BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager Implementations

BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager  Implementations
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™:
Implementations
Version 11.5.1
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Legal Notices...................................................................................................15
Acknowledgments...........................................................................................17
Chapter 1: Configuring a Simple Intranet..............................................................................21
Overview: A simple intranet configuration........................................................................22
Task summary..................................................................................................................22
Creating a pool......................................................................................................23
Creating a virtual server........................................................................................23
Chapter 2: Configuring ISP Load Balancing.........................................................................25
Overview: ISP load balancing..........................................................................................26
Illustration of ISP load balancing...........................................................................26
Task summary for ISP load balancing..............................................................................26
Creating a load balancing pool..............................................................................26
Creating a virtual server for inbound content server traffic...................................27
Creating a virtual server for outbound traffic for routers........................................27
Creating self IP addresses an external VLAN.......................................................28
Enabling SNAT automap for internal and external VLANs....................................28
Chapter 3: Routing Based on XML Content..........................................................................31
Overview: XML content-based routing.............................................................................32
Task summary..................................................................................................................32
Creating a custom XML profile..............................................................................32
Writing XPath queries............................................................................................33
Creating a pool to manage HTTP traffic................................................................34
Creating an iRule...................................................................................................35
Viewing statistics about XML content-based routing.............................................36
Chapter 4: Configuring nPath Routing..................................................................................37
Overview: Layer 2 nPath routing......................................................................................38
About Layer 2 nPath routing configuration.......................................................................38
Guidelines for UDP timeouts............................................................................................39
Guidelines for TCP timeouts............................................................................................39
Task summary..................................................................................................................39
Creating a custom Fast L4 profile.........................................................................40
Creating a server pool for nPath routing................................................................40
Creating a virtual server for Layer 2 nPath routing................................................40
Configuring the virtual address on the server loopback interface.........................41
Setting the route for inbound traffic.......................................................................41
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Table of Contents
Configuring the Connection.Autolasthop bigdb key...............................................41
Chapter 5: Configuring Layer 3 nPath Routing.....................................................................43
Overview: Layer 3 nPath routing......................................................................................44
Configuring Layer 3 nPath routing using tmsh.................................................................44
Configuring a Layer 3 nPath monitor using tmsh.............................................................45
Layer 3 nPath routing example.........................................................................................46
Chapter 6: Creating a Basic Web Site and E-commerce Configuration.............................49
Overview: Basic web site and eCommerce configuration................................................50
Illustration of basic web site and eCommerce configuration.................................50
Task summary..................................................................................................................50
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic................................................................50
Creating a pool to manage HTTPS traffic.............................................................51
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic..................................................52
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTPS traffic...............................................52
Chapter 7: Installing a BIG-IP System Without Changing the IP Network..........................55
Overview: Installing a BIG-IP system without changing the IP network...........................56
Task summary..................................................................................................................57
Removing the self IP addresses from the default VLANs.....................................57
Creating a VLAN group.........................................................................................57
Creating a self IP for a VLAN group......................................................................57
Creating a pool of web servers..............................................................................58
Creating a virtual server........................................................................................58
Chapter 8: Enabling IP Address Intelligence........................................................................59
Overview: Enabling IP address intelligence.....................................................................60
Enabling IP address intelligence...........................................................................60
Creating an iRule to log IP address intelligence information.................................61
Creating an iRule to reject requests with questionable IP addresses...................61
Checking the reputation of an IP address.............................................................62
Checking the status of the IP intelligence database..............................................63
IP address intelligence categories...................................................................................63
Chapter 9: Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate..............65
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS traffic using a self-signed certificate.................66
Task summary..................................................................................................................66
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate...................................................................66
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................67
Creating a custom Client SSL profile....................................................................67
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic................................................................68
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic...........................................68
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Table of Contents
Implementation result.......................................................................................................69
Chapter 10: Managing Client and Server HTTPS Traffic using a Self-signed
Certificate.............................................................................................................................71
Overview: Managing client and server HTTPS traffic using a self-signed certificate.......72
Task summary..................................................................................................................72
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate...................................................................72
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................73
Creating a custom Client SSL profile....................................................................73
Creating a custom Server SSL profile...................................................................74
Creating a pool to manage HTTPS traffic.............................................................74
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side HTTPS traffic.................75
Implementation results.....................................................................................................75
Chapter 11: Securing HTTP Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate with an Elliptic
Curve DSA Key.....................................................................................................................77
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic using a self-signed, ECC-based
certificate.....................................................................................................................78
Task summary..................................................................................................................78
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate...................................................................78
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................79
Creating a custom Client SSL profile....................................................................79
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic................................................................80
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic...........................................80
Implementation results.....................................................................................................81
Chapter 12: Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate..............83
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS traffic using a CA-signed certificate..................84
Task summary..................................................................................................................84
Requesting a certificate from a certificate authority..............................................84
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................85
Creating a custom Client SSL profile....................................................................85
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic................................................................86
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic...........................................86
Implementation results.....................................................................................................87
Chapter 13: Securing HTTP Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate with an Elliptic Curve
DSA Key................................................................................................................................89
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic using a CA-signed, ECC-based
certificate.....................................................................................................................90
Task summary..................................................................................................................90
Requesting a signed certificate that includes an ECDSA key...............................90
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................91
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Table of Contents
Creating a custom Client SSL profile....................................................................91
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic................................................................92
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic...........................................92
Implementation results.....................................................................................................93
Chapter 14: Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests......................................95
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request Adaptation...........................................................96
Task summary..................................................................................................................97
Creating a custom client-side ICAP profile............................................................97
Creating a pool of ICAP servers............................................................................98
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding requests to an ICAP server......98
Creating a custom Request Adapt profile..............................................................99
Creating a custom HTTP profile............................................................................99
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic..............................................................100
Creating an HTTP virtual server for enabling request adaptation.......................100
Implementation result.....................................................................................................101
Chapter 15: Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and Responses........103
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request and Response Adaptation ................................104
Task summary................................................................................................................105
Creating a custom client-side ICAP profile..........................................................105
Creating a custom server-side ICAP profile........................................................106
Creating a pool of ICAP servers..........................................................................106
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding requests to an ICAP server....107
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding responses to an ICAP
server.............................................................................................................108
Creating a custom Request Adapt profile............................................................108
Creating a custom Response Adapt profile.........................................................109
Creating a custom HTTP profile..........................................................................110
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic..............................................................110
Creating an HTTP virtual server for enabling request and response
adaptation......................................................................................................111
Implementation result.....................................................................................................111
Chapter 16: Implementing SSL Forward Proxy on a Single BIG-IP System.....................113
Overview: SSL forward proxy client and server authentication......................................114
Task summary................................................................................................................114
Creating a custom Client SSL forward proxy profile............................................115
Creating a custom Server SSL forward proxy profile..........................................115
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................116
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side SSL traffic....................117
Implementation result.....................................................................................................118
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Table of Contents
Chapter 17: Implementing Proxy SSL on a Single BIG-IP System....................................119
Overview: Direct client-server authentication with application optimization...................120
Task summary................................................................................................................120
Creating a custom Server SSL profile.................................................................120
Creating a custom Client SSL profile..................................................................121
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................121
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side SSL traffic....................122
Implementation result.....................................................................................................123
Chapter 18: Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Source Address Affinity
Persistence.........................................................................................................................125
Overview: HTTP load balancing with source affinity persistence...................................126
Task summary................................................................................................................126
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic..............................................................126
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic.............................................................127
Chapter 19: Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Cookie Persistence.......................129
Overview: HTTP load balancing with cookie persistence..............................................130
Task summary................................................................................................................130
Creating a custom cookie persistence profile......................................................130
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic..............................................................131
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic.............................................................131
Chapter 20: Compressing HTTP Responses.......................................................................133
Overview: Compressing HTTP responses.....................................................................134
Task summary................................................................................................................134
Creating a customized HTTP compression profile..............................................134
Creating a virtual server for HTTP compression.................................................135
Chapter 21: Managing HTTP Traffic with the SPDY Profile................................................137
Overview: Managing HTTP traffic with the SPDY profile................................................138
Task summary for managing HTTP and SPDY traffic....................................................138
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic..............................................................139
Creating an iRule for SPDY requests..................................................................139
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic................................................140
Creating a SPDY profile......................................................................................140
Creating a virtual server to manage SPDY traffic................................................141
Chapter 22: Using Via Headers to Acquire Information About Intermediate Routers.....143
Overview: Using Via headers.........................................................................................144
Task summary for identifying intermediate information with Via headers......................144
Identifying information about intermediate proxies with Via headers..................144
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Table of Contents
Removing Via headers from requests and responses........................................144
Chapter 23: Configuring the BIG-IP System as a Reverse Proxy Server..........................147
Overview: URI translation and HTML content modification............................................148
About URI translation..........................................................................................148
Rules for matching requests to URI rules............................................................149
About URI Rules..................................................................................................149
Introduction to HTML content modification..........................................................149
Task summary................................................................................................................150
Creating a Rewrite profile to specify URI rules...................................................150
Creating an HTML profile for tag removal...........................................................151
Creating pools for processing HTTP traffic.........................................................151
Creating a local traffic policy...............................................................................152
Creating a virtual server......................................................................................153
Implementation results...................................................................................................154
Chapter 24: Configuring the BIG-IP System as an MS SQL Database Proxy...................155
Overview: Configuring LTM as a database proxy...........................................................156
About database authentication............................................................................156
About database access configuration.................................................................156
Creating a custom MS SQL monitor....................................................................157
Creating a pool of database servers...................................................................157
Configuring database access by user.................................................................158
Creating a custom OneConnect profile...............................................................158
Creating a database proxy virtual server............................................................159
Viewing MS SQL profile statistics........................................................................159
Chapter 25: Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic.....................................................161
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing................................................................162
Task Summary for load balancing passive mode FTP traffic.........................................162
Creating a custom FTP monitor..........................................................................162
Creating a pool to manage FTP traffic................................................................164
Creating a virtual server for FTP traffic...............................................................164
Chapter 26: Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic with Data Channel
Optimization.......................................................................................................................167
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing with data channel optimization...............168
Task Summary for load balancing passive mode FTP traffic.........................................168
Creating a custom FTP profile.............................................................................168
Creating a custom FTP monitor..........................................................................168
Creating a pool to manage FTP traffic................................................................170
Creating a virtual server for FTP traffic...............................................................171
Implementation result.....................................................................................................171
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Table of Contents
Chapter 27: Referencing an External File from within an iRule........................................173
Overview: Referencing an external file from an iRule....................................................174
iRule commands for iFiles...................................................................................174
Task summary................................................................................................................175
Importing a file to the BIG-IP system..................................................................175
Creating an iFile..................................................................................................175
Writing an iRule that references an iFile.............................................................175
Implementation result.....................................................................................................176
Chapter 28: Configuring the BIG-IP System as a DHCP Relay Agent...............................177
Overview: Managing IP addresses for DHCP clients.....................................................178
About the BIG-IP system as a DHCP relay agent...............................................178
Task summary................................................................................................................179
Creating a pool of DHCP servers........................................................................179
Creating a DHCP Relay type virtual server.........................................................180
Implementation result.....................................................................................................180
Chapter 29: Configuring the BIG-IP System for DHCP Renewal.......................................181
Overview: Renewing IP addresses for DHCP clients.....................................................182
About DHCP renewal .........................................................................................182
Task summary................................................................................................................183
Creating a DHCP renewal virtual server.............................................................183
Implementation result.....................................................................................................183
Chapter 30: Configuring a One-IP Network Topology........................................................185
Overview: Configuring a one-IP network topology.........................................................186
Illustration of a one-IP network topology for the BIG-IP system..........................186
Task summary for a one-IP network topology for the BIG-IP system.............................186
Creating a pool for processing HTTP connections with SNATs enabled.............187
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic.............................................................187
Defining a default route.......................................................................................188
Configuring a client SNAT...................................................................................188
Chapter 31: Implementing Health and Performance Monitoring.......................................189
Overview: Health and performance monitoring..............................................................190
Task summary................................................................................................................190
Creating a custom monitor..................................................................................191
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................191
Creating a virtual server......................................................................................192
Chapter 32: Preventing TCP Connection Requests From Being Dropped.......................193
Overview: TCP request queuing....................................................................................194
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Table of Contents
Preventing TCP connection requests from being dropped.............................................194
Chapter 33: Setting Connection Limits................................................................................197
Overview: About connection limits.................................................................................198
Limiting connections for a virtual server, pool member, or node....................................198
Implementation results...................................................................................................198
Chapter 34: Load Balancing to IPv6 Nodes.........................................................................199
Overview: Load balancing to iPv6 nodes.......................................................................200
Task summary................................................................................................................200
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................200
Creating a virtual server for IPv6 nodes..............................................................201
Chapter 35: Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks...............................................................203
Overview: Mitigating Denial of Service and other attacks..............................................204
Denial of Service attacks and iRules.............................................................................204
iRules for Code Red attacks................................................................................204
iRules for Nimda attacks.....................................................................................204
Common Denial of Service attacks................................................................................205
Task summary................................................................................................................207
Configuring adaptive reaping..............................................................................207
Setting the TCP and UDP connection timers......................................................208
Applying a rate class to a virtual server..............................................................208
Calculating connection limits on the main virtual server.....................................208
Setting connection limits on the main virtual server............................................208
Adjusting the SYN Check threshold....................................................................209
Chapter 36: Configuring Remote CRLDP Authentication..................................................211
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic................................................212
Task Summary...............................................................................................................212
Creating a CRLDP configuration object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................212
Creating a custom CRLDP profile.......................................................................213
Modifying a virtual server for CRLDP authentication..........................................213
Chapter 37: Configuring Remote LDAP Authentication.....................................................215
Overview of remote LDAP authentication for application traffic.....................................216
Task Summary...............................................................................................................216
Creating an LDAP configuration object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................216
Creating a custom LDAP profile..........................................................................217
Modifying a virtual server for LDAP authentication.............................................217
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Table of Contents
Chapter 38: Configuring Remote RADIUS Authentication.................................................219
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic................................................220
Task summary for RADIUS authentication of application traffic.....................................220
Creating a RADIUS server object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................220
Creating a RADIUS configuration object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................221
Creating a custom RADIUS profile......................................................................221
Modifying a virtual server for RADIUS authentication.........................................221
Chapter 39: Configuring Remote SSL LDAP Authentication.............................................223
Overview of remote SSL LDAP authentication for application traffic.............................224
Task Summary...............................................................................................................224
Creating an LDAP Client Certificate SSL configuration object............................224
Creating a custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile.......................................225
Modifying a virtual server for SSL Client Certificate LDAP authorization............225
Chapter 40: Configuring Remote SSL OCSP Authentication............................................227
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic................................................228
Task Summary...............................................................................................................228
Creating an SSL OSCP responder object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................228
Creating an SSL OCSP configuration object for authenticating application traffic
remotely.........................................................................................................229
Creating a custom SSL OCSP profile.................................................................229
Modifying a virtual server for SSL OCSP authentication.....................................229
Chapter 41: Configuring Remote TACACS+ Authentication..............................................231
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic................................................232
Task Summary...............................................................................................................232
Creating a TACACS+ configuration object...........................................................232
Creating a custom TACACS+ profile...................................................................233
Modifying a virtual server for TACACS+ authentication.......................................233
Chapter 42: Configuring Kerberos Delegation....................................................................235
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic................................................236
Task Summary...............................................................................................................236
Creating a Kerberos Delegation configuration object..........................................236
Creating a Kerberos delegation profile object from the command line................237
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................237
Creating a virtual server with Kerberos delegation and Client SSL profiles........238
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Table of Contents
Chapter 43: Load Balancing Diameter Application Requests...........................................239
Overview: Diameter load balancing...............................................................................240
Task summary................................................................................................................240
Creating a custom Diameter profile.....................................................................240
Creating a custom Diameter monitor...................................................................240
Creating a pool to manage Diameter traffic.........................................................241
Creating a virtual server to manage Diameter traffic...........................................241
Chapter 44: Configuring the BIG-IP System for Electronic Trading..................................243
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for electronic trading....................................244
Task summary................................................................................................................244
Creating a data group list for a FIX profile...........................................................244
Creating a FIX profile for electronic trading ........................................................244
Creating a load balancing pool............................................................................245
Creating a virtual server for secure electronic trading.........................................246
Viewing FIX message statistics...........................................................................247
Implementation result.....................................................................................................247
Chapter 45: Implementing Low-Latency Electronic Trading Functionality......................249
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for low-latency electronic trading.................250
Task summary................................................................................................................250
Implementing low-latency electronic trading functionality...................................250
Creating a custom Fast L4 profile.......................................................................251
Creating a pool ...................................................................................................251
Creating a virtual server for low-latency electronic trading..................................251
Implementation result.....................................................................................................252
Chapter 46: Implementing Video Quality of Experience Functionality.............................253
Overview: Video Quality of Experience profile...............................................................254
Creating an iRule to collect video Quality of Experience scores.........................254
Creating an iRule to collect static information about video files..........................255
Creating a video Quality of Experience profile....................................................255
Creating a pool ...................................................................................................256
Creating a video Quality of Experience virtual server.........................................256
Chapter 47: Securing Client-side SMTP Traffic...................................................................257
Overview: Securing client-side SMTP traffic..................................................................258
Task summary................................................................................................................258
Creating an SMTPS profile..................................................................................258
Creating a Client SSL profile...............................................................................259
Creating a virtual server and load-balancing pool...............................................259
Implementation result.....................................................................................................260
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Table of Contents
Chapter 48: Controlling Responses to ICMP Echo Requests...........................................261
About ICMP echo responses on the BIG-IP system......................................................262
Task summary................................................................................................................262
Configuring ICMP echo responses for a virtual address.....................................262
Communicating virtual server status to a virtual address...................................263
Implementation results...................................................................................................263
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Table of Contents
14
Legal Notices
Publication Date
This document was published on July 8, 2015.
Publication Number
MAN-0293-10
Copyright
Copyright © 2012-2015, F5 Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.
F5 Networks, Inc. (F5) believes the information it furnishes to be accurate and reliable. However, F5 assumes
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Trademarks
3DNS, Access Policy Manager, Acopia, Acopia Networks, Advanced Client Authentication, Advanced
Routing, APM, Application Security Manager, ARX, AskF5, ASM, BIG-IP, Cloud Extender, CloudFucious,
CMP, Data Manager, DevCentral, DevCentral [DESIGN], DNS Express, DSC, DSI, Edge Client, Edge
Gateway, Edge Portal, EM, Enterprise Manager, F5, F5 [DESIGN], F5 Management Pack, F5 Networks,
F5 World, Fast Application Proxy, Fast Cache, FirePass, Global Traffic Manager, GTM, IBR, Intelligent
Browser Referencing, Intelligent Compression, IPv6 Gateway, iApps, iControl, iHealth, iQuery, iRules,
iRules OnDemand, iSession, IT agility. Your way., L7 Rate Shaping, LC, Link Controller, Local Traffic
Manager, LTM, Message Security Module, MSM, Netcelera, OneConnect, Packet Velocity, Protocol
Security Module, PSM, Real Traffic Policy Builder, ScaleN, SSL Acceleration, StrongBox, SuperVIP, SYN
Check, TCP Express, TDR, TMOS, Traffic Management Operating System, TrafficShield, Transparent
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Legal Notices
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16
Acknowledgments
This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
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Acknowledgments
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18
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
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OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
This product includes the GeoPoint Database developed by Quova, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Ian Gulliver ©2006, which is protected under the GNU General
Public License, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
19
Chapter
1
Configuring a Simple Intranet
•
•
Overview: A simple intranet configuration
Task summary
Configuring a Simple Intranet
Overview: A simple intranet configuration
The simple intranet implementation is commonly found in a corporate intranet (see the following illustration).
In this implementation, the BIG-IP® system performs load balancing for several different types of connection
requests:
•
•
•
HTTP connections to the company's intranet web site. The BIG-IP system load balances the two web
servers that host the corporate intranet web site, Corporate.main.net.
HTTP connections to Internet content. These are handled through a pair of cache servers that are also
load balanced by the BIG-IP system.
Non-HTTP connections to the Internet.
Figure 1: Non-intranet connections
As the illustration shows, the non-intranet connections are handled by wildcard virtual servers; that is,
servers with the IP address 0.0.0.0. The wildcard virtual server that is handling traffic to the cache servers
is port specific, specifying port 80 for HTTP requests. As a result, all HTTP requests not matching an IP
address on the intranet are directed to the cache server. The wildcard virtual server handling non-HTTP
requests is a default wildcard server. A default wildcard virtual server is one that uses only port 0. This
makes it a catch-all match for outgoing traffic that does not match any standard virtual server or any
port-specific wildcard virtual server.
Task summary
To create this configuration, you need to complete these tasks.
22
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Task list
Creating a pool
You can a create pool of servers that you group together to receive and process traffic, to efficiently distribute
the load on your server resources.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. In the Resources area of the screen, use the New Members setting to add the pool members. For example,
in the illustration, the pool members for http_pool are 192.168.100.10:80 and 192.168.100.11:80.
The pool members for specificport_pool are 192.168.100.20:80 and 192.168.100.21:80.
5. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server
This task creates a destination IP address for application traffic. As part of this task, you must assign the
relevant pool to the virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. In the Destination field, verify that the type of virtual server is Host, and in the Address field, type an
IP address for the virtual server.
For example, you can assign the IP address 192.168.200.30:80 to the virtual server that processes
HTTP traffic. For load balancing connections to cache servers, you can assign the address 0.0.0.0:80
to the virtual server, making it a wildcard virtual server. To create a forwarding virtual server, you can
assign the address 0.0.0.0:0.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. In the Configuration area of the screen, locate the Type setting and select either Standard or Forwarding
(IP).
7. From the HTTP Profile list, select an HTTP profile.
8. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
9. Click Finished.
You now have a virtual server to use as a destination address for application traffic.
23
Chapter
2
Configuring ISP Load Balancing
•
•
Overview: ISP load balancing
Task summary for ISP load balancing
Configuring ISP Load Balancing
Overview: ISP load balancing
You might find that as your network grows, or network traffic increases, you require an additional connection
to the Internet. You can use this configuration to add an Internet connection to your existing network. The
following illustration shows a network configured with two Internet connections.
Illustration of ISP load balancing
Figure 2: ISP load balancing
Task summary for ISP load balancing
There are number of tasks you must perform to implement load balancing for ISPs.
Task list
Creating a load balancing pool
You can a create load balancing pool, which is a logical set of devices, such as web servers, that you group
together to receive and process traffic, to efficiently distribute the load on your resources. Using this
procedure, create one pool that load balances the content servers, and one pool to load balance the routers.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
26
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Repeat and create another pool.
9. Click Finished.
The load balancing pools appear in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for inbound content server traffic
You must create a virtual server to load balance inbound connections. The default pool that you assign as
a resource in this procedure is the pool of internal servers.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type a port number or select a service name from the Service Port list.
6. If the traffic to be load balanced is of a certain type, select the profile type that matches the connection
type.
To load balance HTTP traffic, locate the HTTP Profile setting and select http.
7. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
8. Click Finished.
The virtual server is configured to load balance inbound connections to the servers.
Creating a virtual server for outbound traffic for routers
You must create a virtual server to load balance outbound connections. The default pool that you assign as
a resource in this procedure is the pool of routers.
27
Configuring ISP Load Balancing
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
6. Click Finished.
The virtual server is configured to load balance outbound connections to the routers.
Creating self IP addresses an external VLAN
You must assign two self IP addresses to the external VLAN.
1. On the Main tab, click Network > Self IPs.
The Self IPs screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Self IP screen opens.
3. In the IP Address field, type an IP address.
This IP address should represent the network of the router.
The system accepts IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In the Netmask field, type the network mask for the specified IP address.
Select External from the VLAN list.
Click Repeat.
In the IP Address field, type an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
This IP address should represent the address space of the VLAN that you specify with the VLAN/Tunnel
setting.
8. Click Finished.
The screen refreshes, and displays the new self IP address.
The self IP address is assigned to the external VLAN.
Enabling SNAT automap for internal and external VLANs
You can configure SNAT automapping on the BIG-IP system for internal and external VLANs.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Address Translation.
The SNAT List screen displays a list of existing SNATs.
2. Click Create.
3. Name the new SNAT.
4. From the Translation list, select Automap.
5. For the VLAN / Tunnel List setting, in the Available field, select external and external, and using the
Move button, move the VLANs to the Selected field.
28
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
6. Click Finished.
SNAT automapping on the BIG-IP system is configured for internal and external VLANs.
29
Chapter
3
Routing Based on XML Content
•
•
Overview: XML content-based routing
Task summary
Routing Based on XML Content
Overview: XML content-based routing
You can use the BIG-IP® system to perform XML content-based routing whereby the system routes requests
to an appropriate pool, pool member, or virtual server based on specific content in an XML document. For
example, if your company transfers information in XML format, you could use this feature to examine the
XML content with the intent to route the information to the appropriate department.
You configure content-based routing by creating an XML profile and associating it with a virtual server.
In the XML profile, define the matching content to look for in the XML document. Next, specify how to
route the traffic to a pool by writing simple iRules®. When the system discovers a match, it triggers an iRule
event, and then you can configure the system to route traffic to a virtual server, a pool, or a node. You can
allow multiple query matches, if needed.
This example shows a simple XML document that the system could use to perform content-based routing.
It includes an element called FinanceObject used in this implementation.
<soapenv:Envelope xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
xmlns:eai="http://192.168.149.250/eai_enu/"
xmlns:soapenc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/">
<soapenv:Header/>
<soapenv:Body>
<eai:SiebelEmployeeDelete
soapenv:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/">
<FinanceObject xsi:type="xsd:string">Route to Financing</FinanceObject>
<SiebelMessage xsi:type="ns:ListOfEmployeeInterfaceTopElmt"
xmlns:ns="http://www.siebel.com/xml">
<ListOfEmployeeInterface xsi:type="ns:ListOfEmployeeInterface">
<SecretKey>123456789</SecretKey>
<Employee>John</Employee>
<Title>CEO</Title>
</ListOfEmployeeInterface>
</SiebelMessage>
</eai:SiebelEmployeeDelete>
</soapenv:Body>
</soapenv:Envelope>
Task summary
You can perform tasks to enable XML content-based routing whereby the system routes requests to an
appropriate pool, pool member, or virtual server based on specific content in an XML document.
Task list
Creating a custom XML profile
To implement content-based routing, you first need to create an XML profile. XML profiles specify the
content to look for in XML documents. In the XML profile, you define XPath queries to locate items in an
XML document.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > XML.
32
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
The XML screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New XML screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the XML profile, such as cbr_xml_profile.
4. In the Settings area, select the Custom check box at right.
The settings become available.
5. If you want to reference XML elements with namespaces in XPath queries, from Namespace Mappings,
select Specify.
The screen displays the Namespace Mappings List settings.
6. Add namespaces to the list to specify how to map XML namespaces (as defined by the xmlns attribute)
for the system to use when routing XML traffic to the correct pool, pool member, or virtual server:
a) In the Prefix field, type the namespace prefix.
b) In the Namespace field, type the URL that the prefix maps to.
c) Click Add to add the namespace to the Namespace Mappings List.
7. To define the matching criteria in the XML document, from XPath Queries, select Specify.
The screen displays the XPath Queries settings.
8. Add XPath queries to the list to define matching criteria in XML payloads so the system can route the
traffic to the correct pool, pool member, or virtual server:
a) In the XPath field, type an XPath expression.
For example, to look for an element called FinanceObject, type //FinanceObject.
b) Click Add to add the XPath expression to the XPath Queries list.
You can define up to three XPath queries.
The expression is added to the list.
9. To allow each query to have multiple matches, select Multiple Query Matches.
10. Click Finished.
The system creates an XML profile.
You can use the XML profile to route XML traffic. Note that XML profiles do not support use of the Expect
header field. This is because the header of a transaction could direct it to one pool, and the payload could
invoke an iRule to direct the transaction to a different pool.
Writing XPath queries
You can write up to three XPath queries to define the content that you are looking for in XML documents.
When writing XPath queries, you use a subset of the XPath syntax described in the XML Path Language
(XPath) standard at http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath.
These are the rules for writing XPath queries for XML content-based routing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Express the queries in abbreviated form.
Map all prefixes to namespaces.
Use only ASCII characters in queries.
Write queries to match elements and attributes.
Use wildcards as needed for elements and namespaces; for example, //emp:employee/*.
6. Do not use predicates in queries.
33
Routing Based on XML Content
Syntax for XPath expressions
This table shows the syntax to use for XPath expressions.
Expression
Description
Nodename
Selects all child nodes of the named node.
@Attname
Selects all attribute nodes of the named node.
/
Indicates XPath step.
//
Selects nodes that match the selection no matter where they are in the document.
XPath query examples
This table shows examples of XPath queries.
Query
Description
/a
Selects the root element a.
//b
Selects all b elements wherever they appear in the document.
/a/b:*
Selects any element in a namespace bound to prefix b, which is a child of the root element
a.
//a/b:c
Selects elements in the namespace of element c, which is bound to prefix b, and is a child
of element a.
Creating a pool to manage HTTP traffic
For implementing content-based routing, you can create one or more pools that contain the servers where
you want the system to send the traffic. You write an iRule to route the traffic to the pool.
If you want to specify a default pool to which to send traffic when it does not match the content you are
looking for, repeat the procedure to create a second pool. You specify the default pool in the virtual server.
