TETRA Measurements
Application Note
TETRA is the professional mobile radio standard used world wide by governmental safety
and security authorities and organizations, as
well as by private utilities from energy suppliers through to transport.
Rohde & Schwarz provide test instruments
idealy suited for both the development and
production of TETRA base stations and user
equipment, as well as for network planning,
network coverage and quality of service, network monitoring and optimization, maintenance, and service.
Detlev Liebl
TETRA Measurements
This Application Note shows examples for
measurements with R&S instruments covering
the entire range of TETRA test requirements.
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................ 3
The TETRA standard: Its goals and technology.................. 4
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance
testing ..................................................................................... 7
Network coverage and service quality measurements,
network optimization ........................................................... 18
Detecting interferers ............................................................ 24
Location finding of mobile and base stations ................... 28
Installation, service, and maintenance ............................... 30
Summary ............................................................................... 36
Appendix ............................................................................... 37
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 2
1 Introduction
TETRA, the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio, is the professional mobile radio standard
(PMR) used world wide by governmental safety and security authorities and organizations, as well as by private utilities from energy suppliers through to transport.
Rohde & Schwarz provide test instruments idealy suited for both the development
and production of TETRA base stations and user equipment, as well as for network
planning, network coverage and quality of service, network monitoring and optimization, maintenance, and service.
This Application Note shows examples for measurements with R&S instruments covering the entire range of TETRA test requirements.
Chapter 2 provides an overview of the most important features in the TETRA standard.
Chapter 3 covers measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing. It highlights the instruments used for general T&M tasks, signal generators, and signal and
spectrum analyzers.
Chapter 4 discusses the planning and analyzing of TETRA networks. The R&S TSMW
universal radio network analyzer and the drive test software R&S ROMES4 are presented in this chapter.
Chapter 5 covers the detection and elimination of interference using the R&S PR100
portable receiver.
Chapter 6 describes precision direction finding of base and mobile stations using the
R&S DDF05E digital HF/VHF/UHF monitoring direction finder.
Finally, Chapter 7 describes measurements using portable, battery-operated instru®
ments to perform on-site service and maintenance. It presents the R&S ZVH cable and
antenna analyzer and the R&S FSH4/8 spectrum analyzer.
To correlate with the usage in the standard, this document uses the term "mobile station" (MS) to refer to both portable and built-in TETRA user equipment.
The R&SSMW200A vector signal generator is referred to as the SMW.
The R&SSMU200A vector signal generator is referred to as the SMU.
The R&SSMATE200A vector signal generator is referred to as the SMATE.
The R&SSMJ100A vector signal generator is referred to as the SMJ.
The R&SSMBV100A vector signal generator is referred to as the SMBV.
The R&SAMU200A baseband signal generator and fading simulator is referred to as
the AMU.
The R&SFSQ signal analyzer is referred to as the FSQ.
The R&SFSU spectrum analyzer is referred to as the FSU.
He R&SFSH4/8 spectrum analyzer is referred to as the FSH.
The R&STSMW universal radio network analyzer is referred to as the TSMW.
The R&SROMES4 drive test software is referred to as the ROMES.
The R&SPR100 portable receiver is referred to as the PR100.
The R&SZVH cable and antenna analyzer is referred to as the ZVH.
The R&SDDF05A digital HF/VHF/UHF scanning direction finder is referred to as the
The R&SDDF05E digital HF/VHF/UHF monitoring direction finder is referred to as the
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 3
The TETRA standard: Its goals and technology
2 The TETRA standard: Its goals and technology
TETRA is a well established ETSI standard for public and private-sector secure radiocommunications. In 2010, TETRA services were provided in more than 100 countries
around the world; 57 % of the providers were civilian users, and the other 43 % were
government authorities and other organizations with security missions.
TETRA was introduced in response to challenging requirements. First among these
requirements are unlimited system availability and the guarantee of secure, undisrupted, and stabile wireless communication. These requirements cannot be met without
very good radio coverage throughout the usage area, making careful network planning
and gap-free coverage checks necessary. Some TETRA mobile stations can also function as repeaters, and mobile stations can communicate with one another directly without connecting to the base station (direct mode operation, DMO). This ensures additional security and can help to overcome inadequate coverage; for example, in buildings.
The most frequent TETRA operating mode is the group call (point to multipoint). Users
must be able to contact all other group members directly by pressing a single button,
without dialing any numbers. This requires very fast call setup. Call hierarchies are
needed to ensure, for example, that emergency calls are not dropped. Typically, a dispatcher is included to monitor communications and to interrupt calls as necessary.
Secure radiocommunication also requires consistently good voice quality and protection against eavesdropping. In that, TETRA as a digital system is superior to any existing analog networks.
Security, reliability, group management, and quality are the four most important TETRA
network characteristics. Refer to [4] for a good summary of differences between
TETRA and public cellular networks.
The following listing applies primarily to the physical layer; that is, the air interface (AI).
Table 1 lists the most important system parameters for TETRA Release 1:
TETRA (Release 1)
about 400 MHz
Carrier Spacing
25 kHz
Access Method
TDMA, 4 Timeslots / Carrier
Uplink / Downlink Spacing
10 MHz
Carrier Data Rate
36 Kb/s
Voice Coder Rate
7.2 kb/s gross
User Data Rate per Timeslot
7.2 kb/s (no error protection)
Voice + Data
4.8 kb/s (low error protection)
2.4 kb/s (high error protection)
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 4
The TETRA standard: Its goals and technology
TETRA (Release 1)
Packet Data Only (PDO) Data Rate
36 kb/s gross (4 Timeslots)
Table 1: TETRA system parameters
TETRA uses separate frequency bands for the uplink and the downlink. In Release 1,
a TETRA channel covers a spectrum of 25 kHz in the uplink band or in the downlink
band. In full duplex mode, the user has one uplink channel and one downlink channel.
In addition to full duplex mode, half duplex mode is also available, in which a MS may
either send or receive, but not both.
The uplink frequency and the downlink frequency are separated by 10 MHz.
