. The RAM size can be
between 256 KiB and 32 MiB, the ROM size between 128 KiB and 4 MiB. Access to unimplemented MEC
registers or non-existing memory will result in a memory exception trap.
The memory configuration register is used to decode the simulated memory. The fields RSIZ and PSIZ are used
to set RAM and ROM size, the remaining fields are not used.
NOTE: After reset, the MEC is set to decode 128 KiB of ROM and 256 KiB of RAM. The memory configuration
register has to be updated to reflect the available memory. The waitstate configuration register is used to generate
waitstates. This register must also be updated with the correct configuration after reset.
4.2.7. EDAC operation
The EDAC operation of ERC32 is implemented on the simulated RAM area (0x2000000 - 0x2FFFFFF). The
ERC32 Test Control Register can be used to enable the EDAC test mode and insert EDAC errors to test the
operation of the EDAC. The edac command can be used to monitor the number of errors in the memory, to insert
new errors, or clear all errors. To see the current memory status, use the edac command without parameters:
tsim> edac
RAM error count : 2
0x20000000 : MERR
0x20000040 : CERR
TSIM keeps track of the number of errors currently present, and reports the total error count, the address of each
error, and its type. The errors can either be correctable (CERR) or non-correctable (MERR). To insert an error
using the edac command, do ‘edac cerr addr’ or ‘edac merr addr’ :
tsim> edac cerr 0x2000000
correctable error at 0x02000000
tsim> edac
RAM error count : 1
0x20000000 : CERR
To remove all injected errors, do edac clear. When accessing a location with an EDAC error, the behaviour of
TSIM is identical to the real hardware. A correctable error will trigger interrupt 1, while un-correctable errors will
cause a memory exception. The operation of the FSFR and FAR registers are fully implemented.
NOTE: The EDAC operation affect simulator performance when there are inserted errors in the memory. To
obtain maximum simulation performance, any diagnostic software should remove all inserted errors after having
performed an EDAC test.
4.2.8. Extended RAM and I/O areas
TSIM allows emulation of user defined I/O devices through loadable modules. EDAC emulation of extended
RAM areas is not supported.
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4.2.9. SYSAV signal
TSIM emulates changes in the SYSAV output by calling the command() callback in the I/O module with either
“sysav 0” or “sysav 1” on each changes of SYSAV.
4.2.10. EXTINTACK signal
TSIM emulates assertion of the EXTINTACK output by calling the command() callback in the I/O module with
“extintack” on each assertion. Note that EXTINTACK is only asserted for one external interrupt as programmed
in the MEC interrupt shape register.
4.2.11. IWDE signal
The TSC695E processor input signal can be controlled by the -iwde switch at start-up. If the switch is given, the
IWDE signal will be high, and the internal watchdog enabled. If -iwde is not given, IWDE will be low and the
internal watchdog will be disabled. Note that the simulator must started in TSC695E-mode using the -tsc695e
switch, for this option to take effect.
4.3. LEON2 specific emulation
4.3.1. Processor
The LEON2 version of TSIM emulates the behavior of the LEON2 VHDL model. The (optional) MMU can be
emulated using the -mmu switch.
4.3.2. Cache memories
TSIM/LEON2 can emulate any permissible cache configuration using the -icsize, -ilsize, -dcsize and
-dlsize options. Allowed sizes are 1 - 64 KiB with 16 - 32 bytes/line. The characteristics of the LEON multi-set
caches can be emulated using the -isets, -dsets, -irepl, -drelp, -ilock and -dlock options. Diagnostic cache reads/writes are implemented. The simulator commands icache and dcache can be used to display
cache contents. Starting TSIM with -at697e will configure that caches according to the Atmel AT697E device.
4.3.3. LEON peripherals registers
The LEON peripherals registers can be displayed with the leon command, or using mem (‘mem 0x80000000
256’). The registers can also be written using wmem (e.g. ‘wmem 0x80000000 0x1234’).
4.3.4. Interrupt controller
External interrupts are not implemented, so the I/O port interrupt register has no function. Internal interrupts are
generated as defined in the LEON specification. All 15 interrupts can also be generated from the user defined I/
O module using the set_irq() callback.
4.3.5. Power-down mode
The power-down register 0x80000018) is implemented as in the specification. A Ctrl-C in the simulator window
will exit the power-down mode. In power-down mode, the simulator skips time until the next event in the event
queue, thereby significantly increasing the simulation speed.
4.3.6. Memory emulation
The memory configuration registers 1/2 are used to decode the simulated memory. The memory configuration
registers has to be programmed by software to reflect the available memory, and the number and size of the memory
banks. The waitstates fields must also be programmed with the correct configuration after reset. Both SRAM and
functionally modelled SDRAM (with SRAM timing) can be emulated.
Using the -banks option, it is possible to set over how many RAM banks the external SRAM is divided in.
Note that software compiled with BCC/RCC, and not run through mkprom must not use this option. For mkprom
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encapsulated programs, it is essential that the same RAM size and bank number setting is used for both mkprom
and TSIM.
The memory EDAC of LEON2-FT is not implemented.
4.3.7. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions
TSIM/LEON optionally supports the SPARC V8 multiply, divide and MAC instruction. To correctly emulate
LEON systems which do not implement these instructions, use the -nomac to disable the MAC instruction and/
or -nov8 to disable multiply and divide instructions.
4.3.8. FPU emulation
By default, TSIM/LEON emulates the Meiko FPU. The -grfpu command line option enables the GRFPU model.
See Section 4.1.3 for details on the FPU models.
4.3.9. DSU and hardware breakpoints
The LEON debug support unit (DSU) and the hardware watchpoints (%asr24 - %asr31) are not emulated.
4.4. LEON3 specific emulation
4.4.1. General
The LEON3 version of TSIM emulates the behavior of the LEON3MP template VHDL model distributed in
the GRLIB-1.0 IP library. The system includes the following modules: LEON3 processor, APB bridge, IRQMP
interrupt controller, LEON2 memory controller, GPTIMER timer unit with two 32-bit timers, two APBUART
uarts. The AHB/APB plug&play information is provided at address 0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFFFFF (AHB) and
0x800FF000 - 0x800FFFFF (APB).
4.4.2. Processor
The instruction timing of the emulated LEON3 processor is modelled after LEON3 VHDL model in GRLIB IP
library. The processor can be configured with 2 - 32 register windows using the -nwin switch. The MMU can be
emulated using the -mmu switch. Local scratch pad RAM can be added with the -ilram and -dlram switches.
4.4.3. Cache memories
The evaluation version of TSIM/LEON3 implements 2*4 KiB caches, with 16 bytes per line. The commercial
TSIM version can emulate any permissible cache configuration using the -icsize, -ilsize, -dcsize and
-dlsize options. Allowed sizes are 1 - 256 KiB with 16 - 32 bytes/line. The characteristics of the LEON multi-way caches can be emulated using the -isets, -dsets, -irepl, -drelp, -ilock and -dlock options.
Diagnostic cache reads/writes are implemented. The simulator commands icache and dcache can be used to display cache contents.
4.4.4. Power-down mode
The LEON3 power-down function is implemented as in the specification. A Ctrl-C in the simulator window will
exit the power-down mode. In power-down mode, the simulator skips time until the next event in the event queue,
thereby significantly increasing the simulation speed.
4.4.5. LEON3 peripherals registers
The LEON3 peripherals registers can be displayed with the leon command, or using mem (‘mem 0x80000000
256’). The registers can also be written using wmem (e.g. ‘wmem 0x80000000 0x1234’).
4.4.6. Interrupt controller
The IRQMP interrupt controller is fully emulated as described in the GRLIB IP Manual. The IRQMP registers are
mapped at address 0x80000200. All 15 interrupts can also be generated from the user-defined I/O module using
the set_irq() callback.
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4.4.7. Memory emulation
The LEON2 memory controller is emulated in the LEON3 version of TSIM. The memory configuration registers
1/2 are used to decode the simulated memory. The memory configuration registers has to be programmed by
software to reflect the available memory, and the number and size of the memory banks. The waitstates fields must
also be programmed with the correct configuration after reset. Both SRAM and functionally modelled SDRAM
(with SRAM timing) can be emulated.
Using the -banks option, it is possible to set over how many RAM banks the external SRAM is divided in.
Note that software compiled with BCC/RCC, and not run through mkprom must not use this option. For mkprom
encapsulated programs, it is essential that the same RAM size and bank number setting is used for both mkprom
and TSIM.
The memory EDAC of LEON3-FT is not implemented.
Options regarding memory characteristics are not available in the evaluation version of TSIM/LEON3.
4.4.8. CASA instruction
The SPARCV9 “casa” command is implemented if the -cas switch is given. The “casa” instruction is used in
VXWORKS SMP multiprocessing to synchronize using a lock free protocol.
4.4.9. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions
TSIM/LEON3 optionally supports the SPARC V8 multiply, divide and MAC instruction. To correctly emulate
LEON systems which do not implement these instructions, use the -nomac to disable the MAC instruction and/
or -nov8 to disable multiply and divide instructions.
4.4.10. FPU emulation
By default, TSIM/LEON3 emulates the GRFPU-lite FPU. The -grfpu command line option enables the GRFPU
model. See Section 4.1.3 for details on the FPU models.
4.4.11. DSU and hardware breakpoints
The LEON debug support unit (DSU) and the hardware watchpoints (%asr24 - %asr31) are not emulated.
4.4.12. AHB status registers
When using -ahbstatus or a chip option for a chip that has AHB status registers, AHB status registers are
enabled. As TSIM/LEON3 does not emulate FT, the CE bit will never be set. Furthermore, the HMASTER field
is set to 0 when the CPU caused the error and 1 when any other master caused the error.
4.5. LEON4 specific emulation
4.5.1. General
The LEON4 version of TSIM emulates the behavior of the LEON4MP template VHDL model distributed in the
GRLIB-1.0.x IP library. The system includes the following modules: LEON4 processor, APB bridge, IRQMP
interrupt controller, LEON2 memory controller, L2 cache, GPTIMER timer unit with two 32-bit timers, two APBUART uarts. The AHB/APB plug&play information is provided at address 0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFFFFF (AHB)
and 0x800FF000 - 0x800FFFFF (APB).
4.5.2. Processor
The instruction timing of the emulated LEON4 processor is modelled after LEON4 VHDL model in GRLIB IP
library. The processor can be configured with 2 - 32 register windows using the -nwin switch. The MMU can be
emulated using the -mmu switch. Local scratch pad RAM can be added with the -ilram and -dlram switches.
4.5.3. L1 Cache memories
TSIM/LEON4 can emulate any permissible cache configuration using the -icsize, -ilsize, -dcsize and
-dlsize options. Allowed sizes are 1 - 256 KiB with 16 - 32 bytes/line. The characteristics of the LEON mulTSIM2-UM
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ti-set caches can be emulated using the -isets, -dsets, -irepl, -drelp, -ilock and -dlock options.
Diagnostic cache reads/writes are implemented. The simulator commands icache and dcache can be used to display cache contents.
4.5.4. L2 Cache memory
The LEON4 L2 cache is emulated, and placed between the memory controller and AHB bus. Both the PROM and
SRAM/SDRAM areas are cached in the L2. The size of the L2 cache is default 64 KiB, but can be configured to
any (binary aligned) size using the -l2wsize switch at start-up. Setting the size to 0 will disable the L2 cache.
The L2 cache is implemented with one way and 32 bytes/line. The contents of the L2 cache can be displayed with
the l2cache command.
4.5.5. Power-down mode
The LEON4 power-down function is implemented as in the specification. A Ctrl-C in the simulator window will
exit the power-down mode. In power-down mode, the simulator skips time until the next event in the event queue,
thereby significantly increasing the simulation speed.
4.5.6. LEON4 peripherals registers
The LEON4 peripherals registers can be displayed with the leon command, or using mem (‘mem 0x80000000
256’). The registers can also be written using wmem (e.g. ‘wmem 0x80000000 0x1234’).
4.5.7. Interrupt controller
The IRQMP interrupt controller is fully emulated as described in the GRLIB IP Manual. The IRQMP registers are
mapped at address 0x80000200. All 15 interrupts can also be generated from the user-defined I/O module using
the set_irq() callback.
4.5.8. Memory emulation
The LEON2 memory controller is emulated in the LEON4 version of TSIM. The memory configuration registers
1/2 are used to decode the simulated memory. The memory configuration registers has to be programmed by
software to reflect the available memory, and the number and size of the memory banks. The waitstates fields must
also be programmed with the correct configuration after reset. Both SRAM and functionally modelled SDRAM
(with SRAM timing) can be emulated.
Using the -banks option, it is possible to set over how many RAM banks the external SRAM is divided in.
Note that software compiled with BCC/RCC, and not run through mkprom must not use this option. For mkprom
encapsulated programs, it is essential that the same RAM size and bank number setting is used for both mkprom
and TSIM.