Alternatively, you can create a node or a virtual server to route traffic to instead of creating a pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name for the pool, such as finance_pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
34
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
a)
b)
c)
d)
Type an IP address in the Address field.
Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
(Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating an iRule
You create iRules® to automate traffic forwarding for XML content-based routing. When a match occurs,
an iRule event is triggered, and the iRule directs the individual request to a pool, a node, or virtual server.
This implementation targets a pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a 1- to 31-character name, such as XML_CBR_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the syntax for the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For complete and detailed information iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site
http://devcentral.f5.com.
5. Click Finished.
Examples of iRules for XML content-based routing
This example shows an iRule that queries for an element called FinanceObject in XML content and if a
match is found, an iRule event is triggered. The system populates the values of the Tcl variables
($XML_count, $XML_queries, and $XML_values). Then the system routes traffic to a pool called
finance_pool.
when XML_CONTENT_BASED_ROUTING
{
for {set i 0} { $i < $XML_count } {incr i} {
log local0. $XML_queries($i)
log local0. $XML_values($i)
if {($XML_queries($i) contains "FinanceObject")} {
pool finance_pool
}
}
}
This is another example of XML content-based routing. It shows routing by bank name and by price.
when XML_CONTENT_BASED_ROUTING
{
for {set i 0} { $i < $XML_count } {incr i} {
# routing by BANK_NAME
if {($XML_queries($i) contains "BANK_NAME")} {
if {($XML_values($i) contains "InternationalBank")} {
pool pool1
} elseif {($XML_values($i) contains "Hapoalim")} {
pool pool2
} else {
35
Routing Based on XML Content
pool pool3
}
}
# routing by PRICE
if {($XML_queries($i) contains "PRICE")} {
if {($XML_values($i) > 50)} {
pool pool1
} else {
pool pool2
}
}
# end for
}
}
Note: The XML_CONTENT_BASED_ROUTING event does not trigger when the client's headers contain
"Expect: 100-continue" regardless of whether the server sends a 100-continue response. In this case,
the request is routed to the default pool.
Tcl variables in iRules for XML routing
This table lists and describes the Tcl variables in the sample iRule.
Tcl variable
Description
$XML_count
Shows the number of matching queries.
$XML_queries
Contains an array of the matching query names.
$XML_values
Holds the values of the matching elements.
Viewing statistics about XML content-based routing
You can view statistics about XML content-based routing to make sure that the routing is working.
Note: The system first checks for a match, then checks for malformedness of XML content. So if the system
detects a match, it stops checking, and might not detect any subsequent parts of the document that are
malformed.
1. On the Main tab, click Statistics > Module Statistics > Local Traffic.
The Local Traffic statistics screen opens.
2. From the Statistics Type list, select Profiles Summary.
3. In the Global Profile Statistics area, for the Profile Type XML, click View in the Details.
The system displays information about the number of XML documents that were inspected, the number
of documents that had zero to three matches, and the number of XML documents that were found to be
malformed.
36
Chapter
4
Configuring nPath Routing
•
•
•
•
•
Overview: Layer 2 nPath routing
About Layer 2 nPath routing configuration
Guidelines for UDP timeouts
Guidelines for TCP timeouts
Task summary
Configuring nPath Routing
Overview: Layer 2 nPath routing
With the Layer 2 nPath routing configuration, you can route outgoing server traffic around the BIG-IP®
system directly to an outbound router. This method of traffic management increases outbound throughput
because packets do not need to be transmitted to the BIG-IP system for translation and then forwarded to
the next hop.
Figure 3: Layer 2 nPath routing
Note: The type of virtual server that processes the incoming traffic must be a transparent, non-translating
type of virtual server.
In bypassing the BIG-IP system on the return path, Layer 2 nPath routing departs significantly from a typical
load-balancing configuration. In a typical load-balancing configuration, the destination address of the
incoming packet is translated from that of the virtual server to that of the server being load balanced to,
which then becomes the source address of the returning packet. A default route set to the BIG-IP system
then sees to it that packets returning to the originating client return through the BIG-IP system, which
translates the source address back to that of the virtual server.
Note: Do not attempt to use nPath routing for Layer 7 traffic. Certain traffic features do not work properly
if Layer 7 traffic bypasses the BIG-IP system on the return path.
About Layer 2 nPath routing configuration
The Layer 2 nPath routing configuration differs from the typical BIG-IP® load balancing configuration in
the following ways:
38
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
•
•
The default route on the content servers must be set to the router's internal address (10.1.1.1 in the
illustration) rather than to the BIG-IP system's floating self IP address (10.1.1.10). This causes the return
packet to bypass the BIG-IP system.
If you plan to use an nPath configuration for TCP traffic, you must create a Fast L4 profile with the
following custom settings:
•
•
•
Enable the Loose Close setting. When you enable this setting, the TCP protocol flow expires more
quickly, after a TCP FIN packet is seen. (A FIN packet indicates the tearing down of a previous
connection.)
Set the TCP Close Timeout setting to the same value as the profile idle timeout if you expect half
closes. If not, you can set this value to 5 seconds.
Because address translation and port translation have been disabled, when the incoming packet arrives
at the pool member it is load balanced to the virtual server address (176.16.1.1 in the illustration), not
to the address of the server. For the server to respond to that address, that address must be configured
on the loopback interface of the server and configured for use with the server software.
Guidelines for UDP timeouts
When you configure nPath for UDP traffic, the BIG-IP® system tracks packets sent between the same source
and destination address to the same destination port as a connection. This is necessary to ensure the client
requests that are part of a session always go to the same server. Therefore, a UDP connection is really a
form of persistence, because UDP is a connectionless protocol.
To calculate the timeout for UDP, estimate the maximum amount of time that a server transmits UDP packets
before a packet is sent by the client. In some cases, the server might transmit hundreds of packets over
several minutes before ending the session or waiting for a client response.
Guidelines for TCP timeouts
When you configure nPath for TCP traffic, the BIG-IP® system recognizes only the client side of the
connection. For example, in the TCP three-way handshake, the BIG-IP system sees the SYN from the client
to the server, and does not see the SYN acknowledgment from the server to the client, but does see the
acknowledgment of the acknowledgment from the client to the server. The timeout for the connection should
match the combined TCP retransmission timeout (RTO) of the client and the node as closely as possible to
ensure that all connections are successful.
The maximum initial RTO observed on most UNIX and Windows® systems is approximately 25 seconds.
Therefore, a timeout of 51 seconds should adequately cover the worst case. When a TCP session is established,
an adaptive timeout is used. In most cases, this results in a faster timeout on the client and node. Only in
the event that your clients are on slow, lossy networks would you ever require a higher TCP timeout for
established connections.
Task summary
There are several tasks you perform to create a Layer 2 nPath routing configuration.
39
Configuring nPath Routing
Task list
Creating a custom Fast L4 profile
You can create a custom Fast L4 profile to manage Layer 4 traffic more efficiently.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Protocol > Fast L4.
The Fast L4 screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Fast L4 profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select the Custom check box.
5. Select the Loose Close check box.
6. Set the TCP Close Timeout setting, according to the type of traffic that the virtual server will process.
7. Click Finished.
The custom Fast L4 profile appears in the list of Fast L4 profiles.
Creating a server pool for nPath routing
After you create a custom Fast L4 profile, you need to create a server pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
6. Click Finished.
Creating a virtual server for Layer 2 nPath routing
After you create a server pool, you need to create a virtual server that references the profile and pool you
created.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
40
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
6. From the Type list, select Performance (Layer 4).
7. From the Protocol list, select one of the following:
•
•
•
UDP
TCP
* All Protocols
8. From the Protocol Profile (Client) list, select a predefined or user-defined Fast L4 profile.
9. For the Address Translation setting, clear the Enabled check box.
10. For the Port Translation setting, clear the Enabled check box.
11. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
12. Click Finished.
Configuring the virtual address on the server loopback interface
You must place the IP address of the virtual server (176.16.1.1 in the illustration) on the loopback interface
of each server. Most UNIX variants have a loopback interface named lo0. Consult your server operating
system documentation for information about configuring an IP address on the loopback interface. The
loopback interface is ideal for the nPath configuration because it does not participate in the ARP protocol.
Setting the route for inbound traffic
For inbound traffic, you must define a route through the BIG-IP® system self IP address to the virtual server.
In the example, this route is 176.16.1.1, with the external self IP address 10.1.1.10 as the gateway.
Note: You need to set this route only if the virtual server is on a different subnet than the router.
For information about how to define this route, please refer to the documentation provided with your router.
Configuring the Connection.Autolasthop bigdb key
To ensure that nPath routing works correctly, you must verify that the bigdb configuration key
connection.autolasthop is set to enable. This is relevant for both IPv4 and IPv6 addressing formats. To
verify that this bigdb key is enabled, type this command at the tmsh prompt:
modify sys db Connection.Autolasthop value enable
41
Chapter
5
Configuring Layer 3 nPath Routing
•
•
•
•
Overview: Layer 3 nPath routing
Configuring Layer 3 nPath routing using tmsh
Configuring a Layer 3 nPath monitor using
tmsh
Layer 3 nPath routing example
Configuring Layer 3 nPath Routing
Overview: Layer 3 nPath routing
Using Layer 3 nPath routing, you can load balance traffic over a routed topology in your data center. In this
deployment, the server sends its responses directly back to the client, even when the servers, and any
intermediate routers, are on different networks. This routing method uses IP encapsulation to create a
uni-directional outbound tunnel from the server pool to the server.
You can also override the encapsulation for a specified pool member, and either remove that pool member
from any encapsulation or specify a different encapsulation protocol. The available encapsulation protocols
are IPIP and GRE.
Figure 4: Example of a Layer 3 routing configuration
This illustration shows the path of a packet in a deployment that uses Layer 3 nPath routing through a tunnel.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The client sends traffic to a Fast L4 virtual server.
The pool encapsulates the packet and sends it through a tunnel to the server.
The server removes the encapsulation header and returns the packet to the network.
The target application receives the original packet, processes it, and responds directly to the client.
Configuring Layer 3 nPath routing using tmsh
Before performing this procedure, determine the IP address of the loopback interface for each server in the
server pool.
Use Layer 3 nPath routing to provide direct server return for traffic in a routed topology in your data center.
1. On the BIG-IP® system, start a console session.
2. Create a server pool with an encapsulation profile.
tmsh create ltm pool npath_ipip_pool profiles add
{ ipip } members add { 10.7.1.7:any 10.7.1.8:any 10.7.1.9:any }
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
This command creates the pool npath_ipip_pool, which has three members that specify all services:
10.7.1.7:any, 10.7.1.8:any, and 10.7.1.9:any, and applies IPIP encapsulation to outbound
traffic.
3. Create a profile that disables hardware acceleration.
tmsh create ltm profile fastl4 fastl4_npath pva-acceleration none
This command disables the Packet Velocity® ASIC acceleration mode in the new Fast L4 profile named
fastl4_npath.
4. Create a virtual server that has address translation disabled, and includes the pool with the encapsulation
profile.
tmsh create ltm virtual npath_udp destination 176.16.1.1:any
pool npath_ipip_pool profiles add { fastl4_npath } translate-address
disabled ip-protocol udp
This command creates a virtual server named npath_udp that intercepts all UDP traffic, does not use
address translation, and does not use hardware acceleration. The destination address 176.16.1.1
matches the IP address of the loopback interface on each server.
These implementation steps configure only the BIG-IP device in a deployment example. To configure other
devices in your network for L3 nPath routing, consult the device manufacturer's documentation for setting
up direct server return (DSR) for each device.
Configuring a Layer 3 nPath monitor using tmsh
Before you begin this task, configure a server pool with an encapsulation profile, such as npath_ipip_pool.
You can create a custom monitor to provide server health checks of encapsulated tunnel traffic. Setting a
variable in the db component causes the monitor traffic to be encapsulated.
1. Start at the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh).
2. Create a transparent health monitor with the destination IP address of the virtual server that includes the
pool with the encapsulation profile.
tmsh create ltm monitor udp npath_udp_monitor transparent enabled destination 176.16.1.1:*
This command creates a transparent monitor for UDP traffic with the destination IP address 176.16.1.1,
and the port supplied by the pool member.
3. Associate the health monitor with the pool that has the encapsulation profile.
tmsh modify pool npath_ipip_pool monitor npath_udp_monitor
This command specifies that the BIG-IP® system monitors UDP traffic to the pool npath_ipip_pool.
4. Enable the variable in the db component that causes the monitor traffic to be encapsulated.
tmsh modify sys db tm.monitorencap value enable
This command specifies that the monitor traffic is encapsulated.
45
Configuring Layer 3 nPath Routing
Layer 3 nPath routing example
The following illustration shows one example of an L3 nPath routing configuration in a network.
Figure 5: Example of a Layer 3 routing configuration
The following examples show the configuration code that supports the illustration.
Client configuration:
# ifconfig eth0 inet 10.102.45.10 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
# route add –net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 10.102.45.1
BIG-IP® device configuration:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
46
- create node pointing to server's ethernet address
ltm node 10.102.4.10 {
address 10.102.4.10
}
- create transparent monitor
ltm monitor tcp t.ipip {
defaults-from tcp
destination 10.102.3.202:http
interval 5
time-until-up 0
timeout 16
transparent enabled
}
- create pool with ipip profile
ltm pool ipip.pool {
members {
10.102.4.10:any {
- real server's ip address
address 10.102.4.10
}
}
monitor t.ipip
- transparent monitor
profiles {
ipip
}
}
- create FastL4 profile with PVA disabled
ltm profile fastl4 fastL4.ipip {
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
app-service none
pva-acceleration none
}
- create FastL4 virtual with custom FastL4 profile from previous step
ltm virtual test_virtual {
destination 10.102.3.202:any
- server's loopback address
ip-protocol tcp
mask 255.255.255.255
pool ipip.pool
- pool with ipip profile
profiles {
fastL4.ipip { }
- custom fastL4 profile
}
translate-address disabled
- translate address disabled
translate-port disabled
vlans-disabled
}
Linux DSR server configuration:
#
#
#
#
#
#
modprobe ipip
ifconfig tunl0 10.102.4.10 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
ifconfig lo:0 10.102.3.202 netmask 255.255.255.255 -arp up
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_ignore
echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_announce
echo 0 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/tunl0/rp_filter
47
Chapter
6
Creating a Basic Web Site and E-commerce Configuration
•
•
Overview: Basic web site and eCommerce
configuration
Task summary
Creating a Basic Web Site and E-commerce Configuration
Overview: Basic web site and eCommerce configuration
The most common use for the BIG-IP® system is distributing traffic across an array of web servers that host
standard web traffic, including eCommerce traffic. The following illustration shows a configuration where
a BIG-IP system load balances two sites: www.siterequest.com and store.siterequest.com. The
www.siterequest.com site provides standard web content, and the store.siterequest.com site is
the e-commerce site that sells items to www.siterequest.com customers.
Illustration of basic web site and eCommerce configuration
Figure 6: Basic web site and eCommerce configuration
Task summary
You can implement a basic configuration for load balancing application traffic to a web site, as well as load
balancing secure traffic to an eCommerce site.
Before you use this implementation:
•
•
Verify that you have created two VLANs on the BIG-IP® system. One VLAN should reside on the
external network and another on the internal network.
Verify that you have created a self IP address for each VLAN.
Task list
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
50
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a pool to manage HTTPS traffic
You can create a pool (a logical set of devices, such as web servers, that you group together to receive and
process HTTPS traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. Assign the https or https_443 health monitor from the Available list by moving it to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Add each resource that you want to include in the pool using the New Members setting:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 443 in the Service Port field, or select HTTPS from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
51
Creating a Basic Web Site and E-commerce Configuration
8. Click Finished.
The HTTPS load balancing pool now appears in the Pool List screen.
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic
You can create a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic as either a host virtual server or a network virtual
server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
7. From the HTTP Compression Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
•
httpcompression
wan-optimized-compression
A customized profile
8. (Optional) From the Web Acceleration Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
•
•
optimized-acceleration
optimized-caching
webacceleration
A customized profile
9. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
10. Click Finished.
The HTTP virtual server appears in the list of existing virtual servers on the Virtual Server List screen.
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
5. Type 443 in the Service Port field, or select HTTPS in the list.
6. Select http in the HTTP Profile list.
7. From the HTTP Compression Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
•
httpcompression
wan-optimized-compression
A customized profile
8. From the Web Acceleration Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
•
•
optimized-acceleration
optimized-caching
webacceleration
A customized profile
9. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select clientssl, and using the Move button,
move the name to the Selected list.
10. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
53
Chapter
7
Installing a BIG-IP System Without Changing the IP Network
•
•
Overview: Installing a BIG-IP system without
changing the IP network
Task summary
Installing a BIG-IP System Without Changing the IP Network
Overview: Installing a BIG-IP system without changing the IP network
A combination of several features of the BIG-IP®system makes it possible for you to place a BIG-IP system
in a network without changing the existing IP network. The following illustration shows the data center
topology before you add the BIG-IP system. The data center has one LAN, with one IP network, 10.0.0.0.
The data center has one router to the Internet, two web servers, and a back-end mail server.
Figure 7: Data center example before adding a BIG-IP system
The existing data center structure does not support load balancing or high availability. The following
illustration shows an example of the data center topology after you add the BIG-IP system.
Figure 8: Data center example after adding a BIG-IP system
56
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Task summary
To configure the BIG-IP® system for this implementation, you must perform a few key tasks. The example
shown in the illustration is based on the use of the default internal and external VLAN configuration with
self IP addresses on each of the VLANs that are on the same IP network on which you are installing the
BIG-IP system.
Important: The default route on each content server should be set to the IP address of the router. In this
example, you set the default route to 10.0.0.2.
Task list
Removing the self IP addresses from the default VLANs
Remove the self IP addresses from the individual VLANs. After you create the VLAN group, you will
create another self IP address for the VLAN group for routing purposes. The individual VLANs no longer
need their own self IP addresses.
1. On the Main tab, click Network > Self IPs.
The Self IPs screen opens.
2. Select the check box for each IP address and VLAN that you want to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click Delete.
The self IP address is removed from the Self IP list.
Creating a VLAN group
VLAN groups consolidate Layer 2 traffic from two or more separate VLANs.
1. On the Main tab, click Network > VLANs > VLAN Groups.
The VLAN Groups list screen opens.
2. From the VLAN Groups menu, choose List.
3. Click Create.
The New VLAN Group screen opens.
4. In the General Properties area, in the VLAN Group field, type a unique name for the VLAN group.
5. For the VLANs setting, from the Available field select the internal and external VLAN names, and
click << to move the VLAN names to the Members field.
6. Click Finished.
Creating a self IP for a VLAN group
Self IP addresses enable the BIG-IP® system, and other devices on the network, to route application traffic
through the associated VLAN or VLAN group.
57
Installing a BIG-IP System Without Changing the IP Network
1. On the Main tab, click Network > Self IPs.
The Self IPs screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Self IP screen opens.
3. In the IP Address field, type a self IP address for the VLAN group. In the example shown, this IP
address is 10.0.0.6.
4. In the Netmask field, type the network mask for the specified IP address.
5. From the VLAN/Tunnel list, select the name of the VLAN group you previously created.
6. From the Port Lockdown list, select Allow Default.
7. Click Finished.
The screen refreshes, and displays the new self IP address.
The BIG-IP system can send and receive traffic through the specified VLAN or VLAN group.
Creating a pool of web servers
You can a create pool of web servers that you group together to receive and process traffic, to efficiently
distribute the load on your server resources.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. In the Resources area of the screen, use the New Members setting to add the pool members. In our
example, pool members are 10.0.0.3:80 and 10.0.0.4:80.
5. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server
A virtual server represents a destination IP address for application traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. In the Destination field, verify that the type of virtual server is Host, and in the Address field, type an
IP address. Continuing with our example, this address would be 10.0.0.5.
5. From the Service Port list, select *All Ports.
6. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
You now have a destination IP address on the BIG-IP® system for application traffic.
58
Chapter
8
Enabling IP Address Intelligence
•
•
Overview: Enabling IP address intelligence
IP address intelligence categories
Enabling IP Address Intelligence
Overview: Enabling IP address intelligence
An IP intelligence database is a list of IP addresses with questionable reputations. IP addresses gain a
questionable reputation and are added to the database as a result of having performed exploits or attacks,
or these addresses might represent proxy servers, scanners, or systems that have been infected. You can
prevent system attacks by excluding traffic from malicious IP addresses. The IP Intelligence database is
maintained online by a third party.
The BIG-IP® system can connect to an IP intelligence database, download the contents, and automatically
keep the database up to date. You use iRules® to instruct the system on how to use IP address intelligence
information. For example, iRules can instruct the system to verify the reputation of and log the originating
IP address of all requests.
You can also use the IP address intelligence information within security policies in the Application Security
Manager™ to log or block requests from IP addresses with questionable reputations.
Task Summary
Enabling IP address intelligence
The requirements for using IP address intelligence are:
•
•
•
The system must have an IP Intelligence license.
The system must have an Internet connection either directly or through an HTTP proxy server.
The system must have DNS configured (go to System > Configuration > Device > DNS).
Important: IP address intelligence is enabled by default. You only need to enable it if it was previously
disabled.
To enable IP address intelligence on the BIG-IP® system, you enable auto-update to connect the system to
the IP intelligence database.
1. Log in to the command line for the BIG-IP® system.
2. To determine whether IP intelligence is enabled, type the following command: tmsh list sys db
iprep.autoupdate
If the value of the iprep.autoupdate variable is disable, IP intelligence is not enabled. If it is
enable, your task is complete.
3. At the prompt, type tmsh modify sys db iprep.autoupdate value enable
The system downloads the IP intelligence database and stores it in the binary file,
/var/IpRep/F5IpRep.dat. It is updated every 5 minutes.
4. If the BIG-IP system is behind a firewall, make sure that the BIG-IP system has external access to
vector.brightcloud.com using port 443.
That is the IP Intelligence server from which the system gets IP Intelligence information.
5. (Optional) If the BIG-IP system connects to the Internet using a forward proxy server, set these system
database variables.
a) Type tmsh modify sys db proxy.host value hostname to specify the host name of the
proxy server.
b) Type tmsh modify sys db proxy.port value port_number to specify the port number of
the proxy server.
60
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
c) Type tmsh modify sys db proxy.username value username to specify the user name to
log in to the proxy server.
d) Type tmsh modify sys db proxy.password value password to specify the password to
log in to the proxy server.
The IP address intelligence feature remains enabled unless you disable it with the command tmsh modify
sys db iprep.autoupdate value disable.
Creating an iRule to log IP address intelligence information
Before you can create an iRule to log IP address intelligence information, your system must have IP address
intelligence enabled.
You use iRules® to log IP address intelligence categories to the file /var/log/ltm. This is an example of
the type of iRule you can write.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen opens, displaying any existing iRules.
2. Click Create.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name between 1 and 31 characters, such as my_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For example, to log all IP addresses and any associated IP address intelligence categories, type the
following iRule:
when CLIENT_ACCEPTED {
log local0. "IP Address Intelligence for IP address [IP::client_addr]:
[IP::reputation [IP::client_addr]]"
}
Tip: For complete and detailed information iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site
(http://devcentral.f5.com).
5. Click Finished.
The new iRule appears in the list of iRules on the system.
When traffic is received from an IP address with a questionable reputation and that is included in the IP
intelligence database, the system prints the IP address intelligence information in the /var/log/ltm log.
For complete and detailed information about iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site,
http://devcentral.f5.com.
Creating an iRule to reject requests with questionable IP addresses
Before you can create an iRule to reject requests based on an IP address reputation, your system must have
IP address intelligence enabled.
You can use iRules® to reject requests from IP addresses that have questionable reputations and are listed
in the IP intelligence database. This is an example of the type of iRule you can write.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen opens, displaying any existing iRules.
61
Enabling IP Address Intelligence
2. Click Create.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name between 1 and 31 characters, such as my_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For example, to reject requests from IP addresses listed in the IP intelligence database because they
could be Windows Exploits or Web Attacks, type the following iRule:
when HTTP_REQUEST {
set ip_reputation_categories [IP::reputation [IP::client_addr]]
set is_reject 0
if {($ip_reputation_categories contains "Windows Exploits")} {
set is_reject 1
}
if {($ip_reputation_categories contains "Web Attacks")} {
set is_reject 1
}
if {($is_reject)} {
log local0. "Attempted access from malicious IP address [IP::client_addr]
($ip_reputation_categories), request was rejected"
HTTP::respond 200 content
"<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>Rejected Request</TITLE>
</HEAD><BODY>The request was rejected. <BR>
Attempted access from malicious IP address</BODY></HTML>"
}
}
Tip: For complete and detailed information about iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web
site (http://devcentral.f5.com).
5. Click Finished.
The new iRule appears in the list of iRules on the system.
When the system receives traffic from an IP address that is included in the IP intelligence database, the
system prints the IP address intelligence information in the /var/log/ltm log.
Checking the reputation of an IP address
Before you can verify the reputation of an IP address, your system must have IP address intelligence enabled.
You can verify the reputation of a specific IP address.
1. Log in to the command line for the BIG-IP® system.
2. At the prompt, type iprep_lookup IP_address
where IP_address is the address whose reputation you want to verify. For example, to verify 1.1.1.1:
iprep_lookup 1.1.1.1
opening database in /var/IpRep/F5IpRep.dat
size of IP reputation database = 41693298
iprep threats list for ip = 1.1.1.1 is:
bit 4 - Scanners
bit 5 - Denial of Service
The system looks up the IP address, and if it is in the database, the command output displays the IP
address intelligence categories that show the reason. In this case, 1.1.1.1 is a source of potential port
or network scans and DoS attacks. If the IP address is not found in the IP intelligence database, the
system returns the message iprep_lookup not found for ip = <ip_address>.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Checking the status of the IP intelligence database
You can display the status of the IP Intelligence database to learn when it was last updated and the number
of questionable IP addresses it contains.
1. Log in to the command line for the BIG-IP® system.
2. To display IP intelligence database status, type tmsh show sys iprep-status.
The system displays the status. For example:
----------------------------------------------------------------------Sys::IP Reputation Database Status
----------------------------------------------------------------------Last time the server was contacted for updates
04/21/2012 09:33:31
Last time an update was received
04/21/2012 09:33:31
Total number of IP Addresses in the database
5516336
Number of IP Addresses received in the last update
136
IP address intelligence categories
Along with the IP address, the IP intelligence database stores the category that explains the reason that the
IP address is considered untrustworthy.
Category Name
Description
Botnets
IP addresses of computers that are infected with malicious software (Botnet Command
and Control channels, and infected zombie machines) and are controlled as a group
by a Bot master, and are now part of a botnet. Hackers can exploit botnets to send
spam messages, launch various attacks, or cause target systems to behave in other
unpredictable ways.
Cloud Provider
Networks
IP addresses and networks that are used by cloud providers.
Denial-of-Service
IP addresses that have launched denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, distributed
denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, anomalous SYN flood attacks, or anomalous traffic
detection. These attacks are usually requests for legitimate services, but occur at such
a fast rate that targeted systems cannot respond quickly enough and become bogged
down or unable to service legitimate clients.
Illegal Web sites
IP addresses that contain criminally obscene or potentially criminal internet copyright
and intellectual property violations.
Infected Sources
Active IP addresses that issue HTTP requests with a low reputation index score, or
that are known malicious web sites offering or distributing malware, shell code,
rootkits, worms, or viruses.
Phishing
IP addresses that host phishing sites, and other kinds of fraud activities, such as ad
click fraud or gaming fraud.
Proxy/Anonymous IP addresses that are associated with web proxies that shield the originator's IP address
Proxies
(such as proxy and anonymization services). This category also includes TOR
anonymizer addresses.
Scanners
IP addresses that are involved in reconnaissance, such as probes, host scan, domain
scan, and password brute force, typically to identify vulnerabilities for later exploits.
63
Enabling IP Address Intelligence
64
Category Name
Description
Spam Sources
IP addresses that are known to distribute large amounts of spam email by tunneling
spam messages through proxy, anomalous SMTP activities, and forum spam activities.
Web Attacks
IP addresses involved in cross site scripting, iFrame injection, SQL injection, cross
domain injection, or domain password brute force.
Windows Exploits
Active IP addresses that have exercised various exploits against Windows resources
by offering or distributing malware, shell code, rootkits, worms, or viruses using
browsers, programs, downloaded files, scripts, or operating system vulnerabilities.
Chapter
9
Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic Using a Self-signed
Certificate
•
•
•
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS
traffic using a self-signed certificate
Task summary
Implementation result
Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS traffic using a self-signed certificate
When you want to manage HTTP traffic over SSL, you can configure the BIG-IP® system to perform the
SSL handshake that target web servers typically perform.
A common way to configure the BIG-IP system is to enable client-side SSL, which makes it possible for
the system to decrypt client requests before forwarding them to a server, and to encrypt server responses
before returning them to the client. In this case, you need to install only one SSL key/certificate pair on the
BIG-IP system.
This implementation uses a self-signed certificate to authenticate HTTPS traffic.
Task summary
To implement client-side authentication using HTTP and SSL with a self-signed certificate, you perform a
few basic configuration tasks.
Task list
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate
If you are configuring the BIG-IP system to manage client-side HTTP traffic, you create a self-signed
certificate to authenticate and secure the client-side HTTP traffic. If you are also configuring the system to
manage server-side HTTP traffic, you create a second self-signed certificate to authenticate and secure the
server-side HTTP traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > SSL Certificate List.
The SSL Certificate List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the SSL certificate.