In TETRA Release 1, a physical channel is defined as an uplink or as a downlink
channel with a bandwidth of 25 kHz, one frequency, and one or more timeslots. One
physical channel can encompass multiple logical channels. Slot 1 in frame 18 of the
downlink channel, for example, holds the logical channels BNCH (Broadcast Network
Channel) and BSCH (Broadcast Synchronisation Channel), with network information
and synchronization signals.
TETRA is a TDMA system with four timeslots per frame. Normally, these four timeslots
are allocated to four users (four physical channels). To increase throughput, however,
it is also possible to allocate up to four slots to one user. To ensure adequate system
capacity, each network typically has reserved a set of multiple 25-kHz uplink and
downlink channels (frequencies).
One TETRA multiframe is made up of 18 frames. In general, the first 17 frames are for
traffic (voice or data), and frame 18 holds signaling information. This applies to both
the uplink and the downlink. From time to time traffic frames may used for fast signaling as well (frame stealing)
TETRA uses the following traffic modes:
In trunked mode operation (TMO), the traffic is handled via the base station. The voice
and data system (V+D) and the packet data only system (PDO) are used in this mode.
The voice and data system offers circuit mode voice and data, packet mode data, and
short data service (SDS). Voice and data are multiplexed, and SDS takes advantage of
unused capacities in the signaling channels. One user uses one to four timeslots.
The PDO system always uses all four timeslots (exclusively for data).
Various channel codings are possible depending on the requirements - either low, medium, or high error protection.
In direct mode operation (DMO), mobile stations communicate directly without involving a base station. Traffic is limited to one timeslot. V+D, data transfer, and SDS are all
The maximum net data rate in Release 1 is 28.8 kb/s (4 timeslots, unprotected).
Over time, however, the demand for data throughput has increased significantly
around the world, primarily by private users. For example, one mass transit network in
southern Germany already processes about 80,000 data messages daily. TETRA Release 1 is reaching its limits.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 5
The TETRA standard: Its goals and technology
The standard has therefore been expanded to include the TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS). TETRA plus TEDS is also known as TETRA II (TETRA Release 2).
TEDS includes new layer 1 functions. To increase data throughput, four additional
modulation schemata were introduced: π/8 D8PSK, 4-QAM, 16-QAM, 64-QAM.
The bandwidth of the physical channels was also expanded. Bandwidths of 25 kHz, 50
kHz, 100 kHz, and 150 kHz are now possible. Within these bandwidths, the symbols
are distributed (for QAM) onto narrow subcarriers at intervals of 2.7 kHz. This increases the robustness of the transmission. A 25-kHz band now includes 8 transmit frequencies, a 50-kHz band has 16, and so on.
This makes the following data rates possible:
Gross Bit Rates
Modulation and Channel
Gross Bit Rate (kb / s)
25 kHz
π/4 DQPSK 1 Slot
π/4 DQPSK 4 Slots
π/8 DQPSK 4 Slots
50 kHz
100 kHz
150 kHz
4 Slots
4 Slots
4 Slots
Table 2: Data rates for TETRA II [1]
The TEDS expansions apply exclusively to data transmissions. All Release 1 functions
(e.g., Voice+Data) remain in place without modification. TEDS makes new applications
available, such as image transmission within seconds.
However, this is far from sufficient for many users. Applications such as realtime video
transmission require significantly higher data rates. This is why a TETRA III specification is being considered.
At present, the trend is increasingly toward linking TETRA and existing broadband
technologies, such as the UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE). Rohde & Schwarz is involved in both standards. In particular, the TSMW universal radio network analyzer
discussed in Chapter 4 can measure TETRA as well as LTE networks in parallel.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 6
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
3 Measurements in R&D, production, and
conformance testing
Measurements carried out on base and mobile stations are derived primarily from the
measurements prescribed by the ETSI standard for conformance tests [3].
In the case of measurements for R&D, however, the limits are often stricter. The applied stimulus signals use more critical levels and signal degradation is often deliberately implemented e.g. IQ impairments, additional noise (AWGN) or modified fading
profiles. The demands placed on T&M instruments in R&D are high.
In principle, the measurements during production are the same as those for conformance testing. However, as few tests as possible are used, and they have to be carried
out in the shortest possible time. Therefore the conformance test procedure will often
be modified:
For example, for the transmitter tests, the standard stipulates that an MS under test
has to read the cell information from an air interface downlink signal at first. Then the
parameter T1_T4_burst_type of the cell information defines which uplink signal the MS
has to generate. In production this is typically set directly.
In production, it's also important that as many results as possible are derived from every single measurement. This is achieved by using analyzer options customized to the
specific standard.
In contrast to other mobile radio standards, TETRA uses most of the same RF tests for
both base and mobile stations. However, the BS and MS tests do use different test
signals as well as different limits and tolerances, of course. The manner in which the
DUT is controlled during the test also differs.
Radio test modes and test signals
For both base and mobile stations the two test modes transmit and receive are available. These test modes are enabled individually following the manufacturer instructions.
Additional settings, especially for MS tests, are then made via the air interface. For example, a parameter in the downlink signal specifies which signal the MS should supply
during a transmitter test.
For the air interface, TETRA uses T1 to T4 to specify four groups of test signals with
several variants that make up the channel types [3]:
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 7
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
TETRA Test Signals / Test Modes
Link Direction
Channel Type
0, 1, 2, 3 ,4, 21, 22, 24
(Phase Modulation)
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 21, 23, 24
(Phase Modulation)
downlink / uplink
TETRA Interferer
downlink / uplink
CW Interferer
27 (QAM)
25, 26 (QAM)
Table 3: TETRA test signals and channel types according to the ETSI standard
T1 and T4 are used for receiver and transmitter tests, while the interferer signals T2
and T3 are used only for the receiver tests. T1 is responsible for the phase modulations π/4-DQPSK and π/8-D8PSK; T4 exclusively for QAM.
There are 16 channel types in the T1 group. Each channel type represents a set of
burst parameters (link direction, type of burst, modulation, data rate, etc.). In T2 there
are variants for QPSK and QAM and the different channel widths, and in T4 variants
for the three QAM modulation types and the different channel widths.