The memory EDAC of LEON4-FT is not implemented.
4.5.9. CASA instruction
The SPARCV9 “casa” command is implemented if the -cas switch is given. The “casa” instruction is used in
VXWORKS SMP multiprocessing to synchronize using a lock free protocol.
4.5.10. SPARC V8 MUL/DIV/MAC instructions
TSIM/LEON4 optionally supports the SPARC V8 multiply, divide and MAC instruction. To correctly emulate
LEON systems which do not implement these instructions, use the -nomac to disable the MAC instruction and/
or -nov8 to disable multiply and divide instructions.
4.5.11. FPU emulation
By default, TSIM/LEON4 emulates the GRFPU FPU. See Section 4.1.3 for details on the FPU models.
4.5.12. DSU and hardware breakpoints
The LEON debug support unit (DSU) and the hardware watchpoints (%asr24 - %asr31) are not emulated.
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4.5.13. AHB status registers
When using -ahbstatus, AHB status registers are enabled. As TSIM/LEON4 does not emulate FT, the CE bit
will never be set. Furthermore, the HMASTER field is set to 0 when the CPU caused the error and 1 when any
other master caused the error.
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5. Loadable modules
5.1. TSIM I/O emulation interface
User-defined I/O devices can be loaded into the simulator through the use of loadable modules. As the real processor, the simulator primarily interacts with the emulated device through read and write requests, while the emulated
device can optionally generate interrupts and DMA requests. This is implemented through the module interface
described below. The interface is made up of two parts; one that is exported by TSIM and defines TSIM functions
and data structures that can be used by the I/O device; and one that is exported by the I/O device and allows TSIM
to access the I/O device. Address decoding of the I/O devices is straight-forward: All access that do not map on
the internally emulated memory and control registers are forwarded to the I/O module.
TSIM exports two structures: simif and ioif. The simif structure defines functions and data structures belonging to
the simulator core, while ioif defines functions provided by system (ERC32/LEON) emulation. At startup, TSIM
searches for ‘io.so’ in the current directory, but the location of the module can be specified using the -iom switch.
Note that the module must be compiled to be position-independent, i.e. with the -fPIC switch (gcc). The win32
version of TSIM loads io.dll instead of io.so. See the iomod directory in the TSIM distribution for an example
io.c and how to build the .so and .dll modules. The enviromental variable TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to
a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
5.1.1. simif structure
The simif structure is defined in sim.h:
struct sim_options {
int phys_ram;
int phys_sdram;
int phys_rom;
double freq;
double wdfreq;
};
struct sim_interface {
struct sim_options *options;
/* tsim command-line options */
uint64 *simtime;
/* current simulator time */
void (*event)(void (*cfunc)(), uint32 arg, uint64 offset);
void (*stop_event)(void (*cfunc)());
int *irl;
/* interrup request level */
void (*sys_reset)();
/* reset processor */
void (*sim_stop)();
/* stop simulation */
char *args;
/* concaterated argv */
void (*stop_event_arg)(void (*cfunc)(),int arg,int op);
/* Restorable events */
unsigned short (*reg_revent)(void (*cfunc) (unsigned long arg));
unsigned short (*reg_revent_prearg)(void (*cfunc) (unsigned long arg),
unsigned long arg);
int (*revent)(unsigned short index, unsigned long arg, uint64 offset);
int (*revent_prearg)(unsigned short index, uint64 offset);
void (*stop_revent)(unsigned short index);
};
struct sim_interface simif;
/* exported simulator functions */
The elements in the structure has the following meaning:
struct sim_options *options;
Contains some tsim startup options. options.freq defines the clock frequency of the emulated processor and
can be used to correlate the simulator time to the real time.
uint64 *simtime;
Contains the current simulator time. Time is counted in clock cycles since start of simulation. To calculate
the elapsed real time, divide simtime with options.freq.
void (*event)(void (*cfunc)(), int arg, uint64 offset);
TSIM maintains an event queue to emulate time-dependant functions. The event() function inserts an
event in the event queue. An event consists of a function to be called when the event expires, an argument
with which the function is called, and an offset (relative the current time) defining when the event should
expire.
NOTE: The event() function may NOT be called from a signal handler installed by the I/O module, but
only from event callbacks or at start of simulation. The event queue can hold a maximum of 2048 events.
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NOTE: For save and restore support, restorable events should be used instead.
void (*stop_event)(void (*cfunc)());
stop_event() will remove all events from the event queue which has the calling function equal to
cfunc().
NOTE: The stop_event() function may NOT be called from a signal handler installed by the I/O
module.
int *irl;
Current IU interrupt level. Should not be used by I/O functions unless they explicitly monitor theses lines.
void (*sys_reset)();
Performs a system reset. Should only be used if the I/O device is capable of driving the reset input.
void (*sim_stop)();
Stops current simulation. Can be used for debugging purposes if manual intervention is needed after a
certain event.
char *args;
Arguments supplied when starting tsim. The arguments are concatenated as a single string.
void (*stop_event_arg)(void (*cfunc)(),int arg,int op);
Similar to stop_event() but differentiates between 2 events with same cfunc but with different arg
given when inserted into the event queue via event(). Used when simulating multiple instances of an
entity. Parameter op should be 1 to enable the arg check.
unsigned short (*reg_revent)(void (*cfunc) (unsigned long arg));
Registers a restorable event that will use cfunc as callback. The returned index should be used when calling revent(). The event argument is supplied when calling revent(). The call to reg_revent()
should be done once at I/O or AHB module initialization.
unsigned short (*reg_revent_prearg)(void (*cfunc) (unsigned long arg), unsigned long arg);
Registers a restorable event that will use cfunc as callback and arg as argument. This can be used to
register an argument that is a pointer to a data structure. The returned index should be used when calling
revent_prearg(). The call to reg_revent_prearg() should be done once at I/O or AHB module
initialization.
int (*revent)(unsigned short index, unsigned long arg, uint64 offset);
This inserts an event registered by reg_revent() into the event queue with the registered cfunc for
the given index. Multiple events with the same index can be in the event queue at the same time. The
arg and offset arguments are the same as for the event() function.
NOTE: See the description of event() for limitations on number of events and from which contexts
events can be added.
int (*revent_prearg)(unsigned short index, uint64 offset);
This inserts an event registered by reg_revent_prearg() into the event queue with the registered
cfunc and arg for the given index. Multiple events with the same index can be in the event queue at
the same time. The offset argument is the same as for the event() function.
NOTE: See the description of event() for limitations on number of events and from which contexts
events can be added.
void (*stop_revent)(unsigned short index);
This removes all events from the event queue that has been entered by revent() or revent_prearg()
using the given index.
NOTE: The stop_revent() function may not be called from a signal handler installed by the I/O module.
5.1.2. ioif structure
ioif is defined in sim.h:
structio_interface {
void (*set_irq)(int irq, int level);
int (*dma_read)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int num);
int (*dma_write)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int num);
int (*dma_write_sub)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int sz);
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};
extern struct io_interface ioif; /* exported processor interface */
The elements of the structure have the following meaning:
void (*set_irq)(int irq, int level);
ERC32 use: drive the external MEC interrupt signal. Valid interrupts are 0 - 5 (corresponding to MEC
external interrupt 0 - 4, and EWDINT) and valid levels are 0 or 1. Note that the MEC interrupt shape register
controls how and when processor interrupts are actually generated. When -nouart has been used, MEC
interrupts 4, 5 and 7 can be generated by calling set_irq() with irq 6, 7 and 9 (level is not used in
this case.
LEON use: set the interrupt pending bit for interrupt irq. Valid values on irq is 1 - 15. Care should be taken
not to set interrupts used by the LEON emulated peripherals. Note that the LEON interrupt control register
controls how and when processor interrupts are actually generated. Note that level is not used with LEON.
int (*dma_read)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int num);
int (*dma_write)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int num);
Performs DMA transactions to/from the emulated processor memory. Only 32-bit word transfers are allowed, and the address must be word aligned. On bus error, 1 is returned, otherwise 0. For ERC32, the
DMA transfer uses the external DMA interface. For LEON, DMA takes place on the AMBA AHB bus.
int (*dma_write_sub)(uint32 addr, uint32 *data, int sz);
Performs DMA transactions to/from the emulated processor memory on the AMBA AHB bus. Available
for LEON only. On bus error, 1 is returned, otherwise 0. Write size is indicated by sz as follows: 0 = byte,
1 = half-word, 2 = word, 3 = double-word.
5.1.3. Structure to be provided by I/O device
struct io_subsystem {
void (*io_init)(struct sim_interface sif, struct io_interface iif); /* start-up */
void (*io_exit)();
/* called once on exit */
void (*io_reset)();
/* called on processor reset */
void (*io_restart)();
/* called on simulator restart */
int (*io_read)(unsigned int addr, int *data, int *ws);
int (*io_write)(unsigned int addr, int *data, int *ws, int size);
char *(*get_io_ptr)(unsigned int addr, int size);
void (*command)(char * cmd); /* I/O specific commands */
void (*sigio)();/* called when SIGIO occurs */
void (*save)(char *fname);/* save simulation state */
void (*restore)(char *fname); /* restore simulation state */
};
extern struct io_subsystem *iosystem; /* imported I/O emulation functions */
The elements of the structure have the following meanings:
void (*io_init)(struct sim_interface sif, struct io_interface iif);
Called once on simulator startup. Set to NULL if unused.
void (*io_exit)();
Called once on simulator exit. Set to NULL if unused.
void (*io_reset)();
Called every time the processor is reset (i.e also startup). Set to NULL if unused.
void (*io_restart)();
Called every time the simulator is restarted (simtime set to zero). Set to NULL if unused.
int (*io_read)(unsigned int addr, int *data, int *ws);
Processor read call. The processor always reads one full 32-bit word from addr. The data should be returned
in *data, the number of waitstates should be returned in *ws. If the access would fail (illegal address etc.),
1 should be returned, on success 0.
int (*io_write)(unsigned int addr, int *data, int *ws, int size);
Processor write call. The size of the written data is indicated in size: 0 = byte, 1 = half-word, 2 = word, 3 =
doubleword. The address is provided in addr, and is always aligned with respect to the size of the written
data. The number of waitstates should be returned in *ws. If the access would fail (illegal address etc.), 1
should be returned, on success 0.
char * (*get_io_ptr)(unsigned int addr, int size);
TSIM can access emulated memory in the I/O device in two ways: either through the io_read/io_write
functions or directly through a memory pointer. get_io_ptr() is called with the target address and
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transfer size (in bytes), and should return a character pointer to the emulated memory array if the address
and size is within the range of the emulated memory. If outside the range, -1 should be returned. Set to
NULL if not used.
int (*command)(char * cmd);
The I/O module can optionally receive command-line commands. A command is first sent to the AHB and
I/O modules, and if not recognised, the to TSIM. command() is called with the full command string in
*cmd. Should return 1 if the command is recognized, otherwise 0. TSIM/ERC32 also calls this callback
when the SYSAV bit in the ERSR register changes. The commands “sysav 0” and “sysav 1” are then issued.
When TSIM commands are issued through the gdb ‘monitor’ command, a return value of 0 or 1 will result
in an ‘OK’ response to the gdb command. A return value > 1 will send the value itself as the gdb response.
A return value %lt; 1 will truncate the lsb 8 bits and send them back as a gdb error response: ‘Enn’.
void (*sigio)();
Not used as of tsim-1.2, kept for compatibility reasons.
void (*save)(char *fname);
The save() function is called when save command is issued in the simulator. The I/O module should
save any required state which is needed to completely restore the state at a later stage. *fname points to the
base file name which is used by TSIM. TSIM saves its internal state to fname.tss. It is suggested that the
I/O module save its state to fname.ios. Note that any events placed in the event queue by the I/O module
will be saved (and restored) by TSIM.
void (*restore)(char *fname);
The restore() function is called when restore command is issued in the simulator. The I/O module
should restore any required state to resume operation from a saved check-point. *fname points to the base
file name which is used by TSIM. TSIM restores its internal state from fname.tss.
5.1.4. Cygwin specific io_init()
Due to problems of resolving cross-referenced symbols in the module loading when using Cygwin, the
io_init() routine in the I/O module must initialise a local copy of simif and ioif. This is done by providing
the following io_init() routine:
static void io_init(struct sim_interface sif, struct io_interface iif)
{
#ifdef __CYGWIN32__
/* Do not remove, needed when compiling on Cygwin! */
simif = sif;
ioif = iif;
#endif
/* additional init code goes here */
};
The same method is also used in the AHB and FPU/CP modules.
5.2. LEON AHB emulation interface
In addition to the above described I/O modules, TSIM also allows emulation of the LEON2/3/4 processor core
with a completely user-defined memory and I/O architecture. This is in other words not applicable to ERC32.