4. From the Issuer list, select Self.
5. In the Common Name field, type a name.
6. In the Division field, type your company name.
7. In the Organization field, type your department name.
8. In the Locality field, type your city name.
9. In the State or Province field, type your state or province name.
10. From the Country list, select the name of your country.
11. In the E-mail Address field, type your email address.
12. In the Lifetime field, type a number of days, or retain the default, 365.
13. In the Subject Alternative Name field, type a name.
This name is embedded in the certificate for X509 extension purposes.
By assigning this name, you can protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate.
14. From the Key Type list, select a key type.
Possible values are: RSA, DSA, and ECDSA.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
15. From the Size or Curve Name list, select either a size, in bits, or a curve name.
16. Click Finished.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You create a custom Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to terminate client-side SSL
traffic for the purpose of:
•
•
Authenticating and decrypting ingress client-side SSL traffic
Re-encrypting egress client-side traffic
By terminating client-side SSL traffic, the BIG-IP system offloads these authentication and
decryption/encryption functions from the destination server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select clientssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
6. Select the Custom check box.
The settings become available for change.
7. Select the Custom check box for Client Authentication.
The settings become available.
8. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
9. Modify the settings, as required.
10. Click Finished.
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Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 443, or select HTTPS from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select the HTTP profile that you previously created.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
8. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
68
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
9. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation result
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system can authenticate and decrypt
HTTPS traffic coming from a client system. The BIG-IP system can also re-encrypt server responses before
sending them back to the client.
69
Chapter
10
Managing Client and Server HTTPS Traffic using a
Self-signed Certificate
•
•
•
Overview: Managing client and server
HTTPS traffic using a self-signed certificate
Task summary
Implementation results
Managing Client and Server HTTPS Traffic using a Self-signed Certificate
Overview: Managing client and server HTTPS traffic using a self-signed
certificate
One of the ways to configure the BIG-IP system to manage SSL traffic is to enable both client-side and
server-side SSL termination:
•
•
Client-side SSL termination makes it possible for the system to decrypt client requests before sending
them on to a server, and encrypt server responses before sending them back to the client. This ensures
that client-side HTTPS traffic is encrypted. In this case, you need to install only one SSL key/certificate
pair on the BIG-IP system.
Server-side SSL termination makes it possible for the system to decrypt and then re-encrypt client
requests before sending them on to a server. Server-side SSL termination also decrypts server responses
and then re-encrypts them before sending them back to the client. This ensures security for both clientand server-side HTTPS traffic. In this case, you need to install two SSL key/certificate pairs on the
BIG-IP system. The system uses the first certificate/key pair to authenticate the client, and uses the
second pair to request authentication from the server.
This implementation uses a self-signed certificate to authenticate HTTPS traffic.
Task summary
To implement client-side and server-side authentication using HTTP and SSL with a self-signed certificate,
you perform a few basic configuration tasks.
Task list
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate
If you are configuring the BIG-IP system to manage client-side HTTP traffic, you create a self-signed
certificate to authenticate and secure the client-side HTTP traffic. If you are also configuring the system to
manage server-side HTTP traffic, you create a second self-signed certificate to authenticate and secure the
server-side HTTP traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > SSL Certificate List.
The SSL Certificate List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the SSL certificate.
4. From the Issuer list, select Self.
5. In the Common Name field, type a name.
6. In the Division field, type your company name.
7. In the Organization field, type your department name.
8. In the Locality field, type your city name.
9. In the State or Province field, type your state or province name.
10. From the Country list, select the name of your country.
11. In the E-mail Address field, type your email address.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
12. In the Lifetime field, type a number of days, or retain the default, 365.
13. In the Subject Alternative Name field, type a name.
This name is embedded in the certificate for X509 extension purposes.
By assigning this name, you can protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate.
14. From the Key Type list, select a key type.
Possible values are: RSA, DSA, and ECDSA.
15. From the Size or Curve Name list, select either a size, in bits, or a curve name.
16. Click Finished.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You create a custom Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to terminate client-side SSL
traffic for the purpose of:
•
•
Authenticating and decrypting ingress client-side SSL traffic
Re-encrypting egress client-side traffic
By terminating client-side SSL traffic, the BIG-IP system offloads these authentication and
decryption/encryption functions from the destination server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select clientssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
6. Select the Custom check box.
73
Managing Client and Server HTTPS Traffic using a Self-signed Certificate
The settings become available for change.
7. Select the Custom check box for Client Authentication.
The settings become available.
8. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
9. Modify the settings, as required.
10. Click Finished.
Creating a custom Server SSL profile
With an Server SSL profile, the BIG-IP® system can perform decryption and encryption for server-side SSL
traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Server.
The SSL Server profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Server SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select serverssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
6. Select the Custom check box.
The settings become available for change.
7. Select the Custom check box for Server Authentication.
8. Modify the settings, as required.
9. Click Finished.
The custom Server SSL profile is listed in the Profiles:SSL:Server list.
Creating a pool to manage HTTPS traffic
You can create a pool (a logical set of devices, such as web servers, that you group together to receive and
process HTTPS traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. Assign the https or https_443 health monitor from the Available list by moving it to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
74
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
7. Add each resource that you want to include in the pool using the New Members setting:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 443 in the Service Port field, or select HTTPS from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The HTTPS load balancing pool now appears in the Pool List screen.
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. Type 443 in the Service Port field, or select HTTPS from the list.
6. For the HTTP Profile setting, verify that the default HTTP profile, http, is selected.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
8. For the SSL Profile (Server) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Server SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
9. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server now appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation results
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system ensures that SSL authentication
and encryption occurs for both client-side and server-side HTTP traffic. The system performs this
authentication and encryption according to the values you specify in the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles.
75
Chapter
11
Securing HTTP Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate with
an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
•
•
•
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic
using a self-signed, ECC-based certificate
Task summary
Implementation results
Securing HTTP Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate with an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic using a self-signed, ECC-based
certificate
When you configure the BIG-IP® system to decrypt client-side HTTP requests and encrypt the server
responses, you can optionally configure the BIG-IP system to use an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (ECDSA) key for authentication as part of the BIG-IP system's certificate key chain. Using
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), an ECDSA key creates a digital signature that allows the system to verify
the authenticity of data without compromising its security. The result is that the BIG-IP system performs
the SSL handshake, usually performed by target web servers, using an ECDSA key type in the certificate
key chain.
This particular implementation uses a self-signed certificate.
Task summary
To implement client-side authentication using HTTP and SSL with a self-signed certificate, you perform a
few basic configuration tasks.
Task list
Creating a self-signed SSL certificate
If you are configuring the BIG-IP system to manage client-side HTTP traffic, you create a self-signed
certificate to authenticate and secure the client-side HTTP traffic. If you are also configuring the system to
manage server-side HTTP traffic, you create a second self-signed certificate to authenticate and secure the
server-side HTTP traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > SSL Certificate List.
The SSL Certificate List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the SSL certificate.
4. From the Issuer list, select Self.
5. In the Common Name field, type a name.
6. In the Division field, type your company name.
7. In the Organization field, type your department name.
8. In the Locality field, type your city name.
9. In the State or Province field, type your state or province name.
10. From the Country list, select the name of your country.
11. In the E-mail Address field, type your email address.
12. In the Lifetime field, type a number of days, or retain the default, 365.
13. In the Subject Alternative Name field, type a name.
This name is embedded in the certificate for X509 extension purposes.
By assigning this name, you can protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate.
14. From the Key Type list, select ECDSA.
78
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
15. From the Curve Name list, select a curve name.
Possible values are prime256v1 and secp384r1.
16. Click Finished.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You create a custom Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to terminate client-side SSL
traffic for the purpose of decrypting client-side ingress traffic and decrypting client-side egress traffic. By
terminating client-side SSL traffic, the BIG-IP system offloads these authentication and decryption/encryption
functions from the destination server. When you perform this task, the system uses a certificate key chain
that specifies Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) as the key type.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select clientssl.
5. Select the Custom check box.
The settings become available for change.
6. Using the Certificate Key Chain setting, specify one or more certificate key chains:
a) From the Certificate list, select the name of a certificate with a key of type ECDSA.
b) From the Key list, select the name of an ECDSA key.
c) From the Chain list, select the chain that you want to include in the certificate key chain.
d) Click Add.
7. Configure all other settings as needed.
8. Click Finished.
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Securing HTTP Traffic Using a Self-signed Certificate with an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 443, or select HTTPS from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select the HTTP profile that you previously created.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
8. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
9. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation results
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system authenticates and encrypts client-side
ingress HTTP traffic using an SSL certificate key chain. The BIG-IP system also re-encrypts server responses
before sending the responses back to the client.
The certificate in the certificate key chain includes an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
key as the authentication mechanism.
81
Chapter
12
Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic using a CA-signed
Certificate
•
•
•
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS
traffic using a CA-signed certificate
Task summary
Implementation results
Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate
Overview: Managing client-side HTTPS traffic using a CA-signed certificate
When you want to manage HTTP traffic over SSL, you can configure the BIG-IP® system to perform the
SSL handshake that target web servers normally perform.
A common way to configure the BIG-IP system is to enable client-side SSL, which makes it possible for
the system to decrypt client requests before sending them on to a server, and encrypt server responses before
sending them back to the client. In this case, you need to install only one SSL key/certificate pair on the
BIG-IP system.
This implementation uses a certificate signed by a certificate authority (CA) to authenticate HTTPS traffic.
Task summary
To implement client-side authentication using HTTP and SSL with a certificate signed by a certificate
authority, you perform a few basic configuration tasks.
Task list
Requesting a certificate from a certificate authority
You can generate a certificate and copy it or submit it to a trusted certificate authority for signature.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > SSL Certificate List.
The SSL Certificate List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the SSL certificate.
4. From the Issuer list, select Certificate Authority.
5. In the Common Name field, type a name.
6. In the Division field, type your company name.
7. In the Organization field, type your department name.
8. In the Locality field, type your city name.
9. In the State or Province field, type your state or province name.
10. From the Country list, select the name of your country.
11. In the E-mail Address field, type your email address.
12. In the Lifetime field, type a number of days, or retain the default, 365.
13. In the Subject Alternative Name field, type a name.
This name is embedded in the certificate for X509 extension purposes.
By assigning this name, you can protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate.
14. In the Challenge Password field, type a password.
15. In the Confirm Password field, re-type the password you typed in the Challenge Password field.
16. From the Key Type list, select a key type.
Possible values are: RSA, DSA, and ECDSA.
17. From the Size or Curve Name list, select either a size, in bits, or a curve name.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
18. Click Finished.
The Certificate Signing Request screen displays.
19. Do one of the following to download the request into a file on your system.
•
•
In the Request Text field, copy the certificate.
For Request File, click the button.
20. Follow the instructions on the relevant certificate authority web site for either pasting the copied request
or attaching the generated request file.
21. Click Finished.
The Certificate Signing Request screen displays.
The generated certificate is submitted to a trusted certificate authority for signature.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You create a custom Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to terminate client-side SSL
traffic for the purpose of:
•
•
Authenticating and decrypting ingress client-side SSL traffic
Re-encrypting egress client-side traffic
By terminating client-side SSL traffic, the BIG-IP system offloads these authentication and
decryption/encryption functions from the destination server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select clientssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
85
Managing Client-side HTTPS Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate
6. Select the Custom check box.
The settings become available for change.
7. Select the Custom check box for Client Authentication.
The settings become available.
8. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
9. Modify the settings, as required.
10. Click Finished.
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 443, or select HTTPS from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select the HTTP profile that you previously created.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
8. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
9. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation results
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system can authenticate and decrypt
HTTPS traffic coming from a client system. The BIG-IP system can also re-encrypt server responses before
sending them back to the client.
87
Chapter
13
Securing HTTP Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate with
an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
•
•
•
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic
using a CA-signed, ECC-based certificate
Task summary
Implementation results
Securing HTTP Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate with an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
Overview: Managing client-side HTTP traffic using a CA-signed, ECC-based
certificate
When you configure the BIG-IP® system to decrypt client-side HTTP requests and encrypt the server
responses, you can optionally configure the BIG-IP system to use an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (ECDSA) key for authentication as part of the BIG-IP system's certificate key chain. Using
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), an ECDSA key creates a digital signature that allows the system to verify
the authenticity of data without compromising its security. The result is that the BIG-IP system performs
the SSL handshake usually performed by target web servers, using an ECDSA key type in the certificate
key chain.
This particular implementation uses a certificate signed by a certificate authority (CA).
Task summary
To implement client-side authentication using HTTP and SSL with a certificate signed by a certificate
authority, you perform a few basic configuration tasks.
Task list
Requesting a signed certificate that includes an ECDSA key
You can generate a certificate that includes an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) key
type, and then copy it or submit it to a trusted certificate authority for signature.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > SSL Certificate List.
The SSL Certificate List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the SSL certificate.
4. From the Issuer list, select Certificate Authority.
5. In the Common Name field, type a name.
6. In the Division field, type your company name.
7. In the Organization field, type your department name.
8. In the Locality field, type your city name.
9. In the State or Province field, type your state or province name.
10. From the Country list, select the name of your country.
11. In the E-mail Address field, type your email address.
12. In the Lifetime field, type a number of days, or retain the default, 365.
13. In the Subject Alternative Name field, type a name.
This name is embedded in the certificate for X509 extension purposes.
By assigning this name, you can protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate.
14. In the Challenge Password field, type a password.
15. In the Confirm Password field, re-type the password you typed in the Challenge Password field.
16. From the Key Type list, select ECDSA.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
17. From the Curve Name list, select a curve name.
Possible values are prime256v1 and secp384r1.
18. Click Finished.
The Certificate Signing Request screen displays.
19. Do one of the following to download the request into a file on your system.
•
•
In the Request Text field, copy the certificate.
For Request File, click the button.
20. Follow the instructions on the relevant certificate authority web site for either pasting the copied request
or attaching the generated request file.
21. Click Finished.
The Certificate Signing Request screen displays.
The generated certificate is submitted to a trusted certificate authority for signature.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You create a custom Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to terminate client-side SSL
traffic for the purpose of decrypting client-side ingress traffic and decrypting client-side egress traffic. By
terminating client-side SSL traffic, the BIG-IP system offloads these authentication and decryption/encryption
functions from the destination server. When you perform this task, the system uses a certificate key chain
that specifies Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) as the key type.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select clientssl.
91
Securing HTTP Traffic using a CA-signed Certificate with an Elliptic Curve DSA Key
5. Select the Custom check box.
The settings become available for change.
6. Using the Certificate Key Chain setting, specify one or more certificate key chains:
a) From the Certificate list, select the name of a certificate with a key of type ECDSA.
b) From the Key list, select the name of an ECDSA key.
c) From the Chain list, select the chain that you want to include in the certificate key chain.
d) Click Add.
7. Configure all other settings as needed.
8. Click Finished.
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for client-side HTTPS traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
HTTPS traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 443, or select HTTPS from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select the HTTP profile that you previously created.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL profile
you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
8. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
9. Click Finished.
The HTTPS virtual server appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation results
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system authenticates and encrypts client-side
ingress HTTP traffic using an SSL certificate key chain. The BIG-IP system also re-encrypts server responses
before sending the responses back to the client.
The certificate in the certificate key chain includes an Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
key as the authentication mechanism.
93
Chapter
14
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests
•
•
•
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request
Adaptation
Task summary
Implementation result
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request Adaptation
This implementation describes how to configure the BIG-IP® content adaptation feature for adapting HTTP
requests. With this feature, a BIG-IP virtual server can conditionally forward HTTP requests to a pool of
Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) servers for modification, before sending the request to a web
server.
In this implementation, you create a standard HTTP virtual server and pool of web servers for processing
client requests. The HTTP virtual server accepts each client request in the normal way, but before load
balancing the request to the pool of web servers, the virtual server forwards the HTTP request to a special
internal virtual server.
The internal virtual server receives the HTTP request from the standard virtual server, and load balances
the request to a pool of ICAP servers for modification. After the ICAP server modifies the request, the
BIG-IP system sends the request to the appropriate web server for processing.
Figure 9: Content adaptation configuration for modifying HTTP requests
The internal virtual server references the pool of content adaptation servers, including the load balancing
method to use for those servers. The internal virtual server also references an ICAP profile, which includes
specific instructions for how the BIG-IP system should wrap the HTTP request in an ICAP message for
adaptation.
Optionally, the internal virtual server can reference:
•
•
•
96
Any persistence method that you would like the BIG-IP system to use when load balancing traffic to
the ICAP pool.
Any health or performance monitor that you would like the BIG-IP system to use when load balancing
traffic to the ICAP pool.
Any iRules® related to the content adaptation.
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Task summary
Complete the tasks in this implementation to create a BIG-IP® configuration that performs content adaptation
for HTTP requests.
Task List
Creating a custom client-side ICAP profile
You create this ICAP profile when you want to use an ICAP server to wrap an HTTP request in an ICAP
message before the BIG-IP® system sends the request to a pool of web servers. The profile specifies the
HTTP request-header values that the ICAP server uses for the ICAP message.
Important: You can use macro expansion for all ICAP header values. For example, if an ICAP header
value contains ${SERVER_IP}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the IP address of the ICAP
server selected from the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. If an ICAP header value contains
${SERVER_PORT}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the port of the ICAP server selected from
the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. For example, you can set the URI value in an ICAP profile
to icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/virusScan.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > ICAP.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, icap.
5. On the right side of the screen, select the Custom check box.
6. In the URI field, type a URI in this format: icap://hostname:port/path.
For example, using macro expansion, you can set the URI value to:
icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/virusScan
.
7. In the Preview Length field, type a length or retain the default value 0.
This value defines the amount of the HTTP request or response that the BIG-IP system offers to the
ICAP server when sending the request or response to the server for adaptation. This value should not
exceed the length of the preview that the ICAP server has indicated it will accept.
8. In the Header From field, type a value for the From: ICAP header.
9. In the Host field, type a value for the Host: ICAP header.
10. In the Referer field, type a value for the Referer: ICAP header.
11. In the User Agent field, type a value for the User-Agent: ICAP header.
12. Click Finished.
After you create the ICAP profile, you can assign it to an internal virtual server so that the HTTP request
that the BIG-IP system sends to an ICAP server is wrapped in an ICAP message, according to the settings
you specified in the ICAP profile.
97
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests
Creating a pool of ICAP servers
You perform this task to create a pool of ICAP servers that perform content adaptation on HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The pool of ICAP load balancing servers appears in the Pools list.
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding requests to an ICAP server
A virtual server of type internal provides a destination that a standard type of virtual server can use when
forwarding HTTP requests slated for ICAP-based content adaptation.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. In the Description field, type a description of the virtual server.
For example: This virtual server ensures HTTP request modification through the
use of the service_name ICAP service..
From the Type list, select Internal.
For the State setting, verify that the value is set to Enabled.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the ICAP Profile list, select the ICAP profile that you previously created for handling HTTP
requests.
9. From the Default Pool list, select the pool of ICAP servers that you previously created.
5.
6.
7.
8.
98
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
10. Click Finished.
After you perform this task, a standard type of virtual server can forward HTTP requests to an internal type
of virtual server. The internal virtual server then sends the request to a pool of ICAP servers, before sending
the request back to the standard virtual server for forwarding to the pool of web servers.
Creating a custom Request Adapt profile
You create a Request Adapt type of profile when you want a standard HTTP virtual server to forward HTTP
requests to an internal virtual server that references a pool of ICAP servers. A Request Adapt type of profile
instructs the HTTP virtual server to send an HTTP request to a named internal virtual server for possible
request modification.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > Request Adapt.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, requestadapt.
5. On the right-side of the screen, clear the Custom check box.
6. For the Enabled setting, retain the default value, Enabled.
When you set this value to Enabled, the BIG-IP system forwards HTTP requests to the specified internal
virtual server for adaptation.
7. From the Internal Virtual Name list, select the name of the internal virtual server that you previously
created for forwarding HTTP requests to the pool of iCAP servers.
8. In the Preview Size field, type a numeric value.
This specifies the maximum size of the preview buffer. This buffer holds a copy of the HTTP request
header and the data sent to the internal virtual server, in case the adaptation server reports that no
adaptation is needed. Setting the preview size to 0 disables buffering of the request and should only be
done if the adaptation server always returns a modified HTTP request or the original HTTP request.
9. In the Timeout field, type a numeric value, in seconds.
If the internal virtual server does not return a result within the specified time, a timeout error occurs. To
disable the timeout, use the value 0.
10. From the Service Down Action list, select an action for the BIG-IP system to take if the internal virtual
server returns an error:
•
•
•
Select Ignore to instruct the BIG-IP system to ignore the error and send the unmodified HTTP request
to an HTTP server in the HTTP server pool.
Select Drop to instruct the BIG-IP system to drop the connection.
Select Reset to instruct the BIG-IP system to reset the connection.
11. Click Finished.
After you perform this task, the BIG-IP® system contains a Request Adapt profile that a standard HTTP
virtual server can use to forward an HTTP request to an internal virtual server for ICAP traffic.
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
99
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating an HTTP virtual server for enabling request adaptation
You perform this task to create a standard virtual server that can forward an HTTP request to an internal
virtual server. The internal virtual server then sends the request to a pool of ICAP servers before the BIG-IP®
system sends the request to the web server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address that you want to use as a destination
for client traffic destined for a pool of HTTP web servers.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
7. From the HTTP Profile list, select the name of the HTTP profile that you created previously.
8. From the Request Adapt Profile list, select the name of the Request Adapt profile that you previously
created.
9. From the Source Address Translation list, select Auto Map.
10. From the Default Pool list, select the name of the HTTP server pool that you previously created.
11. Click Finished.
After you create the virtual server, the BIG-IP® system can forward an HTTP request to a pool of ICAP
servers before sending the request to the web server.
Implementation result
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system can perform content adaptation
on HTTP requests as they pass through the BIG-IP system during normal HTTP processing. The new objects
that this implementation creates are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A custom ICAP profile
A pool of ICAP content adaptation servers
An internal virtual server that load balances HTTP requests to the ICAP pool
A custom Request Adapt profile that references the internal virtual server
A custom HTTP profile
A standard HTTP pool of web servers
A standard HTTP virtual server that sends HTTP requests to an internal virtual server for content
adaptation and load balances HTTP requests to the web pool
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Chapter
15
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and
Responses
•
•
•
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request and
Response Adaptation
Task summary
Implementation result
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and Responses
Overview: Configuring HTTP Request and Response Adaptation
This implementation describes how to configure the BIG-IP® content adaptation feature for adapting HTTP
requests and responses. With this feature, a BIG-IP system virtual server can conditionally forward HTTP
requests and HTTP responses to a pool of Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) servers for
modification, before sending a request to a web server or returning a response to the client system.
In this implementation, you create a standard HTTP virtual server and pool of web servers for processing
client requests. The HTTP virtual server accepts each client request in the normal way, but before load
balancing the request to the pool of web servers, the virtual server forwards the HTTP request to a special
internal virtual server.
The internal virtual server receives the HTTP request from the standard virtual server, and load balances
the request to a pool of ICAP servers for modification. After the ICAP server modifies the request, the
BIG-IP system sends the request to the appropriate web server for processing. When the web server sends
the HTTP response back to the HTTP virtual server, the BIG-IP system sends the response to a second
internal virtual server, which in turn load balances the response to the pool of ICAP servers for modification.
After the ICAP server modifies the response, the BIG-IP system sends the response back to the client system.
Figure 10: Content adaptation configuration for modifying HTTP requests and responses
The internal virtual server references the pool of content adaptation servers, including the load balancing
method to use for those servers. The internal virtual server also references an ICAP profile, which includes
specific instructions for how the BIG-IP system should modify each request or response. You can create
two separate ICAP profiles, one for wrapping the HTTP request in an ICAP message for adaptation, and
one for wrapping the HTTP response in an ICAP message for adaptation.
Optionally, each internal virtual server can reference:
•
•
•
104
Any persistence method that you would like the BIG-IP system to use when load balancing traffic to
the ICAP pool.
Any health or performance monitor that you would like the BIG-IP system to use when load balancing
traffic to the ICAP pool.
Any iRules® related to the content adaptation.
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Task summary
Complete the tasks in this implementation to create a BIG-IP® configuration that performs content adaptation
for HTTP requests and responses.
Task List
Creating a custom client-side ICAP profile
You create this ICAP profile when you want to use an ICAP server to wrap an HTTP request in an ICAP
message before the BIG-IP® system sends the request to a pool of web servers. The profile specifies the
HTTP request-header values that the ICAP server uses for the ICAP message.
Important: You can use macro expansion for all ICAP header values. For example, if an ICAP header
value contains ${SERVER_IP}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the IP address of the ICAP
server selected from the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. If an ICAP header value contains
${SERVER_PORT}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the port of the ICAP server selected from
the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. For example, you can set the URI value in an ICAP profile
to icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/virusScan.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > ICAP.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, icap.
5. On the right side of the screen, select the Custom check box.
6. In the URI field, type a URI in this format: icap://hostname:port/path.
For example, using macro expansion, you can set the URI value to:
icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/virusScan
.
7. In the Preview Length field, type a length or retain the default value 0.
This value defines the amount of the HTTP request or response that the BIG-IP system offers to the
ICAP server when sending the request or response to the server for adaptation. This value should not
exceed the length of the preview that the ICAP server has indicated it will accept.
8. In the Header From field, type a value for the From: ICAP header.
9. In the Host field, type a value for the Host: ICAP header.
10. In the Referer field, type a value for the Referer: ICAP header.
11. In the User Agent field, type a value for the User-Agent: ICAP header.
12. Click Finished.
After you create the ICAP profile, you can assign it to an internal virtual server so that the HTTP request
that the BIG-IP system sends to an ICAP server is wrapped in an ICAP message, according to the settings
you specified in the ICAP profile.
105
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and Responses
Creating a custom server-side ICAP profile
You create this ICAP profile when you want to use an ICAP server to wrap an HTTP response in an ICAP
message before the BIG-IP® system sends the response back to the client. The profile specifies the HTTP
response-header values that the ICAP server uses for the ICAP message.
Important: Optionally, you can use macro expansion for all ICAP header values. For example, if an ICAP
header value contains ${SERVER_IP}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the IP address of the
ICAP server selected from the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. If an ICAP header value contains
${SERVER_PORT}, the BIG-IP system replaces the macro with the port of the ICAP server selected from
the pool assigned to the internal virtual server. For example, you can set the URI value in an ICAP profile
to icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/videoOptimization.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > ICAP.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, icap.
5. On the right side of the screen, select the Custom check box.
6. In the URI field, type a URI in this format: icap://hostname:port/path.
For example, using macro expansion, you can set the URI value to:
icap://${SERVER_IP}:${SERVER_PORT}/videoOptimization
.
7. In the Preview Length field, type a length or retain the default value 0.
This value defines the amount of the HTTP request or response that the BIG-IP system offers to the
ICAP server when sending the request or response to the server for adaptation. This value should not
exceed the length of the preview that the ICAP server has indicated it will accept.
8. In the Header From field, type a value for the From: ICAP header.
9. In the Host field, type a value for the Host: ICAP header.
10. In the Referer field, type a value for the Referer: ICAP header.
11. In the User Agent field, type a value for the User-Agent: ICAP header.
12. Click Finished.
After you create the ICAP profile, you can assign it to an internal virtual server so that the HTTP response
that the BIG-IP system sends to an ICAP server is wrapped in an ICAP message, according to the settings
you specified in the ICAP profile.
Creating a pool of ICAP servers
You perform this task to create a pool of ICAP servers that perform content adaptation on HTTP requests
and responses.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The pool of ICAP load balancing servers appears in the Pools list.
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding requests to an ICAP server
A virtual server of type internal provides a destination that a standard type of virtual server can use when
forwarding HTTP requests slated for ICAP-based content adaptation.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. In the Description field, type a description of the virtual server.
For example: This virtual server ensures HTTP request modification through the
use of the service_name ICAP service..
From the Type list, select Internal.
For the State setting, verify that the value is set to Enabled.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the ICAP Profile list, select the ICAP profile that you previously created for handling HTTP
requests.
9. From the Default Pool list, select the pool of ICAP servers that you previously created.
10. Click Finished.
5.
6.
7.
8.
After you perform this task, a standard type of virtual server can forward HTTP requests to an internal type
of virtual server. The internal virtual server then sends the request to a pool of ICAP servers, before sending
the request back to the standard virtual server for forwarding to the pool of web servers.
107
Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and Responses
Creating an internal virtual server for forwarding responses to an ICAP server
A virtual server of type internal provides a destination that a standard type of virtual server can use when
forwarding HTTP responses slated for ICAP-based content adaptation.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. In the Description field, type a description of the virtual server.
For example: This virtual server ensures HTTP response modification through the
use of the service_name ICAP service..
From the Type list, select Internal.
For the State setting, verify that the value is set to Enabled.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the ICAP Profile list, select the ICAP profile that you previously created for handling HTTP
responses.
9. From the Default Pool list, select the pool of ICAP servers that you previously created.
10. Click Finished.
5.
6.
7.
8.
After you perform this task, a standard type of virtual server can forward an HTTP response to an internal
type of virtual server. The internal virtual server then sends the response to a pool of ICAP servers before
sending the response back to the standard virtual server for forwarding to the client system.
Creating a custom Request Adapt profile
You create a Request Adapt type of profile when you want a standard HTTP virtual server to forward HTTP
requests to an internal virtual server that references a pool of ICAP servers. A Request Adapt type of profile
instructs the HTTP virtual server to send an HTTP request to a named internal virtual server for possible
request modification.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > Request Adapt.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, requestadapt.
