CA Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 3

CA Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 3
California
Preschool
Learning
Foundations
Volume 3
#!,)&/2.)! $%0!2 4-%.4 /& %$5#!4)/. s 3!#2!-%.4/ California
Preschool
Learning
Foundations
Volume 3
History–Social Science
Science
Publishing Information
The California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 3) was
developed by the Child Development Division, California Department
of Education. This publication was edited by Faye Ong, working in
cooperation with Laura Bridges, Consultant, Child Development
Division. It was designed and prepared for printing by the staff
of CDE Press, with the cover and interior design created by
Cheryl McDonald. It was published by the Department of Education,
1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901. It was distributed
under the provisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government
Code Section 11096.
© 2012 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 978-8011-1727-5
Ordering Information
Copies of this publication are available for sale from the California Department of Education. For prices and ordering information,
please visit the Department Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn
or call the CDE Press Sales Office at 1-800-995-4099.
Notice
The guidance in the California Preschool Learning Foundations
(Volume 3) is not binding on local educational agencies or other
entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that
are referenced herein, the documents is exemplary, and compliance
with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)
v
Contents
A Message from the State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Acknowledgments
vii
Introduction
xi
Foundations in
History–Social Science
1
Foundations in
Science
48
Appendixes
A. The Foundations
103
B. An Overview of the Alignment of the California Preschool
Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources
113
iii
A Message from the
State Superintendent of Public
Instruction
I
am delighted to present the California
Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume
3). This publication is part of a threevolume series designed to improve early
learning and development for California’s
preschool children.
Young children are naturally eager to
learn. We encounter their amazing curiosity at every turn. Their wonder about
the world extends to understanding of
human traditions and activity. They also
ask about how the physical world works.
However, even with their great curiosity about the world of people and things,
not all young children enter kindergarten ready for school. All too often, some
already lag behind their classmates, which
may adversely affect their continued learning and development in kindergarten and
beyond. High-quality preschool teaching
connects with young children’s strong
interest in concepts and processes from
the history–social science and science
domains while contributing to long-range
social and academic success.
Children who attend high-quality preschools benefit from rich opportunities
to learn through play. Their play focuses
on the world around them—for example,
social roles rooted in human history and
culture and the life of their community.
They also playfully experiment with living and nonliving things and discover how
they change. Children thrive when offered
a curriculum that integrates all domains in
a way that is culturally and linguistically
meaningful and appropriate to their development.
With the goal of ensuring that all pre-
schools in California offer high-quality
programs, the California Department of
Education collaborated with leading early
childhood educators, researchers, advocates, and parents to develop Volume 3 of
the preschool learning foundations.
The foundations outline key knowledge
and skills that most children can acquire
when provided with the kinds of interactions, instruction, and environments
shown by research to promote early learning and development. Volume 3 focuses on
two domains: history–social science and
science. These domains have received less
attention than some other domains, but
their importance has been increasingly
recognized by early childhood education
experts.
As research that is summarized in this
volume indicates, young children are naturally drawn to concepts and processes in
history–social science and science. They
look to their families and their teachers to
help them explore these learning domains.
High-quality teaching builds on children’s
interests and engages them in making
sense of social and physical phenomena.
Efforts to provide children with highquality preschool experiences fit into the
overall mission of both the Department
and the federal Head Start program.
Learning and development that occurs
before a child enters preschool is as
important as the learning and development that occurs during the school years.
A continuum of learning and development begins early in life and continues
through higher education. Understanding
the links between the different ages and
v
different early childhood services allows
educators to see how to build on children’s
earlier learning and prepare children for
the next educational challenge. To foster
greater understanding of children’s learning and development during the first five
years, this volume explains the connections among the infant/toddler learning
and development foundations, preschool
learning foundations, Common Core State
Standards, kindergarten content standards, and the Head Start Child Develop-
ment and Early Education Framework. An
investment in high-quality care and education programs throughout the early years
will promote learning for all children and
ensure school readiness when they enter
kindergarten.
These foundations will help guide and
support all California preschools in providing developmentally appropriate instruction and activities that engage young
hearts and minds. Such learning will
lead to children’s well-being and success
throughout life.
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
vi
Acknowledgments
T
he development of the preschool
learning foundations involved
many groups: project leaders; lead
researchers; the expanded research consortium; the preschool learning foundations research consortium; staff from the
California Department of Education;
early childhood education stakeholder
organizations; facilitators of the draft
review sessions and the participants; and
participants in the Web posting process.
History–Social Science
Project Leaders
Marco Bravo, San Francisco State University and Santa Clara University
Caroline Carney, Monterey Peninsula
College
Lucia French, University of Rochester
Rochel Gelman, Rutgers University
Karen Lind, Illinois State University
Art Sussman, WestEd
Sandra Waxman, Northwestern University
The following staff members are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions:
Peter Mangione and Charlotte Tilson,
WestEd.
Lead Researchers
Special thanks are extended to the lead
researchers for their expertise and contributions as lead writers. Note: The names,
titles, and affiliations of the individuals
listed in these acknowledgments were
correct at the time the publication was
developed.
History–Social Science
Janet Thompson, University of California,
Davis
Ross Thompson, University of California,
Davis
Science
Osnat Zur, WestEd
Expanded Research Consortium
Volume 3 was developed by an expanded
research consortium. Domain experts and
their affiliations are identified below. These
individuals contributed their expertise to
this project and collaborated with the
preschool learning foundations research
consortium.
Oscar Barbarin, Tulane University
Barbara Bowman, the Erikson Institute
and the Chicago Public Schools
Amy Obegi, Solano Community College
Carolyn Pope Edwards, University of
Nebraska, Lincoln
Michael Lopez, National Center for Latino
Child and Family Research
Gayle Mindes, DePaul University
Science
Preschool Learning Foundations
Research Consortium
The following research consortium
members are recognized for their knowledge and expertise in guiding the development process and for their expert review
of volume 3 to reflect California’s young
learners.
Melinda Brookshire, WestEd
Peter Mangione, WestEd
Katie Monahan, WestEd
Caroline Pietrangelo Owens, WestEd
Teresa Ragsdale, WestEd
Amy Schustz-Alvarez, WestEd
Charlotte Tilson, WestEd
Ann-Marie Wiese, WestEd
Osnat Zur, WestEd
English–Language Development and
Cultural Diversity Advisers
Vera Gutierrez-Clellen, San Diego State
University
vii
Gisela Jia, The City University of New York
and Lehman College
Antonia Lopez, National Council of
La Raza
Alison Wishard Guerra, University of
California, San Diego
Universal Design Advisers
Maurine Ballard-Rosa, California State
University, Sacramento
Linda Brault, WestEd
California Department of
Education (CDE)
Thanks are also extended to the following CDE staff members: Geno Flores,
Chief Deputy Superintendent; Cindy Cunningham, Deputy Superintendent, P–16
Policy and Information Branch; Camille
Maben, Director, Child Development Division; Cecelia Fisher-Dahms, Administrator, Quality Improvement Office; and
Desiree Soto, Administrator, and Laura
Bridges, Consultant, Child Development
Division, for ongoing revisions and recommendations. During the lengthy development process, many CDE staff members
were involved at various levels. Additional
thanks are extended to Gail Brodie, Sy
Dang Nguyen, Luis Rios, Mary Smithberger, and Charles Vail, Child Development Division; Meredith Cathcart; Special
Education Division; and to Gavin Payne,
Michael Jett, Gwen Stephens, Anthony
Monreal, and Rick Miller.
Early Childhood Education
Stakeholder Organizations
Representatives from many statewide
organizations provided perspectives affecting various aspects of the learning foundations.
Action Alliance for Children
Alliance for a Better Community
Asian & Pacific Islanders California Action
Note: The names and affiliations of the individuals
were current at the time the document was developed.
viii
Network (APIsCAN)
Association of California School
Administrators
Baccalaureate Pathways in Early
Childhood Education (BPECE)
Black Child Development Institute (BCDI),
Sacramento Affiliate
Child Care and Development Fund,
Administration for Children and
Families Region IX Federal/State/Tribes
Collaboration Workgroup
California Alliance of African American
Educators (CAAAE)
California Association for Bilingual
Education (CABE)
California Association for the Education of
Young Children (CAEYC)
California Association of Family Child
Care (CAFCC)
California Association of Latino
Superintendents and Administrators
(CALSA)
California Child Care Coordinators
Association
California Child Care Resource and
Referral Network (CCCRRN)
California Child Development
Administrators Association (CCDAA)
California Child Development Corps
California Commission on Teacher
Credentialing
California Community College Early
Childhood Educators (CCCECE)
California Community Colleges
Chancellor’s Office (CCCCO)
California County Superintendents
Educational Services Association
(CCSESA)
California Early Reading First Network
California Federation of Teachers (CFT)
California Head Start Association (CHSA)
California Kindergarten Association
California Preschool Instructional Network
(CPIN)
California Professors of Early Childhood
Special Education (CAPECSE)
California School Boards Association
California State Parent Teacher
Association
California State University Office of the
Chancellor
California Teachers Association
Californians Together
Campaign for High Quality Early Learning
Standards in California
Child Development Policy Institute
Children Now
The Children’s Collabrium
Coalition of Family Literacy in California
Council for Exceptional Children/The
California Division for Early Childhood
(Cal DEC)
Council of CSU Campus Childcare
(CCSUCC)
Curriculum Alignment Project
Curriculum and Instruction Steering
Committee
English Language Learners Preschool
Coalition (ELLPC)
Fight Crime, Invest in Kids California
First 5 Association of California
First 5 California (California Children and
Families Commission)
Head Start State-Based Training and
Technical Assistance Office for
California
Infant Development Association of
California (IDA)
Learning Disabilities Association of
California
Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP)
Mexican American Legal Defense and
Education Fund (MALDEF)
Migrant Education Even Start (MEES)
Migrant Head Start
National Council of La Raza (NCLR)
Packard Foundation Children, Families,
and Communities Program
Preschool California
Professional Association for Childhood
Education (PACE)
Special Education Administrators of
Country Offices (SEACO) Committee
Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA)
Committee
TeenNOW California
University of California Child Care
Directors
University of California Office of the
President (UCOP)
Voices for African American Students, Inc.
(VAAS)
ZERO TO THREE
Draft Review Sessions
Special thanks are also extended to
Nancy Herota, Natalie Woods Andrews
of the California Preschool Instructional
Network, and Melinda Brookshire, Jenna
Bilmes, and Jan Davis of WestEd, for their
contributions in facilitating 54 review sessions on the draft foundations. Thanks
also go to the participants in the draft
review sessions for their contributions to
this project.
ix
Introduction
T
he preschool learning foundations
are critical to the California Department of Education’s (CDE’s) efforts
to strengthen preschool education and
close the school-readiness gap in California. The foundations describe competencies—knowledge and skills—that most
children can be expected to exhibit in a
high-quality program as they complete
their first or second year of preschool.
In other words, the foundations identify
paths of learning that, with appropriate
support, children typically move along during the preschool years.
The foundations are designed to promote understanding of young children’s
development of knowledge and skills and
to help teachers, program administrators, families, and policymakers consider
appropriate ways to support children’s
learning. In essence, the foundations serve
as a cornerstone for informing early childhood educators about children’s learning
and development. The foundations are to
be used in combination with other sources
of information. These sources include
formal educational course work on early
learning and development; information on
individual differences (especially disabilities); knowledge about the contribution
of cultural and linguistic experiences to
early development and English-language
development, including the CDE’s resource
guide Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language,
Literacy, and Learning (2007); insights
from children’s families; and the practical
experiences of preschool teachers and
program directors.
The support that young children need to
attain the competencies varies from child
to child. Many children learn simply by
participating in high-quality preschool programs. Such programs offer children environments and experiences that encourage
active, playful exploration and experimentation. With play as an integral part of the
curriculum, high-quality programs include
purposeful teaching to help children gain
knowledge and skills. As for the history–
social science and science foundations,
children can demonstrate their knowledge
and skills by using any language and, for
most of the foundations, nonverbal forms
of expression. Many children effectively
apply their advanced ability in their home
language to understand concepts from
the history–social science and science
domains. Other children may have a disability or special need that requires particular adaptations.* To serve all children,
preschool programs must provide appropriate social interactions, experiences, and
environments and sensitively assist each
child’s learning and development.
All 50 states either have developed preschool standards or are in the process of
doing so. Many states have aligned early
learning standards with kindergarten
*Adaptations should be coordinated with the child’s
family and any specialist working with the child.
xi
xii
content standards. In most cases, these
alignment efforts focused on academic
content areas such as English–language
arts or mathematics. In California, priority
has been placed on aligning expectations
for preschool learning with the Common
Core State Standards for English–language
arts and literacy in history/social studies,
science, and technical subjects and for
mathematics, and with the state’s academic content standards for kindergarten.
Equally important, those content areas
are complemented by attention to social–
emotional development and Englishlanguage development. Like the learning
in domains such as language and literacy
and mathematics, the concepts in social–
emotional development and Englishlanguage development also contribute
significantly to young children’s readiness
for school (Shonkoff and Phillips 2000;
Bowman, Donovan, and Burns 2000;
NAEYC 2002). Because the focus on preschool learning in California includes the
full range of developmental domains, the
term foundations is used rather than standards. This term is intended to convey that
learning and development in every domain
is integrated with all other domains and
affects young children’s readiness for
school.
Content of This Volume
The preschool learning foundations presented in this volume cover the following
domains:
s (ISTORYnSOCIAL SCIENCE
s 3CIENCE
The domains above represent crucial
areas of learning and development for
young children. The foundations written for each of the domains are based
on research evidence and are enhanced
with expert practitioners’ suggestions and
examples. The foundations in a particular domain provide a thorough overview
of development in that domain. Preschool
children’s knowledge and skills can be
considered from the perspective of one
domain, such as history–social science or
science. Yet when taking an in-depth look
at a specific domain, one needs to keep in
mind that learning is an integrated experience for young children. For example, at
any given moment, a young child may concentrate on a single science concept, but
the experience may also pertain to learning
in the cognitive, social, linguistic, physical, and health domains. The relationships
between learning domains are particularly
apparent between the history–social science and social–emotional development
domains and between the science and
mathematics domains. Close inspection of
the foundations shows that all of the preschool learning domains intersect with one
another and that closely related foundations occasionally appear in two or more
domains.
Overview of the Foundations
The strands for each of the domains
discussed previously are listed in this
section.
History–Social Science Domain
The history–social science foundations
address an area that is receiving increasing attention in preschool curricula. These
foundations focus on the following five
strands:
1. Self and Society, which centers on
culture and diversity, relationships,
and social roles and occupations
2. Becoming a Preschool Community
Member (Civics), which pertains to
skills for democratic participation,
responsible conduct, fairness and
respect for other people, and conflict
resolution
3. Sense of Time (History), which includes understanding past events,
anticipating and planning future
events, personal history, and historical changes in people and the world
4. Sense of Place (Geography and
Ecology), which covers navigating
xiii
familiar locations, caring for the
natural world, and understanding
the physical world through drawings
and maps
5. Marketplace (Economics), which
focuses on the economic concept of
exchange
The foundations for this domain reflect
the many ways in which young children
learn about basic concepts of history–
social science. Young children explore
concepts related to history–social science
that are rooted in the cultural experiences of their families and communities.
The history–social science foundations,
which center on young children’s capacity
to operate as members of a community,
complement the social–emotional development foundations, which describe how
young children express and regulate their
emotions and develop social understanding and skills.
Science Domain
The science domain consists of the
following four strands:
1. Scientific Inquiry, which pertains to
observation and investigation and to
documentation and communication
2. Physical Sciences, which focuses on
the properties and characteristics of
nonliving objects and materials and
the changes in nonliving objects and
materials
3. Life Sciences, which addresses properties and characteristics of living
things and changes in living things
4. Earth Sciences, which covers properties and characteristics of earth
materials and objects and changes
in the earth
The competencies covered by the science domain center on content that connects with the natural curiosity of preschool children. Early in life, children rely
on cultural experiences in their homes
and communities to engage in inquiry and
understand the properties and character-
istics of nonliving and living objects and
materials, and earth materials and objects.
The scientific concepts and methods
addressed by the preschool curriculum
give children added perspective as they
build their knowledge and skills in the science domain.
Organization of the Foundations
Each strand consists of substrands, and
the foundations are organized under the
substrands. Foundations are presented
for children at around 48 months of age
and at around 60 months of age. In some
cases, the difference between the foundations for 48 months and 60 months is
more pronounced than for the other foundations. Even so, the foundations focus on
48 and 60 months of age because they correspond to the end of the first and second
years of preschool. In all cases, the foundation at around 60 months of age builds
on the corresponding foundation at around
48 months of age. In other words, for each
foundation the age levels are two points on
a continuum of learning. Of course, teachers need to know where each child is on
a continuum of learning throughout the
child’s time in preschool.
The preschool Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP–PS), which has
been aligned with the preschool foundations, volume 1, and will be aligned with
the foundations in volumes 2 and 3, gives
teachers a means to observe children’s
learning along a continuum. On the continuum, children at the earliest level of
development start to become familiar with
a new knowledge area and, in a basic way,
try out skills they are starting to learn. At
the next level, children begin to demonstrate basic mastery in a knowledge and
skill area. That level is followed by one in
which children refine and expand their
knowledge and skills in an area of learning; at the latest developmental level on
the continuum, they connect the knowledge and skills they have mastered in
xiv
one area with those in other areas. The
Desired Results Developmental Profile
access provides a means to observe the
knowledge and skills of preschool children
with disabilities whose development is best
described within a birth-to-age-five range.
The examples listed under each foundation suggest possible ways in which
children may demonstrate the competency
addressed by a foundation. The examples
illustrate different kinds of contexts in
which children may show the competencies reflected in the foundations. Examples highlight that children learn while
engaging in imaginative play, exploring
the environment and materials, making
discoveries, being inventive, or interacting
with peers, teachers, or other adults. Many
examples include children using language
to express themselves. Of particular note,
children can demonstrate learning in these
domains in any language and often do so
nonverbally. For instance, children who
are English learners will often understand
history–social science and science through
their home language and culturally meaningful experiences at home and in their
community and express such knowledge
in their home language. Although the
examples often illustrate the diversity of
young children’s learning experiences,
they are not exhaustive. In fact, teachers
often observe other ways in which young
children demonstrate the competency
addressed by a foundation.
In addition, one needs to be cautious
about how the examples are used. They
are intended to illustrate possible behaviors rather than to function as assessment
items or to present curricular strategies.
Using the examples to compare individual
children to a group or to measure individual children’s progress would be inappropriate. Young children demonstrate
their knowledge and skills in various
ways. Some may act in ways that reflect
the examples. Others may demonstrate
their competencies through behaviors that
are quite different from the examples and
in many different languages. To use the
examples effectively, one must be mindful
of the context of the early learning setting,
community, and the culture or cultures of
each group of preschool children.
Note: Appendix A, “The Foundations,”
contains a summary list of the foundations
in each domain, without examples.
Universal Design for Learning
The California preschool learning foundations are guides to support preschool
programs in their efforts to foster the
learning and development of all young
children in California, including children
who have disabilities. It is important for
the preschool foundations to provide
opportunities to follow different pathways
to learning, so that the foundations will
be helpful for all of California’s children.
To that end, the foundations incorporate
a concept known as universal design for
learning.
The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) developed the principles for
universal design for learning based on the
understanding that children learn in different ways (CAST 2007). In today’s diverse
preschool settings and programs, the use
of a curriculum accessible to all learners
is critical to successful early learning. Universal design for learning is not a single
approach that will accommodate everyone;
rather, it provides multiple approaches
to learning in order to meet the needs of
diverse learners. Universal design provides
for multiple means of representation, multiple means of engagement, and multiple
means of expression (CAST 2007). Multiple
means of representation refers to providing information in a variety of ways so the
learning needs of all children are met.
Multiple means of engagement refers to
providing choices of activities in the setting or program that facilitate learning by
building on children’s interests. Multiple
means of expression refers to allowing children to use alternative methods to demonstrate what they know or what they feel.
xv
The examples given in the preschool
learning foundations have been worded to
incorporate multiple means of receiving
and expressing. This has been accomplished by the variety of examples for
each foundation and the use of inclusive
language, as follows:
s 7HEN CONSISTENT WITH THE CONTENT
being illustrated, the terms communicates and responds are used in
examples rather than says. “Communicates” and “responds” are inclusive
of any language and any form of communication, including speaking, sign
language, pictures, electronic communication devices, eye-pointing, gesturing, and so forth.
s 4HE TERMS identifies, indicates, and
points to are used to represent multiple means of indicating objects,
people, or events in the environment.
Examples include the use of gestures,
eye-pointing, nodding, or responding
yes or no when another person points
to or touches an object.
When reading each foundation and the
accompanying examples, teachers can
consider the means by which a child with
a disability might best acquire information and demonstrate competence in those
areas. It is essential to include a child’s
special education teacher, parents, or
related service provider when planning
environments, curriculum, and adaptations. In addressing the individual needs of
children, early childhood educators need
to consider the enormous variation in children’s growth and development across all
developmental domains.
For example, when consulting with a
special education teacher, family members,
or related-service provider, one may learn
that a child with physical disabilities and
visual impairments can understand many
concepts without being able to demonstrate them in the same way as other children. Although the child may show delays
in one area of development, it does not
necessarily indicate delays in other areas
of development such as cognitive development. This distinction is important to
keep in mind because if an early childhood
educator expects a child who cannot see or
physically move to demonstrate a level
of understanding, the child’s cognitive
abilities may be underestimated as he or
she may be limited in the ability to consistently and broadly show the expected level.
Even so, without the appropriate specialized instruction, materials, and adaptations, a child may show cognitive delays.
The preschool years are a time of critical
cognitive growth and concept development, and one cannot assume that this
development will simply occur in children
with disabilities when a sensory or motor
disability is present. It is essential that
teachers collaborate with family members
and special educators to ensure that all
children with disabilities are provided with
effective preschool experiences and appropriate educational services and supports.
Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations with Other
Key Resources
The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1–3, are designed to align
with content standards in key early childhood resources. A comprehensive analysis
of the alignment of the California Preschool
Learning Foundations with the California
Infant/Toddler Learning and Development
Foundations, the California content standards for kindergarten, the Common Core
State Standards (CCSS) for kindergarten,
and the Head Start Child Development
and Early Learning Framework (Head
Start Learning Framework) may be viewed
at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/
documents/QTalignment.pdf. Appendix
B presents an overview of this alignment.
It identifies the connections between
foundations/standards drawn from
different resources and illustrates the
developmental progression along a
continuum, from birth to kindergarten,
in different developmental domains (e.g.,
xvi
Language and Literacy, Mathematics,
Physical Development). For example, the
overview summarizes the alignment across
the infant/toddler learning and development foundations in language and literacy,
the preschool learning foundations in language and literacy and the kindergarten
CCSS in English language arts. The overview of the alignment also details the links
between the California Preschool Learning
Foundations and the Head Start Learning
Framework. These key resources share
the common purpose of supporting young
children’s learning and development, and
the alignment document highlights their
shared goals and content.
The Foundations and Preschool
Learning in California
The foundations are at the heart of the
CDE’s approach to promoting preschool
learning. Teachers use best practices, curricular strategies, and instructional techniques that assist children in learning the
knowledge and skills described in the preschool learning foundations. The “how-tos”
of teaching young children include setting
up environments, supporting children’s
self-initiated play, selecting appropriate
materials, and planning and implementing teacher-guided learning activities.
Two major considerations underlie the
“how-tos” of teaching. First, teachers can
effectively foster early learning by thoughtfully considering the preschool learning
foundations in the planning of environments and activities. And second, during
every step in planning for young children’s
learning, teachers have an opportunity to
tap into the prominent role of play. Teachers can best support young children both
by encouraging the rich learning that
occurs in children’s self-initiated play and
by introducing purposeful instructional
activities that playfully engage preschoolers in learning.
Professional development is a key component of fostering preschool learning. The
foundations can become a unifying element
for both preservice and in-service professional development. Preschool program
directors and teachers are encouraged to
use the foundations to facilitate curriculum
planning and implementation. The foundations are designed to help teachers intentionally focus their efforts on the knowledge and skills that all young children need
for success in preschool and early elementary school and throughout life.
References
Bowman, B. T., M. S. Donovan, and M.S.
Burns, eds. 2000. Eager to Learn:
Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington,
DC: National Academies Press.
California Department of Education. 2007.
Preschool English Learners: Principles
and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning. 2nd ed. Sacramento:
California Department of Education.
Center for Applied Special Technology
(CAST). 2007. Universal Design for
Learning. http://www.cast.org/udl/
(accessed June 8, 2007).
NAEYC (National Association for the Education of Young Children). 2002. Early
Learning Standards: Creating the Conditions for Success. Washington, DC:
NAEYC.
Scott-Little, C., S. L. Kagan, and V. S.
Firelow. 2006. “Conceptualization of
Readiness and the Content of Early
Learning Standards: The Intersection of
Policy and Research.” Early Childhood
Research Quarterly 21: 153–73.
Shonkoff, J. P., and D. A. Phillips, eds.
2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods:
The Science of Early Childhood Development. National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine, Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood
Development. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press.
FOUNDATIONS IN
History–Social Science
T
his section describes foundations for development in
history–social science by preschoolers. The goal of the California
Department of Education (CDE) in
developing these foundations is to
describe the knowledge and skills
that are typical of preschool children who make progress toward
readiness for kindergarten. Volume
3 describes, based on developmental
research, behavior reflecting ageappropriate competencies in relevant
areas of history and social science
for children at around 48 and 60
months of age.
The development of preschool foundations for history–social science is
based on the assumption that competencies in a wide variety of areas
prepare children for school. Education
prepares children for a broad range of
adult responsibilities and goals; therefore children’s appreciation for history,
culture, geography, economics, civics
and citizenship, the global environment, and individual identity in a cultural and racial context is essential to
their education, as are basic capacities in language, mathematics, and
the physical sciences. An early start in
preschool helps children learn about
themselves in a social and human context, enabling them to acquire a deep
understanding of the responsibilities of
members of a democratic society, their
place in a complex economy, the legacy
of past generations who contributed
to society, and an appreciation of the
richness and diversity of other people.
Scope of the Foundations
Social science is a branch of learning that pertains to how people live
together in the social world. Young
children are beginning to think about
the social world and their place in it.
They are interested in the similarities
and differences between people and in
how people interact with the natural
world (such as animals and plants).
They are also interested in how social
rules help people to get along and the
roles and responsibilities that they
and other people assume. Children
are developing a sense of time—how
their current experience is affected by
their personal past and relates to their
future. They are developing a sense of
belonging to places and locations that
are meaningful to them. They are also
developing a basic understanding of
how the economic world operates and
their role in it. The foundations focus
1
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
2
on these aspects of their developing
understanding.
The preschool foundations for history–social science were created in
relation to the History–Social Science
Content Standards for California Public
Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade
Twelve (CDE 2005). The content standards for kindergarten through grade
twelve emphasize both the development of children’s age-appropriate
knowledge of history and social science and the growth of analytical and
reasoning skills to promote their own
inquiry in those domains. The foundations were also prepared with attention
to the 10 themes in social studies
identified by the National Council for
the Social Studies (NCSS): (1) culture;
(2) time, continuity, and change;
(3) people, places, and environments;
(4) individual development and identity; (5) individuals, groups, and
institutions; (6) power, authority, and
governance; (7) production, distribution, and consumption; (8) science,
technology, and society; (9) global
connections; and (10) civic ideals and
practices (http://www.socialstudies.
org/standards/strands) (accessed
November 16, 2011). The foundations
are organized according to strands and
substrands that generally align with
those of the NCSS but do not follow
the exact NCSS terminology and order.
For example, although it will be many
years before preschoolers are ready to
study geography, the early years are
when young children acquire a “sense
of place” manifested in their familiarity with locations and larger terrains
where they live and play, a growing
interest in the natural world and caring for it, and their experimentation
with drawings and mapmaking.
Although young children have lim-
ited historical understanding, they do
have a “sense of time.” It is shown by
their talk about events of the recent
past, a sense of their own development
over time, an autobiographical memory, and anticipation of future events
and planning for them. Young children
are also active in the marketplace and
exhibit a dawning understanding of
the world of goods and money that will
contribute, many years later, to the
study of economics.
Young children also learn about
responsibility and the processes of
democracy through their participation
in an early childhood education program. In preschool, many gain their
first experience in the responsibilities
of group membership: they make decisions after discussion, vote, respect
majority opinion, participate in the
creation and enforcement of classroom
rules, learn how to treat others fairly
and respectfully, cooperate with others, and develop skills in managing
conflict with peers and adults.
More broadly, preschoolers are also
beginning to understand how they fit
within broader social systems beyond
the family. They are interested in and
rehearse adult roles and occupations,
learn about the mutual obligations of
relationships, and encounter cultural,
ethnic, and racial diversity by which
they learn about themselves and others. What young children learn in
an early childhood education setting
builds, of course, on what they learn
at home about the responsibilities
of family members, the importance
of treating others fairly and respectfully, and family identity and culture
(Perez-Granados and Callanan 1997).
Because civic participation, culture,
conflict resolution, and mutual respect
remain important throughout life, the
preschool period is a good time to help
children learn about living in a diverse
society.
