TMC 301 - Structures Examination Manual (pdf 3.3MB)

TMC 301 - Structures Examination Manual (pdf 3.3MB)
TN 072: 2014
For queries regarding this document
standards@asa.transport.nsw.gov.au
www.asa.transport.nsw.gov.au
Technical Note
TN 072: 2014
Issued date
Effective date
02 September 2014
02 September 2014
Subject:
Examination of hidden structures
This technical note supplements the requirements of RailCorp manual TMC 301 Structures
Examination Version 2.0 and shall be read in conjunction with that document. This technical
note was developed from CTN 13/02 and replaces it in full.
1.
General
Hidden structures are defined as structures or components of a structure that are obscured in
such a way that they are not readily visible. They are generally obscured by non-structural
panels such as architectural linings, false ceilings and advertising panels. The examination of
hidden structures is important to assure ongoing structural integrity.
Listed below are examples of hidden structures:

superstructure beams hidden by false ceilings

columns hidden by architectural coverings

bridge piers, parapets or abutment walls obscured by advertising panels
Many hidden structures occur at pedestrian subways. Refer to Table 1 for a list of pedestrian
subways.
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Table 1 – List of pedestrian subways
Maintenance
responsibility
area
Location
Central
Illawarra
North
West
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










Ashfield ( x 3)
Burwood
Central ( x 2)
Central Devonshire
St
Edgecliff
Eveleigh
Lavender Bay
Leichhardt ( x 2)
Lewisham
Macdonaldtown
Milsons Point
Newtown Trafalgar St
Petersham
Stanmore
Summer Hill
Sydenham
Sydney Yard ( x 2)
Wynyard Argyle St
Yagoona
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Banksia
Como ( x 2)
Cronulla
East Hills
Engadine
Kogarah
Minnamurra ( x 2)
Miranda
Narwee
North Wollongong
Port Kembla North
Stanwell Park
Sutherland
Wolli Creek
Wollongong
Artarmon ( x 2)
Beecroft
Broadmeadow
Chatswood
Concord West (x 2)
Eastwood ( x 2)
Gordon
Lindfield
Mt Kuring-gai
Point Clare ( x 2)
Waitara
West Ryde
Wollstonecraft
Auburn ( x 2)
Berala
Carramar
Dundas
Fairfield
Flemington
Guildford
Katoomba
Lawson
Lidcombe
Merrylands
Parramatta ( x 4)
Springwood
Strathfield ( x 2)
Wentworthville
Westmead
Woodford
Infrastructure
Facilities
 East Maitland
 Harden
Delivery Support
Unit
 Glebe
Asset Standards Authority
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Other hidden structures are present at the following locations:

Epping to Chatswood Rail Link (ECRL) underground stations

Chatswood Transport Interchange

Parramatta Transport Interchange

Chatswood Rail Enclosure Structure (RES)
For the purposes of this technical note, footings and piles that are buried below ground or in
permanent water are not considered to be hidden structures.
2.
Examination of hidden structures
For structures hidden behind removable panels, some panels shall be removed during detailed
examination to allow examination of a sample of the hidden structure.
Examination shall be visual and, where necessary, with the aid of inspection technology such as
closed circuit television equipment or cameras on a flexible fibre optic cable.
Examine structures as closely and in as much detail as possible within the access constraints.
The underlying requirement is that the examiner must be able to tell whether there is a defect or
not in the area being inspected.
The extent and location of removed panels shall be determined to provide a representative
sample for assessment of the overall condition of the hidden structure. For subways, a
reasonable sample would be approximately 5% to 10% of total surface area of hidden structure
for a suburban subway such as at Stanmore station and 3% to 5% of total surface area for a
major subway such as the Devonshire Street subway. These figures are indicative only and
depend on the complexity of the structure being examined and practicality of obtaining access.
For bridges, the sample should include 50% of structurally critical members.
Prior to carrying out the examination, a detailed plan identifying areas to be examined and
arrangements for removing panels shall be prepared. Drawings of the structure shall be
reviewed to identify the details of the hidden structural components and panel fixings. Where
various forms of construction are present, the sample areas shall be selected to cover each of
the different forms of construction.
Where the initial examination of hidden components indicates that significant deterioration is
present, further examination and investigation shall be carried out to assess the extent of
significant deterioration.
If there is significant deterioration of at least one Category D or higher defect, on every
subsequent cycle inspect the zone of significant deterioration and new sample areas as
described below.
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If there is little or no deterioration, that is no defect or only a Category E defect, vary the sample
areas inspected at each examination so that the extent of the hidden structure that has been
examined is progressively increased.
For structures hidden behind non-removable linings, look for evidence of deterioration and
develop further inspection actions accordingly.
Evidence of deterioration includes the following:

structure movement, cracking

water seepage

rust staining, spalling and cracking

distortion or displacement of the cladding

ballast degradation, track pumping at track level above the structure

cracks in platform walls or other structures at track level above the structure
For structures behind non-removable linings, obtain advice from the AEO technical
representative on requirements for providing access to the hidden structure to allow detailed
inspection and assessment of structure condition. The AEO technical representative shall be an
appropriately qualified senior bridges and structures engineer.
3.
Examination reports
Examination reports shall clearly identify and detail the extent of structure examined and the
examination method. A diagram including key dimensions shall be prepared to clearly identify
the structure, sample examination areas, components examined, and examination dates for the
areas examined. Examination reports shall include a comprehensive photographic record,
including identifying labels, of the hidden components that have been uncovered during the
examination.
4.
Technical maintenance plans
The requirements of this technical note shall apply in addition to the requirements of current
technical maintenance plans (TMP). Over time, site specific examination requirements for
hidden structures will be developed in a tailored TMP for examination of hidden structures.
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Authorisation
Technical content
prepared by
Checked and
approved by
Interdisciplinary
coordination
checked by
Authorised for
release
Name
Dorothy Koukari
Richard Hitch
David Spiteri
Graham Bradshaw
Position
Senior
Engineer
Standards
Lead Civil Engineer
Chief Engineer Rail
Principal
Manager
Network Standards &
Services
Signature
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www.asa.transport.nsw.gov.au
Technical Note
TN 068: 2014
Issued date
Effective date
13 August 2014
13 August 2014
Subject:
Revised requirements for examination of structures
and examination frequencies in TMC 301 Structures
Examination
This technical note is issued by the Asset Standards Authority as an update to RailCorp
standard TMC 301 Structures Examination, Version 2.0.
This technical note was developed using the content from RailCorp technical notes CTN 12/14
and CTN 13/11, and ASA technical note TN 001: 2013. It includes information relating to
revised requirements for detailed examination of structures for crib walls, close-up examination
of structures, and examination frequencies for steel underbridges and concrete underbridges.
This technical note replaces CTN 12/14, CTN 13/11 and TN 001: 2013 in full.
Other standards that are similarly affected include the following:

ESC 100 Civil Technical Maintenance Plan

ESC 302 Defect Limits

TMC 110 Structures Service Schedules
1.
Background
1.1
Revised requirements for the detailed examination of
structures – crib walls
In June 2013, a retaining wall at Harris Park collapsed. The investigation that followed included
a review of existing engineering standards related to retaining structures. The review identified
gaps in the documentation and recommended that relevant engineering standards be amended.
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1.2
Revision to requirements for close-up examination of
structures
The requirements for close-up examination of structures were reviewed and the revised
requirements are detailed in this technical note. The revision includes the replacement of
Section C5-5.1 Detailed examinations, and the replacement of the table in Appendix 5
Structurally critical members.
1.3
Revised examination frequencies for steel underbridges and
concrete underbridges
As part of the 2013 RailCorp Technical Maintenance Plan (TMP) review project, the
examination frequencies for steel underbridges and concrete underbridges were amended.
The new requirements are based on the age of the bridge under consideration.
2.
Summary of updates
The following sections of TMC 301 are updated by this technical note:

Chapter 2 Management requirements

Chapter 3 Competencies

Chapter 5 Examination process

Chapter 6 Deterioration modes

Chapter 8 Recording and reporting examination results

Chapter 9 Assessment of examination results

Chapter 13 Examination of miscellaneous structures

Appendix 4 Defect limits

Appendix 5 Structurally critical members

Appendix 6 Structures examination report forms
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3.
Updates to TMC 301
3.1
Chapter 2 Management requirements
C2-1.6 Civil Maintenance Engineer
The following bullet point is to be included in C2-1.6, as an additional responsibility of the Civil
Maintenance Engineer:

arranging the periodic engineering assessments of bridges
C2-1.8
Head of Civil Design
Replace the entire section with the following:
The Head of Civil Design is responsible for the following:

allocation of bridges and structures engineers to perform load and fatigue damage ratings
and engineering assessments of bridges

allocation of bridges and structures engineers to respond to special requests from field
staff (for example, Structures Manager or Civil Maintenance Engineer) for design
assistance
3.2
Chapter 3 Competencies
Replace the entire chapter with the following:
Detailed examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with:

TLIB3098A Examine concrete/masonry structures

TLIB3088A Examine steel structures
General examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with:

TLIB3098A Examine concrete/masonry structures

TLIB3088A Examine steel structures

TBA Structures Assessment
Cursory examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with:

TLIB3100A Visually inspect track infrastructure
Special examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with:

TLIB3098A Examine concrete/masonry structures

TLIB3088A Examine steel structures
Underwater examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with the qualifications and
experience as detailed in T HR CI 12005 ST Underwater Examination of Structures.
Assessment of structures shall be carried out by persons with:
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
ES67 TMC 305 Engineering Structures Assessment
Engineering Assessment of bridges shall be carried out by bridges and structures engineers
under the Head of Civil Design.
3.3
Chapter 5 – Section 5.1 Detailed examinations
Replace Chapter 5-5.1 Detailed examinations with the following:
C5-5.1 Detailed examinations
C5-5.1.1 General
Detailed examinations shall be conducted by the Bridge Examiner, Structures Inspector or
Structures Manager.
These examinations are a detailed investigation of all aspects of the condition of a structure.
They involve close-up visual examination of all members of the structure.
The underlying requirement is that the examiner must be able to tell whether there is a defect
with defect category A to E or not in the member being examined and be able to measure any
identified defects.
The examination shall be at a level of detail sufficient to record the condition of the structure for
the purposes of:

determining required repairs or remedial actions

load rating a bridge
It is recognised that close-up access to all parts of some structures may be difficult and
expensive, requiring major track possessions or road closures and extensive scaffolding.
On the TfNSW rail network, some structures are more critical than others and, within structures,
some members are more critical than others.
To ensure that examination resources are effectively utilised, the following requirements for
close-up examination apply:

for structures and members as detailed in Section C5-5.1.2, close-up means examination
from within one metre of the member

for other structures and members as detailed in Section C5-5.1.3, close-up means
examination from as close as reasonably practicable and using, where necessary,
binoculars or other suitable equipment
C5-5.1.2 Examination from within one metre
C5-5.1.2.1 General
Close-up examination from within one metre is required for:

Readily accessible members of all structures
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
members of bridges and OHWS as detailed in Table 1, whether readily accessible or not

culverts, using mobile CCTV cameras where necessary
Refer to the Table 1 for the definition of readily accessible and for further details for examination
within one metre of these structures and members.
C5-5.1.2.2 Management requirements
Any nominated members that are not examined from within one metre within the nominated
cycle time shall be:

reported on the Weekly Summary of Exceedents form as a Category D exceedent

managed as an overdue examination in accordance with the management and reporting
requirements in Section 8 of ESC 100 Civil Technical Maintenance Plan
It is not permissible to miss examining structurally critical members from within 1 metre. Risk
mitigation actions determined in accordance with ESC 100 shall be implemented until the
examination from within one metre can be carried out. Refer to Appendix 5.
For non-structurally critical members, it is not permissible to miss examination from within one
metre on two consecutive cycles. Risk mitigation actions determined in accordance with
ESC 100 shall be implemented until the examination from within one metre can be carried out.
All risk mitigation assessments and actions shall be documented in the Bridge Management
System (BMS) in the ‘comments’ field of the examination report.
C5-5.1.3 Examination from more than one metre
Close-up examination from more than one metre applies to:

all members of structures that do not comply with the definition of readily accessible

bridges – concrete substructures and masonry substructures

OHWS – all structures and members of structures not specified for examination from
within one metre
Refer to the Table 1 for additional details for examination from more than one metre of these
structures and members.
C5-5.1.4 Defects
The underlying requirement is that the examiner must be able to determine at every cycle
whether there is a defect or not in the member being examined.
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If a defect is detected by inspection from more than one metre (including by using binoculars),
then a determination is to be made, at that time, as to whether a close-up examination from
within one metre is required in the short term to confirm the defect extent and severity. The
determination, including the timing of close-up examination, would be based on a judgement by
the Structures Manager of the potential severity and consequences of the defect(s). If so, closeup examination is to be programmed and carried out as soon as practicable. It is not acceptable
to wait until the next examination cycle. Determination details are to be recorded in the
‘comments’ field of the examination report.
Once a defect has been identified and measured, further measurements are to be made and
recorded on every cycle until the defect is repaired.
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Table 1 – Examination details for examinations within one metre
Service
Description
Safety
Importance
Applicability
Frequency
Comments
S
Readily accessible members of all structures
Every cycle
Readily accessible means members of structures that can be
readily reached/ viewed within one metre without the need for
special access equipment from:
 the bridge deck
 the ground
 a boat
 access gantries already attached to the bridge
 an access walkway attached to a structure e.g. signal gantries
Note that track possession may be required to provide accessibility
S
Structurally critical members of bridges
Every cycle
Refer to Appendix 5 of TMC 301 for a list of structurally critical
members
S
The following members of underbridges, overbridges
and footbridges (except structurally critical members):
 Trusses
 Steel superstructures
 Concrete superstructures
 Bearings
 Steel substructures
 Fastenings and welds of steel truss, superstructure
and substructure members
Every cycle
for readily
accessible
members
Refer to definition of readily accessible above
Every
second cycle
for nonreadily
accessible
members
Where the members are not readily accessible to within one metre,
mobile access equipment (e.g. elevated work platforms, inspection
units), scaffolding or abseiling equipment shall be used on every
nd
2 cycle.
On the alternate cycle, close-up inspection is from as close as
reasonably practicable and using, where necessary, binoculars and
cameras.
Structures
Detailed
structures
examination from
within one metre
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Service
Description
Safety
Importance
Applicability
Frequency
Comments
The following members of OHWS:
 Support areas at footings and where attached to
cuttings, tunnels and bridges
 All members of old structures i.e. non-galvanised
structures or structures pre mid-1980’s, including
fastenings and welds of steel members, (except
single mast structures)
Every cycle
for readily
accessible
members
Refer to definition of readily accessible above
Every
second cycle
for
non-readily
accessible
members
Where the members are not readily accessible to within one metre,
mobile access equipment (e.g. elevated work platforms, inspection
units), scaffolding or abseiling equipment shall be used on every
2nd cycle.
On the alternate cycle, close-up inspection is from as close as
reasonably practicable and using, where necessary, binoculars and
cameras.
S
Culverts
Every cycle
Where culverts are not readily accessible for examination within
one metre, mobile CCTV cameras shall be used
S
All members of structures that do not comply with the
definition of readily accessible and are not specified for
examination from within one metre in previous sections
Every cycle
Readily accessible means members of structures that can be
readily reached/ viewed within one metre without the need for
special access equipment from:
 the bridge deck
 the ground
 a boat
 access gantries already attached to the bridge
 an access walkway attached to a structure e.g. signal gantries
For the applicable members close-up inspection is from as close as
reasonably practicable and using, where necessary, binoculars and
cameras
S
Bridges:
 Concrete substructures
 Masonry substructures
Every cycle
For these members close-up inspection is from as close as
reasonably practicable and using, where necessary, binoculars and
cameras
S
OHWS:
 All structures and members of structures not
specified for examination from within one metre
Every cycle
For these members close-up inspection is from as close as
reasonably practicable and using, where necessary, binoculars and
cameras
Structures
Detailed
structures
examination from
within one metre
Detailed
Structures
Examination
from more than
one metre
S
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Service
Description
Safety
Importance
Applicability
Frequency
Comments
Minimum 1 in 20 sample of OHWS:
 horizontal members
 connection points between horizontal and vertical
members
 splices and angle bracing including connections
Every cycle
This inspection does not need to be from within one metre, but
access equipment or inspection technology such as CCTV shall be
used to ensure inspection from the top of the structure.
When selecting the sample, priority should be given to older type
structures and other structures based on condition. The same
structures are not to be inspected on the following cycle(s).
Different structures are to be included in the sample on subsequent
cycles. The sample should be distributed across the District.
Where a sample structure has significant defects i.e. category C or
higher, the structures on either side shall also be inspected using
access equipment. This sampling process is to continue until no
significant defects are detected.
Structures
Detailed
Structures
Examination
from more than
one metre
S
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3.3.1
Chapter 5 – Section 5.7 Engineering assessments
Add a new sub section after C5-5.6, as shown below:
C5-5.7 Engineering assessments
Every steel underbridge or concrete underbridge listed in Table 2 of Technical Note
TN 065: 2014 must undergo an engineering assessment review at regular intervals by a suitably
qualified professional engineer. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the safety, stability and
functionality of the bridge, the conformity of its design and construction with good practice and
safety standards and to determine appropriate remedial measures.
The review must be
conducted no later than 30 years after the commissioning of the new bridge and updated at
least every 30 years.
C5-5.7.1 Steps involved in engineering assessment
a)
Collect background information on the bridge. (This shall include all relevant historical
investigation, design, construction, remedial, operation and maintenance, monitoring and
inspection data).
b)
Carry out a detailed examination of the bridge to assess all relevant condition parameters
including detailed measurements of section loss to permit accurate assessment of ‘as is’
load rating.
c)
Carry out sufficient sampling and testing of materials for all major elements of the bridge
to determine remaining life and associated relevant maintenance activities (for example,
testing of depth of chloride penetration for estimating time to onset of corrosion).
d)
Compare the performance of the bridge with original design and assess the theoretical
performance of the bridge against current standard and guidelines.
e)
In case of incomplete documentation, further investigation may be required for the first
engineering assessment. Typical investigation activities include:
f)
i)
survey to establish lines and dimensions
ii)
testing of foundation material if required
iii)
geological drilling and mapping if required
iv)
research or calculate recent flood estimates
v)
updating of earthquake forces
Particular attention to be given to changes in operation of a bridge that may have
occurred since construction. Check as to whether it can withstand appropriate loadings
(including seismic) in accordance with current engineering practice.
g)
Recommendations shall be made for the following:
i)
live load ‘as new’ and ‘as is’ load rating
ii)
remaining fatigue life
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iii)
necessary repairs including preliminary sketches and cost estimates
iv)
time frames for implementation of repairs
v)
any restrictions on operations required (for example load restriction)
vi)
any changes to the examination program
vii)
the adequacy of the bridge examination, operation and maintenance activities to
date and any identified areas for improvement
Engineering assessment is generally based on the age of the bridge and a maximum 30 year
cycle but may also be initiated in response to issues such as:
3.4

an absence of design and construction documentation

a regulatory requirement

detection of abnormal behaviour

proposal to modify a bridge

changes in loading condition
Chapter 6 Deterioration modes
Add new subsection, C6-5 Deterioration modes in crib wall structures, after C6-4.3 as shown
below:
C6-5 Deterioration modes in crib wall structures
C6-5.1 General
The main indicators of deterioration in crib wall retaining structures are loss of infill; local
deformation; cracking of crib members; and corrosion of steel reinforcement.
Other factors to be taken into consideration may include the age of the structure; frequency and
magnitude of rainstorms; effectiveness of sub-soil drainage and capping; differential settlement
in wall members; and vegetation management.
In general, crib wall structures deteriorate in the following ways:

crushing of crib members

development of voids between headers

corrosion of steel reinforcement

ineffective drainage system

differential settlement between rows of stretchers

settlement of embankment

bulging of wall, or sliding of crib members

vegetation growth
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
concrete spalling
C6-5.2 Crushing of crib members
Crushing or cracking of crib members (headers, false headers and stretchers) is caused by high
vertical loads and can be identified by visual inspection. The most obvious location to check this
mode of deterioration is near the bottom of the crib wall. Crushed crib members usually exhibit a
vertical straight crack. Usually the initial crushing of a crib member would lead to crushing of
adjacent members following load redistribution.
C6-5.3 Loss of infill and backfill material
Infill and backfill loss occurs due to insufficient compaction, leading to erosion. The loss of infill
material reduces the soil support under the crib members, which means they are more prone to
bend and crack. Moreover, the loss of infill also decreases the weight of the wall which reduces
the overall stability.
C6-5.4 Corrosion of steel reinforcement
As for concrete structures, corrosion can be caused by many factors, including weathering or
chemical action. Signs of corrosion should be evident during inspection, such as rust staining.
Corrosion of reinforcement will reduce concrete capacity and accelerate the rate of deterioration
after initial concrete cracking.
C6-5.5 Ineffective drainage system
This mode of deterioration is characterised by blockage in the back of the wall drainage system.
The crib wall is usually designed and constructed using free draining gravels as infill and backfill
material to relieve hydrostatic pressure build up. However, if the drainage system is not
functioning as intended, the wall will experience additional unforseen forces during every
rainstorm when high hydrostatic pressure may build up. The permeability of compacted sand is
likely to be reduced with time due to deposition of fine particles within the pores. Draining
materials have to be clearly defined with grading. This mode of deterioration may lead to
sudden failure of the crib wall.
C6-5.6 Differential settlement and movement
Differential settlement, as reflected by vertical cracks through the wall, can be caused by many
factors including an uneven foundation settlement or misalignment of headers during
construction.
The horizontal movement of the wall, as characterised by localised bulging, can be caused by
vegetation growth or increased lateral load. Measurements may be needed to ascertain the
magnitude of the movement.
C6-5.7 Vegetation growth
Vegetation growth is a natural occurrence and appears in many crib walls. Large trees tend to
undermine the structural integrity of the wall by cracking crib members (through protrusion) or
locally bulging the wall, particularly at the top.
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C6-5.8 Settlement of embankment
The settlement of the embankment resulting from the outward movement of the crib wall is
usually characterised by cracks forming at the top of the embankment parallel to the wall. This
observation is a good tell-tale that the wall is moving and requires further assessment by an
engineer.
3.5
Chapter 8 Recording and reporting examination results
C8-6.2.2 Defect comments
Add the three crib wall items to the examples of typical defects in structures as shown in Table
2:
Table 2 - C8-6.2.2 Defect comments
Examination form/item
Comment re defect
Retaining Wall –
masonry/concrete
Cracking/spalling
Diagonal cracking 2 m from Sydney end, 1 m long and up to 2
to 3 mm width
Weep holes
90 % ineffective (blocked with dirt and vegetation)
Crib Walls
Header/stretcher
Crushing of 3 members at bottom of wall
Infill material (void)
Infill loss covering area of 1 m2, 1 m long at ⅓ height from
bottom
Vegetation
Tree trunk (100 mm) observed to protrude through the wall
C8-6.2.3 Action required
Add the three crib wall items to the examples of defects as shown in Table 3:
Table 3 - C8-6.2.3 Action required
Defect
Description of action
Light to moderate corrosion
Strip back corroded material and repaint.
Severe corrosion
Strip back corroded material, plate & repaint or Further
investigation of extent of corrosion required
Breakdown of protective
coating at connections and
exposed locations
Spot paint where necessary
Crib walls: Cracked
headers
Crib walls: Loss of infill
material
Crib walls: Vegetation
growth
Provide stabilisation
Concrete cracked and
spalled, reinforcement
exposed and corroded
Further investigation of cause and appropriate remedy as
required
A3600433
© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
Refill the void with approved material
Cut the trunk and poison its growth
Asset Standards Authority
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C8-8 Recording and reporting engineering assessments
Engineering assessments shall be recorded as engineering reports with the following primary
sections, which are to be supplemented with appropriate subsections:

Executive summary

Introduction

Methodology

Assessment findings

Summary of results

Conclusions

Recommendations

Appendices (including relevant background data, bridge examination report, calculations,
analysis outputs, sketches, and captioned photos).
The report shall be signed by the report's author, reviewer and approver.
3.6
Chapter 9 Assessment of examination results
C9-6 Engineering assessments
The Structures Manager shall arrange for Engineering Assessment reports to be reviewed by
bridges and structures engineers under the Head of Civil Design to confirm the
recommendations in the report.
The Structures Manager shall carry out an assessment of each bridge following receipt of the
Engineering Assessment report in accordance with Section C9-4, including installing the report
into the BMS with defect categories and repair priorities and entering final defect categories and
repair priorities into Teams 3.
3.7
Chapter 13 Examination of miscellaneous structures
C13-2 Retaining walls and platforms
Insert the following after the second paragraph:
In addition, the following shall be recorded for crib walls:

wall distortion/bulging, relative displacement, settlement

visible concrete elements (stretchers and headers) – condition, particularly at the base

fill material – type and estimated loss and compaction.