All test signals from T1 to T4 can be generated very easily with the K68 option for the
R&S generators. Use Table 4 to select the appropriate generator type.
R&S Generators for TETRA Release 1 / 2
Release 1
Table 4: Generators for TETRA
If fading is not needed, all listed generators are suitable. All channel types from T1 to
T4 are preprogrammed. For proprietary applications, these configurations can be modified individually, stored as "User Defined," and later reloaded.
SMW, SMU and AMU additionally provide fading profiles as needed for R&D and for
conformance testing. The AMU is a baseband generator without RF section. It is particularly suited to R&D applications where IQ data is required in place of RF signals.
SMW, SMU and AMU are two-channel instruments. This simplifies receiver tests with
interferers. The T3 CW Signal can be provided by the low cost SMB generator.
For more Information about the generators, see [5].
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 8
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
Figure 1 shows the first TETRA configuration screen of the signal generators in Table
4 as well as the screen for setting the BSCH and BNCH broadcast channels (see
Chapter 2):
Figure 1: Generator configuration for TETRA
On the left, you see the setting options for the Test Mode (signal groups T1 to T4), the
Link Direction, the Channel Type, and the Sequence Length. The burst Ramps and the
Slot Attenuations can be configured. The Trigger, the Marker signals supplied by the
generator, and the system Clock can be defined.
The test mode list on the generator include a User Defined mode in addition to T1 to
T4. While the settings for T1 to T4 are fixed in accordance with the TETRA specification, there are no restrictions in user defined mode. The channel types are no longer
binding, and the filter parameters and a clipping can be set individually.
In the lower part of the screen, you can define the desired slot(s). Frames 1 - 17 and
frame 18 can be configured independently of one another.
The BSCH / BNCH button in the middle of the screen on the left opens the screen on
the right. This is where you can program the T1_T4_burst_type parameter (sent via the
air interface) to specify which signal the DUT should generate, for example.
Working with signals in a simulated multipath scenario (fading) is important in both
R&D and conformance testing. All TETRA-specific profiles are preprogrammed in the
SMW, SMU and AMU. Figure 2 (on page 10) shows the responsible configuration windows. Under Standard, you find the TETRA profiles DR50 (1 path), DU50 (1 path),
TU50 (2 paths), TU50 (6 paths), BU50 (2 paths), HT200 (2 paths), HT200 (6 paths),
and ET200 (2 paths). Here, too, you can define your own user profiles and then save
them for later reloading.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 9
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
Figure 2 on page 10 shows the 6 paths for TETRA profile HT200. These profiles are
applied in the baseband. Fading is therefore also possible with the AMU baseband
generator. To ensure that the profiles are calculated correctly, you must enter your desired RF transmit frequency under Virtual RF. (The SMW/SMU RF generator applies
the output signal frequency automatically.)
Figure 2: HT200 fading paths
The presented test signals T1 to T4 can now be used for the receiver and the transmitter tests. The following statements apply equally to TETRA Release 1 and TETRA Release 2 (TEDs).
Receiver tests
Receiver tests measure the bit error rate (BER), the message error rate (MER), or the
frame erasure rate (FER). Measurements are taken during operation both with and
without interference. Additional fading simulates a realistic radiocommunications scenario. The ETSI conformance testing [3] includes the following receiver tests:
Reference Sensitivity
Reference Interference Performance
Adjacent Channel Interference
Co-Channel Interference
Blocking Characteristics
Spurious Response Rejection
Intermodulation Response Rejection
All of these measurements are required in R&D. In production, testing is typically restricted to the reference sensitivity and the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication)
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 10
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
In all cases, a useful signal T1 or T4 is applied to the DUT alongside interferers T2 or
T3 with various levels and frequencies.
The DUT has an output where the demodulated data is available. If the error rate cannot determined in the DUT itself, an external device, which evaluates the error rates, is
connected here.
(The standard also specifies an optional RF loopback. However, development of the
DUT must be quite advanced to use this loopback, and so it will not be discussed
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 11
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
BS receiver tests
A proprietary control program switches the BS into test mode receive so that it can
process the uplink test signal.
The standard specifies that the test equipment should synchronize to the frame timing
of the BS downlink signal. In practice, a BS downlink signal is not needed because
each BS provides a multiframe trigger output.
Figure 3 shows a universal test setup for BS receiver tests. (The DUT controller is not
shown here and in the subsequent figures.)
Figure 3: Test setup for BS receiver tests
The upper generator (an SMU in this example) generates the uplink useful signal T1 or
T4. The BS and the generator are coupled via the 10-MHz reference signal. At frame
18, the BS supplies a trigger signal to the SMU. A trigger delay of six slots (four slots of
frame 18 + two slots downlink / uplink delay) causes the T1 / T4 generator to start in
the correct timeslot.
The interferer signals T2 (modulated) and T3 (unmodulated) needed for some RX tests
are generated by the second generator in the SMU and by an SMB here.
Attenuators in the signal paths improve the impedance matching and decouple the instruments.
The summation signal for the generators is received at the RX input of the BS under
test via an attenuator and a DC blocker. (The DC blocker is needed if the BS provides
a bias for a mast amplifier.)
The test setup shown in Figure 3 takes advantage of the fact that the SMU has two
independent channels. If fading is not required, it's possible to work with two different
generators from Table 4. If interferers are not needed for a test, the RF on the generators can be disabled, and parts of the test setup can even be eliminated if no interferer
tests need to be performed.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 12
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
MS receiver tests
A proprietary control program switches the MS into test mode receive so that it can
process the downlink test signal.
Figure 4 shows the test setup for MS receiver tests:
Figure 4: Test setup for MS receiver tests
The upper generator (an SMU in this example) generates the downlink useful signal.
The MS synchronizes to the BSCH channel of the signal.
The interferers T2 (modulated) and T3 (unmodulated) needed for some RX tests are
generated by the second generator in the SMU and by an SMB.
The summation signal for the generators is received at the RX input of the MS under
test via an attenuator.