During the preschool years, children
grow in their understanding of the
social world in which they live. The
social world includes several areas of
knowledge:
z Self and Society (beginning to identify with how their family does things
and understand that other families and people have ways of doing
things that are different or similar to
what their family does)
z Civics (how to live with others and
how rules work, such as taking
turns to go down the slide)
z History (events that happened in the
past, even before they were born,
such as when their mommy was a
little girl)
z Geography (the location of familiar
places in relation to each other, such
as knowing the way to preschool or
that the park is across the street from
the grocery store) and the different
kinds of places where people live
z Ecology (learning to take care of
earth and animals [for example, not
wasting water])
z Economics (a beginning understanding of money and the exchange of
things and services, such as
groceries purchased at the store)
The foundations were developed
to help teachers focus on supporting
young children’s growing understanding in these areas of knowledge.
The foundations of history–social
science consist of the following strands
and substrands:
Self and Society
1.0 Culture and Diversity
2.0 Relationships
3.0 Social Roles and Occupations
Becoming a Preschool Community
Member (Civics)
1.0 Skills for Democratic
Participation
2.0 Responsible Conduct
3.0 Fairness and Respect for
Other People
4.0 Conflict Resolution
Sense of Time (History)
1.0 Understanding Past Events
2.0 Anticipating and Planning
Future Events
3.0 Personal History
4.0 Historical Changes in People
and the World
Sense of Place (Geography and
Ecology)
1.0 Navigating Familiar Locations
2.0 Caring for the Natural World
3.0 Understanding the Physical
World Through Drawings and
Maps
Marketplace (Economics)
1.0 Exchange
These strands and substrands are
less familiar in the field of early childhood education than those for domains
such as social–emotional development.
Recent work at the national level by
the NCSS and preschool standards of
various states reflect a growing interest
in topics such as becoming a
preschool community member, sense
of time, and sense of place. Although
perhaps new for some early childhood
educators, this terminology makes
visible the learning that often occurs
in the preschool setting. With an
increased awareness of the history–
social science domain, early childhood
educators have an opportunity to be
intentional in supporting learning in
this domain and integrating history–
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
3
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
4
social science learning with learning in
other domains.
The foundations in history–social
science share some similarities with
other foundations, particularly those
in social–emotional development. The
resemblance is expected. As learning
is integrated across different domains
of understanding, children’s achievements in different areas naturally
overlap. The development of responsible conduct, social relationships,
and conflict-resolution skills, which
are core features of healthy social–
emotional growth, are also essential
components of learning to become a
constructive member of a community.
Although these social-science foundations emphasize the child in the
context of the group more than do the
social–emotional foundations, teachers
should be aware that similar developmental achievements are relevant to
each domain. In addition, the history–
social science foundations build on
the foundations in English-language
development, especially the following
challenges: displaying competencies in
a language that is different from the
home and claiming community membership for children who are culturally
diverse.
Purpose of the Foundations
For each substrand, behavioral
descriptions of age-appropriate competencies are provide, together with
examples of the behaviors. Bibliographic notes for each substrand
provide an expanded description of
the developmental accomplishments
relevant to the topic, citations to the
research literature, further information
for teachers and administrators, and
some suggestions for relevant program
practices. The CDE will also create
a curriculum framework in history–
social science to provide preschool
teachers with specific practices to foster developing competencies in these
areas. References and source materials
are included at the end of this chapter.
To use this information appropriately, it is important to remember two
things. First, the examples for each
foundation are meant to be guidelines
for understanding children’s learning and development, not assessment
items or a curriculum framework. The
examples clarify these competencies by
providing concrete illustrations of specific behaviors. They are not intended
to be yardsticks to measure the behavior of certain children in a teacher’s
group, nor should they be turned into
assessment tools. The reason for this
precaution is that preschoolers may
demonstrate their competencies in a
variety of ways. Some may do so consistently in the same way as the examples provided; others may demonstrate
their skills using alternative behaviors
and in many different languages. Children are different from one another,
and their behavior may differ from the
examples but still be appropriate for
their age. The examples accompanying each foundation should be used
in consideration of the context of the
child’s early learning environment,
community, and culture. Second, the
Bibliographic Notes included in this
chapter are meant to be a teaching
tool for administrators, supervisors,
instructors, and teachers so they can
learn more about the development of
the children in their care. The notes
refer to useful research about young
children.
Educators, early childhood specialists, developmental scientists, and others involved in efforts to describe the
behaviors typical of children at around
48 months compared with children at
around 60 months will find themselves
humbled by the realization that the
developmental changes apparent over
the course of a single year may be subtle. Sometimes individual differences
in the characteristics and behavior
of children at any age may be greater
than the average behavioral changes
they will experience over the course of
a year of development in various areas.
The purpose of these foundations,
therefore, is to highlight the developmental differences that are most
common between typical children at
around 48 and 60 months of age. The
differences between children of each
age may be subtle, but some consistent themes run throughout these
foundations. Although children at 48
and 60 months of age do not have a
sophisticated sense of time, place, or
the marketplace, older children demonstrate a more complex and nuanced
understanding of each. Older children
are more capable of seeing themselves
in a context of time and location and
take greater initiative in learning more.
Compared with younger children, children at around 60 months of age also
have an enhanced psychological awareness of themselves and others and a
greater capacity for self-control that
permits greater skill in social responsibility, conflict management, and citizenship.
Finally, older children in this age
range are more capable of social relationships that are mutual and reciprocal in quality, which contributes to
greater skill in group participation and
responsibility. In general, these developmental differences should be apparent across the different foundations
described in this chapter.
Understanding the Foundations
The foundations were written with
the assumption that young children
have access to appropriate social interactions, experiences, and environments
that normally support healthy development. Young children who grow up in
settings that lack opportunities for
learning, healthy self-expression, and
positive interactions with others cannot be expected to show the kinds of
developmental achievements of children who live in more supportive
settings. Children in a typical early
education setting will vary along the
continuum of support and positive
learning opportunities available to
them outside the preschool. Sensitive
teachers must provide early learning experiences that are well suited to
each child.
In addition, these foundations were
written to describe typical development
rather than to describe aspirations
for optimal growth. On occasion, the
behavior of young children is described
in ways that reflect undesirable but
entirely age-appropriate characteristics. For example, young children
experience conflict with other children
and clash even more with their friends
than they do with other children
(Hartup 1996; Rubin, Bukowski, and
Parker 2006; Rubin and others 2005).
Young children often are self-interested
in their negotiations with other people
and do not act as generously or sympathetically as adults would desire
(Dunn 1993; Shonkoff and Phillips
2000; Thompson 1998).
Research shows that young children
tend to prefer the culture, ethnicity,
race, and practices of their families
and may act critically toward children
or adults who are different from them
(Aboud 1988, 2003, 2008; Barbarin
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
5
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
6
and Odom 2009; Bigler and Liben
2007; Katz 2003; Quintana 1998,
2007, 2008). Children’s preferences
are shaped by their effort to understand racial and cultural differences as
they observe them and attend to messages they hear from family members,
teachers, and others. To refer to preschoolers’ behavior without acknowledging these characteristics and influences makes it difficult to understand
why they occur as part of typical development. Understanding why these
behaviors emerge developmentally is
also important as families seek ways to
encourage young children to be more
cooperative,empathic, and accepting of
human diversity. To help young children acquire desirable positive characteristics, adults must first understand
why children develop as they do. The
goal of these foundations is to help
cultivate that understanding. The companion California Preschool Curriculum
Framework, Volume 3, offers guidance
on how teachers can be more effective
in helping children learn about others
and engage in cooperative and empathetic behavior.
Children form a remarkably diverse
population. They vary in their temperamental qualities, personality, family
background, cultural heritage and values, economic resources, family structure, and other ways. Children in California are especially diverse in their
culture of origin. Culture is associated
with family values and practices, language, and other characteristics that
are directly related to the meaning of
these foundations and their application to individual children, especially
children who are English-language
learners or from special populations
(see, for example, Bowman and Moore
2006; Edwards and others 2006).
Although the developmental
research on which these foundations
are based is full of studies of Englishspeaking, middle-class European
American children, there are fewer
studies focused on children who speak
other languages or come from other
family, racial, or cultural backgrounds.
Much more research of this kind is
needed. In light of this limitation, the
foundations are starting points for
understanding young children’s development and should be supplemented
by the teacher’s observations and
understanding of individual children in
preschool.
Likewise, more research is needed
on the developmental advances described in these foundations for children with special needs, such as those
with physical disabilities.
Taken together, these foundations
describe developmental growth in
understanding history and social sciences that is likely to be true of most
preschoolers. Early childhood education program administrators, supervisors, and teachers must interpret them
in light of their experience and knowledge of individual children and families
in their programs, understanding the
different strengths that children bring
with them given their home experiences and the powerful influences of
society (Banks 2006; Rogoff 1989). At
times, it may be desirable to consult
with outside experts for deeper understanding of children’s backgrounds
and what children bring from those
experiences to the preschool setting.
Learning About History–Social
Science
Finally, how should adults help
young children acquire the essential
lessons of civic participation, democ-
racy, historical perspective, geographical awareness, culture, and a sense
of self in a complex social world? The
foundations are based on the assumption that young children develop
understanding as they are encouraged
to do so in everyday interactions with
other children and adults (Mindes
2005). The best lessons in democracy,
time sense, awareness of the natural
and physical world, the marketplace,
culture and diversity, responsible
conduct, mutual respect, and selfunderstanding are those that are
acquired as young children participate
in carefully crafted experiences with
teachers who encourage them not just
through instruction, but also through
guided participation in activities that
strengthen developing awareness and
understanding. The activities that
nurture understanding in those areas
are those involving extensive conversations between children and adults
and between children and their peers;
shared projects involving discovery and
learning; and abundant play (Edwards
and Ramsey 1986).
The most important purpose of these
foundations is to help early childhood
educators create environments and
interactions that help young children
understand themselves in a wonderfully expanding world.
Summary Table: History–Social Science Strands,
Substrands, and Foundations
Strand
Substrand
Foundation
1.0 Culture and Diversity
1.1
2.0 Relationships
2.1
3.0 Social Roles and Occupations
3.1
1.0 Skills for Democratic Participation
1.1
2.0 Responsible Conduct
2.1
3.0 Fairness and Respect for Other People
3.1
*VUÅPJ[9LZVS\[PVU
4.1
1.0 Understanding Past Events
1.1
2.0 Anticipating and Planning Future Events
2.1
3.0 Personal History
3.1
4.0 Historical Changes in People and the World
4.1
1.0 Navigating Familiar Locations
1.1
Sense of Place (Geography
and Ecology)
2.0 Caring for the Natural World
2.1
3.0 Understanding the Physical World Through
Drawings and Maps
3.1
Marketplace (Economics)
1.0 Exchange
1.1
Self and Society
Becoming a Preschool
Community Member
(Civics)
Sense of Time (History)
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
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HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
8
Self and Society
1.0
Culture and Diversity
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Exhibit developing cultural, ethnic,
and racial identity and understand
relevant language and cultural
practices. Display curiosity about
diversity in human characteristics
and practices, but prefer those of
their own group.
1.1 Manifest stronger cultural, ethnic,
and racial identity and greater
familiarity with relevant language,
traditions, and other practices.
Show more interest in human
diversity, but strongly favor
characteristics of their own group.
Examples
Examples
z When parent leaves room during drop-off, child
seeks a teacher assistant who speaks the child’s
home language.
z Proudly shares, “My mom can speak three
languages: Cantonese, Vietnamese, and English!”
z Tells a Chinese American friend, “I can speak
your language. Ni hao (Hello)!”
z Shares with teacher, after a holiday weekend,
“I helped make the tamales!”
z Describes to a teacher the special foods her
family ate at last night’s Passover Seder.
z Wants to touch Michiko’s wheelchair.
z Points to a child’s sushi and asks, “What is that?”
Shows interest in the response, but does not want
to try it.
z Points to a photo on the group’s Family Board
and says, “Tanisha looks like me.”
z While patting play dough, child tells a friend,
“My abuela makes tortillas.”
z Learns and uses some simple words in a different language that is used by other children in the
group.
z Asks a new teacher, “Why do you always wear a
scarf on your head?” and shows interest in the
teacher’s explanation.
z Tells another girl, “You can’t play if you have short
hair. Only boys can have short hair.”
z While discussing their families, a child shares,
“I’m half Mexican and half Salvadoran.” Another
child adds, “I’m half Japanese and half Jewish.”
z During a circle-time discussion of the holidays
that families celebrate, suggests counting who
celebrates Christmas, Hanukkah, and Chinese
New Year.
z Shares with teacher, “My name at school is Louis,
but at home it is Young-Min Kim.”
z During music time, child tells group, “At the
powwow, my sister did the fancy dance.”
z During lunch, asks another child, “Why don’t
you eat meat?”
2.0
Relationships
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Interact comfortably with many
peers and adults; actively contribute
to creating and maintaining relationships with a few significant adults
and peers.
2.1 Understand the mutual responsibilities
of relationships; take initiative in
developing relationships that are
mutual, cooperative, and exclusive.
Examples
Examples
z Seeks a special peer to sit with at circle time.
z Comes to the defense of a friend who is teased
by another child.
z When hurt, seeks the assistance of a special
teacher, even turning away from other adults
who try to help.
z Plays with a truck on the sand table alongside
another child, and eventually the two children
play together.
z Goes to a particular teacher for comfort when
having trouble separating from a family member
during morning drop-off.
z Plays with the same friend regularly; their play
together is more cooperative and complex, but
also more conflicted at times.
z Notices when a friend or special teacher is
absent, and asks about that person by name.
z Talks to a special teacher about a weekend activity that was exciting or scary. Responds to the
teacher’s description of her own weekend.
z Works cooperatively with several friends to create a map of the outside play area, but does not
include others who are not friends.
z Shows another child who does not understand
English what to do when the teacher says it is time
to get ready for snack.
z Asks a teacher for assistance in preparing to paint,
cooperates with the teacher in getting ready, and
describes the colors he or she will use.
z Suggests taking turns with another child who also
wants to bounce the large ball.
z Seeks to play regularly with one or two friends,
even to the extent of excluding other children who
want to join in.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
Self and Society | 9
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
10 | Self and Society
3.0
Social Roles and Occupations
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
3.1 Play familiar adult social roles and
occupations (such as parent, teacher,
and doctor) consistent with their
developing knowledge of these roles.
3.1 Exhibit more sophisticated understanding of a broader variety of adult
roles and occupations, but uncertain
how work relates to income.
Examples
Examples
s #OMMENTS TO A FRIEND DURING PRETEND PLAY h) WANT
to be the nurse and give these babies their flu
shots like my mommy does.”
s 3HARES WITH AN ADULT THAT HER MOM NOW HAS TO GET
up “really early” every day to get to her new job
on time because she makes breakfast for other
people.
s 4ALKS WITH CHILDREN PLAYING IN THE HOUSE AREA ABOUT
who cooks dinner in his family.
s 4ELLS AN ADULT THAT HER MAMA hDOESNT HAVE TIME TO
do anything” because now she has to take care of
the baby twins.
s 7ATCHES WITH CURIOSITY AS A CREW WORKS FROM A
high “bucket truck” to remove dead branches
from a nearby tree.
s )NDICATES h$ADDYS JOB IS GOING TO SCHOOLv
s #OMMUNICATES THAT 0APA HAS TO WORK hEXTRA
hours” for a while, and he sometimes takes his
supper to work in a lunchbox.
s #OMMENTS THAT HIS MOTHER IS GOING TO THE BANK TO
get some money.
s 7ATCHES WITH INTEREST AND ASKS QUESTIONS OF
Debbie, the plumber, while she fixes a sink faucet.
s 4ELLS OTHER CHILDREN IN DRAMATIC PLAY AREA THAT
mommies can be police officers, too, because
girls can do what boys can do.
Becoming a Preschool Community
Member (Civics)
1.0
Skills for Democratic Participation
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Identify as members of a group,
participate willingly in group
activities, and begin to understand
and accept responsibility as group
members, although assistance is
REQUIRED IN COORDINATING PERSONAL
interests with those of others.
1.1 Become involved as responsible
participants in group activities,
with growing understanding of the
importance of considering others’
opinions, group decision making,
and respect for majority rules and
the views of group members who
disagree with the majority.
Examples
Examples
s 0ARTICIPATES IN AN INFORMAL GROUP VOTE ABOUT
which song to sing, but sometimes protests or
does not participate when the group’s choice
differs from hers.
s #OMMUNICATES h,ETS VOTEv WHEN THE GROUP IS
divided about which song to sing.
s 2ESPONDS APPROPRIATELY BY PUTTING AWAY MATERIals when the teacher indicates that it is time for
cleanup, although may need guidance about
what to do.
s 3HARES AN IDEA OR OPINION SOMETIMES BY
responding enthusiastically to others’ ideas,
and can attend to the comments and ideas of
others for a short while, sometimes with adult
prompting.
s (ELPS CREATE RULES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO A SAFE AND
harmonious environment and can usually follow
them with adult reminders.
s 7HEN A FRIEND WANTS TO TOUCH THE GOLDlSH IN THE
fish tank, tells the friend, “No touching the fish.
It’s the rule!”
s !NTICIPATES THE PREDICTABLE ROUTINES OF THE DAY
such as initiating lunchtime handwashing, without being prompted.
s 3UGGESTS DOING BOTH ACTIVITIES WHEN CHILDREN ARE
divided about what to do next.
s /RGANIZES OR PARTICIPATES WITH A GROUP OF FRIENDS
to play particular roles during dramatic play in the
housekeeping area.
s 7HEN FRUSTRATED WITH CHILDREN WHO ARE DISRUPTING
his group’s game, indicates to a teacher that they
are not following the rules.
s &OLLOWS THE DIFFERENT SETS OF RULES AT HOME AND
at school.
s 5SES VOCABULARY FOR MAKING AND DISCUSSING RULES
(vote, decide, compromise).
s %XPLAINS THE REASONS FOR SOME RULES EG WHY
hitting other people is not allowed).
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
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12 | Becoming a Preschool Community Member
2.0
Responsible Conduct
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Strive to cooperate with group
expectations to maintain adult
approval and get along with others.
Self-control is inconsistent, however,
especially when children are frustrated or upset.
2.1 Exhibit responsible conduct more
reliably as children develop selfesteem (and adult approval) from
being responsible group members.
May also manage others’ behavior
to ensure that others also fit in with
group expectations.
Examples
Examples
s #ONTRIBUTES TO GROUP ROUTINES SUCH AS CLEANUP
but can easily be distracted while doing so.
s "EGINS TO GATHER MATERIALS FOR AN ART PROJECT
without being reminded by the teacher.
s 0LAYS COOPERATIVELY WITH OTHER CHILDREN BUT MAY
act aggressively when frustrated by another’s
behavior.
s 4ELLS ANOTHER CHILD TO PUT AWAY BLOCKS WHEN
snack time is announced, indicating that cleaning
up before eating is a rule.
s 3EEKS THE TEACHERS ACKNOWLEDGMENT AFTER ACTING
helpfully.
s #LEANS UP A SPILL ON HER OWN WITHOUT BEING ASKED
to do so.
s )S PLEASED TO BE GIVEN A hHELPERv ROLE SUCH AS
feeding a pet or watering the plants.
s 7ILLINGLY HELPS WITH TASKS THAT HE NOTICES NEED TO
be done (such as getting more paper towels).
s !GREES TO SHARE A LARGE TUB OF BUILDING MATERIALS
with another child when given time to adjust to the
idea.
s 3HARES HER PLAY DOUGH WITHOUT PROMPTING WHEN
another child wants to join in.
s 3EEKS HELP FROM AN ADULT WHEN A FRIEND IS INJURED
while playing outside.
s 4ELLS A TEACHER WHEN ANOTHER CHILD IS NOT FOLLOWING
a group rule.
s %XPRESSES ANGER TOWARD ANOTHER CHILD BY USING
language instead of physical aggression.
3.0
Fairness and Respect for Other People
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
3.1 Respond to the feelings and needs
of others with simple forms of
assistance, sharing, and turn-taking.
Understand the importance of rules
that protect fairness and maintain
order.
3.1 Pay attention to others’ feelings,
more likely to provide assistance,
and try to coordinate personal
desires with those of other children in
mutually satisfactory ways. Actively
support rules that protect fairness to
others.
Examples
Examples
z With the teacher’s prompting, shares the blocks
she is using with another child who wants to use
them.
z Tells a teacher, “Akito is sad because she wanted
to play with Emma” and problem-solves with the
teacher about how to help.
z Understands the importance of putting toys away
in their proper places to maintain order; appreciates that it is even more important to be nice to
others.
z Helps a friend rebuild a sandcastle that has collapsed.
z 2EALIZES AFTER AN ADULTS EXPLANATION OF THE SITUation, that his disruption of a table game is the
reason another child is angry at him.
z While playing in the dramatic play area, agrees to
use another child’s ideas about what to cook for
a family celebration.
z Indicates, “That’s not fair!” when a friend’s interests are ignored or another child is excluded.
z Notices a new child crying after the child’s mother
has left and offers a favorite toy to help the child
feel better.
z Suggests taking turns with several children who
want to get on the swing.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
Becoming a Preschool Community Member | 13
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
14 | Becoming a Preschool Community Member
4.0
Conflict Resolution
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
4.1 Can use simple bargaining strategies
and seek adult assistance when in
conflict with other children or adults,
although frustration, distress, or
aggression also occurs.
4.1 More capable of negotiating,
compromising, and finding
cooperative means of resolving
conflict with peers or adults,
although verbal aggression may
also result.
Examples
Examples
z When two children want to use the same tricycle,
one indicates to the other, “You can use it after
I’m done.”
z Waits for a turn at the swings, indicating with
gestures that she is waiting to swing.
z Teacher announces cleanup time; one child
AGREES TO PUT AWAY HER PUZZLE AS SOON AS SHE lNishes it.
z Seeks help from the teacher when another child
takes the trucks he was using in the sandbox.
s Cries when a peer does not let him play with
some of the animal figures, but offers solutions to
the problem when a teacher guides both children
in discussion.
z When two children want to use the same tricycle,
one suggests that they take turns.
z When a teacher cautions a child about running
indoors, the child begins to walk fast instead.
z Indicates, “We need another one!” to the teacher
when commenting that children always want to
wear the one green shirt in the dramatic play
area.
z Communicates to a peer, “There’s only room for
two people in here so you can’t play with us.”
z Reminds another child of the rule about washing
hands before mealtime or shows by example.
Sense of Time (History)
1.0 Understanding Past Events
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Recall past experiences easily and
enjoy hearing stories about the past,
BUT REQUIRE ADULT HELP TO DETERMINE
when past events occurred in relation
to each other and to connect them
with current experience.
1.1 Show improving ability to relate
past events to other past events
and current experiences, although
adult assistance continues to be
important.
Examples
Examples
z Describes a family trip for the teacher, but is
unable to describe when the trip occurred.
z Is happy and explains that it is because his
daddy arrived home yesterday from a long trip.
z When a teacher asks what other countries
the children have visited, one child answers,
“Philippines! I have lots of cousins there.”
z Two girls recall, with a teacher, that the school
garden plants died because they did not receive
enough water when the weather became hot.
z Although his birthday was a month ago, he
describes looking forward to his birthday, which
he tells an adult “is coming soon.”
z Asks a teacher if she is feeling better today
because he missed her when she was sick
yesterday.
z While in the yard, looks under bushes for a
caterpillar seen the day before.
z Tells a friend that she used to share a bedroom with her sister, but she does not anymore
because her sister is “all grown up and married
now.”
z Often refers to anything done in the past as
“yesterday.”
z A foster child shares with the teacher, “I used to
live in a home with lots of kids, and now I live
with a family where I’m the only one.”
z Announces that her mom had a little baby boy
and that he will be little for a long, long time.
z When asked about weekend activities, shares
that he and his mom went to the post office to
mail a big package to grandparents in Mexico.
z Shares that she is sad because her cousins just
moved away and now they will not be together
every day.
z !RRANGES PICTURES TO INDICATE THE TIME SEQUENCE
in the context of events in a story (e.g., The Little
Red Hen, The Very Hungry Caterpillar).
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
15
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
16 | Sense of Time
2.0 Anticipating and Planning Future Events
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Anticipate events in familiar
situations in the near future, with
adult assistance.
2.1 Distinguish when future events will
happen, plan for them, and make
choices (with adult assistance) that
anticipate future needs.
Examples
Examples
z When the teacher points to the art photo in the
picture schedule, the child begins to prepare
(putting on an apron, moving paper to the easel).
z As the group gets ready to go on a trip to the fire
station, asks the teacher whether they should
bring the firefighter’s hat from the dress-up area.
z When asked what he is going to do tomorrow,
indicates that he will have breakfast and then
come to school.
z Tells a friend that she has to give away toys to
make room for her grandparents from India, who
will be coming to live with her.
z Tells an adult, “When we go outside, I need a
plastic bag on my cast so it won’t get muddy.”
z Because of a special event, the day’s schedule is
changed. Several children express concern that
snack time will be skipped.
z Tells other children that she and her papa go
outside to look at the stars when it gets dark,
right after they eat dinner.
z Knows, with the help of a picture schedule, that
snack time at preschool always follows circle
time.
z Excitedly tells the teacher, “We’re going to the
airport to pick up my uncle from Taiwan next
week!” but has no idea how soon next week
will be.
z At planning time, a child who is nonverbal uses
a communication board with pictures to indicate
where he will play first.
z When asked for an idea about what the group will
need to bring on a lunchtime picnic, suggests a
blanket.
z Communicates to a friend, “Next time we go to
THE ZOO ) WILL HAVE MY ELECTRIC WHEELCHAIR SO )
can keep up with you.”
z Tells teacher, “I get to visit my cousins on Saturday. Mommy says that’s after two more sleeps!”
z Encourages friend to put on his shoes and jacket
fast so they will have more time to dig in the
sandbox together.
z When the nurse enters, a child tells her friend that
it is time for a tube feeding and that she will come
back to play in 10 minutes.
z Knowing that park time is at 10:00 every day,
brings jacket from cubby and asks, “Is it 10:00
yet?”
Sense of Time | 17
Personal History
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
3.1 Proudly display developing skills
to attract adult attention and share
simple accounts about recent
experiences.
3.1 Compare current abilities with skills
at a younger age and share more
detailed autobiographical stories
about recent experiences.
Examples
Examples
z Shows a teacher his drawing of a cat and smiles
when the teacher says, “Look at your cat’s long
tail and whiskers!”
z Tells a teacher that she is now strong enough to
help her mom carry bags home from the market
and then recalls some things they brought home
last night.
z Tells a teacher how Grandma made rice for breakfast this morning.
z Exclaims, “Now I can run fast! My brother says he
can’t catch me!”
z Strives to imitate the actions and skills of older
children.
z Tells an adult that he helped Papa fix the table leg
last night.
z #OMMUNICATES AT THE PARK h,OOK -S -ARTINEZ
I can slide all by myself now because I am a big
girl.”
z Shares with other children that he was once little
and that soon they will be big like him.
z Names all the family members who came to her
house on Sunday to celebrate her grandpa’s
birthday.
z After falling and scraping a knee, comments that
it hurts a little, but not as much as last time.
z Tells a teacher that she is teaching her baby sister how to walk and recounts that when she was
a baby she only crawled, too, but that now she
can even run and jump.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
3.0
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
18 | Sense of Time
4.0
Historical Changes in People and the World
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
4.1 Easily distinguish older family
4.1 Develop an interest in family history
members from younger ones (and
(e.g., when family members were
other people) and events in the
children) as well as events of “long
recent past from those that happened
ago,” and begin to understand when
“long ago,” although do not readily
these events occurred in relation to
SEQUENCE HISTORICAL EVENTS ON A
each other.
timeline.
Examples
Examples
z Builds castles with blocks but is not aware of, or
interested in, when these structures were built
historically.
z Can identify, with adult assistance, the relative
ages of family members (e.g., grandparents,
parents, siblings, self).
z Can readily identify people who are very young or
very old.
z Tells a teacher that when her grandma and
grandpa were little they lived in Mexico, but when
they grew up, they moved here.
z Thinks of fairy tale characters, as well as science
fiction superheroes, as being real but simply not
here right now.
z Shares with her teacher, “My baby brother was
born last week and I was born a long time ago—
almost five years!”
z Says, “My mommy came from Guatemala a long
time ago!” when the teacher asks where children’s families came from.
z Understands that dinosaurs lived long ago and
that Grandpa was a boy long ago, but cannot
distinguish how long ago these events occurred.
Sense of Place (Geography and Ecology)
1.0
Navigating Familiar Locations
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Identify the characteristics of familiar
locations such as home and school,
describe objects and activities asSOCIATED WITH EACH RECOGNIZE THE
routes between them, and begin
using simple directional language
(with various degrees of accuracy).
1.1 Comprehend larger familiar locations, such as the characteristics of
their community and region (including
hills and streams, weather, common
activities) and the distances between
familiar locations (such as between
home and school), and compare
their home community with those
of others.