effectiveness of drainage system

water saturation
A3600433
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Asset Standards Authority
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
3.8
any vegetation
Appendix 4 Defect limits
Insert the following at Section E after the item ‘Wingwall’ as shown in Table 4:
Table 4 – Addition to Appendix 4 Defect limits
Member
Defect type
Defect size
Defect category
Mandatory
repair priority
Abutments and
wingwalls
Horizontal
displacement
More than
50 mm
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Rotation
More than
1H:20V
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Cracking at
embankment/fill
behind wall
More than
10 mm wide
crack parallel to
wall and more
than 2 m long
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Earth slump or
slip at
embankment/fill
behind wall
Readily visible
and more than
2 m long
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Replace Section O with the following:
Table 5 – Section O replacement
O. Retaining Walls and Platform Walls
Member
Mass concrete
walls, reinforced
concrete walls,
masonry walls
(excluding
platform walls)
Refer to ‘All
walls
(movement)’ for
movement
parameters
Reinforced
concrete panels
at post and
panel walls
Refer to ‘All
walls
(movement)’ for
movement
parameters
Defect Type
Crack
Lateral
dislocation
Crack
Defect Size
Defect
Category
More than
10 mm wide and
more than 2 m
long
C – 24hr action
More than
10 mm wide and
less than 2 m
long
D – Weekly
exceedent
5 mm - 10 mm
wide
E - Record
More than
20 mm
C – 24hr action
10 mm - 20 mm
E - Record
More than 5 mm
wide and more
than 1 m long
C – 24hr action
More than 5 mm
wide and less
than 1 m long
D – Weekly
exceedent
Mandatory
Repair Priority
2 mm - 5 mm wide E - Record
Lateral
dislocation
(within panel)
A3600433
© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
More than 5 mm
C – 24hr action
2 mm - 5 mm
E - Record
Asset Standards Authority
Page 15 of 20
TN 068: 2014
O. Retaining Walls and Platform Walls
Member
Reinforced
concrete panels
at reinforced soil
wall
Refer to ‘All
walls
(movement)’ for
movement
parameters
Concrete crib
walls
Refer to ‘All
walls
(movement)’ for
movement
parameters
Defect Size
Defect
Category
More than 5 mm
wide and more
than 1 m long
C – 24hr action
More than 5 mm
wide and less
than 1 m long
D – Weekly
exceedent
2 mm - 5 mm
wide
E - Record
More than 5 mm
C – 24hr action
2 mm - 5 mm
E - Record
Lateral
dislocation
between panels
More than
50 mm
C – 24hr action
Loss of crib
filling
Wall area with
unfilled cribs
more than 1 m2
C – 24hr action
Loss of fill
behind wall
Wall area with fill
loss more than
1 m2 (estimated
from the face of
the wall) or more
than 1 m length
(estimated from
the top of the
embankment)
C – 24hr action
Local
deformation
Deformed area
more than 1 m2
with
misalignment
greater than
75 mm
C – 24hr action
Concrete
interfaces –
Crushing
Crushing at ≥ 3
adjacent
interfaces
C – 24hr action
Concrete
elements –
Evidence of
spalling, rust
stains, etc.
Any
E - Record
Drainage system
– Evidence of
ineffective
system
Any
D – Weekly
exceedent
Vegetation
Growth
Extent ≥ 5 m2
E - Record
Tree stump
≥ 100 mm
diameter
D – Weekly
exceedent
Defect Type
Crack
Lateral
dislocation
(within panel)
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© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
Mandatory
Repair Priority
Mm1
Asset Standards Authority
Page 16 of 20
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O. Retaining Walls and Platform Walls
Member
Defect Size
Defect
Category
More than
50 mm wide
C – 24hr action
10 mm – 50 mm
wide
D – Weekly
exceedent
Less than
10 mm
E - Record
Separation of
coping from
platform surface
and/or wall
Visible
D – Weekly
exceedent
Check
clearances for
possible
infringement
Broken edging
Any
D – Weekly
exceedent
Horizontal
displacement
More than
50 mm
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Rotation
More than
1H:20V
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Cracking at
embankment/fill
behind wall
More than
10 mm wide
crack parallel to
wall and more
than 2 m long
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Earth slump or
slip at
embankment/fill
behind wall
Readily visible
and more than
3 m long
C – 24hr action
Mm1
Defect Type
Platform wall
Refer to ‘All
walls
(movement)’ for
movement
parameters
Platform coping
All walls
(movement)
Crack
Mandatory
Repair Priority
Notes:
1. These defect limits apply to retaining walls that are not part of a bridge substructure.
Refer to Appendix 1 Section E for defect limits for bridge abutments and wingwalls.
2. The location and extent of defects shall be measured carefully (for example,
stringlines or survey) and recorded on the examination report.
3. Expert geotechnical advice shall be obtained within 7 days for all defects covered by
‘All walls (Movement)’.
4. The indicated mandatory repair priorities are the minimum response to the defect
until it has been properly assessed and confirmed that a different response is
appropriate
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Asset Standards Authority
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3.9
Appendix 5 Structurally critical members
Replace Appendix 5 with the following:
Table 6 – Appendix 5 replacement
A.
Steel and wrought iron underbridges
Span Type
Structurally Critical
Member
Details of Critical Areas
Plate web
deck, RSJ
and BFB
Main girders
Bottom flange: middle third of span and at any changes in flange
plates
Top flange: middle third of span and over intermediate piers
Flange and web splices
Web: at support
Plate web
through
Main girders
Bottom flange: middle third of span and at any changes in flange
plates
Top flange: middle third of span and over intermediate piers
Flange and web splices
Web: at support
Cross girders
Bottom flange and end connections
Flange and web splices
Web: at support
Stringers
Bottom flange: middle half of span, at any changes in flange
plates and end connections
Web: at support
Trusses
Top chord
Whole member including connections
Bottom chord
Whole member including connections
Web verticals
Whole member including connections
Web diagonals
Whole member including connections
Portal frames
All frames including end connections
Cross girders
Bottom flange and end connections
Flange and web splices
Web: at support
Stringers
Middle half of span, at any changes in flange plates and end
connections
Flange and web splices
Web: at support
B.
All spans
C.
All spans
Timber bridges
Girders
Middle third (bending) and over corbels (shear)
Corbels
Over headstocks (shear)
Headstocks
Nil
Piles
At ground level , and 500 mm above and below ground level
Concrete bridges
Pre-Stressed Concrete
Girders
Middle third of span
Reinforced Concrete
Girders
Middle third of span
A3600433
© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
Over supports (shear)
Over supports (shear)
Asset Standards Authority
Page 18 of 20
TN 068: 2014
3.10
Appendix 6 Structures examination report forms
An additional examination report form for miscellaneous structures – crib wall is to be included
in Appendix 6 of TMC 301 as shown in Figure 1:
Examination Report: Miscellaneous Structures (Crib Wall)
REGION
FILE No.
DISTRICT
DRAWING
LINE
STRUCTURE TYPE
EQUIPMENT No
MATERIALS
MIMS SPN
No. TRACKS
PREVIOUS STATION
TRACK ALIGNMENT
KILOMETRAGE
SUPERELEVATION
LOCATION
GUARD RAILS (Y/N)
REPAIRED
SPANS
ITEM
EXAMINATION REPORT
Concrete Element
Condition, movement
Fill
Type, loss
Drainage
Evidence of seepage, water flow, etc
Vegetation
Extent, tree trunk protrusion, etc.
Capping
Type
Embankment / Fill behind wall
Condition, cracking, slump, etc
Examiner:
Date:
COMMENTS
Height
Alignment
Structures Manager:
Date:
Figure 1 – Examination report form miscellaneous structures
A3600433
© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
Asset Standards Authority
Page 19 of 20
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4.
Interpretation guides
TMC 301 is presented as a legacy RailCorp document and shall be read in conjunction with and
interpreted according to the interpretation guidelines published:
Table 7 – Interpretation guides
Reference No
Title
Version
Issue date
TS 10762
Legacy RailCorp Standards Interpretation Management Overview
1.0
28/06/2013
TS 10760
Guide to interpretation of organisational role and
process references in RailCorp standards
1.0
17/06/2013
TS 10760 - SMS
Interpretation guide RailCorp SMS References
within RailCorp engineering standards
1.0
17/06/2013
Authorisation
Technical content
prepared by
Checked and
approved by
Interdisciplinary
coordination
checked by
Authorised for
release
Name
Dorothy Koukari
Richard Hitch
David Spiteri
Graham Bradshaw
Position
Senior Engineer
Standards
Lead Civil Engineer
Chief Engineer Rail
Principal Manager
Network Standards &
Services
Signature
A3600433
© State of NSW through Transport for NSW
Asset Standards Authority
Page 20 of 20
Engineering Manual
Structures
STRUCTURES EXAMINATION
Version 2.0
Issued December 2009
Owner:
Chief Engineer Civil
Approved by: John Stapleton
Group Leader Standards
Civil
Authorised by:
Richard Hitch
Chief Engineer Civil
Disclaimer
This document was prepared for use on the RailCorp Network only.
RailCorp makes no warranties, express or implied, that compliance with the contents of this document shall be
sufficient to ensure safe systems or work or operation. It is the document user’s sole responsibility to ensure that the
copy of the document it is viewing is the current version of the document as in use by RailCorp.
RailCorp accepts no liability whatsoever in relation to the use of this document by any party, and RailCorp excludes
any liability which arises in any manner by the use of this document.
Copyright
The information in this document is protected by Copyright and no part of this document may be reproduced, altered,
stored or transmitted by any person without the prior consent of RailCorp
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 1 of 120
Engineering Manual
TMC 301
RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301
Document control
Revision
Date of Approval
Summary of change
2.0
November, 2009
1.2
May, 2009
Volumes 2 and 3; change of format for front page, change history
and table of contents; various sections updated to include changes
in ESC 302 V2.0
1.1
October, 2007
C1-2 added SMS to list of references; C1-13 added CTN 06/29 re
BMS data fro bridges managed by others; C5-2 deleted reference
to electrical safety regulations; C6-1 added reference to hidden
flashings; C6-2.1 added reference to SMS re safety equipment;
C6-3.1 added reference to SMS re confined spaces; Appendix 1
added defect category for measured clearance less than sign
posted clearance; added “examination type” to forms for bridges &
culverts
1.0
October, 2006
First issue as a RailCorp document. Includes content from
TS 4150, TS 4151, TS 4152, TS 4153, TS 4154, TS 4155,
TS 4156, TS 4157, TS 4158, TS 4159, TS 4161
Three volumes merged into single document; reformatted in new
template; technical content changes detailed in chapter revisions
Summary of changes from previous version
Chapter
Current Revision
Summary of change
Control
Pages
2.0
Change of format for front page, change history and table of
contents
1.0
2.0
C1-4: list of references updated, C1-5: Structures Inspector added
2.0
2.0
(Formerly Volume 1 Chapter 2); retitled “Management
Requirements”; C2-1.2 “monthly” examination of BFB’s over
roadways; C2-1.5 new section on Structures Inspector; new C2-2
recording & reporting defect detection and removal
3.0
2.0
New chapter; Structures Assessment competency included
4.0
2.0
New chapter (formerly part of Vol 1 Ch 3, and Vols 2 & 3 Ch 1);
inclusion of section on mandatory repair priorities from ESC 302;
new section on transom from ESC 302
5.0
2.0
(Formerly Volume 1 Chapters 3 & 5); C5-2 requirements for
assessment added; C5-5.1 clarification of requirements for
detailed examination within 1 metre; C5-5.2 applicability of midcycle examinations; C5-6.1 add “camera”; C5-8 program steel on
a face; C5-12 new section on structures assessment
6.0
2.0
(Formerly TMC 301 Volume 1 Appendices 4, 5, 6 & 7; and TMC
302 Volume 3 Chapters 3 & 17); New C6-1.6 on welds
7.0
2.0
New chapter (formerly Volume 2 Chapters 3, 4 & 5; and Volume 3
Chapters 3 & 4)
8.0
2.0
New chapter (formerly Volume 1 Chapter 4; and Volumes 2 & 3
Chapter 2); new sections C8-3 & C8-4 on signatures on reporting
forms & BMS; C8-5.1 additional details re certification of
examinations; C8-6.1 additional reporting requirements for OHWS
(from TS 4156)
9.0
2.0
New chapter on structures assessment
10.0
2.0
New chapter (formerly Volume 1 Chapter 3); C10-3.5.1 direct fixed
decks; C10-7.2 inspection of impact damage from TMC 302; C10­
10: add requirement to report defects on weekly summary form;
C10-11 use of CCTV cameras
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
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Version 2.0
RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301
11.0
2.0
New chapter ( formerly Volume 3 Chapter 5)
12.0
2.0
New chapter ( formerly Volume 3 Chapter 6)
13.0
2.0
New chapter ( formerly Volume 3 Chapter 7); new sections C13-5
& C13-6 on energy absorbing buffer stops & track slabs
App 1
2.0
Formerly Volume 1, Appendix 1
App 2
2.0
Formerly Volume 1, Appendix 2
App 3
2.0
Formerly Volume 1, Appendix 3
App 4
2.0
Formerly Volumes 2 & 3, Appendix 1
App 5
2.0
Formerly Volume 2, Appendix 2
App 6
2.0
Formerly Volume 2, Appendices 3, 4 & 6; and Volume 3, Appendix
2; configuration data deleted from 2nd page of bridge examination
report form & culvert form; revision of OHWS report form
App 7
2.0
Formerly Volume 2, Appendix 5; and Volume 3, Appendix 3
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 3 of 120
Version 2.0
RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301 Contents
Chapter 1
C1-1
C1-2
C1-3
C1-4
C1-5
Chapter 2
C2-1
C2-2
Introduction To Manual ............................................................................................................ 6
Purpose....................................................................................................................................... 6
The structure of this manual ....................................................................................................... 6
Who should use this manual....................................................................................................... 6
References.................................................................................................................................. 6
Terminology and conventions ..................................................................................................... 7
Management Requirements ................................................................................................... 11
Examination responsibilities...................................................................................................... 11
Recording and reporting of defect detection and removal........................................................ 13
Chapter 3
Competencies.......................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter 4
Defect Limits and Responses................................................................................................ 16
C4-1
C4-2
Chapter 5
C5-1
C5-2
C5-3
C5-4
C5-5
C5-6
C5-7
C5-8
C5-9
C5-10
C5-11
C5-12
Chapter 6
C6-1
C6-2
C6-3
C6-4
Chapter 7
C7-1
C7-2
C7-3
Chapter 8
C8-1
C8-2
C8-3
C8-4
C8-5
C8-6
C8-7
Chapter 9
C9-1
C9-2
C9-3
C9-4
C9-5
Defect categories, repair priorities and paint indices ................................................................ 16
Transoms .................................................................................................................................. 16
Examination Process.............................................................................................................. 17
General ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Objectives of structures examination........................................................................................ 17
Examination procedures ........................................................................................................... 18
Examination personnel ............................................................................................................. 18
Examination types..................................................................................................................... 18
Inspection equipment................................................................................................................ 20
Planning of examination programmes ...................................................................................... 21
Liaison between examination personnel................................................................................... 22
Frequency of examinations....................................................................................................... 22
Service schedules..................................................................................................................... 23
Structure types .......................................................................................................................... 23
Structures Assessment ............................................................................................................. 23
Deterioration Modes ............................................................................................................... 24
Deterioration modes in steel structures .................................................................................... 24
Deterioration modes in concrete structures .............................................................................. 25
Deterioration modes in masonry structures .............................................................................. 29
Deterioration modes in timber structures.................................................................................. 30
Examination Methods............................................................................................................. 33
Examination methods for steel structures.................................................................................33
Examination methods for concrete and masonry structures .................................................... 33
Examination methods for timber structures .............................................................................. 34
Recording and Reporting Examination Results .................................................................. 37
Recording procedures............................................................................................................... 37
Reporting forms......................................................................................................................... 37
Signatures on reporting forms................................................................................................... 37
Bridge management system ..................................................................................................... 37
Bridges ...................................................................................................................................... 38
Structures.................................................................................................................................. 42
Recording procedures - timber ................................................................................................. 44
Assessment of Examination Results.................................................................................... 47
General ..................................................................................................................................... 47
Initial assessment by bridge examiner...................................................................................... 47
Assessment of weekly summary of exceedents ....................................................................... 47
Structures Assessment ............................................................................................................. 47
Structurally critical members..................................................................................................... 48
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
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Page 4 of 120 Version 2.0 RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
Chapter 10
C10-1
C10-2
C10-3
C10-4
C10-5
C10-6
C10-7
C10-8
C10-9
C10-10
C10-11
Chapter 11
C11-1
C11-2
C11-3
C11-4
C11-5
C11-6
Chapter 12
C12-1
C12-2
C12-3
Chapter 13
TMC 301 Examination Of Bridges And Culverts.................................................................................. 49
General ..................................................................................................................................... 49
Substructures ............................................................................................................................ 49
Superstructures......................................................................................................................... 52
Transoms .................................................................................................................................. 57
Bearings .................................................................................................................................... 57
Other components .................................................................................................................... 58
Impact damage ......................................................................................................................... 60
Overloading............................................................................................................................... 62
Stream forces............................................................................................................................ 62
Examination of steel broad flange beams over roadways ........................................................ 63
Culverts ..................................................................................................................................... 64
Examination Of Overhead Wiring Structures And Signal Gantries ................................... 65
General ..................................................................................................................................... 65
Overhead wiring system ........................................................................................................... 65
Wiring supports ......................................................................................................................... 65
Examination methods ............................................................................................................... 65
Examination procedures ........................................................................................................... 65
Site condition............................................................................................................................. 66
Examination Of Tunnels......................................................................................................... 67
General ..................................................................................................................................... 67
Examination procedures ........................................................................................................... 67
Site condition............................................................................................................................. 67
Examination Of Miscellaneous Structures........................................................................... 68
C13-1
C13-2
C13-3
C13-4
C13-5
C13-6
C13-7
C13-8
C13-9
C13-10
C13-11
C13-12
C13-13
C13-14
General ..................................................................................................................................... 68
Retaining walls and platforms ................................................................................................... 68
Air space developments............................................................................................................ 68
Fixed buffer stops and stop blocks ........................................................................................... 68
Energy absorbing buffer stops .................................................................................................. 68
Track slabs................................................................................................................................ 68
Noise abatement walls.............................................................................................................. 68
Aerial service crossings ............................................................................................................ 68
Lighting towers .......................................................................................................................... 68
Sedimentation basins, stormwater flow controls and similar structures ................................... 68
Loading banks and stages ........................................................................................................ 69
Turntables, fixed cranes and weighbridges .............................................................................. 69
Overhead water tanks............................................................................................................... 69
Site condition............................................................................................................................. 69
APPENDIX 1
Terms Used In Bridges and Structures ................................................................................ 70
APPENDIX 2
Typical Bridge Spans and Members ..................................................................................... 76
APPENDIX 3
Standard Defect Categories and Responses ....................................................................... 89
APPENDIX 4
Defect Limits............................................................................................................................ 91
APPENDIX 5
Structurally Critical Members .............................................................................................. 101
APPENDIX 6
Structures Examination Report Forms............................................................................... 102
APPENDIX 7
Weekly summary of exceedents form ................................................................................ 120
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 5 of 120 Version 2.0 RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301
Chapter 1 Introduction To Manual
C1-1
Purpose
This Manual outlines procedures to be followed for the examination of structures on RailCorp’s
network.
Structures include underbridges, overbridges, footbridges, culverts, overhead wiring structures,
signal gantries, tunnels, retaining walls, platforms, airspace developments, lighting towers, aerial
service crossings, noise abatement walls, loading banks and stages, turntables, fixed cranes,
weighbridges, buffer stops, stop blocks, overhead water tanks, sedimentation basins, stormwater
flow controls and similar structures., rockfall shelters, structures over and adjacent to tunnels,
The Manual is not applicable to buildings, communication towers, advertising hoardings and signs.
The examination process includes the inspection of the structures and the recording and
assessment of their condition.
This Manual outlines methods and procedures for structures examination. It covers standard
terminology, examination personnel, standard types of examinations, categories of exceedents,
standard inspection equipment associated with the examination of structures and specific
procedures the examination of bridges and other structures.
C1-2
The structure of this manual
The Manual covers the requirements for examination of structures. It includes:
C1-3
−
general requirements including defect categories and levels of repair priorities associated with
the examination of structures
−
the hierarchy of examination personnel and their respective responsibilities
−
standard procedures for the examination of bridges
−
standard procedures for the examination of other structures including overhead wiring
structures, tunnels, retaining walls and platforms
−
standard report forms.
Who should use this manual
This Manual should be used by RailCorp personnel programming and undertaking examination of
structures, and responding to examination results.
C1-4
References
ESC 100 - Civil Technical Maintenance Plan TMC 110 - Structures - Service Schedules TMC 203 - Track Inspection TMC 302 - Structures Repair
TMC 303 - Underwater Examination of Structures
TMC 305 - Structures Assessment RailCorp Bridge Management System (BMS) RailCorp Safety Management System. © Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
C1-5
TMC 301
Terminology and conventions
Standard terminology to describe structures and conventions for numbering of components are
provided in this section.
These conventions are to be followed when describing and reporting on examination results.
Terms used to describe individual members of bridges and structures are listed in Appendix 1.
Sketches of typical bridge spans and members are shown in Appendix 2.
The following terminology is also used in this Manual:
C1-5.1
Track Patroller: Person responsible for the examination and maintenance of a
track length.
Bridge Examiner: Person responsible for the examination of bridges and other
civil structures.
Structures Officer : Bridge examiner with specialist skills in the examination and
preliminary assessment of steel and wrought iron bridges.
Structures Inspector: Person with relevant technical competency in the structures
discipline.
Structures Manager: Person with relevant technical competency in the structures
discipline. The manager of structures discipline personnel in a
District.
Civil Maintenance Engineer: Engineering Manager of an area with relevant technical
competency in the track & structures discipline.
Bridges & Structures
Engineers:
Engineers from the office of the Chief Engineer Civil or the
Head of Civil Design, or person with relevant qualifications in
the detailed design of structures.
Examination:
The process of inspection of a structure and the recording and
assessment of its condition.
Defect: Deterioration of a component from its original condition.
Defect Category: Classification of a defect into a category that indicates the
severity of the defect and response time recommended for
continuing train operations and engineering assessment.
Exceedent: Any defect in the asset that requires remedial action within two
years or less.
Non-exceedent: A defect in an asset that requires recording for future
reference, monitoring and possible remedial action outside two
years.
Paint Index: A qualitative index reflecting the condition of the surface
coating of steel structures.
Repair Priority: Time frame for the repair of a defect.
Length of bridge spans
The length of bridge spans is measured and described as follows:
−
Timber bridges: distance between centres of headstocks. −
Steel bridges: distance between centres of bearings. −
Concrete bridges: distance between centres of bearings. −
Brick and Stone bridges: distance between faces of piers. © Rail Corporation
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For bridges with an integral deck, walls, and invert (e.g. box culverts, arch culverts, box drains and
pipes), the span length is measured between faces of walls.
Skew spans are measured generally parallel to the supported track or road.
C1-5.2
Numbering of bridge members
Numbering of bridge members follows the same pattern for underbridges, overbridges, and
footbridges.
For underbridges, the Sydney end abutment is the datum for numbering, being the No. 1 Abutment.
For overbridges and footbridges, the Down side Abutment is the datum for numbering, i.e. the No.
1 Abutment, and other members then are numbered as for an underbridge.
Members are numbered as follows:
C1-5.3
−
Girders, Stringers, Corbels: From the Down side of each span. For compound girders, add
“top”, “intermediate”, or “bottom”.
−
Other Longitudinal Members: as for Girders.
−
Transverse Decking/ Cross Girders: from the Sydney end of each span.
−
Abutments: No. 1 closer to Sydney, No. 2 other end of bridge.
−
Piers: No. 1 closest to No. 1 Abutment, others in sequence.
−
Trestles and Sills: As for Piers.
−
Piles: From the Down side of each Abutment/Trestle/Pier.
−
Wing Piles: From the track end of each Wing.
−
Abutment Wings: No. 1 (Down) and No. 2 (Up) for No. 1 Abutment. No. 3 (Down) and No. 4
(Up) for No. 2 Abutment.
−
Intermediate Supports: Numbered as for the span they support.
−
Walings/Bracing: No. 1 on Sydney side of support.
Location of bridges and structures
All bridges and structures are to have a kilometrage (correct to 3 decimal places) stencilled in
75mm high black figures on a white background, or engraved on a plaque.
The kilometrage value is generally the value at the face of the structure on the Sydney end. For
bridges and culverts, the kilometrage value is as follows:
−
Underbridges: the km value at the face of the Sydney end abutment under the centreline of
the furthest Down track.
−
Culverts: the km value at the centreline of the culvert or the Sydney side centreline of a group
of culverts.
−
Overbridges and Footbridges: the km value where the Sydney side of the bridge crosses the