Once again, if fading is not required, the SMU can be replaced with two other generators from Table 4 on page 8. If interferers are not needed for a test, the RF on the generators can be disabled, and parts of the test setup can be eliminated if no interferer
tests need to be performed.
The MS receiver tests MS receiver performance for synchronization burst acquisition,
MS frame alignment performance, and MS link control are analyzed differently in the
DUT than the BER, MER, and FER tests. However, the test setup and the required
downlink signals are the same.
Transmitter tests
Transmitter tests are performed using spectrum & signal analyzers. They measure the
timing characteristics, the power, frequency, and useful spectrum, as well the modulation quality of the transmit signal and unwanted emissions. During the transmitter intermodulation attenuation test, a CW interferer is additionally applied in order to check
whether unwanted mixture products exceed the defined limits.
The conformance testing [3] includes the following transmitter tests:
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 13
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
Transmitter Output Power
Unwanted Output Power in Non-active Transmit State
Adjacent Channel Power Due to Modulation
Adjacent Channel Power Due to Switching Transients
Unwanted Emissions Far From the Carrier
Unwanted Radiated Emissions
Unwanted Emissions During the BLCH/CLCH Linearization
Transmitter Intermodulation Attenuation
Modulation Accuracy (Error Vector Magnitude EVM)
Carrier Frequency Accuracy
All of these measurements are required in R&D. In production, testing is typically restricted to the transmit output power, error vector magnitude, and the carrier frequency
The FSQ and FSU instruments are suited to these measurements, particularly in R&D.
Only these two analyzers have the necessary dynamic range to handle the wideband
noise measurements without an additional notch filter (in the unwanted emissions far
from the carrier test) .
The general vector signal analysis option (R&S FSQ-K70 or R&S FSU-B73) offers
preprogrammed settings and filters for TETRA Release 1 signals, while the TETRA II /
TEDS option (R&S FS-K110) offers these settings and filters for TETRA Release 2
(FSQ: R&S FS-K110, FSU: R&S FSU-B73 + R&S FS-K110).
BS transmitter tests
A proprietary control program switches the BS into test mode transmit to generate a
standard downlink signal.
Figure 5 shows a typical test setup.
Figure 5: Test setup for BS transmitter tests
This saves time and money, because the filter has to be tuned for each test frequency once again. To compensate for the frequency response each time the forward
transmission of the filter has to be measured and entered into transducer Tables at the
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 14
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
All measurements are performed using the analyzer. Again, the path between the BS
and DUT contains an DC blocker that is required when the BS supplies a mast amplifier. The attenuator must be adequately dimensioned to handle the power from the base
To achieve the greatest accuracy for the frequency error measurement, a frequency
standard is needed at the analyzer 10-MHz reference input. If a relative statement regarding the frequency accuracy is sufficient, the 10-MHz reference signal from the
base station can be used.
The SMB generates the T3 signal for the transmitter intermodulation attenuation test. If
this test is not performed, the generator is not needed and the analyzer is connected to
the DUT directly via the DC blocker and attenuator.
MS transmitter tests
A proprietary control program switches the MS into test mode transmit. The MS expects a T1 / T4 downlink channel. Which signal the MS has to send is either set by the
control program directly, or the MS derives it from the TX_Burst_Type parameter contained in the BNCH of the downlink signal.
Figure 6 shows a typical test setup:
Figure 6: Test setup for MS transmitter tests
The generator (an SMU in this example) generates the required T1 / T4 downlink signal as well as the T3 interferer for the transmitter intermodulation attenuation test.
Because fading is not required here, two RF generators from Table 4 on page 8 can be
used in place of the SMU. If the MS is capable of operating without a downlink signal,
the test setup is simplified accordingly.
Like for the BS test, the analyzer handles all evaluations.
Measurement results
To keep the size of this Application Note within bounds, only a few of the many possible measurement results are provided as examples here. You can find detailed descriptions of all test options and discussions of the result displays in the respective
manuals for the analyzers and instrument options [6].
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 15
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
Figure 7: Overview of the most important signal parameters for a TETRA 1 signal with the R&S®FSQK70 option. All results are derived from a single recording.
Figure 8: Analysis of a TETRA Release 2 signal using the R&S®FS-K110 option. The green bar marks
the signal section which is used to derive the numerical results. It is positioned automatically.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 16
Measurements in R&D, production, and conformance testing
Figure 9: Constellation with the R&SFS-K110 option. The user can select individual carriers or a
summary view.
The examples provided here are comparable to the measurement options offered by
R&S analyzers for other wireless communication standards (e.g. LTE).
However, TETRA poses particular challenges to analyzers in the unwanted emissions
far from the carrier test.
Unwanted emissions far from the carrier (BS and MS)
This test stipulates to measure the transmitter noise power - starting at a distance of
100 kHz and extending to a distance far from the carrier. The limit values are defined
relative to the transmit signal power and extend down to -100 dBc.
Conventional analyzers do not have an adequate dynamic range. This is why the test
setup usually includes a notch filter in the test path to reduce the DUT transmit signal
significantly. A disadvantage of this arrangement is not only that this filter must be readjusted for each of the various measurement frequencies, but also that the filter characteristic must be measured each time using a network analyzer and the results entered into the analyzer transducer tables.
However, the excellent R&S analyzers FSQ and FSU specifications for dynamic average noise level (DNAL) and phase noise mean that this filter can be left out of the test
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 17
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
4 Network coverage and service quality
measurements, network optimization
One of the basic requirements of a functional wireless communication system is that it
be capable of providing regional coverage with signals of sufficient field strength. However, whether a stable and secure radio link is truly possible - even with sufficient power at the receiver antenna - very much depends on the quality of the signal at the receiver antenna which is defined as the signal / noise ratio SNR.
The coverage of an area to provide at least a minimum receive power, available everywhere, by a set of basestations is firstly planned by means of network planning software. Experience shows, however, that first measurements, in the early test operation
of the network, will return results that in some cases differ considerably from the previous theoretical network planning. So only a complete battery of tests in the coverage
area can guarantee full network availability later. This typically uncovers trouble spots
that must then be gradually eliminated. Measures that can be taken to achieve this
network optimization include adding base stations to close gaps in coverage, changing
frequencies to reduce the strength of interferers, using different antennas or changing
the antenna alignment, and so on.