Examples
Examples
z Understands that home is where one sleeps at
night and gets dressed in the morning.
z Indicates that everybody needs a raincoat where
he lives.
z Demonstrates knowledge that preschool environments have reading areas with books.
z Tells a teacher, “My grandpa lives where it gets
real cold in the winter, much colder than here. It
even snows!”
z Asks as mother is driving to preschool, “Are we
going to school?”
z When asked by an adult, “Where is the sand
table?” the child replies, “over there” while
gesturing in the general direction.
z When riding with other people, excitedly shouts,
“That’s my school!” and talks about the people
and activities there.
z Shares with a teacher, “Sam is my friend. He lives
next door.”
z Directs an adult’s attention to a wildlife poster by
indicating that it is “over” the sink.
z Knows that her cousins live far away because it
takes a long time to get to her cousin’s house by
car.
z Explains, “On the way to school, we have to walk
up two gigantic hills” and describes excitedly
what that is like.
z When the teacher leads children to take a new
route on the way back from an outdoor trip,
communicates “No, this way!”
z Excitedly tells a teacher that she just saw some
monarch caterpillars on her way to school (“On
the bushes next to the river”).
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
19
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
20 | Sense of Place
2.0 Caring for the Natural World
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1
2.1
Show an interest in nature (including
animals, plants, and weather)
especially as children experience it
directly. Begin to understand human
interactions with the environment
(such as pollution in a lake or stream)
and the importance of taking care of
plants and animals.
Show an interest in a wider range of
natural phenomena, including those
outside direct experience (such as
snow for a child living in Southern
California), and are more concerned
about caring for the natural world
and the positive and negative
impacts of people on the natural
world (e.g., recycling, putting trash
in trash cans).
Examples
Examples
z Contributes to circle-time discussion of the day’s
weather, readily describing it as hot, cold, rainy,
and so forth.
z Shares with a teacher that it snows where his
cousins live and no flowers are outside because
it is too cold for them to grow.
z Checks the plant pots on the windowsill daily
after watering them to find out whether the seeds
have started to grow.
z Finds a broken brown eggshell outdoors and
communicates that he hopes the bird is okay.
z Turns over big rocks on the playground to see if
there are worms or bugs underneath, but is careFUL NOT TO SQUISH THEM
z One child’s father brings the family’s pet kitten to
circle time, and the child tells everyone how to
hold and pet the kitten carefully so it will feel safe
and not get hurt.
z On a nature hike, points to litter and asks, “Who
did this?”
z Communicates to other children that her family
recycles cans and bottles to care for the natural
environment.
z Tells a teacher that Mommy does not like plastic
bags because they are bad for the environment.
z When outside on a walk, picks up litter and
throws it into a trash can.
z After looking at a book about bears, expresses
interest in polar bears and asks the teacher where
they live.
3.0
Understanding the Physical World Through Drawings and Maps
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
3.1 Can use drawings, globes, and
maps to refer to the physical world,
although often unclear on the use
of map symbols.
3.1 Create their own drawings, maps,
and models; are more skilled at using
globes, maps, and map symbols;
and use maps for basic problem
solving (such as locating objects)
with adult guidance.
Examples
Examples
z Finds a crumpled piece of paper with scribbled
lines on it and decides that it is a map to buried
treasure.
z Builds a landscape on the sand table and move
cars and trucks on the roads she has created.
z In describing a drawing to an adult, gestures to a
SQUARE THAT SHE CALLS HER HOUSE AND EXPLAINS THAT
THE ZIGZAG LINES IN FRONT OF IT ARE WHERE SHE RODE
her tricycle yesterday.
z Looking at an adult map, can identify lines, with
an adult’s help, that represent roads and green
areas indicating farmland, but has difficulty interpreting other map symbols.
z Draws a map of the outside play area, indicating
to an adult the location of trees, climbing structures, and buildings.
z After looking at a road map, is surprised that it
takes so long to drive to the destination because
it did not look far away on the map.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
Sense of Place | 21
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
22
Marketplace (Economics)
1.0 Exchange
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Understand ownership, limited
supply, what stores do, give-andtake, and payment of money to
sellers. Show interest in money and
its function, but still figuring out the
relative value of coins.
1.1 Understand more complex economic
concepts (e.g., bartering; more
money is needed for things of
greater value; if more people want
something, more will be sold).
Examples
Examples
z Agrees to give another child two plastic oranges
if the child will give her two pennies.
z Tells a friend that her family needs a new car, but
they need lots of money first.
z Wheels to the grocery store in the dramatic
play area and asks, “Who wants to buy some
tamales?”
z Makes a sign in the pretend shoe store indicating
that small shoes cost $1 and big shoes cost $2.
z Cuts a small rectangle out of cardboard at the art
table and indicates that it is his credit card.
z Two friends dress up in the house area to go
shopping, filling their wallets with play money.
z Asks another child, “Will you give me a haircut?
I’ll pay you some money.”
z Reminds another child, “Don’t take Carlo’s jacket
from his cubby!”
z Rushes outside to ride favorite tricycle, knowing
that it is a popular toy.
z Looks forward to going to a familiar grocery store
to buy things.
z Several children create clay animal sculptures
and decide to trade them with each other.
z Explains to a teacher, “We don’t have enough
money to just get whatever we want at the store.”
z Suggests to a teacher that there is “too much
stuff” in the room and that they should have a
sale.
z When a peer in the dramatic play area suggests
making sandwiches to sell, says, “No, let’s make
A PIZZA STORE BECAUSE EVERYONE WANTS TO BUY
PIZZAv
z While playing with a plastic horse, tells a friend,
“Having a real horse of my own costs too much
money.”
Bibliographic Notes
Self and Society
Culture and Diversity
As preschoolers develop a sense of
self, the cultural, ethnic, and racial
identity that they share with family
members becomes a more important
part of their self-awareness (Aboud
1984, 1987; Bennett and Sani 2008;
Edwards and Ramsey 1986; Katz
2003; Quintana 1998). In the late
preschool years, children begin to
appreciate—and take pride in—the
language, traditions, foods, arts, literature, and other practices associated
with this identity. In a sense, as their
understanding of their cultural, ethnic, and racial membership expands, it
becomes incorporated into their sense
of who they are.
At the same time, preschoolers
become more interested in the beliefs,
behaviors, and lives of other people
who live in “faraway places.” Their
understanding of the geographical
vastness of the world expands in the
fourth and fifth years, and their interest in human diversity grows. The
result is fascination (and, at times,
amazement) with the appearance,
practices, languages, traditions, and
arts of people around the world. Preschoolers take an interest in the lives
of people who live nearby who are different from them—such as children
who look different from themselves,
who speak different languages, have
different abilities, and come from different socioeconomic and cultural
communities. As preschoolers understand the characteristics of their own
identity better, they become more
interested in people who are different
from them.
Preschoolers are quick to compare
and contrast others’ characteristics
with their own, of course, and readily prefer the characteristics of their
own group membership (Aboud 1988,
2003, 2008; Barbarin and Odom 2009;
Bigler and Liben 2007; Katz 2003;
Quintana 1998, 2007, 2008). Social
scientists call this behavior in-group
bias (terms in bold are defined in the
Glossary), which is apparent at age
four and increases as young children
reach ages five and six. There has
been some debate about whether an
in-group bias is as apparent in certain
groups of young children, about which
the evidence is mixed (see Quintana
2007, 2008). As young children consolidate their own sense of themselves
and the groups (e.g., gender, cultural,
racial) that are part of their identity,
they increasingly value characteristics
of the groups with which they identify.
Children who favor their own cultural,
ethnic, and racial group may seem to
be negative toward other groups; however, it primarily means that children
are more likely to favor people who
resemble them, whose characteristics
are more familiar and comfortable to
them (Aboud 2003; Quintana 2008).
This bias strengthens as children enter
the early primary grades and then
weakens with increasing age in the primary grades as children become more
interested in differences and more
comfortable with their own identity.
These findings have led to an interest in understanding why preferential
biases for one’s own culture, ethnicity,
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
23
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
24 | Bibliographic Notes
and race emerge in early childhood
and how to create more accepting
attitudes in preschoolers. Research
has focused on how children acquire
biases and stereotypes from their family members; some studies find that
by age five, children are familiar with
basic, concrete racial stereotypes
(Aboud 1988; Brown and Bigler 2005).
In addition, researchers have also
focused on how race and ethnicity are,
for young children, based on visible
physical characteristics that naturally
leads to the categorization of people
by race and, in turn, the assignment
of positive or negative characteristics
on the basis of this physical feature
(Hirschfeld 2008; Quintana 2008).
Young children may thus perceive
race as a core, essential quality of individuals that leads to many other characteristics and behaviors rather than
perceiving race as just one of many
differences between people (Hirschfeld
1996). Moreover, because many young
children have limited direct exposure
to people of different cultures, ethnicities, and races, lack of familiarity
tends to maintain—if not create—
positive in-group biases.
Therefore, a preschool with cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity
is a benefit to young children, especially if teachers purposefully draw
attention to and value this diversity in
their practices. Early childhood education programs that promote accepting attitudes toward cultural, ethnic,
and racial differences among young
children have focused on increasing
children’s exposure to the diversity of
local cultures, ethnicities, and races in
the community; improving perspective
taking and pro-social attitudes; and
changing the messages that children
receive from teachers and families (see,
for example, Barbarin and Odom 2009;
Bigler and Liben 2007). Although their
in-group bias has many developmental
origins, young children benefit substantially from an early childhood education setting where diversity is prized
and other people are appreciated for
their differences.
Relationships
Developing relationships with other
adults and children is one of the most
important challenges in an early childhood education program. In contrast
to family relationships, preschoolers
must exercise greater social skill to
develop and maintain relationships
with others in the program, which
stretches their capacities for social
interaction. This is especially true
for peer relationships, because other
preschoolers are much less generous
social partners than are most adults
(Rubin, Bukowski, and Parker 2006;
Rubin and others 2005).
During the period from ages three to
five, preschoolers make considerable
progress in their skills for developing
and maintaining satisfying relationships with teachers and peers (Berlin, Cassidy, and Appleyard 2008;
Dunn 1993; Hartup 1996; Howes and
Spieker 2008; Parker and Gottman
1989; Shonkoff and Phillips 2000).
The majority of older three-year-olds
have developed social skills for doing
so, including developing abilities to
engage in simple conversations, participate in shared activities, cooperate with requests or instructions, and
ask (adults) for help when needed.
The skills constitute a foundation for
developing friendships with one or two
peers and close relationships with one
or two special teachers whom the child
seeks for shared activity, assistance,
and acknowledgment of accomplishments. By the time children are at the
end of their fourth year, these skills
have expanded because the child has
advanced significantly in social understanding, particularly in the capacity
to view relationships as mutual and
reciprocal rather than one-sided.
The cognitive flexibility to appreciate that another person’s needs and
interests in a relationship must be
recognized enables five-year-olds to
develop relationships that are more
mutual, cooperative, and helpful. They
are more likely to suggest turn-taking
when more than one child wants to
use the same toy, to work together
with several children on a project, and
to spontaneously share paints, toys, or
food with another child or adult. Children of this age are more likely to show
an interest in the other child’s experiences or ask a teacher what she did
during the weekend (after the teacher
has inquired about the child’s weekend). They are also more likely to work
cooperatively for an extended period
with friends and special teachers,
although they may also seek to make
these relationships more exclusive
than do younger children. Exclusive
relationships may mean other children
who wish to join in will be rejected.
Children who are English learners or
who have disabilities may face special
challenges in the development of close
relationships with teachers and peers.
Trusting, secure relationships with
teachers—especially when teachers
speak the language of the child’s home
environment—can be especially important in helping English learners to feel
comfortable and welcome and to find
their place in the peer social environment. For children who have physical
disabilities, the teacher–child relation-
ship can be important to strengthening
self-confidence and negotiating relationships with peers (Thompson and
Thompson 2010).
The quality of young children’s relationships with early childhood education teachers and peers is important
to school readiness (Thompson 2002;
Thompson and Raikes 2007). Several
studies have reported that the warmth
and security of the preschool child’s
relationship with the teacher are predictive of the child’s subsequent academic performance, attentional skills,
and social competence in the kindergarten and primary-grades classroom
(Bowman, Donovan, and Burns 2001;
Lamb 1998; Peisner-Feinberg and others 2001; Pianta, Nimetz, and Bennett
1997).
Furthermore, the importance of
developing relationship skills is underscored by other findings that once children have entered school, the quality
of the teacher–child relationship and
the amount of conflict in that relationship are predictive of children’s poorer
academic performance and greater
behavior problems in the classroom,
sometimes years later (Birch and Ladd
1997; Hamre and Pianta 2001; La Paro
and Pianta 2000; Pianta, Steinberg,
and Rollins 1995; Pianta and Stuhlman 2004a, 2004b).
Other studies show that friendships with peers are important to a
child’s transition to school, as successful peer relationships contribute
to better school adjustment. Friendships at school cause kindergarten
and primary-grades children to look
forward to attending school, to have a
more positive classroom experience,
and to achieve more as students (Ladd,
Kochenderfer, and Coleman 1996,
1997; Ladd, Birch, and Buhs 1999).
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
Bibliographic Notes | 25
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
26 | Bibliographic Notes
Relationship skills are important to
both citizenship and school success.
Social Roles and Occupations
As their view of themselves and the
social world expands, preschoolers
become fascinated by the adult roles
(e.g., parent, grandparent, neighbor)
and occupations (e.g., teacher, firefighter, bus driver, doctor) with which
they are familiar (Edwards and Ramsey
1986). This greater interest develops
both from their expanding exploration of the world around them and
their interest in imagining the roles
they might assume when they grow
up. This interest can be observed most
readily in young children’s pretend
play—when they take on familiar adult
social roles (e.g., parent, police officer),
imagined adult roles (e.g., superhero,
princess), and other roles (e.g., child,
baby) in the context of the pretendplay scripts they create (Howes 1992).
But their interest in adult social roles
and occupations may also be observed
in their delight in taking a trip to the
fire station, watching a custodian work
on the plumbing, seeing the gardener
plant a shrub, or through other opportunities to directly observe an adult in
work-related activity.
Their developing understanding of
adult social roles and occupations
does not yet encompass, however, the
broader significance of these jobs.
More specifically, even five-year-olds
do not yet understand the connection
between adult work and family income:
that adults work in order to earn the
income by which the family lives.
Instead, preschoolers understand an
adult’s job as simply what that person
does, and this is differentiated from
how adults get money by going to a
bank (Berti and Bombi 1988; Burris
1983). Children have a limited understanding of the economy and perceive
financial matters primarily in terms of
the consumer, not the worker, and it
means that preschoolers are unlikely
to appreciate the work-related circumstances that can influence family
economic well-being, such as what
happens when an adult is unable to
work for a period of time, has reduced
hours, or experiences a furlough.
Becoming a Preschool
Community Member
(Civics)
Skills for Democratic Participation
For most preschoolers, the early
childhood education program is the
first social setting in which skills of citizenship can be learned, understood,
and practiced. This is where teachers
actively strive to involve children in
citizenship and democratic skills, such
as helping to create and support group
rules and expectations, group decision making (such as voting), valuing
the expression of opinions and respect
for others’ opinions, and understanding the importance of recognizing the
majority’s judgment but also respecting minority views. These are, of
course, the foundations of democratic
society in the everyday practices of the
preschool program.
For young children, participation as
a group citizen is challenging because
it requires several skills that are
emerging during this period: awareness of others’ feelings and desires and
the growing ability to coordinate others’ interests with one’s own; emerging
capacities for self-regulation and selfcontrol (especially when participating
in group activities that are not person-
ally interesting or desirable); memory
skills for recalling group rules and
expectations and spontaneously applying them to one’s own conduct; and
developing self-awareness that contributes to the young child’s self-identification as a group member and not just
as an individual. Fortunately, many
of these core capacities are developing significantly during the preschool
years (see Bronson 2000; Calkins and
Williford 2009; Harris 2006; Harter
1999, 2006; Thompson 2006; Thompson and Goodman 2009). By the end
of the fourth year and early in the fifth
year, young children understand others’ views and group expectations well
enough to be cooperative participants
as group members. By the end of the
fifth year, they are also capable of
being active contributors to democratic
processes.
Emerging “citizenship” involves participation in democratic processes,
which for preschoolers involves group
discussion, expressing and listening to
opinions, group decision making, and
abiding by the majority view while also
respecting minority interests. Citizenship skills are particularly challenging for young children who are still
learning the dominant language and
cultural practices of the preschool setting and may be at a disadvantage as
a result of language and a more limited sense of participation. Sometimes
lack of participation in the group is
due to linguistic and cultural barriers
more than disinterest, and teachers
can support emerging citizenship by
purposefully ensuring that each child’s
cultural and linguistic background is
valued.
The skills of group membership are
challenging for all young children,
whose emotional devotion to their
own preferences and emerging selfregulatory capacities may make it
difficult for them to attend carefully
to contrary viewpoints and accept a
majority decision that runs against
personal preferences. Teachers can
support these developing citizenship
skills by modeling these practices (e.g.,
acknowledging the value of an opinion
that is contrary to the teacher’s own),
enlisting children’s identification as a
group (e.g., describing the preschool
setting as “our” place), enlisting the
group in brainstorming and collective
problem solving, and acknowledging
the disappointment of not getting
one’s way (Edwards and Ramsey 1986;
Thompson and Twibell 2009). These
are important practices because for
young children, emerging citizenship
skills are learned through their guided
enactment rather than through
verbal instruction alone. In other
words, young children learn about a
democratic society by participating in
a democracy.
Responsible Conduct
Research on the development of
early responsible conduct in young
children has shown that preschoolers are motivated to act responsibly
for several reasons (Kochanska and
Thompson 1997; Thompson, Meyer,
and McGinley 2006). First, they
act cooperatively to earn an adult’s
approval, which is an early and strong
incentive for responsible conduct.
Striving for an adult’s praise and commendation is one reason that young
children seek an adult’s attention for
their good behavior. Second, they act
cooperatively because it contributes
to self-esteem and the sense of being
a “good” boy or girl and responsible
group member. Third, they act coop-
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eratively out of concern for others’ feelings and needs. This can be seen especially when young children act helpfully to someone who has been hurt or
needs assistance. Fourth, young children act cooperatively to avoid negative
consequences, such as disapproval
or failure to comply with an adult’s
instructions or rules.
Although cooperating to avoid disapproval and punishment has traditionally been emphasized in moral
development theories, new research
shows that the other incentives discussed above may influence young
children even more than commonly
believed. For example, two studies
have shown that early responsible conduct is more strongly influenced by a
mother’s comments about others’ feelings and needs than by the frequency
with which she warns about rules and
the consequences of breaking them
(Laible and Thompson 2000, 2002;
see also Kochanska and Thompson
1997; Thompson, Meyer, and McGinley 2006). The same is likely to be true
of the early childhood education program. When a teacher emphasizes the
impact of inappropriate conduct on
others and others’ feelings more than
the negative consequences of breaking
a rule, it provides a stronger foundation for helpful, constructive behavior
in the future.
The major obstacle to responsible
conduct in preschoolers is not egocentrism but limitations in their capacities for self-regulation, especially when
they are frustrated or upset. Fortunately, young children acquire greater
skills in managing their impulses, feelings, and behavior from three to five
years of age (see Calkins and Williford
2009; Thompson 1990, 1994). Young
children’s emerging capacities for
self-control can be enlisted to support
responsible conduct when teachers are
careful to ensure that their expectations for children are developmentally
appropriate; the program environment
is organized to reduce conflict (e.g.,
there are sufficient play materials for
children); and teachers help children
understand and remember group
expectations, put into words their
angry feelings, and help them devise
appropriate ways of resolving conflict
when they are frustrated (Edwards and
Ramsey 1986; Thompson and Twibell
2009). Children can also be helped by
external cues, such as pictures, drawings, and other means of prompting
desired behavior (Carta and others
2000).
Teachers should be especially sensitive to the frustration and impediments to self-regulation encountered
by children from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds, children
who have disabilities or other special
needs, or those who may not be able
to fully participate in the group for
other reasons. Difficult behavior may
be manifested because of these feelings
of being excluded more than from an
unwillingness to cooperate. Teachers
can be helpful by ensuring that these
children receive the support necessary
to be competent, participating members of the community.
Fairness and Respect
for Other People
By the age of three, children can
accurately interpret the feelings of
other people and can distinguish them
from their own feelings. Moreover, children of this age already have a basic
understanding of why others might
feel as they do (Denham 1998, 2006;
Harris 1989, 2006; Thompson 2006;
Thompson, Goodvin, and Meyer 2006;
Thompson and Lagattuta 2006). In
the years that follow, young children
build on this nonegocentric awareness
by learning how to respond appropriately to the feelings and needs of other
people. This can be challenging for
young children for two reasons. First,
they must figure out how to respond
in a way that is appropriate to what
another child feels or wants (e.g.,
“What will make Maria feel better right
now?”). Second, when another child’s
desires conflict with the child’s own—
such as when they both want to play
with the same train—they must figure out how to cooperate in a manner
that can satisfy both children. Each
of these skills is important to developing a sense of fairness and respect for
other people, and they are central to
developing social competence, especially with peers (Howes 1987, 1988).
Young children also begin to construct an understanding of standards
of conduct. Researchers have shown
that as young as age three, children
distinguish between two kinds of standards (Smetana 1981, 1985; Smetana
and Braeges 1990). The first are moral
standards that are based on young
children’s awareness of other people’s
feelings and needs. Moral standards
include simple prohibitions such as
that it is wrong to hurt others or steal
from another person. The second are
social conventional standards that
are intended to maintain social order.
Examples include expectations about
putting away toys in their proper
places, sitting in the right place for circle time, and cleaning up after meals.
By age four, young children under-
stand that moral rules are more serious because they are based on human
welfare (Thompson, Meyer, and McGinley 2006; Smetana 1981, 1985).
For children near their fourth birthday, an adult’s assistance is especially important in helping to clarify
another person’s feelings and needs
and determine how to respond appropriately. In doing so, teachers can put
the other person’s feelings and desires
into words and suggest how the child
might respond. Children nearer their
fifth birthday have greater knowledge
of people’s feelings. For this reason,
they are also more capable of providing
help and thinking of ways in which the
needs and interests of different people
can be cooperatively coordinated.
Conflict Resolution
Conflict with a peer or a teacher’s
request is a common preschool experience, but it also presents opportunities
for the development of social understanding. Nothing focuses a young
child’s mind on what another person
is thinking or feeling more than the
realization that conflict with that person must be resolved. The period of
three to five years of age is one of significant growth in conflict resolution
because preschoolers are advancing in
their understanding of others’ feelings,
intentions, and desires. Preschoolers
are developing the cognitive flexibility
to balance an awareness of another
person’s intentions with their own
desires (Fabes and Eisenberg 1992).
For three-year-olds, peer conflict is
likely to result in distress, physical aggression, or adult mediation or
assistance. By the fourth birthday,
these remain likely outcomes but are
supplemented by the young child’s
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developing capacity to bargain in simple ways, such as offering to comply
with a teacher’s request after the child
has finished a desired activity or to let
another child have a turn with a toy
after a few minutes. These bargaining
strategies reflect a dawning recognition of the other person’s desires or
needs and an effort to find a solution
that satisfies both the child and the
other person. This reflects a significant
advance in psychological understanding as well as growth in the capacity to
work cooperatively with other people.
By the end of the fifth year, the
child’s ability to understand another’s point of view has advanced further, enabling more sophisticated
approaches to conflict resolution that
result in satisfactory solutions for both
children. With peers and teachers,
these include negotiation and compromise in ways that recognize the other
person’s needs as well as the child’s
own. To be sure, older four- and fiveyear-olds are not likely to suggest good
solutions consistently (their proposals
for compromise are likely to be driven
by self-interest), and further negotiation is likely to be needed. Additionally,
a five-year-old’s conflict-resolution
skills do not mean that distress, physical aggression, verbal aggression, and
taunting may not also arise, especially
during conflict with peers. But the
capacity for negotiated conflict resolution means that children of this age
have a foundation of social understanding that teachers can rely on to
help children use compromise more
frequently in their encounters with
others. Children who have difficulty
expressing themselves in English may
need special teacher support in these
situations.
Sense of Time (History)
Understanding Past Events
The preschool years are a period
of major advance in young children’s understanding of past, present, and future and the association
between these events in time. As for
past events, children in their fourth
year can readily describe events in
the recent and distant past (such
as what they did yesterday or their
birthday party several weeks ago),
but this ability may cause adults to
overestimate children’s understanding of time sequences. For example,
children around 48 months have difficulty locating past events in relation
to one another, such as understanding
whether their last birthday preceded
the Fourth of July celebration or followed it if the two were close in time
or occurred long ago (Friedman 1991,
1992; Friedman, Gardner, and Zubin
1995; Friedman and Kemp 1998).
Young children’s memory of events is
not the continuous timeline that it is
for adults; instead, it consists of recollections of particular events that are
isolated “islands in time” that may not
be well connected to other past events
(Friedman 2005). Furthermore, young
children may also confuse events in
the recent past and the near future,
such as describing a Valentine’s Day
that has just passed as an event to
come (Friedman 2003). They also
have difficulty connecting past events
to present experience without adult
assistance.
Older preschoolers are somewhat
more skilled in locating past events in
relation to each other and in distinguishing how far in the past certain
events took place. In addition, they
have a better understanding of how
past events can influence the present, such as knowing how yesterday’s
birthday party can make someone feel
happy today (Povinelli 1995, 2001;
Povinelli, Landau, and Perilloux 1996;
Povinelli and others 1999; Povinelli
and Simon 1998). These skills provide
a foundation that helps young children
make connections between past events
and current feelings, beliefs, and skills
and also contribute to the growth of
autobiographical memory (discussed
later in relation to personal history).
Research studies show that young
children’s sense of time is strengthened when adults use predictable
routines that children can incorporate
into their mental “scripts” of everyday
events (e.g., Nelson 2001). Furthermore, research shows that conversations with adults—in which adults
help children understand the connections between past events and current
experience and remind children of
when those past events took place—
help young children develop these
skills (Fivush 2001; Nelson 2001).
There are also important cultural
differences in how narrative practices —that is, different ways of telling
stories, such as how much detail is
included or whether explanations are
provided—contribute to young children’s sense of the past, present, and
future. Some families emphasize linear time sequences (i.e., telling about
the first thing that happened, followed
by the second thing, followed by the
third thing, and so on). Others use
emotional cues (i.e., excitement, joy,
amazement, sadness, fear, or anger of
the characters in response to different parts of a story) as the connections
between different events in time. Still
others use different practices based
on cultural background (Aukrust and
Snow 1998; Leyva and others 2008;
Melzi and Caspe 2005). Narrative
practices are important because they
contribute to the development of young
children’s sense of time and cues used
for making connections between different events. Knowledge of these practices can be important for teachers in
their use of narrative stories and
shared recollection with young children.
Understanding of past events develops significantly after the preschool
years. Children become more skilled
at relating past events to each other
by using time markers (such as “last
fall” or “last Wednesday”) to help them
recall certain past events, understanding time sequences (e.g., a beach trip
probably occurred during the summer), and comprehending the typical
order of recurring events (e.g., Thanksgiving always comes before Christmas).
Older children and adults are also
aware that memories of recent events
are much more vivid and clear than
are memories of events from long ago.
This understanding also contributes to
proper sequencing. Taken together, a
variety of cognitive skills are involved
in understanding past events, and preschoolers are only beginning to acquire
those skills. For this reason, although
they are delighted to talk about past
events with an interested adult, they
may have a surprisingly limited sense
of the past.
Anticipating and Planning
Future Events
Thinking about future events is a
cognitive challenge for young children
because it requires imagining what
will happen in an uncertain future
(in contrast to past events, which are
real because they actually happened).
Despite this, children around 48
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months are able to describe what will
happen in the near future—later in the
day or tomorrow—especially when they
can predict on the basis of familiar,
well-established, daily routines. For
example, four-year-olds can describe
what will happen next in the daily
routine—cleanup and then snack
time—and also the events of the next
day when they are based on a familiar
routine (Busby and Suddendorf
2005). However, just as they have
difficulty sequencing events of the
past, four-year-olds also have difficulty
distinguishing events that will occur
soon from those that will occur later
and those that will occur in the distant
future.
At age five, children are more skilled
in sequencing and distinguishing
events (Friedman 2000, 2002, 2003).
Thus five-year-olds are beginning to
create an adultlike view of the future
that accurately distinguishes how soon
future events will happen. Children of
this age are also more capable of planning appropriately for future events,
such as anticipating the things needed
for a camping trip or for a visit to the
beach (Atance 2008; Atance and Jackson 2009; Atance and Meltzoff 2005;
Atance and O’Neill 2005; Fabricius
1988; Guajardo and Best 2000; Hudson, Shapiro, and Sosa 1995). In doing
so, they become more skilled at mentally putting themselves into the future
in order to anticipate what they will
need and to plan in the present.
Of course, those skills apply to
familiar events. When unfamiliar
events are concerned—such as the
first trip to the dentist—children rely
entirely on the adult’s description of
a new experience in anticipating what
it will be like. The adult’s portrayal of
that experience can influence young
children’s expectations of what will
occur.