By loading an AHB module (ahb.so), the internal memory emulation is disabled. The emulated processor core
communicates with the AHB module using an interface similar to the AHB master interface in the real LEON
VHDL model. The AHB module can then emulate the complete AHB bus and all attached units.
The AHB module interface is made up of two parts; one that is exported by TSIM and defines TSIM functions
and data structures that can be used by the AHB module; and one that is exported by the AHB module and allows
TSIM to access the emulated AHB devices.
At start-up, TSIM searches for ‘ahb.so’ in the current directory, but the location of the module can be specified using the -ahbm switch. Note that the module must be compiled to be position-independent, i.e. with the
-fPIC switch (gcc). The win32 version of TSIM loads ahb.dll instead of ahb.so. See the iomod directory in
the TSIM distribution for an example ahb.c and how to build the .so /.dll modules. The enviromental variable
TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths.
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5.2.1. procif structure
TSIM exports one structure for AHB emulation: procif. The procif structure defines a few functions giving access
to the processor emulation and cache behaviour. The procif structure is defined in tsim.h:
struct proc_interface {
void (*set_irl)(int level); /* generate external interrupt */
void (*cache_snoop)(uint32 addr);
void (*cctrl)(uint32 *data, uint32 read);
void (*power_down)();
void (*set_irq_level)(int level, int set);
void (*set_irq)(uint32 irq, uint32 level); /* generate external interrupt */
};
extern struct proc_interface procif;
The elements in the structure have the following meaning:
void (*set_irl)(int level);
Set the current interrupt level (iui.irl in VHDL model). Allowed values are 0 - 15, with 0 meaning no pending
interrupt. Once the interrupt level is set, it will remain until it is changed by a new call to set_irl().
The modules interrupt callback routine should typically reset the interrupt level to avoid new interrupts.
void (*cache_snoop)(uint32 addr);
The cache_snoop() function can be used to invalidate data cache lines (regardless of whether data cache
snooping is enabled or not). The tags to the given address will be checked, and if a match is detected the
corresponding cache lines will be flushed (i.e. the tag will be cleared). If an MMU is present and is enabled
the argument should be a virtual address. See also the snoop function in struct ahb_interface.
void (*cctrl)(uint32 *data, uint32 read);
Read and write the cache control register (CCR). The CCR is attached to the APB bus in the LEON2 VHDL
model, and this function can be called by the AHB module to read and write the register. If read = 1, the
CCR value is returned in *data, else the value of *data is written to the CCR. The cctrl() function
is only needed for LEON2 emulation, since LEON3/4 accesses the cache controller through a separate ASI
load/store instruction.
void (*power_down)();
The LEON processor enters power down-mode when called.
void (*set_irq_level)(int level, int set);
Callback set_irq_level can be used to emulate level triggered interrupts. Parameter set should be 1
to activate the interrupt level specified in parameter level or 0 to reset it. The interrupt level will remain
active after it is set until it is reset again. Multiple calls can be made with different level parameters in
which case the highest level is used.
void (*set_irq)(uint32 irq, uint32 level);
Set the interrupt pending bit for interrupt irq. Valid values on irq is 1 - 15. Care should be taken not to set
interrupts used by the LEON emulated peripherals. Note that the LEON interrupt control register controls
how and when processor interrupts are actually generated.
5.2.2. Structure to be provided by AHB module
tsim.h defines the structure to be provided by the emulated AHB module:
struct ahb_access {
uint32 address;
uint32 *data;
uint32 ws;
uint32 rnum;
uint32 wsize;
uint32 cache; /* No longer used */
};
struct pp_amba {
int is_apb;
unsigned int vendor, device, version, irq;
struct {
unsigned int addr, p, c, mask, type;
} bars[4];
};
struct ahb_subsystem {
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void (*init)(struct proc_interface procif);/* called once on start-up */
void (*exit)();
/* called once on exit */
void (*reset)();
/* called on processor reset */
void (*restart)();
/* called on simulator restart */
int (*read)(struct ahb_access *access);
int (*write)(struct ahb_access *access);
char *(*get_io_ptr)(unsigned int addr, int size);
int (*command)(char * cmd); /* I/O specific commands */
int
(*sigio)();
/* called when SIGIO occurs */
void (*save)(char * fname); /* save state */
void (*restore)(char * fname); /* restore state */
int (*intack)(int level); /* interrupt acknowledge */
int (*plugandplay)(struct pp_amba **); /* LEON3/4: get plug & play information */
void (*intpend)(unsigned int pend); /* LEON3/4 only: interrupt pending change */
int
meminit; /* tell tsim weather to initialize mem */
struct sim_interface *simif; /* initialized by tsim */
unsigned char *(*get_mem_ptr_ws)(); /* initialized if meminit was set */
void (*snoop) (unsigned int addr);
/* initialized with cache snoop routine */
struct io_interface *io; /* initialized by tsim */
void (*dprint)(char *p); /* initialized by tsim, prints out a debug string */
struct proc_interface *proc; /* initialized by tsim, access to proc_interface */
int (*cacheable)(uint32 addr, uint32 size); /* Cacheability of area */
int (*lprintf)(const char *format, ...); /* initialized by tsim */
int (*vlprintf)(const char *format, va_list ap); /* initialized by tsim */
void (*start)(void); /* Called each time simulation starts (again) (run, go, cont) */
void (*stop)(void); /* Called each time simulation stops, (Ctrl-C, breakpoints, etc.) */
};
extern struct ahb_subsystem *ahbsystem;
/* imported AHB emulation functions */
The elements of the structure have the following meanings:
void (*init)(struct proc_interface procif);
Called once on simulator startup. Set to NULL if unused.
void (*exit)();
Called once on simulator exit. Set to NULL if unused.
void (*reset)();
Called every time the processor is reset (i.e. also startup). Set to NULL if unused.
void (*restart)();
Called every time the simulator is restarted (simtime set to zero). Set to NULL if unused.
void int (*read)(struct ahb_access *ahbacc);
Processor AHB read. The processor always reads one or more 32-bit words from the AHB bus. The following fields of ahbacc is used. The ahbacc.addr field contains the read address of the first word to read.
The ahbacc.data field points to a buffer that the module can fill in. The module can also change the pointer
to point to a different buffer. The ahbacc.ws field should be set by the module to the number of cycles for
the complete access. The ahbacc.rnum field contains the number of words to be read. The function should
return 0 for a successful access, 1 for failed access and -1 for an area not handled by the module. The
ahbacc.wsize field is not used during read cycles. The ahbacc.cache field is no longer in use (use struct
ahb_subsystem.cacheable instead).
int (*write)(struct ahb_access *ahbacc);
Processor AHB write. The processor can write 1, 2, 4 or 8 bytes per access. The following fields of ahbacc
is used. The ahbacc.addr field contains the address of the write. The ahbacc.data field points to the data
to write; either one word for byte, half word or word writes or two words for double-word writes. The
ahbacc.wsize field defines write size as follows: 0 = byte, 1 = half-word, 2 = word, 3 = double-word. The
function should return 0 for a successful access, 1 for failed access and -1 for an area not handled by the
module. The ahbacc.rnum field is not used during write cycles. The ahbacc.cache field is no longer in use
(use struct ahb_subsystem.cacheable instead).
char * (*get_io_ptr)(unsigned int addr, int size);
During file load operations and displaying of memory contents, TSIM will access emulated memory
through a memory pointer. get_io_ptr() is called with the target address and transfer size (in bytes),
and should return a character pointer to the emulated memory array if the address and size is within the
range of the emulated memory. If outside the range, -1 should be returned. Set to NULL if not used.
int (*command)(char * cmd);
The AHB module can optionally receive command-line commands. A command is first sent to the AHB
and I/O modules, and if not recognised, then to TSIM. command() is called with the full command string
in *cmd. Should return 1 if the command is recognized, otherwise 0. When TSIM commands are issued
through the gdb ‘monitor’ command, a return value of 0 or 1 will result in an ‘OK’ response to the gdb
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command. A return value > 1 will send the value itself as the gdb response. A return value < 1 will truncate
the lsb 8 bits and send them back as a gdb error response: ‘Enn’.
void (*save)(char *fname);
The save() function is called when save command is issued in the simulator. The AHB module should
save any required state which is needed to completely restore the state at a later stage. *fname points to
the base file name which is used by TSIM. TSIM save its internal state to fname.tss. It is suggested that
the AHB module save its state to fname.ahs. Note that any events placed in the event queue by the AHB
module will be saved (and restored) by TSIM.
void (*restore)(char * fname);
The restore() function is called when restore command is issued in the simulator. The AHB module
should restore any required state to resume operation from a saved check-point. *fname points to the base
file name which is used by TSIM. TSIM restores its internal state from fname.tss.
int (*intack)(int level);
intack() is called when the processor takes an interrupt trap (tt = 0x11 - 0x1f). The level of the taken
interrupt is passed in level. This callback can be used to implement interrupt controllers. intack() should
return 1 if the interrupt acknowledgement was handled by the AHB module, otherwise 0. If 0 is returned,
the default LEON interrupt controller will receive the intack instead.
int (*plugandplay)(struct pp_amba **p);
Leon3/4 only: The plugandplay() function is called at startup. optioplugandplay() should
return in p a static pointer to an array with elements of type struct pp_amba and return the number of
entries in the array. The callback plugandplay() is used to add entries in the AHB and APB configuration space. Each struct pp_amba entry specifies an entry: If is_apb is set to 1 the entry will appear in
the APB configuration space and only member bars[0] will be used. If is_apb is 0 then the entry will appear
in the AHB slave configuration space and bars[0-3] will be used. If is_apb is 2 then the entry will appear
in the AHB master configuration space and bars[0-3] will be used. The members of the struct resemble the
fields in a configuration space entries. The entry is mapped to the first free slot.
void (*intpend)(unsigned int pend);
Leon3/4 only: The intpend() function is called when the set of pending interrupts changes. The pend
argument is a bitmask with the bits of pending interrupts set to 1.
int meminit;
If all loaded AHB modules sets meminit to 1, TSIM will initialize and emulate initialize and emulate SRAM/
SDRAM/PROM memory. Thus, the AHB module should initialize meminit with 1 if TSIM (or another
AHB module) should handle memory simulation. Calls to read and write should return -1 (undecoded area)
for the memory regions in which case TSIM (or possibly some other AHB module) will handle them. If
meminit is set to 0 the AHB module itself should emulate the memory address regions.
struct sim_interface *simif;
Entry simif is initialized by tsim with the global struct sim_interface structure.
unsigned char *(*get_mem_ptr_ws) (unsigned int addr, int size, int *wws,
int *rws)
If meminit was set to 1 tsim will initialize get_mem_ptr_ws with a callback that can be used to query
a pointer to the host memory emulating the LEON’s memory, along with waitstate information. Note that
the host memory pointer returned is in the hosts byte order (normally little endian on a PC). The size
parameter should be the length of the access (1 for byte, 2 for short, 4 for word and 8 for double word access).
The wws and rws parameters will return the calculated write and read waitstates for a possible access. See
also snoop below for responsibilities when DMA writes are done via pointers from this function.
void (*snoop) (unsigned int addr)
The callback snoop is initialized by tsim. If data cache snooping is enabled (and functioning, i.e. not
ut699) it flushes (i.e. invalidates) data cache lines corresponding to physical address addr (on LEON3/4
even when MMU is enabled). If the AHB module is doing DMA writes directly to memory pointers, it is
the responsibility of the AHB module to call this for all changed words for snooping to work correctly.
struct io_interface *io;
Initialized with the I/O interface structure pointer.
void (*dprint)(char *);
Initialized by tsim with a callback pointer to the debug output function. Output ends up in log, when logging
is enabled and gets forwarded to gdb when running TSIM via gdb. See lprintf and vlprintf for the
formatted couterparts.
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struct proc_interface *proc;
Initialized with the procif structure pointer.
int (*cacheable)(uint32 addr, uint32 size)
The cacheable callback is initialized by the module to NULL or a function returning cacheability
for a memory area. The function should return 1 if the range [addr,addr+size) is cacheable, 0 if it is uncacheable or -1 if the memory area it is not handled by the module. If all modules return -1 and/or lack the
cacheable callback, the area will be considered cacheable for memory areas [0x00000000,0x20000000)
and [0x40000000-0x80000000) and non-cacheable for all other areas. NOTE: For any (correspondingly
aligned) area as large as the largest data cache or instruction cache line size in the system, the cacheable
callback may not return different results for different words in the area.
int (*lprintf)(const char *format, ...)
Initialized by TSIM with a function for formatted loggable debug output. The function interface works
like for printf.
int (*vlprintf)(const char *format, va_list ap)
Initialized by TSIM with a function for formatted loggable debug output. The function interface works like
for vprintf.
void (*start)(void)
Called each time simulation starts, both when starting for the first time using go or run command and when
continuing using cont.
void (*stop)(void)
Called every time simulation stops, e.g. due to breakpoints, user pressing Ctrl-C, etc.