5. On the right-side of the screen, clear the Custom check box.
6. For the Enabled setting, retain the default value, Enabled.
When you set this value to Enabled, the BIG-IP system forwards HTTP requests to the specified internal
virtual server for adaptation.
7. From the Internal Virtual Name list, select the name of the internal virtual server that you previously
created for forwarding HTTP requests to the pool of iCAP servers.
8. In the Preview Size field, type a numeric value.
This specifies the maximum size of the preview buffer. This buffer holds a copy of the HTTP request
header and the data sent to the internal virtual server, in case the adaptation server reports that no
adaptation is needed. Setting the preview size to 0 disables buffering of the request and should only be
done if the adaptation server always returns a modified HTTP request or the original HTTP request.
9. In the Timeout field, type a numeric value, in seconds.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
If the internal virtual server does not return a result within the specified time, a timeout error occurs. To
disable the timeout, use the value 0.
10. From the Service Down Action list, select an action for the BIG-IP system to take if the internal virtual
server returns an error:
•
•
•
Select Ignore to instruct the BIG-IP system to ignore the error and send the unmodified HTTP request
to an HTTP server in the HTTP server pool.
Select Drop to instruct the BIG-IP system to drop the connection.
Select Reset to instruct the BIG-IP system to reset the connection.
11. Click Finished.
After you perform this task, the BIG-IP® system contains a Request Adapt profile that a standard HTTP
virtual server can use to forward an HTTP request to an internal virtual server for ICAP traffic.
Creating a custom Response Adapt profile
You create a Response Adapt type of profile when you want a standard HTTP virtual server to forward
HTTP responses to an internal virtual server that references a pool of ICAP servers. A Response Adapt type
of profile instructs the HTTP virtual server to send an HTTP response to a named internal virtual server for
possible response modification.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > Response Adapt.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
For the Parent Profile setting, retain the default value, responseadapt.
5. On the right-side of the screen, select the Custom check box.
6. For the Enabled setting, retain the default value, Enabled.
When you set this value to Enabled, the BIG-IP system forwards HTTP responses to the specified
internal virtual server for adaptation.
7. From the Internal Virtual Name list, select the name of the internal virtual server that you previously
created for forwarding HTTP responses to the pool of iCAP servers.
8. In the Preview Size field, type a numeric value.
This specifies the maximum size of the preview buffer. This buffer holds a copy of the HTTP response
header and the data sent to the internal virtual server, in case the adaptation server reports that no
adaptation is needed. Setting the preview size to 0 disables buffering of the response and should only
be done if the adaptation server always returns a modified HTTP response or the original HTTP response.
9. In the Timeout field, type a numeric value.
If the internal virtual server does not return a result within the specified time, a timeout error occurs. To
disable the timeout, use the value 0.
10. From the Service Down Action list, select an action for the BIG-IP system to take if the internal virtual
server returns an error:
•
•
•
Select Ignore to instruct the BIG-IP system to ignore the error and send the unmodified HTTP
response to an HTTP server in the HTTP server pool.
Select Drop to instruct the BIG-IP system to drop the connection.
Select Reset to instruct the BIG-IP system to reset the connection.
11. Click Finished.
After you perform this task, the BIG-IP® system contains a Response Adapt profile that a standard HTTP
virtual server can use to forward an HTTP response to an internal virtual server for ICAP traffic.
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Configuring Content Adaptation for HTTP Requests and Responses
Creating a custom HTTP profile
An HTTP profile defines the way that you want the BIG-IP®system to manage HTTP traffic.
Note: Other HTTP profile types (HTTP Compression and Web Acceleration) enable you to configure
compression and cache settings, as required. Use of these profile types is optional.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select http.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The custom HTTP profile now appears in the HTTP profile list screen.
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
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Creating an HTTP virtual server for enabling request and response adaptation
You perform this task to create a standard virtual server that can forward an HTTP request or response to
an internal virtual server. The internal virtual server then sends the request or response to a pool of ICAP
servers before the BIG-IP® system sends the request or response to the client or web server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address that you want to use as a destination
for client traffic destined for a pool of HTTP web servers.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
7. From the HTTP Profile list, select the name of the HTTP profile that you created previously.
8. From the Request Adapt Profile list, select the name of the Request Adapt profile that you previously
created.
9. From the Response Adapt Profile list, select the name of the Response Adapt profile that you previously
created.
10. From the Source Address Translation list, select Auto Map.
11. From the Default Pool list, select the name of the HTTP server pool that you previously created.
12. Click Finished.
After you create the virtual server, the BIG-IP® system can forward an HTTP request or response to a pool
of ICAP servers before sending the request or response to the client or web server, respectively.
Implementation result
After performing the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® can perform content adaptation on HTTP
requests and responses as they pass through the BIG-IP system during normal HTTP processing. The new
objects that this implementation creates are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Two custom ICAP profiles (for requests and responses)
One pool of ICAP content adaptation servers
Two separate internal virtual servers. One internal virtual server load balances HTTP requests to the
ICAP pool , while the other load balances responses to the ICAP pool.
Two custom adaptation profiles (a Request Adapt profile and a Response Adapt profile) that each
reference a separate internal virtual server (for requests and responses, respectively)
A custom HTTP profile
A standard HTTP pool of web servers
A standard HTTP virtual server that sends HTTP requests and responses to an internal virtual server for
content adaptation, load balances HTTP requests to the web pool, and forwards HTTP responses to the
relevant client
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16
Implementing SSL Forward Proxy on a Single BIG-IP System
•
•
•
Overview: SSL forward proxy client and
server authentication
Task summary
Implementation result
Implementing SSL Forward Proxy on a Single BIG-IP System
Overview: SSL forward proxy client and server authentication
With the BIG-IP® system's SSL forward proxy functionality, you can encrypt all traffic between a client
and the BIG-IP system, by using one certificate, and to encrypt all traffic between the BIG-IP system and
the server, by using a different certificate.
A client establishes a three-way handshake and SSL connection with the wildcard IP address of the BIG-IP
system virtual server. The BIG-IP system then establishes a three-way handshake and SSL connection with
the server, and receives and validates a server certificate (while maintaining the separate connection with
the client). The BIG-IP system uses the server certificate to create a second unique server certificate to send
to the client. The client receives the second server certificate from the BIG-IP system, but recognizes the
certificate as originating directly from the server.
Important: To enable SSL forward proxy functionality, you can either:
•
•
Disassociate existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles from a virtual server and configure the SSL
Forward Proxy settings.
Create new Client SSL and Server SSL profiles and configure the SSL Forward Proxy settings.
Then with either option, select the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles on a virtual server. You cannot modify
existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles while they are selected on a virtual server to enable SSL forward
proxy functionality.
Figure 11: A virtual server configured with Client and Server SSL profiles for SSL forward proxy
functionality
1. Client establishes three-way handshake and SSL connection with wildcard IP address.
2. BIG-IP system establishes three-way handshake and SSL connection with server.
3. BIG-IP system validates a server certificate (Certificate A), while maintaining the separate connection
with the client.
4. BIG-IP system creates different server certificate (Certificate B) and sends it to client.
Task summary
To implement SSL forward proxy client-to-server authentication, as well as application data manipulation,
you perform a few basic configuration tasks. Note that you must create both a Client SSL and a Server SSL
profile, and enable the SSL Forward Proxy feature in both profiles.
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Task list
Creating a custom Client SSL forward proxy profile
You perform this task to create a Client SSL forward proxy profile that makes it possible for client and
server authentication while still allowing the BIG-IP® system to perform data optimization, such as decryption
and encryption. This profile applies to client-side SSL forward proxy traffic only.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select clientssl.
5. From the SSL Forward Proxy list, select Advanced.
6. Select the Custom check box for the SSL Forward Proxy area.
7. Modify the SSL Forward Proxy settings.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
From the SSL Forward Proxy list, select Enabled.
From the CA Certificate list, select a certificate.
From the CA Key list, select a key.
In the CA Passphrase field, type a passphrase.
In the Confirm CA Passphrase field, type the passphrase again.
In the Certificate Lifespan field, type a lifespan for the SSL forward proxy certificate in days.
(Optional) From the Certificate Extensions list, select Extensions List.
(Optional) For the Certificate Extensions List setting, select the extensions that you want in the
Available extensions field, and move them to the Enabled Extensions field using the Enable button.
i) Select the Cache Certificate by Addr-Port check box if you want to cache certificates by IP address
and port number.
j) From the SSL Forward Proxy Bypass list, select Enabled.
Additional settings display.
k) From the Bypass Default Action list, select Intercept or Bypass.
The default action applies to addresses and hostnames that do not match any entry specified in the
lists that you specify. The system matches traffic first against destination IP address lists, then source
IP address lists, and lastly, hostname lists. Within these, the default action also specifies whether to
search the intercept list or the bypass list first.
Note: If you select Bypass and do not specify any additional settings, you introduce a security risk
to your system.
8. Click Finished.
The custom Client SSL forward proxy profile now appears in the Client SSL profile list screen.
Creating a custom Server SSL forward proxy profile
You perform this task to create a Server SSL forward proxy profile that makes it possible for client and
server authentication while still allowing the BIG-IP® system to perform data optimization, such as decryption
and encryption. This profile applies to server-side SSL forward proxy traffic only.
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Implementing SSL Forward Proxy on a Single BIG-IP System
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Server.
The SSL Server profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Server SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list select serverssl.
5. Select the Custom check box for the Configuration area.
6. From the SSL Forward Proxy list, select Enabled.
7. Click Finished.
The custom Client SSL forward proxy profile now appears in the Client SSL profile list screen.
Creating a load balancing pool
You can create a load balancing pool (a logical set of devices such as web servers that you group together
to receive and process traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
Note: You must create the pool before you create the corresponding virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side SSL traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
application traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. Specify the Destination settings.
•
•
For a Host, in the Address field, type 0.0.0.0 for the virtual server address.
For a Network, in the Address field, type 0.0.0.0 for the virtual server address, and in the Mask
field, type 0.0.0.0 for the mask.
5. In the Service Port field, type a port number or select a service name from the Service Port list.
6. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Client SSL forward
proxy profile you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
Important: To enable SSL forward proxy functionality, you can either:
•
•
Disassociate existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles from a virtual server and configure the
SSL Forward Proxy settings.
Create new Client SSL and Server SSL profiles and configure the SSL Forward Proxy settings.
Then with either option, select the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles on a virtual server. You cannot
modify existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles while they are selected on a virtual server to enable
SSL forward proxy functionality.
7. For the SSL Profile (Server) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the Server SSL forward
proxy profile you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
Important: To enable SSL forward proxy functionality, you can either:
•
•
Disassociate existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles from a virtual server and configure the
SSL Forward Proxy settings.
Create new Client SSL and Server SSL profiles and configure the SSL Forward Proxy settings.
Then with either option, select the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles on a virtual server. You cannot
modify existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles while they are selected on a virtual server to enable
SSL forward proxy functionality.
8. Assign other profiles to the virtual server if applicable.
9. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
10. Click Finished.
The virtual server now appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
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Implementing SSL Forward Proxy on a Single BIG-IP System
Implementation result
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system ensures that the client system and
server system can authenticate each other independently. After client and server authentication, the BIG-IP
system can intelligently decrypt and manipulate the application data according to the configuration settings
in the profiles assigned to the virtual server.
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Implementing Proxy SSL on a Single BIG-IP System
•
•
•
Overview: Direct client-server authentication
with application optimization
Task summary
Implementation result
Implementing Proxy SSL on a Single BIG-IP System
Overview: Direct client-server authentication with application optimization
When setting up the BIG-IP® system to process application data, you might want the destination server to
authenticate the client system directly, for security reasons, instead of relying on the BIG-IP system to
perform this function. Retaining direct client-server authentication provides full transparency between the
client and server systems, and grants the server final authority to allow or deny client access.
The feature that makes it possible for this direct client-server authentication is known as Proxy SSL. You
enable this feature when you configure the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles.
Note: To use this feature, you must configure both a Client SSL and a Server SSL profile.
Without the Proxy SSL feature enabled, the BIG-IP system establishes separate client-side and server-side
SSL connections and then manages the initial authentication of both the client and server systems.
With the Proxy SSL feature, the BIG-IP system makes it possible for direct client-server authentication by
establishing a secure SSL tunnel between the client and server systems and then forwarding the SSL
handshake messages from the client to the server and vice versa. After the client and server successfully
authenticate each other, the BIG-IP system uses the tunnel to decrypt the application data and intelligently
manipulate (optimize) the data as needed.
Task summary
To implement direct client-to-server SSL authentication, as well as application data manipulation, you
perform a few basic configuration tasks. Note that you must create both a Client SSL and a Server SSL
profile, and enable the Proxy SSL feature in both profiles.
Before you begin, verify that the client system, server system, and BIG-IP® system contain the appropriate
SSL certificates for mutual authentication.
Important: The BIG-IP certificate and key referenced in a Server SSL profile must match those of the
server system.
As you configure your network for Proxy SSL, keep in mind the following considerations:
•
•
Proxy SSL supports only the RSA key exchange. For proper functioning, the client and server must not
negotiate key exchanges or cipher suites that Proxy SSL does not support, such as the Diffie-Hellman
(DH) and Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman (DHE) key exchanges, and the Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
cipher suite. To avoid this issue, you can either configure the client so that the ClientHello packet does
not include DH, DHE, or ECC; or configure the server to not accept DH, DHE, or ECC.
Proxy SSL supports only the NULL compression method.
Creating a custom Server SSL profile
You perform this task to create a Server SSL profile that makes it possible for direct client-server
authentication while still allowing the BIG-IP® system to perform data optimization, such as decryption
and encryption. This profile applies to server-side SSL traffic only.
Important: The certificate and key that you specify in this profile must match the certificate/key pair that
you expect the back-end server to offer. If the back-end server has two or more certificates to offer, you
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must create a separate Server SSL profile for each certificate and then assign all of the Server SSL profiles
to a single virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Server.
The SSL Server profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Server SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select serverssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. From the Certificate list, select a relevant certificate name.
6. From the Key list, select a relevant key name.
7. For the Proxy SSL setting, select the check box.
8. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
9. Modify all other settings, as required.
10. Choose one of the following actions:
•
•
If you need to create another Server SSL profile, click Repeat.
If you do not need to create another Server SSL profile, click Finished.
All relevant Server SSL profiles now appear on the SSL Server profile list screen.
Creating a custom Client SSL profile
You perform this task to create a Client SSL profile that makes it possible for direct client-server
authentication while still allowing the BIG-IP system to perform data optimization, such as decryption and
encryption. This profile applies to client-side SSL traffic only.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select clientssl in the Parent Profile list.
5. For the Proxy SSL setting, select the check box.
6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
7. Modify all other settings, as required.
8. Click Finished.
The custom Client SSL profile now appears in the Client SSL profile list screen.
Creating a load balancing pool
You can create a load balancing pool (a logical set of devices such as web servers that you group together
to receive and process traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
Note: You must create the pool before you create the corresponding virtual server.
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Implementing Proxy SSL on a Single BIG-IP System
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for client-side and server-side SSL traffic
You can specify a virtual server to be either a host virtual server or a network virtual server to manage
application traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, select the type, and type an address, or an address and mask, as appropriate
for your network.
5. In the Service Port field, type a port number or select a service name from the Service Port list.
6. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the custom Client SSL
proxy profile you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
Important: To enable proxy SSL functionality, you can either:
•
•
122
Disassociate existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles from a virtual server and configure the
Proxy SSL settings.
Create new Client SSL and Server SSL profiles and configure the Proxy SSL settings.
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Then with either option, select the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles on a virtual server. You cannot
modify existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles while they are selected on a virtual server to enable
proxy SSL functionality.
7. For the SSL Profile (Server) setting, from the Available list, select the name of the custom Server SSL
proxy profile you previously created, and using the Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
Important: To enable SSL proxy functionality, you can either:
•
•
Disassociate existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles from a virtual server and configure the
Proxy SSL settings.
Create new Client SSL and Server SSL profiles and configure the Proxy SSL settings.
Then with either option, select the Client SSL and Server SSL profiles on a virtual server. You cannot
modify existing Client SSL and Server SSL profiles while they are selected on a virtual server to enable
SSL proxy functionality.
8. Assign other profiles to the virtual server if applicable.
9. In the Resources area, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that you created previously.
10. Click Finished.
The virtual server now appears in the Virtual Server List screen.
Implementation result
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system ensures that the client system and
server system can initially authenticate each other directly. After client-server authentication, the BIG-IP
system can intelligently decrypt and manipulate the application data according to the configuration settings
in the profiles assigned to the virtual server.
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18
Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Source Address
Affinity Persistence
•
•
Overview: HTTP load balancing with source
affinity persistence
Task summary
Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Source Address Affinity Persistence
Overview: HTTP load balancing with source affinity persistence
Many computing environments want to use a BIG-IP® system to intelligently manage their HTTP traffic.
You can easily control your HTTP traffic by implementing a BIG-IP system feature known as an HTTP
profile. An HTTP profile is a group of settings that affect the behavior of HTTP traffic. An HTTP profile
defines the way that you want the BIG-IP system to manage HTTP traffic.
You can use the default HTTP profile, with all of its default values, or you can create a custom HTTP profile.
This particular implementation uses the default HTTP profile.
When you configure the BIG-IP system to manage HTTP traffic, you can also implement simple session
persistence, also known as source address affinity persistence. Source address affinity persistence directs
session requests to the same server based solely on the source IP address of a packet. To implement source
address affinity persistence, the BIG-IP system offers a default persistence profile that you can implement.
Just as for HTTP, you can use the default profile, or you can create a custom simple persistence profile.
Task summary
This implementation describes how to set up a basic HTTP load balancing scenario and source address
affinity persistence, using the default HTTP and source address affinity persistence profiles.
Because this implementation configures HTTP load balancing and session persistence using the default
HTTP and persistence profiles, you do not need to specifically configure these profiles. Instead, you simply
configure some settings on the virtual server when you create it.
Task list
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
a)
b)
c)
d)
Type an IP address in the Address field.
Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
(Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic
This task creates a destination IP address for application traffic. As part of this task, you must assign the
relevant pool to the virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
7. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
8. From the Default Persistence Profile list, select source_addr.
This implements simple persistence, using the default source address affinity profile.
9. Click Finished.
You now have a virtual server to use as a destination address for application traffic.
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19
Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Cookie Persistence
•
•
Overview: HTTP load balancing with cookie
persistence
Task summary
Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Cookie Persistence
Overview: HTTP load balancing with cookie persistence
Many computing environments want to use a BIG-IP® system to intelligently manage their HTTP traffic.
You can easily control your HTTP traffic by implementing a BIG-IP system feature known as an HTTP
profile. An HTTP profile is a group of settings that affects the behavior of HTTP traffic. An HTTP profile
defines the way that you want the system to manage HTTP traffic.
You can use the default HTTP profile, with all of its default values, or you can create a custom HTTP profile.
When you create a custom HTTP profile, you not only modify the setting values, but you can enable more
advanced features such as data compression of server responses.
When you configure the BIG-IP system to manage HTTP traffic, you can also implement cookie-based
session persistence. Cookie persistence directs session requests to the same server based on HTTP cookies
that the BIG-IP system stores in the client’s browser.
Task summary
This implementation describes how to set up a basic HTTP load balancing scenario and cookie persistence,
using the default HTTP profile.
Because this implementation configures HTTP load balancing and session persistence using the default
HTTP, you do not need to specifically configure this profile. Instead, you simply configure some settings
on the virtual server when you create it.
Task list
Creating a custom cookie persistence profile
A good way to implement cookie persistence is to create a custom cookie persistence profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Persistence.
The Persistence profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Persistence Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Persistence Type list, select Cookie.
5. From the Parent Profile list, select cookie.
6. Select the Custom check box.
7. From the Cookie Method list, select HTTP Cookie Insert.
8. Clear the Session Cookie check box.
9. Type 60 in the Minutes field.
10. Click Finished.
The custom cookie persistence profile appears in the Persistence list.
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Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic
This task creates a destination IP address for application traffic. As part of this task, you must assign the
relevant pool to the virtual server.
Note: You can also use HTTP Cookie Insert persistence with a Performance (HTTP) type of virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
7. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
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Configuring HTTP Load Balancing with Cookie Persistence
8. From the Default Persistence Profile list, select the name of the custom cookie profile you created
earlier, such as mycookie_profile.
This implements cookie persistence, using a custom cookie persistence profile.
9. Click Finished.
You now have a virtual server to use as a destination address for application traffic.
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Compressing HTTP Responses
•
•
Overview: Compressing HTTP responses
Task summary
Compressing HTTP Responses
Overview: Compressing HTTP responses
An optional feature of the BIG-IP® system is the system’s ability to off-load HTTP compression tasks from
the target server. All of the tasks that you need to configure HTTP compression, as well as the compression
software itself, are centralized on the BIG-IP system. The primary way to enable HTTP compression is by
configuring an HTTP Compression type of profile and then assigning the profile to a virtual server. This
causes the system to compress HTTP content for any responses matching the values that you specify in the
Request-URI or Content-Type settings of the HTTP Compression profile.
Tip: If you want to enable HTTP compression for specific connections, you can write an iRule that specifies
the HTTP:compress enable command. Using the BIG-IP system HTTP compression feature, you can include
or exclude certain types of URIs or files that you specify. This is useful because some URI or file types might
already be compressed. F5 Networks does not recommend using CPU resources to compress
already-compressed data because the cost of compressing the data usually outweighs the benefits. Examples
of regular expressions that you might want to specify for exclusion are .*\.pdf, .*\.gif, or .*\.html.
Task summary
To configure HTTP data compression, you need to create an HTTP compression type of profile, as well as
a virtual server.
Task list
Creating a customized HTTP compression profile
If you need to adjust the compression settings to optimize compression for your environment, you can
modify a custom HTTP compression profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Acceleration > Profiles > HTTP Compression.
The HTTP Compression profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New HTTP Compression profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
httpcompression.
wan-optimized-compression.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Modify the settings, as required.
7. Click Finished.
The modified HTTP compression profile is available in the HTTP Compression list screen.
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Creating a virtual server for HTTP compression
You can create a virtual server that uses an HTTP profile with an HTTP compression profile to compress
HTTP responses.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. Select http in the HTTP Profile list.
7. From the HTTP Compression Profile list, select one of the following profiles:
•
•
•
httpcompression
wan-optimized-compression
A customized profile
8. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
9. Click Finished.
The virtual server with an HTTP profile configured with an HTTP compression profile appears in the Virtual
Server list.
After you have created a custom HTTP Compression profile and a virtual server, you can test the configuration
by attempting to pass HTTP traffic through the virtual server. Check to see that the BIG-IP system includes
and excludes the responses that you specified in the custom profile, and that the system compresses the data
as specified.
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21
Managing HTTP Traffic with the SPDY Profile
•
•
Overview: Managing HTTP traffic with the
SPDY profile
Task summary for managing HTTP and
SPDY traffic
Managing HTTP Traffic with the SPDY Profile
Overview: Managing HTTP traffic with the SPDY profile
You can use the BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™ SPDY (pronounced "speedy") profile to minimize latency
of HTTP requests by multiplexing streams and compressing headers. When you assign a SPDY profile to
an HTTP virtual server, the HTTP virtual server informs clients that a SPDY virtual server is available to
respond to SPDY requests.
When a client sends an HTTP request, the HTTP virtual server, with an assigned iRule, manages the request
as a standard HTTP request. It receives the request on port 80, and sends the request to the appropriate
server. When the BIG-IP provides the request to the origin web server, the virtual server's assigned iRule
inserts an HTTP header into the request (to inform the client that a SPDY virtual server is available to handle
SPDY requests), compresses and caches it, and sends the response to the client.
A client that is enabled to use the SPDY protocol sends a SPDY request to the BIG-IP system, the SPDY
virtual server receives the request on port 443, converts the SPDY request into an HTTP request, and sends
the request to the appropriate server. When the server provides a response, the BIG-IP system converts the
HTTP response into a SPDY response, compresses and caches it, and sends the response to the client.
Note: Source address persistence is not supported by the SPDY profile.
Summary of SPDY profile functionality
By using the SPDY profile, the BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager system provides the following functionality
for SPDY requests.
Creating concurrent streams for each connection.
You can specify the maximum number of concurrent HTTP requests that are accepted on a SPDY
connection. If this maximum number is exceeded, the system closes the connection.
Limiting the duration of idle connections.
You can specify the maximum duration for an idle SPDY connection. If this maximum duration is
exceeded, the system closes the connection.
Enabling a virtual server to process SPDY requests.
You can configure the SPDY profile on the virtual server to receive both HTTP and SPDY traffic, or
to receive only SPDY traffic, based in the activation mode you select. (Note that setting this to receive
only SPDY traffic is primarily intended for troubleshooting.)
Inserting a header into the request.
You can insert a header with a specific name into the request. The default name for the header is X-SPDY.
Important: The SPDY protocol is incompatible with NTLM protocols. Do not use the SPDY protocol with
NTLM protocols. For additional details regarding this limitation, please refer to the SPDY specification:
http://dev.chromium.org/spdy/spdy-authentication.
Task summary for managing HTTP and SPDY traffic
Perform these tasks to manage HTTP and SPDY requests with the BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™ system.
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Task list
Creating a pool to process HTTP traffic
You can create a pool of web servers to process HTTP requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating an iRule for SPDY requests
You can create an iRule that inserts an HTTP header into responses, enabling a virtual server to respond
specifically to SPDY requests.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen displays a list of existing iRules®.
2. Click the Create button.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type an iRule to insert the SPDY header.
ltm rule /Common/spdy_enable {
when HTTP_RESPONSE {
HTTP::header insert "Alternate-Protocol" "443:npn-spdy/3"
}
}
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Note: Some browsers do not support the "Alternate-Protocol" header, and require a direct HTTPS
connection to a virtual server that manages SPDY traffic using port 443.
5. Click Finished.
The iRule that you created is now available.
Creating a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic
You can create a virtual server to manage HTTP traffic and initiate SPDY traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
7. In the Resources area of the screen, for the iRules setting, from the Available list, select the name of
the SPDY iRule that you want to assign, and using the Move button, move the name into the Enabled
list.
8. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
9. Click Finished.
The HTTP virtual server is now available with the specified settings.
Creating a SPDY profile
You can create a SPDY profile for a virtual server, which responds to clients that send SPDY requests with
a Next Protocol Negotiation (npn) extension in the header.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > SPDY.
The SPDY profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New SPDY Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. In the Activation Mode list, accept the default NPN mode.
7. In the Concurrent Streams Per Connection field, type the number of concurrent connections to allow
on a single SPDY connection.
8. In the Connection Idle Timeout field, type the number of seconds that a SPDY connection is left open
idly before it is closed.
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9. (Optional) In the Insert Header list, select Enabled to insert a header name into the request sent to the
origin web server.
10. (Optional) In the Insert Header Name field, type a header name to insert into the request sent to the
origin web server.
11. In the Protocol Versions list, select the protocol versions that you want to enable.
Option
Description
All Versions Enabled
Enables all supported SPDY protocol versions and HTTP1.1.
Select Versions
Enables one or more specific protocol versions that you specify. For the
Selected Versions setting, select a protocol entry in the Available field,
and move the entry to the Selected field using the Move button.
12. In the Priority Handling list, select how the SPDY profile handles priorities of concurrent streams
within the same connection.
Option
Description
Strict
Processes higher priority streams to completion before processing lower priority
streams.
Fair
Enables higher priority streams to use more bandwidth than lower priority streams,
without completely blocking the lower priority streams.
13. In the Receive Window field, type the flow-control size for upload streams, in KB.
14. In the Frame Size field, type the size of the data frames, in bytes, that the SPDY protocol sends to the
client.
15. In the Write Size field, type the total size of combined data frames, in bytes, that the SPDY protocol
sends in a single write function.
16. In the Compression Level field, type a compression level value from 0 (no compression) through 10
(most compression).
17. In the Compression Window Size field, type a size, in KB, for the compression window, where a larger
number increases the compression of HTTP headers, but requires more memory.
18. Click Finished.
A SPDY profile is now available with the specified settings.
Creating a virtual server to manage SPDY traffic
You can create a virtual server to manage SPDY traffic.
Important: Do not use the SPDY protocol with NTLM protocols as they are incompatible. For additional
details regarding this limitation, please refer to the SPDY specification:
http://dev.chromium.org/spdy/spdy-authentication.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
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Managing HTTP Traffic with the SPDY Profile
5. In the Service Port field, type 443 or select HTTPS from the list.
From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
From the SPDY Profile list, select spdy, or a user-defined SPDY profile.
From the Default Pool list, select a pool that is configured for a SPDY profile.
For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select clientssl, and using the Move button,
move the name to the Selected list.
10. Click Finished.
6.
7.
8.
9.
The SPDY virtual server is now ready to manage SPDY traffic.
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22
Using Via Headers to Acquire Information About
Intermediate Routers
•
•
Overview: Using Via headers
Task summary for identifying intermediate
information with Via headers
Using Via Headers to Acquire Information About Intermediate Routers
Overview: Using Via headers
Via headers provide useful information about intermediate routers that can be used in network analysis and
troubleshooting.
Task summary for identifying intermediate information with Via headers
Perform these tasks to identify intermediate information with Via headers.