track.
The stencilled kilometrage is to be located as shown:
Underbridges: on the Up side of the No. 1 abutment and on the Down side of the No. 2 abutment.
Underbridges less than 10 metres long are to be stencilled on the No. 1 abutment only. Bridges
without defined abutments, e.g. some culvert structures, are to be stencilled on the face of the
Down side headwall.
Overbridges and Footbridges: on the abutment or pier adjacent to the furthest Down track and at
the Sydney end.
Tunnels: on the Down side of the No. 1 portal, and on the Up side of the No. 2 portal.
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Platforms: on the face of the coping at each end of No. 1 platform. Overhead Wiring and Signal Structures: in accordance with conventions implemented by electrical
and signalling disciplines. Other Structures: on the Down side of the track and at the Sydney end. C1-5.4
Bridge identification
Every bridge in RailCorp's network has its own unique identification, based on the line, distance
from Central Station and the tracks on or under the bridge.
A bridge location can be further identified by reference to the nearest railway station. An overbridge
can also be identified by the name of the road that it carries and an underbridge by the name of the
road or waterway that it traverses.
A footbridge can be identified by the railway station it services or the nearest public road.
C1-5.4.1
Total Bridge
The following conventions should be followed for the high-level description of bridges:
Material of main deck members
−
Bridge category
−
Structural type
Examples: Concrete Overbridge, Steel Footbridge, Steel Underbridge, Through Deck Truss
C1-5.4.2
Individual Spans
−
Span length (to nearest 0.1 metre)
−
Material of main deck members
−
Span type
Examples: 6.0 m steel plate web girder transom top, 1.5 m concrete box culvert
C1-5.5
Structure identification
Overhead wiring structures and signal gantries have a unique number as marked on the structure.
Other structures in RailCorp's network are identified by the line and distance from Central Station.
A structure location can be further identified by reference to the nearest railway station.
C1-5.6
Track identification
Each track on any given line also has a form of identification. Tracks that carry trains away from
Sydney are called Down trains. Trains that run towards Sydney are called Up trains. Tracks that
carry Interurban or Country trains, or where there are only two tracks are known as Main Lines.
Where there are multiple lines (i.e. more than two tracks), there is a further breakdown. The tracks
operating trains out to the far suburbs are known as Suburban Lines and those that service the
nearby suburbs are known as the Local Lines. Further identification of tracks is used for Sidings
and for Goods Lines. The following incomplete list of typical abbreviations are used for individual
track identification:
© Rail Corporation
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UM
Up Main
DM
Down Main
US
Up Suburban
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TMC 301
DS
Down Suburban
UL
Up Local
DL
Down Local
UG
Up Goods
DG
Down Goods
S
Siding
Acronyms
Acronyms to be used when describing bridge components are detailed in RailCorp’s Bridge
Management System (BMS) documentation.
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Chapter 2 Management Requirements
C2-1
Examination responsibilities
District management is responsible for ensuring that all structures within the railway corridor are
examined.
The examinations shall be carried out by persons with the relevant competencies as specified in
this manual.
The examinations shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures in this Manual and the
requirements of relevant Technical Maintenance Plans and Service Schedules.
The respective responsibilities of personnel assigned to the examination of structures are detailed
below:
C2-1.1
Track Patroller
The Track Patroller is required to undertake cursory examinations of structures during his track
patrols in accordance with TMC 203 “Track Inspection”.
C2-1.2
Bridge Examiner
The Bridge Examiner is responsible for the following:
−
Detailed examination of all structures within his allocated area; −
Monthly examination of broad flange beam (BFB) underbridges over roads; −
Special examination of other structures;
−
Identification and quantification of exceedents and non-exceedents; −
Taking of appropriate action in accordance with the defect categories;
−
Assignment of repair priorities (optional);
−
Assignment of paint indices except for underbridges, overbridges and footbridges (optional); −
Preparation and submission of weekly summary of exceedent reports; −
Preparation of written examination reports. −
Ensuring defects and examination reports are recorded in the Bridge Management System. The Bridge Examiner is required to have with him a copy of the previous examination results when
examining each structure. The Bridge Management System is to be used to generate the previous
examination reports for bridges, culverts and other structures covered by the system.
The Bridge Examiner should take photographs where appropriate to graphically illustrate degraded
components etc., for inclusion in the written reports.
For underbridges, the Bridge Examiner is required to paint where applicable the level and date of
the highest flood level. This is to be located on the Down side of the No. 1 abutment.
C2-1.3
Structures Officer
The Structures Officer is responsible for the following: −
Detailed examination of all steel and wrought iron underbridges, overbridges and footbridges;
−
Identification and quantification of exceedents and non-exceedents; −
Taking of appropriate action in accordance with the defect categories;
−
Assignment of repair priorities; −
Assignment of paint indices; © Rail Corporation
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−
Preparation and submission of weekly summary of exceedent reports;
−
Preparation of written examination reports.
The Structures Officer is required to have with him a copy of the previous examination results when
inspecting each structure. He should also take photographs where appropriate to graphically
illustrate degraded components etc., for inclusion in the written reports.
The Structures Officer’s responsibility lies solely with the steelwork component of bridges. The nonsteel components (e.g. masonry and concrete substructures etc.) are to be examined and
separately reported on by the Bridge Examiner as prescribed above.
C2-1.4
Structures Manager
The Structures Manager is responsible for the following:
C2-1.5
−
Mid-Cycle examinations of bridges, overhead wiring structures (OHWS) and signal gantries;
−
Assessment of exceedents detected and reported by the Bridge Examiner and Structures
Officer in the weekly summary and detailed examination reports;
−
Referral of exceedents where necessary to the Civil Maintenance Engineer for higher level
assessment;
−
Confirmation of defect categories and repair priorities where assigned by the Bridge Examiner
and Structures Officer;
−
Checking the performance of the Bridge Examiner and Structures Officer and their reporting;
−
Special examinations where there are doubts concerning the condition and safety of a
structure;
−
Ensuring defects and examination reports are recorded in the Bridge Management System.
−
Preparation and implementation of repair programmes, including scoping of work and
estimating;
−
Certification of new structures before formal handover to maintenance.
Structures Inspector
The Structures Inspector is responsible for examination and assessment functions delegated by the
Structures Manager. Delegated functions may include any of the tasks in C2-1.4.
C2-1.6
Civil Maintenance Engineer
The Civil Maintenance Engineer is responsible for the following:
−
Ensuring that all structures within the railway reserve are examined by competent persons in
accordance with the procedures prescribed in this Manual;
−
Arranging the attendance of the Structures Officer for the examination of steel and wrought
iron bridges;
−
Arranging special examinations and underwater examinations by specialist consultants and
contractors;
−
Confirming the condition of structures following inspections and initial assessment by the
Structures Manager;
−
Responding as appropriate to the defect categories and repair priorities assigned by
examination staff and as referred by the Structures Manager;
−
Visual examinations on a sampling basis or in response to a particular report or condition and
preparation of written inspection notes;
−
Signing-off of repairs;
−
Checking the performance of the Structures Manager;
−
Ensuring defects and examination reports are recorded in the Bridge Management System.
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The Civil Maintenance Engineer is also responsible for ensuring the progressive acquirement of
load rating and fatigue damage rating values for the structures under his control.
C2-1.7
Chief Engineer Civil
The Chief Engineer Civil is responsible for the following:
−
C2-1.8
Assignment of Bridges & Structures Engineers to conduct visual examinations on a sampling
basis for audit purposes.
Head of Civil Design
The head of Civil Design is responsible for the following:
C2-2
−
Allocation of Bridges & Structures Engineers to perform load and fatigue damage ratings;
−
Allocation of Bridges & Structures Engineers to respond to special requests from field staff
(e.g. Structures Manager or Civil Maintenance Engineer) for design assistance.
Recording and reporting of defect detection and removal
All structures defects that are detected MUST be recorded in an identifiable Defect Management
System. Multiple systems are not precluded.
An auditable trail must exist for all actionable defects from detection/notification to investigation,
assessment, repair programming, repair action and certification.
The ‘System’ must include, as a minimum, the following details:
−
Defect
−
Type
−
Size
−
Location
−
Date found
−
Source of information
−
Action required (includes investigation, assessment, repair)
−
Programmed action date (includes investigation, assessment, repair)
−
Repair action
−
Repair date
−
Repair agency
−
Review of performance.
Civil Maintenance Engineers must:
1. Ensure that the Defect Management System is satisfactorily managed by the Team Manager.
2. Monitor the level of structures defects, assess the impact on structures performance and take
appropriate action.
3. Review records and defects for trend identification at least annually. The outcomes must be
considered in the development of regional maintenance strategies and Asset Management
Plans.
At any time the Civil Maintenance Engineer must be able to demonstrate, through the Defect
Management System, current status of all defects recordable on the system.
C2-2.1
Use of Electronic Systems
Electronic systems may be used to record and manage defects. Electronic systems shall be used
for bridges and culverts.
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RailCorp’s Teams3 recording system is approved for use.
C2-2.2
Source of Information
Defect Management Systems will contain defects from the following formal examination and
reporting systems:
−
Structures Examination System −
Track Patrol
−
Other Examinations (actionable defects) −
Reports form train drivers −
Field Inspections by Supervising Officers. © Rail Corporation
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Chapter 3 Competencies
Detailed examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with: −
TDT B3701A “Conduct Detailed Structures Examination”. Mid-cycle examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with: −
TDT B3701A “Conduct Detailed Structures Examination” and −
TBA “Structures Assessment”. Cursory examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with: −
TDT B41 “Visually Inspect and Monitor Track”. Special examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with: −
TDT B3701A “Conduct Detailed Structures Examination”. Underwater examination of structures shall be carried out by persons with the qualifications and
experience as detailed in TMC 303 “Underwater Examination of Structures”. Assessment of structures shall be carried out by persons with: −
TBA “Structures Assessment”. © Rail Corporation
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Chapter 4 Defect Limits and Responses
C4-1
Defect categories, repair priorities and paint indices
Defect categories have been created to establish standard and consistent response times to various levels of exceedences found during the examination of bridges. A standard system for the assignment of repair priorities commensurate with the defect category has also been created. The standard defect categories, responses and repair priorities are listed in Appendix 3. A specific list of defect limits has been established for structures. This list is included as Appendix
4.
A standard approach to the description of paint condition on steel bridges has also been
developed, by the assignment of paint indices. Details are included in Appendix 3.
For bridges, some nominated defect types have a mandatory repair priority and those defects shall
be repaired within the mandatory timeframe. The nominated defect types are: −
Loose rivets & bolts in steel bridge members −
Missing or broken holding down bolts in bearing and bed plates
−
Loose transom bolts
−
Minor cracks and spalling in main members and decks in concrete bridges
−
Blocked culverts.
The nominated defect types with a mandatory repair priority are detailed in Appendix 4.
C4-2
Transoms
Definition of condition:
Failed / missing transoms
Are those that are broken, missing or do not give vertical
support to the rails.
Effective transoms
Transom/fastener system where the required fastenings are
in place and which provides vertical support and lateral
restraint. Restraint must allow no lateral movement of the
fastenings relative to the transom. The transom must provide
gauge restraint and must be one piece that will not separate
along its length or transversely.
Transoms must have a flat rail plate seat.
Transoms may not have more than 20% loss from any part.
A transom that can be re-drilled will become effective again.
It must have sufficient material between the rail fastenings (in
the “four foot”) to distribute the load adequately.
Ineffective transoms
Transom that is not effective. Transoms with rot or holes
through which “daylight” can be seen are not satisfactory.
For the purposes of assessment ineffective transoms include those that are missing or failed.
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Chapter 5 Examination Process
C5-1
General
The condition of structures on the RailCorp network is managed by examination (inspection,
recording and assessment), audit and repair processes. The objective of these processes is to
ensure that the structures are maintained in an acceptable and safe condition.
Structures on the network deteriorate over time from their ‘as-new’ condition, owing to loading
cycles from trains and climatic conditions such as the sun, rain and salt air. Defects that develop
include corrosion of steel members, cracking and spalling of concrete and pipes in timber
members.
Examination of structures is a necessary part of effective and preventative maintenance. It is an
important indicator of condition and is the basis for maintenance and replacement programs. The
types and frequencies of these examinations are laid down in the respective Technical
Maintenance Plans.
Defect categories and limits have been set to guide examination staff in the appropriate level of
action to be taken when examining and measuring structural members.
Written reports together with photographs are to be compiled from each detailed examination in
accordance with the standard formats included in this Manual.
Reports and defects for bridges are to be recorded in the Bridge Management System.
A standard approach to the inspection, recording and assessment of structures will ensure
consistent reporting of defects together with their implications and required responses. The same
approach is to be applied irrespective of material type (steel, concrete or timber).
This chapter provides an introduction to the examination of structures, viz.:
C5-2
−
underbridges and culverts
−
overbridges and footbridges −
overhead wiring structures and signal gantries −
tunnels
−
retaining walls and platforms −
rockfall shelters
−
structures over and adjacent to tunnels −
airspace developments
−
lighting and communications towers −
aerial service crossings
−
noise abatement barriers −
other miscellaneous structures.
Objectives of structures examination
The regular examination of structures serves the following purposes:
−
to ensure the safety of users and the general public including rail traffic, road traffic,
pedestrians, maintenance staff and marine traffic passing under a bridge;
−
to record the current condition of a structure that can be used in maintenance planning. The
information is also used for rating the load carrying capacity of structures as well as for
monitoring long term performance of structural and material types;
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−
to build-up a history of performance and degradation of a structure. This can be used in the
planning and management of the rail network;
−
to ensure that a structure continues to perform its required function in a safe and cost-effective
manner.
To be successful, the examination process requires:
C5-3
−
the objectives to be clearly defined; −
a properly planned examination programme; −
effective inspection and reporting procedures; −
assessment of the examination results in order to assure the continuing integrity of each
structure; and
−
appropriately trained personnel to carry out the examinations and assessments.
Examination procedures
The examination of structures must be carried out in a manner that is:
−
Organised
−
Systematic
−
Efficient
−
Thorough
−
Factual and measurable
The examination procedure should ensure that all components are inspected and noted, all defects
are found and recorded, problems relating to safety are identified and appropriate action initiated.
The use of general terms like ‘large’ should be avoided. Where exact measurements of a defect
cannot be made, the ‘estimated loss of section’ etc. should be made and reported.
C5-4
Examination personnel
RailCorp has adopted a layered approach to the examination of its structures, utilising qualified
personnel at various levels of detail and expertise. The use of appropriately trained personnel
ensures consistency and objectivity in the inspection, reporting and assessment processes.
The layered approach is provided by the use of Track Patrollers, Bridge Examiners, Structures
Officers, Structures Managers, Civil Maintenance Engineers and the office of the Chief Engineer
Civil.
C5-5
Examination types
Examination of structures is an important part of an effective management system and forms the
basis for maintenance and replacement programs. Several different and complementary types of
examinations may be required to ensure that a structure continues to perform its function under
acceptable conditions of safety and with minimum maintenance.
Examination types are:
−
Detailed examinations
−
Mid-cycle examinations
−
Cursory examinations
−
Special examinations
−
Underwater examinations.
C5-5.1
Detailed examinations
C5-5.1.1
General
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Detailed examinations are conducted by the Bridge Examiner, Structures Officer, Structures
Inspector or Structures Manager.
These examinations are a detailed investigation of all aspects of a structure’s condition. They
involve detailed visual inspection and where necessary measurement of degraded components of
a structure.
All components not inspected close-up shall be recorded as such on the examination reports.
It is recognised that close-up access to all parts of some structures may be difficult and expensive,
requiring major track possessions or road closures and extensive scaffolding. Close-up means
inspection from within one metre of the component.
Therefore, the policies in the following sections are to be applied.
C5-5.1.2
Bridges
For underbridges, culverts, overbridges and footbridges:
−
Where all parts of a structure are easily accessible, a close-up inspection and measurements
where appropriate are to be carried out on every cycle;
−
Where access to some parts of a structure is difficult, expensive or requires major track
possessions or road closures, close-up inspections and measurements must be undertaken
on every second cycle. For the alternate cycles, it is permissible to carry out a visual
inspection only of these parts, utilising binoculars or other suitable equipment. The underlying
requirement is that the examiner must be able to tell whether there is a defect or not in the
area being inspected at every cycle;
−
If a defect is detected by inspection from a distance e,g. by using binoculars, then a
determination is to be made, at that time, as to whether a close-up inspection is required in the
short term to confirm the defect extent and severity. If so, close-up inspection is to be
programmed and carried out as soon as practicable. It is not acceptable to wait until the next
examination cycle;
−
Once a defect has been identified and measured, further measurements are to be made and
recorded on every cycle.
Where necessary, appropriate access equipment shall be used e.g. access gantries, elevated work
platforms, scaffolding, boats.
For piers and abutments, examination by abseiling contractors may be required.
For culverts, mobile CCTV cameras can be used.
C5-5.1.3
Other structures
For structures other than bridges:
−
Where all parts of a structure are easily accessible, a close-up inspection and measurements
where appropriate are to be carried out on every cycle;
−
Where access to some parts of a structure is difficult, expensive or requires major track
possessions or road closures, close-up inspections and measurements must be undertaken
on every second cycle. For the alternate cycles, it is permissible to carry out a visual
inspection only of these parts, utilising binoculars or other suitable equipment. The underlying
requirement is that the examiner must be able to tell whether there is a defect or not in the
area being inspected at every cycle;
−
If close-up inspection is not possible, even with access equipment, due to physical constraints
(e.g. high structures, inaccessible terrain) or possession constraints (e.g. getting hi-rail
equipment past other worksites), as much of the structure as possible is to be inspected from
within one metre. Details of components not inspected close-up shall be included in
examination records;
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C5-5.2
TMC 301
−
If a defect is detected by inspection from a distance e,g. by using binoculars, then a
determination is to be made, at that time, as to whether a close-up inspection is required in the
short term to confirm the defect extent and severity. If so, close-up inspection is to be
programmed and carried out as soon as practicable. It is not acceptable to wait until the next
examination cycle;
−
Once a defect has been identified and measured, further measurements are to be made and
recorded on every cycle.
Mid-cycle examinations
Mid-cycle examinations are visual examinations, normally conducted by the Structures Manager at
least once between detailed examination cycles. Mid-cycle examinations are carried out for
bridges, overhead wiring structures and signal gantries.
In addition to visual examination, scaffolding or other access equipment may be necessary in order
to be able to measure existing defects in structurally critical members during mid-cycle
examinations.
The mid-cycle examination also serves as an audit to check that regular and programmed
maintenance is being satisfactorily carried out.
C5-5.3
Cursory examinations
Cursory examinations are conducted during track patrols. The Track Patroller makes visual
inspections of the general condition of structures including such matters as the track geometry over
underbridges and any build-up of silt, rubbish, and plant growth around the structures.
C5-5.4
Special examinations
Special examinations are conducted by persons with structures examination competency using
self-initiative where necessary, or as directed by the Structures Manager or the person responsible
for the area. These examinations are to include known or anticipated hazards, especially during
periods of heavy rain, or following damage to structures by road or rail vehicles, fire or
earthquakes. Special examinations may also be required to certify the structural or functional
integrity of new structures.
C5-5.5
Underwater examinations
Underwater examinations are conducted by persons with diving qualifications and competency in
the inspection of underwater structures and supports. Underwater examinations would normally
apply to piling and caissons supporting underbridges. Requirements are documented in TMC 303
“Underwater Examination of Structures”.
C5-5.6
Other
Visual examinations of structures may also be undertaken by the Civil Maintenance Engineer on a
sampling basis or in response to a particular report or condition, and by Bridges & Structures
Engineers on a sampling basis for technical audit purposes.
C5-6
Inspection equipment
C5-6.1
Detailed examinations
For detailed examinations, the following additional equipment may be required in order to measure
exceedents and to determine their extent and severity:
Technical equipment
−
Vernier calipers
−
Wire brush
−
Ultrasonic thickness meter (for steel sections) - training required
−
Cover meter (concrete cover over reinforcing) - training required
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−
Dry film thickness gauge
−
Brace and bit or electric drill
−
Shovel and broom
−
Spirit level with straight edge
−
Carbonation test kit
−
Dye penetrant or Magnetic Particle testing equipment
−
Demec gauge, points and adhesive (for measuring long term movement across cracks)
−
Spanners, screwdrivers and other miscellaneous tools
−
Plumb bob
−
Camera
Access equipment
−
Extension ladder (must be all timber/ fibreglass) −
Scaffolding, elevated work platforms −
Boat or barge
Specialised equipment Specialised equipment may be required for the testing of material properties, strain gauging and
deflection testing etc. This equipment is normally provided and operated by specialist operators.
C5-6.2
Visual inspections
The following equipment is typically required for a visual inspection of structures:
Technical equipment
C5-7
−
High powered torch
−
Hand mirror for viewing behind bearings etc. −
Geologists hammer
−
30 metre tape (must be fibreglass) −
Binoculars
−
Crayon for marking concrete or masonry
−
Camera
−
Examination report forms −
Writing/sketch paper
−
Copy of previous examination report/drawing −
Probe (for timber structures) Planning of examination programmes
Careful planning is required for the smooth running of an examination programme, to ensure that
all structures are examined at the required frequency and that individual structures are examined to
the appropriate level of detail and in a cost-effective manner.
The first step in planning an examination programme is to list all of the structures to be inspected
and the time period in which the programme is to be completed. From there, personnel and
equipment requirements can be determined.
When developing a programme, careful consideration must be paid to other factors that may affect
the execution of the work. These include:
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−
Access difficulties, e.g. at waterways or through private property where locked gates may
need opening;
−
Track possessions and power offs;
−
Specialised equipment or personnel such as divers that may need to be called upon;
−
Seasonal or tidal restrictions;
−
Possibility of co-ordinating with scheduled maintenance activities and sharing of site
protection, access equipment and scaffolding etc.
Prior to the inspection, information on the type of structure, its maintenance history and previous
examination reports need to be assembled. Most of this information including photographs should
be on the structure file or in the Bridge Management System. Structures records should be
methodically registered and kept in kilometrage order, to facilitate retrieval and access for audit
purposes. The file should be checked for any other information that may be relevant to the
examination. It may be necessary to search further for bridge plans, maintenance histories,
consultants reports etc.
This information should be reviewed prior to the inspection, so that the examiner is aware of critical
areas, previous problems or unusual features.
A copy of the previous inspection report and any other relevant information is to be taken to site for
the examination.
In order to perform an accurate and efficient inspection, the correct equipment and personnel
should be readily at hand. An indicative list of the likely equipment required is included in C5-6 and
this should be carefully considered prior to each inspection. It may also be necessary to arrange
equipment such as scaffolding, “cherry pickers”, boats or specialised testing equipment. The
appropriate level of personnel resources should be arranged and consideration given to specialised
personnel who may be required (e.g. divers for inspecting piles in rivers, mechanical, electrical or
hydraulic specialists, testing experts or access equipment operators).
C5-8
Liaison between examination personnel
The Structures Officer is provided to assist the Civil Maintenance Engineer in the examination of
steel bridges. The Civil Maintenance Engineer will set the programme for the Structures Officer.
Wherever possible, steel bridge examinations by the Structures Officer should be programmed on
a face within a Region. The programme is to include the arrangements for road closures and
provision of access equipment.
The Civil Maintenance Engineer is to ensure that the Structures Manager and local Bridge
Examiner are notified of the Structures Officer’s proposed attendance and inspection programme.
The Regional Bridge Examiner and Structures Officer are to confer on the outcome of the latter’s
bridge examinations. It is highly desirable that the Regional Bridge Examiner visits each site while
the Structures Officer is in attendance.
C5-9
Frequency of examinations
The frequency of examinations is specified in ESC 100 “Civil Technical Maintenance Plan”.
Detailed examinations by the Bridge Examiner and Structures Officer are to be undertaken in
accordance with the cycles prescribed in the relevant Technical Maintenance Plans.
Mid-cycle examinations are normally conducted mid-cycle between the detailed examinations.
Their frequency is also prescribed in the Technical Maintenance Plans.
Special examinations are to be performed as prescribed in the Technical Maintenance Plans.
Where a structure is reported as being struck by a vehicle or damaged by fire etc., it is to be
examined immediately.
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Underwater examinations are to be undertaken in accordance with the cycles prescribed in the
relevant Technical Maintenance Plans.
C5-10
Service schedules
Service Schedules detail the scope of work to be undertaken by examination staff at each type of
examination and for structures assessment. They are detailed in Engineering Manual TMC 110
“Structures Service Schedules”.
C5-11
Structure types
Structures constructed of different materials require different examination techniques. This Manual
provides examination procedures for structures variously constructed in steel, concrete, masonry
and timber.
The principal causes of deterioration in each of the above material types are summarised in
Chapter 6. It is essential that the person examining a structure be familiar with these causes, in
order to accurately identify the types and consequences of deterioration in components of
structures.
C5-12
Structures Assessment
An assessment of the detailed examination results in order to assure the continuing integrity of
each structure is a fundamental requirement of the examination process.
The structures assessment is carried out by the Structures Manager.
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Chapter 6 Deterioration Modes
C6-1
Deterioration modes in steel structures
C6-1.1
General
The main indicators of deterioration of steel or iron structures are section loss, cracking, loss of
protective coating, deformation of members and loose or missing connections.
Other factors to be taken into consideration may include the age of the structure, vulnerability to
impact, location of the defect and importance of affected member(s).
The main modes of deterioration in steel, cast iron and wrought iron members are:
−
breakdown of the corrosion protection system
−
corrosion of exposed surfaces or at interfaces with concrete or steel
−
loose or missing connectors
−
impact damage
−
buckling of members
−
fatigue cracking
−
cracking of welds
−
delamination (wrought iron)
Of the above modes, corrosion is the most prevalent factor affecting steel structures. In assessing
the significance of the corrosion it is necessary to determine its extent, severity and location. This
significance may vary from superficial surface corrosion only through to an exceedent condition
resulting in a loss of load carrying capacity and even possible failure.
Cracking of welds or members, buckling and impact damage are other defects that can lead to
sudden collapse or a reduction of load carrying capacity. Cracks in tension flanges must always be