5.2.3. Big versus little endianess
SPARC conforms to the big endian byte ordering. This means that the most significant byte of a (half) word has
lowest address. To execute efficiently on little-endian hosts (such as Intel x86 PCs), emulated memory is organised
on word basis with the bytes within a word arranged according the endianess of the host. Read cycles can then
be performed without any conversion since SPARC always reads a full 32-bit word. During byte and half word
writes, care must be taken to insert the written data properly into the emulated memory. On a byte-write to address
0, the written byte should be inserted at address 3, since this is the most significant byte according to little endian.
Similarly, on a half-word write to bytes 0/1, bytes 2/3 should be written. For a complete example, see the prom
emulation function in io.c.
5.3. TSIM/LEON co-processor emulation
5.3.1. FPU/CP interface
The professional version of TSIM/LEON can emulate a user-defined floating-point unit (FPU) and co-processor
(CP). The FPU and CP are included into the simulator using loadable modules. To access the module, use the
structure ‘cp_interface’ defined in io.h. The structure contains a number of functions and variables that must be
provided by the emulated FPU/CP:
/* structure of function to be provided by an external co-processor */
struct cp_interface {
void (*cp_init)();
/* called once on start-up */
void (*cp_exit)();
/* called once on exit */
void (*cp_reset)();
/* calledon processor reset */
void (*cp_restart)();
/* called on simulator restart */
uint32 (*cp_reg)(int reg, uint32 data, int read);
int (*cp_load)(int reg, uint32 data, int *hold);
int (*cp_store)(int reg, uint32 *data, int *hold);
int (*cp_exec)(uint32 pc, uint32 inst, int *hold);
int (*cp_cc)(int *cc, int *hold);
/* get condition codes */
int *cp_status;
/* unit status */
void (*cp_print)();
/* print registers */
int (*command)(char * cmd);
/* CP specific commands */
int set_fsr(uint32 fsr);
/* initialized by tsim */
};
extern struct cp_interface *cp;
/* imported co-processor emulation functions */
5.3.2. Structure elements
void (*cp_init)(struct sim_interface sif, struct io_interface iif);
Called once on simulator startup. Set to NULL if not used.
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void (*cp_exit)();
Called once on simulator exit. Set to NULL if not used.
void (*cp_reset)();
Called every time the processor is reset. Set to NULL if not used.
void (*cp_restart)();
Called every time the simulator is restarted. Set to NULL if not used.
uint32 (*cp_reg)(int reg, uint32 data, int read);
Used by the simulator to perform diagnostics read and write to the FPU/CP registers. Calling cp_reg()
should not have any side-effects on the FPU/CP status. reg indicates which register to access: 0-31 indicates %f0-%f31/%c0- %31, 34 indicates %fsr/%csr. read indicates read or write access: read==0 indicates
write access, read!=0 indicates read access. Written data is passed in data, the return value contains the
read value on read accesses.
int (*cp_exec)(uint32 pc, uint32 inst, int *hold);
Execute FPU/CP instruction. The %pc is passed in pc and the instruction opcode in inst. If data dependency is emulated, the number of stall cycles should be return in *hold. The return value should be zero
if no trap occurred or the trap number if a trap did occur (0x8 for the FPU, 0x28 for CP). A trap can occur
if the FPU/CP is in exception_pending mode when a new FPU/CP instruction is executed.
int (*cp_cc)(int *cc, int *hold); /* get condition codes */
Read condition codes. Used by FBCC/CBCC instructions. The condition codes (0 - 3) should be returned
in *cc. If data dependency is emulated, the number of stall cycles should be return in *hold. The return
value should be zero if no trap occurred or the trap number if a trap did occur (0x8 for the FPU, 0x28 for CP).
A trap can occur if the FPU/CP is in exception_pending mode when a FBCC/CBCC instruction is executed.
int *cp_status;/* unit status */
Should contain the FPU/CP execution status: 0 = execute_mode, 1 = exception_pending, 2 =
exception_mode.
void (*cp_print)();/* print registers */
Should print the FPU/CP registers to stdio.
int (*command)(char * cmd); /* CP specific commands */
User defined FPU/CP control commands. NOT YET IMPLEMENTED.
int (*set_fsr)(char * cmd); /* initialized by tsim */
This callback is initialized by tsim and can be called to set the FPU status register.
5.3.3. Attaching the FPU and CP
At startup the simulator tries to load two dynamic link libraries containing an external FPU or CP. The simulator looks for the file fp.so and cp.so in the current directory and in the search path defined by ldconfig.
The location of the modules can also be defined using -cpm and -fpm switches. The enviromental variable
TSIM_MODULE_PATH can be set to a ‘:’ separated (‘;’ in WIN32) list of search paths. Each library is searched
for a pointer ‘cp’ that points to a cp_interface structure describing the co-processor. Below is an example from fp.c:
struct cp_interface test_fpu = {
cp_init,
/* cp_init */
NULL,
/* cp_exit */
cp_init,
/* cp_reset */
cp_init,
/* cp_restart */
cp_reg,
/* cp_reg */
cp_load,
/* cp_load */
cp_store,
/* cp_store */
fpmeiko,
/* cp_exec */
cp_cc,
/* cp_cc */
&fpregs.fpstate,
/* cp_status */
cp_print,
/* cp_print */
NULL
/* cp_command */
};
struct cp_interface *cp = &test_fpu; /* Attach pointer!! */
5.3.4. Big versus little endianess
SPARC is conforms to the big-endian byte ordering. This means that the most significant byte of a (half) word
has lowest address. To execute efficiently on little-endian hosts (such as Intel x86 PCs), emulated register-file is
organised on word basis with the bytes within a word arranged according the endianess of the host. Double words
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are also in host order, and the read/write register functions must therefore invert the lsb of the register address
when performing word access on little-endian hosts. See the file fp.c for examples (cp_load(), cp_store()).
5.3.5. Additional TSIM commands
float
Shows the registers of the FPU
cp
Shows the registers of the co-processor.
5.3.6. Example FPU
The file fp.c contains a complete SPARC FPU using the co-processor interface. It can be used as a template for
implementation of other co-processors. Note that data-dependency checking for correct timing is not implemented
in this version (it is however implemented in the built-in version of TSIM).
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6. TSIM library (TLIB)
6.1. Introduction
The professional version of TSIM is also available as a library, allowing the simulator to be integrated in a larger
simulation frame-work. The various TSIM commands and options are accessible through a simple function interface. I/O functions can be added, and use a similar interface to the loadable I/O modules described earlier.
6.2. Function interface
The following functions are provided to access TSIM features:
int tsim_init (char *option);/* initialise tsim with optional params. */
Initialize TSIM - must be called before any other TSIM function (except tsim_set_diag()) are used.
The options string can contain any valid TSIM startup option (as used for the standalone simulator), with
the exception that no filenames for files to be loaded into memory may be given. tsim_init() may
only be called once, use the TSIM reset command to reset the simulator without exiting. tsim_init()
will return 1 on success or 0 on failure.
int tsim_cmd (char *cmd);/* execute tsim command */
Execute TSIM command. Any valid TSIM command-line command may be given. The following return
values are defined:
SIGINT
Simulation stopped due to interrupt
SIGHUP
Simulation stopped normally
SIGTRAP
Simulation stopped due to breakpoint hit
SIGSEGV
Simulation stopped due to processor in error mode
SIGTERM
Simulation stopped due to program termination
void tsim_exit (int val);
Should be called to cleanup TSIM internal state before main program exits.
void tsim_get_regs (unsigned int *regs);
Get SPARC registers. regs is a pointer to an array of integers, see tsim.h for how the various registers
are indexed.
void tsim_set_regs (unsigned int *regs);
Set SPARC registers. *regs is a pointer to an array of integers, see tsim.h for how the various registers
are indexed.
void tsim_disas(unsigned int addr, int num);
Disassemble memory. addr indicates which address to disassemble, num indicates how many instructions.
void tsim_set_diag (void (*cfunc)(char *));
Set console output function. By default, TSIM writes all diagnostics and console messages on stdout.
tsim_set_diag() can be used to direct all output to a user defined routine. The user function is called
with a single string parameter containing the message to be written.
void tsim_set_callback (void (*cfunc)(void));
Set the debug callback function. Calling tsim_set_callback() with a function pointer will cause
TSIM to call the callback function just before each executed instruction, when the history is enabled. At
this point the instruction to be executed can be seen as the last entry in the history. History can be enabled
with the tsim_cmd() function.
void tsim_gdb (unsigned char (*inchar)(), void (*outchar)(unsigned char c));
Controls the simulator using the gdb ‘extended-remote’ protocol. The inchar parameter is a pointer to a
function that when called, returns next character from the gdb link. The outchar parameter is a pointer
to a function that sends one character to the gdb link.
void tsim_read(unsigned int addr, unsigned int *data);
Performs a read from addr, returning the value in *data. Only for diagnostic use.
void tsim_write(unsigned int addr, unsigned int data);
Performs a write to addr, with value data. Only for diagnostic use.
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void tsim_stop_event(void (*cfunc)(), int arg, int op);
tsim_stop_event() can remove certain event depending on the setting of arg and op. If op = 0, all
instance of the callback function cfunc will be removed. If op = 1, events with the argument = arg will
be removed. If op = 2, only the first (earliest) of the events with the argument = arg will be removed.
NOTE: The stop_event() function may NOT be called from a signal handler installed by the I/O module.
void tsim_inc_time(uint64);
tsim_inc_time() will increment the simulator time without executing any instructions. The event
queue is evaluated during the advancement of time and the event callbacks are properly called. Can not
be called from event handlers.
int tsim_trap(int (*trap)(int tt), void (*rett)());
tsim_trap() is used to install callback functions that are called every time the processor takes a trap
or returns from a trap (RETT instruction). The trap() function is called with one argument (tt) that
contains the SPARC trap number. If tsim_trap() returns with 0, execution will continue. A non-zero
return value will stop simulation with the program counter pointing to the instruction that will cause the
trap. The rett() function is called when the program counter points to the RETT instruction but before
the instruction is executed. The callbacks are removed by calling tsim_trap() with a NULL arguments.
int tsim_cov_get(int start, int end, char *ptr);
tsim_cov_get() will return the coverage data for the address range >= start and <end. The coverage
data will be written to a char array pointed to by *ptr, starting at ptr[0]. One character per 32-bit word
in the address range will be written. The user must assure that the char array is large enough to hold the
coverage data.
int tsim_cov_set(int start, int end, char val);
tsim_cov_set() will fill the coverage data in the address range limited by start and end (see above
for definition) with the value of val.
int tsim_ext_ins (int (*func) (struct ins_interface *r));
tsim_ext_ins() installs a handler for custom instructions. func is a pointer to an instruction emulation
function as described in Section 4.1.6. Calling tsim_ext_ins() with a NULL pointer will remove the
handler.
int tsim_lastbp (int *addr)
When simulation stopped due to breakpoint or watchpoint hit (SIGTRAP), this function will return the
address of the break/watchpoint in *addr. The function return value indicates the break cause; 0 = breakpoint, 1 = watchpoint.
6.3. AHB modules
AHB modules can be loaded by adding the “-ahbm <name>” switch to the tsim_init() string when starting.
See Section 5.2 for further information.
6.4. I/O interface
The TSIM library uses the same I/O interface as the standalone simulator. Instead of loading a shared library
containing the I/O module, the I/O module is linked with the main program. The I/O functions (and the main
program) has the same access to the exported simulator interface (simif and ioif) as described in the loadable
module interface. The TSIM library imports the I/O structure pointer, iosystem, which must be defined in the
main program.
An example I/O module is provided in tlib/<platform>/io.c , which shows how to add a prom.
A second example I/O module is provided in simple_io.c This module provides a simpler interface to attach I/O
functions. The following interface is provided:
void tsim_set_ioread (void (*cfunc)(int address, int *data, int *ws));
This function is used to pass a pointer to a user function which is to be called by TSIM when an I/O read
access is made. The user function is called with the address of the access, a pointer to where the read data
should be returned, and a pointer to a waitstate variable that should be set to the number of waitstates that
the access took.
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void tsim_set_iowrite (void (*cfunc)(int address, int *data, int *ws, int
size));
This function is used to pass a pointer to a user function which is to be called by TSIM when an I/O write
access is made. The user function is called with the address of the access, a pointer to the data to be written,
a pointer to a waitstate variable that should be set to the number of waitstates that the access took, and the
size of the access (0=byte, 1=half-word, 2=word, 3=double-word).
6.5. UART handling
By default, the library is using the same UART handling as the standalone simulator. This means that the UARTs
can be connected to the console, or any Unix device (pseudo-ttys, pipes, fifos). If the UARTs are to be handled
by the user’s I/O emulation routines, >tsim_init() should be called with ‘-nouart’, which will disable
all internal UART emulation. Any access to the UART register by an application will then be routed to the I/O
module read/write functions.