Young children’s conversations with
adults are important in helping the
children anticipate and plan for future
events. Adults are important for helping young children understand the
time context in which future events
will occur (e.g., “four sleeps” before a
doctor’s appointment; “after your birthday”; until next Halloween), as well as
how to prepare for future events (Hudson 2002, 2006). Indeed, young children’s concepts of time depend on how
their understanding of future events is
structured through conversations with
family members who anticipate those
events. It is important to remember
again, however, that every family has
its own cultural practices, and those
unique practices may lead to different ways of recalling and anticipating
events in time (Gauvain 2004). For
example, in some cultures, children
have been socialized to plan with an
individual goal in mind; in other cultures, they plan a goal that is cooperatively shared. In addition, the everyday
activities of children with their families
and other caregivers contribute to children’s understanding of time. These
include the sequence of daily routines
in which certain events follow other
events (e.g., mealtime and then brushing teeth; story and then bedtime),
explicit references to clocks and calendars, and behaviors that anticipate
future events (e.g., getting out coats
when the weather turns cold) (Benson
1997).
Personal History
A sense of time is also characterized
by the awareness of one’s own growth
over time. For adults, this involves the
recognition of how one’s skills, knowl-
edge, and experience change over time
and how personal memories tell a life
story. For an adult, these memories
may consist of significant (e.g., graduating from school; first meeting a life
partner) and ordinary experiences
(e.g., an enjoyable baseball game with
a family member) that are remembered
because they are personally meaningful in some way. Autobiographical
memories and the awareness of one’s
own development combine to create a
sense of personal history.
Preschoolers are just at the beginning of creating a sense of personal
history. For older three- and fouryear-olds, a sense of personal history
consists primarily of their pleasure in
noticing the development of new skills
and abilities. Their pride in these new
accomplishments is reflected in their
efforts to draw the attention of adults
to their skills. The adult’s acknowledgment of these abilities, perhaps with
comments that the child could not
do them a few months earlier, helps
young children see how much they are
learning and growing.
Older four- and five-year-olds
are beginning to construct a more
expanded sense of their own past in
two ways. First, they often spontaneously compare their current abilities
with those of the past, such as telling the teacher that they can now do
things that they could not do when
they were little (Harter 1999, 2006;
Stipek and Mac Iver 1985). Their
spontaneous comparison of current
and past abilities contributes to older
preschoolers’ pride in their skills and
positive self-esteem. Second, five-yearolds are also beginning to construct
autobiographical memories of recent
personal experiences. These memories
are different from other kinds of recollections because the child is the central figure in these events and remembers them because they are personally
meaningful (Nelson and Fivush 2004).
Thus, even though young children may
share ordinary experiences—a trip to
the supermarket, playing with a new
pet—they are remembered and shared
with adults because the child has
found them meaningful.
Research on early autobiographical memory indicates, moreover, that
the process of sharing these memories
and discussing them with an adult
is important to how these events are
remembered (Farrant and Reese 2000;
Hudson 1990; Nelson and Fivush
2004; Reese 2002). In their response
to the child, adults ask questions that
help to deepen and expand children’s
recollections of these events. They also
help to organize the child’s memory of
what happened so the event becomes
more easily remembered in the future.
Adults also help children clarify their
own feelings and reactions to these
experiences in a manner that contributes to developing self-awareness.
Therefore, when adults take the time
to converse with young children about
the experiences that children want to
share, they contribute significantly to
the growth of autobiographical memory
and to the development of the child’s
sense of personal history.
Historical Changes in People
and the World
Anyone who spends time with preschoolers is likely to be impressed with
their interest in dinosaurs, knights,
castles, pirates, kings and princesses,
and other historical characters that
have been highlighted in stories, com-
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mercial products, and the media.
Young children enjoy learning about
these events of “long ago,” but their
historical sense is limited by an inability to place these events appropriately
within a broader historical timeline. Just as children have difficulty
sequencing events of their own past in
relation to each other (as noted above),
they have even greater difficulty understanding how events in the past are
sequenced on a longer timeline in
relation to each other (Barton and
Levstik 1996; Friedman 1992, 2003,
2005, 2007; Friedman and Kemp
1998; Levstik and Barton 1996).
By age four, children can distinguish events of the recent past (such
as last Halloween) from events of “long
ago” (such as when dinosaurs lived
and pioneers explored the country),
but they cannot place these events in
any consistent historical sequence.
Their confusion is increased by their
exposure to commercial media (such
as cartoons) that obscure historical
understanding through fictional reconstructions.
By age five, children begin to understand that there is a sequence of historical events on a timeline and start
to grasp where events occur on that
timeline. In a sense, young children’s
sense of history is like an accordion.
At first, every event that did not occur
recently took place “long ago,” and
subsequently children make a distinction between the “long ago” of dinosaurs and when their grandparents
were little children.
Later, as young children learn more
about events of the past, the accordion
expands as children better understand
the historical timeline in which events
occurred. Preschoolers are only at
the beginning of this developmental
process. It will be several years before
children become capable of creating
a mental historical timeline in which
these events and others can be accurately placed.
Four-year-olds readily distinguish
young from older people in their families and in the world at large. Older
four- and five-year-olds also become
interested in family history. They enjoy
hearing stories of when their family members were children, and what
the world was like when their grandparents were young, although their
perception that these were also events
that happened “long ago” can add to
their confusion (e.g., did Grandpa live
when the dinosaurs lived?). In contrast
to four-year-olds, five-year-olds not
only can distinguish younger and older
people, but also have a stronger interest in and understanding of family history. They readily grasp the different
ages of family members, understand
that life was different when grandparents were children, and begin to comprehend the family history that has
brought them to the present moment.
Although adults can contribute to clarifying children’s historical understanding, children work to comprehend
when all these events occurred in relation to each other until middle childhood, when they begin to create their
own mental timeline of events.
Sense of Place (Geography
and Ecology)
Navigating Familiar Locations
The “sense of place” that emerges
earliest for young children is their
experience of familiar locations, such
as their home, school, and the routes
connecting them. For young children,
familiar locations are limited to the
home, extended family, and other care
settings where children spend the most
time. As children mature through the
preschool years, their concept of place
expands to encompass the broader
communities in which they live: their
neighborhood, city, or rural region in
which they travel with their families. In
each case, children’s developing sense
of place is reflected in their capacities
to describe the characteristics of terrains with which they are familiar, and
to describe the associations between
locations and landmarks in these terrains. For a four-year-old, a home is
where one finds a bed, dresser, and
clothing and where one sleeps; a preschool setting is where one finds a
dress-up area, reading area, and a
place for circle time. For a five-yearold, this advancing understanding may
be manifested in the acknowledgment
that she lives in a community where
many children play soccer, there is
much rain, and people have to drive
long distances to reach places.
At the same time, young children are
developing a sense of relative location.
Four-year-olds are beginning to use
appropriate words to indicate directions in familiar locations, such as
over or in, but are not always helpful to
an uninitiated observer. Five-year-olds
are beginning to indicate the relative
distances between familiar locations
in the home community—for example,
a boy knowing that his grandmother’s
house is a long distance from home.
However, because young children
judge relative distances subjectively
(e.g., how long is the ride in the car or
bus to get to Grandma’s house?), these
general directional judgments may be
misleading.
Caring for the Natural World
Young children enjoy the natural world and learning about it, and
researchers and early educators have
studied children’s developing understanding of natural phenomena (e.g.,
Catling 2006; Kahn and Kellert 2002).
Beyond confirming young children’s
strong interest in the natural world,
research has highlighted several other
points.
First, an appreciation of ecology
and of human–environment interactions begins early. Young children
enjoy providing nurturance to plants
and animals and watching them grow,
especially when teachers help them
understand the connection between
feeding and watering and the health
and growth of a plant or a class pet.
This experience can also contribute
meaningfully to their sense of human
growth and development. Young children also gain early awareness of the
negative effects of human action on the
environment (Cohen and Horm-Wingerd 1993; Musser and Diamond 1999).
From an early age, young preschoolers
are aware of the hazards of pollution,
litter, and other forms of human harm,
but it is primarily in the fifth year
that they become capable of connecting their own actions (such as picking
up litter and recycling) to the broader
problems of environmental pollution
and diminishing resources.
Second, understanding the natural world is also based on a young
child’s direct experiences. A young
child growing up on a farm has much
more direct experience with domestic
and wild animals, open spaces, and
thunderstorms than does a child living in urban Los Angeles. Given the
importance of direct experience for a
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young preschooler’s interest in and
understanding of the natural world
(and the need for early childhood educators to build on that natural curiosity), the ways in which young children
learn about the natural world will vary
depending on the ecological context in
which each child lives. Many modern
commentators (e.g., Luov 2005) worry
about children growing up today in
urban settings and who lack experience with the natural world.
Third, as children mature cognitively
from ages three to five, their capacity
to understand natural phenomena that
are not part of their everyday experience expands (Gelman 2003). Opportunities for children to learn about the
natural world significantly increases as
children become interested in natural
environments (e.g., the Arctic, tropical
climates, or jungle settings) that are
different from their own and in aspects
of the biological world (from the microscopic to the cosmic) that they can
experience only indirectly.
Finally, young children develop an
intuitive understanding of the natural world that is sometimes consistent with adult understanding and
sometimes surprisingly unique (Coley,
Solomon, and Shafto 2002; Gelman
2003). For example, preschoolers have
a remarkably accurate appreciation of
biological inheritance—in other words,
that offspring inevitably resemble their
parents—and that babies grow up to
be like their biological parents regardless of how or with whom they are
raised. But preschoolers are uncertain
about whether adopted children will
most resemble their adoptive or biological parents. Preschoolers’ inability
to see the germs that cause infections
also confuse them about whether
germs are biological organisms or are
more like poisons. As these examples
illustrate, a young child’s remarkable
awareness of aspects of the natural
world can lead adults to overestimate the extent to which children’s
knowledge and reasoning is adultlike.
Sometimes it can be more helpful to
expand young children’s understanding by first asking children about what
they already know—or want to know—
about the natural world.
Understanding the Physical World
Through Drawings and Maps
Maps, globes, and other physical
representations are important means
by which young children can acquire
geographical understanding without
direct experience with the landscape.
Considerable research has been
devoted to understanding the development of children’s map-reading abilities (Liben 2006; National Research
Council 2006; Newcombe and Huttenlocher 2000). Not surprisingly, mapreading is a challenging skill, requiring
that young children understand how a
two-dimensional drawing corresponds
to a three-dimensional landscape, how
to interpret map symbols, and how to
locate themselves and other objects
according to the map. Even more challenging is learning how to use a map,
understanding how map symbols correspond to the real world in order to
facilitate problem solving (such as
identifying how to go from one location
to another). Surprisingly, by the age of
three, children understand how maps
refer to physical landscapes; by four,
they can interpret common objects
on the landscape, such as roads, rivers and lakes, and mountains. But
interpretation of map symbols is a
challenge because symbols commonly
combine meaningful (e.g., a line to rep-
resent a road) and arbitrary (e.g., the
color of the line) aspects that may be
confusing to young children (who may
expect the road also to be red). It is not
until middle childhood that children
are capable of appropriate interpretation of map symbols.
Older preschoolers enjoy creating
their own maps of familiar settings
and are also more skilled at using
maps to solve simple problems, such
as locating a hidden object in a room
on the basis of a map (Blades and
Cooke 2001; Blaut and others 2003;
Bluestein and Acredolo 1979). Solving
simple problems with maps requires
understanding not only how the map
refers to an actual landscape, but also
how distances on the small map translate in scale to larger distances in the
landscape. Although there is some evidence that five-year-olds can accomplish this with very simple maps, this
skill is not fully achieved until middle
childhood (Liben 2002; Liben and
Yekel 1996; Uttal 1996; Vasilyeva and
Huttenlocher 2004). Likewise, the
maps of familiar settings that children
create, such as representations of their
preschool program or homes, often
show inaccurate distances between
objects, suggesting that scaling is a
common problem in each instance
(Liben 2002). Even so, older preschoolers enjoy creating maps and models
(such as on a sand table) of real and
imagined landscapes as they exercise
their representational skills in understanding the physical world.
Marketplace (Economics)
Exchange
In today’s society, young children
are economic consumers from an early
age, primarily through their efforts
to convince adults to purchase goods
and services on their behalf that they
desire (commercial advertising readily enlists young children to do so). To
understand adult roles, relationships,
and responsibilities, however, children
need to go beyond the desire-based
role of a consumer. Many studies have
examined preschoolers’ knowledge of
economic concepts and reveal their
limited understanding of economic
exchange (Berti and Bombi 1981,
1988; Burris 1983; Jahoda 1979,
1981; Leiser 1983; Schug 1987; Schug
and Birkey 1985; Siegler and Thompson 1998; Thompson and Siegler
2000.) Older three-year-olds take pleasure in playing store or barbershop,
pretend activities in which money is
exchanged for goods or services.
But children of this age have little
understanding of why money functions
in this way, regarding it as a social
custom rather than as a means of economic exchange or a financial transaction based on value. Furthermore,
children of this age are still developing understanding about the relative
value of the coins with which they
are familiar, commonly intuiting that
nickels are of greater value than dimes
because they are larger.
By contrast, older four-year-olds
have a somewhat more sophisticated
economic understanding. They are
aware that bartering can sometimes
substitute for a monetary exchange,
such as when one person offers to
exchange an apple for a friend’s
orange. When playing store, children
in the role of cashiers can be observed
making change for a customer. Children of this age are also aware of how
pricing is associated with value. Prices
are higher for multiple goods (three
apples compared with one) and for
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
Bibliographic Notes | 37
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
38 | Bibliographic Notes
goods and services of greater value.
One study has also shown that fiveyear-olds are sensitive to how demand
can affect sales (Siegler and Thompson
1998). They realize, for example, that
children at a lemonade stand are likely
to sell more drinks on a hot day than
on a cold one. All of these emerging
economic concepts reflect the primarily
consumer-oriented economic thinking of a preschooler. The central focus
is toward the individual who wants
something and the economic transactions necessary to obtain it.
It is important to appreciate how
much is lacking in this economic
approach. During the primary grades,
children begin to comprehend many
economic concepts. In contrast, preschoolers have little or no appreciation, for example, of the influence of
the profit motive on the part of a seller
or that a merchant is interested in selling goods and services for more than
their cost to him or her. Preschool-
ers are unaware of the influence of
economic competition on prices or
of how competition can enable buyers to obtain goods and services at
lower prices. They are also unaware of
how pricing is affected by high or low
demand, high or low supply, or the
economic well-being of buyers. Indeed,
preschoolers’ economic naiveté leaves
them vulnerable to misunderstanding the nature of the market in which
they are consumers. They are likely
to believe, for example, that commercial advertisements function like public service announcements to ensure
that consumers are aware of desirable
products and that sellers perform a
valuable public service by enabling
buyers to obtain the goods and services they want. They are also likely
to be unaware of how a buyer’s (e.g.,
a family member) strategic shopping
may yield a better price for a product
(e.g., a toy) that the consumer (i.e., the
child) wants immediately.
Glossary
autobiographical memory. Memory of
personal events in one’s life.
bartering. Trading by exchanging things of
value rather than money.
civics. Study of the privileges and obligations of citizens.
consumer. A person who uses (and thus
may purchase) something of value, such
as an object or a service.
ecology. The field of biology concerned
with the relationship between organisms
(including humans) and the environment.
economic exchange. Giving one thing of
value for another thing of value, such
as giving money to a shopkeeper to purchase food.
in-group bias. The tendency of people to
prefer the characteristics of their own
group. In young children, this does not
necessarily mean that they are negative
toward other groups.
intuitive. Understanding something by
one’s own reasoning rather than by
learning from another.
mental “scripts.” Understanding of how
things happen in familiar routines, such
as what occurs when going to a restaurant, getting ready for bed, and so on.
moral standards. Expectations for behavior that are based on the needs and
welfare of people, such as not harming
another; they tend to be consistent in
different situations.
narrative practices. Activities shared
between people (such as a parent and
child) involving the use of language to
create a story or account, such as talking about a shared experience, storytelling, or reading a book.
natural phenomena. Things that can be
observed in the natural world, such as
plants and animals, the stars, sun and
moon, insects, and other objects and
events.
pro-social. Positive and cooperative; sharing with another child is an example of
pro-social behavior.
scale. The proportional relationship of a
unit on one area (such as a map) and
how it corresponds to a unit in the real
world that it represents. A map scale is
necessary for reading a map because
one must understand how distances on
the map correspond to distances in the
region that the map represents.
social conventional standards. Expectations for behavior that are based on
maintaining social order, such as sitting
in the right place for circle time; they
may differ depending on the context.
timeline. The linear sequence of events in
time. Children understand, for example,
that grandparents were born before parents were, or that George Washington
lived before Abraham Lincoln.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
39
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
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34 (1): 146–60.
Smetana, J. G. 1981. “Preschool Children’s Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.” Child Development 52 (4):
1333–36.
———. 1985. “Preschool Children’s Conceptions of Transgressions: The Effects
of Varying Moral and Conventional
Domain-Related Attributes.” Developmental Psychology 21 (1): 18–29.
Smetana, J. G., and J. L. Braeges. 1990.
“The Development of Toddler’s Moral
and Conventional Judgments.” MerrillPalmer Quarterly 36 (3): 329–46.
Stipek, D., and D. Mac Iver. 1985. “Developmental Change in Children’s Assessment of Intellectual Competence.”
Child Development 60:521–38.
Thompson, D. R., and R. S. Siegler. 2000.
“Buy Low, Sell High: The Development
of an Informal Theory of Economics.”
Child Development 71 (3): 660–77.
Thompson, J. E., and K. K. Twibell. 2009.
“Teaching Hearts and Minds in Early
Childhood Classrooms: Curriculum for
Social and Emotional Development.”
In Handbook of Child Development and
Early Education: Research to Practice,
edited by O. A. Barbarin and B. H.
Wasik, 199–222. New York: Guilford
Press.
Thompson, R. A. 1990. “Emotion and
Self-Regulation.” In Vol. 36 of Socioemotional Development (Nebraska Symposium on Motivation), edited by R. A.
Thompson, 383–483. Lincoln, NE:
University of Nebraska Press.
———. 1994. “Emotion Regulation: A
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Development of Emotion Regulation and
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Child Development 59 (2–3): 25–52
(Serial no. 240).
———. 1998. “Empathy and Its Origins in
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Ontogeny: A Source Book, edited by S.
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———. 2002. “The Roots of School Readiness in Social and Emotional Development.” The Kauffman Early Education
Exchange 1:8–29.
———. 2006. “The Development of the Person: Social Understanding, Relationships, Self, Conscience.” In Vol. 3 of
Handbook of Child Psychology: Social,
Emotional, and Personality Development, 6th ed., edited by W. Damon and
R. M. Lerner. N. Eisenberg (vol. eds.),
24–98. New York: Wiley.
Thompson, R. A., and M. Goodman. 2009.
“Development of Self, Relationships,
and Socioemotional Competence:
Foundations for Early School Success.”
In Handbook of Child Development and
Early Education: Research to Practice,
edited by O. A. Barbarin and B. H.
Wasik, 147–71. New York: Guilford
Press.
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Meyer. 2006. “Social Development:
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York: Guilford Press.
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“Feeling and Understanding: Early
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Relationship: The Development of
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J. Smetana, 267–97. Mahwah, NJ:
Erlbaum.
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“The Social and Emotional Foundations
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Children’s and Adults’ Reconstruction
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Early childhood education standards from
the following states were examined in the
preparation of these foundations: Florida,
Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Texas, and Washington.
HISTORY– SOCI AL SCIENCE
References and Source Materials | 47
FOUNDATIONS IN
Science
T
he study of science is about
finding out how the world
works. Young children, like
scientists, have a sense of wonder
and natural curiosity about objects
and events in their environment.
From infancy, they actively engage
in making sense of their world. They
build with blocks, move toy cars in
different ways, collect rocks, and
play with dirt, water, and sand. Children’s play and exploration have
much in common with the scientific
processes employed by scientists.
Through exploration and experimentation with objects and materials
in their home or preschool environment, children learn the properties
of objects: size, weight, shape, what
they are made of, their function, and
how they move. They discover what
different animals and plants look
like and how they live, grow, and
change over time. Everyday experiences provide children with many
opportunities to ask questions, to
make sense of what they observe,
and to build a coherent understanding of the world around them.
Developmental research indicates
that the majority of children are ready
to learn and reason about many of
the scientific concepts that naturally
48
capture their interest. From infancy,
they actively construct fundamental
concepts of the physical and biological world. Throughout the preschool
period, children develop scientific
concepts and gain knowledge about
objects and events in their everyday environment. By the time they
enter school, they have a rich body of
expectations and coherent sets of concepts about living things and physical objects (Spelke 1990; Baillargeon
1995; Gelman 2003; Inagaki and Hatano 2002; Bullock, Gelman, and Baillargeon 1982).
Children’s predisposition to learn
certain kinds of knowledge, and to
think abstractly about concepts from
biology and physics, support the early
learning of science and pave the way
for competence in early schooling.
Children’s natural inclination and ability to observe and try to understand
their world, to develop conceptual
knowledge, and to reason about many
scientific concepts make science an
excellent fit for the preschool environment. As such, there is growing recognition at the national level that science is appropriate and important for
preschool children (National Research
Council 1999, 2000, 2007).
Science in Preschool
Science in preschool is built on children’s natural curiosity and tendency
to actively explore, experiment, and
discover the nature of things in their
everyday life. It is not about a discrete
body of knowledge or a list of facts
presented to children. This approach
to preschool science is consistent
with a constructivist approach on
learning, in which children construct
knowledge and build theories by interacting with the environment rather
than passively taking in information (Chaille and Britain 2002). Science in the preschool years is about
children observing and investigating
objects and events in their environment. Through a planned, play-based,
supportive environment, they expand
their existing knowledge and experience of their everyday world. Science is
about providing children with the basic
skills of scientific inquiry, such as
observing and describing, comparing
and contrasting, classifying, experimenting and recording, and using the
scientific vocabulary associated with
these skills. Science in the preschool
years not only prepares children for
the scientific skills and knowledge they
will encounter in school, but also supports their development in different
domains, including social–emotional
development, language and literacy,
and mathematics.
Development of the Whole Child
(Science and Other Domains)
Science in preschool fosters a joy
of discovery and a positive approach
to learning. Making discoveries, identifying solutions, and trying to figure
things out develops children’s initiative
in learning and helps them become
self-confident learners. Science fosters
skills that are recognized as critical
for success in work and in life in the
twenty-first century: critical thinking,
problem solving, creativity, collaboration, and communication (Bellanca
and Brandt 2010). In scientific investigation, children become learners
who ask questions, solve problems,
propose new ways of doing things,
and make decisions based on reasoning. Science experiences also develop
children’s ability to interact with peers
and adults, share ideas, listen to others, and work cooperatively as competent group members—skills that are
important to many areas of learning
throughout life.
Early science experiences provide
authentic situations to learn and
use language and literacy skills.
Science activities are typically handson, providing multiple ways for young
children to make meaning of social
and verbal interactions and to build
language skills, vocabulary, and grammar. Scientific exploration exposes
young children to a variety of new
words in meaningful contexts, resulting in vocabulary gains (Brenneman,
Stevenson-Boyd, and Frede 2009;
French 2004). Although science is
important for all children, it is especially relevant to English learners and
many children with special needs, for
whom the development of new vocabulary and language skills in authentic
learning experiences is most effective. Conversations associated with
scientific inquiry tend to be rich in
language. Children develop both their
comprehension and expressive language skills as they make predictions
(“What will happen if?”), plan explorations, describe findings, and explain
their reasoning (e.g., “Why did it
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50
happen?”). They reason and talk about
future events and about past experiences. They also learn how to maintain
a coherent conversation, listen to others, and stay on topic (Conezio and
French 2002). Science provides many
opportunities for a variety of preliteracy and literacy experiences. Fiction
and nonfiction books about key science content ideas serve as a basis for
conversations with adults and peers.
Books also provide children with
excellent opportunities for building
vocabulary. Books with science content build on children’s natural curiosity to explore and learn and foster an
appreciation and enjoyment of reading. Documentation and recording of
information on charts, graphs, books,
and science journals also illustrates
for children the link between spoken
and written language and supports the
development of print concepts.
Scientific inquiry experiences also
provide children with opportunities
to practice mathematical skills in a
meaningful way and to use math as a
tool for discovery. Fundamental mathematics concepts such as comparing,
classifying, and measuring are important skills in scientific investigations
(Lind 1997). The natural integration
of mathematics and science begins in
preschool. Consider, for example, the
experience of observing and exploring the characteristics of a variety of
pumpkins. Children may investigate
and describe the pumpkins’ sizes,
weight, colors, shapes, and textures.
They may classify the pumpkins by
attributes; count the number in each
category of pumpkins; compare the
circumferences of two pumpkins by
using a piece of yarn or a measuring
tape (with adults’ assistance); compare
and contrast the inside and the out-
side of a pumpkin; order pumpkins by
size from smallest to largest; estimate
how many seeds are inside a pumpkin;
and try to count to find the number
of seeds. Such processes of observing
and exploring pumpkins involve fundamental mathematical concepts such
as number, shape, size, volume, and
weight and the application of different
mathematical skills, including counting, estimating, comparing, ordering,
measuring, and classifying. (More
about these mathematical skills can
be found in the California Preschool
Learning Foundations, Volume 1 [CDE
2008].)
The Preschool Foundations
for Science
The following section presents the
California preschool learning foundations for the domain of science. The
preschool science foundations are
organized in four strands: Scientific
Inquiry, Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, and Earth Sciences. The organization of the science foundations
is aligned with the Science Content
Standards for California Public Schools
(Kindergarten) and the National Science Education Content Standards
(National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment and
National Research Council 1996). The
first strand, Scientific Inquiry, is about
basic language and skills that are fundamental to the process of doing science. The other three strands focus
on scientific content: developmentally
appropriate core ideas and concepts
in the areas of physical sciences, life
sciences, and earth sciences. Within
each strand, the foundations describe
the knowledge and skills most children
who are typically developing demon-
strate at around 48 and 60 months of
age. The foundations are designed with
the assumption that scientific knowledge and skills are developed through
everyday interactions, activities, and
play that are part of a supportive preschool environment. The foundations
are illustrated by examples that put
the scientific skill or knowledge into
context. The examples illustrate the
manifestation of a scientific competency through the behavior and reasoning of a particular child or children.
As depicted by the examples, children
at around 60 months of age typically
demonstrate an increased ability in
scientific skills and understanding
compared with children of around 48
months of age. This increased ability at
around 60 months as compared with
the level at around 48 months may be
manifested in a variety of ways, including a more sophisticated understanding of some scientific concepts, more
frequent and more independent display of scientific inquiry, and an ability
to describe observations in greater
detail.
Individual, Cultural, and
Linguistic Variations
As stated in the National Science
Education Content Standards, “Science is for all students, regardless of
age, sex, cultural ethnic background,
disabilities, aspirations, or interest
and motivation in science” (National
Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment and National
Research Council 1996, 20). The goal
in developing the preschool foundations for science is to describe ageappropriate scientific skills and knowledge that are typically displayed by
preschool children under conditions
that support healthy development. The
foundations are meant to give teachers
a general idea of what can be expected
from children at around 48 and 60
months of age. The examples are
meant to illustrate the different ways
children may display their competencies; they are not assessment items
of age-appropriate development. Children are different from one another
and vary in their abilities, family and
socioeconomic background, home
experiences, and cultural heritage
and values. Therefore, they may vary
in the way they develop and display
the knowledge and skills described in
these foundations.
Children of comparable ages enter
preschool with various linguistic,
social, and cognitive skills. Some children may exhibit competencies that
go beyond the level described in a particular foundation, while others may
need more time to reach that level. The
amount and kind of support they need
varies from child to child. The application of these foundations requires the
teacher’s attention to the individual
characteristics of the child. Children
with disabilities or other special needs
may require adaptations and various
means of engagement and expression
of scientific knowledge suited to their
disability.
Children vary in their cultural backgrounds. As much as the development
of scientific concepts is universal and
salient in all cultures, cultural background may shape the development
of some scientific concepts. Research
indicates that the language to which
children are exposed and culturally shared belief systems may play a
role in children’s development of core
biological concepts and reasoning
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52
(Anggoro, Waxman, and Medin 2005;
Waxman and Medin 2006; Hatano
and others 1993). Some cultures,
for example, hold to a spiritual connection with nature, believing that
humans are to live in harmony with
nature rather than be in control of it.
(See the Bibliographic Notes for more
examples.) Understanding of biological
concepts is also mediated by children’s
everyday experiences with the natural
world. There are differences between
urban children and rural children in
the same society (Waxman, Medin,
and Ross 2007). Even a simple activity, such as caring for a goldfish, can
enhance aspects of urban children’s
biological thought (Inagaki 1990). It
is important that teachers be sensitive to and respectful of the cultural
backgrounds, home languages, family values, and everyday practices of
the children in their groups in the
application of the science foundations.
Teachers should consider the different
perspectives held by children, based
on children’s previous knowledge and
experiences, and build on them to provide effective scientific experiences.
Children in California are diverse
in terms of the languages they speak,
and many are English learners. They
learn about scientific concepts and
skills while acquiring English. The science foundations emphasize the role of
language and often rely on children’s
verbal abilities to describe their observations, make comparisons, record
information, and share findings and
explanations. However, children may
also communicate their knowledge and
skills nonverbally—through gestures,
facial expressions, and actions. Many
children who are English learners,
for example, pass through a period of
observation and listening before they
begin to express themselves in English. They still acquire knowledge and
understanding of scientific concepts
during this phase and may display
their understanding nonverbally or in
their home language.