regarded as serious and requiring urgent action.
C6-1.2
Corrosion
The majority of steel and iron deterioration results from the breakdown or loss of the protective
system. Without adequate protection, steel and iron are vulnerable to corrosion and hence loss of
section.
Corrosion may be prevented by any of the following systems:
−
durable protective barriers such as painting, encasing in concrete or galvanising to prevent
oxygen and moisture reaching the steel;
−
inhibitive primers which hold off attack on the steel substrate;
−
provision of sacrificial anodes such as zinc rich paints or galvanising;
−
provision of cathodic protection by use of an external current to suppress the anodic reaction.
This process is also used for concrete bridges for arresting corrosion in reinforcement.
The protective system usually adopted for bridges is painting or galvanising, however the loss or
partial loss of either of these systems will see the onset of deterioration. The accumulation of debris
around bearings, on flanges or the base of the substructure will further hasten the corrosion
process by providing a moist environment. It is therefore important for these areas in particular to
be regularly examined and cleaned.
C6-1.3
Impact damage
The next most common cause of deterioration of steel and iron members comes as a consequence
of impact loading. Steel trestles are particularly vulnerable to major deformation or even failure from
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train or vehicle impacts. The bottom flange of girders, bracings and cross girders are also exposed
to risk of impact from high vehicles or protruding loads. Damage can include scraping, shearing of
bolts or rivets, buckling of members, loss of protective barrier and notching (which can lead to crack
propagation).
C6-1.4
Fatigue cracking
Repetitive loading cycles and or overstressing of steel and iron members can eventually lead to
fatigue cracking. A continuation of the loading cycle can result in the propagation of cracks and
finally failure. Fatigue cracking is usually initiated at high stress concentration points such as bolt
and rivet holes, welds, re-entrant corners, change of sections or areas of restraint.
C6-1.5
Loose or missing connections
Loose or missing connections are another common cause of deterioration of steel or iron members.
These may result from vehicle impacts, severe corrosion, incorrect initial installation, vibration and
tensile failure of the connector.
C6-1.6
Welds
C6-1.6.1
Cracking
Any crack in a weld, regardless of length and location, is to be reported.
C6-1.6.2
Appearance and finish
Exposed faces of welds shall be reasonably smooth and regular.
The surface of fillet welds shall junction as smoothly as practicable with the parent metal.
Butt welds shall be finished smooth and flush with abutting surfaces.
The ends of welds shall be finished smooth and flush with the faces of the abutting parts.
All weld splatter shall be removed from the surface of the weld and the parent material.
C6-2
Deterioration modes in concrete structures
C6-2.1
General
The main indicators of deterioration of concrete and masonry structures are corrosion of the steel
reinforcement, spalling, cracking, fretting and loss of mortar at joints.
Other factors to be taken into consideration may include the age of the structure, vulnerability to
chemical attack, vulnerability to impact and foundation movements.
Concrete members deteriorate in service in the following ways:
−
weathering or spalling at exposed faces, resulting from erosion, poor quality concrete,
chemical action, water action, corrosion of reinforcement, insufficient cover to rebars, crushing
at bearing surfaces and drumminess;
−
cracking from loading changes, including settlement;
−
mechanical damage, especially from road or rail vehicles.
Common defects that occur in concrete structures and therefore require checking during
examination are as follows:
−
corrosion of reinforcement, with subsequent cracking and spalling
−
scaling – cement render breaking away
−
delamination
−
leaching and water penetration
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−
rust stains
−
honeycombing or other construction deficiencies
−
fire damage
−
dampness
−
leaking joints
−
breaking up of existing repairs −
shattering and crushing of bearing pads Corrosion
The major failure mode in concrete structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. The product of this
corrosion has a volume many times larger than the parent metal. This results in a build up of
internal pressure that leads to de-bonding, cracking and eventual spalling. When a crack develops
the rate of deterioration accelerates and this can lead to defects such as leaching, water
penetration and rust staining.
Corrosion can be caused by many means ranging from construction deficiencies to mechanical
weathering or chemical action. All of these threaten the protective barrier the concrete provides for
the reinforcement. Once this process has been initiated and the reinforcement protection is lost, the
rate of deterioration is accelerated dramatically. The physical properties of the concrete,
environmental conditions, concrete cover and other design or construction practices will all
influence the rate of deterioration.
C6-2.3
Other factors
Other factors that cause concrete structures to deteriorate include:
C6-2.4
−
impact loading
−
overload
−
foundation movements
−
seizure of bearings
−
differential thermal strains
−
freeze/thaw cycles
−
general wear and abrasion
−
leaching
−
chemical attack (carbonation, chloride contamination, sulphate attack and alkali aggregate
reactivity).
Cracking
Cracking can be an important indicator of deterioration taking place in concrete and possible
corrosion of reinforcement steel depending on the size, extent and location of the cracks. Because
the significance of each type of crack is different, it is important to distinguish between them. Seven
types of cracks can generally occur.
C6-2.4.1
Longitudinal cracks (formed in hardened concrete)
These cracks run directly under or over and parallel to reinforcing bars and are caused by build up
of rust on the reinforcement. Eventually they will lead to spalling and complete loss of concrete
cover. Longitudinal cracks cannot be treated without removal of the deteriorated concrete and
renewing the cover.
C6-2.4.2
Transverse cracks (formed in hardened concrete)
Cracks transverse to the reinforcement are caused by concrete shrinkage, thermal contraction or
structural loading. The width and distribution of these cracks is controlled by the amount and
disposition of the reinforcement.
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Where there is no secondary reinforcement (as in beams), these cracks will only be transverse to
the main reinforcement and are harmless unless they are very wide or the environment is
exceptionally aggressive.
Where reinforcement runs in two directions at right angles (as in slabs), cracks that are transverse
to secondary bars will tend to coincide with the main bars because reinforcement of the larger size
tends to act as a crack inducer. Unless these cracks are treated soon after they appear they could
cause rusting of reinforcement and further deterioration.
C6-2.4.3
Shear cracks (formed in hardened concrete)
Shear cracks are caused by structural loading or movement of supports (eg due to foundation
settlement) or lateral displacement of frames and columns. Occurrence of shear cracks will result in
reduced strength of a member. They may also cause rusting if left untreated.
C6-2.4.4
Plastic shrinkage cracks (formed in unhardened concrete)
In the construction of concrete surfaces such as floor slabs or decks, loss of moisture from the
surface due to rapid evaporation causes cracks on the surface. These cracks are harmless unless
the concrete slab will later be exposed to salt or other contamination that would result in
deterioration.
C6-2.4.5
Plastic settlement cracks (formed in unhardened concrete)
These cracks develop during construction when high slump concrete is used, resulting in
settlement of the solids and bleeding of water to the top especially in deep sections. Settlement
cracks form at the top where the reinforcement has supported the aggregate and stopped it from
settling, while water collects under the reinforcement displacing the cement grout and leaves the
steel unprotected. The cracks form longitudinally over the reinforcement and are a common cause
of serious corrosion.
C6-2.4.6
Map cracks
Map cracking is caused by alkali-aggregate reaction over an extended period of time. The cracks
are internal in origin and result in breaking up of the concrete and loss of strength.
C6-2.4.7
Surface crazing
Craze cracks are fine, random cracks or fissures that develop on concrete surfaces. They result
from shrinkage of the concrete surface during or after hardening and are caused by insufficient
curing, excessive finishing or casting against formwork. Their significance is mainly aesthetic.
C6-2.5
Spalling
Spalling is defined as a depression resulting from detachment of a fragment of concrete from the
larger mass by impact, action of weather, overstress or expansion within the larger mass. The
major cause of spalling is expansion resulting from corrosion of reinforcement. Spalling caused by
impact can weaken the structure locally and expose the reinforcement to corrosion.
C6-2.6
Scaling
Scaling of concrete surfaces is defined as local flaking or peeling away of portions of concrete or
mortar near the surface. As the deterioration continues, coarse aggregate particles are exposed
and eventually become loose and are dislodged.
Scaling occurs where the surface finish of concrete is dense and homogenous. Poor finishing
practices result in a weak layer of grout at the top of concrete surface that easily peels away by
weathering or abrasion.
Light scaling refers to the loss of surface mortar only without exposing coarse aggregate. Medium
and severe scaling involves loss of mortar with increasing exposure of aggregate. Very severe
scaling refers to loss of coarse aggregate together with the mortar.
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Delamination
Delamination refers to separation of layers of concrete from bridge decks, beams or walls at or
near the level of the top or outermost layer of reinforcing steel and generally parallel to the surface
of the concrete member. Delamination is not possible to identify visually as the concrete surface
appears intact on the outside. It can, however, be detected by tapping the surface with a heavy rod
or hammer when a hollow or drumming sound is given off indicating the separation of concrete
from the reinforcement.
With practice, this sound can be identified accurately enough to mark the affected area on the
surface of the concrete.
The major cause of delaminations is the expansion resulting from corrosion of reinforcing steel. As
soon as delamination is detected steps should be taken to ascertain the cause of corrosion
including laboratory testing of concrete samples and appropriate repair action initiated. If a
successful repair is not made, concrete above the delamination interface will eventually become
dislodged and a spall will result.
C6-2.8
Leaching
Leaching or efflorescence is the white deposit of salts or lime powder formed commonly on the
underside of deck slabs or vertical faces of abutments, piers and wingwalls. It is caused by surface
or subsoil water leaching through the cracks and pores in the concrete. The water dissolves the
lime and other salts in concrete (or, may already be contaminated with salts from the subsoil). The
dissolved substances are deposited as white powder on concrete surface after the evaporation of
water.
C6-2.9
Rust stains
Brown or rust coloured stains on concrete surfaces indicate corrosion of steel reinforcement.
C6-2.10
Honeycombing
Honeycombing is lack of mortar in the spaces between coarse aggregate particles. It is caused by
insufficient compaction or vibration during placement of concrete and results in porous and weak
concrete. The voids also provide channels for ingress of water, oxygen and corrosive agents such
as carbon dioxide, chlorides and sulphates that will eventually cause corrosion of steel
reinforcement.
C6-2.11
Dampness
Moderately wet or moist areas of concrete indicate penetration of moisture and will eventually lead
to corrosion of reinforcement and deterioration of concrete. The source of moisture is often from
ponding or improper drainage over or in the vicinity of the structure. This should be investigated
and remedial measures taken as appropriate.
C6-2.12
Leaking joints
Deterioration or loss of sealants and jointing materials from the joints and/or deterioration or lack of
waterproofing membranes results in penetration of water through joints. Apart from being a
nuisance, it causes ugly stains and growth of algae around the joints. The penetrating water along
with dissolved contaminants will also find a way into porous or weak concrete leading to
deterioration of the structure.
C6-2.13
Breaking up of repairs
Past repairs are indicative of problems in the structure. The repairs should be monitored during
inspections. The condition of the repair or patch will usually indicate whether the underlying
problem has been solved or is still continuing. Cracking, delamination, spalling or rust stains in or
around the repair indicate that the problem still exists and further investigation and repair are
needed.
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C6-3
Deterioration modes in masonry structures
C6-3.1
General
Masonry or stone is rarely used as a construction material for modern structures, except for facing
or ornamentation. However, many structures within RailCorp’s network were built from masonry
construction and are still in service, owing to the general longevity of the material. Most
deterioration can be attributed to weathering, migration of water, impact damage and foundation
movements.
Common defects that occur in masonry structures and therefore require checking during
examination are as follows:
C6-3.2
−
loose, drummy or missing blocks −
fretting of blocks and mortar joints −
splitting or cracking of blocks and or mortar −
cracking due to subsidence or relative movements −
mortar loss
−
scrapes and spalls from impact −
water penetration and leaching Causes of deterioration
Many different factors lead to the deterioration and development of defects in masonry structures.
Most of these are very slow acting and require repeated occurrence.
Seasonal expansion and contraction causes repeated volume changes that lead to the
development of seams and fine cracks. These may grow over time to a size that allows other
factors to contribute to further deterioration. Frost and freezing in these cracks, seams or even in
pores can split or spall blocks. Plant stems and roots growing in cracks or crevices can exert a
wedging force and further split open blocks or mortar.
Plants such as lichen and ivy will chemically attack masonry surfaces in the process of attaching
themselves.
Abrasion also leads to deterioration of masonry and this may be due to water or wind borne
particles.
Fretting of bricks, blocks and mortar can be caused by the loss of the connecting or binding agents
via leaching through the structure. The water can either be drawn up from the footings and backfill
by capillary action or leak down through the fill.
Gases or solids dissolved in water can chemically attack the masonry. Some of these may dissolve
the cementing material between the blocks and lead to mortar loss.
C6-3.3
Cracking
Cracking is the most common form of defect in masonry. It may occur due to several reasons, such
as differential settlement of foundations or relative movement in members of the structure, thermal
movements, growth of brickwork, corrosion of embedded iron or steel, impact damage and growth
of vegetation in or around brickwork.
Differential settlement of parts of the structure or subsidence of foundations can lead to extensive
and sometimes severe cracking. It is important to distinguish those cracks that relate to the stability
and load carrying capacity of the structure from those that do not.
Cracking is especially significant if it is recent in origin and should be immediately investigated. In
particular, it must be ascertained if the cracks are live, i.e. continuing to move and if they pose any
threat to the strength and stability of the structure.
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If the cracks are known to have existed for a long time and have not caused instability or distortion,
they need not be a cause of concern, though steps should be taken to repair them.
Cracks that have formed due to overload will tend to close and be very fine after the overload is
removed, and may not need any treatment.
C6-3.3.1
Cracks in masonry arches
Masonry arch bridges are particularly sensitive to movements.
The major factors affecting the stability of a masonry arch bridge are summarised below:
C6-3.4
−
differential settlement across an abutment or pier. This may cause longitudinal cracks along
an arch ring, indicating that the arch has broken up into separate rings;
−
movement or settlement of the foundations of an abutment or pier. This may cause lateral
cracks across an arch ring and settlement in the deck, indicating that the arch has broken up
into separate segments.
−
settlement at the sides of an abutment or pier. This may cause diagonal cracks starting near
the side of the arch at the springing and extending to the centre of the arch at the crown.
−
flexibility of the arch ring. This may cause cracks in the spandrel walls near the quarter points.
−
outward movement of the spandrel walls due to the lateral pressure of the fill, particularly if the
live loads can travel close to the parapet. This may cause longitudinal cracking near the edge
of the arch.
−
movement of the wingwalls. This may cause cracking and if adjacent to the deck, loss of the
surface material.
Fretting
Fretting is surface damage caused by leaching of dissolved salts through the masonry, and cycles
of wetting or drying. It disintegrates the lime mortar in the joints and can cause spalling of the
masonry units.
C6-3.5
Spalling
Spalling of masonry is generally caused by accidental impact. It may be accompanied by
dislodgement of masonry units as well as cracking and depending upon the extent of damage, may
cause loss of strength and stability in the structure.
Spalling due to other causes such as fretting, sulphate attack and unsound materials can generally
be recognised by inspection and repaired accordingly.
C6-4
Deterioration modes in timber structures
C6-4.1
General
The main indicator of deterioration of timber members is the section loss caused by one or more
outside agents including biological attack (fungi, termites and borers), weathering, fire and impact
damage.
Timber generally does not deteriorate significantly in service without being attacked by some
outside agent. This can take the form of a biological attack or non-biological deterioration.
In general, timber deteriorates in one of five ways:
−
fungi and insect attack (termites or borers) −
weathering at exposed surfaces
−
decay or rot −
fire
−
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Of the above categories, decay and insect attack usually cause deterioration inside a member and
are therefore the most difficult to accurately measure.
The most common defects that occur in timber structures and therefore require checking during
examination are as follows:
−
decay
−
troughing or bulging (indicates internal decay)
−
insect infestation
−
weathering - abrasion, cracks, shakes, checks and splits
−
loss of section due to fire
−
vehicle impact damage
−
crushing
−
loose or missing bolts/connections
−
corroded connections
The main indicator of deterioration of timber members is the section loss caused by one or more of
the outside agents.
C6-4.2
Biological attack
Timber structures and their individual components are vulnerable to biological attack from fungi,
termites and marine borers.
Fungal attack is the main cause of deterioration in timber bridges, however certain conditions are
necessary for the development of fungi. These include:
−
a temperature range suitable to their life cycle
−
a moisture content suitable for their development
−
an adequate oxygen supply
−
a food supply on which they can grow (i.e. timber)
Fungi attacks both sapwood and heartwood (under favourable conditions) causing breakdown of
the wood substance and this is known as decay.
There are several types of insects in Australia that attack timber, however the termite is the only
one that attacks seasoned heartwood. Termites work along the grain eating out large runways. In
the early stages much sound wood is left between the runways, however in the long term only the
thin outer layer of wood may remain.
Marine borers are of several types and the danger from these is dependent upon geography and
water salinity. Although borers attack different sections of piles (defending upon the type of borer),
the simple rule is to protect from below mud line to above high water level. Borers may make only a
few small holes on the surface and yet the pile interior may be practically eaten away.
C6-4.3
Non-biological deterioration
Timber is also vulnerable to non-biological deterioration from weathering, abrasion, fire, impact and
overload.
Weathering is the most common form of non-biological deterioration. Exposure to the elements can
lead to continual dimensional changes in the wood from repeated wetting/drying, or it may result in
drying and shrinkage. These processes can lead to cracks, shakes, checks, splits (particularly at
member ends or at bolted connections) or warping and loose connections.
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Impact and overloading may result in damage to members such as shattered or injured timber,
sagging or buckled members, crushing or longitudinal cracking. The action of vehicles passing over
decking can cause abrasion and subsequent loss of section.
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Chapter 7 Examination Methods
C7-1
Examination methods for steel structures
The principal methods for examining steel and wrought iron structures are:
−
Visual examination
−
Hammer test
−
Magnetic or electronic gauges for testing steel or coating thickness
Specialist examination methods include:
C7-1.1
−
X-Rays
−
Ultrasonic testing
−
Magnetic particle testing −
Acoustic emission
−
Laboratory analysis of steel samples −
Thermal Imaging.
Visual examination
Visual examination as detailed below will detect most defects in steel bridges:
−
Members are to be observed under load where possible and any excessive movement in
members or fastenings is to be noted.
−
Examine for water build-up, especially in areas where build-up could cause corrosion.
−
Examine for notches caused by impact from vehicles or equipment and note for grinding out
as soon as possible (note that grinding will result in section loss). Check for cracks around the
notch area.
Visual examination will detect most defects in steel structures: Particular note should be taken of the following: C7-1.2
−
Any distortion and misalignment of structures or individual members; −
Paint condition;
−
Water, dirt or other debris lying on steel surfaces that could lead to corrosion. Hammer test
Hammer testing, where members are tapped lightly with an Examiner’s hammer, will indicate loose
plates and fastenings, extent of corrosion, and effectiveness of corrosion protection. Care must be
taken that hammering does not cause unnecessary destruction of the protection systems.
C7-1.3
Magnetic or electronic gauges
Where protective coatings are showing signs of deterioration or where remote faces of steel
members preclude surface examination, a dry film thickness gauge or ultrasonic flaw detection
device can be used to determine the thickness of the coating or steel section.
Dye penetrant testing or magnetic particle testing will detect suspected cracking that is not clearly
visible.
C7-2
Examination methods for concrete and masonry structures
The principal methods for examining concrete and masonry structures are:
−
Visual examination
−
Hammer test
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Specialist examination methods include:
C7-2.1
−
X-Ray
−
Ultrasonic testing −
Acoustic emission
−
Core sampling
−
Carbonation tests
−
Thermal imaging
Visual examination
Visual examination will detect most defects in concrete, brick, and stone structures.
The examiner is to look for signs of:
−
weathering or spalling of surfaces or mortar joints
−
cracking within members or at joints
−
stains on surfaces indicating reinforcement corrosion
−
crushing, especially at bearings or at prestressing anchorage points
−
changed alignment of members whether vertically (e.g. abutments), horizontally (e.g. deck
camber), or laterally (e.g. footings and culverts)
−
changed alignment of structure whether vertically, horizontally or laterally.
Examine all members for the unplanned ingress of water. Scuppers, weepholes, and other outlets
are to be cleared of rubbish. Any water build-up or seepage into undesirable areas is to be
reported.
C7-2.2
Hammer test
Hammer testing, where surfaces are tapped lightly with a hammer, can indicate drumminess,
potential spalling areas, loose brickwork or stonework.
C7-2.3
Specialist examination
Where cracking or bulging of a member cannot be explained by visual examination, specialist
testing can be used to examine the internal condition of structures. The bridge examiner is to note
such concerns for follow up by the Structures Manager or Civil Maintenance Engineer.
C7-3
Examination methods for timber structures
The principal methods for examining timber bridges are:
−
Visual examination
−
Hammer test
−
Bore and probe −
Deflection test
Specialist examination methods include:
C7-3.1
−
Shigometer
−
Ultrasonics
−
X-Rays.
Visual examination
All bridge members are to be inspected for indications of deterioration or damage such as:
−
weathering, cracks, shanks, checks, splits
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−
surface decay where members join or where members project behind abutments
−
damp sides of members, especially timber decking
−
indicators of internal decay such as troughing, sides bulging, brooming out of fibres, body bolts
hanging out or loose in their holes
−
termite or fungus attack
−
crushing of members, especially headstocks at seatings and joints
−
spike killing of transoms
−
loose or missing bolts, including transom bolts
−
general top and line of the track
−
pumping of piles, piers or abutments
−
scouring of piles, piers or abutments.
Hammer test
Hammering a timber member gives an indication of internal deterioration. The presence of rot or
termite attack may cause a hollow sound when struck by the hammer, indicating boring is required.
The hammer should weigh about 1 kg, with one face flat and the other face spiked.
C7-3.3
Bore and probe
Test boring is carried out with a 10mm auger in order to locate internal defects such as pipes, rot or
termites. Holes are bored square to the face of girders, corbels, headstocks, piles, sills and other
members as necessary. Boring must not be overdone and holes are to be preservative treated and
plugged, leaving the plug 20mm proud so that they can be easily found by the Structures Manager
at the mid-cycle examination and at the next detailed examination. Unused holes are to be plugged
flush.
The extent of an internal pipe or other defect is found and measured with a feeler gauge made from
4 mm steel wire with one end flattened and about 4 mm bent over at right angles. By probing down
the bore hole, the extent of a defect can be felt, measured and recorded.
It is very important to note when boring holes to check the shavings for indications and
determination of extent of dry rot.
C7-3.4
Deflection test
For spans 4 metres and longer, a deflection test gives an indication of girder condition and riding
quality. Tests are usually ordered by the Structures Manager but may be initiated by the Bridge
Examiner after the detailed examination.
The span under test is to be “screwed up” before loading. Any movement that cannot be curtailed
such as pumping piles, is to be estimated and noted. The heaviest permitted locomotives and
wagons for the line are to be used and successive runs made between 20 km/h and the permitted
track speed. All results are to be recorded on the bridge file, including locomotive and wagon
details and train speed.
Deflections are to be measured at the mid-point of all girders in the span being tested. Springloaded deflectometers with pencil traces are used to record the deflection and rebound.
Defect category limits for deflections and mandatory responses are set in Appendix B to this
Volume.
C7-3.5
Shigometer
This is an instrument used to indicate both actual and potential decay in timber. A probe is inserted
into a bored 3 mm hole and the electrical resistance measured by a meter. Test methods are to be
advised by an experienced specialist or completed by an experienced specialist or consultant.
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Ultrasonic
This is a non-destructive test method in which a pulse is transmitted through a member and
recorded by a remote receiver. The system is claimed to give better results than the hammer test,
especially with an experienced operator. Commercial testers are available but the method is not
recommended for general use.
C7-3.7
X-rays
This method has been used to identify decayed areas not readily discernible by manual methods. It
is specialised work and costly, and of most value for members such as trusses. Experienced
specialists should be consulted for advice on possible applications.
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Chapter 8 Recording and Reporting Examination Results
C8-1
Recording procedures
One of the main objectives of a structures examination is to record its current condition. This
information is used for design, construction and maintenance purposes as well as establishing a
history of performance of the structure.
To achieve this objective, the recording must be in a consistent format, accurate and clearly
presented. To this end, standard recording formats for detailed examinations have been developed
for the various types of structure assets and materials.
All detailed examination records should include a photograph showing the general configuration of
the structure, e.g. a side elevation of a bridge showing the spans and bridge type. Photographs
should also be taken of any newly detected defects or any previously identified defects that have
deteriorated. This, together with the written documentation, will assist with subsequent assessment
of the structure’s condition and planning of repairs.
For special examinations, a comprehensive written report is to be prepared addressing the specific
event and any other relevant aspect of the structure’s condition and behaviour. The report is to be
supplemented by photographs and sketches/plans as appropriate.
C8-2
Reporting forms
Standard formats have been established for the recording of the results of structures examinations
by Bridge Examiners. Examples of the standard forms are provided in Appendix 6.
The examination forms are comprised of two sections, the top portion covering permanent data for
the particular structure such as location, type etc. and the lower portion being the examination
record covering any exceedents found, defect categories and repair priorities.
Provision is also made at the bottom of the form for the overall condition to be shown, e.g. the paint
index if a steel structure.
All defects in structures that have been identified as defect categories A, B, C and D are to be
reported on a Weekly Summary of Exceedents Form (see example in Appendix 7). This form is to
be submitted to the Structures Manager for his authorised action and subsequent endorsement of
completed work.
The results of visual inspections made by the Civil Maintenance Engineers are to be recorded in an
Inspection Notebook or similar electronic record, detailing the inspection date, comments and
recommendations for repair.
C8-3
Signatures on reporting forms
Reporting forms are to be signed to certify that examinations and assessments have been carried
out in accordance with the requirements of this Manual. The forms are signed by the person
conducting the examination and also by the person certifying the structure.
The standard reporting forms shall be signed as follows:
C8-4
−
Detailed Examination form is signed by the bridge examiner to certify the examination and by
the Structures Manager to certify the assessment
−
Mid-Cycle Examination form is signed by the Structures Manager only to certify the
examination.
Bridge management system
Examination reports for bridges and culverts shall be loaded into the bridge management system
(BMS).
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Defects shall be entered into Teams 3.
C8-5
Bridges
C8-5.1
General
The results of all bridge examinations are to be recorded in electronic format. Prescribed
examination report forms are provided for the recording of relevant data and information on the
structure, defect categories, repair priorities, paint index (where applicable) and load rating
information. For bridges and culverts, the online Bridge Management System (BMS) is to be used
for the recording of examination results.
The examination results and comments are to be written up within one month of the detailed
examination.
Typical Bridge and Culvert Examination Report forms are provided in Appendix 6. When using
these forms, the key components of the bridge are to be reported on as follows:
Steel bridge
Timber bridge
Concrete bridge
Culvert
Main Girders
Decking
Girders
Roof
Bracing
Girders / Corbels
Kerbs
Internal Walls
Stools
Headstocks
Tie Rods
Culvert Invert
Bearings
Bracing / Sills
Ballast Walls
Apron Slabs
Paint
Trestles
Ballast Logs
Headwalls
Abutments
Abutments
Bearings
Tie Rods
Piers
Wings
Abutments
Wingwalls
Transoms
Transoms
Piers
Scour Protection
Ballast Logs
Ballast Logs
Wingwalls
General
Walkways/
Refuges
Walkways/
Refuges
Walkways/
Refuges
Guard Rails
Guard Rails
Guard Rails
General
General
General
For timber bridges, the detailed examination results are to be recorded in accordance with the
procedures in Appendix 6.
Examination report forms are to be certified by the designated personnel as detailed in C8-3.
All defects that have been identified as defect categories A, B, C and D are to be reported on a
Weekly Summary of Exceedents Form (see Appendix 7). This form is to be submitted to the
Structures Manager for his authorised action and subsequent endorsement of completed work.
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The results of visual inspections made by the Civil Maintenance Engineer are to be recorded in an
Inspection Notebook or similar electronic record, detailing the inspection date, comments and
recommendations for repair.
C8-5.2
Defect and action comments on examination forms
C8-5.2.1
Introduction
Bridge Examiners and Structures Officers are required to fully complete the examination forms as
part of the standard bridge examination procedure. These forms serve as a means of recording the
examination results and also as a checklist.
All previously reported defects should be re-inspected. Areas of particular types of structures where
certain defects commonly occur should also be inspected, e.g. corrosion of the bottom flange of
steel girders adjacent to bearings. The importance of carefully documented defects cannot be
overemphasized.
All defects, and in particular those which reduce the load carrying capacity or performance of an
element, should be adequately documented for future reference. Any action necessary to rectify
the defect should also be documented on the relevant examination form.
Sufficient details should be recorded to cover defect location, severity, extent of defect and any
other relevant information. Comments on any necessary action should be kept in general terms
without detailing maintenance procedures. Where no defect exists or no action is required, the
comment recorded should be “NIL”.
C8-5.2.2
Defect comments
Comments on the defects observed/measured during an examination are a key part of reporting.
The description should be sufficient (along with photographs) to enable bridge maintenance
priorities to be established.
A variety of defects may exist and these vary according to material types and construction form.
Examples of typical bridge defects and appropriate descriptions are:
Examination form/item Comment re defect
Substructure-masonry/concrete
Cracking/Spalling
Diagonal cracking in Abutment 1, UM No 2 wingwall,
up to 2-3 mm width
Water penetration of
leaching
Moderate leaching throughout tops of all piers and
abutments
Substructure-steel/iron
Corrosion at base plates
Heavy corrosion at base of Pier 1 columns with up to
20% section loss
Footings
Two footings at Pier 1 are cracked through pier
column, up to 2 mm. Some minor spalling of
concrete off corners of footing
Substructure- timber
Split/rotted piles Trestle 2, 3 piles have split at the bolted
connections. Splits are up to 75 mm deep, 600 mm
long from bolts
Superstructure-masonry arch
Arch cracking
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Cracking in top layer of arch ring up to 3 mm wide, in
span 1 near Pier 1. Transverse minor cracking, up to
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Examination form/item
Comment re defect
Mortar loss Severe loss of mortar from joints at base of Abuts
and Piers. Abut 1 loss is getting critical with some
loose blocks
Superstructure-steel/iron girder
Flange section loss to Main
Girder
Light corrosion and pitting of top and bottom flanges
at ends of girders, up to 5% loss of section. Nominal
section loss elsewhere
Behavior under live load Up to 5mm vertical movement at most bearings due
to pumping. Up to 10mm movement at Abut 2.
Superstructure-steel/iron truss
Loose rivets or bolts 2 bolts missing from Span 3 bracing adjacent to Pier
2. Loose connection at Span 2 bracing at mid span
Superstructure-steel/iron jack arch or concrete encased
Flange section loss Up to 20% loss of bottom flange of outer girders in
Spans 1 & 2 at ½ span point (i.e. girder exposed due
to electrification). No loss to internal girder flanges
Decking – transom top
Transoms
Transoms are generally weathered, with 5 heavily
weathered and splitting/decayed
Decking – ballast top timber
Handrail Base of all railing posts and anchorage bolts heavily
corroded. Railing posts and rails are heavily surface
corroded throughout
Decking – Overbridge
Wearing surface Wearing surface is moderately worn throughout and
cracked along centreline of construction joints (up to
1 mm)
Traffic barrier railing Diagonal cracking up to 3 mm in masonry walls near
Abut 1 and on UM side of Abut 2
Decking – Footbridge
C8-5.2.3
Treads and risers One loose tread in Span 2 near Pier 1. Up to 30%
loss of tread supports at Spans 1 & 2. Leading edge
of 2 treads in span 1 are badly spalled and
reinforcement is exposed
Railing and balustrade Railing post bolts are generally corroded. Post on
landing has 1 missing bolt and others are loose.
Hence post is loose and unsafe
Action required
Actions required to rectify defects are also a vital part of examination reporting. These are to be
restricted to a general description only, to give an indication of the form of work required to fix a
defect. Methods and techniques of performing maintenance repairs are detailed in TMC 302
“Structures Repair”.
The action required to repair a defect depends upon the type of material, the severity of a defect
and its location (i.e. is it in a critical position?). It is often difficult to determine the severity of
corrosion for example, without removing loose corroded material, or knowing if in fact these section
losses are critical. Therefore, it may only be possible to identify the correct action once work has
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commenced, or after design calculations have been completed. In these cases, a note should be
made that further investigation is required.
Examples of some typical action comments are:
Defect
Description of action
Light to moderate corrosion
Strip back corroded material and repaint
Severe corrosion
Strip back corroded material, plate & repaint or
Further investigation of extent of corrosion
required
Breakdown of protective coating at
connections and exposed locations
Spot paint where necessary
Bottom flange notched from vehicle
impact
Grind out notch magnetic particle test and paint
Concrete cracked and spalled from US Check loss of reinforcement and design
of deck and reinforcement exposed and capacity (if significant additional reinforcement
corroded
may be needed). Patch concrete spalls and
inject cracks with epoxy mortar.
Water penetration and leaching through Resurface deck wearing surface and asphalt
deck
and patch cracks in footway slabs
Or
Further investigation of deck surface under
asphalt required
Bolts loose or missing and generally
corroded
Tighten loose bolts and replace missing or
heavily corroded bolts
Bearings pumping under live load
Replace existing bearing mortar pads
Road approaches to bridge have
subsided and wearing surface badly
worn
Build up approaches with asphalt. Resurface
deck with asphalt or
Minor defects such as cracking,
breakdown of paint etc
Monitor at next inspection
C8-5.3
Overall condition
C8-5.3.1
Paint Index
Further investigation of subsidence required
Provision is made at the bottom of the examination forms for steel bridges to show the overall paint
condition of the structure. This is assessed in accordance with the guidelines detailed in Appendix
3.
Especially on major steel bridges and in compliance with necessary environmental safeguards, recoating becomes an extremely expensive activity. The indices provide the asset manager with
important management information.
C8-5.3.2
Load Rating
Provision is also made at the bottom of the examination forms to show the “as new” and “as is”
capacity of the bridge. This is measured and calculated in terms of its load rating, which is
established by a design engineer either when the bridge is designed or during its service life. Any
changes to the load rating are calculated by a design engineer using information from bridge
examinations such as section loss, cracking etc.
The load rating is an indicator of the strength of a bridge. The primary objective of establishing a
load rating is to ensure that the bridge has adequate strength.
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Overloading and other severe load histories, deterioration, rehabilitation and strengthening may
cause changes in a bridge’s load carrying capacity with time. Therefore, the load carrying capacity
calculated at a particular date may not be the same as the future or past capacity, or even the
same as the original design capacity.
Two types of load rating are used - “As New” and “As Is”.
The “As New” load capacity looks at the bridge in as new condition and rates it in accordance with
relevant bridge design standards.
The “As Is” load capacity of a bridge takes account of the current condition and allows for damaged
or deteriorated members.
Load rating of underbridges is expressed as a proportion of the bridge’s capacity.
Load rating of overbridges is expressed as gross weight in tonnes and prefixed with R (example:
R20).
Footbridges are rated using a uniform load throughout and the live load capacity is expressed in
kilo Pascals (example: 5kPa).
C8-5.4
Bridges managed by others
Configuration and defect data for overbridges and footbridges that are owned and managed by the
RTA, local councils and other authorities shall be included in the Bridge Management System
(BMS).
Whilst RailCorp may not be responsible for the maintenance of these overbridges RailCorp
requires data to be included in the BMS for information and to allow defects to be monitored.
Information to be recorded includes:
−
configuration data to describe the structures
−
defect data obtained from bridge examinations
−
signed copies of bridge examination reports
−
as-constructed drawings
−
photographs and other reports.
Data shall be obtained from the RTA, local council or other authority as appropriate.
For multi-span overbridges data need only be recorded in the BMS for the span or spans that are
located over RailCorp property, including the supports to these spans.
C8-6
Structures
C8-6.1
General
Standard formats have been established for the recording of the results of structures examinations
by Bridge Examiners. Examples of the standard forms are provided in Appendix 6.
Examination results and comments are to be written up within one month of examination.
Exceedances are to be recorded on the Weekly Summary of Exceedents form in accordance with
the procedures detailed in Volume 1 of this Manual.
For overhead wiring structures and signal gantries, missing bolts, members rated “poor”, and
structures requiring detailed examination are to be reported on the Weekly Summary of
Exceedents form.
Each of the items listed on the reporting forms is to be checked on site and comments made if
appropriate.
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It may be the case that the item listed does not exist at this particular site and therefore a “Not
Applicable” comment should be recorded.
Where no defect or action is necessary then a “NIL” comment should be lodged against the
appropriate item.
Where a component is not visible or is not accessible, comments “Not Known” and “Not Inspected”
should be used respectively.
Of course, in most cases a detailed description of a defect and action will be required for each
particular item.
Where a Structures Manager is undertaking a mid- cycle examination, he is to take a copy of the
previous examination report to site. Where any amendments or additions are necessary, the
Structures Manager shall endorse the copy accordingly.
C8-6.2
Defect and action comments on examination forms
C8-6.2.1
Introduction
Examination staff are required to fully complete the relevant examination forms. These forms serve
as a means of recording the examination results and also as a checklist.
All previously reported defects should be re-inspected. Areas of particular types of structures where
certain defects commonly occur should also be inspected. The importance of carefully documented
defects cannot be overemphasized.
All defects, and in particular those which reduce the load carrying capacity or performance of a
structural member, should be adequately documented for future reference. Any action necessary to
rectify the defect should also be documented on the relevant examination form.
Sufficient details should be recorded to cover defect location, severity, extent of defect and any
other relevant information. Comments on any necessary action should be kept in general terms
without detailing maintenance procedures. Where no defect exists or no action is required, the
comment recorded should be “NIL”.
C8-6.2.2
Defect comments
Comments on the defects observed/measured during an examination are a key part of reporting.
The description should be sufficient (along with photographs) to enable maintenance priorities to be
established.
A variety of defects may exist and these vary according to the type and form of structure and
construction materials. Examples of typical defects in structures and appropriate descriptions are:
Examination form/item
Comment re defect
Overhead wiring structure-steel
Corrosion at base
Heavy corrosion at base of mast with up to 20% section
loss
Bridge
Web of main girder perforated over Up Main
Deflection
Masts off vertical and leaning towards Sydney
Tunnel
Seepage
Significant leaking from roof above overhead wiring, 20
metres from Sydney portal.
Refuges
Three refuges obstructed by track materials
Retaining wall-masonry/concrete
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TMC 301
Examination form/item
Comment re defect
Cracking/Spalling Diagonal cracking 2 metres from Sydney end, 1 metre
long and up to 2-3 mm width
Weep holes
90% ineffective (blocked with dirt and vegetation)
Action required
Actions required to rectify defects are also a vital part of examination reporting. These are to be
restricted to a general description only, to give an indication of the form of work required to fix a
defect. Methods and techniques of performing maintenance repairs are detailed in the Structures
Repair Manual TMC 302.
The action required to repair a defect depends upon the type of material, the severity of a defect
and its location (i.e. is it in a critical position?). It is often difficult to determine the severity of
corrosion for example, without removing loose corroded material, or knowing if in fact these section
losses are critical. Therefore, it may only be possible to identify the correct action once work has
commenced, or after design calculations have been completed. In these cases, a note should be
made that further investigation is required.
Examples of some typical action comments are:
Defect
Description of action
Light to moderate corrosion
Strip back corroded material and repaint
Severe corrosion Strip back corroded material, plate & repaint or
Further investigation of extent of corrosion required
Breakdown of protective coating
at connections and exposed
locations
Spot paint where necessary
Concrete cracked and spalled,
reinforcement exposed and
corroded
Check loss of reinforcement and design capacity (if
significant additional reinforcement may be needed).
Patch concrete spalls and inject cracks with epoxy
mortar.
Water penetration and leaching
through brickwork Further investigation of cause and appropriate remedy
required
C8-6.3
Overall condition
C8-6.3.1
Paint Index
Provision is made at the bottom of the examination forms for steel structures to show the overall
paint condition of the structure. This is assessed in accordance with the guidelines detailed in
Appendix 3.
Recoating may become an extremely expensive activity, particularly in view of track possessions
that may be required and in compliance with necessary environmental safeguards. The indices
provide the asset manager with important management information.
C8-7
Recording procedures - timber
Examination results should be recorded in the bridge examination book as follows:
C8-7.1
Decking
Record size, number and location of pieces split or with section loss.
C8-7.2
Girders/Corbels/Truss Spans
Record all pipes showing span number, girder/corbel number and location, and the location of
boring (end, centre, 300mm from end etc).
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Split corbels are to be noted, and whether they have been bolted.
Record deflection test results, including locomotive and wagon details and train speed.
Where packing is installed the location, size and type is to be noted.
For truss spans, the result of the examination is to be shown on a diagram.
C8-7.3
Headstocks
Record results of any boring showing trestle number, location of headstock (top/bottom) and
location of boring (which end).
C8-7.4
Bracing/Sills
Record ineffective or unsound bracing, defining the location of each piece.
Diagonal bracing should be described stating whether single or double bolted.
Identify and record whether solid or double waling type sills. Record unsound pieces, identifying
location.
C8-7.5
Piles
Record pipes showing trestle number, location of pile in trestle (pile no), boring location (headstock,
mid height, ground level, 500 mm below ground).
Record, and carry forward, date of below ground examination.
Spliced and planted piles are to be specially noted. Depth of splice or of plant footing below bottom
wailing is to be noted.
C8-7.6
Abutment sheeting and wing capping
Record general condition and ability to retain fill.
C8-7.7
Transoms
Record number that are split, spike-killed or have poor bearing, identifying if any are consecutive,
whether sleeper plates are fitted, whether guard rails exist and the numbers of the spans where
defective transoms occur.
C8-7.8
General
Note any comments on:
−
ballast walls/legs
−
runners
−
refuges
−
temporary supports
−
termites
−
screwing up
−
other components
−
services
−
site condition.
Termite infestations found during examination are to be reported as an exceedent to the Structures
Manager, who will arrange for a licenced contractor to treat the infestation. Dates of examination
and treatment are to be recorded.
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Condition, records of pipes and effectiveness of all temporary supports, together with dates of
installation and modification, are to be recorded.
C8-7.9
Marking Defects
After examination, all timbers with 50mm or more of pipe, dry rot etc. must be branded adjacent to
the boring with 50mm high figures stencilled in white paint, showing the defect. Where dry rot or
white ants are present, the letters “DR” or “W” are to be placed respectively after the figures to
indicate these defects. Where a dry pipe only is present in the timber, no letter indication is
required.
At each succeeding examination the previous figures are to be removed and only the latest figure
shown.
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Chapter 9 Assessment of Examination Results
C9-1
General
The standard defect categories provide an initial response for the Bridge Examiner to ensure safety
of the structure. The defect limits for the defect categories are conservative. Assessment of the
defect may result in the allocation of a different defect category.
During the assessment process, the Structures Manager should confer with the Bridge Examiner or
Structures Officer and consult with the Civil Maintenance Engineer as necessary.
The Structures Manager or Civil Maintenance Engineer may seek engineering advice from the
Chief Engineer Civil.
The response to a repair priority may include a risk management action such as installation of
temporary supports or imposition of a speed or load restriction, pending final repair. These actions
may lead to the repair priority being redefined to a lower level, e.g. from Rm1 to Rm6, or from Rm6
to Mm3.
C9-2
Initial assessment by bridge examiner
As part of the examination process, the bridge examiner assesses measured defects by comparing
them with the defect limits in Appendix 4.
The bridge examiner takes the action specified in the defect category responses in Appendix 3 for
each identified defect i.e.
−
stop trains
−
impose 20 km/hr speed restriction
−
report to the Structures Manager the same day
−
report to the Structures Manager on the Weekly Summary of Exceedents Form.
The defect category is recorded on the examination form.
C9-3
Assessment of weekly summary of exceedents
Upon receipt of the Weekly Summary of Exceedents form and within the assessment timeframe
specified in Appendix 3, the Structures Manager assesses the exceedents based on the size and
location of the defect, his own knowledge of the structure and, where necessary, inspection of the
defect.
The Structures Manager assesses the defect category allocated by the bridge examiner. The
defect category is either confirmed or altered.
Based on the assessed defect category, the Structures Manager allocates a repair priority.
The weekly summary of exceedents form is loaded into the BMS with details of repair actions and
changes to defect categories.
In Teams 3, the defect category is updated where necessary and the repair priority is entered.
C9-4
Structures Assessment
Following the detailed examination, the Structures Manager is to make an assessment of each
structure in accordance with TMC 305 Structures Assessment.
The assessment shall be carried out within one month of the receipt by the Structures Manager of
the examination report.
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This assessment includes all the defects, both exceedents and non-exceedents, and an overall
assessment of the structure.
The assessment is based on:
−
The examination report
−
The results of the mid-cycle examination, where applicable
−
Additional examination where considered necessary
−
An assessment of all defects including effects of multiple defects in a component
−
Consultation with the bridge examiner and/or structures officer
−
Engineering advice from the civil maintenance engineer and/or bridges & structures engineers
where necessary.
The assessment will confirm the defect categories, repair priorities, and paint indices where
applicable.
For detailed examinations, underwater examinations and monthly broad flange beam examinations:
−
Carry out the structures assessment
−
Sign the detailed examination form as the certification of the structure as safe for the operation
of trains
−
Load the detailed examination form into the BMS with final defect categories and repair
priorities
−
Enter final defect categories and repair priorities into Teams 3.
For special examinations:
C9-5
−
Carry out the structures assessment in response to identified damage
−
Sign the examination form as the certification of the structure as safe for the operation of trains
−
Load the detailed examination form into the BMS with final defect categories and repair
priorities
−
Enter final defect categories and repair priorities into Teams 3.
Structurally critical members
A list of structurally critical members in bridges has been prepared, to assist examination staff in
identifying deteriorated components that may have a serious impact on the strength and safety of
the bridge. Refer to Appendix 5 for the list.
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TMC 301
Chapter 10 Examination Of Bridges And Culverts
C10-1
General
A thorough examination is to be undertaken of all components of a bridge during Detailed
Examinations.
Examinations shall be carried out using methods that allow close inspection of all structural
members.
Refer to TMC 110 for the relevant Service Schedules.
C10-2
Substructures
C10-2.1
General
The substructure includes the abutments, wingwalls, retaining walls, piers, trestles, columns and
footings. These elements can be constructed from steel, concrete, masonry and timber.
Major components are summarised below:
−
Piles
−
Footings (pile caps, spread footings)
−
Abutments
−
Wingwalls /retaining walls
−
Piers, trestles and columns
−
Waterway scour protection.
Generally, the substructure can be adequately examined from the ground, however, in some cases
this may not be sufficient. Where piers are submerged in water or are very high, then a boat,
ladder, scaffold, “Cherry Picker” or “Snooper” may be required to allow closer inspection.
The key areas of concern in the condition of substructures include:
−
Deterioration of structural material; −
Corrosion/deterioration in tidal or splash zones; −
Scour or undercutting of piers and abutments; −
Excessive or abnormal movements in the foundations; −
Proper functioning of drains and weepholes; −
Accident/impact damage.
C10-2.2
Piles
C10-2.2.1
Steel and Concrete
Piles on steel and concrete bridges are generally underground and cannot be examined, or under
water.
For underwater examination, see C10-2.8.
C10-2.2.2
Timber
Examine visually and hammer test for soundness. Bore and probe at headstock level and near
ground level.
Piles must be watched for signs of pumping or sinking under traffic and the result noted. All piles
with 125mm pipe or over are to be bored at right angles in addition and shown in the bridge
examination book thus, 125 x 150 etc.
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Examine below ground using a backhoe where possible. Excavate to a depth of 500 mm or more if
found necessary, and bore at trench bottom. Where spliced piles show signs of vertical or sideways
movement, the splice rails and pipe stumps are to be exposed and examined. All excavations are
to be filled, compacted, and scour protection reinstated.
Spliced and planted piles are to be specially noted. Depth of splice or of plant footing below bottom
waling is to be noted.
All spliced piles are to be stencilled with the letter “S” in white and planted piles with the letter “P”
on the pile itself. A mark is to be made on an accessible part of the pile, together with the stencilled
depth of the splice below the mark.
Where piles have a surrounding concrete collar or invert, the concrete must not be cut away for
examination unless extensive pile necking or piping is evident.
In measuring the diameter of a pile, the minimum effective diameter must be taken. Where the
sapwood is soft and dozy, it must be removed and the diameter measured accurately with calipers.
If no calipers are available the girth should be measured and this amount multiplied by 7 and
divided by 22 to find the equivalent diameter.
C10-2.3
Footings
Examine structure footings for heaving of foundation material, erosion at footing, settlement, earth
cracks.
Examine concrete or masonry footings visually and by hammer testing for flood or impact damage,
weathering or spalling of surfaces or mortar joints, cracking within members or at joints and
evidence of reinforcement corrosion.
Visually examine timber pile seatings and at the ends and hammer test for soundness. Identify
solid and double waling types. Inspect for loose bolts, straps, decay of undersides on concrete
bases and bearing of walings on pile shoulders. Solid timber sills should be inspected by bore and
probe, the same as corbels.
C10-2.4
Abutments/Wingwalls
Examine concrete or masonry abutments and retaining walls for cracking, settlement, movement,
drainage and weep holes, corrosion and degradation of material and components, impact damage,
condition of piles and sheeting (where fitted), condition of masonry (where fitted), condition of
fastenings.
Examine abutments and wingwalls for spill-through material (as applicable), condition of girder
ends, condition of backfill, erosion or loss of toe support, vegetation and rubbish.
Abutments should be checked for movement or rotation. This can be done by checking: the
abutment for plumb; the position of permanent marks on the abutment; or evidence of cracking in
the abutment or wing walls. Where this problem is detected the details should be submitted to
specialist bridge designers so that remedial measures can be included in any major upgrading
work.
Examine timber abutment sheeting for general condition and for the ability to retain backfill.
Examine tip end sheeting and clean out the cavity between girders. The use of the condemned
mark (X within a circle) is not to be used except on sheeting to abutments.
C10-2.5
Piers/Trestles
Examine concrete or masonry piers and columns visually and by hammer testing for alignment,
crushing of bearing seating, settlement or movement, weathering or spalling of surfaces or mortar
joints, cracking within members or at joints, evidence of reinforcement corrosion, proper functioning
of drains and weepholes, failed mortar joints and lime weepage, loose brickwork, or loose
stonework.
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TMC 301
Examine steel trestles for alignment, bearing seating, settlement or movement, corrosion around
baseplates, between angles in bracing, in rivet heads and holding down bolts, loose rivets or bolts
in connections to girders or bracing or loose turnbuckles in bracing and condition of protective
coating.
Examine steel piers for corrosion at crosshead connection at water or ground level, inside of filled
cylinders, excessive movement of any member under load and cracks in cylinder walls.
Visually examine all horizontal and diagonal timber bracing and hammer test for soundness.
Inspect for loose bolts and effectiveness of bracing in restraining sidesway. The ends are to be
examined as well as at pile seatings.
C10-2.6
Scour protection
Examine structure foundations in waterways for scour and the condition of scour protection
measures, vegetation growth, silt deposits and debris, ponding of water under the structure due to
downstream obstructions, channel movements and adequacy of waterway and freeboard for debris
during high water.
C10-2.7
Foundation movement
Foundation movements are potentially one of the most serious causes of deterioration of a bridge.
The most common form of foundation movement is forward rotation of an abutment. This is due to
inadequate allowance for horizontal earth pressure in design and is common in designs prior to
1960. The movements can also be caused by instability of the underlying material or through
consolidation. Differential movement may also occur resulting from variability of the underlying
material properties or thickness.
Movement of the foundation is first noticed by development of substructure cracking or through
changes to the bridge geometry such as abutment tilting.
Instability can be caused by the occurrence of a range of different foundation characteristics. These
may include the sliding of rock masses along fault or joint plains, mining subsidence, change of
pore water pressure in the foundation strata due to a change of water table level or from a slip
circle failure of an embankment slope.
Consolidation is generally caused by one of two events. The first possible cause could be from the
additional loads at the time of bridge construction, consolidating any unconsolidated material.
Another cause is track reconditioning – using compaction methods too close to abutments.
Alternatively, the expansion or shrinkage of reactive clays that respond to changes of moisture
content may also cause consolidation.
The effects of foundation movements can range from minor cracking through to the bridge
becoming unserviceable or even collapsing.
C10-2.8
Underwater examination
Examine piles in permanent water. The underwater examination is to be done by an accredited
driver with the Bridge Examiner (or nominated representative) present. A signed report by the diver
is to be retained and placed on the bridge file with these examination reports.
Detailed procedures for underwater examinations are given in Engineering Manual TMC 303
“Underwater Inspection”.
Examine for:
−
Serious corrosion of steel piles; −
Deterioration or splitting of concrete piles; −
Insect/borer infestation and deterioration of timber piles; −
Pile loss and remaining section; © Rail Corporation
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TMC 301
Scour development.
It is preferable to keep underwater inspection to a minimum. Therefore, all inspections should be
completed at the time of lowest water where possible.
C10-2.9
Bridge bolts and rivets
Bridges are designed to carry certain loads on the assumption that the separate members are held
firmly together as a whole. For instance, the timber components of a compound girder are bolted
together tightly to develop its full strength. If these bolts become loose, movement may occur
between the separate parts or at joints and some of the designed strength is lost. To ensure that a
bridge is well maintained, therefore, these bolts must be kept tightly screwed up.
During the detailed examination, all bolts and rivets are to be examined. Any bolts which cannot be
tightened during the examination are to be reported.
C10-2.10
Services
Services such as water or gas pipes are to be examined for general condition, integrity of
attachment, leakage and any affect on the bridge structure.
C10-2.11
Temporary supports
Visually examine for soundness and effective support. Packing and wedges are to be tightened
and re-spiked where necessary.