Identifying information about intermediate proxies with Via headers
The BIG-IP® system can include Via headers (configured in an HTTP profile) in a request, a response, or
both, to identify information, such as protocols and names, for intermediate proxies that forward messages.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click the name of a user-defined profile.
3. Select the Custom check box.
4. In the Send Proxy Via Header In Request list, do one of the following:
•
•
Select the Preserve option to include the Via header in the client request to the origin web server.
Select the Append option, and then type a string in the Send Proxy Via Header Host Name field,
which is appended as a comment when sending a Via header in a request to an origin web server.
5. In the Send Proxy Via Header In Response list, do one of the following:
•
•
Select the Preserve option to include the Via header in the client response to the client.
Select the Append option, and then type a string in the Send Proxy Via Header Host Name field,
which is appended as a comment when sending a Via header in a response to a client.
6. Click Finished.
The BIG-IP system is configured to use Via headers to identify protocols and intermediate proxies that
forward messages.
Removing Via headers from requests and responses
Via headers are configured in an HTTP profile for requests or responses.
You can remove Via headers from requests and responses if you no longer require them to identify
information about intermediate proxies.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > HTTP.
The HTTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click the name of a user-defined profile.
3. Select the Custom check box.
4. In the Send Proxy Via Header In Request list, select Remove.
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5. In the Send Proxy Via Header In Response list, select Remove.
6. Click Finished.
The BIG-IP® system removes Via headers, as configured, for requests and responses.
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23
Configuring the BIG-IP System as a Reverse Proxy Server
•
•
•
Overview: URI translation and HTML content
modification
Task summary
Implementation results
Configuring the BIG-IP System as a Reverse Proxy Server
Overview: URI translation and HTML content modification
For environments that use web servers, you might want your websites to appear differently on the external
network than on the internal network. For example, you might want the BIG-IP® system to send traffic
destined for http://www.siterequest.com/ to the internal server
http://appserver1.siterequest.com/ instead. Normally, this translation could cause some issues,
such as the web server expecting to see a certain host name (such as for name-based virtual hosting) or the
web server using the internal host name and/or path when sending a redirect to client systems. Fortunately,
you can configure the BIG-IP system to solve these problems.
You can also configure the BIG-IP system to modify HTML content as needed after the system has performed
the URI translation.
This implementation describes an example of URI translation and HTML content modification and then
provides the tasks to implement this example.
About URI translation
You can configure the BIG-IP® system to perform URI translation on HTTP requests. Suppose that a
company named Siterequest has a website www.siterequest.com, which has a public IP address and
a registered DNS entry, and therefore can be accessed from anywhere on the Internet.
Furthermore, suppose that Siterequest has two application servers with private IP addresses and
unregistered DNS entries, inside the company's firewall. The application servers are visible within the
internal network as appserver1.siterequest.com and appserver2.siterequest.com.
Because these servers have no public DNS entries, any client system that tries to access one of these servers
from outside the company network receives a no such host error.
As the illustration shows, you can prevent this problem by configuring the BIG-IP system to act as a reverse
proxy server:
Figure 12: The BIG-IP system as a reverse proxy server for URI translation
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In the example, the company Siterequest has decided to enable Web access to the internal application
servers, without exposing them to the Internet directly. Instead, the company has integrated the servers with
the web server siterequest.com so that http://www.siterequest.com/sales is mapped internally
to http://appserver1.siterequest.com/sales, and http://siterequest.com/marketing is
mapped internally to http://appserver2.example.com/marketing. This is a typical reverse-proxy
configuration.
To configure the BIG-IP system to perform this translation, you create a Rewrite profile and configure one
or more URI rules. A URI rule specifies the particular URI translation that you want the BIG-IP system to
perform. Specifically, a URI rule translates the scheme, host, port, or path of any client URI, server URI,
or both. A URI rule also translates any domain and path information in the Set-Cookie header of the
response when that header information matches the information in the URI rule.
Rules for matching requests to URI rules
The BIG-IP® system follows these rules when attempting to match a request to a URI rule:
•
•
•
•
•
A request does not need to match any entry. That is, if no entries match and there is no catch-all entry,
then the Rewrite profile has no effect.
Each request matches one entry only, which is the entry with the most specific host and path.
If multiple entries match, then the BIG-IP system uses the entry with the deepest path name on the left
side of the specified mapping.
The BIG-IP system matches those requests that contain host names in URIs before matching requests
that do not contain host names in URIs.
The BIG-IP system processes the specified entries in the mapping from most-specific to least-specific,
regardless of the order specified in the actual Rewrite profile.
About URI Rules
When creating a URI rule, you must specify the client and server URIs in these ways:
•
•
When the URI is a path prefix only, the path must be preceded by and followed by a /, for example,
/sales/.
When the URI contains more than the path prefix (such as, a host), the URI must also contain a scheme
and must be followed by a /, for example, http://www.siterequest/sales/.
Introduction to HTML content modification
When you configure an HTML profile on the BIG-IP® system, the system can modify HTML content that
passes through the system, according to your specifications. For example, if you want the BIG-IP system
to detect all content of type text/html and then remove all instances of the HTML img tag with the src
attribute, you can configure an HTML profile accordingly, and assign it to the virtual server. The HTML
profile ensures that the BIG-IP system removes those instances of the tag from any HTML content that
passes through the virtual server.
Or, you can configure an HTML profile to match on a certain tag and attribute in HTML content when a
particular iRule event is triggered, and then create an iRule that includes a command to replace the value
of the matched attribute with a different attribute. The BIG-IP system includes several iRule commands
that you can use when the Raise Event on Comment or Raise Event on Tag events are triggered.
For more information on iRule commands related to HTML content modification, see the F5 Networks web
site http://devcentral.f5.com.
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HTML tag removal and replacement are just two of several HTML rules that you can configure to manipulate
HTML content. An HTML rule defines the specific actions that you want the BIG-IP system to perform on
a specified type HTML content.
Task summary
The first step to configuring the BIG-IP® system to act as a reverse proxy server is to create a Rewrite type
of profile on the BIG-IP system and associate it with a virtual server. Note that each virtual server must
have an HTTP profile. The Rewrite profile is designed for HTTP sites, as well as HTTPS sites where SSL
is terminated on the BIG-IP system (that is, the virtual server references a Client SSL profile).
Task List
Creating a Rewrite profile to specify URI rules
To configure the BIG-IP® system to perform URI translation, you create a Rewrite profile, specifying one
or more URI rules that associate a client-side path with a server-side URI. You also specify whether you
want the URI translation to pertain to HTTP requests, responses, or both.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > Rewrite.
The Rewrite profile list appears.
2. Click Create New Profile.
The Create New Profile Rewrite popup screen opens.
3. In the Profile Name field, type a name, such as my_rewrite_profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select rewrite.
5. From the Rewrite Mode list, select URI Translation.
6. On the left pane, click URI Rules.
An empty text box appears for displaying client-server URI mappings that you specify.
7. Click Add.
8. From the Rule Type list, select Both.
9. In the Client URI box, type a client path, such as /sales/.
10. In the Server URI box, type a server URI, such as http://appserver1.siterequest.com/sales/.
You must include a scheme in the server URI that you specify.
An example of a scheme is http.
11. Click OK.
This displays a mapping of the specified client path to the associated server scheme, host, and path.
12. Click Add again.
13. From the Rule Type list, select Both.
14. In the Client URI box, type a client path, such as /marketing/.
15. In the Server URI box, type a server URI, such as
http://appserver2.siterequest.com/marketing/.
You must include a scheme in the server URI that you specify.
An example of a scheme is http.
16. Click OK.
This displays a mapping of the specified client path to the associated server scheme, host, and path.
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17. Click OK.
The BIG-IP system now includes two URI rules for performing URI translation on both requests and
responses. For example, the host name in a request destined for http://www.siterequest.com/sales/
will be translated to http://appserver1.siterequest.com/sales/, and the host name in a request
destined for https://www.siterequest.com/marketing/ will be translated to
http://appserver2.siterequest.com/marketing/. A reverse translation occurs on any response.
Creating an HTML profile for tag removal
You create an HTML profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to act on certain types of HTML content.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Content > HTML.
2. Click the Create New Profile button.
3. In the Profile Name field, type a name, such as my_html_profile.
From the Parent Profile list, select /Common/html.
On the left pane, click HTML Rules.
On the Create New button, click the right arrow.
Select Remove Tag.
The Create New Remove Tag Rule box appears.
8. In the Rule Name field, type a name, such as my_remove_img_tag_rule .
4.
5.
6.
7.
9. Optionally, in the Description field, type a description of the rule, such as Removes the img tag
with the src attribute.
10. On the left pane, click Match Settings.
11. In the Match Tag Name field, type the name of the tag that you want to remove from the HTML content.
An example of a tag to specify is the HTML img tag.
12. In the Match Attribute Name field, type the name of the attribute associated with the tag that you
specified for removal.
An example of an attribute to specify is the src attribute for the img tag.
13. Click OK.
14. In the Available Rules list, locate the HTML rule that you want to enable, and select the adjacent check
box.
15. Using the Move button, move the selected HTML rule to the Selected Rules list.
16. Click OK.
After creating this HTML profile, you can implement the HTML content modification by assigning the
profile to the virtual server that is processing the associated HTTP traffic.
Creating pools for processing HTTP traffic
You can create two load balancing pools, and then create a policy that forwards certain HTTP traffic to one
pool, and other HTTP traffic to another pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System as a Reverse Proxy Server
4. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
5. Click Finished.
6. Repeat this task to create a second pool.
The new pools appear in the Pools list.
Creating a local traffic policy
You perform this task to create a local traffic policy that forwards traffic to one or more non-default pools,
based on some condition. For example, for a condition such as an HTTP request whose host name equals
®
siterequest.com and URI starts with /sales/, the BIG-IP system can forward that request to
pool_app1.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Policies > Policy List.
The Policy List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Policy screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the policy.
4. From the Strategy list, select a matching strategy.
5. For the Requires setting, select http from the Available list, and move the entry to the Selected list
using the Move button.
6. For the Controls setting, select forwarding from the Available list, and move the entry to the Selected
list using the Move button.
7. Click Add.
The New Rule screen opens.
8. In the Rule field, type a unique name for the rule.
9. From the Operand list, select http-host.
10. Using the options for the Conditions setting, configure a rule where the condition equals the criteria
specified:
a) From the Condition list, select equals.
b) (Optional) Select the case sensitive check box to apply case sensitivity to the condition.
c) In the Values field, type the text for the applicable value and click Add.
An example of a value is siterequest.com.
The specified condition appears in the Values list box.
d) At the lower left, click Add.
The configured condition appears in the Conditions list.
11. From the Operand list, select http-uri.
12. Using the options for the Conditions setting, configure a rule where the condition starts with the criteria
specified:
a) From the Condition list, select starts with.
b) (Optional) Select the case sensitive check box to apply case sensitivity to the condition.
c) In the Values field, type the text for the applicable value and click Add.
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An example of a value is /app1/.
The specified condition appears in the Values list box.
d) At the lower left click Add.
The configured condition appears in the Condition list.
13. Using the Actions setting, configure the applicable options:
a)
b)
c)
d)
From the Target list, select forward.
From the Event list, select an event.
From the Action list, select pool.
From the Parameters list, select the pool name to which you want the BIG-IP system to forward
the traffic.
e) To the right of the input field, click Add.
The configured parameter appears in the Parameters list box.
f) At the lower left click Add.
The configured settings for the action appear in the Actions list.
14. Repeat steps 11 through 13, specifying a second http-uri condition value, such as /marketing, and
specifying a different non-default pool name.
15. Click Finished.
For each matching condition specified in the policy, the virtual server to which you assign the policy forwards
the packet to the non-default pool that you specified in the policy. For example, you can create one policy
that forwards traffic with a URI starting with /sales/ to pool_sales and another policy that forwards
traffic with a URI starting with /marketing/ to pool_marketing.
Creating a virtual server
You can create a virtual server that translates a URI in a request or response and modifies HTML content.
When you create the virtual server, you can also configure it to forward certain HTTP traffic to one pool,
while forwarding other HTTP traffic to a different pool..
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. For the HTTP Profile setting, verify that the default HTTP profile, http, is selected.
7. In the Content Rewrite area, from the Rewrite Profile list, select the relevant Rewrite profile that you
created.
8. From the HTML Profile list, select the relevant HTML profile that you created.
9. For the Policies setting, from the Available list, select the local traffic policy you previously created,
and move it to the Enabled list.
10. Click Finished.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System as a Reverse Proxy Server
The HTTP virtual server appears in the list of existing virtual servers on the Virtual Server List screen. This
virtual server can translate URIs in requests and responses, modify HTML content, and forward the traffic
to two different non-default load balancing pools.
Implementation results
After you perform the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system can:
•
•
•
154
Translate URIs according to the URI rules specified in the Rewrite profile.
Modify specified HTML content according to the HTML rule specified in the HTML profile.
Forward HTTP traffic to two different non-default pools according to a local traffic policy.
Chapter
24
Configuring the BIG-IP System as an MS SQL Database
Proxy
•
Overview: Configuring LTM as a database
proxy
Configuring the BIG-IP System as an MS SQL Database Proxy
Overview: Configuring LTM as a database proxy
You can configure BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™ systems to load balance database requests to pools of
database servers. In this case, LTM acts as a proxy for databases that use the tabular data stream (TDS)
protocol. LTM load balances client requests based on the user issuing the commands.
Figure 13: LTM configured as a database proxy
Task summary
About database authentication
BIG-IP®LTM® supports only basic authentication when acting as a proxy for an MS SQL database. You
must configure user names and passwords on the database servers and the database servers must handle
user authentication. Therefore, the user names and passwords must be synchronized across all database
servers.
About database access configuration
You can configure BIG-IP® LTM® for user-based access to database servers. With user-based access, you
configure a pool of database servers and indicate whether users write by default. Then, you configure either
a read-only list of users or a write-enabled list of users.
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Note: Write requests include at least one of these key words: create, update, insert, delete, into, alter, drop,
rename, exec, and execute.
Creating a custom MS SQL monitor
Create a custom MS SQL monitor to send requests, generated using the settings you specify, to a pool of
MS SQL database servers, and to validate the responses.
Important: When defining values for custom monitors, make sure you avoid using any values that are on
the list of reserved keywords. For more information, see SOL number 3653 (for version 9.0 systems and
later) on the AskF5™ technical support web site at www.askf5.com.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Monitors.
The Monitor List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Monitor screen opens.
3. Type a name for the monitor in the Name field.
4. From the Type list, select MSSQL.
5. Type a SQL statement in the Send String field that the monitor sends to the database server to verify
availability.
This is an example of a basic Send String: SELECT Firstname, LastName FROM Person.Person
WHERE LastName = 'name'. This is an example of a Send String that determines which database is
primary: SELECT role_desc,is_local,synchronization_health_desc FROM
sys.dm_hadr_availability_replica_states WHERE is_local = 1 AND
synchronization_health_desc = 'HEALTHY';
Note: Based on the string you enter, you may need to enter values in other fields for this monitor.
6. In the User Name field, type the name the monitor uses to access the database server.
7. In the Password field, type the password the monitor uses to access the database server.
8. Click Finished.
Creating a pool of database servers
Gather the IP addresses of the database servers that you want to include in the pool. In an Always On
architecture, normally the pool includes both primary and secondary database servers configured for
synchronous automatic failover.
Ensure that a custom MS SQL monitor exists in the configuration.
Create a pool of database servers to process database requests. LTM® acts as a proxy for the database servers
by load balancing requests to the members of the pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool of database servers.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System as an MS SQL Database Proxy
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the custom mssql monitor, and click
<< to move the monitor to the Active list.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
For pool members that are MS SQL database servers, consider Least Connections, which selects the
server that provides the best response time.
6. Using the New Members setting, add the IP address for each database server that you want to include
in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field, or select a node address from the Node List.
b) Type a service number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
Note: Typical TDS database servers require port 1433.
c) Click Add.
7. Click Finished.
The pool of database servers appears in the Pools list.
Configuring database access by user
Create a custom Microsoft SQL Server (MS SQL) profile to configure BIG-IP® LTM® to grant user-based
access to a pool of database servers.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Databases > MS SQL.
The MS SQL Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New MS SQL Profile screen opens.
3. In the Profile Name field, type a unique name for the MS SQL profile, for example,
mssql_user_access.
4. Select the Custom check box.
5. From the Read/Write Split list, select By User.
6. From the Read Pool list, select the pool of MS SQL database servers to which the system sends read-only
requests.
7. From the Write Pool list, select the pool of MS SQL database servers to which the system sends write
requests.
8. From the Users Can Write By Default list, select Yes to give write access to all users, except those in
the Read-Only Users list.
9. In the Read-Only Users area, add users to whom you want to provide read-only access to the database.
10. Click Finished.
Creating a custom OneConnect profile
Optionally, you can create a custom OneConnect profile. With this profile, the LTM® system minimizes
the number of server-side TCP connections by sharing idle connections among TDS connections owned by
the same user name.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Other > OneConnect.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
2.
3.
4.
5.
The OneConnect profile list screen opens.
Click Create.
The New OneConnect Profile screen opens.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
In the Settings area, configure additional settings based on your network requirements.
Click Finished.
Creating a database proxy virtual server
Ensure that a pool of database servers exist in the configuration before creating a database proxy virtual
server.
You can create a virtual server to represent a destination IP address for database transaction traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 1443.
6.
7.
8.
9.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the MS SQL Profile list, select either the default or a custom MS SQL profile.
Optionally, from the OneConnect Profile list, select a custom OneConnect profile.
From the Default Pool list, select the pool of database servers.
You now have a destination IP address on the BIG-IP® system for MS SQL database traffic.
Viewing MS SQL profile statistics
You can view statistics about database requests and responses, user access, and database messages for the
traffic LTM® handles as a proxy for a database server.
1. On the Main tab, click Statistics > Module Statistics > Local Traffic.
The Local Traffic statistics screen opens.
2. From the Statistics Type list, select Profiles Summary.
3. In the Details column for the MS SQL profile, click View to display detailed statistics about database
requests and responses, database access, and database messages.
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Chapter
25
Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic
•
•
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing
Task Summary for load balancing passive
mode FTP traffic
Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing
You can set up the BIG-IP system to load balance passive mode FTP traffic. You do this by using the default
FTP profile. An FTP profile determines the way that the BIG-IP system processes FTP traffic.
Additionally, you can create an iRule to apply to the FTP data channel. You apply the iRule to the data
channel by assigning the iRule to the virtual server that you create.
Task Summary for load balancing passive mode FTP traffic
You can perform these tasks to configure FTP passive mode load balancing.
Task list
Creating a custom FTP monitor
An FTP monitor requires a user name and password, and the full path to the file to be downloaded.
Note: The BIG-IP® system does not save the downloaded file.
Create a custom FTP monitor to verify passive mode File Transfer Protocol (FTP) traffic. The monitor
attempts to download a specified file to the /var/tmp directory. If the file is retrieved, the verification is
successful.
Note: The BIG-IP® system does not save the downloaded file.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Monitors.
The Monitor List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Monitor screen opens.
3. Type a name for the monitor in the Name field.
4. From the Type list, select FTP.
The screen refreshes, and displays the configuration options for the FTP monitor type.
5. From the Import Settings list, select an existing monitor.
The new monitor inherits initial configuration values from the existing monitor.
6. Type a number in the Interval field that indicates, in seconds, how frequently the system issues the
monitor check. The default is 10 seconds.
7. Type a number in the Timeout field that indicates, in seconds, how much time the target has to respond
to the monitor check. The default is 31 seconds.
If the target responds within the allotted time period, it is considered up. If the target does not respond
within the time period, it is considered down.
8. Type a name in the User Name field.
9. Type a password in the Password field.
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10. Type the full path and file name of the file that the system attempts to download in the Path/Filename
field.
The health check is successful if the system can download the file.
11. For the Mode setting, select one of the following data transfer process (DTP) modes.
Option
Description
Passive
The monitor sends a data transfer request to the FTP server. When the FTP
server receives the request, the FTP server initiates and establishes the data
connection.
Port
The monitor initiates and establishes the data connection with the FTP server.
12. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
This selection makes it possible for you to modify additional default settings.
13. From the Up Interval list, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the default, Disabled, if you do not want to use the up interval.
Select Enabled, and specify how often you want the system to verify the health of a resource that
is up.
14. Type a number in the Time Until Up field that indicates the number of seconds to wait after a resource
first responds correctly to the monitor before setting the resource to up.
The default value is 0 (zero), which disables this option.
15. Specify whether the system automatically enables the monitored resource, when the monitor check is
successful, for Manual Resume.
This setting applies only when the monitored resource has failed to respond to a monitor check.
Option
Yes
Description
No
The system automatically re-enables the monitored resource after the next
successful monitor check.
The system does nothing when the monitor check succeeds, and you must manually
enable the monitored resource.
16. For the Alias Address setting, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the *All Addresses default option.
Type an alias IP address for the monitor to verify, on behalf of the pools or pool members with which
the monitor is associated.
If the health check for the alias address is successful, the system marks all associated objects up. If the
health check for the alias address is not successful, then the system marks all associated objects down.
17. For the Alias Service Port setting, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the *All Ports default option.
Select an alias port or service for the monitor to check, on behalf of the pools or pool members with
which the monitor is associated.
If the health check for the alias port or service is successful, the system marks all associated objects up.
If the health check for the alias port or service is not successful, then the system marks all associated
objects down.
18. For the Debug setting, specify whether you want the system to collect and publish additional information
and error messages for this monitor.
You can use the log information to help diagnose and troubleshoot unsuccessful health checks. To view
the log entries, see the System > Logs screens.
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Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic
Option
Description
Yes
The system redirects error messages and other information to a log file created
specifically for this monitor.
No
The system does not collect additional information or error messages related to
this monitor. This is the default setting.
19. Click Finished.
You can associate the new custom monitor with the pool that contains the FTP resources.
Creating a pool to manage FTP traffic
To load balance passive mode FTP traffic, you create a load balancing pool. When you create the pool, you
assign the custom FTP monitor that you created in the previous task.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Priority Group Activation list, select Disabled.
6. Add each resource that you want to include in the pool using the New Members setting:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 21 in the Service Port field, or select FTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
7. Click Finished.
The pool to manage FTP traffic appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for FTP traffic
You can define a virtual server that references the FTP profile and the FTP pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
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5. In the Service Port field, type 21 or select FTP from the list.
6. For the FTP Profile setting, select the default profile, ftp.
7. Locate the Resources area of the screen, and for the Related iRules setting, from the Available list,
select the name of the iRule that you want to assign, and using the Move button, move the name to the
Enabled list.
This setting applies to virtual servers that reference a profile for a data channel protocol, such as FTP
or RTSP.
8. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
9. Click Finished.
The custom FTP virtual server appears in the Virtual Servers list.
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Chapter
26
Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic with Data Channel
Optimization
•
•
•
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing
with data channel optimization
Task Summary for load balancing passive
mode FTP traffic
Implementation result
Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic with Data Channel Optimization
Overview: FTP passive mode load balancing with data channel optimization
You can set up the BIG-IP system to load balance passive mode FTP traffic, with optimization of both the
FTP control channel and the data channel.
By default, the BIG-IP system optimizes FTP traffic for the control channel, according to the configuration
settings in the default client and server TCP profiles assigned to the virtual server. When you use this
particular implementation, you also configure the system to take advantage of those same TCP profile
settings for the FTP data channel. This provides useful optimization of the data channel payload.
Task Summary for load balancing passive mode FTP traffic
You can perform these tasks to configure FTP passive mode load balancing that optimizes traffic on both
the control channel and data channel.
Task list
Creating a custom FTP profile
You create a custom FTP profile when you want to fine-tune the way that the BIG-IP®system manages FTP
traffic. This procedure creates an FTP profile and optimizes the way that the BIG-IP system manages traffic
for the FTP data channel.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > FTP.
The FTP profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New FTP Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select the default ftp profile.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. For the Inherit Parent Profile setting, select the check box.
This optimizes data channel traffic.
7. Click Finished.
The custom FTP profile now appears in the FTP profile list screen.
Creating a custom FTP monitor
An FTP monitor requires a user name and password, and the full path to the file to be downloaded.
Create a custom FTP monitor to verify passive mode File Transfer Protocol (FTP) traffic. The monitor
attempts to download a specified file to the /var/tmp directory. If the file is retrieved, the check is successful.
Note: The BIG-IP® system does not save the downloaded file.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Monitors.
The Monitor List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Monitor screen opens.
3. Type a name for the monitor in the Name field.
4. From the Type list, select FTP.
The screen refreshes, and displays the configuration options for the FTP monitor type.
5. From the Import Settings list, select an existing monitor.
The new monitor inherits initial configuration values from the existing monitor.
6. Type a number in the Interval field that indicates, in seconds, how frequently the system issues the
monitor check. The default is 10 seconds.
7. Type a number in the Timeout field that indicates, in seconds, how much time the target has to respond
to the monitor check. The default is 31 seconds.
If the target responds within the allotted time period, it is considered up. If the target does not respond
within the time period, it is considered down.
8. Type a name in the User Name field.
9. Type a password in the Password field.
10. Type the full path and file name of the file that the system attempts to download in the Path/Filename
field.
The health check is successful if the system can download the file.
11. For the Mode setting, select one of the following data transfer process (DTP) modes.
Option
Description
Passive
The monitor sends a data transfer request to the FTP server. When the FTP
server receives the request, the FTP server initiates and establishes the data
connection.
Port
The monitor initiates and establishes the data connection with the FTP server.
12. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
This selection makes it possible for you to modify additional default settings.
13. From the Up Interval list, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the default, Disabled, if you do not want to use the up interval.
Select Enabled, and specify how often you want the system to verify the health of a resource that
is up.
14. Type a number in the Time Until Up field that indicates the number of seconds to wait after a resource
first responds correctly to the monitor before setting the resource to up.
The default value is 0 (zero), which disables this option.
15. Specify whether the system automatically enables the monitored resource, when the monitor check is
successful, for Manual Resume.
This setting applies only when the monitored resource has failed to respond to a monitor check.
Option
Yes
Description
No
The system automatically re-enables the monitored resource after the next
successful monitor check.
The system does nothing when the monitor check succeeds, and you must manually
enable the monitored resource.
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Load Balancing Passive Mode FTP Traffic with Data Channel Optimization
16. For the Alias Address setting, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the *All Addresses default option.
Type an alias IP address for the monitor to verify, on behalf of the pools or pool members with which
the monitor is associated.
If the health check for the alias address is successful, the system marks all associated objects up. If the
health check for the alias address is not successful, then the system marks all associated objects down.
17. For the Alias Service Port setting, do one of the following:
•
•
Accept the *All Ports default option.
Select an alias port or service for the monitor to check, on behalf of the pools or pool members with
which the monitor is associated.
If the health check for the alias port or service is successful, the system marks all associated objects up.
If the health check for the alias port or service is not successful, then the system marks all associated
objects down.
18. For the Debug setting, specify whether you want the system to collect and publish additional information
and error messages for this monitor.
You can use the log information to help diagnose and troubleshoot unsuccessful health checks. To view
the log entries, see the System > Logs screens.
Option
Yes
Description
No
The system does not collect additional information or error messages related to
this monitor. This is the default setting.
The system redirects error messages and other information to a log file created
specifically for this monitor.
19. Click Finished.
You can associate the new custom monitor with the pool that contains the FTP resources.
Creating a pool to manage FTP traffic
To load balance passive mode FTP traffic, you create a load balancing pool. When you create the pool, you
assign the custom FTP monitor that you created in the previous task.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Priority Group Activation list, select Disabled.
6. Add each resource that you want to include in the pool using the New Members setting:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 21 in the Service Port field, or select FTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
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d) Click Add.
7. Click Finished.
The pool to manage FTP traffic appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for FTP traffic
You can define a virtual server that references the FTP profile and the FTP pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 21 or select FTP from the list.
6. From the FTP Profile list, select the custom profile that you created earlier.
7. Locate the Resources area of the screen, and for the Related iRules setting, from the Available list,
select the name of the iRule that you want to assign, and using the Move button, move the name to the
Enabled list.
This setting applies to virtual servers that reference a profile for a data channel protocol, such as FTP
or RTSP.
8. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
9. Click Finished.
The custom FTP virtual server appears in the Virtual Servers list.
Implementation result
A BIG-IP system with this configuration can process FTP traffic in passive mode, in a way that optimizes
the traffic on both the control channel and the data channel. This optimization is based on the settings of
the default client-side and server-side TCP profiles.
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27
Referencing an External File from within an iRule
•
•
•
Overview: Referencing an external file from
an iRule
Task summary
Implementation result
Referencing an External File from within an iRule
Overview: Referencing an external file from an iRule
Using the BIG-IP® Configuration utility or tmsh, you can import a file or URL from another system to the
BIG-IP system, with content that you want an iRule to return to a client, based on some iRule event. Possible
uses for this feature are:
•
•
•
•
To send a web page other than the page that the client requested. For example, you might want the
system to send a maintenance page instead of the requested page.
To send an image.
To use a file as a template and modify the file in the iRule before sending the file.
To download policy information from an external server and merge that data with a locally-stored policy.
The file that an iRule accesses is known as an iFile, and can be any type of file, such as a binary file or a
text file. These files are read-only files.
