economy
C. L. Liu
National Tsing Hua University
Taiwan
Economy
  Creation of Wealth
  Distribution of Wealth
Technology
  Application of Scientific Knowledge
to the Solution of Practical Problems
Education
  Discovery of Knowledge
  Production of Human Resources
Economy
Education
Technology
Economy : Creation of Wealth
  Labor Force = Wealth
  Natural Resources = Wealth
  Technology = Wealth
Labor Force = Wealth
  Large Population
  Slaves
  Expatriates, Migrant Workers
  Sweatshops
  Steam Engine : First Industrial
Revolution
Natural Resources = Wealth
  Gold, Coal, Iron, Oil, ….
  Territory, Colony
  Cartels
Technology = Wealth
  Aerospace, Communication,
Information, Medical,….
  Fashion, Music, Literature,….
  Knowledge
  Talents
Labor Force
Reduction
Wealth
Natural Resources
Depletion
Wealth
Technology
Wealth
Mutual Enhancement
Micro-electronic Industry
(An Example of High Tech Industry)
Micro-electronic Industry: US$1,000 billion
personal computers,
cellular phones,
networking equipment,
video games, cameras
Semiconductor Industry: US$200 billion
microprocessors, microcontrollers, DSPs,
integrated chipsets
Micro-electronic Industry
Micro-electronic Industry
System
Specification
System
Components
Semiconductor Industry
Semiconductor Manufacturing
System
specification
Design
Tools: design
simulation
emulation
$3.4 billion
Fabrication
Equipment
Material
$16.8 billion
Packaging
Equipment
$2.0 billion
Test
Equipment
$5.2 billion
IC
$200 billion
Making Sausages
High Tech Industries
  Rapid advancement in technology
  Low cost products
  Unbounded market needs
  Short product life
  Capital intensive
  Brain power intensive
Rapid Advancement in Technology
(Semiconductor Industry)
µm
Thickness of skin is 100 µm
Diameter of a piece of hair is 50 µm
Finger nails grow by 1 µm in 10 minutes
Rapid Advancement in Technology
(Semiconductor Industry)
108
Transistors
Per Die
Memory
Microprocessor
1M
106
256K
64K
105
103
102
101
100
64M
4M
107
104
16M
4K
16K
80286
1K
8086
8080
4004
i386™
CPU
Pentium®
i486™ Processor
CPU
Pentium® II
Processor
Pentium Pro
Proc.
Low Cost
(Semiconductor Industry)
  A transistor cost $30 in 1960
  8080 (5,000 tx) cost $150 in 1974:
3 cents/tx
  Pentium-II (7,500,000 tx) cost $225 in
1997:0.003 cents/tx
  1,000 fold decrease from 1960 to 1974
  1,000,000 fold decrease from 1960 to
1997
Technology
rapid advancement in technology
miniaturization, low cost
cheaper, smaller, faster systems
greater market needs
Capital Intensive
(Semiconductor Industry)
Million US$
256M, 200mm
20,000 Wafer/m
64M, 200mm
25,000 Wafer/m
Fully Automated
64K, 100mm
DRAM
4M, 150mm
20,000 Wafer/m
30% Automated
256K, 150mm
Manual
256M, 300mm
20,000 Wafer/m
16M, 150mm
25,000 Wafer/m
50% Automated
1M, 150mm
20,000 Wafer/m
Customization and Short
Product Life
Complex Design Work
Short Design Cycle
Brain Power
Design Power
10,000,000
100,000,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
100,000
Complexity growth rate
58% per yr.
1,000,000
10,000
100,000
1,000
10,000
100
Productivity growth rate
21% per yr.
10
1
1983
1988
1993
1998
2003
1,000
100
10
Chip Capacity and Designer Productivity
Transistors/Staff-Month
Logic Transistors/Chip (K)
Brain Power : Productivity Gap
(Semiconductor Industry)
Headcount is
and growing
growing
and growing
and growing
Development of High Tech
Industries-Needs
  Technology
 
 
 
 
Research
Development
Technology transfer
Spy, Pirate
  Human Resources
  Management
  Technical
  Facilities
  Capital
  Infrastructures
Development of High Tech
Industries-Roles
  Industry
  Industrial laboratories
  Funding research at universities
  Government
  Government laboratories
  Funding research in industry
  Funding research at universities
  Universities
  Education
  Research
  Incubation
  Science Park
  Venture Capital
Industry
  Industrial Laboratories
  Expenses
  Funding Research at Universities
 
 
 
 
Effectiveness
Confidentiality
Intellectual property
Recruiting vehicle
Government(Taiwan Examples)
  Government Laboratories
  Industrial Technological Research Institute (ITRI) in
Hsinchu
 Founded 26 years ago in Hsinchu
 Ten Divisions :
Electronics Research & Service Laboratories
Opto-electronics & Systems Laboratories
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Center for Measurement Standards
Center for Aviation & Space Technology
Mechanical Industry Research Laboratories
Union Chemical Laboratories
Materials Research Laboratories
Energy & Resources Laboratories
Center for Industrial Safety & Health Technology
Biomedical Engineering Center
 Researchers and Supporting Staff : 6,000
 Annual Budget : US$500 million
Government
  Funding research in industry
  Research grants for industry
  Special research grants for small business
  Joint research grants for industry and academia
Government(Taiwan Examples)
  Funding research at universities
  National Science Council
  Established in 1959
  Annual budget : US$500 million
  Ministry of Education
  Special programs for academic excellence
  Ministry of Economic Affairs
  Research grants for universities
Universities
  Education
  Fundamental and Applied Research
  Technology Transfer
  Consultation
  Incubation
  Start-ups
Science Park(Taiwan Example)
  Number of companies : 292
  Revenue : US$21.7 billion
  IC : US$ 12 billion
  PC : US$ 6.7 billion
  Opto-electronic : US$ 1.1 billion
  Communication US$ 1.7 billion
  Other : US$ 0.2 billion
  Employees : 82,778
  Provides : space, infrastructures, schools,
electricity and water, tax benefit
  International Companies
Venture Capital
  High Risk
  High Return
  Provide Expertise in Management,
Finance, Marketing
  Incubation
Concluding Remarks
Economy
Education
Technology
Concluding Remarks
A Peaceful, Prosperous,
and Happy World
Economics
Education
Technology
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