Temporary supports should be treated as a trestle and examined in the same manner. Hammer
test when new and bore and probe.
C10-2.12
Site condition
All dry grass, flood debris and other foreign matter which may cause a fire hazard, is blocking more
than 25% of a defined waterway or may accelerate timber decay, must be removed from the
immediate vicinity of the bridge.
When water covers the foundations, it is necessary to ascertain if any scour has occurred
underneath. If the water cannot be drained or pumped out, a long rod or stick should be used as a
probe.
All dirt and earth must be cleaned from sills, walings, braces, foundations etc. from both
underbridges and overbridges, as this is a frequent cause of rot and decay in timber.
C10-3
Superstructures
C10-3.1
General
Superstructures are constructed from a variety of materials including steel, concrete, masonry and
timber.
Inspection of a superstructure should be carried out from all possible angles from above, below and
also in elevation. Access beyond that available from the ground or via binoculars may be required.
Therefore, the use of a ladder, safety harness, scaffolding “Cherry Picker” or “Snooper” or even a
boat, may be required for a detailed examination. Ladders and other safety equipment shall be
used in accordance with the RailCorp Safety Management System requirements.
The superstructure is to be inspected in a systematic way that prevents any members from being
overlooked.
Major components are summarised below:
−
Girders, corbels, stringers, trusses, arches and jack arches −
Wind and sway bracing −
Bearings
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−
Decking (including ballast troughs and joints)
−
Transoms and attachments
−
Ballast logs
−
Guard rails
−
Barriers, safety screens and protection screens
−
Walkways, refuges and handrails
−
Stepways including landings, treads, risers and handrailing
−
Kerbs and parapets/balustrades
−
Footways
−
Wearing surfaces
−
Drainage
−
Awnings
−
Service ducts
−
O.H.W. brackets
−
Advertising brackets.
−
The key areas of concern in the condition of superstructures include:
−
Cracking
−
Heavy corrosion
−
Excess spalling
−
Loose connections
−
Excessive deformation and deflection under live load
−
Impact damage
−
Water penetration
−
Rotting
−
Splitting or Weathering
−
Excessive vibration and noise.
C10-3.2
Steel Superstructures
C10-3.2.1
General
Members of steel and wrought iron bridges are to be examined for:
−
corrosion and section loss
−
buckled webs, web stiffeners, and flanges
−
cracks in webs, flanges, welds and bracing
−
loose bolts, rivets, plates and bars
−
paintwork condition; distortion from corrosion products
−
stain trails indicating hidden corrosion or working members
−
polished surfaces indicating movement between members.
Examine steelwork hidden by flashings and other fascias for signs of corrosion.
C10-3.2.2
Deflection
Deflection in steel members is normally small. Any clear movement under load is to be measured
or closely estimated, and reported.
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Any permanent sag in deck members is to be measured and reported.
C10-3.2.3
Main girders (plate web or rolled section)
Main girders may be plate web steel, rolled section steel, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete
or timber.
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
C10-3.2.4
−
corrosion under transoms or decking at toes of bottom flange angles, between flange plates,
around bearings, at abutments and piers, at bracing connections, in rivet and bolt heads
−
loose rivets or bolts in top flange angles, bracing connections, web stiffeners and splices,
bearing plates
−
cracks in top and bottom flanges
−
cracked welds in web stiffeners with diaphragm bracing, bottom of web stiffeners, web/flange
fillets, flange/flange butt welds fillets and welded repairs
−
notches in bottom flanges from road vehicle impact
−
buckled webs of unstiffened girders.
Cross girders
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
C10-3.2.5
−
corrosion near abutments −
cracks in webs at ends of girders −
loose rivets or bolts in connections. Stringer girders
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
C10-3.2.6
−
corrosion under transoms or decking −
cracks in top fillets and at ends of girders −
loose rivets or bolts in connections. Truss girders
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
C10-3.3
−
corrosion in top and bottom chords, batten plates and lacing bars, portal and wind bracing
over tracks, gusset plates, rivet and bolt heads
−
loose rivets or bolts in chords, bracing connections, bracing, loose turnbuckles in bracing
−
damaged steelwork from equipment or loads travelling out-of-gauge
−
ineffective sliding, roller or segmented expansion bearings
−
misalignment or distortion in chords.
Concrete Superstructures
Members of concrete and masonry bridges are to be examined as follows:
C10-3.3.1
Crack examination
Cracking in concrete, brick and stone is an indicator of weakness in the member. Cracks must be
examined for size and movement under load and details recorded. Shrinkage or hairline cracks
need be noted only.
Cracking or crushing around prestressing anchorages must be noted.
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The length, width, and location of cracks are to be measured. A short line scribed across the
midpoint of a crack will give easy indication of further movement. Reference points scribed at each
end of the line can be measured to indicate changes in the crack width.
Extensive new cracking, or cracks clearly working under load are to be reported and appropriate
action taken in accordance with the defect category limits set in Appendix 4.
C10-3.3.2
Deflection
Deflection in concrete, brick or stone members is normally small. Any clear movement under load is
to be measured and reported as indicated above.
Camber of deck members is to be measured, or estimated, and noted. Any change greater than
10% from the installed camber is to be reported to the Structures Manager and given a safety
rating.
C10-3.4
Timber Superstructures
C10-3.4.1
Girders
Every member is to be initially examined visually and tested with a hammer. If the sound indicates
a defect, then a boring is to be made at that place. However, girders are usually bored at mid depth
positions over the ends of the corbels and also at the centre of the span.
Examine compound girders individually.
Examine continuous girders on the basis of individual girders for each span. This includes girders
made continuous by addition of intermediate/temporary supports. By way of example, a girder 4.7m
long temporarily supported at the centre is bored and probed at 6 locations.
The top surface of girders, especially under the decking of ballast top spans, is to be examined for
signs of decay.
Where a pipe is found that is 125mm or more wide, cross bore vertically at the location, note size
and position of the pipe, and record reading in red.
Where visual examination raises any doubt or where termites appear active, additional boring is to
be carried out as necessary.
C10-3.4.2
Corbels
Examine in a similar manner to girders. Bore holes to be 300mm from ends and at the centre, but
clear of the bolt holes. Where packing is installed, the location size and type is to be noted.
C10-3.4.3
Headstocks
Visually examine and hammer test for soundness. Identify solid and double waling types. Bore and
probe ends of members if hammer test indicates internal decay. Give special attention to corbel
seatings and to pile bearings. Inspect waling headstocks for loose bolts and for bearing on pile
shoulders. Solid headstocks should be inspected by bore and probe, the same as corbels.
C10-3.4.4
Deflection
Conduct deflection test as required in accordance with C7-3.4.
C10-3.5
Decking
C10-3.5.1
Underbridge decks
Underbridge decks are described as either ballast top, transom top or direct rail fixing.
For ballast top bridges, items to be examined include ballast walls, timber planks, steel decking,
concrete ballast troughs, deck drainage and joints.
For transom top bridges, items to be examined include transoms, bolts, packers, clips and spikes.
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For direct fixed decks, items to be examined include concrete deck, track fastening system
supports, deck drainage, deck joints and ballast walls.
Other components to be examined on all bridges include the guard rails, refuges, walkways and
handrails.
Any other miscellaneous components should be examined and reported under the “General”
heading on the examination forms. This will include any obvious track defects such as low bridge
ends.
C10-3.5.2
Overbridge decks
Inspection of the wearing surface, parapets, footways, barriers, joints etc is vital, even though in
many cases an overbridge deck may be owned by another Authority. A defect on the deck for
example, may be allowing water penetration to girders and substructure causing deterioration of
these elements. Therefore, it is good practice for examiners to check all deck components and
report any major defects to the Authority responsible for the deck. The Authority should also be
requested to repair the deck.
The deck material type will determine the defects likely to exist and therefore, what an examiner
should look for.
The wearing surface is the single most important deck item to be examined. It should be cleaned
where obscured by debris or dirt, so that a full inspection can be made.
For timber decks, decay, splitting, loose planking and spikes are the most common defects.
Observation of the deck under traffic will reveal looseness or excessive deflection in members. All
defects and their effect on the remainder of the structure are to be noted. Determine the general
condition of the timber decking. Note the number, size and location of pieces split or with section
loss.
Concrete decks must be checked for cracking, leaching, scaling, potholes, spalling and exposed
reinforcement. Each of these items should be evaluated to gauge the effect on the structure and
the work required to rectify the defect.
Asphaltic or similar type wearing surfaces on a deck hide defects until they are well advanced.
Therefore, the surface should be examined very carefully for signs of deterioration such as
cracking, breaking up or excessive deterioration. Where deterioration of the deck is suspected,
small areas of the wearing surface should be removed to examine the deck more closely.
All decks should be examined for slipperiness to determine if a hazard exists. Also, check drainage
to see that the decks are well drained with no areas where water will pond and produce a traffic
hazard or contribute to deterioration. Other items to be checked include deck joints, kerbs and
parapets, footways, medians, traffic and pedestrian railings and safety screens. All these items
need to be checked and reported on as they affect the overall bridge condition or the general
safety.
C10-3.5.3
Footbridge decks
The general points made about deterioration of overbridge decks also hold for footbridge decks.
Therefore, all key components should be inspected and any defects reported. Deck material types
should be examined according to the methods and procedures detailed in Chapter 7. Key
components to be inspected include deck, landings, railings, balustrades, treads and risers, railing
mesh and safety screens. Miscellaneous items such as lighting or roofing also need examination
and details should be reported under the “General” heading on the examination form.
Pedestrian safety and aesthetics are the key areas of concern with footbridges. Close attention
should therefore be paid to the following items during the examination:
−
Loose or corroded railings;
−
Cracked and spalled treads or landings;
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C10-3.5.4
TMC 301
−
Worn or uneven deck; −
Security and condition of balustrades; −
Adequate safety screening over O.H.W.
Deck joints
Deck joints are necessary to allow for deck movement and rotation, and therefore prevent large
forces being transferred to the structure. It is necessary to inspect joints on overbridges and
footbridges to ensure the required free movement is available and to check the general condition.
Substantial damage to the structure could be caused by an obstructed or seized joint.
C10-3.6
Stepways
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
C10-3.7
−
corrosion at base connection, stepway risers, stringer webs, tread cleats and clips
−
loose bolts and clips to treads
Barriers
The function of a barrier is to prevent pedestrians and errant vehicles from falling over the side of
the bridge or stepway. A further function is to protect pedestrians from out of control vehicles.
Barriers can take many forms and may be made from brick, concrete, masonry, timber, steel,
aluminium, galvanised iron, mesh or a combination of these materials. Regardless of the
construction material, barriers are required to meet the appropriate loadings as outlined in the
relevant current Australian design standards.
The major cause of barrier deterioration is due to impact damage from vehicles, protruding loads,
flood debris etc. Typical deterioration will occur according to the particular material.
C10-4
Transoms
Examine for weathering, fastenings, splitting, spike killing, fire damage, condition at rail fastener
and girder seating and condition at girder bearings for intermediate or butt transoms.
C10-5
Bearings
The function of a bearing is to transmit forces from the superstructure to the substructure, whilst
allowing free movement and rotation. Many different types of bearings exist including: −
elastomeric bearing pads (plain or reinforced); −
confined elastomer or pot bearings; −
steel roller bearings; −
steel rocker bearings (optional PTFE sliding surface); −
sliding plate with lead sheet insert; −
cylindrical bearings with rotation about one axis (optional PTFE sliding surface); −
spherical bearings with rotation about three axis (optional PTFE sliding surface); −
confined concrete hinge bearings. Typical examples of bearing defects include: −
corrosion of bearing plates, rollers or hold down bolts;
−
restriction to bearing movement due to build up of debris or corrosion; −
deterioration of the bearing materials such as PTFE sliding surfaces or the elastomer in elastomeric bearings; −
drying out of the lubricant in roller bearings; © Rail Corporation
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−
deformation of the elastomer in elastomeric or pot type bearings;
−
deterioration of bearing mortar pad from cracking or disintegration;
−
misalignment or incorrect positioning of bearing plates, with subsequent loss of bearing
contact area;
−
incorrect setting of bearings in relation to temperature (at the time of inspection) and hence
restricted bearing movements;
−
excessive pumping of bearings under live load;
−
loose or missing hold down bolts.
All bearing devices regardless of their type, need to be closely inspected and checked to ensure
that they are functioning properly. Small changes in other parts of the structure such as foundation
settlements or displacements may be reflected in the bearings. Therefore, the geometry and
condition of the bearings and bearing seals is often an indication of the general health of the
structure.
Close attention should be paid to the following during examination:
−
Expansion bearings are clear of corrosion or foreign material and can move freely;
−
Holding down bolts are secure and undamaged, and nuts are tightened and properly set to
allow normal movement;
−
Rollers and rockers bear evenly for their full length;
−
Lubricated type bearings are being properly lubricated;
−
Bearings and shear keys have not been damaged from binding and/or bridge movements;
−
The positioning and alignment of the bearing should provide complete contact across the
bearing surface. A gap may indicate uplift;
−
The setting is correct in relation to the current temperature and therefore the required range of
expansion and contraction is available;
−
Elastomeric bearings should be examined for splitting, tearing or cracking of the outer casing
and for bulging and distortion caused by excessive compressive and/or shear forces;
−
Cracking, spalling or deterioration of bearing mortar pads or pedestals;
−
Pumping or excessive movements under live load.
Bearings should also be carefully examined after unusual occurrences such as accidents,
overloading, earthquake, flooding etc.
Particular defect areas to be examined are:
−
corrosion at flange plate connections
−
cracks in bearing or bed plates
−
cracked welds between flanges and bearing plates
−
loose, broken or missing holding down bolts, studs and clips
−
expansion bearings not working and segmented bearings lying over
−
condition of grease pipes.
C10-6
Other components
C10-6.1
General
Other components include:
−
Bridge approaches
−
Waterways
−
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C10-6.2
TMC 301
Protection beams.
Bridge approaches
Deteriorated conditions in the approaches to both under and overbridges may lead to damage to a
bridge.
The approach track or pavement should be checked for formation failure, settlement or
unevenness. The existence of these defects may cause additional, undesirable impact loads on the
structure and therefore stresses within the structure.
Any such defects should be reported on the relevant examination form. Where the approach track
ballast has settled, the local track maintenance crew should be instructed to rectify the defect.
Where an approach pavement owned by another Authority is defective, details are to be forwarded
to the Authority, requesting repairs to be carried out.
C10-6.3
Waterways
The condition of the waterway opening of a structure or culvert should be observed at time of
inspection. Defects in relation to scour or the condition of the scour protection are to be recorded
on the relevant substructure examination form. Any other defects observed can be recorded under
the “Comments” heading on the examination form.
For underbridges, the examiner should paint onto the Down Side of No.1 abutment the level and
date of highest flood level, as advised by the Track Manager.
Typical problems and items to be checked include:
C10-6.4
−
Scour and the condition of scour protection measures;
−
Vegetation growth;
−
Silt deposits and debris which restrict the waterway area;
−
Ponding of water under the structure due to downstream obstructions, which lead to
accelerated deterioration of substructure;
−
Condition and adequacy of fendering of navigation channels;
−
Channel movements;
−
Adequacy of waterway and freeboard for debris during high water;
Signage
Signposting is an important part of bridge management. Therefore, the presence and condition of
warning/restriction signs is to be checked during bridge examination. If any defects are found, the
details of the defect are to be recorded under the “Comments” heading on the examination form.
The inspection should include warning signs at or near the structure. This should check that all
signs required to show restricted weight or speed limit, navigation channel, restricted clearances
etc, are in their proper place. The lettering of signs should be clear and legible and the sign should
be in good condition. Any changes in local conditions such as raising or lowering track, resurfacing
roadway, strengthening of bridge etc, will necessitate recalculating and possible change of sign
details.
Height signs are to be checked by measuring and any changes required are to be notified in writing
to the Road Authority.
C10-6.5
Protection beams
Examine protection beams visually for condition and serviceability, impact damage and security of
fastenings.
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C10-7
Impact damage
C10-7.1
General
TMC 301
Impact damage to a bridge structure can be caused when: −
ships, boats, barges etc. glance or impact against piers, abutments and fendering; −
heavy floating debris carried by rapid flowing floodwaters strikes the bridge; −
trains are derailed or motor vehicles are out of control and collide against piers, abutments or
barriers;
−
overheight loads impact against the underside of bridge superstructures;
−
overwidth loads or projecting parts of trains or motor vehicles strike against piers, abutments
or barriers;
−
air borne debris carried by very strong winds strike the structure.
Typical impact damage includes:
−
spalling of concrete or masonry members, with or without exposure of reinforcement; −
cracking of steel or concrete members; −
shattering of timber members; −
local buckling or bending of steel members; −
permanent deformation of members; −
rupture or fracture of members; −
damage to parapets, balustrades, posts and railings; −
collapse of bridge. C10-7.2
Inspection of Impact Damage
C10-7.2.1
Initial inspection and action
Inspection of impact damage is done as a special examination.
Carry out an initial inspection to ensure safety to the user and to reduce further damage to the
bridge.
When damage is severe, an experienced structural engineer should make the initial inspection and
determine whether to restrict traffic or close the bridge.
Preliminary strengthening should be made immediately to prevent further damage. Preliminary
strengthening may also be made to allow traffic on the bridge. These preliminary actions are
normally based on judgment supplemented by brief calculations.
If a severely damaged member is fracture critical, immediate steps shall be taken to prevent bridge
collapse.
Fracture critical members are those tension members or tension components of members whose
failure would be expected to result in collapse of the bridge or inability of the bridge to perform its
design function.
Primary members in tension are fracture critical members, for example, tension flanges of girders
and truss tension members.
Broad flange beam spans over roadways are subject to a significant risk of fatigue and/or brittle
fracture if damaged by road vehicle impact and shall be considered fracture critical.
When a member is damaged beyond repair, the engineer may recommend at this time to partially
or wholly replace the member. When safety of the user is in question, the bridge shall be closed
until it is conclusively determined that traffic can be safely restored.
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C10-7.2.2
TMC 301
Inspection sequence and record
Commence inspection with the most critically damaged area first, followed by inspection of other
damage in descending order of severity.
Inspect the main supporting members first.
Tension members shall be inspected for indication of cracking.
Compression members shall be inspected for indications of buckling.
When more than one member has been damaged a complete description of damage for each
member shall be given.
Painted surfaces shall be visually inspected for cracks. Cracks in paint and rust staining are
indications of cracking in the steel. Heavy coatings of ductile paint may bridge over cracks that are
tight. When there is any doubt about ability to inspect for cracks, the paint shall be removed.
Damaged fracture critical members shall be blast cleaned and magnetic particle inspected.
All areas inspected, including those areas inspected that did not suffer damage, shall be recorded.
This procedure aids the decision-making process of what, if anything, should be done to repair a
member.
C10-7.2.3
Measurement of damage curvature
Accurate inspection information is required for assessing damage.
A sufficient number of measurements must be made to fully define the extent of damage.
The best way to estimate curvature is by measuring versines of short chords. Straight edges (or
spirit levels) 600mm or 1200mm long held against the inside of the curvature are more convenient
than using string lines.
C10-7.2.4
Cracks
Carry out detailed inspection to locate cracks and determine their length and width, including visual
inspection supplemented with magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing. Impact cracks are usually
surface connected and ultrasonic testing is not generally necessary. The stress and shock of
impact will sometimes cause cracking well away from the area of principal damage.
Look for spalling of paint or scale as an indication that some unusual strain has occurred at such
locations and use as a guideline for areas of detailed inspection. Visual examination is not to be
limited to these areas, however, since a crack may occur in areas that were shock loaded but were
not strained enough to spall the paint or scale. Visual inspection shall be supplemented with
magnetic particle inspection in suspect areas.
Particular attention should be given to the examination of the toes of butt and fillet welds in areas
subjected to damage as this is an area where cracks often occur.
Field inspection for cracks is done by magnetic particle, dye penetrant and occasionally ultrasonic
inspection.
C10-7.2.5
Nicks and Gouges
Nicks and gouges shall be carefully described and photographed.
Superficial nicks and gouges can be repaired by grinding smooth. As a guide, superficial nicks and
gouges can be taken as those resulting in less than 10% loss of section of the affected element.
C10-7.2.6
Monitoring of repairs
Follow up inspection of repairs shall be made on a regular basis.
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Members that have complete restoration should be inspected with the same frequency as the
complete bridge.
Member repairs where there is some doubt regarding strength and durability should be inspected at
more frequent intervals.
Repairs to fracture critical members should receive close consideration with respect to inspection
frequency.
Check for growth of cracks where cover plates for repair are less than full section requirements.
C10-8
Overloading
Overloaded trains or motor vehicles may cause damage to a bridge that includes:
−
yielding of member;
−
loose rivets;
−
loose or slipped bolts;
−
fracture of members;
−
cracking of concrete members;
−
fatigue of steel members;
−
buckling of compression member;
−
collapse of the bridge.
Other causes of overload to bridges include:
C10-9
−
the build up of flood debris against the structure which can cause large lateral hydraulic forces;
−
excessive build-up of ballast or road asphalt on deck;
−
extremes of temperature causing excessive movement or high temperature differentials within
the structure;
−
very high winds.
Stream forces
Stream forces and their effects can be one of the most serious causes of deterioration of bridge
structures.
The flow of water in a stream generates lateral pressure on bridge elements submerged in the flow.
In large floods, the entire bridge may be submerged and the lateral forces become considerable as
the flow increases. In addition to the lateral forces, the submersion of the deck can generate
significant buoyancy forces. These can become amplified if entrapment of air pockets is possible
under the superstructure.
Vent holes should always be installed on bridges where submersion is possible, to minimise the
volume of trapped air. It is possible for superstructures to be lifted off their bearings due to the
combined effects of buoyancy and lateral forces.
Log impact and debris loading add to the lateral force on a submerged bridge. Accumulated flood
debris caught on the bridge increases the cross sectional area presented to the streamflow and
thereby increases the lateral force. Also, heavy flood borne debris that strikes the bridge at velocity
will cause a substantial impact loading on the structure. The relative effects of this depend upon the
type of structure and the location of the impact. Timber structures for example may suffer shattered
or fractured members following a heavy impact load.
Scour of the waterway channel near foundations has the potential to put the bridge out of service or
perhaps cause catastrophic failure. It has been reported that 80 percent of all bridge failures are
due to scour. As a consequence of positioning piers and approach embankments in the waterway
area, a constriction of the waterflow occurs. During major flooding the water velocity may therefore
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TMC 301
be increased from that naturally occurring. Hence, without adequate scour protection such as reno­
mattressing, gabions or stone pitching, serious scouring may occur.
The effects of stream forces can range from simply contributing to abrasion of concrete or masonry,
through to collapse of the bridge. Where scour protection has been provided, it is critical for its
condition to be checked.
C10-10
Examination of steel broad flange beams over roadways
C10-10.1
General
Broad flange beam (BFB) girders are highly susceptible to crack propagation.
Broad flange beam spans over roadways are subject to a significant risk of fatigue and/or brittle
fracture if damaged by road vehicle impact. To minimise this risk, all such structures are to be
included in a special examination program as detailed below.
C10-10.2
Inspection frequency
BFB spans over roadways are to be examined monthly by the Bridge Examiner for new damage or
deterioration and are to be inspected as soon as possible after being reported as struck by a
vehicle.
C10-10.3
Examination procedures
The Bridge Examiner is to keep a list of locations of BFB’s over roadways. The register is to include
records of examinations including a copy of the detailed and mid-cycle inspections for such
underbridges in that area.
The detailed or mid-cycle examination report shall include a detailed sketch, with photographs
where possible of any affected flange. Where notches are sharper than 25 mm radius or deeper
than 10 mm, each notch is to be individually measured and recorded. Where the flange is bent
laterally or vertically, an estimate of the distance is to be given. The report should indicate whether
damage is in the BFB flange or the flange plate, or both.
The spans are to be examined for evidence of flange damage, (ie. cracking, notching, bruising,
distortion, scores and bends), as well as repairs such as grinding. Note that cracks can develop
from previously ground or repaired areas.
Examination must be carried out from close proximity to enable measurement of defects and to
facilitate the detection of cracking on any surface of the flanges.
Where there are welded flange plates, special attention must be given to the BFB flange in the
proximity of the welds, as there is a possibility of crack initiation and propagation from welds.
Any notch is to be noted and ground out as detailed in the Structures Repair Manual TMC 302.
Where notches sharper than 25 mm radius or deeper than 10 mm are found, detailed examinations
within 300 mm of the defect are to be made until repairs have been completed.
Defects when found are to be managed in accordance with the defect category limits set in
Appendix 4 and reported on the Weekly Summary of Exceedents form.
C10-10.4
Site action to be taken when cracking or damage occurs
The appropriate action for severe defects may include temporary track closure, temporary speed
restrictions or temporary supporting of the bridge, depending on the extent of the crack.
If the track is not closed the bridge must be monitored very closely and a speed restriction imposed
to suit. A significant risk of rapid crack growth exists with any unplated BFB showing any crack, or a
plated span showing cracks in both the BFB and plate flanges. Plated flanges showing cracks in
one element, but not in both, are less of a risk.
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If a span is temporarily supported at a crack, trains may run indefinitely up to 50 km/h depending on
the quality of the supports.
C10-11
Culverts
Prior to examination of a culvert, assess whether it is a confined space. Refer to the Safety
Management System for requirements for working in confined spaces.
If it is a confined space, either examination from outside the culvert is required or closed-circuit
television cameras can be used.
Examination of subsurface drains, normally less than 300 mm in opening, is not the Bridge
Examiner’s responsibility.
Examine culverts in accordance with SSC 204.
Examine structure for continuity and alignment of components.
Examine structure barrels, headwalls and aprons for general condition including flood or impact
damage, weathering or spalling of surfaces or mortar joints, cracking within members or at joints,
evidence of reinforcement corrosion, proper functioning of drains and weepholes, failed mortar
joints and lime weepage, loose brickwork, loose masonry.
Examine corrugated metal pipes for alignment, corrosion, loose fastenings. Particular defect areas
to be examined are:
−
corrosion in corrugations
−
distortion in pipe profile
−
breakdown of bitumen coating/galvanising
−
change in invert alignment indicating bedding failure
−
scour or erosion around pipe ends.
Examine timber box drains for degradation of timber components, structural condition of load
bearing members and continuity and alignment of components. Note any indication of failure of roof
or wall timbers.
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Chapter 11 Examination Of Overhead Wiring Structures And Signal Gantries
C11-1
General
Examination of overhead wiring structures and signal gantries is to be undertaken by qualified staff
at the frequencies set out in the relevant Technical Maintenance Plan (refer to ESC 100 “Civil
Technical Maintenance Plan”). The examiner is to have a copy of the previous examination results
when examining each structure.
The examination covers the primary structure, structural components of overhead wiring and
signals, and attachments such as walkways, handrails, decking, ladders and cages.
The examination of electrical/signal fittings is undertaken by Electrical and Signals Maintenance