This example shows an iRule that references an iFile named ifileURL, in partition Common:
ltm rule ifile_rule {
when HTTP_RESPONSE {
# return a list of iFiles in all partitions
set listifiles [ifile listall]
log local0. "list of ifiles: $listifiles"
# return the attributes of an iFile specified
array set array_attributes [ifile attributes "/Common/ifileURL"]
foreach {array attr} [array get array_attributes ] {
log local0. "$array : $attr"
}
# serve an iFile when http status is 404.
set file [ifile get "/Common/ifileURL"]
log local0. "file: $file"
if { [HTTP::status] equals "404" } {
HTTP::respond 200 ifile "/Common/ifileURL"
}
}
}
iRule commands for iFiles
This list shows the commands available for referencing an iFile within an iRule. All of these commands
return a string, except for the command [ifile attributes IFILENAME], which returns an array.
Available iRule commands for referencing an iFile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
[ifile
174
get IFILENAME]
listall]
attributes IFILENAME]
size IFILENAME]
last_updated_by IFILENAME]
last_update_time IFILENAME]
revision IFILENAME]
checksum IFILENAME]
attributes IFILENAME]
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Task summary
You can import an existing file to the BIG-IP® system, create an iFile that is based on the imported file,
and then write an iRule that returns the content of that file to a client system, based on an iRule event.
Task list
Importing a file to the BIG-IP system
As a prerequisite, the file you want to import must reside on the BIG-IP® system you specify.
You can import a file from another system onto the BIG-IP system, as the first step in writing an iRule that
references that file.
1. On the Main tab, click System > File Management > iFile List > Import.
2. For the File Name setting, click Browse.
The system opens a browse window so you can locate the file that you want to import to the BIG-IP
system.
3. Browse for the file and click Open.
The name of the file you select appears in the File Name setting.
4. In the Name field, type a new name for the file, such as 1k.html.
The new file name appears in the list of imported files.
5. Click Import.
The result of this task is that the file you selected now resides on the BIG-IP system.
Creating an iFile
As a prerequisite, ensure that the current administrative partition is set to the partition in which you want
the iFile to reside.
You perform this task to create an iFile that you can then reference in an iRule.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules > iFile List.
2. Click Create.
3. In the Name field, type a new name for the iFile, such as ifileURL.
4. From the File Name list, select the name of the imported file object, such as 1k.html.
5. Click Finished.
The new iFile appears in the list of iFiles.
The result of this task is that you now have a file that an iRule can reference.
Writing an iRule that references an iFile
You perform this task to create an iRule that references an iFile.
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Note: If the iFile resides in partition /Common, then specifying the partition when referencing the iFile is
optional. If the iFile resides in a partition other than /Common, such as /Partition_A, you must include
the partition name in the iFile path name within the iRule.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen opens, displaying any existing iRules.
2. Click Create.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name between 1 and 31 characters, such as my_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the syntax for the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For complete and detailed information iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site
(http://devcentral.f5.com).
5. Click Finished.
The new iRule appears in the list of iRules on the system.
Implementation result
You now have an iRule that accesses a file on the BIG-IP®system, based on a particular iRule event.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System as a DHCP Relay Agent
•
•
•
Overview: Managing IP addresses for DHCP
clients
Task summary
Implementation result
Configuring the BIG-IP System as a DHCP Relay Agent
Overview: Managing IP addresses for DHCP clients
When you want to manage Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client IP addresses, you can
configure the BIG-IP® system to act as a DHCP relay agent. A common reason to configure the BIG-IP
system as a DHCP relay agent is when the DHCP clients reside on a different subnet than the subnet of the
DHCP servers.
Before configuring the BIG-IP system to act as a DHCP relay agent, it is helpful to understand some BIG-IP
system terminology:
BIG-IP object type
Definition
BIG-IP pool member
A DHCP relay target (such as a DHCP server or BOOTP
server). This is the dynamic address server to which the BIG-IP
system forwards unicast requests.
BIG-IP virtual server
A BIG-IP system address on the listening VLAN
BIG-IP VLAN assigned to a virtual server A listening VLAN, controlled on a per-virtual server basis
About the BIG-IP system as a DHCP relay agent
A BIG-IP® virtual server, configured as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) relay type, provides
you with the ability to relay DHCP client requests for an IP address to one or more DHCP servers, available
as pool members in a DHCP pool, on different +virtual local area networks (VLANs). The DHCP client
request is relayed to all pool members, and the replies from all pool members are relayed back to the client.
Figure 14: A sample DHCP relay agent configuration
For example, a DHCP client sends a broadcast message to the destination IP address 255.255.255.255,
which is the destination address configured on the virtual server. A DHCP relay type virtual server
automatically uses port 67 for an IPv4 broadcast message or port 547 for an IPv6 broadcast message. The
BIG-IP virtual server receives this message on the VLAN with self IP address 10.20.0.1 and relays the
DHCP request to all DHCP servers: 10.10.0.3 and 10.10.0.7.
All DHCP servers provide a DHCP response with available IP addresses to the BIG-IP virtual server, which
then relays all responses to the client. The client accepts and uses only one of the IP addresses received.
Note: In this example, there is no hop between the DHCP client and the BIG-IP relay agent. However, a
common topology is one that includes this hop, which is often another BIG-IP system.
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Alternate configuration
If the DHCP client subnet includes a BIG-IP system that serves as a hop to the BIG-IP relay agent, you
must perform two additional configuration tasks:
•
•
You must configure the BIG-IP relay agent to relay the client DHCP requests to the DHCP servers
without losing the originating subnet (source) IP address. This originating source IP address is typically
a self IP address of the BIG-IP system that resides on the client subnet. You configure the BIG-IP relay
agent to preserve the originating source IP address by creating a SNAT that specifies the originating
self IP address as both the origin address and the translation address. A SNAT configured in this way
prevents the BIG-IP relay agent, before sending the DHCP broadcast message to the DHCP servers,
from translating the source IP address of the incoming DHCP request to a different address.
You must add a route (to the BIG-IP relay agent) that specifies the originating source IP address as the
destination for DHCP responses. The DHCP servers use this route to send their responses back through
the BIG-IP relay agent to the clients.
Task summary
You configure the BIG-IP system to act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) relay agent by
creating a pool of DHCP servers and then creating a virtual server to manage DHCP client broadcast
messages.
Task list
Creating a pool of DHCP servers
You must create a pool that includes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers as pool members
before you create a DHCP relay type virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. (Optional) Type a description for the pool.
5. (Optional) For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select UDP, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
6. From the Load Balancing Method list, select a method.
Note: A DHCP pool requires a load balancing method, although actual load balancing across DHCP
pool members is ignored and DHCP requests are sent to all DHCP pool members.
7. For the Priority Group Activation setting, select Disabled.
8. Add each resource that you want to include in the pool using the New Members setting:
a) (Optional) Type a name in the Node Name field, or select a node address from the Node List.
a) Type an IP address in the Address field, or select a node address from the Node List.
b) Type 67 (IPv4) or 547 (IPv6) in the Service Port field.
c) Click Add.
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9. Click Finished.
A pool that includes DHCP servers as pool members is created.
Creating a DHCP Relay type virtual server
A DHCP relay type BIG-IP® virtual server provides you with the ability to relay DHCP client requests for
an IP address to one or more DHCP servers, and provide DHCP server responses with an available IP
address for the client.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. (Optional) Type a description for the virtual server.
5. From the Type list, select DHCP Relay.
6. Select one of the following to configure a Destination type.
Destination
Steps to configure
255.255.255.255 (IPv4 Default)
None.
ff02::1:2 (IPv6 Default)
None.
Other
Select and configure one of the following types.
•
•
Host, and type 255.255.255.255 in the Address field.
Network, type 255.255.255.255 in the Address field, and
type 255.255.255.255 in the Mask field.
7. From the State list, select Enabled.
8. In the Configuration area for the VLAN and Tunnel Traffic setting, select the VLANs on the same
network as the DHCP clients to ensure that the BIG-IP system can accept the broadcast traffic from the
client.
9. From the Default Pool list, select the pool that is configured for DHCP servers.
10. Click Finished.
A DHCP relay type virtual server is configured to provide the ability to relay DHCP client requests for an
IP address to one or more DHCP servers, and provide DHCP server responses with an available IP address
for the client.
Implementation result
The BIG-IP® system is configured to manage Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client IP
addresses, using a DHCP Relay type virtual server to manage DHCP client broadcast messages.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System for DHCP Renewal
•
•
•
Overview: Renewing IP addresses for DHCP
clients
Task summary
Implementation result
Configuring the BIG-IP System for DHCP Renewal
Overview: Renewing IP addresses for DHCP clients
You can configure the BIG-IP® system to manage DHCP renewal requests and responses.
Before configuring the BIG-IP system to manage DHCP renewal requests and responses, it is helpful to
understand some BIG-IP system terminology:
BIG-IP object type
Definition
BIG-IP pool member
A DHCP relay target (such as a DHCP server or BOOTP
server). This is the dynamic address server to which the BIG-IP
system forwards unicast requests.
BIG-IP virtual server
A BIG-IP system address on the listening VLAN
BIG-IP VLAN assigned to a virtual server A listening VLAN, controlled on a per-virtual server basis
About DHCP renewal
You can configure the BIG-IP system to act as a DHCP renewal system. A common reason to configure
the BIG-IP system as a renewal system is when the DHCP servers reside on a different subnet than that of
the client systems, and the BIG-IP system is also configured as a DHCP relay agent. As a DHCP renewal
system, the BIG-IP system manages the renewal of client IP addresses by DHCP servers before the addresses
expire.
During the renewal process, a DHCP client sends a renewal request, which is passed through a BIG-IP
Forwarding IP type of virtual server directly to the specific DHCP server that issued the initial client IP
address. The DHCP server then sends a response to renew the lease for the client's IP address.
In the example shown in the illustration, a DHCP client sends a renewal message to the same BIG-IP system
that initially acted as the DHCP relay agent. This renewal request is forwarded through a BIG-IP renewal
virtual server directly to DHCP server 1. DHCP server 1 then provides a response to renew the lease for
the client's IP address.
Figure 15: A sample DHCP renewal system configuration
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Task summary
You configure a BIG-IP system to act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) relay system by
creating a virtual server that specifically forwards DHCP renewal requests to the appropriate DHCP server.
Task list
Creating a DHCP renewal virtual server
A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) renewal virtual server forwards a DHCP request message
from a DHCP client directly to a DHCP server, to automatically renew an IP address before it expires.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. (Optional) Type a description for the virtual server.
5. From the Type list, select Forwarding (IP).
6. For a Destination type, select Host, and type the DHCP server IP address in the Address field.
Tip: If you have multiple DHCP servers, type 0.0.0.0 in the Address field.
7. In the Service Port field, type 67 (IPv4) or 547 (IPv6).
8. From the Protocol list, select UDP.
9. From the VLAN and Tunnel Traffic list, select the VLANs on the same network as the DHCP clients.
10. Click Finished.
The BIG-IP system is now configured with a virtual server that can forward DHCP renewal requests directly
to the appropriate DHCP server.
Implementation result
The BIG-IP® system is configured to forward DHCP client renewal requests to appropriate DHCP servers
that reside on a different subnet than the client systems. The BIG-IP also forwards the DHCP server responses
back to the client systems, therefore ensuring that client IP addresses do not expire.
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Configuring a One-IP Network Topology
•
•
Overview: Configuring a one-IP network
topology
Task summary for a one-IP network topology
for the BIG-IP system
Configuring a One-IP Network Topology
Overview: Configuring a one-IP network topology
One configuration option you can use with the BIG-IP® system is a one-IP network topology. This differs
from the typical two-network configuration in two ways:
•
•
Because there is only one physical network, this configuration does not require more than one interface
on the BIG-IP system.
Clients need to be assigned SNATs to allow them to make connections to servers on the network in a
load balancing pool.
Part of this configuration requires you to configure the BIG-IP system to handle connections originating
from the client. You must define a SNAT in order to change the source address on the packet to the SNAT
external address, which is located on the BIG-IP system. Otherwise, if the source address of the returning
packet is the IP address of the content server, the client does not recognize the packet because the client
sent its packets to the IP address of the virtual server, not the content server.
If you do not define a SNAT, the server returns the packets directly to the client without giving the BIG-IP
system the opportunity to translate the source address from the server address back to the virtual server. If
this happens, the client might reject the packet as unrecognizable.
The single interface configuration is shown in the following illustration.
Illustration of a one-IP network topology for the BIG-IP system
Figure 16: One-IP network topology for the BIG-IP system
Task summary for a one-IP network topology for the BIG-IP system
You can perform these tasks to configure a one-IP network topology.
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Task list
Creating a pool for processing HTTP connections with SNATs enabled
Verify that all content servers for the pool are in the network of VLAN external.
For a basic configuration, you need to create a pool to manage HTTP connections. This pool enables SNATs
for any connections destined for a member of the pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, from the Available list, select the http monitor, and click << to move
the monitor to the Active list.
5. For the Allow SNAT setting, verify that the value is Yes.
6. In the Resources area of the screen, use the default values for the Load Balancing Method and Priority
Group Activation settings.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type 80 in the Service Port field, or select HTTP from the list.
c) (Optional) Type a priority number in the Priority field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for HTTP traffic
This task creates a destination IP address for application traffic. As part of this task, you must assign the
relevant pool to the virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
7. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
8. Click Finished.
You now have a virtual server to use as a destination address for application traffic.
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Defining a default route
Another task that you must perform to implement one-IP network load balancing is to define a default route
for the VLAN external.
1. On the Main tab, click Network > Routes.
2. Click Add.
The New Route screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type Default Gateway Route.
4. In the Destination field, type the IP address 0.0.0.0.
An IP address of 0.0.0.0 in this field indicates that the destination is a default route.
5. From the Resource list, select Use VLAN/Tunnel.
A VLAN represents the VLAN through which the packets flow to reach the specified destination.
6. Select external from the VLAN/Tunnel list.
7. At the bottom of the screen, click Finished.
The default route for VLAN external is defined.
Configuring a client SNAT
To configure the BIG-IP® system to handle connections originating from the client, you can define a SNAT
to change the source address on the packet to the SNAT external address located on the BIG-IP system.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Address Translation.
The SNAT List screen displays a list of existing SNATs.
2. Click Create.
3. Name the new SNAT.
4. In the Translation field, type the IP address that you want to use as a translation IP address.
5. From the Origin list, select Address List.
6. For each client to which you want to assign a translation address, do the following:
a) Select Host.
b) Type a client IP address in the Address field.
c) Click Add.
7. From the VLAN/Tunnel Traffic list, select Enabled on.
8. For the VLAN List setting, in the Available field, select external, and using the Move button, move
the VLAN name to the Selected field.
9. Click Finished.
The BIG-IP system is configured to handle connections originating from the client
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Implementing Health and Performance Monitoring
•
•
Overview: Health and performance
monitoring
Task summary
Implementing Health and Performance Monitoring
Overview: Health and performance monitoring
You can set up the BIG-IP® system to monitor the health or performance of certain nodes or servers that
are members of a load balancing pool. Monitors verify connections on pool members and nodes. A monitor
can be either a health monitor or a performance monitor, designed to check the status of a pool, pool member,
or node on an ongoing basis, at a set interval. If a pool member or node being checked does not respond
within a specified timeout period, or the status of a pool member or node indicates that performance is
degraded, the BIG-IP system can redirect the traffic to another pool member or node.
Some monitors are included as part of the BIG-IP system, while other monitors are user-created. Monitors
that the BIG-IP system provides are called pre-configured monitors. User-created monitors are called custom
monitors.
Before configuring and using monitors, it is helpful to understand some basic concepts regarding monitor
types, monitor settings, and monitor implementation.
Monitor types
Every monitor, whether pre-configured or custom, is a certain type of monitor. Each type of monitor
checks the status of a particular protocol, service, or application. For example, one type of monitor is
HTTP. An HTTP type of monitor allows you to monitor the availability of the HTTP service on a pool,
pool member, or node. A WMI type of monitor allows you to monitor the performance of a pool, pool
member, or node that is running the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) software. An ICMP
type of monitor simply determines whether the status of a node is up or down.
Monitor settings
Every monitor consists of settings with values. The settings and their values differ depending on the
type of monitor. In some cases, the BIG-IP system assigns default values. For example, the following
shows the settings and default values of an ICMP-type monitor.
Name my_icmp
Type ICMP
Interval 5
Timeout 16
Transparent No
Alias Address * All Addresses
Note: If you want to monitor the performance of a RealNetworks® RealServer server or a Windows®-based
server equipped with Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), you must first download a special
plug-in file onto the BIG-IP system.
Task summary
To implement a health or performance monitor, you perform these tasks.
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Task list
Creating a custom monitor
Before creating a custom monitor, you must decide on a monitor type.
You can create a custom monitor when the values defined in a pre-configured monitor do not meet your
needs, or no pre-configured monitor exists for the type of monitor you are creating.
Important: When defining values for custom monitors, make sure you avoid using any values that are on
the list of reserved keywords.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Monitors.
The Monitor List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Monitor screen opens.
3. Type a name for the monitor in the Name field.
4. From the Type list, select the type of monitor.
The screen refreshes, and displays the configuration options for the monitor type.
5. From the Import Settings list, select an existing monitor.
The new monitor inherits initial configuration values from the existing monitor.
6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
This selection makes it possible for you to modify additional default settings.
7. Configure all settings shown.
8. Click Finished.
Creating a load balancing pool
You can create a load balancing pool (a logical set of devices such as web servers that you group together
to receive and process traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
Note: You must create the pool before you create the corresponding virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
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Implementing Health and Performance Monitoring
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server
A virtual server represents a destination IP address for application traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type a port number or select a service name from the Service Port list.
6. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
The web customer now has a destination IP address on the BIG-IP system for application traffic.
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Preventing TCP Connection Requests From Being Dropped
•
•
Overview: TCP request queuing
Preventing TCP connection requests from
being dropped
Preventing TCP Connection Requests From Being Dropped
Overview: TCP request queuing
TCP request queuing provides the ability to queue connection requests that exceed the capacity of connections
for a pool, pool member, or node, as determined by the connection limit. Consequently, instead of dropping
connection requests that exceed the capacity of a pool, pool member, or node, TCP request queuing makes
it possible for those connection requests to reside within a queue in accordance with defined conditions
until capacity becomes available.
When using session persistence, a request becomes queued when the pool member connection limit is
reached.
Without session persistence, when all pool members have a specified connection limit, a request becomes
queued when the total number of connection limits for all pool members is reached.
Conditions for queuing connection requests include:
•
•
•
The maximum number of connection requests within the queue, which equates to the maximum number
of connections within the pool, pool member, or node. Specifically, the maximum number of connection
requests within the queue cannot exceed the cumulative total number of connections for each pool
member or node. Any connection requests that exceed the capacity of the request queue are dropped.
The availability of server connections for reuse. When a server connection becomes available for reuse,
the next available connection request in the queue becomes dequeued, thus allowing additional connection
requests to be queued.
The expiration rate of connection requests within the queue. As queue entries expire, they are removed
from the queue, thus allowing additional connection requests to be queued.
Connection requests within the queue become dequeued when:
•
•
•
•
The connection limit of the pool is increased.
A pool member's slow ramp time limit permits a new connection to be made.
The number of concurrent connections to the virtual server falls to less than the connection limit.
The connection request within the queue expires.
Preventing TCP connection requests from being dropped
When you enable TCP request queuing, connection requests become queued when they exceed the total
number of available server connections.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click a pool name in the Pool List.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. In the Enable Request Queuing list, select Yes.
5. In the Request Queue Depth field, type the maximum number of connections allowed in the queue.
Note: If you type zero (0) or leave the field blank, the maximum number of queued connections is
unlimited, constrained only by available memory.
6. In the Request Queue Timeout field, type the maximum number of milliseconds that a connection can
remain queued.
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Note: If you type zero (0) or leave the field blank, the maximum number of milliseconds is unlimited.
7. Click Update.
Connection requests become queued when they exceed the total number of available server connections.
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Setting Connection Limits
•
•
•
Overview: About connection limits
Limiting connections for a virtual server, pool
member, or node
Implementation results
Setting Connection Limits
Overview: About connection limits
You can configure a virtual server, pool member, or node to prevent an excessive number of connection
requests during events such as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack or a planned, high-demand traffic event.
To ensure the availability of a virtual server, pool member, or node, you can use the BIG-IP® Local Traffic
Manager™ to manage the total number of connections and the rate at which connections are made.
When you specify a connection limit, the system prevents the total number of concurrent connections to
the virtual server, pool member, or node from exceeding the specified number.
When you specify a connection rate limit, the system controls the number of allowed new connections per
second, thus providing a manageable increase in connections without compromising availability.
Limiting connections for a virtual server, pool member, or node
You can improve the availability of a virtual server, pool member, or node by using the BIG-IP® Local
Traffic Manager™ to specify a connection limit and a connection rate limit.
On the Main tab, expand Local Traffic, and then click Virtual Servers, Pools, or Nodes.
Click the name of the virtual server, pool, or node you want to modify.
For virtual servers only, from the Configuration list, select Advanced.
In the Connection Limit field, type a number that specifies the maximum number of concurrent open
connections.
5. In the Connection Rate Limit field, type a number that specifies the number of new connections accepted
per second for the virtual server.
6. Click Update to save the changes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
After configuring connection and connection rate limits on a virtual server, or after configuring these limits
on a pool member or node associated with a virtual server, the system controls the total number of concurrent
connections and the rate of new connections to the virtual server, pool member, or node.
Implementation results
Configuring a connection limit or a connection rate limit for a virtual server, pool member, or node prevents
an excessive number of connection requests during events such as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack or a
planned, high-demand traffic event. In this way, you can manage the total number of connections to a virtual
server, pool member, or node, as well as the rate at which connections are made. When you specify a
connection rate limit, the system controls the number of allowed new connections per second, thus providing
a manageable increase in connections without compromising availability.
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Load Balancing to IPv6 Nodes
•
•
Overview: Load balancing to iPv6 nodes
Task summary
Load Balancing to IPv6 Nodes
Overview: Load balancing to iPv6 nodes
To set up the BIG-IP® system to function as an IPv4-to-IPv6 gateway, you create a load balancing pool
consisting of members that represent IPv6 nodes. You also create a virtual server that load balances traffic
to those pool members.
As an option, you can use the tmsh command line interface to configure the BIG-IP system to send out
ICMPv6 routing advisory messages, and to respond to ICMPv6 route solicitation messages. When you
perform this task, the BIG-IP system begins to support auto-configuration of downstream nodes. Also, the
downstream nodes automatically discover that the BIG-IP system is their router.
Task summary
When you configure IPv4-to-IPv6 load balancing, you must create a pool for load balancing traffic to IPv6
nodes, and then create an IPv4 virtual server that processes application traffic.
Task list
Creating a load balancing pool
The first task in configuring IPv4-to-IPv6 load balancing is to create a pool to load balance connections to
IPv6 nodes. Use the Configuration utility to create this pool.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
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d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for IPv6 nodes
You can define a virtual server that references the pool of IPv6 nodes.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type a port number or select a service name from the Service Port list.
6. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select the name of the pool that contains
the IPv6 servers.
7. Click Finished.
The virtual server that references the pool of IPv6 nodes appears in the Virtual Servers list.
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35
Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks
•
•
•
•
Overview: Mitigating Denial of Service and
other attacks
Denial of Service attacks and iRules
Common Denial of Service attacks
Task summary
Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks
Overview: Mitigating Denial of Service and other attacks
The BIG-IP® system contains several features that provide you with the ability to create a configuration
that contributes to the security of your network. In particular, the BIG-IP system is in a unique position to
mitigate some types of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that try to consume system resources in order to
deny service to the intended recipients.
The following features of the BIG-IP system help it resist many types of DoS attacks:
•
•
•
The BIG-IP kernel has a mechanism built in to protect against SYN Flood attacks by limiting simultaneous
connections, and tearing down connections that have unacknowledged SYN/ACK packets after some
time period as passed. (A SYN/ACK packet is a packet that is sent as part of the TCP three-way
handshake).
BIG-IP system can handle tens of thousands of Layer 4 (L4) connections per second. It would take a
very determined attack to affect either the BIG-IP system itself, or the site, if sufficient server resources
and bandwidth are available.
SYN floods, or Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, can consume all available memory. The BIG-IP system
supports a large amount of memory to help it resist DoS attacks.
Denial of Service attacks and iRules
You can create BIG-IP® iRules® to filter out malicious DoS attacks. After you identify a particular attack,
you can write an iRule that discards packets containing the elements that identify the packet as malicious.
iRules for Code Red attacks
The BIG-IP® system is able to filter out the Code Red attack by using an iRule to send the HTTP request
to a dummy pool.
when HTTP_REQUEST {
if {string tolower [HTTP::uri] contains "default.ida" } {
discard
} else {
pool RealServerPool
}
iRules for Nimda attacks
The Nimda worm is designed to attack systems and applications based on the Microsoft® Windows® operating
system.
when HTTP_REQUEST {
set uri [string tolower [HTTP::uri]]
if { ($uri contains "cmd.exe") or ($uri contains
"root.exe") or ($uri contains "admin.dll") } {
discard
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} else {
pool ServerPool
}
}
Common Denial of Service attacks
You might want to know how the BIG-IP® system reacts to certain common attacks that are designed to
deny service by breaking the service or the network devices. The following information lists the most
common attacks, along with how the BIG-IP system functionality handles the attack.
Attack
type
Description
SYN flood A SYN flood is an attack against a system for the purpose of
exhausting that system's resources. An attacker launching a SYN
flood against a target system attempts to occupy all available
resources used to establish TCP connections by sending multiple
SYN segments containing incorrect IP addresses. Note that the
term SYN refers to a type of connection state that occurs during
establishment of a TCP/IP connection. More specifically, a SYN
flood is designed to fill up a SYN queue. A SYN queue is a set
of connections stored in the connection table in the
SYN-RECEIVED state, as part of the standard three-way TCP
handshake. A SYN queue can hold a specified maximum number
of connections in the SYN-RECEIVED state. Connections in
the SYN-RECEIVED state are considered to be half-open and
waiting for an acknowledgment from the client. When a SYN
flood causes the maximum number of allowed connections in
the SYN-RECEIVED state to be reached, the SYN queue is said
to be full, thus preventing the target system from establishing
other legitimate connections. A full SYN queue therefore results
in partially-open TCP connections to IP addresses that either do
not exist or are unreachable. In these cases, the connections must
reach their timeout before the server can continue fulfilling other
requests.
ICMP
flood
(Smurf)
Mitigation
The BIG-IP system includes a feature designed
to alleviate SYN flooding. Known as SYN
Check™, this feature sends information about
the flow, in the form of cookies, to the
requesting client, so that the system does not
need to keep the SYN-RECEIVED state that
is normally stored in the connection table for
the initiated session. Because the
SYN-RECEIVED state is not kept for a
connection, the SYN queue cannot be
exhausted, and normal TCP communication
can continue. The SYN Check feature
complements the existing adaptive reaper
feature in the BIG-IP system. While the
adaptive reaper handles established connection
flooding, SYN Check prevents connection
flooding altogether. That is, while the adaptive
reaper must work overtime to flush
connections, the SYN Check feature prevents
the SYN queue from becoming full, thus
allowing the target system to continue to
establish TCP connections.
The ICMP flood, sometimes referred to as a Smurf attack, is an You do not need to make any changes to the
attack based on a method of making a remote network send ICMP BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
Echo replies to a single host. In this attack, a single packet from attack.
the attacker goes to an unprotected network's broadcast address.
Typically, this causes every machine on that network to answer
with a packet sent to the target. The BIG-IP system is hardened
against these attacks because it answers only a limited number
of ICMP requests per second, and then drops the rest. On the
network inside the BIG-IP system, the BIG-IP system ignores
directed subnet broadcasts, and does not respond to the broadcast
ICMP Echo that a Smurf attacker uses to initiate an attack.
UDP flood The UDP flood attack is most commonly a distributed Denial of
Service attack (DDoS), where multiple remote systems are
sending a large flood of UDP packets to the target. The BIG-IP
system handles these attacks similarly to the way it handles a
SYN flood. If the port is not listening, the BIG-IP system drops
Setting the UDP idle session timeout to
between 5 and 10 seconds reaps these
connections quickly without impacting users
with slow connections. However, with UDP
this might still leave too many open
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Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks
Attack
type
Description
Mitigation
the packets. If the port is listening, the reaper removes the false connections, and your situation might require
connections.
a setting of between 2 and 5 seconds.
UDP
fragment
You do not need to make any changes to the
The UDP fragment attack is based on forcing the system to
BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
reassemble huge amounts of UDP data sent as fragmented
packets. The goal of this attack is to consume system resources attack.
to the point where the system fails. The BIG-IP system does not
reassemble these packets, it sends them on to the server if they
are for an open UDP service. If these packets are sent with the
initial packet opening the connection correctly, then the
connection is sent to the back-end server. If the initial packet is
not the first packet of the stream, the entire stream is dropped.
Ping of
Death
The Ping of Death attack is an attack with ICMP echo packets You do not need to make any changes to the
that are larger than 65535 bytes. As this is the maximum allowed BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
attack.
ICMP packet size, this can crash systems that attempt to
reassemble the packet. The BIG-IP system is hardened against
this type of attack. However, if the attack is against a virtual
server with the Any IP feature enabled, then these packets are
sent on to the server. It is important that you apply the latest
updates to your servers.
Land
A Land attack is a SYN packet sent with the source address and You do not need to make any changes to the
port the same as the destination address and port. The BIG-IP BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
attack.
system is hardened to resist this attack. The BIG-IP system
connection table matches existing connections so that a spoof of
this sort is not passed on to the servers. Connections to the BIG-IP
system are checked and dropped if spoofed in this manner.