6.6. Linking a TLIB application
Three sample application are provided, one that uses the simplified I/O interface (app1.c), and two that uses the
standard loadable module interface (app2 and app3). They are built by doing a ‘make all’ in the tlib directory.
The win32 version of TSIM provides the library as a DLL, for all other platform a static library is provided (.a).
Support for dynamic libraries on Linux or Solaris is not available.
6.7. Limitations
On Windows/Cygwin hosts TSIM is not capable of reading UART A/B from the console, only writing is possible.
If reading of UART A/B is necessary, the simulator should be started with -nouart, and emulation of the UARTs
should be handled by the I/O module.
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7. Cobham UT699/UT699e AHB module
7.1. Overview
This chapter describes the UT699 loadable AHB module for the TSIM2 simulator. The AHB module provides
simulation models for the Ethernet, SpaceWire, PCI, GPIO and CAN cores in the UT699 processor. For more
information about this chip see the Cobham UT699 user manual.
The interfaces are modelled at packet/transaction/message level and provides an easy way to connect the simulated
UT699 to a larger simulation framework.
The following files are delivered with the UT699 TSIM module:
Table 7.1. Files delivered with the UT699 TSIM module
File
Description
ut699/linux/ut699.so
UT699 AHB module for Linux
ut699/linux/ut699e.so
UT699e AHB module for Linux
ut699/win32/ut699.dll
UT699 AHB module for Windows
ut699/win32/ut699e.dll
UT699e AHB module for Windows
out699/examples/input
The input directory contains two examples of PCI user
modules
ut699/examples/input/README.txt
Description of the user module examples
ut699/examples/input/pci.c
PCI user module example that makes UT699 PCI initiator accesses
ut699/examples/input/pci_target.c
PCI user module example that makes UT699 PCI target
accesses
ut699/examples/input/gpio.c
GPIO user module example
ut699/examples/input/ut699inputprovider.h
Interface between the UT699 module and the user defined PCI module
ut699/examples/input/pci_input.h
UT699 PCI input provider definitions
ut699/examples/input/input.h
Generic input provider definitions
ut699/examples/input/tsim.h
TSIM interface definitions
ut699/examples/input/end.h
Defines the endian of the local machine
ut699/examples/test
The test directory contains tests that can be executed in
TSIM
ut699/examples/test/README.txt
Description of the tests
ut699/examples/test/Makefile
Makefile for building the tests
ut699/examples/test/cansend.c
CAN transmission test
ut699/examples/test/canrec.c
CAN reception test
ut699/examples/test/pci.c
PCI interface test
ut699/examples/test/pcitest.h
Header file for PCI test
7.2. Loading the module
The module is loaded using the TSIM2 option -ahbm. All core specific options described in the following sections
need to be surrounded by the options -designinput and -designinputend, e.g:
On Linux:
tsim-leon3 -ut699 -ahbm ./ut699/linux/ut699.so
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-designinput ./ut699/examples/input/pci.so -designinputend
On Windows:
tsim-leon3 -ut699 -ahbm ut699/win32/ut699.dll
-designinput ./ut699/examples/input/pci.dll -designinputend
The option -ut699 needs to be given to TSIM to enable the UT699 processor configuration. Note that when ut699 is given, snooping will be set as non-functional.
7.3. UT699e
To enable the UT699e version of the UT699 replace ut699.[so|dll] with ut699e.[so|dll] and option
-ut699 with -ut699e. This:
• Enables snooping opposed to the non-functional snooping of the -ut699
• Sets UT699e build-id
• Changes MMU status/ctrl registers layout
• Contains GRSPW2 cores instead of GRSPW cores (the TSIM command, flag and packet interface is the
same however)
7.4. Debugging
To enable printout of debug information the -ut699_dbgon flag switch can be used. Alternatively one can
issue the ut699_dbgon flag command on the TSIM2 command line. The debug flags that are available are
described for each core in the following sections and can be listed by ut699_dbgon help.
7.5. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Media Access Controller interface
The Ethernet core simulation model is designed to functionally model the 10/100 Ethernet MAC available in the
UT699. For core details and register specification please see the UT699 manual.
The following features are supported:
• Direct Memory Access
• Interrupts
7.5.1. Start up options
Ethernet core start up options
-grethconnect host[:port]
Connect Ethernet core to a packet server at the specified host and port. Default port is 2224.
7.5.2. Commands
Ethernet core TSIM commands
greth_connect host[:port]
Connect Ethernet core to a packet server at the specified host and port. Default port is 2224.
greth_status
Print Ethernet register status
7.5.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the Ethernet interface. Use the them in conjunction with the
ut699_dbgon command to enable different levels of debug information.
Table 7.2. Ethernet debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRETH_ACC
GRETH accesses
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Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRETH_L1
GRETH accesses verbose
GAISLER_GRETH_TX
GRETH transmissions
GAISLER_GRETH_RX
GRETH reception
GAISLER_GRETH_RXPACKET
GRETH received packets
GAISLER_GRETH_RXCTRL
GRETH RX packet server protocol
GAISLER_GRETH_RXBDCTRL
GRETH RX buffer descriptors DMA
GAISLER_GRETH_RXBDCTRL
GRETH TX packet server protocol
GAISLER_GRETH_TXPACKET
GRETH transmitted packets
GAISLER_GRETH_IRQ
GRETH interrupts
7.5.4. Ethernet packet server
The simulation model relies on a packet server to receive and transmit the Ethernet packets. The packet server
should open a TCP socket which the module can connect to. The Ethernet core is connected to a packet server
using the -grethconnect start-up parameter or using the greth_connect command.
An example implementation of a packet server, named greth_config, is included in TSIM distribution. It
uses the TUN/TAP interface in Linux, or the WinPcap library on Windows, to connect the GRETH core to a
physical Ethernet LAN. This makes it easy to connect the simulated GRETH core to real hardware. It can provide a
throughput in the order of magnitude of 500 to 1000 KiB/sec. See its distributed README for usage instructions.
7.5.5. Ethernet packet server protocol
Ethernet data packets have the following format. Note that each packet is prepended with a one word length field
indicating the length of the packet to come (including its header).
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
IPID=1
31:16
RES, reserved for future use
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 1 for Ethernet
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 0 for data packets
4:0
RES, reserved for future use
7
5
TYPE=0
4
0
RES
Payload
0x8 -
Ethernet frame
Figure 7.1. Ethernet data packet
7.6. SpaceWire interface with RMAP support
The UT699 AHB module contains 4 GRSPW cores which models the GRSPW cores available in the UT699. For
core details and register specification please see the UT699 manual.
The following features are supported:
• Transmission and reception of SpaceWire packets
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• Interrupts
• RMAP
• Modifying the link state
7.6.1. Start up options
SpaceWire core start up options
-grspwX_connect host:port
Connect GRPSW core X to packet server at specified server and port.
-grspwX_server port
Open a packet server for core X on specified port.
-grspw_normap
Disable the RMAP handler. RMAP packets will be stored to the DMA channel.
-grspw_rmap
Enable the RMAP handler. All RMAP packages will be simulated in hardware. Includes support for RMAP
CRC. (Default)
-grspw_rmapcrc
Enable support for RMAP CRC. Performs RMAP CRC checks and calculations in hardware.
-grspw_rxfreq freq
Set the RX frequency which is used to calculate receive performance.
-grspw_txfreq freq
Set the TX frequency which is used to calculate transmission performance.
X in the above options has the range 1-4.
7.6.2. Commands
SpaceWire core TSIM commands
grspwX_connect host:port
Connect GRSPW core X to packet server at specified server and TCP port.
grspwX_server port
Open a packet server for core X on specified TCP port.
grspwX_status
Print status for all GRSPW cores.
X in the above commands has the range 1-4.
7.6.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the SpaceWire interfaces. Use the them in conjunction with the
ut699_dbgon command to enable different levels of debug information.
Table 7.3. SpaceWire debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRSPW_ACC
GRSPW accesses
GAISLER_GRSPW_RXPACKET
GRSPW received packets
GAISLER_GRSPW_RXCTRL
GRSPW rx protocol
GAISLER_GRSPW_TXPACKET
GRSPW transmitted packets
GAISLER_GRSPW_TXCTRL
GRSPW tx protocol
7.6.4. SpaceWire packet server
Each SpaceWire core can be configured independently as a packet server or client using either grspwX_server or -grspwX_connect. TCP sockets are used for establishing the connections. When acting
as a server the core can only accept a single connection.
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For more flexibility, such as custom routing, an external packet server can be implemented using the protocol
specified in the following sections. Each core should then be connected to that server.
7.6.5. SpaceWire packet server protocol
The protocol used to communicate with the packet server is described below. Three different types of packets are
defined according to the table below.
Table 7.4. Packet types
Type
Value
Data
0
Time code
1
Modify link state
2
Note that all packets are prepended by a one word length field which specified the length of the coming packet
including the header.
Data packet format:
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
7
IPID=0
5
TYPE=0
4
1
0
RES
EEP
31:16
RES, reserved for future use
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 0 for data packets
4:1
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
0
EEP, Error End of Packet. Set when the packet is truncated and terminated by an EEP.
Payload
0x8 -
SpaceWire packet
Figure 7.2. SpaceWire data packet
Time code packet format:
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31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
8
RES
7
5
IPID=0
4
0
TYPE=1
31:16
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 1 for time code packets
4:0
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
RES
Payload
31
8
0x8
7
6
RES
5
0
CT
31:8
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
7:6
CT, time control flags
5:0
CN, value of time counter
CN
Figure 7.3. SpaceWire time code packet
Link state packet format:
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
7
5
IPID=0
4
TYPE=2
31:16
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 2 for link state packets
4:3
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
2:0
LS, Link State:
0
Error reset
1
Error wait
2
Ready
3
Started
4
Connecting
5
Run
3
RES
2
0
LS
Figure 7.4. SpaceWire link state packet
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7.7. PCI initiator/target and GPIO interface
The UT699 AHB module models the GPIO and PCI core available in the UT699 ASIC. For core details and
register specification please see the UT699 manual.
The GPIO/PCI emulation is implemented by a two stage model:
1. The TSIM AHB module ut699.dll implements the GPIO and PCI core itself
2. A user supplied dynamic library models the devices on the PCI bus and the GPIO pins.
To load a user supplied dynamic library use the following command line switch:
-designinput <pciexample> <switches> -designinputend
This will load a user supplied dynamic library “pciexample”. In addition the switches between -designinput
and -designinputend are local switches only propagated to the user dynamic library “pciexample”.
7.7.1. Commands
PCI Commands
pci_status
Print status for the PCI core
7.7.2. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the PCI interface. Use them in conjunction with the ut699_dbgon
command to enable different levels of debug information.
Table 7.5. PCI interface debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRPCI_ACC
AHB accesses to/from PCI core
GAISLER_GRPCI_REGACC
GRPCI APB register accesses
GAISLER_GRPCI_DMA_REGACC
PCIDMA APB register accesses
GAISLER_GRPCI_DMA
GRPCI DMA accesses on the AHB bus
GAISLER_GRPCI_TARGET_ACC
GRPCI target accesses
GAISLER_GRPCI_INIT
Print summary on startup
7.7.3. User supplied dynamic library
The user supplied dynamic library should expose a public symbol ut699inputsystem of type struct
ut699_subsystem *. The struct ut699_subsystem is defined as:
struct ut699_subsystem {
void (*ut699_inp_setup) (int id, struct ut699_inp_layout *l,
char **argv, int argc);
void (*ut699_inp_restart) (int id, struct ut699_inp_layout *l);
struct sim_interface *simif;
};
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At initialization the callback ut699_inp_setup will be called once, supplied with a pointer to a structure of
type struct ut699_inp_layout.
struct ut699_inp_layout {
struct grpci_input grpci;
struct gpio_input gpio;
};
The callback ut699_inp_restart will be called every time the simulator restarts and the PCI user module can access
the global TSIM struct sim_interface structure through the simif member. See Chapter 5 for more
details.
The user supplied dynamic library should claim the ut699_inp_layout.grpci member of the structure by
using the INPUT_CLAIM(l->grpci) macro (see the example below). A struct grpci_input consists
of callbacks that model the PCI bus (see Section 7.7.4).
A typical user supplied dynamic library would look like this:
#include "tsim.h"
#include "inputprovider.h"
int pci_acc(struct grpci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr, unsigned int wsize,
unsigned int *data, unsigned int *abort, unsigned int *ws) {
... BUS access implementation ...
}
static void ut699_inp_setup (int id, struct ut699_inp_layout *l, char **argv, int argc)
{
printf("Entered PCI setup\n");
if (INPUT_ISCLAIMED(l->grpci)) {
printf("module user for PCI already allocated \n");
return;
}
for(i = 0; i &lt; argc; i++) {
... do argument processing ...