TETRA networks serve government authorities and organizations with security missions, such as police, fire, and rescue, as well as civilian agencies, such as power
supply companies or regional transportation agencies. Coverage measurements are
essential for both types of users, although the first group naturally has stricter requirements.
Setup of a TETRA infrastructure, equipping of a region with base stations, and commissioning of the network are carried out in the following phases:
Base stations setup
Test operation
Full operation
Software tools are used for planning the locations of base stations and estimating the
local field strength theoretically. In this first phase, measurements are sometimes the
only way to find out whether a specific site is actually suitable for a BS. It is especially
important to check this when difficult wave propagation without a clear line of sight is
expected; for example, in hilly regions, or because of shadow effects and reflection
from buildings, etc.
In these situations, a test transmitter is set up at the potential site with the same antenna configuration as the BS will have. Drive tests in the neighborhood provide the actual
antenna footprint. The theoretical planning data should then be corrected as needed.
Even with less stringent propagation scenarios, it is good practice to remeasure the
coverage immediately after a base station is set up. Areas with inadequate coverage
could then be additionally provisioned by adjacent base stations if their location and
antenna configuration are set up appropriately.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 18
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
When the network is in test mode, the planned base stations for the region already operate in normal traffic mode. This allows the signal quality to be measured along with
the actual field strength distribution. Additional base stations may be needed; network
optimization is alternated with drive tests to audit the results.
Once the network is in full operation, testing includes periodic performance measurements and capacity tests (benchmarks), as well as interference analysis and elimination.
As an independent producer of coverage measurement technology, Rohde & Schwarz
offers the TSMW RF network scanner and the ROMES4 software platform as a highend measurement system for all phases of TETRA network operation. See [8] for an
overview of the TSMW features.
Figure 10: Base components for the R&S® coverage measurement system
The TSMW RF network scanner can be delivered as a standalone instrument, or it can
be installed in a 19" rack together with up to 16 TETRA mobile stations. This makes
the system suitable for installation in motor vehicles, ships, or helicopters. The TSMW
can be supplied with 9-18 VDC, 110-230 VAC, or a battery pack.
For portable use, Rohde & Schwarz ships the TSMW in a backpack together with batteries and a notebook computer. This makes the scanner suitable for use in the countryside as well as for temporary use in trains.
A wide range of accessories (antennas, bandpass filter, rack adapter, etc.) round out
the offering.
The TSMW has two independent receivers with preselection that function in parallel.
This makes it possible to observe two TETRA bands simultaneously, for example. The
scanner frequency range is from 30 MHz to 6 GHz. As a result, all of the possible frequency bands for the communications standards TETRA, GSM, UMTS, TD-LTE, LTEFDD, CDMA2000®, EVDO, and WiMAX can be monitored at the same time. The
TSMW analyzes networks in accordance with TETRA Release 1 and Release 2
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 19
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
(TEDS) with the new modulations π/8-D8PSK, 4-QAM, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM, for 25 /
50 / 100 and 150 kHz channel bandwidth.
An integrated GPS receiver automatically logs its position during the drive tests.
Reliable operation is assured for motor vehicle or flight speeds of up to 200 km/h.
The ROMES software evaluates and displays the signals received by the TSMW in
realtime during the drive test. The user determines what test results should be displayed on the monitor at the same time (in various configurable windows).
All data coming up during the drive test are saved to hard disk independent of this selection. They can be redisplayed offline at any time and processed using additional
applications (such as the R&S NPA network power analysis software).
Figure 11 shows a snapshot from a drive test log.
Figure 11: Summary view with the most significant cell and signal information
The upper half shows the current channel power for the available TETRA base stations
in the spectrum, and the lower half shows the results of a numeric analysis. During the
drive test, 20 readings are taken per second, and up to 600 channels can be recorded.
This display provides a good overview. Then, in practise, one would reduce the number of displayed base stations to observe the few that can be received best.
During the drive, ROMES continually generates lists of all received base stations. The
TSMW scanner identifies these based on the respective BNCH broadcast network
channel, and the cell information it contains is analyzed automatically. This allows the
ROMES software to distinguish TETRA BS signals from non-TETRA interferers. If the
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 20
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
co-channel interferer is also a TETRA base station, the BS is identified and displayed;
see the interferer information in the right lower part of Figure 11.
The list in Figure 11 shows the channel number, the location area (LA), the field
strength (Ptotal), the SNR, the frequency error and phase error, and the delay spread
from a passive analysis. The RSSI and the bit error rate (BER) columns show the results of an active analysis. They are provided by the test cell phones after a mobile
originated call. These results come up in seconds.
To make it easy to recognize critical signals, the entries in the list can be marked by
colored label at the start of each row: different colors can be assigned to different value
ranges of a result.
ROMES makes it possible to integrate maps which allows better visualization of drive
tests. Figure 12 marks the field strength variations along the drive route using various
(configurable) colors. The serving cell and the adjacent cells are identified accordingly.
Figure 12: Visualizing the test route in realtime
Figure 13 on page 21 shows a detailed analysis of the radio links from one of the connected test cell phones. At first there are the values for the transmitter signal from the
current base station, including the registration status, the mobile country and network
code, the current RSSI or BER results (if BER measurements were made), and so on.
This is followed by statistics for the entire test run, including the best cell (Best NC)
values, how many calls were stable (Good Call), how many calls were not answered
(Blocked), and how many calls were Dropped. The Frequency and RSSI values are
saved for all previously observed base stations (NC1, NC2, etc.).
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 21
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
Figure 13: Mobile station log
Figure 14: Additional details from the test run
Figure 14 shows additional call information from a test cell phone. (There is a separate
tab for every MS). The upper portion contains a statistical evaluation of the entire test
run. The numeric data regarding the NA-CS (network accessibility circuit switched),
SA-T (service accessibility telephony), and CCR-CS-T (call completion rate circuit
switched telephony) are included in the Quality of Service value in accordance with
ETSI standard TS 102.250-3.