Similarly, some children with special needs (e.g., children with speech
or language delay) may express themselves by using nonverbal means of
communication, through gestures,
drawings, and actions. Teachers
should be aware that when foundations or examples indicate verbal
expression, children might use any
means of communication (including
home language, Sign Language, and
communication devices) to display
their knowledge. Having an adult to
encourage, prompt, and scaffold the
use of expressive language, in English and in the child’s home language
whenever possible, would support the
child’s overall development of scientific knowledge. For further information about English learners, consult
the “Foundations in English-Language
Development” in Volume 1 of the California Preschool Learning Foundations
(CDE 2008).
Scientific Inquiry: The Skills
and Language of Science
A fundamental assumption that
guided the development of the preschool foundations for science is that
children should learn about the content of science through active inquiry.
Several national organizations, including the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (1993) and
the National Research Council (2007),
have reached a consensus about
the importance of offering to children experiences of scientific inquiry,
developing investigation skills, and
stimulating an interest in science (Lind
1999; Martin 2001). In experiences
of scientific inquiry, children actively
explore and develop knowledge and
understanding of scientific ideas. They
make observations, ask questions,
plan investigations, gather and interpret information, propose explanations, and communicate findings and
ideas. Although young children have
a natural tendency to explore their
environment, the processes and language of scientific inquiry allow them
to explore objects and events in a systematic way. The first strand in the
preschool science foundations, Scientific Inquiry, focuses on the skills and
language employed in the process of
scientific explorations.
The first substrand, Observation and
Investigation, focuses on children’s
ability to observe and investigate
objects and events in their everyday
environment. Scientific investigations
in the early years are largely based
on systematic observations. Children
use all their senses to gather information, and to construct meaning and
knowledge. To expand their observation, they may also use scientific tools
such as measurement or observation
tools, with the guidance of adults in
their environment. For example, when
observing a leaf, they may use a magnifying glass to observe the “lines”
more clearly or use a ruler (or unit
blocks) to measure its length. Through
observation, children begin to recognize and describe similarities and
differences between one object and
another. This is when they can start
to compare and contrast objects and
events and classify them based on different attributes. For example, a child
might separate all the “pointy” leaves
from all the round leaves or separate
the big leaves from the small ones.
Children may also investigate
objects and events by trying things to
see what happens. For instance, they
may investigate what happens to the
toy car when it rolls down ramps with
bumpy or smooth surfaces, test what
happens to plants placed in locations
with or without light, or test out their
ideas of how to use pipes to make
water go up and down in the water
table. They learn to make predictions
about changes in materials and objects
based on their intuitive knowledge or
past experience, and to test their predictions through observations or simple experiments. They can also make
inferences and draw conclusions based
on observable evidence, or based on
their knowledge of objects and events,
such as knowledge about categories of
objects or the cause-and-effect relationships in events. The foundations in
the first substrand include children’s
ability to ask questions, observe and
describe observations, use scientific
tools, compare and contrast, predict,
and make inferences.
Communicating: The Role
of Language in Scientific
Inquiry
The second substrand under Scientific Inquiry, Documentation and
Communication, is about processes
and skills employed to document and
record observations and to communicate ideas and explanations to others.
Integral to the development of scientific inquiry skills is children’s ability
to use language and specific terms to
describe their observations, plan explorations, and communicate findings,
explanations, and ideas to others. Language allows children to become aware
of their thoughts and to express them
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54
in words (oral, written, or signed).
Children who are English learners may
have an understanding of the scientific
concepts being explored, but they have
not yet acquired the English vocabulary to describe their observations and
express their thoughts. Observation
and investigation experiences provide
ideal opportunities to expose all children, including English learners, to
new words and scientific vocabulary in
English and in their home language,
whenever possible.
Children learn new content words
in meaningful contexts (Conezio and
French 2002). They readily acquire
vocabulary, such as new nouns, to
describe what they are observing
(e.g., seeds, fins, nest, worms), and
adjectives to describe and compare
the properties and characteristics
of objects (e.g., transparent, heavier,
sticky, longer). They learn the vocabulary associated with the scientific concepts they investigate. For example, in
learning about plants, they may learn
words such as stem, roots, soil, dirt,
buds, and petals. Similarly, in learning about habitats of animals in their
natural area, they may learn words
such as nest, ocean, or shelter. Children also learn terms to refer to scientific procedures such as observe, measure, predict, experiment, and discover.
The teacher models the use of such
words across a variety of settings, and
children gradually begin to use these
words while engaged in inquiry (e.g.,
“I predict . . .,” “Let me check,” “I discovered seeds inside.”) (Gelman and
Brenneman 2004; Gelman and others
2010). Scientific experiences also provide children with the context for using
language and building communication
skills, important aspects of language
development for all children, includ-
ing English learners and children with
special needs.
The use of language extends and
enriches scientific experiences and
reinforces the growth of science
content knowledge (Gelman and
Brenneman 2004; Eshach 2006;
Michaels, Shouse, and Schweingruber
2008). Interactions with adults and
peers are crucial for the development
of scientific ideas. The meaning of concepts is co-constructed—drawn from
both adult and child language—with
adults providing heavy scaffolding to
facilitate the construction of knowledge
and modeling language for the child.
Children use language when they
engage in conversations to share their
findings and explanations and compare their own thinking with that of
others. Furthermore, when co-creating
scientific meaning, children learn that
there is often more than one possible
answer and that even their teacher
may be unsure of the answer to the
question under investigation. Research
indicates that with adult guidance,
three- and four-year-old children can
engage in complex discussions involving observation, prediction, and explanation (Peterson and French 2008).
Such discussions clarify children’s
ideas and develop their understanding
of scientific phenomena (Jones, Lake,
and Lin 2008). More important, guided
discussion can foster children’s attitude of inquiry and their willingness to
share and discuss findings. Exposing
children to “science talk” helps them to
establish a pattern of “scientific conversations,” which may assist in developing patterns of “scientific thinking”
(Eshach 2006, 14).
In scientific explorations, children
use different forms of communication to record and document infor-
mation, from oral, signed, or written
language (with adults’ assistance) to
drawings, photos, graphs, charts, logs,
and maps. Documentation is helpful for facilitating the communication
skills of children. Recording in journals provides opportunities for children to express their ideas in words,
and an adult can transcribe, whether
in English or in the child’s home language, what children have to say. For
example, children can use drawings
and words to document the growth of
their plant over time or the transformation of a caterpillar to a butterfly.
The use of different forms of documentation is particularly helpful for facilitating the communication of children
who are English learners and children
with special needs. Children then have
multiple ways to process information
and express their ideas. Documenting
information not only facilitates children’s understanding of the concepts
they learn, but it also provides a tool
for communication. Children, guided
by adults, can refer to their records at
different times—for example, while discussing and sharing their observations
and thoughts with others.
Scientific Knowledge: The
Content of Science in Preschool
Another central assumption that
guided the preparation of these foundations is that scientific content in
preschool should be based on children’s existing intuitive knowledge
and interests related to science and on
concepts children can explore directly
in their everyday environment. Preschool children are predisposed to
learn about different topics in science.
From a very young age, children
have intuitive ideas or naïve (folk)
theories about physics and biology
(National Research Council 2000,
2007; Spelke 1990; Baillargeon 1995;
Gelman 2003; Inagaki and Hatano
2002; Bullock, Gelman, and Baillargeon 1982). For example, they have
a natural inclination and capacity
to learn abstract concepts such as
growth and motion. It is therefore
reasonable to take advantage of children’s predispositions and to base the
content of preschool science on what
children already know so that children can build on and expand their
existing knowledge and understanding (National Research Council 2000,
2007; Gelman and Brenneman 2004;
Gelman and others 2010). The content
covered in the preschool science foundations includes core scientific ideas
and concepts that, based on research,
are developmentally appropriate for
young children.
The foundations in each of the three
strands (Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, and Earth Sciences) are organized around two unifying concepts in
science: properties and characteristics
of objects and change. The first substrand is about observing and exploring the properties and characteristics
of objects: properties and characteristics of nonliving objects and materials (Physical Sciences), of living things
(Life Sciences), and of earth materials
and objects (Earth Sciences). Children
investigate the inside and outside of
objects, the physical properties (e.g.,
size, weight, shape, color, texture), the
functions, and behaviors. In discovering the properties and characteristics
of objects around them, children begin
to recognize similarities and differences
among objects and to categorize them
based on different characteristics.
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56
The second substrand, or unifying concept, across the three strands
of scientific content is change. Most
things in nature are in the process of
becoming different, or changing. All
living things change over time through
stages of the life cycle as they grow
and develop, reproduce, and die.
Changes occur in properties of materials (e.g., when solid materials are
mixed with liquids) and in states of
matter (e.g., from solids to liquids).
Changes also occur in the position
and motion of objects as objects are
pushed, pulled, rolled, or dropped.
Weather changes cause changes in
the environment. According to Piaget,
“knowledge develops through learning
how objects move, how they change
position and shape, and how they
change in relation to themselves and
other objects” (cited in Chaille and
Britain 2002, 70).
Young children can notice, observe,
and reason about some changes in
objects and events. The second substrand in each of the three content
strands is about change: changes in
nonliving objects and materials (Physical Sciences), changes in living things
(Life Sciences), and changes in the
earth (Earth Sciences). The remainder of this chapter summarizes some
of children’s key early competencies
in the areas of Physical Sciences, Life
Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Bibliographic notes at the end of this section
offer references to the research informing this chapter.
Physical Sciences: Early
Concepts in Physics
The foundations in Physical Sciences
are about investigating characteristics and physical properties of objects
and materials, changes in objects and
materials, and the motion of objects.
Beyond the core list of foundations,
young children can also investigate
other concepts in physical sciences—
for example, concepts related to sound
as well as to light and shadows. At a
very young age, children have a coherent set of concepts about the physical
world. Piaget’s theory of how physical knowledge is constructed emphasizes children’s natural interest in
examining objects, acting on them,
and observing the object’s reactions
(Kamii and DeVries 1993). Through
exploratory interactions with objects
and adult guidance and support,
young children learn about the physical properties of objects (size, shape,
weight, texture, sound, flexibility, and
rigidity) and the language to describe
objects and their properties. They also
explore different materials (solid and
nonsolid substances) such as sand,
milk, and play dough and learn about
their inherent properties. Young children have distinct concepts about size
and weight and learn words (heavier,
smaller, and larger ) to describe and
compare these parameters. They
understand weight mostly in terms of
“felt weight,” how heavy an object feels.
Four- and five-year-olds also develop
the concept of kinds of material (glass,
plastic, wood, paper) and can distinguish between the identity of the
objects (a cup), the materials objects
are made of (plastic, glass), and parts
of objects (Smith, Carey, and Wiser
1985).
Preschool children can also reason
about changes and transformations
of objects and materials. Some transformations involve the rearrangement of existing parts and structures
to produce a new structure, such as
when building with wooden blocks,
57
things move—an effective way to
expand the vocabulary of all children,
including English learners.
Life Sciences: Early Concepts
in Biology
The foundations in Life Sciences
are about core concepts related to
properties and characteristics of living
things and their growth and change
over time. The foundations focus on
children’s ability to actively explore,
observe, and study the characteristics
of animals and plants in the everyday
environment, including appearances
(insides and outsides), body parts,
behaviors, habitats, and the changes
and growth of living things over time.
One basic and important understanding of the biological and physical world is the distinction between
animate objects (animals, people) and
inanimate objects (nonliving objects
and plants). Young children can distinguish between animate and inanimate
objects on the basis of appearance,
the capacity for independent action
(such as walking or sitting), and the
experience of psychological states
(the ability to remember, feel happy,
or express fear) (Gelman, Spelke, and
Meck 1983). Children also differentiate between animals and inanimate
objects on the basis of the insides.
They expect animate objects to have
blood and bones on the inside and
inanimate objects to have materials,
such as wood, cotton, and mechanical
parts (Gelman 1990). They understand
that animate objects have internal
properties that enable them to move
on their own and that inanimate
objects cannot move themselves but
must be propelled into action by an
external force (Massey and Gelman
1988).
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play dough, and other construction
materials. Other kinds of transformations involve changes in substance
or consistency usually by combining
and mixing materials, such as sand,
dirt, water, paint, or the ingredients in
cooking activities. Preschoolers know
that objects cut into pieces are no longer the same kind of objects but are
still the same materials (Smith, Carey,
and Wiser 1985). A paper cup cut into
pieces is no longer a paper cup, but
it is still the same material. They also
appreciate that a substance such as
sugar continues to exist even after it
has become invisible upon dissolving
in water (Au 1994).
One immediate and visible way in
which children interact with the physical world involves the movement of
objects. Children’s play involves the
movement of their own body and of
other objects in their environment.
Throwing balls, pushing toy cars, rolling wheeled toys, and riding bikes are
experiences in which preschool children produce movement by their own
actions. Through such experiences,
children discover the relationship
between objects’ physical properties
(weight, size) and objects’ motion and
gain critical feedback about causeand-effect relationships involved in
everyday physics. They know that
physical objects have to contact other
objects to set them in motion and that
physical effects require the transmission of force. For example, they can
reason about the kind of mechanism
(such as pulling, pushing, or rolling)
that may or may not produce a certain
outcome. In describing and reasoning about such experiences, children
also learn the vocabulary to describe
the speed, the direction, and the ways
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58
Young children have intuition about
the essential properties of living objects
and can distinguish them from nonliving objects (Gelman 2003). Children’s
intuitive understanding of living things
is affected by their day-to-day experiences with the natural world and the
cultural beliefs in their communities
(Waxman and Medin 2006, 2007). The
Bibliographic Notes expand on current
research about cultural differences
in children’s reasoning about biological concepts. In general, by the age of
five, children begin to grasp the commonalities between animals and plants
despite the differences in appearance
(Inagaki and Hatano 1996). They
recognize that both animals and
plants, but not artifacts, can grow
and increase in size over time, heal
through regrowth when damaged, and
die (Rosengren and others 1991; Hickling and Gelman 1995; Backscheider,
Shatz, and Gelman 1993; Nguyen and
Gelman 2002).
Children as young as three years
old expect animals to change over time
due to growth (get bigger, not smaller)
and understand that living things
undergo changes. By age five, children realize that animals can undergo
metamorphosis (from a caterpillar to a
butterfly) (Rosengren and others 1991).
Children also recognize the nature of
plant growth and the innate potential
of seeds and understand some aspects
of the life cycle of plants (Hickling and
Gelman 1995). By four and a half years
of age, for example, children claim
that a seed taken out of an apple and
planted will grow into an apple tree
(Gelman and Wellman 1991).
Growth and taking in food or water
constitute the core of young children’s
concept of living things (Ingaki and
Hatano 2002). From a young age,
they associate growth of plants and
animals with feeding or watering.
They expect events such as growth
or metamorphosis to have inherent
internal causes outside human
control. For example, they associate
the growth of plants with natural
processes, such as sunshine and rain
(Hickling and Gelman 1995; Gelman
2003). By studying and comparing
the needs of different animals and
plants, children begin to realize that
some needs (e.g., food, water, air) are
basic to all living things and develop
a greater understanding of the basic
needs of living things—namely,
humans, animals, and plants.
Earth Sciences: Early Concepts
Related to Earth
The foundations in Earth Sciences
are about actively exploring and investigating characteristics and physical
properties of earth materials in the
immediate environment and about
observing and describing changes in
the earth, including the movement
and apparent changes of natural
objects in the sky (e.g., sun, moon) and
changes in the seasons and weather
by using weather-related vocabulary
(e.g., sunny, cloudy, rainy, windy). The
Earth Sciences strand also includes a
foundation about preserving the earth
and children’s awareness of the importance of caring for and respecting the
environment.
Children have daily contact with
many aspects of the earth—its soil,
rocks, air and water, objects in the sky
(such as the sun and the moon), and
experiences of weather changes. Daily
interactions and direct contact with
objects and events in nature allow
children to observe and explore the
properties of earth materials and patterns of change in the world around
them. For example, young children
study the weather and seasonal
changes in the environment, explore
different kinds of soil and rocks, experiment with water, and track patterns of
movement and change of the sun and
the moon (Worth and Grollman 2003).
Children’s direct contact with the
natural environment enhances their
connection to nature and constitutes
an essential and critical dimension of
healthy development (Kellert 2002). It
also helps to raise their awareness of
issues related to the care and protection of their own environment (Cohen
and Horm-Wingerd 1993; Paprotna
1998).
Preschool children can notice,
observe, and describe day/night,
weather, and seasonal changes but
are not ready to grasp scientific
explanations for such earth phenomena. Research indicates that young
children of different cultures start with
a similar concept of the earth—one
Summary Table of Science Foundations
Strand
Substrand
1.0
Observation and Investigation
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.0
Documentation and Communication
2.1
2.2
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of
Nonliving Objects and Materials
1.1
2.0
Changes in Nonliving Objects and
Materials
1.1
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Living
Things
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.0
Changes in Living Things
2.1
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Earth
Materials and Objects
1.1
2.0
Changes in the Earth
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Scientific Inquiry
Physical Sciences
Life Sciences
Earth Sciences
Foundation
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59
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60
that is in conflict with current scientific theories. They initially believe that
the world is flat (not a sphere). From a
development perspective, the appropriateness of activities for young children
that focus on learning about planets
in space is highly questionable. Preschool children are not ready to grasp
the idea that the earth spins around
or that the earth moves around the
sun (Kampeza 2006; Nussbaum and
Novak 1976; Nussbaum 1979; Sneider
and Pulos 1983). Therefore they cannot intuitively reason about everyday
phenomena such as the day-and-night
cycle and causes of weather. Nevertheless, observing and talking about day/
night and seasonal changes form a
foundation on which a more advanced
concept of earth is developed in later
years.
61
Scientific Inquiry
Observation and Investigation
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Demonstrate curiosity and raise
simple questions about objects and
events in their environment.
1.1 Demonstrate curiosity and an
increased ability to raise questions
about objects and events in their
environment.
Examples
Examples
z Wondering why the toy car does not roll down
the ramp, picks up the car and discovers that it is
missing one wheel.
z When playing in the block area, creates a sloped
ramp with blocks and rolls different toy cars
down the ramp. Checks which car goes the farthest when rolling down the ramp.
z When building with blocks, puts more and more
blocks on top to find out how tall the tower can
get without falling apart.
z Participates in preparing play dough, and asks,
“How did it turn blue?”
z Sees a snail and wonders, Why is it hiding inside?
When is it coming out?
z A child who is nonverbal gestures to his friend to
join in observing how the guinea pigs (the class
pets) eat their food. He points, on his communication board, to the photo of a child eating and then
points to the guinea pigs.
z During lunchtime, mixes her sour cream with
applesauce, and notices that sour cream changes
its color. Then tries it out to find out what it tastes
like.
z Picks up small “roly poly” bugs from under a rock
and asks, “Why do they roll up in a ball?”
z While digging in the mud, sees a worm and wonders, Does it live in the ground? I see another
one. Is it their home? Another child observes the
worm and asks, “Why does the worm not have
eyes? How does it see to move?”
z On the playground, looks up and asks the
teacher, “How come I can see the moon in the
daytime?”
z Observes a ladybug in the yard and asks what
would happen if she put it in a box with dirt and
grass. Asks, “Can it be our class pet?”
z While sorting different rocks, picks up one of the
rocks and washes it with soap and water. Then
gets the magnifying glass to observe it more
closely.
z On a nature walk in the preschool yard, notices
holes in the ground, points to the holes and calls
out to get the teacher’s attention, and asks,
“What’s there?”
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1.0
62 | Scientific Inquiry
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1.0
Observation and Investigation (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.2 Observe1 objects and events in the
environment and describe them.
1.2 Observe objects and events in the
environment and describe them in
greater detail.
Examples
Examples
z Observes the inside and outside of a pumpkin by
using different senses and describes how it looks,
smells, and feels. Communicates to a bilingual
assistant, “It has many seeds. It is soft inside.”
z Observes a sweet potato growing in a jar, indicates the buds and roots, and may also communicate, “There are white roots going down and
small leaves.” Takes a photograph of the sweet
potato, with the teacher’s assistance, to document its growth.
z Observes a cylinder rolling down the slide and
communicates, “Look, how fast it is rolling. Let
me try it again.”
z Tastes a piece of red apple and a piece of green
apple and describes what they taste like.
z A child with a visual impairment touches the
bark of a tree and communicates, “It feels a little
scratchy when I touch the bark.”
z After dropping different balls onto the floor, listens
to and compares the different sounds they make.
Indicates which ball makes a loud sound and
which ball makes a soft sound.
z On a walk around the neighborhood or schoolyard, squats down to smell some blooming flowers and tells a another child, “It smells so good!”
z Observes a quilt she brought from home and
describes the different fabrics of the squares
(e.g., silk, flannel, corduroy) and textures
(e.g., soft, furry, rough, smooth).
z On a rainy day, participates in observing rain by
using all senses and describes what the raindrops look like and how they feel, sound, smell,
and taste. Records her observations through
drawings and dictations in her journal.
z While exploring a rain stick, shakes it and listens
to the sound it makes. Children share their observations: “I can hear something inside, like beans
or small rocks”; “It sounds like rain”; “It looks
like a long stick”; “It is made of wood”; “It has a
drawing on it with many colors.”
z A child with visual impairments manipulates seashells on the sand table and describes what she
touches: “It’s bumpy and round,” or “It’s smooth
and flat.”
z Observing a snail closely, describes it: “It is hard
like a rock. Its body looks very soft.” Another
child comments, “It moves very, very slowly. It
has two long pointy things (antennas) sticking
out.”
z A child with a speech delay draws a picture of
the praying mantis inside the terrarium. When
describing her drawing to the teacher, the child
attempts to use words and points to her drawing
and to the praying mantis. The teacher models
words and the child nods her head yes and says,
“praying mantis.”
z Observes the caterpillar (or a picture of a caterpillar) closely and draws a picture of a caterpillar
in her journal. Communicates, “It has stripes—
yellow, white, and black—like a pattern.”
1. Other related scientific processes, such as classifying, ordering, and measuring, are addressed in the foundations
for mathematics.
Scientific Inquiry | 63
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.3 Begin to identify and use, with adult
support, some observation and
measurement tools.
1.3 Identify and use a greater variety
of observation and measurement
tools. May spontaneously use an
appropriate tool, though may still
need adult support.
Examples
Examples
z While exploring, studying, or examining leaves,
uses a magnifying glass, with the teacher’s assistance, to observe a leaf closely.
z Asks for a magnifying glass to observe a worm
more closely and communicates, “I need the
magnifying glass to look very close.”
z In a soil investigation, a child with a disability uses
an adaptive shovel to collect soil in the yard.
z Fascinated with the growth of her green beans,
a child points to the ruler and says to her teacher,
“I want to see how big it is.”
z Before going on a nature walk, the teacher
handed children some observation tools. One
child points to her hand lenses and tweezers and
communicates, “We are going to look for very
small creatures.”
z Refers to the measuring tape and shares with his
teacher that his father also uses the measuring
tape at home.
z Using a measuring cup, helps the teacher measure two cups of flour during a cooking activity.
z While observing ants with a magnifier, says, “Look
how big the seed is. It is bigger than the ant.”
z While investigating worms, a child with a physical
disability uses hand lenses fitted with a bigger
grip to observe worms closely.
z Uses tweezers to group small things found in soil.
z While preparing dough, child uses a measuring
cup to pour one cup of flour.
z Uses an eyedropper to add a few drops of food
color to a mixture of glue and water.
z Uses a balance scale to find out which apple is
heavier and gestures to the lower pan of the scale
to indicate it is heavier.
z In the block area, child stacks blocks to his
height and counts the blocks to measure his
height.
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1.0 Observation and Investigation (continued)
64 | Scientific Inquiry
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1.0 Observation and Investigation (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.4 Compare and contrast objects
and events and begin to describe
similarities and differences.
1.4 Compare and contrast objects and
events and describe similarities and
differences in greater detail.
Examples
Examples
z Observes rocks and sorts them by size, indicating
which are big and which are small.
z Observes plants in pots and communicates, “This
one (indicating the one watered) is bigger, and the
leaves are green. But this one did not grow. The
leaves are yellow and soft. It looks dead.”
z Using different senses, observes a watermelon,
contrasts the inside and outside, and communicates: “The outside is green and hard, and the
inside is red and soft.”
z When trying to roll different objects down the
slide, demonstrates that the ball can roll down,
but the block slides and does not roll.
z Sees images in a picture book and describes
her observation: “Frogs are green, and toads are
brown.”
z Demonstrates how the truck is very slow and the
yellow car is very fast.
z Compares a hummingbird egg to a chicken egg
(while observing pictures or actual objects) and
describes their similarities: “They are round and
white and look the same.”
z A child with a speech delay dips his fingers in
cups of water and indicates which cup has colder
water.
z While eating a tangerine during snack time, comments, “This tangerine doesn’t have seeds. One
time I ate a tangerine, and it had so many seeds.”
z Observes different kinds of squash by using sight
and touch and communicates similarities and
differences: “These are more round, but this is
long. This squash is yellow and green and is very
smooth, but that one feels bumpy.”
z Contrasts the objects that can roll down a ramp
(e.g., balls, marbles, wheeled toys, cans) with
objects that cannot roll down (a shovel, block,
book). For example, refers to objects that can roll
down and communicates, “These are round and
have wheels.”
z Contrasts a butterfly with a caterpillar (while
observing pictures or actual objects); for example,
communicates that the butterfly can fly and the
caterpillar cannot and that the butterfly has a different shape and different colors.
z Observes and describes what the sky looks like
on a foggy day and how it is different on a sunny
day.
z Compares creases in the palm of his hand to a
leaf and communicates, “They both have stripes
all over. Some lines are tiny, and some are long,
like this one.”
z When working in the garden, uses a real shovel
and describes how it is similar to or different from
the toy shovel in the sandbox area.
z Uses a piece of yarn to find out, with adult assistance, which of two pumpkins is larger.
Scientific Inquiry | 65
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.5 Make predictions and check them,
with adult support, through concrete
experiences.
1.5 Demonstrates an increased
ability to make predictions and
check them (e.g., may make more
complex predictions, offer ways to
test predictions, and discuss why
predictions were correct or incorrect).
Examples
Examples
z Explores an apple and makes a prediction:
“Maybe it has six seeds inside.” After the teacher
cuts it open, counts the seeds.
z After planting sunflower seeds, communicates,
“The seeds will grow, and there will be sunflowers.” Then, observes the plant daily for changes.
z When asked to predict, “What will happen if we
mix the water with red,” points to a cup with red
liquid. Then tests his prediction by adding food
color to a glass of water.
z In response to the question “What do you think
will happen if water is added to the flour?” predicts, “The flour will feel sticky and will not look
like flour anymore. The water and the flour will
mix together.” Another child suggests, “Let’s pour
some water and see what happens.”
z Looks through the window on a windy day and
predicts, “More leaves will fall down.”
z A child makes a prediction about how far the toy
car will travel down the ramp by indicating the
distance with a gesture. Then he pushes the car
down to test his prediction.
z Predicts that the dark green object has “gooey
stuff” inside.
z Predicts that the worm will move if it is touched.
The teacher replies, “Let’s touch the worm gently
and see what it does.”
z Cuts open a tomato (which, by scientific definition, is considered a fruit), observes what it looks
like inside and comments, “I thought there would
be no seeds inside the tomato, but now I see tiny
seeds inside.”
z At the sandbox, child predicts that if sand is
poured over the spinning wheel, the wheel will
spin, communicating: “It also turned when I
poured water on it.”
z After making a prediction about which block is
heavier, uses the balance scale to test her prediction.
z While participating in an experiment to test the
effect of sunlight on plants, predicts, “The plant
near the window will grow, and the plant in the
closet will die.”
z As part of investigating different seeds, observes
a coconut, and makes predictions about what
is inside. Then says, “Now let’s crack it and see
what’s inside. Let’s taste it.”
z Brings an object to the water table and predicts
whether it will sink or float. Then puts the object in
water and observes what happens. Comments to
his friend, “Yes, I knew it! It is floating.”
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1.0 Observation and Investigation (continued)
66 | Scientific Inquiry
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1.0 Observation and Investigation (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.6 Make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence.
1.6 Demonstrate an increased ability
to make inferences and form
generalizations based on evidence.
Examples
Examples
z Looks outside the window and observes the trees
moving. Infers that it is windy outside: “Look at
the trees, it is windy!”
z Observes many different fruits and vegetables and
communicates that fruits have seeds and vegetables do not.
z Notices that a plant is wilted and says that it
needs some water.
z Observing the toy cars going down the ramp,
infers that they go down fastest when the ramp is
smooth.
z Observes that the soil outside is wet and communicates, “It rained last night.”
z Observes the pet rabbit eating and communicates,” It must be very hungry.”
z Walks into the room, smells the aroma of muffins
from the kitchen, and says, “Mmm, did someone
make muffins?”
z Observes plants in highly lit and dimly lit locations
in the room and communicates that plants need
light to grow.
z Observes a picture of an unfamiliar animal.
Notices the wings and communicates, “It is a bird.
I know it, because it has wings.”
z Observes a picture of a child dressed in a jacket, a
scarf, mittens, and a hat and communicates that it
must have been very cold outside.