}
l->grpci.acc = pci_acc;
... do module setup ...
printf("ut699_inp_setup: Claiming %s\n", l->grpci._b.name);
INPUT_CLAIM(l->grpci);
return;
}
static struct ut699_subsystem ut699_pci = {
ut699_inp_setup,0,0
};
struct ut699_subsystem *ut699inputsystem = &amp;ut699_pci;
A typical Makefile that would create a user supplied dynamic library pci.(dll|so) from pci.c would look like this:
M_DLL_FIX = $(if $(strip $(shell uname | grep MINGW32)),dll,so)
M_LIB
= $(if $(strip $(shell uname | grep MINGW32)),-lws2_32 -luser32 -lkernel32 lwinmm,)
all:pci.$(M_DLL_FIX)
pci.$(M_DLL_FIX) : pci.o
$(CC) -shared -g pci.o -o pci.$(M_DLL_FIX) $(M_LIB)
pci.o:
pci.c \
inputprovider.h
$(CC) -fPIC -c -g -O0 pci.c -o pci.o
clean:
-rm -f *.o *.so
7.7.4. PCI bus model API
The structure struct grpci_input models the PCI bus. It is defined as:
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/* ut699 pci input provider */
struct grpci_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*acc)(struct grpci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr,
unsigned int *data, unsigned int *abort, unsigned int *ws);
int (*target_acc)(struct grpci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr,
unsigned int *data, unsigned int *mexc);
};
The acc callback should be set by the PCI user module at startup. It is called by the UT699 module whenever it
reads/writes as a PCI bus master.
Table 7.6. acc callback parameters
Parameter
Description
cmd
Command to execute, see Section 7.7.1 details
addr
PCI address
data
Data buffer, fill for read commands, read for write commands
wsize
0: 8-bit access 1: 16-bit access, 2: 32-bit access, 3: 64-bit access. 64 bit is
only used to model STD instructions to the GRPCI AHB slave
ws
Number of PCI clocks it shall to complete the transaction
abort
Set to 1 to generate target abort, 0 otherwise
The return value of acc determines if the transaction terminates successfully (1) or with master abort (0).
The callback target_acc is installed by the UT699 AHB module. The PCI user dynamic library can call this function
to initiate an access to the UT699 PCI target.
Table 7.7. target_acc parameters
Parameter
Description
cmd
Command to execute, see Section 7.7.1 for details. I/O cycles are not supported by the UT699 target.
addr
PCI address
data
Data buffer, returned data for read commands, supply data for write commands
wsize
0: 8-bit access 1: 16-bit access, 2: 32-bit access
mexc
0 if access is successful, 1 in case of target abort
If the address matched MEMBAR0, MEMBAR1 or CONFIG target_acc will return 1 otherwise 0.
7.7.5. GPIO model API
The structure struct gpio_input models the GPIO pins. It is defined as:
/* GPIO input provider */
struct gpio_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*gpioout)(struct gpio_input *ctrl, unsigned int out);
int (*gpioin) (struct gpio_input *ctrl, unsigned int in);
};
The gpioout callback should be set by the user module at startup. The gpioin callback is set by the U699
AHB module. The gpioout callback is called by the UT699 module whenever a GPIO output pin changes. The
gpioin callback is called by the user module when the input pins should change. Typically the user module
would register an event handler at a certain time offset and call gpioin from within the event handler.
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Table 7.8. gpioout callback parameters
Parameter
Description
out
The values of the output pins
Table 7.9. gpioin callback parameters
Parameter
Description
in
The input pin values
The return value of gpioin/gpioout is ignored.
7.8. CAN interface
The UT699 AHB module contains 2 CAN_OC cores which models the CAN_OC cores available in the UT699.
For core details and register specification please see the UT699 manual.
7.8.1. Start up options
CAN core start up options
-can_ocX_connect host:port
Connect CAN_OC core X to packet server to specified server and TCP port.
-can_ocX_server port
Open a packet server for CAN_OC core X on specified TCP port.
-can_ocX_ack [0|1]
Specifies whether the CAN_OC core will wait for a acknowledgment packet on transmission. This option
must be put after -can_ocX_connect.
X in the above options is in the range 1-2.
7.8.2. Commands
CAN core TSIM commands
can_ocX_connect host:port
Connect CAN_OC core X to packet server to specified server and TCP port.
can_ocX_server port
Open a packet server for CAN_OC core X on specified TCP port.
can_ocX_ack <0|1>
Specifies whether the CAN_OC core will wait for a acknowledgment packet on transmission. This command should only be issued after a connection has been established.
can_ocX_status
Prints out status information for the CAN_OC core.
X in the above commands is in the range 1-2.
7.8.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the CAN interfaces. Use them in conjunction with the ut699_dbgon
command to enable different levels of debug information.
Table 7.10. CAN debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_CAN_OC_ACC
CAN_OC register accesses
GAISLER_CAN_OC_RXPACKET
CAN_OC received messages
GAISLER_CAN_OC_TXPACKET
CAN_OC transmitted messages
GAISLER_CAN_OC_ACK
CAN_OC acknowledgements
GAISLER_CAN_OC_IRQ
CAN_OC interrupts
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7.8.4. Packet server
Each CAN_OC core can be configured independently as a packet server or client using either can_ocX_server or -can_ocX_connect. When acting as a server the core can only accept a single connection.
7.8.5. CAN packet server protocol
The protocol used to communicate with the packet server is described below. Four different types of packets are
defined according to the table below.
Table 7.11. CAN packet types
Type
Value
Message
0x00
Error counter
0xFD
Acknowledge
0xFE
Acknowledge config
0xFF
7.8.5.1. CAN message packet format
Used to send and receive CAN messages.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
CAN message
Byte #
Description
Bits (MSB-LSB)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
RTR -
-
DLC (max 8 bytes)
0
4
Protocol ID = 0
Prot ID 7-0
5
Control
FF
6-9
ID (32 bit word in network byte ID 10-0 (bits 31 - 11 ignored for standard frame format)
order)
ID 28-0 (bits 31-29 ignored for extended frame format)
10-17
Data byte 1 - DLC
Data byte n 7-0
Figure 7.5. CAN message packet format
7.8.5.2. Error counter packet format
Used to write the RX and TX error counter of the modelled CAN interface.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Error counter packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFD for error counter packets
5
Register
0 - RX error counter, 1 - TX error counter
6
Value
Value to write to error counter
Figure 7.6. Error counter packet format
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7.8.5.3. Acknowledge packet format
If the acknowledge function has been enabled through the start up option or command the CAN interface will wait
for an acknowledge packet each time it transmits a message. To enable the CAN receiver to send acknowledge
packets (either NAK or ACK) an acknowledge configuration packet must be sent. This is done automatically by
the CAN interface when can_ocX_ack is issued.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Acknowledge packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFE for acknowledge packets
5
Ack payload
0 - No acknowledge, 1 - Acknowledge
Figure 7.7. Acknowledge packet format
7.8.5.4. Acknowledge packet format
This packet is used for enabling/disabling the transmission of acknowledge packets and their payload (ACK
or NAK) by the CAN receiver. The CAN transmitter will always wait for an acknowledge if started with can_ocX_ack or if the can_ocX_ack command has been issued.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Acknowledge configuration packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFF for acknowledge configuration packets
5
Ack configuration
bit 0
Unused
bit 1
Ack packet enable, 1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
bit 2
Set ack packet payload, 1 - ACK, 0 - NAK
Figure 7.8. Acknowledge configuration packet format
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8. Cobham UT700 AHB module
8.1. Overview
The UT700 AHB module is very similar to the UT699 AHB module described in the previous chapter. The differences between the UT700 and the UT699 models is the added SPI model that is only present in the UT700
AHB module and that it has GRSPW2 cores instead of GRSPW cores and that the debug flag toggling command
is ut700_dbgon,
For information on the CAN, Spacewire, PCI and GPIO interfaces of the UT700 module, see the UT699 documentation in Chapter 7. The TSIM command, flag and packet interface is the same for both GRSPW and GRSPW2.
The following files are delivered with the UT700 TSIM module:
Table 8.1. Files delivered with the UT700 TSIM module
File
Description
ut700/linux/ut700.so
UT700 AHB module for Linux
ut700/win32/ut700.dll
UT700 AHB module for Windows
ut700/examples/input
The input directory contains two examples of PCI user
modules
ut700/examples/input/README.txt
Description of the user module examples
ut700/examples/input/Makefile
Makefile for building the user modules
ut700/examples/input/pci.c
PCI user module example that makes UT700 PCI initiator accesses
ut700/examples/input/pci_target.c
PCI user module example that makes UT700 PCI target
accesses
ut700/examples/input/ut700inputprovider.h
Interface between the UT700 module and the user defined PCI module
ut700/examples/input/pci_input.h
UT700 PCI input provider definitions
ut700/examples/input/input.h
Generic input provider definitions
ut700/examples/input/tsim.h
TSIM interface definitions
ut700/examples/input/end.h
Defines the endian of the local machine
ut700/examples/test
The test directory contains tests that can be executed in
TSIM
ut700/examples/test/README.txt
Description of the tests
ut700/examples/test/Makefile
Makefile for building the tests
ut700/examples/test/cansend.c
CAN transmission test
ut700/examples/test/canrec.c
CAN reception test
ut700/examples/test/pci.c
PCI interface test
ut700/examples/test/pcitest.h
Header file for PCI test
8.2. Loading the module
The module is loaded using the TSIM2 option -ahbm. All core specific options described in the following sections
need to be surrounded by the options -designinput and -designinputend, e.g:
On Linux:
tsim-leon3 -ut700 -ahbm ./ut700/linux/ut700.so
-designinput ./ut700/examples/input/pci.so -designinputend
On Windows:
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tsim-leon3 -ut700 -ahbm ut700/win32/ut700.dll
-designinput ./ut700/examples/input/pci.dll -designinputend
The option -ut700 needs to be given to TSIM to enable the UT700 processor configuration.
8.3. SPI bus model API
The UT700 user supplied so/dll differs from that of the UT699 in the addition of the SPI bus model API. The
structure struct spi_input models the SPI bus. It is defined as:
/* Spi input provider */
struct spi_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*spishift)(struct spi_input *ctrl, uint32 select, uint32 bitcnt,
uint32 out, uint32 *in);
};
The spishift callback should be set by the SPI user module at startup. It is called by the UT700 module whenever
it shifts a word through the SPI bus.
Table 8.2. spishift callback parameters
Parameter
Description
select
Slave select bits
bitcnt
Number of bits set in the MODE register, if bitcnt is -1 then the operation is not a shift
and the call is to indicate a select change, i.e. if the core is disabled.
out
Shift out (tx) data
in
Shift in (rx) data
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9. Cobham Gaisler GR712 AHB module
9.1. Overview
GR712 AHB module is a loadable AHB module that implements the GR712 peripherals including: GPIO, GRTIMER with latch, SPI, CAN, GRETH, SPACEWIRE, AHBRAM and extra UARTS.
The following files are delivered with the GR712 TSIM module:
Table 9.1. Files delivered with the GR712 TSIM module
File
Description
gr712/linux/gr712.so
GR712 AHB module for Linux
gr712/win32/gr712.dll
GR712 AHB module for Windows
gr712/examples/input
The input directory contains two examples of user modules
gr712/examples/input/README.txt
Description of the user module examples
gr712/examples/input/Makefile
Makefile for building the user modules
gr712/examples/input/spi.c
SPI user module example emulating a Intel SPI flash
gr712/examples/input/gpio.c
GPIO user module emulating GPIO bit toggle
gr712/examples/input/gr712inputprovider.h Interface between the GR712 module and the user module
9.2. Loading the module
The module is loaded using the TSIM2 option -ahbm. All core specific options described in the following sections
need to be surrounded by the options -designinput and -designinputend, e.g:
On Linux:
tsim-leon -gr712rc -ahbm ./gr712/linux/gr712.so
-designinput ./gr712/examples/input/spi.so -designinputend
On Windows:
tsim-leon -gr712rc -ahbm ./gr712/win32/gr712.dll
-designinput ./gr712/examples/input/spi.dll -designinputend
The option -gr712rc needs to be given to TSIM to enable the GR712 processor configuration. The above line
loads the GR712 AHB module ./gr712.so which in turn loads the SPI user module ./spi.so. The SPI user module ./
spi.so communicates with ./gr712.so using the user module interface described in gr712inputprovider.h,, while ./
gr712.so communicates with TSIM via the AHB interface.
9.3. Debugging
To enable printout of debug information the -gr712_dbgon flag switch can be used. Alternatively one can
issue the gr712_dbgon flag command on the TSIM2 command line. The debug flags that are available are
described for each core in the following sections and can be listed by gr712_dbgon help.