Teardrop
You do not need to make any changes to the
A Teardrop attack is carried out by a program that sends IP
fragments to a machine connected to the Internet or a network. BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
The Teardrop attack exploits an overlapping IP fragment problem attack.
present in some common operating systems. The problem causes
the TCP/IP fragmentation re-assembly code to improperly handle
overlapping IP fragments. The BIG-IP system handles these
attacks by correctly checking frame alignment and discarding
improperly aligned fragments.
Data
The BIG-IP system can also offer protection from data attacks You do not need to make any changes to the
to the servers behind the BIG-IP system. The BIG-IP system acts BIG-IP system configuration for this type of
as a port-deny device, preventing many common exploits by
attack.
simply not passing the attack through to the server.
WinNuke
The WinNuke attack exploits the way certain common operating On the BIG-IP system, do not open these ports
systems handle data sent to the NetBIOS ports. NetBIOS ports unless you are sure your servers have been
updated against this attack.
are 135, 136, 137 and 138, using TCP or UDP. The BIG-IP
system denies these ports by default.
Sub 7
Do not open high ports (ports higher than
The Sub 7 attack is a Trojan horse that is designed to run on
certain common operating systems. This Trojan horse makes it 1024) without explicit knowledge of what
possible the system to be controlled remotely. This Trojan horse applications will be running on these ports.
listens on port 27374 by default. The BIG-IP system does not
allow connections to this port from the outside, so a compromised
server cannot be controlled remotely.
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Attack
type
Description
Mitigation
Back
Orifice
A Back Orifice attack is a Trojan horse that is designed to run Do not open high ports (ports higher than
on certain common operating systems. This Trojan horse makes 1024) without explicit knowledge of what will
be running on these ports
it possible the system to be controlled remotely. This Trojan
horse listens on UDP port 31337 by default. The BIG-IP system
does not allow connections to this port from the outside, so a
compromised server cannot be controlled remotely.
Task summary
There are several tasks you can perform to mitigate Denial of Service attacks.
Task list
Configuring adaptive reaping
This procedure configures adaptive reaping. The adaptive connection reaper closes idle connections when
memory usage on the BIG-IP system increases. This feature makes it possible for the BIG-IP system to
aggressively reap connections when the system memory utilization reaches the low-water mark, and to stop
establishing new connections when the system memory utilization reaches the high-water mark percentage.
If the BIG-IP platform includes an LCD panel, an adaptive reaping event causes the BIG-IP system to
display the following message on the LCD panel:
Blocking DoS attack
Warning: The adaptive reaper settings do not apply to SSL connections. However, you can set TCP and
UDP connection timeouts that reap idle SSL connections.
1. On the Main tab, click System > Configuration.
The General screen opens.
2. From the Local Traffic menu, choose General.
3. In the Properties area of the screen, set the Reaper High-water Mark property to 95.
4. Set the Reaper Low-water Mark property to 85.
5. Click Update.
When aggressive mode is activated on the BIG-IP system, the event is marked in the /var/log/ltm file
with messages similar to these examples:
tmm tmm[PID]: 011e0002:4: sweeper_update: aggressive mode activated. (117504/138240 pages)
tmm tmm[PID]: 011e0002:4: sweeper_update: aggressive mode deactivated. (117503/138240 pages)
Important: Setting both of the adaptive reaper values to 100 disables this feature.
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Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks
Setting the TCP and UDP connection timers
You can set the TCP and UDP timers in the profile settings for the TCP profile and the UDP profiles. You
should set these timers for the services that you use for your virtual servers. For example, you can set a
value of 60 for HTTP connections and 60 for SSL connections.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Protocol menu, choose TCP or UDP.
Click the name of the profile type you want to configure.
Set the Idle Timeout setting to 60.
5. Click Update.
Applying a rate class to a virtual server
After you create a rate class, you can apply it to the virtual servers in the configuration.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. In the Virtual Server list, click the virtual server that you want.
3. In the Configuration list, click Advanced.
4. In the Rate Class list, select a rate class.
5. Click Update.
The rate class is applied to the virtual server.
Calculating connection limits on the main virtual server
Use this procedure to determine a connection limit.
Before you set a connection limit, use the following formula to calculate the connection limit value for
the main virtual server:
Connection Limit = Approximate Amount of RAM in KB * 0.8.
For example, if you have 256 MB of RAM, the calculation is:
256,000 * 0.8 = 204800
In this case, you set the connection limit to 204800.
Setting connection limits on the main virtual server
Connection limits determine the maximum number of concurrent connections allowed on a virtual server.
In this context, the main virtual server is the virtual server that receives the most traffic to your site.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click the virtual server that you want to modify.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
In the Connection Limit field, type the number that you calculated for the connection limit.
Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is configured for the specified maximum number of concurrent connections.
Adjusting the SYN Check threshold
You can configure the SYN Check™ feature to prevent the BIG-IP SYN queue from becoming full during
a SYN flood attack. The SYN Check Activation Threshold setting indicates the number of new or untrusted
TCP connections that can be established before the BIG-IP activates the SYN Cookies authentication method
for subsequent TCP connections.
1. On the Main tab, click System > Configuration.
2. From the Local Traffic menu, choose General.
3. In the SYN Check Activation Threshold field, type the number of connections that you want to define
for the threshold.
4. Click Update.
If SYN flooding occurs, the BIG-IP system now protects the BIG-IP SYN queue from becoming full.
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Chapter
36
Configuring Remote CRLDP Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote authentication for
application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Remote CRLDP Authentication
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication with CRLDP, you must create a configuration object and a profile that
correspond to the authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. You must also create a
third type of object. This object is referred to as a server object.
Task list
Creating a CRLDP configuration object for authenticating application traffic remotely
The CRLDP authentication module verifies the revocation status of an SSL certificate, as part of
authenticating that certificate. A CRLDP configuration object specifies information that the BIG-IP system
needs to perform the remote authentication.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_crldp_config.
5. From the Type list, select CRLDP.
6. In the Connection Timeout field, retain or change the time limit, in seconds, for the connection to the
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Points (CRLDP) server.
7. In the Update Interval field, retain or change the interval, in seconds, for the system to use when
receiving updates from the CRLDP server.
If you use the default value of 0 (zero), the CRLDP server updates the system according to the expiration
time specified for the CRL.
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8. For the Use Issuer setting, retain the default value (cleared) or select the box.
When cleared (disabled), the BIG-IP system extracts the CRL distribution point from the incoming client
certificate. When selected (enabled), the BIG-IP system extracts the CRL distribution point from the
signing certificate.
9. For the CRLDP Servers setting, select a CRLDP server name in the Available list, and using the Move
button, move the name to the Selected list.
10. Click Finished.
You now have a CRLDP configuration object that a CRLDP profile can reference.
Creating a custom CRLDP profile
The next task in configuring CRLDP-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP® system is to create a
custom CRLDP profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select CRLDP from the Type list.
5. Select ssl_crldp in the Parent Profile list.
6. Select the Custom check box.
7. Select a CRLDP configuration object from the Configuration list.
8. Click Finished.
Modifying a virtual server for CRLDP authentication
The final task in the process of implementing CRLDP authentication is to assign the custom CRLDP profile
to a virtual server that is configured to process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual server to which an HTTP
profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of a virtual server.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom CRLDP profile, and
using the Move button, move the custom CRLDP profile to the Selected field.
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom CRLDP profile.
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Chapter
37
Configuring Remote LDAP Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote LDAP authentication for
application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Remote LDAP Authentication
Overview of remote LDAP authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication for LDAP traffic, you must create a configuration object and a profile
that correspond to the LDAP authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. You must also
modify the relevant virtual server.
Task list
Creating an LDAP configuration object for authenticating application traffic remotely
An LDAP configuration object specifies information that the BIG-IP system needs to perform the remote
authentication. For example, the configuration object specifies the remote LDAP tree that the system uses
as the source location for the authentication data.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_ldap_config.
5. From the Type list, select LDAP.
6. In the Remote LDAP Tree field, type the file location (tree) of the user authentication database on the
LDAP or Active Directory server.
At a minimum, you must specify a domain component (that is, dc=value).
7. In the Hosts field, type the IP address of the remote LDAP or Active Directory server.
8. Click Add.
The IP address of the remote LDAP or Active Directory server appears in the Hosts area.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
9. Retain or change the Service Port value.
10. Retain or change the LDAP Version value.
11. Click Finished.
You now have an LDAP configuration object that the LDAP authentication profile can reference.
Creating a custom LDAP profile
The next task in configuring LDAP-based or Active Directory-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP®
system is to create a custom LDAP profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select LDAP from the Type list.
5. Select ldap in the Parent Profile list.
6. Select the LDAP configuration object that you created from the Configuration list.
7. Click Finished.
The custom LDAP profile appears in the Profiles list.
Modifying a virtual server for LDAP authentication
The final task in the process of implementing authentication using a remote LDAP server is to assign the
custom LDAP profile and a default LDAP authentication iRule to a virtual server that is configured to
process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual server to which an HTTP profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of a Standard type of virtual server to which an HTTP profile is assigned.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom LDAP profile, and using
the Move button, move the custom LDAP profile to the Selected field.
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom LDAP profile.
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Chapter
38
Configuring Remote RADIUS Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote authentication for
application traffic
Task summary for RADIUS authentication
of application traffic
Configuring Remote RADIUS Authentication
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP® system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task summary for RADIUS authentication of application traffic
To configure remote authentication for RADIUS traffic, you must create a configuration object and a profile
that correspond to the RADIUS authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. You must
also create a third type of object. This object is referred to as a server object.
Task list
Creating a RADIUS server object for authenticating application traffic remotely
A RADIUS server object represents the remote RADIUS server that the BIG-IP system uses to access
authentication data.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose RADIUS Servers.
Click Create.
In the Namefield, type a unique name for the server object, such asmy_radius_server.
5. In the Host field, type the host name or IP address of the RADIUS server.
6. In the Service Port field, type the port number for RADIUS authentication traffic, or retain the default
value (1812).
7. In the Secret field, type the secret key used to encrypt and decrypt packets sent or received from the
server.
8. In the Confirm Secret field, re-type the secret you specified in the Secret field.
9. In the Timeout field, type a timeout value, in seconds, or retain the default value (3).
10. Click Finished.
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You now have a RADIUS server object that the RADIUS configuration object can reference.
Creating a RADIUS configuration object for authenticating application traffic remotely
The BIG-IP system configuration must include at least one RADIUS server object.
You use a RADIUS authentication module when your authentication data is stored on a remote RADIUS
server. A RADIUS configuration object specifies information that the BIG-IP system needs to perform the
remote authentication.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_radius_config.
5. From the Type list, select RADIUS.
6. For the RADIUS Serverssetting, select a RADIUS server name in the Available list, and using the
Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
7. In the Client ID field, type a string for the system to send in the Network Access Server (NAS)-Identifier
RADIUS attribute.
8. Click Finished.
You now have a RADIUS configuration object that a RADIUS profile can reference.
Creating a custom RADIUS profile
The next task in configuring RADIUS-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP® system is to create a
custom RADIUS profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select RADIUS from the Type list.
5. Select radius in the Parent Profile list.
6. Select the RADIUS configuration object that you created from the Configuration list.
7. Click Finished.
The custom RADIUS profile appears in the Profiles list.
Modifying a virtual server for RADIUS authentication
The final task in the process of implementing authentication using a remote RADIUS server is to assign
the custom RADIUS profile to a virtual server that is configured to process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual
server to which an HTTP profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
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Configuring Remote RADIUS Authentication
2. Click the name of a virtual server.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom RADIUS profile, and
using the Move button, move the custom RADIUS profile to the Selected field.
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom RADIUS profile.
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Chapter
39
Configuring Remote SSL LDAP Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote SSL LDAP
authentication for application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Remote SSL LDAP Authentication
Overview of remote SSL LDAP authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication for SSL LDAP traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts.
Task list
Creating an LDAP Client Certificate SSL configuration object
An SSL Client Certificate LDAP configuration object specifies information that the BIG-IP system needs
to perform the remote authentication. This configuration object is one of the required objects you need to
impose certificate-based access control on application traffic.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_ssl_ldap_config.
5. From the Type list, select SSL Client Certificate LDAP.
6. In the Hostsfield, type an IP address for the remote LDAP authentication server storing the authentication
data, and click Add.
The IP address appears in the Hosts area of the screen.
7. Repeat the previous step for each LDAP server you want to use.
8. From the Search Type list, select one of the following:
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Option
Description
User
Choose this option if you want the system to extract a user name from the
client certificate and search for that user name in the remote LDAP database.
Certificate Map
Choose this option if you want the system to search for an existing
user-certificate mapping in the remote LDAP database.
Certificate
Choose this option if you want the system to search for a certificate stored in
the user's profile in the remote LDAP database.
9. Click Finished.
You now have a configuration object that an SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile can reference.
Creating a custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile
The next task in configuring LDAP-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP®system is to create a custom
SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select the Custom check box.
5. Select SSL Client Certificate LDAP from the Type list.
6. Select ssl_cc_ldap in the Parent Profile list.
7. Select the name of a LDAP configuration object from the Configuration list.
8. Click Finished.
The custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile appears in the Profiles list.
Modifying a virtual server for SSL Client Certificate LDAP authorization
The final task in the process of implementing authorization using a remote LDAP server is to assign the
custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile and a default LDAP authentication iRule to a virtual server
that is configured to process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual server to which an HTTP profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of a Standard-type virtual server to which an HTTP server profile is assigned.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom SSL Client Certificate
LDAP profile, and using the Move button, move the custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile to the
Selected field.
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom SSL Client Certificate LDAP profile.
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40
Configuring Remote SSL OCSP Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote authentication for
application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Remote SSL OCSP Authentication
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts.
When implementing an SSL OCSP authentication module, you must also create a third type of object. This
object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task list
Creating an SSL OSCP responder object for authenticating application traffic remotely
An SSL OCSP responder object is an object that you create that includes a URL for an external SSL OCSP
responder. You must create a separate SSL OCSP responder object for each external SSL OCSP responder.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose OCSP Responders.
Click Create.
In the Namefield, type a unique name for the responder object, such asmy_ocsp_responder.
5. In the URL field, type the URL that you want the BIG-IP system to use to contact the Online Certificate
Status Protocol (OCSP) service on the responder.
6. In the Certificate Authority File field, type the name of the file containing trusted Certificate Authority
(CA) certificates that the BIG-IP system uses to verify the signature on the OCSP response.
You now have a responder that the SSL OCSP configuration object can reference.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Creating an SSL OCSP configuration object for authenticating application traffic remotely
The BIG-IP system configuration must include at least one SSL OCSP responder object.
An SSL OCSP authentication module checks the revocation status of an SSL certificate during remote
authentication, as part of authenticating that certificate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_ocsp_config.
5. From the Type list, select SSL OCSP.
6. For the Responders setting, select a responder server name from the Available list, and using the Move
button, move the name to the Selected list.
7. Click Finished.
You now have an SSL OCSP configuration object that an SSL OCSP profile can reference.
Creating a custom SSL OCSP profile
The next task in configuring SSL OCSP-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP® system is to create a
custom SSL OCSP profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select SSL OCSP from the Type list.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. Select an SSL OCSP configuration object from the Configuration list.
7. Select ssl_ocsp in the Parent Profile list.
8. Click Finished.
The custom SSL OCSP profile appears in the Profiles:Authentication:Profiles list.
Modifying a virtual server for SSL OCSP authentication
The final task in the process of implementing SSL OCSP authentication is to assign the custom SSL OCSP
profile to a virtual server that is configured to process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual server to which an
HTTP profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of a virtual server.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom SSL OSCP profile, and
using the Move button, move the custom SSL OSCP profile to the Selected field.
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Configuring Remote SSL OCSP Authentication
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom SSL OSCP profile.
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Chapter
41
Configuring Remote TACACS+ Authentication
•
•
Overview of remote authentication for
application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Remote TACACS+ Authentication
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP® system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts.
Task list
Creating a TACACS+ configuration object
A TACACS+ configuration object specifies information that the BIG-IP system needs to perform the remote
authentication. For example, the configuration object specifies the IP address of the remote TACACS+
server.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_tacacs_config.
5. From the Type list, select TACACS+.
6. For the Servers setting, select a server name in the Available list, and using the Move button, move the
name to the Selected list.
7. In the Secret field, type the secret key used to encrypt and decrypt packets sent or received from the
server.
Do not use the pound sign ( # ) in the secret for TACACS+ servers.
8. In the Confirm Secret field, re-type the secret you specified in the Secret field.
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9. From the Encryption list, select an encryption option:
Option
Description
Enabled
Choose this option if you want the system to encrypt the TACACS+
packets.
Disabled
Choose this option if you want the system to send unencrypted TACACS+
packets.
10. In the Service Name field, type the name of the service that the user is requesting to be authenticated
for use; typically, ppp.
Specifying the service makes it possible for the TACACS+ server to behave differently for different
types of authentication requests. Examples of service names that you can specify are: ppp, slip, arap,
shell, tty-daemon, connection, system, and firewall.
11. In the Protocol Name field, type the name of the protocol associated with the value specified in the
Service Name field.
This value is usually ip. Examples of protocol names that you can specify are: ip, lcp, ipx, stalk,
vines, lat, xremote, tn3270, telnet, rlogin, pad, vpdn, ftp, http, deccp, osicp, and unknown.
12. Click Finished.
You now have a configuration object that a TACACS+ authentication profile can reference.
Creating a custom TACACS+ profile
The next task in configuring TACACS+-based remote authentication on the BIG-IP® system is to create a
custom TACACS+ profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Authentication > Profiles.
The Profiles list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Authentication Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select TACACS+ from the Type list.
5. Select tacacs in the Parent Profile list.
6. Select the TACACS+ configuration object that you created from the Configuration list.
7. Click Finished.
The custom TACACS+ profile appears in the Profiles list.
Modifying a virtual server for TACACS+ authentication
The final task in the process of implementing authentication using a remote TACACS+ server is to assign
the custom TACACS+ profile and an existing default authentication iRule to a virtual server that is configured
to process HTTP traffic (that is, a virtual server to which an HTTP profile is assigned).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of a virtual server.
3. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
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Configuring Remote TACACS+ Authentication
4. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom TACACS+ profile, and
using the Move button, move the custom TACACS+ profile to the Selected field.
5. Click Update to save the changes.
The virtual server is assigned the custom TACACS+ profile.
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Chapter
42
Configuring Kerberos Delegation
•
•
Overview of remote authentication for
application traffic
Task Summary
Configuring Kerberos Delegation
Overview of remote authentication for application traffic
As an administrator in a large computing environment, you can set up the BIG-IP® system to use this server
to authenticate any network traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. This type of traffic passes through
a virtual server and through Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) interfaces. Remote authentication
servers typically use one of these protocols:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
TACACS+ (derived from Terminal Access Controller Access Control System [TACACS])
Online Status Certificate Protocol (OCSP)
Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP)
Kerberos
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts. For
example, if your remote authentication server is an LDAP server, you create an LDAP configuration object
and an LDAP profile. When implementing a RADIUS, SSL OCSP, or CRLDP authentication module, you
must also create a third type of object. For RADIUS and CRLDP authentication, this object is referred to
as a server object. For SSL OCSP authentication, this object is referred to as an OCSP responder.
Task Summary
To configure remote authentication for this type of traffic, you must create a configuration object and a
profile that correspond to the type of authentication server you are using to store your user accounts.
Task list
Creating a Kerberos Delegation configuration object
Use this procedure to create a configuration object for Kerberos delegation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, click Local Traffic > Profiles.
From the Authentication menu, choose Configurations.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the configuration object, such asmy_kerberos_config.
5. From the Type list, select Kerberos Delegation.
6. For the Enable Protocol Transition setting, retain the default value (cleared) or select the box.
7. In the Client Principal Name field, type the name of the client principal, using the format HTTP/[name],
where name is the name of the virtual server you created to use here.
This principal might be in a different domain from the server principal. If so, you should use the
domaintool(1) utility to create this principal, because the client principal must have the OK to
Delegate flag selected in the Microsoft Windows domain.
8. In the Server Principal Name field, type the name of the server principal (the back-end web server),
using the format HTTP/[fqdn], where fqdn is the fully-qualified domain name.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
This principal might be in a different domain from the client principal. If so, you should use the
domaintool(1) utility to add the domain. Also, you probably need to use the --dnsdomain option
to set up DNS-to-Kerberos realm mappings.
9. Click Finished.
Creating a Kerberos delegation profile object from the command line
You can create the Kerberos delegation profile object from the command line.
Set a cookie name and strong password for the cookie encryption key on the profile.
In this example, the cookie name is kerbc and the key is kerbc: create profile auth
my_kerberos_profile { configuration my_kerberos_config cookie-name kerbc
cookie-key kerbc defaults-from krbdelegate }
Note: The Cookie Key value is an encryption key that encrypts cookie data. A default value is supplied;
however, you should change the default value so that attackers who know this value cannot decrypt
cookie data and impersonate trusted users.
The Kerberos delegation profile object is available.
Creating a load balancing pool
You can create a load balancing pool (a logical set of devices such as web servers that you group together
to receive and process traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
Note: You must create the pool before you create the corresponding virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
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Configuring Kerberos Delegation
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server with Kerberos delegation and Client SSL profiles
You can create a virtual server with Kerberos delegation and Client SSL profiles.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 80, or select HTTP from the list.
6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
7. From the Type list, select Standard.
8. From the Protocol list, select TCP.
9. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
10. From the SSL Profile (Client) list, select a custom Client SSL profile.
11. For the Authentication Profiles setting, in the Available field, select a custom Kerberos delegation,
and using the Move button, move the custom Kerberos delegation to the Selected field.
12. From the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
13. Click Finished.
The virtual server with Kerberos delegation and Client SSL profiles appears in the Virtual Server list.
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Chapter
43
Load Balancing Diameter Application Requests
•
•
Overview: Diameter load balancing
Task summary
Load Balancing Diameter Application Requests
Overview: Diameter load balancing
An optional feature of the BIG-IP® system is its ability to load balance and persist requests that applications
send to servers running Diameter services. The BIG-IP system can also monitor each server to ensure that
the Diameter service remains up and running.
Task summary
You implement Diameter load balancing by creating various local traffic objects in an administrative
partition.
Task list
Creating a custom Diameter profile
The first task in configuring Diameter load balancing on the BIG-IP® system is to create a custom Diameter
profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > Diameter.
The Diameter profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Diameter profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Click Finished.
The custom Diameter profile appears in the New Diameter Profile list.
Creating a custom Diameter monitor
After you create a Diameter profile, you can create a custom Diameter monitor. The purpose of the Diameter
monitor is to monitor the health of all servers running the Diameter service.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
240
On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Monitors.
Click Create.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the monitor, such as my_diameter_monitor.
From the Type list, select Diameter.
Retain the default values for all other settings.
Click Finished.
BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
Creating a pool to manage Diameter traffic
The next step in a basic Diameter load balancing configuration is to define a load balancing pool that contains
Diameter servers as its members.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
6. Click Finished.
The pool is configured to manage Diameter servers as pool members.
Creating a virtual server to manage Diameter traffic
The final task in configuring Diameter load balancing is to define a virtual server that references the custom
Diameter profile and Diameter pool that you created in previous tasks.
Note: The virtual server to which you assign the Diameter profile must be a Standard type of virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
5.
6.
7.
8.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the Diameter Profile list, select a profile.
In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
Click Finished.
The virtual server that references the custom Diameter profile and Diameter pool appears in the Virtual
Server list.
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44
Configuring the BIG-IP System for Electronic Trading
•
•
•
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for
electronic trading
Task summary
Implementation result
Configuring the BIG-IP System for Electronic Trading
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for electronic trading
The BIG-IP® system Local Traffic Manager™ (LTM®) FIX profile provides you with the ability to use
Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol messages in routing, load balancing, persisting, and logging
connections. The BIG-IP system uses the FIX profile to examine the header, body, and footer of each FIX
message, and then process each message according to the parameters that it contains.
The BIG-IP system supports FIX protocol versions 4.2, 4.4, and 5.0, and uses the key-value pair FIX message
format.
Important: You cannot configure or use the BIG-IP FIX Profile to provide low-latency electronic trading
functionality. Instead, you must implement low-latency electronic trading functionality separately. Refer to
Implementing Low-Latency Electronic Trading Functionality for details.
Task summary
There are several tasks you can perform to implement electronic trading.
Task list
Creating a data group list for a FIX profile
You can create a data group list for a FIX profile that enables you to provide tag substitution, as required.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules > Data Group List.
The Data Group List screen opens, displaying a list of data groups on the system.
2. Click Create.
The New Data Group screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the data group.
4. From the Type list, select Integer.
5. Using the Integer Records setting, create tag mapping entries consisting of an integer (client tag) and
a value (server tag):
a) In the Integer field, type a value to be used for a specific client.
b) In the Value field, type a value that is substituted on the server.
c) Click Add.
The new mapping between the integer and corresponding value appears in the list of Integer Records.
6. Click Finished.
The new data group appears in the list of data groups.
A data group list for a FIX profile is available.
Creating a FIX profile for electronic trading
You can create a FIX profile for electronic trading, and steer traffic in accordance with specified parameters.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > FIX.
The FIX profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New FIX Profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. From the Parent Profile list, select a parent profile.
5. Select the Custom check box.
6. (Optional) From the Report Log Publisher list, select the publisher for error messages and status reports.
7. (Optional) From the Message Log Publisher list, select the publisher for message logging.
8. In the Rate Sample Interval field, type the sample interval, in seconds, for the message rate.
9. From the Error Action list, select one of the following settings.
•
•
Don't Forward (default) to drop a message with errors and not forward it.
Drop Connection to disconnect the connection.
10. Select the Quick Parsing check box to parse the basic standard fields, and validate the message length
and checksum.
11. Select the Response Parsing check box to parse the messages from the FIX server, applying the same
parser configuration and error handling for the server as for the client.
12. Select the Fully Parse Logon Message check box to fully parse the logon message, instead of using
quick parsing.
13. From the Sender and Tag Substitution Data Group Mapping list, select one of the following settings.
Setting
Description
Not Configured
(default)
Disables the tag substitution map between sender ID and tag substitution data
group.
Specify
Provides the Mapping List settings for you to configure as required.
1. In the Sender field, type a sender ID that represents the identity of the
firm sending the message.
Example: client1
2. In the Data Group field, type a tag substitution data group.
Example: FIX_tag_map
3. Click Add.
14. Click Finished.
The FIX profile is configured for electronic trading.
Creating a load balancing pool
You can create a load balancing pool (a logical set of devices such as web servers that you group together
to receive and process traffic) to efficiently distribute the load on your server resources.
Note: You must create the pool before you create the corresponding virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
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Configuring the BIG-IP System for Electronic Trading
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. For the Health Monitors setting, in the Available list, select a monitor type, and click << to move the
monitor to the Active list.
Tip: Hold the Shift or Ctrl key to select more than one monitor at a time.
5. From the Load Balancing Method list, select how the system distributes traffic to members of this
pool.
The default is Round Robin.
6. For the Priority Group Activation setting, specify how to handle priority groups:
•
•
Select Disabled to disable priority groups. This is the default option.
Select Less than, and in the Available Members field type the minimum number of members that
must remain available in each priority group in order for traffic to remain confined to that group.
7. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
8. Click Finished.
The load balancing pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for secure electronic trading
You first need to configure a FIX profile before configuring a virtual server for electronic trading.
You can configure a virtual server for electronic trading, using a FIX profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
In the Service Port field, type the port number used for the FIX message.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the Protocol list, select TCP.
From the Protocol Profile (Client) list, select a predefined or user-defined TCP profile.
(Optional) For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, from the Available list, select clientssl, and using the
Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
10. (Optional) For the SSL Profile (Server) setting, from the Available list, select serverssl, and using the
Move button, move the name to the Selected list.
11. From the FIX Profile list, select the FIX profile you want to assign to the virtual server.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
12. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
13. Click Finished.
A virtual server is configured for electronic trading, using a FIX profile.
Viewing FIX message statistics
You can view various statistics specific to FIX profile traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers > Statistics.
The Virtual Servers statistics screen opens.
2. From the Statistics Type list, select Profiles Summary.
3. In the Global Profile Statistics area, for the Profile Type FIX, click View in the Details.
The system displays information about the number of current connections, the number of messages, the
total message size, and the number of messages in the last sample interval.
The FIX profile statistics are available.
Implementation result
This implementation configures a BIG-IP® system to manage electronic trading functionality, provides you
with the ability to use Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol messages.
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45
Implementing Low-Latency Electronic Trading Functionality
•
•
•
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for
low-latency electronic trading
Task summary
Implementation result
Implementing Low-Latency Electronic Trading Functionality
Overview: Configuring the BIG-IP system for low-latency electronic trading
You can configure the BIG-IP® system to manage traffic for low-latency electronic trading. The BIG-IP
system optimizes Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol connections to achieve predictable latency
and jitter, a critical aspect of successful low-latency electronic trading. When you acquire a special license,
you can use the FastL4 profile to optimize the necessary connections, and use the Packet Velocity™ ASIC
(PVA) to minimize any latency and deliver high performance L4 throughput without software acceleration.
About FIX connections
The BIG-IP system can process a significant number of FIX connections, about 125K simultaneous
connections, which helps to achieve low latency and jitter. Additionally, the flow table can manage 256K
flows, as a connection includes 2 unilateral flows.