The lower portion of the screen shows results from every single call, including the system response and call setup time (S-RT... and C-ST..) and the cell identity at the start
CI(S) and end of every call CI(E).
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 22
Network coverage and service quality measurements, network optimization
No speech quality measurements (PESQ) are provided in Figure 14. They can be done
by specific mobile stations (using a special adapter and a PC sound card); see Figure
Figure 15: PESQ quality parameters
All data recorded during a drive test is saved on the hard drive of the controller PC. It is
then available for offline analysis (e.g. using the ROMES NPA network problem analysis). Emphasis is placed on
Detection and identification of problem zones
Coverage analysis for the individual base stations (footprint)
Overall coverage analysis
Figure 16 provides an example: During a drive test, there were certain areas where the
radio link was lost. An analysis showed that in the problem area the wanted field
strength (red) is receding while at the same time an interferer signal (green) exceeded
a critical value.
Figure 16: Offline analysis using the NPA software
Of course, space limitations mean that this Application Note can present only a limited
number of the many test and analysis options provided by the TSMW test system.
However, the selected examples clearly demonstrate how the radio coverage can be
systematically measured and potential network problems recorded and analyzed.
If an interferer that does not originate from a TETRA base station is recorded by the
TSMW, it can be further analyzed and traced using a non-TETRA-specific portable receiver. This is described in the following chapter.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 23
Detecting interferers
5 Detecting interferers
Interferers in a radio band either originate from other transmitters which are regulary
working in the same radio band, or are general in nature.
For example, interference resulting from TETRA signals in the same band could be
caused by neighboring base stations. These stations can be identified and located using the TSMW test system. TETRA interferers resulting from defective mobile stations
or similar instruments can be tracked down using the instruments described in the next
This chapter covers interferers of a general nature. These typically arise from defective
electrical or electronic devices (for example, those with defective filters or shielding), or
else from jammers that are purposefully used. The primary task of the PR100 receiver
from Rohde & Schwarz is to find these sources of emissions.
Figure 17: PR100 portable receiver and HE300 directional antenna
Together with the HE300 directional antenna, the PR100 was designed specifically for
the challenges associated with portable radio monitoring. With its small dimensions
and low weight, it is primarily suited for use at locations not readily accessible by car.
By digital signal processing the PR100 achieves an exceptionally good RX sensitivity.
This makes it possible to pick up even extremely weak interferers. The panorama scan
mode provides a quick overview of the frequency allocation. In audio monitoring mode,
use the marker to select the interferer in question, and to demodulate and analyze the
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 24
Detecting interferers
The PR100 can indicate the receive level using the pitch of an acoustic signal so that
the user can concentrate on the terrain without having to keep an eye on the instrument display at all time.
Searching for interference in the spectrum
Interferers are sometimes pulsed at irregular intervals, so that they are very difficult to
discern in a normal spectrum display. In this case, the spectrogram display on the
PR100 can help, see Figure 18, lower half. This so called waterfall diagram shows the
spectrum slowly dropping down with time. The signal strength is indicated by user definable colors.
Figure 18: Detecting a pulsed interferer (red) in the PR100 waterfall diagram
Near to marker M, strong unmodulated signal pulses (red) interfere with the useful signal (green).
Also, a Differential Mode is available in the PR100 to visualize infrequently occurring
First, at a time when presumably no interferer is transmitting, the spectrum is saved as
a reference; see Figure 19:
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 25
Detecting interferers
Figure 19: Typical spectrum with no interferer
Then the Differential Mode is activated. Now, only the differences between the new
recording and the stored reference spectrum are displayed. An interferer is clearly
seen; see Figure 20:
Figure 20: Interferer clearly visible in differential mode
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 26
Detecting interferers
Location finding
The direction that the HE300 antenna is held is displayed on a compass rose on the
The direction finding (DF) results can be stored along with the position data from an
external GPS. Free map data available for the PR100 is used to overlay the DF results
from various measurements on a map in the PR100.
The press of a single button then starts the triangulation and the location of the interferer is determined; see Figure 21:
Figure 21: Triangulation based on multiple DF results
The process makes it possible to reliably detect and eliminate interferers in the radio
The examples described here are only a small sample of the possibilities that the instrument affords. For example, the instrument includes a comprehensive remote control software that can be used to operate the PR100 conveniently and efficiently from a
PC workstation, and much more.
For more information, see [8], [9].
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 27
Location finding of mobile and base stations
6 Location finding of mobile and base stations
Radio network operation can be disturbed by defective or incorrectly configured mobile
stations. Or, an unauthorized person could be misusing a mobile station. Or, it might
be necessary to determine the location of an emergency call. In all of these instances,
the goal is to identify and locate an individual MS quickly.
More rarely, e.g. near national borders, BS must also be located.
For these tasks, Rohde & Schwarz offers the DDF0xA/E family of direction finders
alongside a wide variety of options, analysis software, and a large selection of antennas. All direction finders provide a high degree of immunity against reflections plus rapid measurement speeds.
The model DDF05A and DDF05E together with the DDF-TRA TETRA DF option suit
best the TETRA requirements in terms of frequency range and speed. When used together with the TETRA Air-Analyzer from fjord-e-design GmbH (http://www.fjord-edesign.com), the DDF05A/E can identify and locate TETRA MS and BS quickly and
Figure 22: The DDF05E test system
A TETRA MS typically transmits in only one of the four available slots per frame. The
preceding and subsequent slots are used by different MS. Direction finding must therefore take place during the correct slot within the network frame.
The DDF05A/E digital direction finders are fast enough to perform a complete direction
finding in less than the duration of one slot. However, they do need a trigger signal that
announces the correct slot.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 28
Location finding of mobile and base stations
The frame and slot timing in a radio cell is defined by the BS. An instrument is therefore needed to synchronize to the BS signal, to identify the MS (or BS), and to provide
a trigger signal for the direction finder.
The TETRA Air-Analyzer from fjord-e-design GmbH provides the optimum solution. In
addition to extensive analysis options, it also provides all interface signals required for
the DDF05A/E direction finders.