9.4. CAN interface
The GR712 AHB module contains 2 CAN_OC cores which models the CAN_OC cores available in the GR712.
For core details and register specification please see the GR712 manual.
9.4.1. Start up options
CAN core start up options
-can_ocX_connect host:port
Connect CAN_OC core X to packet server to specified server and TCP port.
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-can_ocX_server port
Open a packet server for CAN_OC core X on specified TCP port.
-can_ocX_ack [0|1]
Specifies whether the CAN_OC core will wait for a acknowledgment packet on transmission. This option
must be put after -can_ocX_connect.
X in the above options is in the range 0-1.
9.4.2. Commands
CAN core TSIM commands
can_ocX_connect host:port
Connect CAN_OC core X to packet server to specified server and TCP port.
can_ocX_server port
Open a packet server for CAN_OC core X on specified TCP port.
can_ocX_ack <0|1>
Specifies whether the CAN_OC core will wait for a acknowledgment packet on transmission. This command should only be issued after a connection has been established.
can_ocX_status
Prints out status information for the CAN_OC core.
X in the above commands is in the range 0-1.
9.4.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the CAN interfaces. Use them in conjunction with the gr712_dbgon
command to enable different levels of debug information. To toggle debug output for individual cores, use the
can_ocX_dbg command, where X is in the range 0-1.
Table 9.2. CAN debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_CAN_OC_ACC
CAN_OC register accesses
GAISLER_CAN_OC_RXPACKET
CAN_OC received messages
GAISLER_CAN_OC_TXPACKET
CAN_OC transmitted messages
GAISLER_CAN_OC_ACK
CAN_OC acknowledgements
GAISLER_CAN_OC_IRQ
CAN_OC interrupts
9.4.4. Packet server
Each CAN_OC core can be configured independently as a packet server or client using either can_ocX_server or -can_ocX_connect. When acting as a server the core can only accept a single connection.
9.4.5. CAN packet server protocol
The protocol used to communicate with the packet server is described below. Four different types of packets are
defined according to the table below.
Table 9.3. CAN packet types
Type
Value
Message
0x00
Error counter
0xFD
Acknowledge
0xFE
Acknowledge config
0xFF
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9.4.5.1. CAN message packet format
Used to send and receive CAN messages.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
CAN message
Byte #
Description
Bits (MSB-LSB)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
RTR -
-
DLC (max 8 bytes)
0
4
Protocol ID = 0
Prot ID 7-0
5
Control
FF
6-9
ID (32 bit word in network byte ID 10-0 (bits 31 - 11 ignored for standard frame format)
order)
ID 28-0 (bits 31-29 ignored for extended frame format)
10-17
Data byte 1 - DLC
Data byte n 7-0
Figure 9.1. CAN message packet format
9.4.5.2. Error counter packet format
Used to write the RX and TX error counter of the modelled CAN interface.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Error counter packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFD for error counter packets
5
Register
0 - RX error counter, 1 - TX error counter
6
Value
Value to write to error counter
Figure 9.2. Error counter packet format
9.4.5.3. Acknowledge packet format
If the acknowledge function has been enabled through the start up option or command the CAN interface will wait
for an acknowledge packet each time it transmits a message. To enable the CAN receiver to send acknowledge
packets (either NAK or ACK) an acknowledge configuration packet must be sent. This is done automatically by
the CAN interface when can_ocX_ack is issued.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Acknowledge packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFE for acknowledge packets
5
Ack payload
0 - No acknowledge, 1 - Acknowledge
Figure 9.3. Acknowledge packet format
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9.4.5.4. Acknowledge packet format
This packet is used for enabling/disabling the transmission of acknowledge packets and their payload (ACK
or NAK) by the CAN receiver. The CAN transmitter will always wait for an acknowledge if started with can_ocX_ack or if the can_ocX_ack command has been issued.
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies the length of the rest of the packet
Acknowledge configuration packet
Byte #
Field
Description
4
Packet type
Type of packet, 0xFF for acknowledge configuration packets
5
Ack configuration
bit 0
Unused
bit 1
Ack packet enable, 1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
bit 2
Set ack packet payload, 1 - ACK, 0 - NAK
Figure 9.4. Acknowledge configuration packet format
9.5. 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Media Access Controller interface
The Ethernet core simulation model is designed to functionally model the 10/100 Ethernet MAC available in the
GR712. For core details and register specification please see the GR712 manual.
The following features are supported:
• Direct Memory Access
• Interrupts
9.5.1. Start up options
Ethernet core start up options
-grethconnect host[:port]
Connect Ethernet core to a packet server at the specified host and port. Default port is 2224.
9.5.2. Commands
Ethernet core TSIM commands
greth_connect host[:port]
Connect Ethernet core to a packet server at the specified host and port. Default port is 2224.
greth_status
Print Ethernet register status
9.5.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the Ethernet interface. Use the them in conjunction with the
gr712_dbgon command to enable different levels of debug information.
Table 9.4. Ethernet debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRETH_ACC
GRETH accesses
GAISLER_GRETH_L1
GRETH accesses verbose
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Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRETH_TX
GRETH transmissions
GAISLER_GRETH_RX
GRETH reception
GAISLER_GRETH_RXPACKET
GRETH received packets
GAISLER_GRETH_RXCTRL
GRETH RX packet server protocol
GAISLER_GRETH_RXBDCTRL
GRETH RX buffer descriptors DMA
GAISLER_GRETH_RXBDCTRL
GRETH TX packet server protocol
GAISLER_GRETH_TXPACKET
GRETH transmitted packets
GAISLER_GRETH_IRQ
GRETH interrupts
9.5.4. Ethernet packet server
The simulation model relies on a packet server to receive and transmit the Ethernet packets. The packet server
should open a TCP socket which the module can connect to. The Ethernet core is connected to a packet server
using the -grethconnect start-up parameter or using the greth_connect command.
An example implementation of a packet server, named greth_config, is included in TSIM distribution. It
uses the TUN/TAP interface in Linux, or the WinPcap library on Windows, to connect the GRETH core to a
physical Ethernet LAN. This makes it easy to connect the simulated GRETH core to real hardware. It can provide a
throughput in the order of magnitude of 500 to 1000 KiB/sec. See its distributed README for usage instructions.
9.5.5. Ethernet packet server protocol
Ethernet data packets have the following format. Note that each packet is prepended with a one word length field
indicating the length of the packet to come (including its header).
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
IPID=1
31:16
RES, reserved for future use
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 1 for Ethernet
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 0 for data packets
4:0
RES, reserved for future use
7
5
TYPE=0
4
0
RES
Payload
0x8 -
Ethernet frame
Figure 9.5. Ethernet data packet
9.6. SpaceWire interface with RMAP support
The GR712 AHB module contains 6 GRSPW2 cores which models the GRSPW2 cores available in the GR712.
For core details and register specification please see the GR712 manual.
The following features are supported:
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•
•
•
•
•
Transmission and reception of SpaceWire packets
Interrupts
Time codes
RMAP
Modifying the link state
9.6.1. Start up options
SpaceWire core start up options
-grspwX_connect host:port
Connect GRPSW core X to packet server at specified server and port.
-grspwX_server port
Open a packet server for core X on specified port.
-grspw_normap
Disable the RMAP handler. RMAP packets will be stored to the DMA channel.
-grspw_rmap
Enable the RMAP handler. All RMAP packages will be simulated in hardware. Includes support for RMAP
CRC. (Default)
-grspw_rmapcrc
Enable support for RMAP CRC. Performs RMAP CRC checks and calculations in hardware.
-grspw_rxfreq freq
Set the RX frequency which is used to calculate receive performance.
-grspw_txfreq freq
Set the TX frequency which is used to calculate transmission performance.
X in the above options has the range 0-5.
9.6.2. Commands
SpaceWire core TSIM commands
grspwX_connect host:port
Connect GRSPW2 core X to packet server at specified server and TCP port.
grspwX_server port
Open a packet server for core X on specified TCP port.
grspwX_status
Print status for all GRSPW2 cores.
X in the above commands has the range 0-5.
9.6.3. Debug flags
The following debug flags are available for the SpaceWire interfaces. Use the them in conjunction with the
gr712_dbgon command to enable different levels of debug information. To toggle debug output for individual
cores, use the grspwX_dbg command, where X is in the range 0-5.
Table 9.5. SpaceWire debug flags
Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRSPW_ACC
GRSPW accesses
GAISLER_GRSPW_RXPACKET
GRSPW received packets
GAISLER_GRSPW_RXCTRL
GRSPW rx protocol
GAISLER_GRSPW_TXPACKET
GRSPW transmitted packets
GAISLER_GRSPW_TXCTRL
GRSPW tx protocol
GAISLER_GRSPW_RMAP
GRSPW RMAP accesses
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Flag
Trace
GAISLER_GRSPW_RMAPPACKET
GRSPW RMAP packet dumps
GAISLER_GRSPW_RMAPPACKDE
GRSPW RMAP packet decoding
GAISLER_GRSPW_DMAERR
GRSPW DMA errors
9.6.4. SpaceWire packet server
Each SpaceWire core can be configured independently as a packet server or client using either grspwX_server or -grspwX_connect. TCP sockets are used for establishing the connections. When acting
as a server the core can only accept a single connection.
For more flexibility, such as custom routing, an external packet server can be implemented using the protocol
specified in the following sections. Each core should then be connected to that server.
9.6.5. SpaceWire packet server protocol
The protocol used to communicate with the packet server is described below. Three different types of packets are
defined according to the table below.
Table 9.6. Packet types
Type
Value
Data
0
Time code
1
Modify link state
2
Note that all packets are prepended by a one word length field which specified the length of the coming packet
including the header.
Data packet format:
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
7
IPID=0
5
TYPE=0
4
1
0
RES
EEP
31:16
RES, reserved for future use
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 0 for data packets
4:1
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
0
EEP, Error End of Packet. Set when the packet is truncated and terminated by an EEP.
Payload
0x8 -
SpaceWire packet
Figure 9.6. SpaceWire data packet
Time code packet format:
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31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
8
RES
7
5
IPID=0
4
0
TYPE=1
31:16
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 1 for time code packets
4:0
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
RES
Payload
31
8
0x8
7
6
RES
5
0
CT
31:8
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
7:6
CT, time control flags
5:0
CN, value of time counter
CN
Figure 9.7. SpaceWire time code packet
Link state packet format:
31
0
0x0
31:0
LENGTH
LENGTH, specifies length of packet including the header
Header
31
0x4
16 15
RES
8
7
5
IPID=0
4
TYPE=2
31:16
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
15:8
IPID, IP core ID, must equal 0 for SpaceWire
7:5
TYPE, packet type, 2 for link state packets
4:3
RES, reserved for future use, must be set to 0
2:0
LS, Link State:
0
Error reset
1
Error wait
2
Ready
3
Started
4
Connecting
5
Run
3
RES
2
0
LS
Figure 9.8. SpaceWire link state packet
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9.7. SPI and GPIO user modules
The user supplied dynamic library should expose a public symbol gr712inputsystem of type struct
gr712_subsystem *. The struct gr712_subsystem is defined in gr712inputprovider.h as:
struct gr712_subsystem {
void (*gr712_inp_setup) (int id,
struct gr712_inp_layout * l,
char **argv, int argc);
void (*gr712_inp_restart) (int id,
struct gr712_inp_layout * l);
struct sim_interface *simif;
};
The callback gr712_inp_restart will be called every time the simulator restarts. At initialization the callback
gr712_inp_setup will be called once, supplied with a pointer to structure struct gr712_inp_layout defined in gr712inputprovider.h (see Section 9.7.1 and Section 9.7.2 for details):
struct gr712_inp_layout {
struct gpio_input gpio[2];
struct spi_input spi;
};
The user module can access the global TSIM struct sim_interface structure through the simif member.
See Chapter 5 for more details.
The user supplied dynamic library should claim the gr712_inp_layout.gpio or gr712_inp_layout. spi members by
using the INPUT_CLAIM macro, i.e. INPUT_CLAIM(l->gpio) (see the example below).
A typical user supplied dynamic library would look like this:
/* simple gpio user module that toggles all input bits */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "tsim.h"
#include "gr712inputprovider.h"
extern struct gr712_subsystem *gr712inputsystem;
static struct gr712_inp_layout *lay = 0;
static void Change(struct gpio_input *ctrl) {
...
}
int gpioout(struct gpio_input *ctrl, unsigned int out) {
...