Scientific Inquiry | 67
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Record observations or findings in
various ways, with adult assistance,
including pictures, words (dictated to
adults), charts, journals, models, and
photos.
2.1 Record information more regularly
and in greater detail in various ways,
with adult assistance, including
pictures, words (dictated to adults),
charts, journals, models, photos, or
by tallying and graphing information.
Examples
Examples
z “Records” in her journal what the pumpkin looks
like on the inside and draws an orange oval with
many dots inside. The teacher writes down the
child’s observation in the home language: “It is
soft inside and has lots of seeds.”
z “Records” in his journal, by gluing photos of the
lima beans before they sprouted and after sprouting, how they grew. Describes the growth of lima
beans.
z Observes the weather and records on a group
chart, using picture cards, whether it is sunny,
rainy, or windy outside.
z In collaboration with friends, creates a collage
with rocks and leaves collected during a walk
around the yard or neighborhood, and refers to
it when describing the items collected on their
walk.
z Refers to a photo of herself when she was a baby
when talking about how much she grew.
z A child who is nonverbal records, on a flannelboard with flannel cutouts representing different
food items, the kinds of food he ate for snack at
group time.
z Observes some silkworms raised in the classroom terrarium and comments, “They are always
on the leaves!” Draws a picture of the silkworm
and the leaf in her journal.
z Collects information by using tally marks to find
out how many children have pets and how many
do not have pets.
z After observing the sky, records in her journal
what the moon looked like by drawing a picture of
the moon in the shape of a banana. Describes her
drawing, and the teacher writes down her words.
z After coming back from a walk in the neighborhood, creates with other children a model of a
building they observed, using different materials
such as boxes of different sizes, paper rolls, and
plastic bottles.
z A child with a physical disability draws a picture
of the leaf she observed, using a thick or adapted
crayon, and dictates a description to the teacher:
“The leaf has a little cut in it. It has a lot of lines.”
z After an investigation of fruits and vegetables,
records on a chart with other children which
foods have seeds inside and which ones do not.
They glue pictures of different fruits on one side of
the paper and pictures of vegetables on the back.
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2.0 Documentation and Communication
68
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2.0 Documentation and Communication (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.2 Share findings and explanations,
which may be correct or incorrect,
with or without adult prompting.
2.2 Share findings and explanations,
which may be correct or incorrect,
more spontaneously and with greater
detail.
Examples
Examples
z Building a tower with blocks, explains, “First I put
the big blocks and then the small blocks. Now it
does not fall.”
z While mixing colors near the art table, explains
that green resulted from mixing blue and yellow.
z A child with a language delay points to a big puddle in the yard, looks up to the sky and explains,
“Rain.”
z Records the growth of a plant in the garden, and
communicates, “The plant grew from a seed, just
like the flower in the story.”
z Explains that the truck goes really fast because
it has big wheels, even though it is an incorrect
explanation.
z Explains that soap is needed to make bubbles.
z When asked, “What happened to the water?”
explains, “It is hard now because we put it in the
freezer.”
z Explains that a plant turned brown because
“we did not put it near the window like the other
plant.”
z When talking about what is needed in order to
grow, communicates, “We need food. The food
goes into the stomach and then it makes us
strong and helps our body to grow.”
z When talking with children about why they think
some things slid faster and others slower when
letting go of them at the top of the slide, children
come up with different explanations: “It got stuck
because it is heavy,” “It is slippery,” “It is bumpy,”
“It has wheels.”
z Observing the leaves and twigs on the ground,
explains that the wind was strong and blew all the
leaves and twigs down.
z When asked whether a puppet can eat, explains,
“A puppet cannot eat because it does not have a
real mouth. You can draw him a mouth, but it is
not real like this” (points to own mouth).
69
Physical Sciences
Properties and Characteristics of Nonliving Objects
and Materials
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Observe, investigate, and identify
the characteristics and physical
properties of objects and of solid
and nonsolid materials (size, weight,
shape, color, texture, and sound).
1.1 Demonstrate increased ability to
observe, investigate, and describe in
greater detail the characteristics and
physical properties of objects, and
of solid and nonsolid materials (size,
weight, shape, color, texture, and
sound).
Examples
Examples
z Tries to push a toy car through a maze and
realizes that the car is too big and cannot go
through. Gets a smaller car and tries again.
z Plays a game in which she describes characteristics of an object she has brought from home, and
the group guesses what object is in the bag. For
example, communicates, “It is round, it is shiny,
you can play with it.”
z Holds a wood block and a foam block. Refers to
the wood block when asked which one is heavier.
z While making a maraca, discovers that filling it
with sand makes a softer sound and filling it up
with pebbles makes a louder sound.
z Builds a cave with assorted blocks and communicates, “You need to put the cardboard blocks
first. They are bigger.”
z Playfully discovers what sinks and what floats.
For example, puts a leaf in the water and communicates, “The leaf is not going down.”
z Balances a tower made of empty milk cartons
and wooden blocks. Uses the milk cartons
on top and the wooden blocks on the bottom
“because these are more strong.”
z Participates in making a collage using materials
of different textures (sandpaper, paper cloth, ribbons, rocks, sand, feathers) and describes each
material: “The sandpaper feels rough, but the
ribbon feels smooth.”
z Digs in the sandbox and communicates, “The
sand is hot over there, but here it is cold.”
z Connects several clear tubes near the water
table and gets excited when discovering how
to manipulate the tubes to make the water flow
faster.
z Explains, after preparing applesauce, that applesauce tastes like an apple, but it looks very
different: “It is soft, and you have to eat it with a
spoon.”
z Uses a balance scale to find out which of two
balls is heavier.
z Observes two different xylophones by using her
senses (sight, hearing, touch) and describes the
similarities and differences: “This one is made of
wood and is more heavy,” “They sound different,”
“This one is more loud,” “This one has many
colors, and this one does not.”
z Blows with a straw on different objects such as
a pencil, a piece of paper, a ball, a feather, and
a leaf and tries to make them move. With assistance, records which objects moved and which
did not by gluing pictures of the objects on a
large piece of paper.
z Tests and sorts objects (e.g., wood blocks,
paper, clear plastic cups, aluminum foil) based on
whether they are opaque or transparent. Gestures
to the teacher and demonstrates how she can
see through a plastic cup, “I can see you.” The
teacher replies, “You can see through the cup.
The plastic cup is transparent.”
z During a cooking activity, explores sugar, flour,
salt, powdered gelatin, or cornstarch by using the
senses (touch, smell, and taste). Children communicate their observations: “All of them are white,”
“The flour is very soft,” “The sugar looks more like
salt, but it tastes sweet.”
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1.0
70 | Physical Sciences
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Nonliving Objects and Materials (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
Examples
Examples
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z Working with clay, notices its similarities to play
dough and communicates, “It is soft, and you
can make different things with it just like with play
dough, but you have to press it harder with your
fingers.”
z After participating in making orange juice and
lemonade, describes what each juice tastes like
and participates in a discussion, guided by the
teacher, of how the orange juice and lemonade
are similar or different. After listening to the story
of the three little pigs, holds a piece of straw,
stick, and brick, and says, “The wolf can’t blow
the brick house down because it is stronger.”
Physical Sciences | 71
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Demonstrate awareness that objects
and materials can change; explore
and describe changes in objects and
materials (rearrangement of parts;
change in color, shape, texture,
temperature).
2.1 Demonstrate an increased awareness that objects and materials can
change in various ways. Explore and
describe in greater detail changes in
objects and materials (rearrangement
of parts; change in color, shape,
texture, form, and temperature).
Examples
Examples
z At a painting easel, mixes red paint and yellow
paint and communicates to her friend, “Look, it
turned orange.”
z While participating in making pancakes,
describes what happens when the flour, milk,
and eggs are all mixed together, commenting,
“Let’s add more milk and see what happens.”
z Comments on changes from cream to butter after
shaking cream in a jar: “Look, it’s a ball.”
z Participates in making guacamole and demonstrates how she can make it soft by pressing and
mixing the avocado with a fork.
z Notices that the ice in the cup melted into water.
Puts his fingers in the water, and gestures to the
teacher to come over and feel the water.
z Notices how paper soaked in water changes: “It
gets very mushy.” “It breaks when I lift it up.” His
friend squeezes the soaked paper and communicates, “Look, the water comes out.”
z A child comments, “Yeah . . . bubbles,” after the
teacher added soap to the water table. The child
points to the soap and communicates, “Put more
soap. Pleeease! I want more bubbles.”
z While playing with clay, communicates to her
friend, “Let’s smooth it first and make a pancake”
and begins flattening the clay with the palms of
her hand. Her friend pokes holes in it, using her
finger, and then makes it flat again.
z While playing with blue and yellow play dough,
observes that the mixture became green and
communicates, “Hey, teacher, I made green.”
z While making lemonade, mixes water with lemon
juice and makes a prediction about how it is
going to taste.
z While experimenting with water, discovers that
water “soaks in” when poured on a piece of
sponge or paper towel, but not when poured on
a plastic plate.
z Records in her journal how the ice in the bowl
melted: “I touched it with my finger, and it was
very cold and very hard.” The teacher asks,
“What happened to the ice after lunch was
over?” The child describes her drawing: “The ice
was very small, and there was water in the bowl.”
The teacher writes the child’s words down and
rephrases the child’s description: “Yes, the ice
has melted.”
z Notices that the play dough became hard and
communicates, “Because we left it out all night.”
z In response to a question of what will happen if
blue powder is added to water, children predict,
“The water will turn blue,” “The water and the
paint will mix together, and it will be blue paint.”
Another child suggests, “Let’s pour some paint in
the water and see what happens.”
z Constructs an airplane by using pipe cleaners
and communicates to his friend, “I made an airplane, but now I am going to make something
else.” The child converts it into a spaceship by
tweaking and bending the pipe cleaners and
rearranging their configuration.
z After putting different-color crayons on top of a
hot plate, the teacher has asked, “What do you
think might happen?” Children predict, “It will get
burned, it will get hot, and then they will mix.”
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in Nonliving Objects and Materials
72 | Physical Sciences
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in Nonliving Objects and Materials (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.2 Observe and describe the motion of
objects (in terms of speed, direction,
the ways things move), and explore
the effect of own actions (e.g.,
pushing pulling, rolling, dropping)
on making objects move.
2.2 Demonstrate an increased ability
to observe and describe in greater
detail the motion of objects (in terms
of speed, direction, the ways things
move), and to explore the effect
of own actions on the motion of
objects, including changes in speed
and direction.
Examples
Examples
z While playing bowling in the yard, demonstrates
to his friend, how to roll the ball hard to get it to
the end.
z While rolling balls down the slide, refers to the
steeper slide and communicates in the home
language: “This one is faster. Look how fast this
ball rolls down.”
z Directs a small toy boat on the water table and
pushes harder, on bumping into obstacles, “to
make it go over the bumps.”
z Excitedly comes up with the idea of using the
wagon to move a stack of blocks. Puts the blocks
in a wagon and pulls the wagon from one area of
the yard to another.
z Makes a prediction about where the toy truck will
stop after rolling down the ramp.
z Blows through a straw on a Ping-Pong ball and
discovers that it makes the ball move.
z Plays with a train and describes how it moves:
“It starts here and goes round and round like this.
And then comes back.”
z A child with a new wheelchair demonstrates to
her peers how she uses the ramp to go up and
down instead of using the stairs.
z Understands the effect of peddling a tricycle
faster and says, “Look, teacher. Watch me go
faster. I push the pedals harder.”
z While playing with toy cars, notices that it is
easier to move them on the floor and communicates to his friend, “Let’s move over there. Cars
go faster than on the carpet.”
z Observes a toy train going slowly on the tracks
and tries different ways to make it go faster; for
example, empties one of the cars or removes
some of the cars.
z After throwing the ball again, communicates to
the teacher, “Now I threw it even more far. Let’s
measure how far.” They measure the distance
between the child and the ball and record it on a
chart.
z Observes a feather falling and describes, “It falls
down very slowly. It does not fall straight down.
It goes from side to side until it drops.”
z A child in a new wheelchair discovers that it is
more difficult to roll on a carpet than on the floor
and that he cannot roll on sand: “If I roll into the
sand, I’ll get stuck.”
z Places two toy cars at the top of a ramp and
releases them at the same time. Observes which
one reaches the bottom first.
73
Life Sciences
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Identify characteristics of a variety
of animals and plants, including
appearance (inside and outside) and
behavior, and begin to categorize
them.
1.1 Identify characteristics of a greater
variety of animals and plants and
demonstrate an increased ability
to categorize them.
Examples
Examples
z After cutting open a variety of fruits and discovering seeds inside, begins to recognize that fruits
have seeds. When asked to predict what is inside
an apricot, a child points to a seed and says
“seed.”
z Sorts fruits, such as mangoes, avocados, apples,
grapes, peaches, and apricots, based on whether
they have one seed or many seeds inside. Points
to the avocado and apricot and says in the home
language, “Look! They both have one big seed.”
z Observes a squirrel climbing up the tree and
notices that it has a long tail.
z During circle time, shares that one night they saw
opossums in their yard.
z On a nature walk in the neighborhood or schoolyard, identifies short plants and tall plants. A child
who is an English learner points to or indicates a
eucalyptus tree nearby and communicates, “Big
tree.”
z Observes and identifies the characteristics of a
ladybug (e.g., its shape, size, colors, and how it
moves) and shares observations with others when
prompted by the teacher: “The ladybug is round
and has tiny legs. It has black dots.”
z When observing and identifying characteristics
of a ladybug, a child comments, “The ladybug is
very small.” The child records in his journal his
observation of the ladybug by drawing a picture
of what it looks like. The child may dictate his
observation to an adult.
z Observes plants and identifies the different parts
(e.g., root, stem, buds, leaves).
z Looks at an informational book and identifies
which animals can fly.
z Sorts leaves, making piles of pointed and
rounded leaf shapes, and communicates, “These
are circle leaves, and these are pointy.”
z Explores a variety of seeds and sorts them by
size. Communicates, “These seeds are big, and
these are very tiny.”
z Observes a cactus and tells a friend, “They have
needles. I got poked once.”
z While observing images of a variety of ducks on
the computer, recognizes that ducks come in different colors.
z Contrasts butterflies with moths and communicates that butterflies are more colorful and have
bigger wings.
z When talking about plant roots that we eat, one
child says, “potatoes,” another says, “taros,” and
another says, “yams.”
SCIENCE
1.0Properties and Characteristics of Living Things 74 | Life Sciences
SCIENCE
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Living Things (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.2 Begin to indicate knowledge of body
parts and processes (e.g., eating,
sleeping, breathing, walking) in
humans and other animals.2
1.2 Indicate greater knowledge of body
parts and processes (e.g., eating,
sleeping, breathing, walking) in
humans and other animals.
Examples
Examples
z After lunch, indicates his tummy and communicates, “I ate so much. My stomach is full.”
z When using a stethoscope in the dramatic play
area, tells another child, “Look, when I breathe,
my chest goes in and out.”
z Describes how his new sibling “sleeps all the time
because he is still a baby.”
z Points to his head, and communicates in the
home language, “My brain helps me think.”
z Touches her hand and presses on her skin when
asked if she can feel her bones.
z Points to a picture of an elephant in a book and
tells another child, “Big poop! ’Cause they eat so
much!”
z Makes the connection between facial parts and
senses (eyes for vision, ears for hearing). For
example, covers her eyes and says, “Now I cannot see.”
z After running, touches his chest to feel his heart
beating.
z Explains that when the caterpillar eats, the food
goes to its stomach, and it poops.
z After a discussion about body parts, rides the
bicycle and communicates, “I am using the muscles in my arms and my legs.”
z Participates in a discussion about the outside and
inside of the body. Touches his arms and communicates, “I can feel my skin, and inside my body I
can feel my muscles and bones.”
z When asked, what is inside the body of the hen,
predicts that there is blood, bones, and a heart
inside.
z After a physical activity, sits back in her chair and
says, “I jumped so much. I feel my heart.”
z Explains, “We can walk with our legs, and birds fly
with their wings.”
2. The knowledge of body parts is also addressed in the California Preschool Foundations (Volume 2) for health. In science, it also
includes the knowledge of body processes. Knowledge of body parts is extended to those of humans and other animals.
Life Sciences | 75
Properties and Characteristics of Living Things (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.3 Identify the habitats of people and
familiar animals and plants in the
environment and begin to realize that
living things have habitats in different
environments.
1.3 Recognize that living things have
habitats in different environments
suited to their unique needs.
Examples
Examples
z Carefully digs in the mud, excitedly looking for
worms or bugs.
z Shares that on his trip to visit his grandma,
who lives in the desert, he saw many cactuses.
Explains, “The cactuses live in the desert.”
z While playing in the yard, observes a squirrel
climbing up the tree and communicates, “I saw a
squirrel in my yard. It lives in a tree.”
z On a walk around the neighborhood or schoolyard, the teacher directs the child’s attention to a
bird nest. The child comments, “A bird lives there.
Where is the bird?”
z After the rain, picks up a stick and stirs a puddle
to look for worms. Explains, “I know they live
there because one time I saw worms coming out.”
z Participates in building a nest. Using tweezers,
collects twigs and leaves in the yard: “Just like
birds use their beaks.”
z Draws a picture of her home and describes who
lives in it: “Grandma, dad, mom, and me.”
z Explains that she lives in an apartment, but her
aunt lives in a house.
z While looking at a picture book of different animals, demonstrates with his body how the fish
and the dolphins swim in the ocean.
z Observes a spider in its web and explains, “The
spider has a web so it can catch food.”
z A child who is visually impaired holds a worm and
says, “Where is the dirt? I want to put him back.”
z On a neighborhood walk, children come across a
hole in the ground. Although one child attempts
to step on it, another child says, “Don’t step on it.
A gopher lives there.”
z Sorts photos of animals according to those living
in water, those living on land, and those who can
live in both the water and on the land.
z A teacher who just returned from a nature trip
shares photos of his experiences. In one of the
photos, he is standing next to a pond. The children ask, “Did you see frogs?” “Were there any
fish?”
z In the course of a conversation about the habitats
of different animals, child says, “The sea lion lives
in the ocean, and the bear lives in a cave.”
SCIENCE
1.0
76 | Life Sciences
SCIENCE
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Living Things (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.4 Indicate knowledge of the difference
between animate objects (animals,
people) and inanimate objects. For
example, expect animate objects
to initiate movement and to have
different insides than inanimate
objects.
1.4 Indicate knowledge of the difference
between animate and inanimate
objects, providing greater detail, and
recognize that living things (humans,
animals, and plants) undergo
biological processes such as growth,
illness, healing, and dying.
Examples
Examples
z While in the yard, points to a ladybug and tells his
friend, “It is a real one! Look, it’s moving.”
z Communicates, “This roly-poly is alive. It looks
like a little ball when I hold it in my hand, but when
I put it on the ground it starts moving.”
z Does not expect his toy puppy to move around.
When asked, explains, “It doesn’t have real legs.”
z Communicates, “It won’t hurt you, teacher; it’s
not real,” while wiggling a wooden snake at
teacher’s leg.
z Communicates that a toy cat cannot eat because
“it is not real” and explains, “It has soft stuff
inside.”
z While observing a snail, communicates, “It only
looks like a rock, but it has a head and can
move.”
z Puts a toy fish in a bowl of water and communicates, “It does not swim in the water like this fish
(points to the one in the aquarium) because it is
not real.”
z Communicates, “My puppy is going to get big,
but this one (showing toy) won’t.”
z Shares with his teacher, “My puppy is sick. We
took him to the vet to check his heart and bones,
and the doctor gave him medicine.”
z When asked whether the toy rabbit can actually
run, replies, “This rabbit is just a pretend rabbit. It
can’t really run.”
z After listening to a story, explains,” Of course this
story is not real, because trees can’t really talk
and walk.”
z While playing in the yard, a child hits a bush and
a flower falls off. The child communicates, “It will
grow again.”
z Holds a broken doll and communicates, “We need
to fix it.” However, for a living thing, may communicate, “My friend broke his arm. He has to wear a
cast for a lot of days, until his bone gets better.”
z Communicates, “I had a goldfish, but one day it
got very sick and died.”
Life Sciences | 77
Changes in Living Things
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Observe and explore growth and
changes in humans, animals,
and plants and demonstrate an
understanding that living things
change over time in size and in other
capacities as they grow.
2.1 Observe and explore growth in
humans, animals, and plants
and demonstrate an increased
understanding that living things
change as they grow and go through
transformations related to the life
cycle (for example, from a caterpillar
to butterfly).
Examples
Examples
z Records in his journal, with adult assistance, a
footprint. Compares it to a footprint from three
months ago and communicates, “I am four. I have
bigger feet now.”
z Draws in her journal a picture of her plant and
communicates to her teacher, “These are the
seeds inside, and then they grew, and we saw the
little leaves, and then the leaves grew more.”
z Observes the beans she is growing and makes a
prediction about how tall they will grow.
z Observes tadpoles closely and communicates,
“They are so much bigger now. Later the legs will
come out. They will be frogs.”
z Communicates, “Teacher, I’m big now. I can turn
on the light.”
z Looks at a picture book and explains, “This is the
horsey when it was a baby, and then it grew and
became this big (indicating a picture of a bigger
horse).”
z Communicates, “My baby brother had no teeth,
but now he has teeth.”
z Holds a baby shirt she has brought from home,
and compares it with the shirt she is wearing,
indicating how much she has grown.
z Fascinated by how the silkworms spun their
cocoons, asks, “How do they turn into cocoons?”
z While singing and acting a song about “growth,”
pretends she is a plant and demonstrates with
her body how the little seed grew into a seedling,
and the seedling grew into a tree.
z After planting the sunflower seeds, makes a prediction: “The seeds will grow, and there will be
sunflowers.”
z Fascinated with the growth of the larvae (caterpillar) in the room, comments, “Oh, these are bigger.
Maybe we should give the small ones more food.”
z Looks at the picture book The Tiny Seed and
retells the story in his home language and some
English, referring to pictures and describing how
the seed grew into a plant.
z Sees a picture of a Canada goose hatching eggs
and asks, “How long does it take for the little
geese to come out?”
z Shows the group his baby photos he has brought
from home and describes how he has grown and
changed.
z While observing a tub of silkworms, exclaims,
“Look, one of the worms molted” while pointing
at the silkworm’s molted skin shell.
SCIENCE
2.0
78 | Life Sciences
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in Living Things (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.2 Recognize that animals and plants
require care and begin to associate
feeding and watering with the growth
of humans, animals, and plants.
2.2 Develop a greater understanding
of the basic needs of humans,
animals, and plants (e.g., food,
water, sunshine, shelter).
Examples
Examples
z While working in the garden, notices the dry soil
and tries to water the flowers.
z In an experiment with plants, children describe
their observations: “The plants near the window
grew, but the plants with no light became yellow.”
z Collects grass and flowers in a cup. The teacher
questions, “What will you do with your grass and
flowers?” The child replies, “It is for my ladybug.
It eats grass and flowers.”
z Observes the plant in the room and communicates, “We need to water it, so it grows bigger.”
z Communicates, “We need to eat breakfast to be
strong and grow.”
z Helps take care of the class pet. While observing
the class hamster, notices the food tray is empty
and says, “Teacher, she needs some food!”
z Communicates, “My baby sister was very little,
but now she is big because she eats cereal.”
z Refers to a storybook and explains that the caterpillar ate a lot of leaves and became a butterfly.
z Feeds the class pet fish, with adult assistance,
and explains, “We give special food just for fish
but not too much.”
z When planting bean seeds, the teacher asks,
“What is needed for them to grow?” A child
responds, “If you water it, it’s going to grow
more.” Another child says, “They need soil.”
z Shares with his friends, “When we went to visit
my aunt, someone came to my house every day
to give my cat water and food, so he wouldn’t be
hungry.”
z After the rain, comments, “The plants must be so
happy to drink so much rain.”
z After the butterflies have come out of the chrysalises, spontaneously discusses with other children
plans to release the butterflies.
z Helps his teacher add more soil to the potted
plant and communicates, “It needs soil for food,
and that’s how it grows.”
79
Earth Sciences
Properties and Characteristics of Earth Materials and Objects
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1 Investigate characteristics (size,
weight, shape, color, texture) of earth
materials such as sand, rocks, soil,
water, and air.
1.1 Demonstrate increased ability
to investigate and compare characteristics (size, weight, shape, color,
texture) of earth materials such as
sand, rocks, soil, water, and air.
Examples
Examples
z Observes different rocks collected on a nature
walk (using the senses of sight and touch). Sorts
out all the smooth rocks.
z Pours water on sand and compares the dry sand
with the wet sand (e.g., “The wet sand sticks
together”). Demonstrates how to make a cake
with wet sand by filling up the bucket and then
turning it over.
z Plays with rocks and discovers that she can use a
rock to draw on a sidewalk.
z Fills a bucket with soil and comments, “We need
water to make it more squishy.”
z While playing in the sandbox, pours sand into
a bottle and communicates to his friend in his
home language, “I can fill up the bottle with sand
all the way up.”
z While outside, observes a windmill spinning.
Responds, “I can feel the wind. The air is pushing
it.”
z A child who is visually impaired holds different
rocks and communicates, “This one feels really
smooth, but this one is not very smooth.”
z Uses a magnifying glass to observe sand and
communicates, “I can see many tiny pieces.”
z Explains that sand and water are needed to make
a sand castle.
z Pours water in the sandbox to form craters, lakes,
and dams.
z Investigates the surfaces of different rocks and
sorts the rocks based on how shiny they are.
Communicates, “Here are very shiny rocks, and
here are not so shiny rocks.”
z In explorations of air, observes a kite flying and
communicates, “The wind blows really hard, and
the kite goes really high into the clouds.”
z Collects soil from the garden and uses a magnifying glass to observe the container of soil closely.
Describes and records, with adult assistance,
observations: “The soil has tiny rocks inside. The
soil has some yellow leaves and some leaves that
turned almost black. The soil is a little wet and
feels very soft.”
SCIENCE
1.0
80 | Earth Sciences
SCIENCE
2.0
Changes in the Earth
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1 Observe and describe natural objects
in the sky (sun, moon, stars, clouds)
and how they appear to move and
change.
2.1 Demonstrate an increased ability to
observe and describe natural objects
in the sky and to notice patterns of
movement and apparent changes in
the sun and the moon.
Examples
Examples
z Gestures toward the sky and communicates in
the home language, “Last night I looked at the
sky, and I saw the moon.”
z Observes the sky and describes, “In the morning
the sun was here, and now it moved over there. It
is the same like yesterday.”
z Participates in a class activity observing the sky
and describing what the clouds look like. Communicates, “The sky is blue, and I see clouds.
One cloud is small, and many clouds are big.”
z Communicates, “When I looked at the sky with
my dad, I saw the moon, and it was round and
big. I saw the stars, too.”
z Records his observation of the sky by drawing a
picture. Refers to his drawing and indicates, or
points to, the sun and the clouds.
z Communicates, “When I look at the sky at night,
I see lots of stars.”
z Shares in circle time with the group that the image
on the moon one night looked like a rabbit. Other
children disagree, saying it looked like a horse or
a person.
z Communicates, “Sometimes, when I look at the
sky at night, I see only the moon, and sometimes
I see the moon and the stars.”
z Observes the moon and draws a representation of
it in her journal. The child notices that it changes
over time and communicates, “Now the moon
is round and big, but sometimes it looks like a
banana.”
z Observes the clouds on a rainy day and describes
how they are different from those on a sunny day:
“Sometimes the clouds are white, but today they
are gray.”
z Says, “Last night I saw a full moon. Sometimes
we eat mooncakes when there is a full moon.”3
3. Some Asian families celebrate the Moon Festival by eating mooncakes.
Earth Sciences | 81
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.2 Notice and describe changes
in weather.
2.2 Demonstrate an increased ability
to observe, describe, and discuss
changes in weather.
Examples
Examples
z A child who is deaf/hearing impaired looks
through the window and communicates in sign
language, “It is raining.”
z Observes the weather and makes a prediction,
“The sky is gray. I think it is going to rain.”
z Communicates, “It is windy. The wind is blowing
my hair.”
z While playing outside, notices some raindrops,
looks up, and starts singing a song about the
rain.
z Participates in a morning activity by recording the
weather on a chart. Picks up the picture card with
a drawing of sun to indicate that it is a sunny day.
z Observes the weather and describes in his home
language, “The sun is out. It is a sunny day.”
z Draws a picture of a rainbow and says, “It
stopped raining. We went outside and saw a rainbow in the sky.”
z After the rain has stopped, checks how much
water is in the bucket, trying to lift the bucket
and look inside.
z Describes her observations of the wind by drawing in her journal how different objects (e.g., the
trees, leaves, papers, and the flags) are blown by
the wind.
z Observes the chart with the daily recordings of
the weather and communicates, “This week, it
was sunny every day.”
z When it starts sprinkling outside, takes a can and
walks outside, explaining, “I am taking the can to
collect rain.”
z Observes and describes what the yard looks like
on a rainy day and how it is similar or different
from the yard on a sunny day.
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in the Earth (continued)
82 | Earth Sciences
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in the Earth (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.3 Begin to notice the effects of
weather and seasonal changes
on their own lives and on plants
and animals.