staff. The electrical/signal inspection includes the following:
C11-2
−
Insulators and their attachments
−
Signal lights and their attachments
−
All attachments to drop verticals and masts
−
Cantilever arrangements including diagonal tubes and chains
−
Tension regulator weights and associated attachments
−
Anchor guy rods, plates and associated fasteners.
Overhead wiring system
The present overhead wiring is energised by 1500 Volts direct current.
The earth wire on structures must not be removed during examinations, and must be reinstated if
found detached.
C11-3
Wiring supports
Overhead wiring is supported off single timber or steel masts, or off steel portal structures.
Numbering of overhead wiring structure masts, bridges, droppers etc., is to be as for overbridges,
i.e. No. 1 mast (if any) is on the Down Side.
C11-4
Examination methods
Examination methods for steel structures are detailed in Chapter 7.
C11-5
Examination procedures
Members of steel structures are to be examined for:
−
corrosion and section loss
−
buckled webs, web stiffeners, and flanges
−
cracks in webs, flanges, welds and bracing
−
loose bolts, rivets, plates and bars
−
paintwork condition; distortion from corrosion products
−
stain trails indicating hidden corrosion or working members
−
polished surfaces indicating movement between members
Basic examination can be undertaken from ground level, but using binoculars where necessary, to
identify footing conditions, corroded areas in masts and bridges, missing fastenings and corrosion
or deterioration in structural components and attachments.
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TMC 301
Members identified as deteriorated during basic examination, but inaccessible from ground level,
and structural components more than 20 years old are to be noted for subsequent close up
examination under “power outage” conditions.
Poles, masts, bridges, structural components and attachments are to be examined for corrosion
losses, loose or missing fastenings, cracked welds, distorted members, loose or missing batten
plates, holding-down bolt condition, soundness of concrete footings, erosion of earth support
around foundations and soundness of guy foundations.
All debris, spent ballast and track materials are to be cleared away from masts and foundations.
C11-6
Site condition
General site condition is to be noted. If practicable, all foreign matter or debris is to be removed
during the examination. If impracticable, the situation is to be reported as an exceedent.
Foundations are to be checked for any undermining and the findings recorded.
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Chapter 12 Examination Of Tunnels
C12-1
General
Examination of tunnels is to be undertaken by qualified staff at the frequencies set out in the
relevant Technical Maintenance Plan (refer to ESC 100 “Civil Technical Maintenance Plan”). The
examiner is to have a copy of the previous examination results when examining each tunnel.
C12-2
Examination procedures
Serious deterioration in the stability of a tunnel is evidenced by bulging, distortion, cracking, or changing geometry in the tunnel. Examination requires a working platform and good lighting so that close examination of the periphery can be made. Tunnel examination will highlight the following indicators: −
The general condition of the rock face in unlined tunnels, or of the lining in others. −
The condition of joints in concrete, brickwork and stonework. −
Cracks, spalling, hollows or bulges in tunnel linings. −
Ineffective drainage, especially through weepholes and track drains. −
Signs of water seepage remote from constructed drainage outlets.
−
Condition of overhead wiring attachments. −
Track heave, subsidence, or alignment change. −
Condition of tunnel refuges and lighting.
−
Condition of Portals and movement away from tunnel stem. Cracks, bulges, and spalled areas are to be measured for length, position and displacement.
Extensively cracked areas should be photographed for easy reference. Cracks or displacement beyond 10mm should have reference pins, or non-shrink grout installed for check measurement. Spalling through the tunnel lining, or of whole bricks, is to be followed up with a geotechnical
engineer. C12-3
Site condition
General site condition is to be noted. If practicable, all foreign matter or debris is to be removed
during the examination. If impracticable, the situation is to be reported as an exceedent.
Foundations are to be checked for any undermining and the findings recorded.
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Chapter 13 Examination Of Miscellaneous Structures
C13-1
General
Examination of other structures as listed below is to be undertaken by qualified staff at the
frequencies set out in the relevant Technical Maintenance Plan (refer to ESC 100 “Civil Technical
Maintenance Plan”). The examiner is to have a copy of the previous examination results when
examining each structure.
C13-2
Retaining walls and platforms
Retaining walls and platforms are to be examined for general condition as for bridges of similar
materials.
Particular note should be taken of the condition of supporting walls and copings. Any settlement,
tilting or other alignment changes should be noted. Platform copings should be checked for correct
clearances to the adjacent track.
C13-3
Air space developments
Air space developments are to be examined for those parts within the railway corridor, but
excluding any levels above the supporting floor over the tracks.
The general condition of the members is to be checked in accordance with the guidelines for steel,
concrete and other materials as outlined in Chapters 7. Particular note should be made of the
condition of girders, floor slabs, deflection walls, columns, footings, attachments, passenger
access, loose steps, cladding, and services.
C13-4
Fixed buffer stops and stop blocks
Examine for correct alignment, structural integrity, condition of components, security of fastenings,
impact damage, condition and functionality of buffers/springs, functionality of stop lights.
C13-5
Energy absorbing buffer stops
Examine for correct positioning, structural integrity, condition of components, security of fastenings,
impact damage, condition and functionality of buffers/springs, functionality of stop lights.
C13-6
Track slabs
Examine for structural integrity, condition of components including joints, movement between top
and base slabs, ponding of water, evidence of damage to slab or components, bearings, gaps
around floating slabs for debris
C13-7
Noise abatement walls
Noise abatement walls are to be examined as for retaining walls and platforms.
C13-8
Aerial service crossings
Service crossings not attached to RailCorp bridges are to be examined where possible for general
condition, as for bridges of similar materials.
C13-9
Lighting towers
Lighting towers are to be examined as for steel bridges.
C13-10
Sedimentation basins, stormwater flow controls and similar structures
Examine for general condition of structural elements as for bridges of similar materials.
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C13-11
TMC 301
Loading banks and stages
Loading banks and stages are to be examined as for retaining walls and platforms.
C13-12
Turntables, fixed cranes and weighbridges
Examine for general condition only and record date of safety certification by others.
C13-13
Overhead water tanks
Examine for condition as for air space developments.
C13-14
Site condition
General site condition is to be noted. If practicable, all foreign matter or debris is to be removed
during the examination. If impracticable, the situation is to be reported as an exceedent.
Foundations are to be checked for any undermining and the findings recorded.
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APPENDIX 1
TMC 301
Terms Used In Bridges and Structures
A
ABUTMENT
The support at each end of a bridge.
ABUTMENT
SHEETING
Timber planks used to retain the filling behind an abutment.
APPROACH SLAB
Slab (usually reinforced concrete) laid above the formation
behind bridge abutments and designed to provide a transition
zone for track stiffness onto the bridge.
B
BALLAST KERB
Longitudinal member at the outer edge of a ballast top span to
prevent ballast spilling over the side.
BALLAST LOG
Timber, masonry or steel member sitting on top of the abutment
ballast wall to hold back track ballast.
BALLAST RETENTION
WALL
Longitudinal member at the bridge end to retain the ballast
profile.
BALLAST TOP
Underbridge with continuous deck supporting metal ballast.
BALLAST WALL
Top part of the abutment wall to hold back earthworks and track
ballast.
BARRIER
The fence or walls along the sides of overbridges and
footbridges, installed to protect road vehicles, cyclists and
pedestrians from falling over the edge of the bridge.
BEARING
Seating area of a load-carrying member; may be a separate
fabricated member attached to the girder ends.
BODY BOLT
Vertical bolt in timber girders and corbels causing pairs of
members to deflect together.
BRACING
Horizontal or diagonal member attached to main members to
stiffen those members, or to minimise sidesway.
BRIDGE
A structure spanning a river, road, railway, or the like, and
carrying vehicles, persons or services.
BROAD FLANGE
BEAM
A steel girder designed in the 1920’s with thicker and wider
flanges and reduced height of web for use in locations where
greater vertical clearance was required.
BUFFER STOP
Structure provided at the end of a rail line or siding to prevent
rolling stock from running off the end of the track and/or colliding
with an adjacent structure.
BUTT TRANSOM
Intermediate transom linking the ends of girders from adjacent
spans.
C
CAISSON
A cylinder or rectangular ring-wall for keeping water or soft
ground from flowing into an excavation. It may later form part of
the foundation.
CAPPING
Impermeable layer of fill located immediately above the main
formation and designed to shed water to the sides of the track.
CATCHMENT
Area of land from which water flows into an underbridge.
CHECK
A separation that runs parallel to the timber grain and usually on
the surface. It results from stresses that develop as the surface
layers of wood loose moisture.
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COMPOUND GIRDER
Timber girder made from two or more sections bolted firmly
together on top of each other.
COMPRESSION
FLANGE
The face of a member that is in compression. For beams it is
usually the upper face and in particular near mid-span. For a
cantilever or a continuous member it is the lower face over the
supports.
COPING
The longitudinal edge of a station platform.
CORBEL
Short longitudinal member seated on a headstock providing a
bearing for adjacent girders.
CORROSION
The gradual removal or weakening of metal from its surface by
chemical attack. Generally, it requires the presence of water and
oxygen, and is helped by carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and by
other materials in small quantities in the air or water.
CRACK
Open fissure on the surface of a member, but not necessarily
right through the member.
CULVERT
Arch, box-shaped or piped underbridge having integral walls,
roof and floor.
D
DAMAGE
The sudden worsening of the condition of a structure, its
elements and component materials due to the effect of a sudden
event such as fire, flood, accident or vandalism.
DEBRIS
Rubbish or other loose material lying near an underbridge and
which impedes smooth water flow through the bridge opening, or
collected against a structure.
DECAY
Deterioration on or in a timber member causing loss of strength.
DECK
Part of bridge superstructure directly carrying the load.
DEFECT
Deterioration of a member of a structure from its original
condition.
DEFLECTION
Downwards displacement or sag of a bridge girder when loaded
by vehicles or persons, or displacement of a structure from its
design position under load.
DEFLECTION WALL
Structural wall installed to protect the supports of a structure
adjacent to the track from collapse caused by a derailed train.
DEFLECTOMETER
Instrument for measuring deflection in girders - also referred to as
“mousetrap”.
DETERIORATION
The gradual worsening of the condition of a structure, its
elements and component materials due to the effects of traffic
and other loadings, the action of the environment on the structure
and/or the actions of the constituents of component materials
over a period of time.
DIVE
Form of tunnel where one rail track passes under another track
that is located at ground level
DRIVING MARK
Mark cut into (timber) pile indicating in roman numerals the
distance to the pile tip.
E
ENHANCEMENT
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The improvement of the condition of a structure above its design
or initially planned level of service. Forms of enhancement
include strengthening, widening, lengthening, raising and
improved safety such as better barriers.
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F
FLOOD LEVEL
Mark stencilled on No.1 Abutment of underbridges indicating
height and date of maximum previous flood.
FOOTBRIDGE
Bridge over the track carrying pedestrian traffic only. May be
freestanding or combined with an overhead booking office.
FOOTWAY
Pedestrian access attached to, or included in, an overbridge.
FORMATION
Ground immediately beneath the capping and track.
FLYOVER
Bridging structure where one rail track passes over another which
is at ground level.
G
GANTRY
An overhead structure consisting of side masts or columns joined
at the top by a horizontal bridging member.
GIRDER
Horizontal main load-bearing member of a structure supporting
the remaining components of the superstructure.
GUARD RAIL
Old rail or steel angle, placed in pairs, fixed to transoms or
sleepers between the running rails to guide derailed wheels
across an underbridge/vulnerable site.
H
HANDHOLD DEVICE
A system of handrails provided along a wall structure to provide
support for personnel.
HEADSTOCK
Horizontal member(s) attached at or near the top of a trestle or
pier, on which the superstructure bears.
I
INTERMEDIATE
TRANSOM
INVERT
Timber transverse member set between top and bottom girders
in a ballast top span.
Base or floor of a structure.
J
JACK ARCH
Form of bridge decking in which small concrete or masonry
arches infill run between main longitudinal steel girders.
M
MAINTENANCE
The actions necessary to preserve the serviceability, reliability
and safety of a structure at or near its current level and to slow
the rate of deterioration.
MAST
An independent vertical column located adjacent to the track for
the support of overhead wiring etc.
MINOR OPENING
Underbridge less than 10 metres in length.
O
OBVERT
Underside of bridge superstructure.
OVERBRIDGE
Bridge carrying road vehicles or livestock over a track.
P
PACKING
Piece of timber, steel, or other hard material, placed or driven
between members to adjust their relative position.
PARAPET
A type of barrier comprising a solid wall or post and rail fence
along the sides of overbridges and footbridges, installed to
protect road vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians from falling over
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the edge of the bridge.
PIER
Intermediate support of bridge spans between abutments, built of
solid construction and usually in concrete or masonry.
PILE
A vertical or inclined member driven or cast in the ground to
support a trestle, pier, sill, abutment, wall or other superstructure.
Includes:
Batter pile: set at an angle to the vertical to resist sidesway;
Planted pile: set in excavated hole then backfilled and
compacted;
Plumb pile: vertical pile;
Potted pile: set in concrete below ground level;
Pumping pile: a pile that is moving vertically in the ground under
load;
Spliced pile: two or more pile sections joined end-to-end by
plates;
Stump pile: pile section left in the ground after top removed.
PIPE
Hollow longitudinal void near the centre of a timber member
where the heartwood is usually situated.
PITTING
An extremely localised form of corrosive attack that results in
holes or hollows in metal. Pits can be isolated or so close
together that they may look like a rough surface.
PORTAL
An overhead structure consisting of side masts or columns joined
at the top by a horizontal girder.
PROTECTION
SCREEN
Screen installed on overbridges and footbridges to prevent
accessibility to a safety screen and to restrict objects from falling
or being thrown onto the track below.
R
REFUGE
A ‘safe area’ provided along a bridge, retaining wall or in a
tunnel.
ROCKFALL SHELTER
A structure installed over and beside a rail track to prevent loose
material from adjacent cuttings falling on to the rail line.
ROT
Internal decay of a timber member caused by fungal attack.
REHABILITATION
The actions necessary to restore a structure to its originally
intended level of service in order to retain it in service for as long
as possible. It is characterised by major repairs that are
remedial in nature, are more costly and less frequent than those
undertaken for maintenance.
REPAIR
The actions necessary to increase the current level of
serviceability, reliability and/or safety of a structure.
RUNNER
Longitudinal member bolted to girders and transoms to hold
transoms to correct spacing.
S
SAFE AREA
A place where people and equipment will not be hit by a passing
train.
SAFETY SCREEN
Impenetrable barrier intended to prevent persons from contacting
1500 volt DC equipment and to protect the equipment from
damage.
SAFETY WALKWAY
An area along an underbridge where personnel can walk without
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TMC 301
falling through to the ground.
SCALING
The gradual and continuous loss of surface mortar and or
aggregate over irregular areas of concrete. It most frequently
affects horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather or traffic, but
could also be an indication of frost or salt attack.
SCREWING UP
Maintenance process of tightening up body and other bolts to
improve the load capacity of a timber bridge.
SERVICE CROSSING
Structure carrying commercial product or utilities over or under a
track and across the railway corridor.
SHAKES (IN TIMBER)
Complete or partial separation, usually across the timber grain
and due to causes other than shrinkage. Possible causes of
shakes are due to felling of the tree, impact loading, stream
forces or wind force.
SHEAR ZONE
That area of a member near to a support, where a force acts
through the member.
SHEETING
Timber planks or steel panels, restraining the fill behind a wall
type structure.
SILL
Concrete or masonry footing supporting a trestle.
SOFFIT
The underside of a bridge superstructure.
SPALLING
Drummy or loose concrete, masonry or stone surfaces, which
may have been initiated by corrosion of reinforcement or by
heavy impact.
SPAN
Deck of a bridge between adjacent substructure supports.
Also the distance between girder supports.
SPANDREL WALL
A wall carried on the extrados (upper convex surface) of an arch,
filling the space below the deck.
SPLIT
Fissure in a timber member running parallel to the grain, from
one face right through to the opposite face.
STATION PLATFORM
Line-side structure built to provide public access to passenger
trains.
STRAIN
The lengthening or shortening of a member under load.
STRENGTHENING
The form of enhancement which increases the load carrying
capacity of a structure above the original design level. It is
characterised by major repairs which are more costly and less
frequent than maintenance.
STRESS
Internal “pressure” in a member under load.
SUBSTRUCTURE
The supports for a bridge deck including trestles, piers,
abutments and foundations.
SUBWAY
Underbridge passing over a pedestrian pathway.
SUPERSTRUCTURE
The deck or “top part” of a bridge spanning between supports.
T
TENSION FACE
The face of a member that is in tension. For beams it is usually
the lower face and in particular near mid-span. For a cantilever
or a continuous member it is the upper face over the supports.
TEREDO
Marine borer which destroys timber in tidal areas.
TERMITE
Insect (incorrectly called white ants) which attacks timber by
eating the cells, causing strength loss.
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THROUGH SPAN
Span type where the main girders rise above track level.
TIP END SHEETING
Sheeting behind extended timber girder ends of abutments.
TRANSOM
Structural member (usually timber) laid across girders for
attachment of rails on transom top spans.
TRANSOM TOP
Underbridge where the track is directly fixed to the
superstructure and metal ballast is not provided.
TRESTLE
Intermediate support for bridge spans between abutments,
usually constructed as a timber or steel frame.
TROUGHING
Pipe in timber member starting at the top face.
TRUSS
Girder made from two horizontal members (top and bottom
chords), joined by vertical and diagonal members.
U
UNDERBRIDGE
A bridge supporting a track and passing over waterways,
roadways, pathways and flood plains etc. Includes culverts.
V
VIADUCT
An underbridge consisting of multiple spans with total length over
100 metres.
W
WALING
Headstock constructed from 2 pieces of timber bearing on pile
WATERWAY
Clear area under a bridge for water to run through.
WING
Piles and sheeting or concrete or masonry wall restraining
embankment on each side of an abutment.
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APPENDIX 2
TMC 301
Typical Bridge Spans and Members
The following figures are attached, illustrating a number of different types of bridge structures that
exist in the RailCorp network, together with their major components:
Figure 1:
Transom top underbridge
Figure 2:
Ballast top underbridge
Figure 3:
Bridge abutment – component terminology
Figure 4:
Concrete box girder
Figure 5:
Masonry arch bridge
Figure 6:
Concrete box culvert
Figure 7:
Broad flange beam (BFB) span
Figure 8:
Plate web girder (PWG) welded deck span
Figure 9:
Plate web girder (PWG) rivetted deck span
Figure 10: Plate web girder (PWG) rivetted through span
Figure 11: Truss girder through span
Figure 12: Steel overbridge jack arch span
Figure 13: Footbridge and stepway
Figure 14: Rolled steel sections
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TMC 301
HANDRAIL & WALKWAY
STEEL GIRDERS
HEADSTOCKS
ENGINEERED
BACKFILL
PIERS
WINGWALL
SCOUR
PROTECTION
ABUTMENT 1
ABUTMENT 2
PILECAPS
PILES
ELEVATION
HANDRAIL
RAIL
GUARDRAIL
GRATING
TRANSOM
ZINC STRIP
TRANSOM
BOLT
GIRDERS
WALKWAY
BALLAST
FIGURE 1: TRANSOM TOP UNDERBRIDGE
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TMC 301
HANDRAILING
GIRDERS
HEADSTOCKS
ABUTMENT
ABUTMENT
GEOGRID REINFORCED
FILL
PIERS
SCOUR
PROTECTION
PILE CAPS
PILES
ELEVATION
KERB
WALKWAY
C
L
DN TRACK
C
L
UP TRACK
TIE BARS
EXTERNAL
GIRDER
INTERNAL
GIRDERS
EXTERNAL
GIRDER
MULTIPLE TRACK - DECK CROSS SECTION
FIGURE 2: BALLAST TOP UNDERBRIDGE
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TMC 301
CURTAIN SIDE
WALL
BALLAST
LOG
BALLAST WALL
BEARING PAD
BALLAST RETENTION
WALL
SIDE WALL
NEWEL
POST
FOOTING
ELEVATION
SECTION
BALLAST RETENTION
WALL
WINGWALL
CURTAIN SIDE
WALL
BEARING SILL
FACE
WALL
PLAN
FIGURE 3: BRIDGE ABUTMENT – COMPONENT TERMINOLOGY
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TMC 301
BALLAST
HANDRAIL
WALKWAY
DECK SLAB
DECK SLAB
BOX GIRDER
BOX GIRDER
FIGURE 4: CONCRETE BOX GIRDER
MULTIPLE TRACK
HANDRAILING AND WALKWAY
SPANDRELL WALL
ARCH
PIERS
ABUTMENT
FIGURE 5: MASONRY ARCH BRIDGE
WINGWALL
LINK SLAB
CROWN
UNIT
BASE AND APRON SLAB
FIGURE 6: CONCRETE BOX CULVERT
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TMC 301
70
TRANSOM
RAIL
BOLT
GUARD RAIL
TRANSOM
WIND BRACING
300 WIDE
WEB STIFFENER CHANNEL DIAPHRAGM (C 380 X 100)
BROAD FLANGE
BEAM
BEARING PLATE
BED PLATE
H.D. BOLT HOLES
FIGURE 7: BROAD FLANGE BEAM (BFB) SPAN
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TRANSOM PACKER
TMC 301
70
70
TRANSOM
CONTINUOUS
ZINC STRIP
670 WIDE
TRANSOM BOLT
WIND BRACE
DIAPHRAGM
STIFFENER
TYPICAL SECTION
ORIGINAL DESIGN
TRANSOM
TRANSOM PACKER
70
70
TRANSOM BOLT
STIFFENER BOLTED TO
BOTTOM FLANGE
TYPICAL SECTION
MODIFIED DESIGN
FIGURE 8: PLATE WEB GIRDER (WELDED) DECK SPAN © Rail Corporation
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TMC 301
TRANSOMS
WIND BRACING
END STIFFENERS
SWAY BRACING
BEARING PLATE
MAIN GIRDER
WEB STIFFENERS
(INTERMEDIATE)
PLAN
TRANSOM
RAIL
GUARD RAIL
SWAY BRACING
WEB
STIFFENERS
GUSSET PLATE
MAIN GIRDER
SWAY BRACING
WIND BRACING
TYPICAL SECTION
FIGURE 9: PLATE WEB GIRDER (PWG) RIVETTED DECK SPAN
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TMC 301
STRINGERS
CROSS GIRDER
WIND
BRACE
GUSSET
PLATE
MAIN GIRDER
GUSSET PLATE
CROSS GIRDER
PLAN
WEB
STRINGER GIRDER (RSJ)
STIFFENER
CLEAT
CROSS GIRDER
SECTION
FIGURE 10: PLATE WEB GIRDER (PWG) RIVETTED THROUGH SPAN
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TMC 301
TOP CHORD
TRUSS SWAY BRACING
END POST
TOP CHORD
WIND BRACING
VERTICAL WEB MEMBER
PORTAL BRACING
DIAGONAL WEB MEMBER
BOTTOM CHORD
BOTTOM CHORD WIND BRACING
(STRINGERS AND THEIR BRACING NOT SHOWN)
END POST
PORTAL BRACING
STRINGER GIRDER
CROSS GIRDER
STRINGER SWAY BRACING
BOTTOM CHORD
BOTTOM CHORD WIND BRACING
END VIEW
STRINGER WIND BRACING
(CONNECTS FLANGES OF STRINGERS)
FIGURE 11: TRUSS GIRDER THROUGH SPAN
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TMC 301
A
PARAPET
BRICKWORK
No
1
TRESTLE
MAIN GIRDERS (RSJ)
No 1 ABUTMENT
HEADSTOCK
CONCRETE
No 2 ABUTMENT
No 2 TRESTLE
DOWN TRACK
UP TRACK
TRESTLE FOOTING
A
PARAPET
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No.4
No. 5
MAIN GIRDERS
(RSJ)
No.2
ABUT.
TRESTLE
TRESTLE SWAY BRACING
SYDNEY
FIGURE 12: STEEL OVERBRIDGE JACK ARCH SPAN
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TMC 301
LANDING
STEPWAY LANDING
MAIN GIRDERS
BALLUSTER
TREAD
RISER
RAILING
STEPWAY TRESTLE
TRESTLE WIND BRACING
STRINGER (CHANNEL)
TRESTLE
STEPWAY FOOTING
TRESTLE FOOTING
FIGURE 13: FOOTBRIDGE AND STEPWAY
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TMC 301
FLANGE
ALL 300
WEB
NO MARKINGS
FILLET
R.S.J
ROLLED STEEL JOIST
(TAPERED FLANGE BEAM)
B.F.B
(BROAD FLANGE BEAM)
TOE
FILLET
MARKED 'B.H.P'
HEEL
U.B.
UNIVERSAL BEAM
CHANNEL
U.C.
UNIVERSAL COLUMN
TEE
ANGLE
Z BAR
FIGURE 14: ROLLED STEEL SECTIONS
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APPENDIX 3
TMC 301
Standard Defect Categories and Responses
DEFECT CATEGORIES AND RESPONSES
Defect
Category
Bridge Examiner/ Structures Officer
Response
Structures Manager
Response
EXCEEDENTS
A
Immediately stop trains in the case of an
underbridge, or close if an overbridge or
footbridge. Advise Structures Manager
immediately for further assessment.
Assess immediately.
B
Immediately impose a 20km/hr speed
restriction in the case of an underbridge.
Advise Structures Manager immediately for
further assessment. For footbridges and
overbridges, the area is to be barricaded
and a report provided to the Structures
Manager the same day.
Assess the same day
for underbridges.
C
Report to Structures Manager the same
day for him to take appropriate action
within 24 hours.
Assess within 24
hours.
D
Report to Structures Manager on the
Weekly Summary of Exceedents Form for
the appropriate action.
Assess within 7 days.
Assess within 24
hours for footbridges
and overbridges.
NON-EXCEEDENTS
E
Record in bridge examination report.
Assess as part of
bridge management
process.
REPAIR PRIORITIES Rm1
Repair within 1 month
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
Rm6
Repair within 6 months
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
Ry1
Repair within 1 year
Could apply to any Defect Category
Ry2
Repair within 2 years
Could apply to any Defect Category
Ry5
Repair within 5 years
Applies to Defect Category E only
Ryxx
No repair for 5 years, reassess then
Applies to Defect Category E only
Mm1
Monitor monthly
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
Mm3
Monitor quarterly
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
Mm6
Monitor half yearly
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
My1
Monitor yearly
Applies to Defect Categories A to D
Axx
Assess/Inspect next inspection
Applies to Defect Category E only
PAINT INDICES
Paint Indices are to be assigned by the Bridge Examiner or Structures Officer for all steel structures
that they examine. The indices reflect the condition of the surface coating, the order of the indices
from worst to best being P1, P2 & P3. They are defined as follows:
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TMC 301
Paint Index P1 - Paint broken down throughout. Programme to paint within 5 years. Paint Index P2 - Paint broken down locally. Patch paint as required within 2 years. Paint Index P3 - Paint in satisfactory condition. The paint index is to be recorded on the examination report. © Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
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APPENDIX 4
TMC 301
Defect Limits
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
A. Underbridges – Steel and Wrought Iron
For steel, wrought iron and broad flange beam underbridges items in the table are defined as follows:
Main structural members are main girders, cross girders, stringers, truss chords, diagonals and verticals,
columns, trestle legs and headstocks.
Secondary structural members are bracing, bearing/bed plates, gusset plates, bearing and web stiffeners,
tie bars etc.
An element of a member is typically a flange or web and may consist of multiple plates and/or angles.
For piers, abutments, wingwalls and reinforcement see Underbridges – Concrete
Main member
(excluding
BFBs)
New crack or
extension of
previously
assessed crack
More than 80mm long
(total if old & new)
A - Stop trains
50mm - 80mm long
(total if old & new)
B - 20kph speed
Observe under load
10mm – 49mm long
B - 20kph speed
(total if old & new)
New crack
0mm-9mm long
C - 24hr action
Missing
Any
A - Stop trains
Crack at bearing
zone
More than 300mm
B – 20 kph speed
Less than or equal to
300mm
C – 24hr action
Corrosion loss
Perforation to any element
C - 24hr action
More than 30% section
loss
C - 24hr action
10-30% section loss
D - Weekly exceedent
Less than 10% section
loss
E – Record
Crack
Any
D - Weekly exceedent
Missing
Any
B - 20kph speed
Corrosion loss
Perforations to any
element
D - Weekly exceedent
Main Member
Fastenings
Bolts / Rivets
missing
More than 50%
A - Stop trains
(at connections)
Loose
More than 50%
B - 20kph speed
Loose / Missing
30% to 50%
B - 20kph speed
10% to 30%
C - 24hr action
Up to 10%
D - Weekly exceedent
Main member
Main member
Secondary
member
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TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Main Rivets
Secondary
Fastenings
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Corroded away
in any 600mm
length of girder
More than 50% of rivet
heads
C – 24hr action
Less than or equal to 50%
of rivet heads
D – Weekly exceedent
Missing
More than 50%
B - 20kph speed
Loose
More than 50%
C - 24hr action
Loose / Missing
30% to 50%
D - Weekly exceedent
Up to 30%
E - Record
Segmental
Bearings
Locked over
-
D - Weekly exceedent.
Reset but only after
structural /geotechnical
investigation into
abutment stability
Bed or Bearing
Plate HD Bolts
Missing / Broken
More than 30%
D - Weekly exceedent
Up to 30%
E - Record
Bed Plate
Broken
Bearing Pads
Broken / Missing
mortar
More than 25%
D - Weekly exceedent
Up to 25%
E - Record
Any
D - Weekly exceedent
Out of alignment
(bridge has
moved)
More than 50mm
A - Stop trains
30mm – 50mm
B - 20kph speed
Less than 30mm
C - 24hr action
Main member
Major structural
damage
Structure likely to be
unable to carry load
A - Stop trains
Girder Flange
Flange outstand
deformed
vertically
More than 60% of
outstand width
A – Stop trains
30-60% of outstand width
B – 20 kph speed
20-29% of outstand width
C – 24hr action
Up to 20% of flange
outstand width
D – Weekly exceedent
More than 60mm
B - 20kph speed
30mm – 60mm
C - 24hr action
20-29mm
D - Weekly exceedent
Up to 20mm
E – Record
More than 30mm
A – Stop trains
Up to 30mm
B – 20 kph speed
More than 100mm
A - Stop trains
50-100mm
B - 20kph speed
25mm-49mm
D – Weekly exceedent
Up to 25mm
E – Record
More than 50% of rivets
C – 24hr action
Flaking paint
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
Ry2
Ry2
Ry2
D - Weekly exceedent
Impact Damage
Track
Flange deformed
horizontally
within bracing
bay
Notched
Trestle
Main Rivets
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Column
deformed in any
direction
Sheared off in
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TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Any Joint
Fastenings
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
any 600mm
length of girder
Up to 50% of rivets
D – Weekly exceedent
Rendered
ineffective
More than 50%
B - 20kph speed
Less than or equal to 50%
C – 24hr action
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
B. Underbridges – Broad Flange Beams
All the above limits for steel and wrought iron underbridges applies to B.F.B. underbridges except for the
“Main Girder/Truss”, “New Crack” items which are to be replaced with the following.
Unplated B.F.B. spans
BFB Flange
Crack
More than 25mm
A - Stop trains
10-25mm
B - 20kph speed &
observe under load.
Stop road traffic during
passage of each train
5-9mm
B - 20kph speed
Less than 5mm
C - 24hr action
More than 25mm
A - Stop trains
10-25mm
B - 20kph speed &
observe under load.
Stop road traffic during
passage of each train
5-9mm
B - 20kph speed
Less than 5mm
C - 24hr action
More than 50mm
A - Stop trains
20-50mm
B - 20kph speed &
observe under load.
Stop road traffic during
passage of each train
10-19mm
B - 20kph speed
Less than 10mm
C - 24hr action
Plated B.F.B. spans
Both
BFB Flange and
Flange plate
Either
BFB Flange or
Flange plate
Crack
Crack
C. Underbridges – Timber
The following maintenance limits are based on nominal 300mm x 300mm timber section