This ensures that only transmissions from the desired station are used. After the AirAnalyzer has identified the TETRA MS (or TETRA BS), the DDF05A/E direction finders
work automatically and determine the direction from which the wanted station is transmitting.
The RAMON Local and MapView software can be used to display the DF values from
multiple locations simultaneously that intersect at the transmitter location (triangulation); see Figure 23:
Figure 23: Finding the position of a TETRA terminal with running fix and display on
The TETRA Air-Analyzer and the DDF05A/E direction finders can be operated when
stationary or in a motor vehicle. The compact ADD253 DF antenna can even be
mounted to the roof of a car.
The DDF0xA/E family of instruments is not limited to TETRA, either; instead it represents a universal DF system with a broad frequency range. For more information, see
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 29
Installation, service, and maintenance
7 Installation, service, and maintenance
For "on site" usage - for example, when measuring antenna installations,
Rohde & Schwarz offers portable, battery-operated test equipment. This chapter describes measurements using the ZVH cable and antenna analyzer and the FSH4/8
spectrum analyzer.
Figure 24: ZVH in use
ZVH cable and antenna analyzer
In its basic configuration, the ZVH cable and antenna analyzer can handle the most
important measurements needed for the installation and maintenance of antenna installations; i.e., distance to fault (DTF), cable loss, and SWR measurement (s11).
Figure 25 on page 30 shows an example of a DTF measurement.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 30
Installation, service, and maintenance
Defects in a cable installation can arise from crimped cables as well as from corroded
plugs, short circuits, or cut off lines. In all cases, this leads to impedance variations that
generate a reflected wave. The ZVH calculates the distance from the feed point based
on the reflected signal. Figure 25 shows a fault at which about 5% of the transmitted
wave is reflected. The marker can be used to identify the exact location of the problem
(13.56 m).
Figure 25: DTF measurement results
Figure 26 shows the results of a cable loss measurement.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 31
Installation, service, and maintenance
Figure 26: Cable loss versus frequency
Figure 26 shows a cable with no flaws. The cable loss remains steady over the examined frequency range; in particular there are no resonances that could be caused by
The ZVH base functions can be expanded by means of software licensing or by adding
Power measurement to 8 GHz or to 18 GHz with the FSH-Z1 or FSH-Z18 probes
Spectrum analysis, network analysis, vector voltmeter
GPS reception (location data can be saved together with the test data)
Remote control
It is usually not only test specialists who perform measurements. This is why the ZVH
is equipped with an automated workflow (wizard). Because tests can be automated, it's
no longer necessary to have an expert on site:
Test sequences can be predefined centrally on a PC and then sent to one or more
ZVHs. On site, the so called ZVH wizard guides the user step-by-step through the predefined test sequence. All measurement results are stored in one single file that can be
uploaded to a central computer via LAN, USB, or memory card (or even via email).
There, the report generator provided with the ZVHView software (included with every
instrument) is used to generate a uniform, clearly formatted log in just a few steps.
FSH4/8 spectrum analyzers
For more extensive needs, the FSH4/8 spectrum analyzers (abbreviated here as FSH)
are available.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 32
Installation, service, and maintenance
Depending on the configuration, the FSH can additionally be used as a power meter, a
cable and antenna tester, or a two-gate vector network analyzer.
In its default configuration as a spectrum analyzer, the instrument is suitable for all
conventional analyzer tasks. This includes measurements in the time and frequency
domain, measurements of pulsed signals with gated sweep, determining the channel
and adjacent channel power, etc.
The FSH has a very high input sensitivity (< -141 dBm / 1Hz or with preamplifier -161
dBm / 1Hz) and a low measurement uncertainty (< 1dB). This makes the instrument
particularly suited for measuring the free-field strength, together with directional and
isotropic antennas, and for tracking down interferer sources.
Figure 27 shows the FSH8 with different R&S antennas.
Figure 27: FSH8 with isotropic antennas and the HE300 DF antenna
Other typical applications include measuring the radiation characteristics for motor vehicle antennas and auditing emission limit values from the BS. The integrated GPS
receiver (option HA-Z240) provides the required position data at the same time as it
increases the FSH initial carrier frequency tolerance to ppb (25 × 10 ).
The GPS data appears in the results screen as shown in Figure 28. Like for the ZVH,
the the GPS information is stored together with the measurement data.
With the R&S near-field probes, EMC problems caused by inadequate shielding can
be quickly and accurately located. Sometimes, this is possible only with portable, battery-operated instruments, e.g. at fixed base stations.
The FSH can be equipped with power sensors up to 18 GHz or with forward power
probes to 4 GHz. When used together with the VSWR bridge circuit, the FSH can then
simultaneously measure the output power and the matching of antennas under operating conditions. The power sensors measure average power up to 120 W and normally
eliminate the need for any extra attenuators.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 33
Installation, service, and maintenance
Like the ZVH, the FSH can locate cable defects. A DC bias can also be fed to supply a
mast amplifier.
FSH measurements can be started automatically at defined intervals and the readings
stored automatically. This makes the instrument an excellent choice for automated signal monitoring. With the free R&S® FSH4Remote software, the FSH can be controlled remotely and measurements results can be read via LAN / Internet; see Application Note
1MA180 [11].
Figure 28: Signal measurement with GPS data
The included FSHView software can then be used to process the readings on your PC:
You can insert, remove, or move markers, or you can add masks to the trace.
The many FSH functions not touched on in this Application Note (such as tracking
generator, two-gate vector network analyzer, options for the most important mobile
radio standards, and so on) are too extensive to mention here. For detailed documentation of all characteristics and options, refer to the FSH4/FSH8 brochures [12].
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 34
Installation, service, and maintenance
Both the ZVH and FSH are optimized for portable use by virtue of their low weight, ergonomic housing, and a keyboard layout that allows use even with gloves. The housing is robust and water-spray resistant, and the brilliant color displays can be read
even under difficult lighting conditions. A battery allows operation for up to about 4.5
hours, and the battery pack can be swapped out in just a few seconds without requiring
any tools.