2.3 Demonstrate an increased ability to
notice and describe the effects of
weather and seasonal changes on
their own lives and on plants and
animals.
Examples
Examples
z In dramatic play area, pretends it is a rainy
day, puts on boots and a coat, and carries an
umbrella.
z Says or communicates, “We can’t find bugs outside because it’s cold, and they’re hiding under
the ground.”
z On cold days, gets her jacket from her cubby
before going outside. Explains, “I need my jacket
because it is very cold.”
z Communicates, “In the winter, I wear a jacket and
in the summer when it is hot, I wear shorts.”
z While observing the trees in the fall, describes,
“The leaves are yellow and brown and falling
down.”
z After the rain, notices the puddles in the yard.
Excitedly gestures to his friend and says, “I am
jumping in the water.” The teacher comments,
“It’s fun splashing in a puddle. Let’s see if we can
find more puddles.”
z Communicates, “It was raining, and I called my
dog to come inside, so he does not get wet.”
z While playing outside on a sunny day, touches
the slide and communicates, “The sun makes it
hot, very hot.”
z During circle time, the teacher talks about how
the leaves fall in autumn. Later, on a nature walk,
a child points to some pine trees and asks the
teacher, “How come those trees don’t have
leaves all around?”
z While observing the trees in the yard, notices, “A
lot of leaves fell down, but there are still some on
the trees. The wind is going to blow them down,
too.”
z Communicates, “Because of the storm, we could
not go outside to play.”
z On arrival in the morning, communicates, “It was
so foggy. We couldn’t see through the window.”
z Around spring, observes the trees, records the
growth of buds and new leaves, and communicates, “Look how many small leaves grew on the
tree.”
z Notices snails on the sidewalk and explains that
she saw them outside her house after the rain
stopped.
z Communicates to a friend in her home language,
“Last night it was freezing outside. I put on my
mittens because my hands were very cold.”
Earth Sciences | 83
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.4 Develop awareness of the
importance of caring for and
respecting the environment, and
participate in activities related
to its care.
2.4 Demonstrate an increased awareness and the ability to discuss in
simple terms how to care for the
environment, and participate in
activities related to its care.
Examples
Examples
z Helps the teacher to sort recyclable items such
as papers, bottles, and cans.
z Uses recycling bins more independently. May
remind another child to put a paper towel in the
blue recycling box.
z Turns off the faucet after washing his hands.
z Asks teacher if leftover fruit from lunch can be
given to the class pet turtle.
z When playing outdoors, remembers not to pick
flowers from the garden.
z Takes a turn in being the room’s “light keeper”
and turns off the lights when leaving the room to
play outside.
z Reminds a friend to turn off the faucet “so we do
not waste water.”
z Explains that when it is really hot, her mom puts
the outdoor toys away to protect them from the
sun.
z Explains that at home the blue recycling bin is for
the bottles, and the green can is for the leaves.
Only the black garbage bin is for other trash.
z After having a picnic in the neighborhood park,
spontaneously helps the teacher to clean up the
picnic area.
z Shares with his teacher, “When I go with my mom
to the park, I feed the birds.”
SCIENCE
2.0 Changes in the Earth (continued)
84
SCIENCE
Bibliographic Notes
Traditionally, a commonly held
notion about science education was
that elementary and even middle
school children lack the developmental readiness to engage in abstract
reasoning—primarily the ability to
evaluate evidence and to understand
how evidence supports or contradicts
theories or hypotheses (Dunbar and
Klahr 1989; Inhelder and Piaget 1958;
Schauble 1990). For preschool children, the common view was that their
reasoning is concrete and perceptually
based (Piaget 1952). However, more
current research in cognitive development shows that young children are
cognitively competent to engage in
aspects of scientific inquiry processes
and to learn basic scientific concepts
about common phenomena of the
natural world (Spelke 1990; Baillargeon 1995; Gelman 2003; Inagaki and
Hatano 2002; Bullock, Gelman, and
Baillargeon 1982; Brown 1990).
Scientific Inquiry
During the preschool years, children
are developmentally ready to engage
in scientific skills, such as observation, classification, comparing, and
predicting (Gelman and Brenneman
2004; French 2004; Gelman and others 2010). Very young children actively
observe objects and events in their
environment. Observation involves the
use of all the senses. Early on, infants
and toddlers want to touch and handle objects and examine objects with
their lips and tongues. They actively
search for information about objects
and events in their environment (Lind
1997). Through observations and by
acting on objects, children learn about
the physical characteristics of objects
(size, shape, material, or weight),
and how objects interact, move, and
change. This information feeds children’s growth in understanding concepts and acquiring knowledge in core
domains such as biology and physics.
As children develop their inquiry
skills, they can use prior knowledge
and observable information to predict
future events (Jones, Lake, and Lin
2008). Making a prediction is a cognitive skill that requires children to use
existing knowledge and/or data that
are immediately available and to predict new information. The extent to
which children can accurately predict
is related to their knowledge base and
prior experiences. Research indicates
that preschool children are capable of
using their knowledge to make predictions for different natural phenomena.
In domains in which young children
have conceptual knowledge, their predictions tend to be relatively reasonable and accurate (Bullock, Gelman,
and Baillargeon 1982; Inagaki and
Hatano 2002; Zur and Gelman 2004).
The more experiences children
have had with natural phenomena,
the more likely they are to be able to
accurately predict events related to the
same phenomena. By testing and verifying their predictions, children gain
new information that informs their
future predictions. For example, when
children were initially asked to predict
the number of seeds in an apple, their
predictions varied widely. However,
with more experiences of predicting
and verifying the number of seeds in
Bibliographic Notes | 85
an apple by counting the number of
seeds, children’s predictions became
more accurate and reasonable over
time (Gelman and Brenneman 2004).
Children’s ability to make inferences is evident from a young age.
Children can use the knowledge of natural kinds of categories (such as dog or
bird) as the basis for novel inferences,
knowing that members of a category
share underlying properties. When
four-year-old children were told a new
fact about a particular dog, “that it
has leukocytes inside it,” they were
likely to infer that other dogs have
leukocytes inside them (Gelman and
Markman 1986, 1987). Young children
can also use observable evidence to
make inferences or draw conclusions.
Research indicates that they can make
accurate inferences on the basis of
relevant evidence. For example, very
young children can infer causal relations and accurately conclude, based
on patterns of evidence, what causes
a machine to light up and play music
(Gopnik and others 2001). They can
make accurate causal inferences based
on evidence, even when the evidence
they observe contradicts their knowledge (Schulz and Gopnik 2004; Schulz,
Bonawitz, and Griffiths 2007).
Young children are sensitive to
evidence they observe. For example,
they can recognize when evidence is
uncertain. In a study by Schulz and
Bonawitz (2007), preschool children
showed a preference for playing with a
toy that presented ambiguous evidence
(a lever that sometimes did and sometimes did not cause an effect) over a
familiar toy with expected manipulation. They engaged in more exploratory
play when causal evidence was not
consistent. Older children begin to
demonstrate an understanding of the
relation between evidence and hypothesis. Five-year-olds can begin to use
evidence correctly to form a hypothesis
and modify their hypothesis according
to new evidence (Ruffman and others
1993). By the early grades, children
can also distinguish between a conclusive and an inconclusive test for a
simple hypothesis (Sodian, Zaitchik,
and Carey 1991).
Preschool children learn to use language to describe their observations
and communicate their thoughts.
Early childhood is a time of extensive
vocabulary development (Anglin 1993).
Observations and investigations provide an ideal opportunity to expose all
children, including English learners,
to new words and scientific vocabulary
in English and in their home language,
whenever possible.
Research indicates that science curriculum delivered in an early childhood education environment that is
rich in language and opportunities
for authentic communication with
adults and peers leads to measurable
improvements in children’s language
and supports children’s acquisition
of both the meaning and pragmatic
aspects of language (French 2004). For
children who communicate in alternative ways, such as in sign language,
picture symbols, or other methods, scientific vocabulary is available as well.
The use of language to describe
observations and other steps in the
exploration process is an integral part
of children’s learning and formation
of scientific concepts (Gelman and
Brenneman 2004; Eshach 2006). Language extends and enriches scientific
experiences and facilitates conceptual growth. For example, as children
explore concepts such as growth,
nutrition, or weather, they gradually
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86 | Bibliographic Notes
learn the terms for the concepts they
explore. The use of these terms, in
turn, enriches their learning experiences. Children may also begin to use
relevant scientific terms—for example,
“I observe,” “My prediction is,” and “Let
me check”—as they practice inquiry
skills across a variety of settings (Gelman and Brenneman 2004). English
learners, for whom the development
of new vocabulary and language skills
is most effective in authentic learning experiences, especially benefit. In
the context of scientific explorations,
children also learn to engage in complex discussions involving observation,
prediction, and explanation (Peterson
and French 2008). Such discussions
develop children’s understanding of
the scientific phenomena they explore
(Jones, Lake, and Lin 2008).
Physical Sciences
Young children learn about the
physical world by observing and interacting with physical objects. They
use all their senses to learn about
the properties of different objects in
their environment, including the color,
size, shape, weight, smell, sound, texture, and, when appropriate, taste of
objects. According to Piaget’s theory,
physical knowledge is constructed
when children act on objects and
observe the object’s reactions, especially when reactions are observable
and happen immediately. When variations in the child’s action result in corresponding variations in an object’s
reaction, children have an opportunity
to construct knowledge of corresponding events and to become aware of
cause-and-effect relationships (Kamii
and DeVries 1993; DeVries and others
2002).
Children approximately three and
four years of age have distinct concepts of size and weight and learn
distinct words to describe and compare these parameters (such as larger,
smaller or heavier). In a study by
Smith, Carey, and Wiser (1985) that
traced the development of children’s
concepts of weight, size, density, and
material kind, children focused on size
(and ignored weight) when asked to
explain physical phenomena related
to size, such as which blocks will fit
into a certain size box. However, they
focused on weight and ignored the size
of objects when explaining weightrelevant phenomena, such as “which
blocks will make a foam rubber bridge
collapse.” Young children consider
weight a physical property of objects,
which causally affects that object’s
interaction with other objects. However, they typically understand weight
in terms of “felt weight.” They judge
weights by lifting objects. They would
insist that a tiny piece of polystyrene
plastic (e.g., Styrofoam), for example,
weighs nothing at all. They also do not
have the consistent expectation that
size can be a predictor of the heaviness of objects and may ignore size in
predicting weight. Still, preschool children (i.e., three- to five-year-olds) can
become engaged in weight-based problem solving such as in balancing the
pans on a balance scale with a variety
of materials. In the course of solving
the problem, they construct possible
solutions, closely examine the reaction of the pans, and gradually elaborate their understanding of how to balance the pans (Metz 1993).
Four- and five-year-old children
also begin to develop the concept of
kinds of materials and to distinguish
Bibliographic Notes | 87
kinds of materials (plastic) from the
identity of objects (a cup) and parts of
an object (handle). They respond with
names of materials (e.g., wood, plastic)
when asked about the kind of material the object is made of and are not
misled into giving names of parts of
objects (e.g., leg, wing) (Smith, Carey,
and Wiser 1985). They also know
that cutting can destroy objects but
not affect the material the objects are
made of. For example, they know that
cut-up objects, such as paper or balloons, are no longer the same kind of
objects but that they are still the same
kinds of materials. At a young age,
children know several words for kinds
of materials (such as glass and plastic)
and can state relevant properties of
certain materials (for example, glass
is breakable or plastic can be hard).
However, their concept of density, a
characteristic of kinds of material, is
not developed until they are about
eight years old. For example, threeand four-year-old children cannot distinguish between objects made of steel
and objects made of aluminum. When
asked which is made of a heavier kind
of stuff, they make a judgment based
on felt weight (Smith, Carey, and Wiser
1985).
Through daily interactions with all
kinds of substances such as sand,
play dough, milk, juice, dirt, and various kinds of food, children as young
as age two explore how various substances differ in taste, smell, texture,
and so on. They begin to differentiate
and can learn names of various materials (Soja, Carey, and Spelke 1991;
Prasada 1993). They also begin to form
an intuitive sense about materials.
One example of such intuition is that
substances are homogeneous—for
example, a spoonful of sugar picked up
from one side of the pile or the other is
still sugar. A study by Au (1994) indicates that by the age of three or four,
children seem to believe that any portion of a substance is the same “kind”
as the whole chunk or pile, even when
it is in smaller chunks, ground up
into a powder, or dissolved in water.
For example, children appreciate that
a substance such as sugar continues
to exist even after it has become invisible upon dissolving. The notion of
homogeneous structure in substances
provides children a coherent basis for
explaining why a substance maintains
certain inherent properties as well as
its identity, despite dramatic transformation into grain size or chunk size.
However, young children have difficulty comprehending changes in state
of matter, particularly reasoning about
the transition from liquid to gas (Russell, Harlen, and Watt 1990).
Much of the understanding of the
physical world rests on the ability to
relate events causally and identify
cause-and-effect relations. Research
indicates that before infants can talk
about objects, or even reach for objects
and manipulate them, they can reason
about how objects move and demonstrate an implicit understanding of the
causal relations involved in everyday
physics. In the first year, infants have
an understanding that objects need
support to prevent them from falling
(Baillargeon, Needham, and DeVos
1992) and that objects cannot move
through each other. They understand
that objects cannot move themselves—
that inanimate objects need to be
propelled into action—and perceive
causality in events (Leslie 1994; Oakes
and Cohen 1990). This early understanding continues to evolve through
children’s spontaneous play and
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88 | Bibliographic Notes
interactions with objects and becomes
accessible and more explicit in a wider
range of experiences during the preschool years.
Research indicates that at a very
young age, children understand the
causal relations involved in everyday
physics. First, young children typically assume that physical events have
a cause and intuitively search for a
cause. They are also sensitive to the
temporal ordering of cause-and-effect
and believe that causes must precede
their effects. Finally, young children
can reason about the kind of mechanism that can or cannot produce a certain outcome (such as pulling, pushing, or rolling). For example, when
observing a cause-and-effect event in
which a ball rolled against a jack-inthe-box, children could reason about
the cause and effect. They attributed
the effect to the ball hitting the jackin-the-box, presumably because rolling and hitting can produce movement
in another object through impact.
When asked to explain how an event
occurred, some children generated
mechanistic, physically oriented
explanations (Bullock, Gelman, and
Baillargeon 1982).
Life Sciences
The distinction between animate
and inanimate objects is considered
the most basic and important one for
young children’s understanding of
the physical and biological world. It is
believed that children’s ability to distinguish between animate and inanimate objects is a foundation, or a precursor, to the ability to make the more
general distinction between living and
nonliving things (Inagaki and Hatano
2002).
Research indicates that children as
young as three have an understanding
of the difference between animate and
inanimate objects. R. Gelman, Spelke,
and Meck (1983) interviewed three- to
five-year-old children with the use of
animate and inanimate objects, such
as a person, a cat, and a rock and
inanimate objects with humanlike
appearances, such as dolls or puppets.
The interview included questions about
the objects’ appearance (“Does X have
a head/stomach, feet, eyes, ears?”),
the capacity for independent action
(“Can X walk/sit?”), the potential for
psychological states (“Can X think/
remember, feel happy, feel sad?”), and
the tendency to engage in reciprocal
activities (“Can X play with you/listen
to, run with, kiss, hug?”) (Gelman,
Spelke, and Meck 1983, 300). They
found that children as young as three
years old made correct responses when
asked about characteristics of animate
and inanimate objects. Interestingly,
there was no age difference in children’s ability to distinguish between
animate and inanimate objects.
Although older children were more
articulate and gave more explanations,
their explanations did not differ in
kind from those of younger children.
All children were eager to talk about
this distinction between animate and
inanimate objects and to justify their
answers with relevant explanations.
Children’s answers to questions about
a doll and a puppet, in particular,
provided further evidence that preschoolers are not inclined to attribute
animate characteristics to inanimate
objects even when these objects can
move or have an animatelike appearance. In a more recent study, using a
similar interview method, Subrahmanyam, Gelman, and Lafosse (2002)
Bibliographic Notes | 89
demonstrated that four- and fiveyear-olds can also distinguish animate objects from machines, including machines that mimic an animate
property such as a car or a robot, that
seem to move on their own, or computers that appear to think and communicate. The children were more likely
to attribute animate properties (such
as talking, breathing, remembering, or
thinking) to animate objects than to
inanimate objects such as simple artifacts or machines. The only machine
that was given the capacity to think
and remember was a robot.
Young children can distinguish
between animate and inanimate
objects, even if the objects are unfamiliar, based on an object’s capacity for
self-initiated movement. Massey and
Gelman (1988) presented three- and
four-year-olds with photographs of
unfamiliar objects, including mammals, an insect, statues with animallike appearance, wheeled vehicles, and
other multipart objects. They asked
the children whether each of these
objects could go up and down a hill by
itself. Preschool children demonstrated
an understanding that “real” animals
could go up and down a hill by themselves, while inanimate objects, even
if they looked like animals, could not
(e.g., because “it’s not a real piggy;
it’s just a furniture one” (Massey
and Gelman 1988, 314). Children’s
causal explanations of how movement
takes place differ between animals
and inanimate objects. Young children understand that animate objects
have the potential to move themselves
because they are made of biological
matter. Inanimate objects, on the other
hand, are composed of nonbiological
material, and the cause of inanimate
motion is external to the objects and is
caused by agents and forces of nature
(Gelman 1990). These principles direct
young children when identifying an
object and provide them with a coherent way to assimilate and process
information about objects in their
environment.
Young children also distinguish animates from inanimates on the basis
of the inside of an object. They expect
the insides of animals and inanimate
objects to differ. When asked, “What
is on the inside of X?” (Subrahmanyam, Gelman, and Lafosse 2002, 355),
children thought that animate objects
had blood and bones on the inside, but
machines had buttons and knobs and
other parts made of materials such
as plastic and glass. Children understand that the insides of objects have
a special status related to the object’s
identity and function (Gelman and
Wellman 1991). By four years of age,
they appreciate the special importance
of insides for an object’s identity and
how it functions. They demonstrate an
understanding that insides of objects
have essence-like qualities. For example, if a horse is dressed like a zebra,
children will judge its identity on the
basis of the inside and not based on
its external appearance. They will say
it is still a horse (Keil 1989). However,
in a study by Gelman (2003, 79), when
children were asked to consider an
“inside removal” of animals (e.g., “What
if you take out the stuff inside of a dog.
Is it still a dog?”), they claimed that
removal of the insides changed the
animal’s identity and function. They
recognize that if the inside of an object
is removed, the identity and the function of an object would change (Gelman and Wellman 1991).
The broader distinction between living things (both animals and plants)
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90 | Bibliographic Notes
and nonliving things is more challenging for young children. To make the
distinction between living and nonliving things, young children need to
view plants as biological entities and
distinguish both plants and animals
from nonliving things. This is difficult
for young children primarily because
plants and animals differ in outward
appearance and in the capacity for
self-generated movement and psychological states. They are similar only in
dimensions relevant to biology.
In studies in which children were
asked whether animals, plants, and
inanimate objects were alive, preschool
children had difficulty with the terms
“living things” or “alive,” and at ages
four to five, they tended to interpret
those terms as referring to animals,
but not plants (Carey 1985; Richards
and Siegler 1986). However, in studies
that had children focus on particular features of living things such as
growth, rather than the general question of whether an object is “alive,”
three- and four-year-old children
could distinguish both animals and
plants from nonliving objects.
Children’s acquisition of the concept
“alive” or “living things” is shaped by
factors in their environment, including their everyday experiences, the
language spoken by the child, and the
cultural practices and beliefs in their
community. Cultural differences in the
understanding of the concept “alive”
were evident in a study with children
from Mexico, the United States, and
Indonesia. Children in all three communities distinguished living things
from nonliving things, recognizing that
animals and plants grow and die. However, children revealed cross-cultural
differences regarding the term alive.
Children of the Mayan community,
in Mexico, tended to attribute life to
certain natural objects (e.g., the sun,
water)—items that are considered
inanimate outside their community.
English-speaking children interpreted
alive as referring to humans and animals, but not plants. On the other
hand, Indonesian-speaking children at
a younger age than English-speaking
children, attributed the term alive to
both animals and plants. These crosscommunity developmental differences
are attributed to differences in naming practices and belief systems in
each community (Anggoro, Waxman,
and Medin 2005; Waxman and Medin
2006).
Similarly, in a cross-cultural study
of children from Israel, Japan, and
the United States, children in all three
countries were extremely accurate in
attributing properties of living things
to people, somewhat less accurate with
other animals, and least accurate with
plants. However, the study revealed
culturally specific aspects of children’s
understanding of the term alive. Israeli
children were considerably less likely
to attribute to plants qualities that are
shared by all living things. Japanese
children, on the other hand, were more
likely to attribute to inanimate entities
(e.g., a rock) attributes that are unique
to living things (Hatano and others
1993). These differences suggest that
reasoning about a basic concept, such
as life, is influenced by culture and
linguistic factors. In the Israeli tradition, plants are regarded as different
from humans and other animals. The
Hebrew word for animal, but not for
plants, is very close to that for living
and alive. In contrast, Japanese culture includes a belief that plants are
much like human beings, have feelings
and emotions, and even inanimate
Bibliographic Notes | 91
entities are sometimes viewed as being
alive. Parents may communicate such
attitudes through actions and interactions with their children.
Preschool children understand that
animals and plants grow and increase
in size over time as they mature.
Inanimate objects, such as toys and
machines, may change in appearance
due to wear and tear or the passing
of time, but they do not change in
size over time (Rosengren and others
1991; Hickling and Gelman 1995).
Five-year-old children recognize that
plants, but not objects, are similar to
animals in terms of growing, needing
food and/or water, and becoming older
and dying (Inagaki and Hatano 1996).
Three- and four-year-old children also
realize that plants and animals may
heal by themselves through regrowth
(a rosebush will grow another rose;
or a scratch on a finger will heal over
time), but objects that are scratched or
damaged (a shirt missing a button, or
a car scratched on the side) must be
repaired by human intervention (Backscheider, Shatz, and Gelman 1993).
Overall, young preschool children can
implicitly group living things together,
particularly when asked about growth
and other properties related to growth.
However, it seems they are just beginning to have a consistent grasp of
plants as biological entities. As noted
by Carey (1985), young children can
notice and learn about the properties of living things before they have a
deeper understanding of the biological processes common to animals and
plants.
Preschool children understand
some aspects of growth in animals
and plants. By three years of age, children realize that growth in animals
involves an increase in size over time.
They realize that growth in animals
is affected by food intake, not by an
intention or desire to grow (Inagaki
and Hatano 2002). Older children,
approximately five years of age, also
expect some animals to change in
appearance with age. They understand that animals undergo metamorphosis—for example, caterpillars
change into butterflies, and tadpoles
change into frogs (Rosengren and others 1991). However, they realize that
in natural transformations, such as
growth or metamorphosis, the identity
of animals remains constant despite
changes in appearance with age (Gelman 2003).
Between the ages of four and five,
children develop increasing knowledge
about plants, including an understanding of some of the characteristics of plant growth and the nature
of seeds (Hickling and Gelman 1995).
Older four-year-olds realize that seeds
originate from a natural source, specifically from same-species plants, not
from other types of plants, and that
people cannot make seeds. Older fouryear-olds also expect external, natural mechanisms (sunshine and rain),
rather than human activity or the
intention and desire of the plant, to
initiate the growth process. However,
they have less understanding of what
plants need, compared with animals,
in order to grow. By around four and a
half years of age, children also begin to
appreciate the cyclical nature of plant
growth. They recognize the predictable
order of stages in plant growth from
seed to plant, to flower and/or fruit,
and back to seed.
Young children can identify body
parts and processes (e.g., seeing,
hearing, needing food, sleeping,
breathing, falling ill) in humans and
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92 | Bibliographic Notes
other animals. Knowledge about
humans constitutes a useful and
important base for young children, as
they use it to infer knowledge about
other animals and other living things
(Carey 1985; Inagaki and Hatano
2002). According to this view, young
children’s familiarity with human
body processes serves as a knowledge
base to predict behaviors or attribute
properties to unfamiliar animals and
plants. The rationale is that knowledge about humans becomes useful
in everyday biological problem solving
and understanding, because humans
share biological properties and processes with other living things. However, current research indicates that
the role of humans in reasoning about
other living things is shaped by experience, cultural beliefs, and practices.
For example, a human-centered perspective is more common in children
raised in urban environments, for
whom direct experience with nature is
relatively impoverished in comparison
with rural children. Furthermore, culturally held belief systems of a given
community also influence children’s
biological reasoning and the degree
to which knowledge about humans is
used in generalizing to other animals
(Medin and others 2010).
Earth Sciences
Children have daily interactions
with earth resources, including soil,
rocks, and water, and become aware
of natural changes in the earth such
as the day-and-night cycle and climate changes associated with seasonal
changes. Developmental research
examined young children’s reasoning about natural phenomena. Piaget
argued that children tend to view
humans as controlling all kinds of
events in nature, attributing events
and things on earth such as the construction of mountains, the clouds in
the sky, and the existence of rivers
and rocks to human control. However,
contrary to Piaget’s view, research
indicates that children recognize that
certain kinds of things are not under
human control. In a study that asked
children, “Do you think people make
____?,” the question referred to either
natural things such as the moon,
clouds, dogs, salt (e.g., “Do you think
people make the clouds?”) or to objects
used by humans, such as a cup or a
car, preschool children tended to be
highly accurate (Gelman 2003, 119).
They recognize that natural things are
not made by humans (Gelman and
Kremer 1991).
Young children can observe and
become aware of the earth’s resources
and phenomena, but they are not
ready to grasp scientific concepts and
explanations of the earth’s phenomena such as the cause of the day/night
cycle rotation or of seasonal changes
(Kampeza 2006). Research on children’s concepts of the earth is of great
interest, particularly for educators who
are concerned with how and when to
introduce many topics related to earth
and space. Several studies in the area
of science education have shown that
children acquire mature concepts
about earth and gravity gradually,
through distinct levels that go through
seventh or eighth grade (Nussbaum
and Novak 1976; Nussbaum 1979;
Sneider and Pulos 1983). Initially, children (six to eight years of age) hold the
view that the earth is flat and motionless. They may say that the earth
is “round,” but under more detailed
questioning (“Where does the sun go
at night?” “What does the earth look
Bibliographic Notes | 93
like when you look at it from very far
away?”), they give answers consistent
with the flat-earth view (Vosniadou
and Brewer 1987, 58). Their concept of
gravity is also still developing; so children who hold the view of a flat earth
would argue that if there were people
on the other side of the earth, they
would fall off. Older children hold more
advanced notions about the earth’s
shape and gravity. Children’s concept
of earth is being restructured, from
a theory based on a flat, stationary
earth to a theory based on a spherical
rotating earth (Vosniadou and Brewer
1987). Cross-cultural studies of Mexican American, Native American, and
Nepali children (Klein 1982; Diakidou,
Vosnidau, and Hawks 1997; Mali and
Howe 1979), and studies in Israel
(Nussbaum 1979), and Greece (Kampeza 2006) found similar results. Mental representations of the earth held by
children who live in different cultures
may contain some elements from their
particular culture (alternation of day
and night is attributed to God), but all
children start with similar mental representations of the earth.
A recent study of preschool children indicates that although most
children can select the sphere as the
earth’s shape, they do not understand
the relation between the earth’s rotation and the day/night cycle (Kampeza
2006). Even after learning about the
shapes of the sun and earth, as well as
the cause of the day/night cycle, preschool children did not demonstrate
an understanding of the day/night
cycle. Subsequent to the learning session about earth, although the children accepted the earth as a spherical
object, only a few children attributed
the day/night cycle to the rotation of
the earth on its axis (Valanides and
others 2000). Overall, research indicates that young children hold a concept of earth that conflicts with current scientific theories. Therefore, they
cannot intuitively reason about the
causes of everyday phenomena they
observe, such as the day/night cycle,
the seasons, and the apparent motion
of the sun and the moon. However,
daily interactions and experiences
with earth resources and phenomena
provide children with a foundation for
future understanding of more abstract
concepts in earth sciences.
Direct experiences with nature and
earth materials and opportunities for
direct contact with nature enhance
children’s connection to their natural
environment and are likely to raise
their awareness of issues related to
care and protection of the environment
(Musser and Diamond 1999; Paprotna
1998; Cohen and Horm-Wingerd
1993). Research indicates that during the preschool years children can
become sensitive to basic ecological
issues and can develop pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Studies that examined preschool children’s
ecological awareness found that young
children seem to recognize the significance of issues associated with the
environment. For example, preschool
children can understand concepts
such as recycling things, turning off
water and light, picking up trash,
not interfering with wild animals and
plants, and caring for animals (Musser
and Diamond 1999). Research indicates that preschool children can even
become aware of ecological events and
recognize the significance of environmental concerns such as the effects
of water and air pollution, littering,
overcrowding, and natural resource
management, at a level commensurate
94 | Bibliographic Notes
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with their existing knowledge (Cohen
and Horm-Wingerd 1993). Furthermore, there is a positive relationship
between young children’s developing
attitudes toward the environment and
their parents’ involvement of them in
environmentally relevant activities.
It is, therefore, reasonable to expect
that ecologically sensitive practices in
early childhood environments would be
related to children’s developing environmental attitudes and behaviors.