Girder/Corbel
Pipe / Trough in
any girder or
corbel
More than 250mm
A - Stop trains
226-250mm
B - 20kph speed
200-225mm
C - 24hr action
151-199mm
D - Weekly exceedent
50-150mm
E - Record
Crushing
Solid Headstock
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Pipe / Trough
B - 20kph speed
More than 250mm
A - Stop trains
226-250mm
B - 20kph speed
200-225mm
C - 24hr action
151-199mm
D - Weekly exceedent
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TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Girder
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
50-150mm
E - Record
Crushing
Any
B - 20kph speed
Mid span
deflection
Exceeds values tabulated
below
B – 20kph speed
Span (m)
Deflection
(mm)
4.27 4.57 7.32 7.92
8
9
20
22
Girder/Corbel
small section
250x150mm
Rotted out
B - 20kph speed
Waling
Headstock
Rotted out
B - 20kph speed
Waling Sill
Rotted out
C - 24hr action
Body Bolts
Loose
More than 25%
D - Weekly exceedent
Less than or equal to 25%
E - Record
More than 25%
D - Weekly exceedent
Less than or equal to 25%
E - Record
More than 25%
D - Weekly exceedent
Less than or equal to 25%
E - Record
Section loss in
more than 50%
of piles in any
trestle or
abutment
More than 75%
A - Stop trains
Section loss in
more than25% of
piles in any
trestle or
abutment
More than 75%
B - 20kph speed
Section loss in
any pile
More than 75%
C - 24hr action
50-75%
D - Weekly exceedent
40-49%
E - Record
Pumping
Any
D - Weekly exceedent
Decking
Split or rotted out
More than 20%
E - Record
Any Timber
Section
Termite
infestation
Any evidence of damage
C - 24hr action
3 Adjacent
B - 20kph speed
2 Adjacent
C - 24hr action
2 in 3
D - Weekly exceedent
One isolated
E - Record
3 Adjacent transoms
B - 20kph speed
Corbel bolts
Trestle Bolts
Piles
Loose
Loose
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
D. Underbridges – Timber Transoms
Transoms
Transom Bolts
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Ineffective
Missing
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TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Loose
Defect Size
Defect Category
2 Adjacent transoms
C - 24hr action
One transom (2 bolts)
isolated
D - Weekly exceedent
Any
E - Record
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
Ry2
E. Underbridges – Concrete
Main-P.S.C or
R.C
Differential
deflection
between units
under live load
Visible
C - 24hr action
Main-P.S.C
Crack
Other than shrinkage
(surface) crack more than
0.3mm
B - 20kph speed
Main-R.C
Crack
More than 2mm wide
C - 24hr action
0.5 - 2mmwide
D - Weekly exceedent
D - Weekly exceedent
Main
Reinforcing. Bar
Section loss in
one bar
More than 30%
Stirrup
Reinforcing.
Section loss in
one bar
More than 60%
Prestressing
Ducts/Tendons
Exposed
Any
C - 24hr action
Piers/Abutments
Crack
More than 5mm wide & 1
metre long especially
under bearings
C - 24hr action
2-5mm wide
D – Weekly exceedent
More than 5mm wide & 2
metres long
C - 24hr action
2-5mm wide
D – Weekly exceedent
Lateral
dislocation
More than 20mm
D - Weekly exceedent
Spalling
More than 1 square metre
with exposed reinforcing
D - Weekly exceedent
300mm x 300mm & no
reinforcing exposed
E - Record
Any
D – Weekly exceedent
Any degradation
D – Weekly exceedent
Wingwall
Deck
Deck – joint
between slabs
Crack
Fouling with
ballast/debris
Bearings
Ry2
Undertake diagnostic
testing
D - Weekly exceedent
Undertake diagnostic
testing
Undertake diagnostic
testing
Ry2
Undertake diagnostic
testing
Impact Damage
Main
Deformation
Any
A - Stop trains
Main-P.S.C or
R.C.
Crack
Other than shrinkage
(surface) crack more than
0.3mm
A - Stop trains
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 95 of 120
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RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
F. Underbridges – Masonry and Concrete Arch
For piers, abutments, wingwalls and reinforcement see Underbridges – concrete
Arch Ring
Brickwork
dislocation
Longitudinal
cracking
(along arch
barrel)
Circumferential
cracking
(along arch
profile)
Distortion of
profile
Other than Arch
Spandrel Wall
Culvert floor
Brickwork
dislocation
Displacement
Heaving
More than 30% in any
square metre missing or
unbonded
B – 20kph speed
10-30%in any square
metre missing or
unbonded
D – Weekly exceedent
More than 3mm wide,
through & across full arch
width. Visible differential
movement under live load
A – Stop trains
2-3mm & not through &
across
C – 24hr action
Less than 2mm & not
through & across
D – Weekly exceedent
More than 6mm wide &
more than 2m long along
arch
C – 24hr action
3-6mm wide, or more than
6mm wide and less than
2m long along arch
D – Weekly exceedent
More than 50mm –
detectable by undulations
in top line of spandrel
walls / parapets or track
B - 20 kph speed
20-50mm
D - Weekly exceedent
More than 50% in any
square metre missing or
unbonded
C - 24hr action
20-50% in any square
metre missing or
unbonded
D - Weekly exceedent
Longitudinal more than
30mm, or more than
20mm longitudinal +
20mm tilt
C - 24hr action
15-30mm
D - Weekly exceedent
More than 50mm
D - Weekly exceedent
25-50mm
E - Record
Any other
Brickwork
dislocation
Nil
D - Weekly exceedent
Brickwork
mortar
Missing or loose
More than 30% in any
square metre missing or
loose
D – Weekly exceedent
10-30%in any square
metre missing or loose
E - Record
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
G. Culverts and Pipes
For undefined elements and reinforcement see Underbridges – concrete
Culvert
Subsidence of
formation/ballast
A -Stop trains
No subsidence of
formation/ballast
B - 20kph speed
50-100%
C - 24hr action
30-50%
D - Weekly Exceedent
10-30%
E - Record
More than 30mm wide
B - 20kph speed
10-30mm
D -Weekly exceedent
Less than 10mm
E - Record
Joint Broken
-
D -Weekly exceedent
Out of round /
distortion
More than 50mm
D -Weekly exceedent
Cracked
More than 50mm wide
B - 20kph speed
10-50mm wide
D - Weekly Exceedent
Less than 10mm
E - Record
More than 2m
C - 24hr action
Any
D - Weekly Exceedent
More than 50mm
D - Weekly Exceedent
25 - 49mm
E - Record
Blocked Geotechnical risk
site
More than 25%
C - 24hr action
Blocked
More than 25%
D - Weekly Exceedent
Collapse
Blocked
Culvert
Corrugated
Metal Pipe
Headwall /
Wingwall
Apron
Floor
Adjacent
Waterways
Cracked barrel
Scouring under
Heaving
Ry2
H. Footbridges and Overbridges
In addition to the following, Underbridge Maintenance Standards for underbridges also apply where
applicable
Brick parapets
Horizontal crack
More than 3mm wide &
more than ½ of parapet
width & more than 2m
long
D – Weekly exceedent
Brick parapets
Vertical crack
Any crack full height and
full width of parapet
D – Weekly exceedent
Pedestrian Safety Aspects
The bridge and stepway maintenance triggers described are of a structural nature and intentionally do not
cover defects in walking surface finishes, ie tiles, etc. and associated anti-slip requirements
Pedestrian
Barriers
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Missing / Broken
Any
B - Seal off area
Missing /
Displaced chain
wire infill
Any
B - Seal off area
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Missing vertical
balusters
Any
B - Seal off area
Missing
displaced metal
sheet
Any
B - Seal off area
Loose
Any
D - Weekly exceedent
Missing bolts
Any
D – Weekly exceedent
Traffic Barriers
Missing / Broken
/ Loose
Any
C - 24hr action
Deck
Walkway planks
Broken, decayed, missing
or displaced
B - Seal off area
Cracks in AC/FC
sheets
Any
B - Seal off area
Deck-Nails,
Screws
Protrusion above
deck
More than 10mm
C - 24hr action
Less than or equal to
10mm
D - Weekly exceedent
Safety Screens
Missing / Broken
Any
B - Seal off area
Safety Screen
Fixings
Defective
More than 50%
C - 24hr action
25-50%
D - Weekly exceedent
Timber Railing,
Posts
Section loss
More than 25%
D - Weekly exceedent
Protection
Screens
Missing / Broken
/ Loose
Any
D - Weekly exceedent
Missing bolts
Any
D – Weekly exceedent
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
Stepways (also includes balustrade and handrail references above)
R.C. Stepway
Tread
Broken front
edges
More than 150mm long x
35mm deep
C - 24hr action
More than 50mm long x
15mm deep
D - Weekly exceedent
Cracked
More than 2 mm wide
D - Weekly exceedent
R.C. Stepway
Landing
Cracked
More than 2 mm wide
D - Weekly exceedent
Less than 2 mm wide
E - Record
Stepway
Reinforcing
Protruding at toe
Any
C - 24hr action
Stepway Tread
Rocking between
heel and toe
More than 5mm
C - 24hr action
2-5mm
D - Weekly exceedent
Slope heel to toe
More than 15mm
D - Weekly exceedent
5-15mm
E - Record
I. Underbridge walkways and refuges
Walkway &
Refuge
Handrails
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Missing / Broken
Any
B - Seal off area
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Defect Size
Defect Category
Walkway &
Refuge Planks
Broken,
decayed,
displaced or
missing
Any
B - Seal off area
Walkway
fastenings
Loose or missing
Any
D – Weekly exceedent
Missing
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Undersize
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Vee section
Missing / End not
closed
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Fastenings
Missing / Loose
-
D – Weekly exceedent
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
J. Underbridge guardrails
Guardrail
K. Underbridge road/pedestrian safety aspects
Clearance signs
Ballast
Missing
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Not legible
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Falling
-
C - 24hr action
L. Underbridge Ballast Logs/Walls
Ballast Log
Missing / Rotted
out
-
D - Weekly exceedent
Ballast Wall
Decayed,
displaced or
missing
-
D - Weekly exceedent
M. Overhead Wiring Structures and Signal Gantries
Structural
member
Corrosion loss
Perforation to any element
C – 24hr action
More than 20% section
loss
D - Weekly Exceedent
Loose / Missing
bolts
Any
D - Weekly Exceedent
Masts or portal
structure
Leaning off
vertical
More than 50mm from
design
D - Weekly Exceedent
Guy foundation
Dislodged
-
D - Weekly Exceedent
Brickwork
dislocation
More than 30% in any
square metre missing or
unbonded
C – 24hr action
10-30% in any square
metre missing or
unbonded
E - Record
Longitudinal
cracking
More than 5mm wide &
more than 5m long
B - 20kph speed
(along tunnel)
2-5mm & more than 5m
long
C – 24hr action
Less than 2mm & more
than 5m long
D - Weekly exceedent
N. Tunnels
Roof/Wall
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
APPENDIX 1: DEFECT CATEGORY LIMITS
Member
Defect Type
Circumferential
cracking
Defect Category
More than 5mm wide &
more than 2m long along
tunnel profile
D - Weekly exceedent
More than 5mm wide &
less than 2m long along
tunnel profile
E - Record
Spalling
Through the lining or of
whole bricks
D - Weekly exceedent
Seepage
Causing corrosion of track
fastenings
D - Weekly exceedent
Any
E - Record
More than 50mm wide
B - 20kph speed
10-50mm wide
D - Weekly Exceedent
Less than 10mm
E - Record
(along tunnel
profile)
Portal
Defect Size
Crack
Mandatory
Repair
Priority
Ry1
O. Retaining Walls and Platform Walls
Retaining wall
Platform wall
Platform coping
More than 10mm wide &
more than 2 metres long
C - 24hr action
More than 10mm wide &
less than 2 metres long
D -Weekly exceedent
5-10mm wide
E - Record
Lateral
dislocation
More than 20mm
C - 24hr action
10-20mm
E - Record
Crack
More than 50mm wide
C - 24hr action
10-50mm wide
D - Weekly Exceedent
Less than 10mm
E - Record
Separation from
platform surface
and/or wall
Visible
D - Weekly Exceedent
Broken edging
Any
D - Weekly Exceedent
Damaged
Loss of tension/Rocks
spilling out
D - Weekly exceedent
Lateral
dislocation
More than 100mm
D – Weekly exceedent
Crack
Check clearances for
possible infringement
P. Gabion Walls
Gabion baskets
- bridges
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
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Structures Examination
APPENDIX 5
TMC 301
Structurally Critical Members
A. Steel and wrought iron underbridges
Span Type
Structurally Critical
Member
Details of Critical Areas
Plate web deck,
RSJ and BFB
Main girders
Bottom flange: middle third of span
Top flange: over intermediate piers and buckling at
mid spans
Web splices: middle half of span
Web: at support
Plate web
through
Main girders
Bottom flange: middle third of span
Top flange: over intermediate piers and buckling at
mid spans
Web splices: middle half of span
Web: at support
Cross girders
Bottom flange: middle half of span and end
connections
Web: at support
Stringers
Bottom flange: middle half of span and end
connections
Web: at support
Trusses (Pratt)
Top chord
Buckling at mid-span
Bottom chord
Middle half of span
Portal frames
Mid-span frames at end connections
Cross girders
Middle half of span and connections to bottom
chords
Stringers
Middle half of span and end connections
First web verticals
Whole member, including connections
Internal web diagonals
Whole member towards abutments
Girders
Middle third (bending) and over corbels (shear)
Corbels
Over headstocks (shear)
Headstocks
Nil
Piles
At ground level , and 500mm above and below
ground level
B. Timber bridges
All spans
C. Concrete bridges
All spans
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Pre-Stressed Concrete
Girders
Middle third of span
Reinforced Concrete
Girders
Middle third of span
Over supports (shear)
Over supports (shear)
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
APPENDIX 6
TMC 301
Structures Examination Report Forms
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Typical bridge examination report
Line & Km: ILLAWARRA 56.727KMS
Report Date:
Data as at Closing Business on:
Examination Type:
Location: STANWELL PARK – STANWELL CK VIADUCT UndB
Examination Date:
Region:
113 – Metro lllawarra
File No.
NK
Work Group:
NK
Invert/Rail Level:
NK
Equipment No:
15648
Flood/Rail Level:
NK
MIMS SPN:
I00UB10113MAIN_56.727
Clearance Sign:
N/A
Previous Station:
NK
Bridge Clearance:
N/A
Bridge Type:
Br Underbr XingWaterway/Land
No of Crash Beams:
NK
Span Configuration:
1/14.3 br + 6/15.7 br + 1/14.3 br
Crash Beam Clearance:
N/A
No Tracks On/Under:
2/-
Track Alignment:
R 240
Construction Date:
01/06/1921
Earliest/Latest Span:
1921 / 1985
Strengthened Date:
NK
Superelevation, Database:
100 – 100mm
Repair Dates:
NK
Superelevation Noted:
NK
Painted dates:
NK
Guard Rail on Track:
NK
Drawing No:
9-136
Signs:
NK
SPANS REPORTED:
TRACKS OF BRIDGE:
Arch Span: 001DE, 002DE, 003DE, 004DE, 005DE, 007DE, 008DE. Deck
Girder Span: 006DE, 006E.
D I00 DNMN 10113, E I00 UPMN 10119
OVERALL CONDITION (DAD)
Str Cond
Index
Worst
Def Cat
Paint
Index
E
Design capacity
As New Rating
As Is Rating
M 270
M 270
M 270
EQUIPMENT EXAMINATIONS (MIMS)
Std Job No
Sched Desc
Work Group
Freq
Last Sch
Last Perf
Next Sch
P26002
Detailed Underbridge Inspection
ILL116
730
15/05/2004
15/05/2006
P26012
Mid Cycle Underbridge Examination
ILL116
730
15/05/2005
15/05/2007
P26036
Steel Bridge Exam – Underbridge
ILL116
720
15/05/2004
15/05/2006
COMMENTS (DAD)
Action
Date
Comments/Observation
Originator
______________________________
_______________________________
________________________________
Examiner
Sign
Date
______________________________
________________________________
Structures Manager
Sign
________________________________
Date
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 103 of 120
Version 2.0
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Line & Km: ILLAWARRA 56.727KMS
Report Date:
Data as at Closing Business on:
Examination Type:
Location: STANWELL PARK – STANWELL CK VIADUCT UndB
Examination Date:
Region:
113 – Metro lllawarra
File No.
NK
Work Group:
NK
Invert/Rail Level:
NK
Equipment No:
15648
Flood/Rail Level:
NK
MIMS SPN:
I00UB10113MAIN_56.727
Clearance Sign:
N/A
Previous Station:
NK
Bridge Clearance:
N/A
Bridge Type:
Br Underbr XingWaterway/Land
No of Crash Beams:
NK
Span Configuration:
1/14.3 br + 6/15.7 br + 1/14.3 br
Crash Beam Clearance:
N/A
No Tracks On/Under:
2/-
Track Alignment:
R 240
Construction Date:
01/06/1921
Earliest/Latest Span:
1921 / 1985
Strengthened Date:
NK
Superelevation, Database:
100 –
100mm
Repair Dates:
NK
Superelevation Noted:
NK
Painted dates:
NK
Guard Rail on Track:
NK
Drawing No:
9-136
Signs:
NK
SPANS REPORTED:
TRACKS OF BRIDGE:
Arch Span: 001DE, 002DE, 003DE, 004DE, 005DE, 007DE, 008DE. Deck
Girder Span: 006DE, 006E.
D I00 DNMN 10113, E I00 UPMN 10119
Components
Cat
Span/Supp
Defect Desc
Comments
Pri’ty
By
Date
Removed
CURRENT DEFECTS IN TEAMS 3
Paint/Prot
Coating See
Text Desc
P3
Paint/Prot
Coating See
Text Desc
P3
See Text
Desc
D
US 006DE
Paintwork stained especially
on bottom flanges
My1
B Examiner
Defect Id 141611
US 006E
Paintwork stained especially
on bottom flanges
My1
B Examiner
My1
B Examiner
Defect Id 141610
Parent
Cracking in both parapets
have been monitored &
inspected since 1978 by
examiner & geotech
Defect Id 141614
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Typical culvert examination report
Line & Km: ILLAWARRA 32.336KMS
Report Date:
26/02/2006
Data as at Closing Business on:
25/02/2006
Examination Type:
Detailed
Location: HEATHCOTE CULVERTS
Examination Date:
18/02/2006
Region:
113 – Metro lllawarra
File No.
NK
Work Group:
NK
Invert/Rail Level:
N/A
Equipment No:
111658
Flood/Rail Level:
N/A
MIMS SPN:
I00CU10113MAIN_32.336
No Tracks On/Under:
-/-
Previous Station:
NK
Track Alignment:
Culvert Type:
Culvert Medium Arch Section
Superelevation, Database:
NK
Length (m):
1/14.3 br + 6/15.7 br + 1/14.3 br
Superelevation Noted:
NK
Section Width (m):
1.5
Signs:
NK
Section Height (m):
1.5
Drawing No:
Construction Date:
09/03/1918
Repair Dates:
NK
TRACKS OF BRIDGE:
OVERALL CONDITION (DAD)
Design Capacity
As New Rating
Str Cond Index:
As Is Rating
Worst Defect Category: D
EQUIPMENT EXAMINATIONS (MIMS)
Std Job No
Sched Desc
Last Sch
Last Perf
Next Sch
P31002
MID CYCLE INSPECTION OF CULVERT
Ind
1
Work Group
ILL116
720
Freq
15/02/2005
20/03/2005
15/02/2007
P31001
DETAILED EXMINATION OF CULVERT
1
ILL116
720
15/02/2006
18/02/2006
15/02/2008
COMMENTS (DAD)
Action
Date
Comments/Observation
Originator
_______________________________
_______________________________
________________________________
Examiner
Sign
Date
_______________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Structures Manager
Sign
Date
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 105 of 120
Version 2.0
RailCorp Engineering Manual — Structures
Structures Examination
TMC 301
Line & Km: ILLAWARRA 32.336KMS
Report Date:
26/02/2006
Data as at Closing Business on:
25/02/2006
Examination Type:
Detailed
Location: HEATHCOTE CULVERTS
Examination Date:
18/02/2006
Region:
113 – Metro lllawarra
File No.
NK
Work Group:
NK
Invert/Rail Level:
N/A
Equipment No:
111658
Flood/Rail Level:
N/A
MIMS SPN:
I00CU10113MAIN_32.336
No Tracks On/Under:
-/-
Previous Station:
NK
Track Alignment:
Culvert Type:
Culvert Medium Arch Section
Superelevation, Database:
NK
Length (m):
1/14.3 br + 6/15.7 br + 1/14.3 br
Superelevation Noted:
NK
Section Width (m):
1.5
Signs:
NK
Section Height (m):
1.5
Drawing No:
Construction Date:
09/03/1918
Repair Dates:
NK
TRACKS OF BRIDGE:
Components
Cat Span/Supp
Defect Desc
Comments
pri’ty
Last Mod’ By
Date
/ Found By Removed
CURRENT DEFECTS IN TEAMS 3
Culvert Outlet
0
Parent
Blocked /
Obstructed
CLEAN CULVERT U/S Defect Id
191198
Ry1
B Examiner
End Structure
MA Head Wall
0
Parent
See text
INSTALL HEADWALLS UP &
DN Defect Id 191196
Ry2
B Examiner
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Timber bridge examination books
Introduction
As indicated in Section C2.6, Bridge Examiners are required to record the results of their
examination of timber bridges and report them on a standard report form as detailed in this
Appendix.
The format of the report is in the form of an exception report, similar to the reporting format that is
used for steel, concrete and masonry structures. For timber bridge examinations, a Bridge
Examination Book is also kept. This book provides a complete, easily read record of the “bore and
probe” examination of all members of timber structures, from which condition assessment can be
more readily made.
To promote a common approach, the following guidelines are provided for the format and content
of Timber Bridge Examination Books.
The information is based mainly on the contents of the Sub-Inspectors (Bridges and Buildings)
Correspondence Course (1957). Changes have been made to the format to take advantage of
current technology.
Attachments 1A – 1E provide an example of completed forms for a bridge.
Format of the Book
− Use an A4 folder with removable pages;
− The number of bridges in each folder will depend on personal choice but each bridge
examination folder must have the cover labelled with the Area, line and kilometrage from and to,
between which the bridges are included thus:BRIDGE EXAMINATION XXX REGION SOUTH COAST LINE − Bridges must be entered in kilometrage order; − DO NOT split a bridge between two folders; − For each bridge the following forms are required (detailed explanation provided below): ∼
Page 1: Summary Information as shown on Attachment 1A
∼
Page 2: Form 1A – Component details as shown on Attachment 1B
∼
Page 3: Form 1B – Examination details as shown on Attachment 1C
∼
Page 4 (if needed): the next Form 1A – Component details as shown on Attachment 1D
∼
Page 5 (if needed): the next Form 1B – Examination details as shown on Attachment 1E
∼
Page 6,7,8 etc. (if needed): You need to write up as many forms as is needed to give
complete details of the bridge, e.g. a 20 span bridge might need 4 Form 1A’s and 4 Form
1B’s
− Always start a new bridge record by inserting the Summary Information sheet on the right hand
page
− Always put Form 1A on a left hand page with its matching form 1B on the opposite (right hand
page)
Preparation
Summary Information
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
The heading for each bridge must clearly show the correct kilometrage, then the type and an
accurate description giving dimensions of the spans or openings. The maximum height from rail
level to ground level or invert is to be given thus:- RL/GL 1750mm. The description is to be brief
and accurate.
Where information concerning previous flood levels is obtainable, this should be given in the book
with reference to rail level and also the underside of the girder as well as the date or month and
year. The flood level mark should also be shown on the down side of No. 1 abutment with a
suitable permanent mark.
The existing superelevation of the track when the bridge is on a curve, should be shown. This
should be checked throughout the bridge at frequent intervals and an average measurement
adopted. The correct superelevation should also be given. This can be obtained from the track
monuments, where they exist, or from Office records.
Form 1A – Description of the bridge or opening
− Provide Location information at the top of the form. Since the recommended format is loose leaf,
it is possible for forms to be displaced.
− Put a consecutive form number on the form – you will probably need more than one Form 1A for
most bridges.
− Each form has line numbers. Since the forms are loose leaf it is important that you be able to
line up information on Forms 1A and 1B. Line numbers are an effective way to achieve this.
− All bridge members, whether defective or otherwise, must be shown in the order of sequence as
follows:∼
Bridge supports such as piles, trestles, concrete or brick abutments or piers, must be
grouped together in order, commencing with No. 1 abutment then Nos, 1, 2, 3 etc.,
trestles or piers, then No, 2 abutment and finally the wings.
∼
As abutment, trestles or piers are the main supports of the bridge, they are of first
importance and are shown first, making it easier to locate the position of any pile and its
condition.
Piles
The following columns are provided for the examination of piles and the information is to be set out
as follows:− Location of pile, viz, number of abutment or trestle;
− The number of the pile;
− Effective diameter at top and at ground level. (in mm);
− Height of pile head above ground level. (in mm);
− Driving mark (D.M) (in feet); The driving mark refers to a mark made on the pile at a measured distance from the point or toe
before driving, as well as to the Roman numerals cut in the face of the pile to indicate that distance. − Height of driving mark above ground level (DM/GL). (in mm);
− Remarks, and whether spliced or planted. If planted piles have been replaced by concrete sills, this must be noted in the remarks column.
Concrete piers or trestles, or steel trestles must also be shown. Any value and height above ground level of foundation depth marks on concrete abutments, piers
or sills must also be shown .
Girders etc.
Next in order of importance are the girders and they should be grouped in sequence, followed by
corbels, headstocks etc. The following columns are provided:-
© Rail Corporation
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
− Number of span, abutment or trestle
− The number of the member
− Size
− Length
− Remarks
Form 1B – Entering Examination details
− Provide Location information at the top of the form; − Put a consecutive form number on the form – you will need as many Form 1Bs as you have Form 1As;
− Each form has line numbers which match the associated bridge member on Form 1A;
− The form has been ruled up for four (4) examination cycles, rather than the traditional 5 cycles.
Since it is possible to create multiple forms without rewriting the information in Form 1A, the
choice of number of cycles to display on one form is arbitrary. More or less can be shown but
you need to make sure there is enough space to clearly display all examination results.
− The actual recording of the bridge examination must first be made into a rough book on the site
and afterwards copied to the permanent bridge examination book.
Date and Results of Examination
The date of examination is to be shown at the head of each column as well as the name of the
bridge examiner who carried out the examination. In this column is to be shown the location of the
boring, i.e. for girders, — end, centre, and end, and for piles - top, ground level and 600mm below
ground level (GL/2).
Indicating Defects
The figure showing the extent of the defect or pipe in the timber is given in mm, nothing below
50mm need be shown. Where dry rot or activity by white ants is present, the distinguishing letters
“DR” or “WA” are shown on the notation sheet. Where no letter is shown, it is understood that the
defect is a dry pipe (see Note 1 on Attachment 1C).
The term “O.K.” is to be used to indicate sound timber.
Renewal of Timber
If the examiner considers that a defective member requires renewal or where the defect shows
150mm or over, the figure must be shown in red ink or underlined in red (see Note 2 on attachment
1C).
© Rail Corporation
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Attachment 1A
EXAMINATION REPORT:
TIMBER
Summary Information
REGION
North West
FILE No.
DISTRICT
Tamworth
DRAWING
LINE
Narrabri – Walgett
RAIL/FLOOD LEVEL
SECTION
Burren Jct - Walgett
R.L/I.L.(S.L)
SECTOR CODE
NK
LOAD/CLEAR. SIGNS
PREV. STATION
Burren Jct
No. TRACKS
Single
KILOMETRAGE
647.543
TRACK ALIGNMENT
Straight
LOCATION
Waterway
SUPERELEVATION
Nil
BRIDGE TYPE
Underbridge TT
ROAD/RIVER
Battle Ck
SPANS
2/7.32 m
GUARD RAILS
YES
© Rail Corporation
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Attachment 1B
Timber Bridge Examination
Location
1
Form 1A – 1
2
Diam
Location
T
4
D.M
D.M
G.L
325
1800
6
No.2 “
375
350
1800
XI
900
7
No.3 “
425
325
1800
X
750
No.1 Pile
425
325
1950
9
No.2 “
400
300
1950
10
No.3 “
400
325
1950
No. 1 Trestle
No.2 Abut
No.1 Pile
12
No.2 “
13
No.3 “
14
No.1 Wing
15
16
No.2 Wing
17
18
No.3 Wing
No.4 Wing
Replaced by concrete abutment
No.1 Pile
350
275
1800
VII
450
No. 2 “
325
200
900
VII
600
No.1 Pile
350
275
1800
VII
450
No.2 “
325
200
900
VII
600
No.1 Pile
Replaced by concrete wing
No.1 Pile
Replaced by concrete wing
Girders
Location
23
24
1800
No.2 “
21
22
Replaced by concrete sill
No.2 “
19
20
No.1
Span
No.1 Girder Top
Size
Length
300 X 300
8 760
25
No.1 Girder Bottom
“
“
26
No.2 Girder Top
“
“
27
No.2 Girder Bottom
“
“
28
No.3 Girder Top
“
“
29
No.3 Girder Bottom
“
“
No.1 Girder Top
“
“
31
No.1 Girder Bottom
“
“
32
No.2 Girder Top
“
“
33
No.2 Girder Bottom
“
“
34
No.3 Girder Top
“
“
35
No.3 Girder Bottom
“
“
Size
Length
30
36
Remarks (in pencil)
Spliced, 4 butt straps, stump OK 1200
below GL
400
11
No.1 Abut
H.P
G.L
GL
No.1 Pile
8
647.543 km
Pile Examination
3
5
Walgett Line
No.2
Span
Remarks
Corbels
37
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
Location
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Remarks
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Structures Examination
38
No.1
Abut
No.1 Corbel
TMC 301
300 X 300
2 900
39
No.2 “
“
“
40
No.3 “
“
“
No.1 Corbel
“
“
42
No.2 “
“
“
43
No.3 “
“
“
No.1 Corbel
“
“
45
No.2 “
“
“
46
No.3 “
“
“
41
44
No. 1
Trestl
e
No.2
Abut
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
50mm timber packing to girder
Split on Country end bolted
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Attachment 1C
Timber Bridge Examination
Form 1B - 1
1
2
Walgett Line
647.543 km
Ex
M Smith
Ex
Ex
Ex
Date
3/8/02
Date
Date
Date
Piles
3
T
GL
GL
500
OK
OK
OK
4
T
GL
500
GL
T
GL
500
GL
T
GL
GL
2
5
6
2 X
50 Note125
OK
50 Show150
cross boring like this.
7
50
8
50
9
100
10
OK
50 reaches 150mm show in
75 If defect
OK RED OK
14
100
50
OK
15
OK
OK
OK
16
50
OK
75
17
OK
50
60
11
12
13
18
19
20
21
22
Girders
23
E
C
E
24
OK
25
OK
50
DR
OK
50
DR
OK
26
OK
50
27
50
DR
50
28
OK
OK
75
E
125 X
170
OK Note
C
E
E
50
75
100 Show
30
OK
60
60
31
50
OK
OK If defect is a PIPE show size only
32
70
90
100
33
OK
OK
OK
34
100
75
OK
35
OK
OK
50
36
Corbels
E
C
E
38
70
90
100
39
OK
OK
OK
40
100
75
OK
41
OK
OK
50
OK
50
DR
50
DR
42
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
1
29
37
C
DRY ROT (DR) or WHITE
ANTS (WA) like this.
E
C
E
E
C
E
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
43
OK
OK
OK
44
OK
OK
OK
45
OK
OK
OK
46
OK
OK
OK
© Rail Corporation
Issued December 2009
TMC 301
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Attachment 1D
Timber Bridge Examination
Location
47
647.543 km
Form 1A - 2
48
Headstocks
49
Location
50
No.1 Abut
51
No. 1 Trestle
52
No.2 Abut
53
Walings
55
Size
Length
300 X 300
3 500
“
“
No.1Trestle
56
57
No.1Trestle
No.1
waling
300 X 200
4 110
No.2 “
“
“
Size
Length
No.1
Brace
225 X 125
4 570
No.2 “
“
“
Size
Length
250 X 150
2740
Number
63
15
64
Sheeting
Location
65
Size
No.1 Abutment
No.1 Wing
68
No.2 “
Remarks
Remarks
“
No.2 Abutment
70
No.3 Wing
71
No.4 “
72
Remarks
225 X 75
67
69
Remarks
Transoms
62
66
Length
Location
60
61
Size
Bracing
58
59
Remarks
Concrete abutment – no headstock
Location
54
Walgett Line
Concrete wings
Guard Rails
73
74
General
75
Screwed Up
76
Treated for White Ants
77
Other
78
© Rail Corporation
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Attachment 1E
Timber Bridge Examination
Form 1B - 2
47
48
Walgett Line
647.543 km
Ex
M Smith
Ex
Ex
Ex
Date
3/8/02
Date
Date
Date
Headstocks
49
E
C
E
50
100 DR
OK
OK
51
OK
50
OK
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
E
C
E
52
53
Walings
54
E
C
E
55
OK
OK
OK
56
OK
OK
OK
57
Bracing
58
E
C
E
59
OK
OK
OK
60
OK
OK
OK
61
Transoms
62
63
OK
64
Sheeting
65
66
OK
67
OK
68
OK
69
70
71
72
Guard Rails
73
OK
74
General
75
Screwed
up
76
Not
required
77
Slight
scour in
invert
78
No.2
span
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Examination Report: Overhead Wiring Structures & Signal Gantries
District:
Structure Number:
Line:
Examination Type:
Detailed: [
]
Mid-Cycle: [
]
Tracks Spanned:
Structure Type:
Simple Mast [
] Cantilever Mast [
Anchor structure (guyed) [
Component Type:
I-Beam [
Examination Dates:
Basic:
Condition:
G: Good
DESCRIPTION
] Channels [
] Gantry structure [
] Anchor structure (free standing) [
] Truss [
] Hollow Section [
]
]
]
Close:
F: Fair
Condition
UP
] Portal [
P: Poor
COMMENTS
DOWN
Structure
Bases
Masts
Knee braces
Bridges
Welds
Bolts
Attachments
Droppers
Pull off brackets
Anchor plates
Structure Footing
Bolts
Baseplates
Grout
Concrete pedestal
Guy Footing
Anchor lugs
Concrete pedestal
General Condition
Paint/Galvanising
Erosion of footings
Gantry (Y/N)
Walkway
Handrails
Ladders
Cages
Examiner:
Date: Structures Manager:
Date: © Rail Corporation
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Examination Report: Tunnels
REGION
FILE No.
DISTRICT
DRAWING
LINE
TUNNEL PROFILE
EQUIPMENT No
MATERIAL
MIMS SPN
HEIGHT RAIL TO CROWN
PREVIOUS STATION
WIDTH
KILOMETRAGE
No. TRACKS
1
LOCATION
TRACK ALIGNMENT
Straight
REPAIRED
SUPERELEVATION
0
COMPONENT
Defect
Category
NK
Brick
Repair Priority
COMMENTS
Examiner
(optional)
Structures
Manager
ROOF
WALLS
FLOOR
PORTALS
REFUGES
REFUGE
MARKERS
DRAINS
SIGNAGE
GENERAL
Examiner:
Date:
Structures Manager:
Date:
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Structures Examination
TMC 301
Examination Report: Miscellaneous Structures
REGION
FILE No.
DISTRICT
DRAWING
LINE
STRUCTURE TYPE
EQUIPMENT No
MATERIALS
MIMS SPN
No. TRACKS
1
PREVIOUS STATION
TRACK ALIGNMENT
Straight
KILOMETRAGE
SUPERELEVATION
0
LOCATION
GUARD RAILS (Y / N)
REPAIRED
SPANS
MEMBER
NK
EXAMINATION REPORT
Examiner:
Date:
COMMENTS
Structures Manager:
© Rail Corporation
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Date:
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Structures Examination
APPENDIX 7
TMC 301
Weekly summary of exceedents form
WEEKLY STRUCTURES EXCEEDENT REPORT
Week
Ending
Region
Track
Code
District
Team
Manager
Signature
Examiner
BRIDGE EXAMINER’S USE
Equipment
No
Examination
Date
Km
Member
Category
Defect
Line
Size
UOM
Date received
in Area Office
STRUCTURES MANAGER’S USE
Span
Maintenance
response
Defect
Description
ACTION
REQUIRED
Date received
Structures
Manager
Action
proposed
Target
date
Date
Completed
If this box is ticked, my signature above as Examiner confirms that I have entered the exceedents into Teams 3
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