}
static void gr712_inp_setup (int id,
struct gr712_inp_layout * l,
char **argv, int argc) {
lay = l;
printf("User-dll: gr712_inp_setup:Claiming %s\n", l->gpio[0]._b.name);
INPUT_CLAIM(l->gpio[0]);
l->gpio[0].gpioout = gpioout;
gr712inputsystem->simif->event(Change,(unsigned long)&l->gpio[0],10000000);
}
static struct gr712_subsystem gr712_gpio = {
gr712_inp_setup,0,0
};
struct gr712_subsystem *gr712inputsystem = &gr712_gpio;
A typical Makefile that would create a user supplied dynamic library gpio.(dll|so) would look like this:
M_DLL_FIX=$(if $(strip $(shell uname|grep MINGW32)),dll,so)
M_LIB=$(if $(strip $(shell uname|grep MINGW32)),-lws2_32 -luser32 -lkernel32 -lwinmm,)
all:gpio.$(M_DLL_FIX)
pci.$(M_DLL_FIX) : gpio.o
$(CC) -shared -g gpio.o -o gpio.$(M_DLL_FIX) $(M_LIB)
gpio.o:
gpio.c
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$(CC) -fPIC -c -g -O0 gpio.c -o gpio.o
clean:
-rm -f *.o *.so
The user can then specify the user module to be loaded by the gr712.so AHB module using the -designinput
and -designinputend command line options:
-designinput ./gr712/examples/input/gpio.so -designinputend
These switches are interpreted by gr712.so.
9.7.1. SPI bus model API
The structure struct spi_input models the SPI bus. It is defined as:
/* Spi input provider */
struct spi_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*spishift)(struct spi_input *ctrl, uint32 select, uint32 bitcnt,
uint32 out, uint32 *in);
};
The spishift callback should be set by the SPI user module at startup. It is called by the GR712 module whenever
it shifts a word through the SPI bus.
Table 9.7. spishift callback parameters
Parameter
Description
select
Slave select bits (in case of GR712 these should be ignored and GPIO used instead)
bitcnt
Number of bits set in the MODE register, if bitcnt is -1 then the operation is not a shift
and the call is to indicate a select change, i.e. if the core is disabled.
out
Shift out (tx) data
in
Shift in (rx) data
The return value of spishift is ignored.
9.7.2. GPIO model API
The structure struct gpio_input models the GPIO pins. It is defined as:
/* GPIO input provider */
struct gpio_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*gpioout)(struct gpio_input *ctrl, unsigned int out);
int (*gpioin) (struct gpio_input *ctrl, unsigned int in);
};
The gpioout callback should be set by the user module at startup. The gpioin callback is set by the GR712 AHB
module. The gpioout callback is called by the GR712 module whenever a GPIO output pin changes. The gpioin
callback is called by the user module when the input pins should change. Typically the user module would register
an event handler at a certain time offset and call gpioin from within the event handler.
Table 9.8. gpioout callback parameters
Parameter
Description
out
The values of the output pins
Table 9.9. gpioin callback parameters
Parameter
Description
in
The input pin values
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The return value of gpioin/gpioout is ignored.
9.8. UART interfaces
The GR712 module adds five extra UARTS in addition to the one built in UART (the second built in UART is is
disabled by the -gr712rc option). The extra UARTS are numbered 2 through 6.
9.8.1. Start up options
-uartX device
Works like the ordinary -uartX device option but for X in the range 2-6, with the extra possibility to
set the UART to use stdin and stdout by using -uartX stdio.
9.8.2. Commands
uartX_connect device
Has the same effect as -uartX device above but can as a command.
uartX_status
Shows the status of the UART.
uartX_dbg < flag | list | help | clean >
Toggle, show, disable or show help for debug options for the given UART.
X in the above commands is in the range 2-6.
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10. Atmel AT697 PCI emulation
10.1. Overview
The PCI emulation is implemented as a AT697 AHB module that will process all accesses to memory region
0xa0000000 - 0xf0000000 (AHB slave mode) and the APB registers starting at 0x80000100. The AT697 AHB
module implements all registers of the PCI core. It will in turn load the PCI user modules that will implement the
devices. The AT697 AHB module is supposed to be the PCI host. Both PCI Initiator and PCI Target mode are
supported. The interface to the PCI user modules is implemented on bus level. Two callbacks model the PCI bus.
The following files are delivered with the AT697 TSIM module:
Table 10.1. Files delivered with the AT697 TSIM module
File
Description
at697/linux/at697.so
AT697 AHB module for Linux
at697/win32/at697.dll
AT697 AHB module for Windows
Input
The input directory contains two examples of PCI user modules
at697/examples/input/README.txt
Description of the user module examples
at697/examples/input/Makefile
Makefile for building the user modules
at697/examples/input/pci.c
PCI user module example that makes AT697 PCI initiator accesses
at697/examples/input/pci_target.c
PCI user module example that makes AT697 PCI target accesses
at697/examples/input/at697inputprovider.h
Interface between the AT697 module and the user defined PCI
module
at697/examples/input/pci_input.h
AT697 PCI input provider definitions
at697/examples/input/input.h
Generic input provider definitions
at697/examples/input/tsim.h
TSIM interface definitions
at697/examples/input/end.h
Defines the endian of the local machine
10.2. Loading the module
The module is loaded using the TSIM2 option -ahbm. All core specific options described in the following sections
need to be surrounded by the options -designinput and -designinputend, e.g:
On Linux:
tsim-leon -ahbm ./at697/linux/at697.so
-designinput ./at697/examples/input/pci.so -designinputend
On Windows:
tsim-leon -ahbm ./at697/win32/at697.dll
-designinput ./at697/examples/input/pci.dll -designinputend
This loads the AT697 AHB module ./at697.so which in turn loads the PCI user module ./pci.so. The PCI user
module ./pci.so communicates with ./at697.so using the PCI user module interface, while ./at697.so communicates
with TSIM via the AHB interface.
10.3. AT697 initiator mode
The PCI user module should supply one callback function acc(). The AT697 AHB module will call this function to emulate AHB slave mode accesses or DMA accesses that are forwarded via acc(). The cmd parameter
determines which command to use. Configuration cycles have to be handled by the PCI user module.
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10.4. AT697 target mode
The AT697 AHB module supplies one callback target_acc() to the PCI user modules to implement target
mode accesses from the PCI bus to the AHB bus. The PCI user module should trigger access events itself by
inserting itself into the event queue.
10.5. Definitions
#define
#define
#define
#define
ESA_PCI_SPACE_IO
ESA_PCI_SPACE_MEM
ESA_PCI_SPACE_CONFIG
ESA_PCI_SPACE_MEMLINE
0
1
2
3
/* atc697 pci input provider */
struct esa_pci_input {
struct input_inp _b;
int (*acc)(struct esa_pci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr,
unsigned int *data, unsigned int *abort,unsigned int *ws);
int (*target_acc)(struct esa_pci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr,
unsigned int *data, unsigned int *mexc);
};
10.5.1. PCI command table
0000:
0001:
0010:
0011:
0100:
0101:
0110:
0111:
1000:
1001:
1010:
1011:
1100:
1101:
1110:
1111:
"IRQ acknowledge",
"Special cycle",
"I/O Read",
"I/O Write",
"Reserved",
"Reserved",
"Memory Read",
"Memory Write",
"Reserved",
"Reserved",
"Configuration Read",
"Configuration Write",
"Memory Read Mutltiple",
"Dual Address Cycle",
"Memory Read Line",
"Memory Write And Invalidate"
10.6. Read/write function installed by PCI module
This function should be set by the PCI user module:
int (*acc)(struct esa_pci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr, unsigned int *data,
unsigned int *abort, unsigned int *ws);
If set, the function is called by the AT697 AHB module whenever the PCI interface initiates a transaction. The
function is called for AHB-slave mapped accesses as well as AHB-Master/APB DMA.The parameter cmd specifies the command to execute, see Section 10.5.1. Parameter addr specifies the address. The user module should
return the read data in *data for a read command or write the *data on a write command and return the time to
completion in *ws as PCI clocks. A possible target abort should be returned in *abort. The return value should
be: 0: taken, 1: not taken (master abort)
10.7. Read/write function installed by AT697 module
The following function is installed by the AT697 AHB module:
int (*target_acc)(struct esa_pci_input *ctrl, int cmd, unsigned int addr, unsigned int
*data, unsigned int *mexc);
The PCI user module can call this function to emulate a PCI target mode access to the AT697 AHB module.
Parameter cmd specifies the command to execute, see Section 10.5.1. The AT697 module is supposed to be the
host and accesses to the configuration space is not supported. Parameter addr specifies the address. Parameter
*data should point to a memory location where to return the read data on a read command or point to the write
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data on a write command. Parameter *mexc should point to a memory location where to return a possible error.
If the call was hit by MEMBAR0, MEMBAR1 or IOBAR, target_read() will return 1 otherwise 0.
10.8. Registers
Table 10.2 contains a list of implemented and not implemented fields of the AT697F PCI Registers. Only register
fields that are relevant for the emulated PCI module is implemented.
Table 10.2. PCI register support
Register
Implemented
Not implemented
PCIID1
device id, vendor id
PCISC
stat 13, stat 12, stat 11, stat 7, stat 6 stat 5, stat15 stat14 stat10_9 stat8 com10 com9 com8
stat 4, com2, com 1, com1
com7 com6 com5 com4 com3
PCIID2
class code, revision id
PCIBHDLC
[bist, header type, latency timer, cache
size] config-space only
PCIMBAR1
base address, pref, type, msi
PCIMBAR2
base address, pref, type, msi
PCIIOBAR3
io base address, ms
PCISID
subsystem id, svi
PCICP
pointer
PCILI
[max_lat min_gnt int_pin int_line] config-space-only
PCIRT
[ retry trdy ] config-space-only
PCICW
PCISA
ben
start address
PCIIW
ben
PCIDMA
wdcnt, com
b2b
PCIIS
act, xff, xfe, rfe
dmas, ss
PCIIC
mod, commsb
dwr, dww, perr
PCITPA
tpa1, tpa2
PCITSC
errmem, xff, xfe, rfe, tms
PCIITE
dmaer,imier, tier
cmfer, imper, tbeer, tper, syser
PCIITP
dmaer,imier, tier
cmfer, imper, tbeer, tper, syser
PCIITF
dmaer,imier, tier, cmfer, imper, tbeer,
tper, syser
PCID
dat
PCIBE
dat
PCIDMAA
addr
PCIA
p0, p1, p2, p3
10.9. Debug flags
The switch -designdbgon flags can be used to enable debug output. The possible values for flags are as follows:
Table 10.3. Debug flags
ESAPCI_REGACC
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ESAPCI_ACC
Trace accesses to the PCI AHB-slave address space
ESAPCI_DMA
Trace DMA
ESAPCI_IRQ
Trace PCI IRQ
10.10. Commands
pci
Displays all PCI registers.
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11. TPS VxWorks Module
11.1. Overview
The TPS VxWorks Module is a loadable module that simplifies communication between TSIM and the VxWorks
Workbench. It provides a virtual core that acts similar to a basic ethernet controller, but does not require a packet
server.
The module is only useful in conjunction with VxWorks.
Table 11.1. Files delivered with the TPS VxWorks TSIM module
File
Description
tps/linux/tps-vxworks.so
TPS VxWorks module for Linux
tps/win32/tps-vxworks.dll
TPS VxWorks module for Windows
11.2. Loading the module
The module is loaded using the TSIM2 option -ahbm. It can be used in conjunction with other modules, such
as the UT699 and GR712 modules.
On Linux (together with the UT699 design):
tsim-leon3 -ahbm ./tps/linux/tps-vxworks.so -ahbm ./ut699/linux/ut699.so
On Windows (together with the GR712 design):
tsim-leon3 -ahbm ./tps/win32/tps-vxworks.dll -ahbm ./gr712/win32/gr712.dll
11.3. Configuration
By default the module uses IRQ 5 and UDP port 0x4321. This can be changed by using the following command
line arguments:
-tps_vxworks_irq irq
Uses IRQ irq instead of the default.
-tps_vxworks_port port
Uses UDP port port instead of the default.
Use the following command line to make the TPS module use IRQ 10 and port 5000 on Linux together with the
UT699 design:
tsim-leon3 -ahbm ./tps/linux/tps-vxworks.so -ahbm ./ut699/linux/ut699.so
-tps_vxworks_port 5000 -tps_vxworks_irq 10
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12. Support
For support contact the Cobham Gaisler support team at support@gaisler.com.
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Cobham Gaisler AB
Kungsgatan 12
411 19 Gothenburg
Sweden
www.cobham.com/gaisler
sales@gaisler.com
T: +46 31 7758650
F: +46 31 421407
Cobham Gaisler AB, reserves the right to make changes to any products and services described
herein at any time without notice. Consult Cobham or an authorized sales representative to verify that
the information in this document is current before using this product. Cobham does not assume any
responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any product or service described herein,
except as expressly agreed to in writing by Cobham; nor does the purchase, lease, or use of a product
or service from Cobham convey a license under any patent rights, copyrights, trademark rights, or any
other of the intellectual rights of Cobham or of third parties. All information is provided as is. There is no
warranty that it is correct or suitable for any purpose, neither implicit nor explicit.
Copyright © 2015 Cobham Gaisler AB
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