Note: When the number of connections exceeds approximately 10K connections, an infrequent connection
reset might occur, where a flow cannot be immediately cached, resulting in the client or server re-initiating
the connection attempt.
About induced latency for FIX connections
Induced latency, which is the latency realized after a FIX connection is established, typically has a duration
of approximately 10 µsecs or less.
About using TCP protocol for FIX clients and servers
The PVA only supports the TCP protocol, which requires FIX clients and servers to establish TCP
connections. When creating a virtual server to manage the traffic for low-latency electronic trading, you
will want to specify the TCP protocol setting.
Task summary
There are several tasks you can perform to implement low-latency electronic trading.
Task list
Implementing low-latency electronic trading functionality
In order to use a BIG-IP® system to manage low-latency electronic trading functionality, you must first
acquire a special license. Please contact your F5 Networks® support representative to acquire the necessary
license.
You can easily configure the BIG-IP system to manage low-latency electronic trading functionality
1. Type the following command to use tmsh:
tmsh
2. Modify the bigdb.dat file to only use the Packet Velocity™ ASIC (PVA) acceleration.
modify /sys db pva.acceleration value guaranteed
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
This command disables software acceleration system-wide, so that only PVA acceleration is used by
the Fast L4 profile.
3. Save the bigdb.dat file.
restart sys service tmm
The BIG-IP system is configured to use only PVA acceleration.
To use the configured PVA acceleration, you must create a Fast L4 profile and associate it with a virtual
server.
Creating a custom Fast L4 profile
You can create a custom Fast L4 profile to manage Layer 4 traffic more efficiently.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Protocol > Fast L4.
The Fast L4 screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Fast L4 profile screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
4. Select the Custom check box.
5. Set the TCP Close Timeout setting, according to the type of traffic that the virtual server will process.
6. Click Finished.
The custom Fast L4 profile appears in the list of Fast L4 profiles.
Creating a pool
You can create a pool of servers that you can group together to receive and process traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
5. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a virtual server for low-latency electronic trading
After you create a server pool, you need to create a virtual server that references the profile and pool you
created.
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Implementing Low-Latency Electronic Trading Functionality
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, in the Address field, type the IP address you want to use for the virtual
server.
The IP address you type must be available and not in the loopback network.
From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
From the Type list, select Performance (Layer 4).
From the Protocol list, select TCP.
From the Protocol Profile (Client) list, select a predefined or user-defined Fast L4 profile.
(Optional) For the Address Translation setting, clear the Enabled check box to implement direct server
return (DSR) functionality.
10. (Optional) For the Port Translation setting, clear the Enabled check box.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Important: Clearing the Enabled check box disables network address translation (NAT) functionality.
If you require NAT, you must select the Enabled check box.
11. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
12. Click Finished.
The virtual server is configured to use the specified Fast L4 profile and pool.
Implementation result
This implementation configures a BIG-IP® system to manage low-latency electronic trading functionality,
optimizing the system for predictable latency and jitter.
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46
Implementing Video Quality of Experience Functionality
•
Overview: Video Quality of Experience profile
Implementing Video Quality of Experience Functionality
Overview: Video Quality of Experience profile
The BIG-IP® system's video Quality of Experience (QoE) profile enables you to assess an audience's video
session or overall video experience, providing an indication of customer satisfaction. The QoE profile uses
static information, such as bitrate and duration of a video, and video metadata, such as URL and content
type, in monitoring video streaming. Additionally, the QoE profile monitors dynamic information, which
reflects the real-time network condition.
By considering both the static video parameters and the dynamic network information, the user experience
can be assessed and defined in terms of a single mean opinion score (MOS) of the video session, and a level
of customer satisfaction can be derived. QoE scores are logged in the ltm log file, located in /var/log,
which you can evaluate as necessary.
Task list
Creating an iRule to collect video Quality of Experience scores
You can create an iRule to use with a video Quality of Experience (QoE) profile that defines the QoE scores
to collect.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen opens, displaying any existing iRules.
2. Click Create.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name between 1 and 31 characters, such as my_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the syntax for the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For complete and detailed information about iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site
(http://devcentral.f5.com).
For example, the following iRule saves Content-Type to session DB with a 600-second lifetime.
…
when HTTP_REQUEST {
set LogString "Client [IP::client_addr]:[TCP::client_port] ->
[HTTP::host][HTTP::uri]"
set x_playback_session_id [HTTP::header "X-Playback-Session-Id"]
}
when HTTP_RESPONSE {
set content_type [HTTP::header "Content-Type"]
}
when CLIENT_CLOSED {
catch {
if { ($content_type contains "video") &&
([QOE::video available] == 1) } {
set qoe_params [list available width height duration nominal_bitrate
average_bitrate freeze_period freeze_frequency mos]
foreach param $qoe_params {
set value [QOE::video $param]
append params "$param=$value "
}
if {[string length $x_playback_session_id]}{
log local0. "$LogString X-Playback-Session-Id:
$x_playback_session_id QOE::video $params"
} else {
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
log local0. "$LogString QOE::video $params"
}
}
}
}
5. Click Finished.
The new iRule appears in the list of iRules on the system.
There is now an available iRule to use with a QoE profile that collects specified QoE scores.
Creating an iRule to collect static information about video files
You can create an iRule to collect static information specific to video files, primarily for use with Policy
Enforcement Manager™ (PEM).
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > iRules.
The iRule List screen opens, displaying any existing iRules.
2. Click Create.
The New iRule screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a name between 1 and 31 characters, such as my_iRule.
4. In the Definition field, type the syntax for the iRule using Tool Command Language (Tcl) syntax.
For complete and detailed information iRules syntax, see the F5 Networks DevCentral web site
(http://devcentral.f5.com).
For example, the following iRule collects static information specific to video files.
when QOE_PARSE_DONE {
set w [QOE::video width]
set h [QOE::video height]
set d [QOE::video duration]
set b [QOE::video nominal_bitrate]
log local0. "QOE_PARSE_DONE_ENABLED: width=$w height=$h
bitrate=$b duration=$d"
}
5. Click Finished.
The new iRule appears in the list of iRules on the system.
There is now an iRule available to collect static information specific to video files.
Creating a video Quality of Experience profile
You can use the Traffic Management shell (tmsh) to create a video Quality of Experience (QoE) profile to
use with Policy Enforcement Manager™ (PEM™) or Application Acceleration Manager™ (AAM™) and
determine a customer's video Quality of Experience.
1. Log in to the command-line interface of the system using the root account.
2. Open the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh).
tmsh
3. Create a video QoE profile.
create ltm profile qoe qoe_profile_name video true
This creates the video QoE profile.
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Implementing Video Quality of Experience Functionality
Creating a pool
You can create a pool of servers that you can group together to receive and process traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Pools.
The Pool List screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Pool screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
4. Using the New Members setting, add each resource that you want to include in the pool:
a) Type an IP address in the Address field.
b) Type a port number in the Service Port field, or select a service name from the list.
c) To specify a priority group, type a priority number in the Priority Group Activation field.
d) Click Add.
5. Click Finished.
The new pool appears in the Pools list.
Creating a video Quality of Experience virtual server
Before creating a video Quality of Experience (QoE) virtual server, you need to have created and configured
a video QoE profile.
You can assign video QoE profile to a virtual server.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. From the HTTP Profile list, select http.
4. In the Resources area, for the iRules setting, from the Available list, select the name of the iRule that
you want to assign, and using the Move button, move the name into the Enabled list.
5. In the Resources area of the screen, from the Default Pool list, select a pool name.
6. Click Finished.
7. Log in to the command-line interface of the system using the root account.
8. Open the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh).
tmsh
9. Assign the video QoE profile to the virtual server.
modify virtual_server_name profile add qoe_profile_name
This assigns the video QoE profile and iRules to the virtual server.
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Chapter
47
Securing Client-side SMTP Traffic
•
•
•
Overview: Securing client-side SMTP traffic
Task summary
Implementation result
Securing Client-side SMTP Traffic
Overview: Securing client-side SMTP traffic
You can add SSL encryption to SMTP traffic quickly and easily, by configuring an SMTPS profile on the
BIG-IP® system. SMTPS is a method for securing Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) connections at
the transport layer.
Normally, SMTP traffic between SMTP servers and clients is unencrypted. This creates a privacy issue
because SMTP traffic often passes through routers that the servers and clients do not trust, resulting in a
third party potentially changing the communications between the server and client. Also, two SMTP systems
do not normally authenticate each other. A more secure SMTP server might only allow communications
from other known SMTP systems, or the server might act differently with unknown systems.
To mitigate these problems, the BIG-IP system includes an SMTPS profile that you can configure. When
you configure an SMTPS profile, you can activate support for the industry-standard STARTTLS extension
to the SMTP protocol, by instructing the BIG-IP system to either allow, disallow, or require STARTTLS
activation for SMTP traffic. The STARTTLS extension effectively upgrades a plain-text connection to an
encrypted connection on the same port, instead of using a separate port for encrypted communication.
This illustration shows a basic configuration of a BIG-IP system that uses SMTPS to secure SMTP traffic
between the BIG-IP system and an SMTP mail server.
Figure 17: Sample BIG-IP configuration for SMTP traffic with STARTTLS activation
Task summary
To configure the BIG-IP ®system to process Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) traffic with SSL
functionality, you perform a few basic tasks.
Task list
Creating an SMTPS profile
This task specifies that STARTTLS authentication and encryption should be required for all client-side
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) traffic. When you require STARTTLS for SMTP traffic, the
BIG-IP® system effectively upgrades SMTP connections to include SSL, on the same SMTP port.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > Services > SMTPS.
The SMTPS profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
3.
4.
5.
6.
The New SMTPS Profile screen opens.
In the Name field, type a unique name for the profile.
Select the Custom check box.
From the STARTTLS Activation Mode list, select Require.
Click Finished.
The BIG-IP system is now required to activate STARTTLS for all client-side SMTP traffic.
Creating a Client SSL profile
You create a Client SSL profile when you want the BIG-IP® system to authenticate and decrypt/encrypt
client-side application traffic.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Profiles > SSL > Client.
The Client profile list screen opens.
2. Click Create.
The New Client SSL Profile screen opens.
3. Configure all profile settings as needed.
4. Click Finished.
After creating the Client SSL profile and assigning the profile to a virtual server, the BIG-IP system can
apply SSL security to the type of application traffic for which the virtual server is configured to listen.
Creating a virtual server and load-balancing pool
You use this task to create a virtual server, as well as a default pool of Simple Mail Transport Protocol
(SMTP) servers. The virtual server listens for, and applies SSL security to, client-side SMTP application
traffic. The virtual server then forwards the SMTP traffic on to the specified server pool.
Note: Using this task, you assign an SMTPS profile to the virtual server instead of an SMTP profile. You
must also assign a Client SSL profile.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the Create button.
The New Virtual Server screen opens.
3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
4. For the Destination setting, select the type, and type an address, or an address and mask, as appropriate
for your network.
5. In the Service Port field, type 25 or select SMTP from the list.
6. From the Configuration list, select Basic.
7. For the SSL Profile (Client) setting, in the Available box, select a profile name, and using the Move
button, move the name to the Selected box.
8. From the SMTPS Profile list, select the SMTPS profile that you previously created.
9. In the Resources area of the screen, for the Default Pool setting, click the Create (+) button.
The New Pool screen opens.
10. In the Name field, type a unique name for the pool.
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Securing Client-side SMTP Traffic
11. In the Resources area, for the New Members setting, select the type of new member you are adding,
then type the appropriate information in the Node Name, Address, and Service Port fields, and click
Add to add as many pool members as you need.
12. Click Finished to create the pool.
The screen refreshes, and reopens the New Virtual Server screen. The new pool name appears in the
Default Pool list.
13. Click Finished.
After performing this task, the virtual server applies the custom SMTPS and Client SSL profiles to incoming
SMTP traffic.
Implementation result
After you have created an SMTPS profile and a Client SSL profile and assigned them to a virtual server,
the BIG-IP system listens for client-side SMTP traffic on port 25. The BIG-IP system then activates the
STARTTLS method for that traffic, to provide SSL security on that same port, before forwarding the traffic
on to the specified server pool.
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Chapter
48
Controlling Responses to ICMP Echo Requests
•
•
•
About ICMP echo responses on the BIG-IP
system
Task summary
Implementation results
Controlling Responses to ICMP Echo Requests
About ICMP echo responses on the BIG-IP system
You can control whether the BIG-IP® system sends responses to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
echo requests, on a per-virtual address basis.
If you disable ICMP echo responses on a virtual address, the BIG-IP system never sends an ICMP echo
response for an ICMP request packet sent to the virtual address, regardless of the state of any virtual servers
associated with the virtual address. If you enable ICMP echo responses on a virtual address, the BIG-IP
system always sends an ICMP echo response for an ICMP request packet sent to the virtual address, regardless
of the state of any virtual servers associated with the virtual address.
Alternatively, you can selectively enable ICMP echo responses. Selectively enabling ICMP echo responses
causes the BIG-IP system to internally enable or disable ICMP responses for the virtual address, based on
which virtual server state you choose for enabling route advertisement. This table shows that for each
possible virtual server state that you can specify to enable route advertisement for a virtual address, the
system controls ICMP echo responses in a unique way.
Virtual server state for route advertisement ICMP echo response behavior
When any virtual server for that virtual address is
available
The BIG-IP system sends an ICMP echo response
for a request sent to the virtual address, if one or
more virtual severs associated with the virtual
address is in an Up or Unknown state.
When all virtual servers for that virtual address are The BIG-IP system always sends an ICMP echo
available
response for a request sent to the virtual address, but
only when all virtual servers are available.
When you want the system to always advertise a
route to the virtual address
The BIG-IP system always sends an ICMP echo
response for a request sent to the virtual address,
regardless of the state of any virtual servers
associated with the virtual address.
Task summary
You can configure the BIG-IP system to control whether the system sends a response for each ICMP echo
request that is sent to a BIG-IP virtual address.
Task list
Configuring ICMP echo responses for a virtual address
You perform this task to control the way that the BIG-IP® system controls responses to ICMP echo requests
sent to an individual BIG-IP virtual address. Note that the way you configure route advertisement for the
virtual address can affect the way that the system controls ICMP echo responses.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen displays a list of existing virtual servers.
2. On the menu bar, click Virtual Address List.
3. Click the name of the virtual server you want to configure.
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BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations
4. For the ICMP Echo setting, choose a value:
•
•
•
•
•
If you choose Enabled, the BIG-IP system always sends an ICMP echo response for an ICMP request
packet sent to the virtual address, regardless of the state of any virtual servers associated with the
virtual address
If you choose Disabled, the BIG-IP system never sends an ICMP echo response for an ICMP request
packet sent to the virtual address, regardless of the state of any virtual servers associated with the
virtual address.
If you choose Selective and route advertisement on a virtual address is set to When any virtual
server is available, the BIG-IP system sends an ICMP echo response for a request sent to the virtual
address, if one or more virtual severs associated with the virtual address is in an Up or Unknown
state.
If you choose Selective and route advertisement on a virtual address is set to When all virtual
server(s) are available, the BIG-IP system always sends an ICMP echo response for a request sent
to the virtual address, but only when all virtual servers are available.
If you choose Selective and route advertisement on a virtual address is set toAlways, the BIG-IP
system always sends an ICMP echo response for a request sent to the virtual address, regardless of
the state of any virtual servers associated with the virtual address.
Important: For those choices that depend on virtual server status, you must configure each relevant
virtual server to notify the virtual address of its status.
5. Click Update.
After performing this task, the virtual address configuration specifies the behavior that you want the BIG-IP
system to exhibit when controlling responses to ICMP echo requests.
Communicating virtual server status to a virtual address
You perform this task to control whether you want the BIG-IP® system to notify the associated virtual
address of the virtual server status. The BIG-IP system uses this status to control the way that the system
manages responses to any ICMP echo requests sent to the virtual address.
1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers.
The Virtual Server List screen opens.
2. Click the name of the virtual server you want to modify.
3. Select or clear the Notify Status to Virtual Address check box.
When you select this setting, the virtual server notifies its associated virtual address of its status with
respect to pool member availability.
4. Click Update to save the changes.
After you perform this task, the BIG-IP system reports the status of the virtual server to the associated virtual
address.
Implementation results
After you complete the tasks in this implementation, the BIG-IP® system controls responses to ICMP echo
requests according to the way that you configured the relevant virtual server and its virtual address.
263
Index
Index
A
adaptive connection reaping
configuring 207
attacks
mitigating 204
authentication
direct client-to-server 120
of clients and servers 114, 120
with CRLDP 212
with Kerberos delegation 236
authentication constraints
and database proxy 156
B
bigdb keys
for nPath routing 41
BIG-IP system
installing on same network 56
C
certificates
creating 66, 72, 78
requesting from CAs 84, 90
client and server authentication 114
client-server authentication 120
client-side authentication 84, 90
Client SSL forward proxy profiles
creating 115
Client SSL profiles
creating 67, 73, 79, 85, 91, 121, 259
Code Red attacks
preventing with iRules 204
compression profiles
configuring 134
connection limits
calculating 208
to ensure system availability 198
connection rate limits
about 198
and configuration results 198
creating for virtual servers 198
connection reaping
configuring 207
connection requests 198
connections
creating pools for 50, 68, 80, 86, 92, 100, 110, 126, 131,
139
limiting 198
queuing TCP connection requests 194
connection thresholds 209
connection timers
setting 208
content
defining with queries 33
content adaptation 96–97, 104–105
content adaptation configuration objects 101, 111
content-based routing
about 32
creating profile 32
viewing statistics 36
control channel optimization 171
cookie persistence
about 130
cookie profiles
creating 130
CRLDP authentication
configuring 212
CRLDP configuration objects
creating 212
curve name
specifying 78, 90
custom FTP monitors
and FTP load balancing 162, 168
creating 162, 168
custom monitors
creating 191
creating MS SQL 157
D
database access
about user-based 156
and the database proxy 156
database proxy
about LTM 156
database servers
creating a pool 157
data center topology
example of 56
data channel optimization 171
default route
for Layer 2 nPath configuration 38
setting 57
Denial of Service attacks
filtering 204
mitigating 204
preventing 198
tasks for 207
types of 205
destination IP addresses
creating for HTTP traffic 127
DHCP lease expiration 183
DHCP virtual servers
implementation results 180, 183
overview of 182
overview of managing 178
tasks for 179, 183
Diameter configuration
tasks for 240
Diameter monitors
creating 240
Diameter servers
monitoring 240
265
Index
Diameter service requests
load balancing 240
DoS attack prevention 204
DoS attacks, See Denial of Service attacks
downstream nodes
auto-configuring 200
E
ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) 78, 90
ECDSA
for authentication 78, 90
ECDSA key type
specifying 78, 90
eCommerce traffic
load balancing 50
electronic trading
about configuring FIX profile 244
creating virtual server for 246
implementing with FIX profile 244
viewing FIX message statistics 247
elliptic curve DSA
for authentication 78, 90
external files
and iRules 174
F
Fast L4 profiles
creating for L2 nPath routing 40, 251
files
importing 174–175
FIX profile
about configuring for electronic trading 244
creating virtual server for trading 246
implementing for trading 244
viewing message statistics 247
FIX protocol
supported versions 244
FIX protocol connections
about optimization 250
FTP configuration
tasks for 162, 168
FTP load balancing
and custom FTP monitors 162, 168
FTP passive mode 162, 168
FTP profiles
creating 168
defined 162
FTP traffic optimization 171
H
header values
for HTTP requests 97, 105
for HTTP responses 106
health monitoring
described 190
health monitors
assigning to pools 98, 106, 116, 121, 191, 237, 245
described 190
high-water mark thresholds 207
266
HTML content
and virtual servers 153
modifying 149
modifying/deleting 151
HTML tag attributes
modifying 149
HTTP compression
configuring 134
enabling 134
HTTP compression tasks
off-loading from server 134
HTTP content adaptation 96–97, 104–105
HTTP profiles
creating 67, 73, 79, 85, 91, 99, 110
HTTP request-header values 97, 105
HTTP requests
adapting content for 97, 105
HTTP response-header values 106
HTTP responses
adapting content for 105
compressing 134
HTTPS configuration results 69, 81, 87, 93
HTTPS traffic management
overview 78, 90
overview of 66, 84
HTTP traffic
managing with SPDY profile 138
using cookie persistence 130
using source address persistence 126
I
ICAP configuration objects 101, 111
ICAP content adaptation 96, 104
ICAP profiles
assigning 98, 107–108
ICMP echo responses
and virtual server status 263
controlling 262–263
ifile commands 174
iFiles
creating 175
imported files
listing 175
internal virtual servers
creating 98, 107–108
internal virtual server type
defined 96, 104
intranet configuration 22
IP addresses
checking IP reputation 62
IP address expiration 183
IP address intelligence
categories 63
checking database status 63
checking IP reputation 62
downloading the database 60
enabling 60
logging information 61
overview 60
rejecting bad requests 61
IP intelligence database 60, 63
Index
iprep_lookup command 62
iprep.autoupdate command 60
iprep-status command 63
IP reputation
overview 60
IPv4-to-IPv6 gateways
configuring 200
IPv6 addresses
load balancing to 200
IPv6 routing and solicitation messages 200
iRule commands
for iFiles 174
iRule events 35, 175–176
iRule queries 35
iRules
and external files 174
and iFiles 175
and XML routing 35
for attack prevention 204
for HTML content replacement 149
K
Kerberos configuration objects
creating 236
L
LDAP protocol 216, 224
load balancing
and monitors 190
local traffic policy
creating 152
logging
of IP address intelligence information 61
loopback interface
for nPath routing 41
low-latency electronic trading
creating virtual server for 251
implementation overview 250
implementing 250
results 247, 252
tasks for 244, 250
low-water mark thresholds 207
M
matching criteria
defining 32
memory utilization
and connection thresholds 207
monitors
assigning to pools 98, 106, 116, 121, 191, 237, 245
for health checking 190
for L3 nPath routing 45
for performance 190
monitor types 190
MS SQL database server
and configuring LTM as a proxy 156
MS SQL monitor
creating 157
MS SQL profile
and statistics 159
MS SQL profiles
customizing to configure user-based access 158
N
namespaces
adding 32
network security
protecting 204
network topology
for one-IP configuration 186
Nimda worm attack
preventing with iRules 204
nodes
and connection rate limits 198
nPath routing
and inbound traffic 41
and server pools 40
configuring for L3 44
configuring monitors for L3 45
defined for L2 38
defined for L3 44
example 46
for TCP and UDP traffic 39
O
OCSP protocol 228–229
OCSP responders
creating 228
OLTP
and virtual servers 159
OneConnect
creating a custom profile 158
one-IP network topology
illustration of 186
outgoing traffic
and L2 nPath routing 38
and L3 nPath routing 44
P
packets
discarding 204
performance monitors
assigning to pools 98, 106, 116, 121, 191, 237, 245
described 190
pool members
and connection rate limits 198
pool of database servers
creating 157
pools
creating 98, 106, 116, 121, 151, 191, 237, 245, 251, 256
creating for DHCP servers 179
creating for FTP traffic 164, 170
creating for HTTP 34
creating for HTTP traffic 50, 68, 80, 86, 92, 100, 110, 126,
131, 139
creating load balancing 23, 26, 200
creating to manage Diameter traffic 241
267
Index
pools (continued)
for HTTPS traffic 51, 74
for HTTP traffic 187
for L2 nPath routing 40
for L3 nPath routing 44
for SMTP traffic 259
profiles
creating CRLDP 213
creating custom Fast L4 40, 251
creating custom SSL OCSP 229
creating Diameter 240
creating for client-side SSL 67, 73, 79, 85, 91, 121
creating for client-side SSL forward proxy 115
creating for FTP 168
creating for HTTP 67, 73, 79, 85, 91, 99, 110
creating for server-side SSL 120
creating for server-side SSL forward proxy 115
creating LDAP 217
creating MS SQL for user-based access 158
creating RADIUS 221
creating Server SSL 74
creating SSL Client Certificate LDAP 225
creating TACACS+ 233
creating XML 32
for cookie persistence 130
for FTP traffic 162, 168
for IPIP encapsulation 44
for L3 nPath routing 44
proxy
about database authentication constraints 156
Proxy SSL feature
and Server SSL forward proxy profiles 115
and Server SSL profiles 120
described 120
implementing 120
R
RADIUS protocol 221
RADIUS server objects
creating 220
rate limits 198
remote CRLDP configuration
tasks for 212
remote Kerberos configuration
tasks for 236
remote LDAP configuration
tasks for 216
remote RADIUS configuration
tasks for 220
remote server authentication
and CRLDP protocol 212
and Kerberos protocol 236
and LDAP protocol 216
and OCSP protocol 228
and RADIUS protocol 220
and SSL LDAP protocol 224
and TACACS+ protocol 232
remote SSL LDAP configuration
tasks for 224
remote SSL OCSP configuration
tasks for 228
268
remote TACACS+ configuration
tasks for 232
remote traffic authentication
with CRLDP 212
with Kerberos delegation 236
request-header values 97, 105
requests, excessive 198
resource consumption 204
responders
creating for OCSP 228
response-header values 106
reverse proxy servers 148
Rewrite profile
creating 150
Rewrite profiles
rules for URI matching 149
route advertisement
and ICMP echo responses 262
route domains
and IPv6 addressing 200
routes
defining default 188
setting for inbound traffic 41
routing
and XML content 32
based on XML content 33
routing advisory messages 200
routing statistics
for XML content 36
routing XML content 36
S
security
for SMTP traffic 258
of network 204
self IP addresses
and VLAN groups 57
creating 57
removing from VLANs 57
self-signed certificates
creating 66, 72, 78
for HTTPS traffic 66, 78
server pools
for L2 nPath routing 40
for SMTP traffic 259
Server SSL forward proxy profiles
creating 115
Server SSL profiles
creating 120
SMTP security
about 258
SMTP server pools
creating 259
SMTPS profiles
creating 258
SMTP traffic
and port number 260
SNATs
configuring client 188
source address persistence
about 126
Index
SPDY profile
creating for an npn header 140
overview 138
SPDY profile implementation
task summary 138
SPDY traffic
creating virtual servers for 141
creating virtual servers for redirecting 140
SSL authentication
configuration results 75, 123
SSL encryption/decryption
configuration results 75, 123
with Proxy SSL feature 120
with SSL forward proxy feature 114
SSL forward proxy authentication
configuration results 118
SSL forward proxy encryption
configuration results 118
SSL Forward Proxy feature
described 114
SSL forward proxy profiles
creating 114
SSL OCSP authentication 228–229
SSL profiles
creating 120, 259
SSL security
for SMTP traffic 258, 260
STARTTLS method
about 258
activating 258, 260
statistics
and MS SQL profiles 159
for XML routing 36
SYN Check threshold
activating 209
SYN flood attacks 204
T
TACACS+ protocol 232
Tcl variables 36
TCP connection timers
setting 208
TCP requests
queuing overview 194
TCP traffic
and nPath routing 39
timers
setting 208
traffic distribution 50
traffic forwarding
automating 35
translation rules
for URIs 150
U
UDP connection timers
setting 208
UDP traffic
and nPath routing 39
URI rules
requirements for specifying 149
URI translation
and virtual servers 153
example of 148
URI translation rules
149
creating 150
user-based database access
about 156
V
Via header
disabling 144
identifying intermediate protocols 144
identifying intermediate proxies 144
overview 144
task summary 144
video Quality of Experience
creating iRule to collect scores 254
creating iRule to collect static information 255
creating profile 255
creating virtual server 256
Video Quality of Experience
overview 254
virtual addresses
and loopback interface 41
controlling ICMP echo responses 262
virtual server
creating for low-latency electronic trading 251
virtual servers
and connection limits 208
and connection rate limits 198
and cookie persistence 131
and database transaction requests 159
and HTML content 153
and internal type 96, 104
and OLTP 159
and URI translation 153
applying a rate class 208
creating 23, 98, 107–108, 192, 201
creating an iRule for HTTP headers 139
creating connection rate limits for 198
creating DHCP relay type 180
creating for application traffic 117, 122
creating for Diameter traffic traffic 241
creating for FTP traffic 164, 171
creating for HTTP compression 135
creating for HTTPS traffic 52, 68, 75, 80, 86, 92
creating for HTTP traffic 52, 127, 140
creating for Kerberos delegation 237
creating for one-IP network 58
creating for redirecting SPDY traffic 140
creating for SPDY traffic 141
creating for video Quality of Experience 256
creating for web hosting 100, 111, 187
creating with Kerberos and SSL 238
DHCP relay type overview 178
DHCP renewal 182
for DHCP renewal 183
for inbound traffic 27
269
Index
virtual servers (continued)
for L2 nPath routing 38, 40
for L3 nPath routing 44
for outbound traffic 27
for secure SMTP traffic 259
modifying for CRLDP authentication 213
modifying for LDAP authentication 217
modifying for RADIUS authentication 221
modifying for SSL Client Certificate LDAP authorization
225
modifying for SSL OCSP authentication 229
modifying for TACACS+ authentication 233
setting connection limits on 208
virtual server status
reporting 263
VLAN external
creating self IP addresses for 28
VLAN groups
and self IP addresses 57
creating 57
VLANs
enabling SNAT automap 28
for eCommerce traffic 50
removing self IP addresses 57
270
W
web servers
load balancing to 58
X
XML content
routing 32
XML content-based routing
and traffic forwarding 35
XML profiles
creating 32
XML routing
example of 35
XPath expressions
samples of syntax 34
XPath queries
creating 32
rules for writing 33
XPath query
examples 34
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