This makes the ZVH and FSH ideally suited for on-site operation. The modular option
concept means that instruments can be equipped with only those functions that are
needed at any given moment. And as requirements increase, the required options are
ready for use.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 35
8 Summary
TETRA is a globally accepted standard with a steadily growing number of users in both
the public and the private sector. Existing networks are being opened to private users
at the same time as entire new networks are being built.
Establishing a reliable TETRA network requires many measurements, starting with
R&D testing of base and mobile stations and extending to network planning and coverage testing, station commissioning, interferer detection and elimination, and service
and maintenance activities.
Rohde & Schwarz supports all of these areas of application with its broad palette of
T&M equipment. This Application Note presented example applications, T&M equipment, and measurement results.
The TETRA standard continues to evolve. With the introduction of TETRA Enhanced
Data Services (TEDS, or TETRA II), data rates of up to 691 kb/s are being achieved.
However, this is far from adequate for many advanced applications (such as video
streaming). The current trend is therefore toward coupling TETRA with existing broadband technologies, like LTE.
Rohde & Schwarz is active here, as well. R&S generators, analyzers, and radio communication testers generate and measure LTE signals at many companies during R&D
and production. Of particular note is that the TSMW universal radio network analyzer is
able to simultaneously analyze coverage, measure signal quality, and identify interferers for both TETRA and LTE (and other mobile standards) in parallel.
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 36
9 Appendix
ETSI, EN 300 392-2, Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Voice plus Data
(V+D); Part 2: Air Interface (AI)
ETSI, TR 102 580 V1.1.1, Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Release 2; Designers Guide; TETRA High-Speed Data (HSD); TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS)
ETSI, EN 300 394-1, Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA); Conformance Testing Specification; Part 1: Radio
John Dunlop, Demessie Girma, James Irvine, "Digital Mobile Communications
and the TETRA System", John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2000
Signal Generators: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/en/products/test_and_measurement/signal_generation/
Signal and Spectrum Analyzers: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/en/products/test_and_measurement/spectrum_analysis/frequenc
Drive Test Tools, TSMW: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/en/products/test_and_measurement/Drive_Test_Tools/
Portable Receiver, PR100: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/en/products/radiomonitoring/receivers/PR100.html
Active Directional Antenna, HE300: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/product/HE300.html
Digital HF/VHF/UHF Scanning Direction Finder, DDF05A: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/product/DDF0xA.html
Digital HF/VHF/UHF Monitoring Direction Finder, DDF05E: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/product/DDF0xE.html
FSH4Remote Remote Control for R&S ® FSH4/8 and R&S ® FSC, Application
Note 1MA180, Rohde&Schwarz, 2010: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/file/1MA180_0e.pdf
FSH4 / FSH8 Spektrum Analyzer Produktbroschüre: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/file_16151/FSH4_FSH8_bro_de.pdf
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 37
Further information:
This application note is updated from time to time. Download the latest version from
our website
Please direct your comments and suggestions regarding this application note to
mailto:[email protected]
Be sure to visit our technology page at
Ordering Information
Note: Not all instrument options are listed in Table 5. To put together your individual
instrument list please contact your local Rohde & Schwarz sales office for further assistance.
Signal Generators
Vector Signal Generator
RF Path A 100 kHz to 6 GHz
RF Path B 100 kHz to 6 GHz
Baseband Main Module, two I/Q
ARB 64 Msample (120 MHz,
ARB Memory Extension to 1
TETRA Release 2
Vector Signal Generator
Option: Frequency range 100
kHz - 6 GHz for 1st RF path
Baseband generator with digital
modulation and ARB
Option: Baseband Main Module
Fading Simulator
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 38
Option: Digital standard TETRA
Release 2
Vector Signal Generator for
ATE, base unit
Vector Signal Generator
Vector Signal Generator
Signal Generator
Baseband Signal Generator
and Fading Simulator
Signal Analyzer
Option: Vector signal analysis for
Analysis of TETRA II / TEDS
signals for FSQ / FSU
Signal Analyzer
Option: Vector signal analysis for
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
Remote Control via LAN or USB
+ Options
+ Options
+ Options
+ Options
+ Options
Signal Analyzers
TETRA Air Interface Drive Test Solution
Universal Radio Network
TETRA Scanner Option (QPSK)
for TSMW
TEDS Scanner Option (64QAM)
for TSMW
Drive Test Software Platform for
Measurement & Replay
TSMW Scanner Driver Option for
ROMES4NPA Plugin: Mobile
Network Coverage
TETRA Radio Terminal Driver
(PEI) Option for ROMES4
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 39
Cable and Antenna Analyzer
+ Options
Handheld Cable and Antenna
Portable Receiver and Antenna
Portable Receiver 9kHz-7.5GHz
Active directional antenna, 20
MHz to 7500 MHz
+ Options
Direction Finder
+ Options
+ Options
Digital VHF/UHF scanning direction finder 20 MHz to 3000
Digital VHF/UHF monitoring
direction finder 20 MHz to 3000
Table 5: Ordering Information
Rohde & Schwarz TETRA Measurements 40
About Rohde & Schwarz
Rohde & Schwarz is an independent group
of companies specializing in electronics. It is
a leading supplier of solutions in the fields of
test and measurement, broadcasting, radiomonitoring and radiolocation, as well as
secure communications. Established more
than 75 years ago, Rohde & Schwarz has a
global presence and a dedicated service
network in over 70 countries. Company
headquarters are in Munich, Germany.
Environmental commitment
● Energy-efficient products
● Continuous improvement in environmental sustainability
● ISO 14001-certified environmental
management system
Regional contact
Europe, Africa, Middle East
+49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]
North America
1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
[email protected]
+65 65 13 04 88
[email protected]
This application note and the supplied
programs may only be used subject to the
conditions of use set forth in the download
area of the Rohde & Schwarz website.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz
GmbH & Co. KG. Trade names are trademarks of the
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstraße 15 | D - 81671 München
Phone + 49 89 4129 - 0 | Fax + 49 89 4129 – 13777
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