95
animate/inanimate objects. Animate
objects are living things with the
capacity to initiate motion or activity.
The term refers to animals (including humans) and is distinguished from
inanimate objects, such as plants or
nonliving objects (e.g., a car or a rock).
cause and effect. Cause is what makes
something else happens (e.g., kicking
the ball), and effect is what happens
as a result of the cause (e.g., the ball is
rolled).
classification. The sorting, grouping,
or categorizing of objects according to
established criteria.
communication. Refers to the skill
of expressing ideas, describing observations, and discussing findings and
explanations with others, either orally,
through sign language, or in written
form (drawings, charts, pictures, symbols).
compare and contrast. Looking at similarities and differences in real objects
and events.
constructivist approach. An approach
to learning in which children construct knowledge and build theories
through active experimentation and
interaction with objects and people
in their environment rather than
passively taking in information.
documentation. Preserving evidence by
recording information, using different
forms, including drawings, photographs,
written transcripts, charts, journals,
models, and constructions.
earth sciences. The study of the earth,
includes topics related to properties of
earth materials (soils, rocks, and minerals), the ocean, weather, and forces that
shape the earth. Major components of
earth sciences are geology and oceanography.
habitat. The home, place, or environment
where an organism or a biological population normally lives.
homogeneous. Things of the same kind,
with same form and property. In a
homogenous substance, each component of the substance is the same.
hypothesis. A proposed explanation for
an observable phenomena that can be
tested by an experiment. A confirmed
hypothesis supports a theory.
inference. Using logic to make an
assumption or draw a conclusion that
is based on observations but cannot be
directly observed.
investigation. In the process of scientific
inquiry, asking a question and conducting systematic observations or simple
experiments to find an answer.
life cycle. The series of changes in the
growth and development of humans,
animals, or plants.
life sciences. The study of living things,
including plants and animals, their
characteristics, life cycles, habitats, and
their interrelationships with each other
and the environment. The three major
branches of life sciences are biology,
physiology, and ecology.
living things. Living organisms have the
capacity for self-sustaining biological
processes such as growth, breathing,
reproduction, and responsiveness to
stimuli. Examples of living things are
humans, animals, and plants.
measurement tools. Simple tools, such
as rulers, measuring cups and spoons,
and scales, to measure length, volume,
or weight.
observation. Gathering information about
objects and events by using the senses
of sight, smell, sound, touch, and taste
and noticing specific details or phenomena that ordinarily might be overlooked.
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Glossary
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96 | Glossary
observation tools. Tools to extend observations such as hand lenses, magnifying
glasses, and binoculars.
physical properties. Observable features
of a material, such as how it looks
(e.g., shape, color), feels (e.g., solid, liquid, texture), or behaves (e.g., sinks in
water).
physical sciences. The study of nonliving
matter and energy. It deals with physical properties and transformations of
substances, the nature of motion, force
and energy (e.g., mechanical energy,
heat, sound, light, electricity). The two
major branches of physical sciences are
physics and chemistry.
prediction. A guess or estimation that is
based on prior observations, knowledge,
and experiences.
predisposition. A tendency or inclination
for something. In the context of early
childhood science, young children have
the predisposition, the inclination, and
capacity to learn abstract concepts from
biology and physics.
record. To set down information or knowledge in writing, drawings, or other permanent forms for the purpose of preserving evidence or tracking data over
time.
scientific inquiry. Refers to the diverse
ways in which scientists explore and
develop knowledge and understanding
of scientific ideas: making observations,
posing questions, planning investigations, using tools to gather information,
making predictions, recording information, and communicating findings and
explanations.
substance. Any material with a definite
chemical composition (e.g., water, salt,
sugar, gold).
97
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APPENDIX A
The Foundations
History–Social Science
Self and Society
1.0
Culture and Diversity
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Manifest stronger cultural, ethnic,
and racial identity and greater
familiarity with relevant language,
traditions, and other practices.
Show more interest in human
diversity, but strongly favor
characteristics of their own group.
2.1
Understand the mutual responsibilities
of relationships; take initiative in
developing relationships that are
mutual, cooperative, and exclusive.
3.1
Exhibit more sophisticated
understanding of a broader variety
of adult roles and occupations,
but uncertain how work relates
to income.
2.0
Exhibit developing cultural, ethnic,
and racial identity and understand
relevant language and cultural
practices. Display curiosity about
diversity in human characteristics
and practices, but prefer those of
their own group.
Relationships
2.1
Interact comfortably with many
peers and adults; actively contribute
to creating and maintaining relationships with a few significant adults
and peers.
3.0
Social Roles and Occupations
3.1
Play familiar adult social roles and
occupations (such as parent, teacher,
and doctor) consistent with their
developing knowledge of these roles.
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104 | History–Social Science
Becoming a Preschool Community Member
(Civics)
1.0
Skills for Democratic Participation
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Become involved as responsible
participants in group activities,
with growing understanding of the
importance of considering others’
opinions, group decision making,
and respect for majority rules and
the views of group members who
disagree with the majority.
2.1
Exhibit responsible conduct more
reliably as children develop selfesteem (and adult approval) from
being responsible group members.
May also manage others’ behavior
to ensure that others also fit in with
group expectations.
Identify as members of a group,
participate willingly in group
activities, and begin to understand
and accept responsibility as group
members, although assistance is
required in coordinating personal
interests with those of others.
2.0 Responsible Conduct
2.1
3.0
3.1
4.0
4.1
Strive to cooperate with group
expectations to maintain adult
approval and get along with others.
Self-control is inconsistent, however,
especially when children are frustrated or upset.
Fairness and Respect for Other People
Respond to the feelings and needs
of others with simple forms of
assistance, sharing, and turn-taking.
Understand the importance of rules
that protect fairness and maintain
order.
3.1
Pay attention to others’ feelings,
more likely to provide assistance,
and try to coordinate personal
desires with those of other children in
mutually satisfactory ways. Actively
support rules that protect fairness to
others.
4.1
More capable of negotiating,
compromising, and finding
cooperative means of resolving
conflict with peers or adults,
although verbal aggression may
also result.
Conflict Resolution
Can use simple bargaining strategies
and seek adult assistance when in
conflict with other children or adults,
although frustration, distress, or
aggression also occurs.
History–Social Science | 105
Sense of Time
(History)
1.0 Understanding Past Events
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Recall past experiences easily and
enjoy hearing stories about the past,
but require adult help to determine
when past events occurred in relation
to each other and to connect them
with current experience.
Show improving ability to relate
past events to other past events
and current experiences, although
adult assistance continues to be
important.
2.0 Anticipating and Planning Future Events
2.1
Anticipate events in familiar
situations in the near future, with
adult assistance.
2.1
Distinguish when future events will
happen, plan for them, and make
choices (with adult assistance) that
anticipate future needs.
3.1
Compare current abilities with skills
at a younger age and share more
detailed autobiographical stories
about recent experiences.
3.0 Personal History
3.1
4.0
4.1
Proudly display developing skills
to attract adult attention and share
simple accounts about recent
experiences.
Historical Changes in People and the World
Easily distinguish older family
members from younger ones
(and other people) and events in
the recent past from those that
happened “long ago,” although
do not readily sequence historical
events on a timeline.
4.1
Develop an interest in family history
(e.g., when family members were
children) as well as events of “long
ago,” and begin to understand when
these events occurred in relation to
each other.
106 | History–Social Science
Sense of Place
(Geography and Ecology)
1.0 Navigating Familiar Locations
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Comprehend larger familiar locations, such as the characteristics of
their community and region (including
hills and streams, weather, common
activities) and the distances between
familiar locations (such as between
home and school), and compare
their home community with those
of others.
2.1
Show an interest in a wider range of
natural phenomena, including those
not directly experienced (such as
snow for a child living in Southern
California), and are more concerned
about caring for the natural world
and the positive and negative
impacts of people on the natural
world (e.g., recycling, putting trash
in trash cans).
Identify the characteristics of familiar
locations such as home and school,
describe objects and activities associated with each, recognize the
routes between them, and begin
using simple directional language
(with various degrees of accuracy).
2.0 Caring for the Natural World
2.1
Show an interest in nature (including
animals, plants, and weather)
especially as children have direct
experience with them. Begin to
understand human interactions with
the environment (such as pollution in
a lake or stream) and the importance
of taking care of plants and animals.
3.0 Understanding the Physical World Through Drawings and Maps
3.1
Can use drawings, globes, and
maps to refer to the physical world,
although often unclear on the use
of map symbols.
3.1
Create their own drawings, maps,
and models; are more skilled at using
globes, maps, and map symbols;
and use maps for basic problem
solving (such as locating objects)
with adult guidance.
History–Social Science | 107
Marketplace
(Economics)
1.0
Exchange
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Understand ownership, limited
supply, what stores do, give-andtake, and payment of money to
sellers. Show interest in money and
its function, but still figuring out the
relative value of coins.
Understand more complex economic
concepts (e.g., bartering; more
money is needed for things of
greater value; if more people want
something, more will be sold).
108
Science
Scientific Inquiry
1.0
Observation and Investigation
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
Demonstrate curiosity and raise
simple questions about objects and
events in their environment.
1.1
Demonstrate curiosity and an
increased ability to raise questions
about objects and events in their
environment.
1.2
Observe1 objects and events in the
environment and describe them.
1.2
Observe objects and events in the
environment and describe them in
greater detail.
1.3
Begin to identify and use, with adult
support, some observation and
measurement tools.
1.3
Identify and use a greater variety
of observation and measurement
tools. May spontaneously use an
appropriate tool, though may still
need adult support.
1.4
Compare and contrast objects
and events and begin to describe
similarities and differences.
1.4
Compare and contrast objects and
events and describe similarities and
differences in greater detail.
1.5
Make predictions and check them,
with adult support, through concrete
experiences.
1.5
Demonstrate an increased ability to
make predictions and check them
(e.g., may make more complex
predictions, offer ways to test
predictions, and discuss why
predictions were correct or incorrect).
1.6
Make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence.
1.6
Demonstrate an increased ability
to make inferences and form
generalizations based on evidence.
1. Other related scientific processes, such as classifying, ordering, and measuring, are addressed in the foundations for
mathematics.
Science | 109
2.0 Documentation and Communication
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1
Record observations or findings in
various ways, with adult assistance,
including pictures, words (dictated to
adults), charts, journals, models, and
photos.
2.1
Record information more regularly
and in greater detail in various ways,
with adult assistance, including
pictures, words (dictated to adults),
charts, journals, models, photos, or
by tallying and graphing information.
2.2
Share findings and explanations,
which may be correct or incorrect,
with or without adult prompting.
2.2
Share findings and explanations,
which may be correct or incorrect,
more spontaneously and with greater
detail.
Physical Sciences
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Nonliving Objects
and Materials
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Observe, investigate, and identify
the characteristics and physical
properties of objects and of solid
and nonsolid materials (size, weight,
shape, color, texture, and sound).
Demonstrate increased ability to
observe, investigate, and describe in
greater detail the characteristics and
physical properties of objects and
of solid and nonsolid materials (size,
weight, shape, color, texture, and
sound).
2.0 Changes in Nonliving Objects and Materials
2.1
Demonstrate awareness that objects
and materials can change; explore
and describe changes in objects and
materials (rearrangement of parts;
change in color, shape, texture,
temperature).
2.1
Demonstrate an increased awareness that objects and materials can
change in various ways. Explore and
describe in greater detail changes in
objects and materials (rearrangement
of parts; change in color, shape,
texture, form, and temperature).
110 | Science
2.0 Changes in Nonliving Objects and Materials (continued)
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.2
2.2
Observe and describe the motion of
objects (in terms of speed, direction,
the ways things move), and explore
the effect of own actions (e.g.,
pushing pulling, rolling, dropping)
on making objects move.
Demonstrate an increased ability
to observe and describe in greater
detail the motion of objects (in terms
of speed, direction, the ways things
move), and to explore the effect of
own actions on the motion of objects,
including changes in speed and
direction.
Life Sciences
1.0Properties and Characteristics of Living Things At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
Identify characteristics of a variety
of animals and plants, including
appearance (inside and outside) and
behavior, and begin to categorize
them.
1.1
Identify characteristics of a greater
variety of animals and plants and
demonstrate an increased ability
to categorize them.
1.2
Begin to indicate knowledge of body
parts and processes (e.g., eating,
sleeping, breathing, walking) in
humans and other animals.2
1.2
Indicate greater knowledge of body
parts and processes (e.g., eating,
sleeping, breathing, walking) in
humans and other animals.
1.3
Identify the habitats of people and
familiar animals and plants in the
environment and begin to realize that
living things have habitats in different
environments.
1.3
Recognize that living things have
habitats in different environments
suited to their unique needs.
1.4
Indicate knowledge of the difference
between animate objects (animals,
people) and inanimate objects. For
example, expect animate objects
to initiate movement and to have
different insides than inanimate
objects.
1.4
Indicate knowledge of the difference
between animate and inanimate
objects, providing greater detail,
and recognize that only animals and
plants undergo biological processes
such as growth, illness, healing,
and dying.
2. The knowledge of body parts is also addressed in the California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 2) for health.
In science, it also includes the knowledge of body processes. Knowledge of body parts is extended to those of humans and
other animals.
Science | 111
2.0
Changes in Living Things
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
2.1
Observe and explore growth and
changes in humans, animals, and
plants and demonstrate an understanding that living things change
over time in size and in other capacities as they grow.
2.1
Observe and explore growth in humans, animals, and plants and demonstrate an increased understanding
that living things change as they grow
and go through transformations related to the life cycle (for example, from
a caterpillar to butterfly).
2.2
Recognize that animals and plants
require care and begin to associate
feeding and watering with the growth
of humans, animals, and plants.
2.2
Develop a greater understanding
of the basic needs of humans,
animals, and plants (e.g., food, water,
sunshine, shelter).
112 | Science
Earth Sciences
1.0
Properties and Characteristics of Earth Materials and Objects
At around 48 months of age
At around 60 months of age
1.1
1.1
Demonstrate increased ability
to investigate and compare characteristics (size, weight, shape, color,
texture) of earth materials such as
sand, rocks, soil, water, and air.
Investigate characteristics (size,
weight, shape, color, texture) of earth
materials such as sand, rocks, soil,
water, and air.
2.0 Changes in the Earth
2.1
Observe and describe natural objects
in the sky (sun, moon, stars, clouds)
and how they appear to move and
change.
2.1
Demonstrate an increased ability to
observe and describe natural objects
in the sky and to notice patterns of
movement and apparent changes in
the sun and the moon.
2.2
Notice and describe changes
in weather.
2.2
Demonstrate an increased ability
to observe, describe, and discuss
changes in weather.
2.3
Begin to notice the effects of
weather and seasonal changes
on their own lives and on plants
and animals.
2.3
Demonstrate an increased ability to
notice and describe the effects of
weather and seasonal changes on
their own lives and on plants and
animals.
2.4
Develop awareness of the
importance of caring for and
respecting the environment and
participate in activities related
to its care.
2.4
Demonstrate an increased awareness and the ability to discuss in
simple terms how to care for the
environment, and participate in
activities related to its care.
APPENDIX B
The Foundations
An Overview of the Alignment of
the California Preschool Learning
Foundations with Key Early
Education Resources
Introduction
Over the past 15 years, the California Department of Education (CDE)
has identified foundations to describe
the learning and development of children from birth through kindergarten. This work focused on what young
children know and are able to do during different age periods. Work on the
period covering birth through kindergarten stemmed from three distinct
initiatives. First, academic content
experts, K–12 educators, and other
stakeholders collaborated to define
what children are expected to learn in
California public schools from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Standards in eight domains emerged from
this effort. There are standards for
the following subjects in K–12 education: English language arts, Englishlanguage development, mathematics,
visual and performing arts, physical
education, health education, history–
social science, school library, and
science.
In 2006, experts were convened to
write foundations that describe the
learning and development of children during the years from birth to
age three. The publication California
Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations represents the second step in the CDE’s work. Experts
recommended that the term foundations be used rather than standards,
because early learning and development reflects a developmental process
that lays the foundation for academic
learning at school age. The infant/toddler learning and development foundations are organized into four domains:
s
s
s
s
3OCIALn%MOTIONAL $EVELOPMENT
,ANGUAGE $EVELOPMENT
#OGNITIVE $EVELOPMENT
0ERCEPTUAL AND -OTOR $EVELOPMENT
After creating the infant/toddler
learning and development foundations,
the CDE proceeded with the third step.
Researchers, early childhood educators, and other stakeholders convened to conceptualize and delineate
preschool learning foundations. This
effort produced learning foundations
113
114 | Overview of the Alignment
that cover nine developmental domains:
Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English-Language
Development, and Mathematics (Volume 1); Visual and Performing Arts,
Physical Development, and Health
(Volume 2); and History-Social Science
and Science (Volume 3).
As work on standards and foundations continues to evolve in California, two national initiatives have
contributed to early childhood educators’ understanding of learning and
development: (1) the Common Core
State Standards (CCSS) and (2) the
Head Start Child Development and
Early Learning Framework (Head Start
Learning Framework). The CCSS provide standards for every grade level
from kindergarten through twelfth
grade for English Language Arts and
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects; and for
Mathematics. California stands among
numerous states that have adopted
the CCSS. The Head Start Learning
Framework describes key learning in
11 developmental domains: Physical Development & Health, Social &
Emotional Development, Approaches
to Learning, Logic & Reasoning, Language Development, English Language
Development, Literacy Knowledge
& Skills, Mathematics Knowledge &
Skills, Science Knowledge & Skills,
Creative Arts Expression, and Social
Studies Knowledge & Skills. Head
Start programs throughout the country
orient the support of young children’s
development and learning around the
knowledge and skills described in the
Framework.
These resources share the purpose
of promoting the intentional support of young children’s learning and
development. By focusing on the key
knowledge and skills that children
progressively acquire during the first
years of life, early childhood educators
can develop curriculum that is in tune
with early learning. In particular, they
can be attentive to significant learning,
document it, and reflectively plan how
to facilitate it. Additional resources
that work hand in hand with standards and foundations have been created for early childhood educators. For
example, the CDE’s infant/toddler curriculum framework is aligned with the
infant/toddler learning and development foundations, and the preschool
curriculum framework is aligned with
the preschool learning foundations.
The Desired Results Developmental
Profile is also aligned with the infant/
toddler and preschool foundations.
An important question is, How do
the preschool learning foundations
align with the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, the
kindergarten content standards, the
CCSS, and the Head Start Learning
Framework?
The following table presents an
alignment of the domains across the
infant/toddler learning and development foundations, the preschool learning foundations, and the kindergarten
content standards, the CCSS, and the
Head Start Learning Framework.
Overview of the Alignment | 115
Table 1
Overview Alignment of the Domains in the California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚŽŵĂŝŶƐŝŶ<ĞLJĂƌůLJĚƵĐĂƟŽŶZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ
Domains
California Preschool Learning Foundations
Social–Emotional Development
Language and Literacy
California Infant/
Toddler Learning and Development Foundations
Social–Emotional Development
Language Development
California Kindergarten Content Standards Common Core State Standards
Health Education Mental, Emotional, and Social Health English–Language Arts
English–-­
Language Development
Language Development
English–Language Development
Mathematics
Cognitive Development
Mathematics
Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework
Social & Emotional Development
English–
Language Arts
Mathematics
Approaches to Learning
Logic & Reasoning
Language Development
Literacy Knowledge & Skills
English Language Development
Literacy Knowledge & Skills
Mathematics Knowledge & Skills
Logic & Reasoning
Logic & Reasoning
Visual and Performing Arts
All Domains
Visual and Performing Arts
Creative Arts Expression
Physical Development
Perceptual and Motor Development
Physical Education
Physical Development & Health
Cognitive Development
Additional Domains in the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework with Corresponding Content
Approaches to Learning
Health
All Domains
Health Education Physical Development & Health
History–Social Science
Social–Emotional Development
History–Social Science
Social Studies Knowledge & Skills
Social & Emotional Development
Science
Science Knowledge & Skills
Approaches to Learning
Cognitive Development
Science
Cognitive Development
Language Development
As the Overview table indicates, the
developmental domains at the infant/
toddler level (e.g., Social–Emotional,
Language, Cognitive, and Perceptual
and Motor Development)
align with
corresponding preschool domains. The
foundations in the Social–Emotional
Logic & Reasoning
Development domain at the infant/toddler level are aligned with the Social–
Emotional Development foundations
at the preschool level. The Language
Development domain at the infant/
toddler level aligns with the Language
and Literacy domain at the preschool
116 | Overview of the Alignment
level. The infant/toddler foundations
for Language Development also align
with foundations for English-Language
Development at the preschool level.
The domain of Cognitive Development
covers a broad range of knowledge and
skills at the infant/toddler level. Some
of the cognitive competencies align
with foundations in the Mathematics
domain at the preschool level. Additionally, some cognitive competencies
align with foundations in the preschool
domains of Physical Development, History–Social Science, and Science. All
infant/toddler domains have content
that pertains, in one way or another, to
the Visual and Performing Arts domain
at the preschool level. The Perceptual
and Motor Development domain and
some components from Cognitive
Development at the infant/toddler level
align with the Physical Development
domain at the preschool level. Finally,
all domains of the infant/toddler foundations are related to the Health
foundations for preschool children.
The domains of the preschool learning foundations directly correspond to
the domains of California’s kindergarten content standards. As the Overview
table shows, the content of the Social–
Emotional Development domain at the
preschool level overlaps with content
in the Mental, Emotional, and Social
Health strand of the Health domain
at kindergarten age. The remaining
domains line up in a straightforward
manner across age levels: The preschool Language and Literacy domain
aligns with the kindergarten EnglishLanguage Arts domain; the preschool
Mathematics domain with the kindergarten Mathematics domain; the
preschool Visual and Performing Arts
domain with the kindergarten Visual
and Performing Arts domain; the
preschool Physical Development
domain with the kindergarten Physical Education domain; the preschool
Health domain with the kindergarten
Health Education domain; the preschool History-Social Science domain
with the kindergarten History-Social
Science domain; and the preschool
Science domain with the kindergarten
Science domain.
In addition to the one-to-one correspondence between the domains of
the preschool learning foundations
and those of the kindergarten content
standards, the preschool Language
and Literacy domain aligns with the
CCSS English language arts domain.
Likewise, the preschool Mathematics
domain aligns with the CCSS Mathematics domain.
The alignment between the preschool learning foundations and the
Head Start Learning Framework consists of two parts. First, for each of
the preschool learning foundations
domains, the Head Start Learning
Framework has content in a corresponding domain (in one case, two
domains). Thus, the preschool learning
foundations’ Social–Emotional Development domain aligns with the Head
Start Learning Framework’s Social
& Emotional Development domain,
the preschool Language and Literacy
domain with Head Start’s Language
Development and Literacy Knowledge
& Skills domains, the preschool English-Language Development domain
with Head Start’s English Language
Development domain, the preschool
Mathematics domain with Head Start’s
Mathematics Knowledge & Skills
domain, the preschool Visual and Performing Arts domain with Head Start’s
Creative Arts Expression domain,
the preschool Physical Development
Overview of the Alignment | 117
domain with Head Start’s Physical
Development & Health domain, the
preschool Health domain with Head
Start’s Physical Development & Health
domain, the preschool History–Social
Science domain with Head Start’s
Social Studies Knowledge & Skills
domain, and the preschool Science
domain with Head Start’s Science
Knowledge & Skills domain.
The second part of the alignment
between the content of the California
Preschool Learning Foundations and
that of the Head Start Learning Framework centers on the cross-cutting
nature of some of the domains in the
latter document. The Head Start Learning Framework’s Approaches to Learning domain has content that relates
to content in the Social–Emotional
Development, Mathematics, and Science domains of the preschool learning foundations. Similarly, the content
of the Head Start’s Logic & Reasoning
domain intersects with the preschool
learning foundations’ Social–Emotional
Development, Mathematics, Visual and
Performing Arts, and Science domains.
Two other Head Start Learning Framework domains have content that pertains to additional preschool learning
domains: Head Start’s Literacy Knowledge & Skills aligns with parts of the
preschool English-Language Development domain, and Head Start’s Social
Studies Knowledge & Skills aligns
with a few foundations in the preschool Social–Emotional Development
domain.
The following sections present an
overview of the alignment of the preschool foundations with the infant/
toddler foundations, the kindergarten
content standards, the CCSS for kindergarten, and the Head Start Learning Framework. The detailed alignment
document (http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/
cd/re/documents/QTalignment.pdf)
provides summaries of the developmental progression of the preschool
foundations in each domain as they
relate to specific infant/toddler foundations, specific CCSS, specific kindergarten content standards, and specific
competencies described in the Head
Start Learning Framework.
Alignment of the California
Infant/Toddler Learning
and Development
Foundations, Preschool
Learning Foundations,
and Kindergarten Content
Standards for Each Domain
Social–Emotional Development
This section describes an overview of
the alignment of the preschool foundations in social–emotional development
with the infant/toddler learning and
development foundations, and with
the kindergarten content standards.
Table 2 shows how the substrands
of preschool learning foundations in
social–emotional development align
with the infant/toddler foundations
in social–emotional development and
with the kindergarten content standards in mental, emotional, and social
health. A detailed alignment between
specific preschool learning foundations
for social–emotional development and
specific health education content standards for kindergarten under mental,
emotional, and social health may be
viewed at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/
cd/re/documents/QTalignmentpdf.
The infant/toddler foundations in
the social–emotional development
118 | Overview of the Alignment
domain include key aspects fundamental to the development of self, social
interactions, and relationships during
the preschool period. Table 2 displays
how the infant/toddler foundations
identity of self in relation to others, recognition of ability, expression of emotion,
empathy, emotion regulation, impulse
control, and social understanding provide the basis for the preschooler’s
development of the self. The infant/
toddler foundations identity of self in
relation to others and recognition of ability are the basis for the development
of self-awareness during the preschool
period. Similarly, emotion regulation,
impulse control, and attention maintenance during toddler years undergird
children’s capacity for self-regulation in
the preschool years. Social understanding at the infant/toddler age continues
to develop and corresponds to the preschool substrand social and emotional
understanding, and the capacity to
express empathy is linked to the preschool substrand empathy and caring.
The infant/toddler foundation recognition of ability, the ability to make things
happen and persist in trying to make
things, is aligned with the preschool
substrand initiative in learning.
The foundations in social–emotional
development at the infant/toddler
years set the stage for healthy social–
emotional competencies during the
preschool years. The infant/ toddler
foundations also include the competencies involved in social interaction
with peers and adults and in building
positive relationships with others. The
infant/toddler foundations interactions
with adults and interactions with peers
are aligned with the preschool substrands interactions with familiar adults
and interactions with peers. The preschool foundations also include skills
for group participation and cooperation
and responsibility, but these emerge
during the preschool years and therefore do not have corresponding infant/
toddler foundations. The infant/toddler foundations relationships with
adults and relationships with peers
are linked to the preschool substrands
under relationships: attachment to
parents, friendships, and close relationships with teachers and caregivers.
The kindergarten content standards
related to social–emotional development are included as part of the health
education standards under the strand
mental, emotional, and social health
rather than as a separate domain.
Table 2 shows the correspondence
between the strand and substrands
in the preschool foundations and the
kindergarten standards under mental,
emotional, and social health: essential
concepts, analyzing influences, accessing valid information, interpersonal
communication, decision making, goal
setting, practicing health-enhancing
behaviors, and health promotion. For
example, the health standard essential
concepts includes components related
to characteristics of self and family,
and therefore is aligned with the preschool substrand self-awareness. In a
similar way, the health standards goal
setting and practicing health-enhancing
behaviors focus on showing care, consideration, and concern for others and
therefore align with the preschool substrand empathy and caring. The content in the preschool substrands initiative in learning, interaction with familiar
adults, group participation, cooperation
and responsibility, and friendships
is not addressed in the kindergarten
content standards: therefore those preschool substrands are not aligned with
any kindergarten standards.
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Overview of the Alignment | 119
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&ƌŝĞŶĚƐŚŝƉƐ
ůŽƐĞZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐǁŝƚŚ dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĂŶĚĂƌĞŐŝǀĞƌƐ
ƩĂĐŚŵĞŶƚƚŽWĂƌĞŶƚƐ
ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ
'ƌŽƵƉWĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ
/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚ&ĂŵŝůŝĂƌĚƵůƚƐ
^ŽĐŝĂů/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚĚƵůƚƐ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Table 2 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
ĐĐĞƐƐŝŶŐsĂůŝĚ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ
ŶĂůLJnjŝŶŐ/ŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƐ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
/ŶƚĞƌƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
DĞŶƚĂů͕ŵŽƟŽŶĂů͕ĂŶĚ^ŽĐŝĂů,ĞĂůƚŚ
,ĞĂůƚŚĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
120 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 121
Language and Literacy
This section provides an overview of
the alignment of the preschool learning
foundations in language and literacy
with (a) the infant/toddler learning
and development foundations; (b) the
CCSS in English Language Arts and
Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, and Technical Subjects; and
(c) the kindergarten content standards
in English–language arts.
(a) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in Language
and Literacy with the Infant/
Toddler Learning and Development
Foundations in Language
Development
The infant/toddler foundations in
the Language Development domain
center on four key competencies:
receptive language (the developing ability to understand language), expressive language (the developing ability
to produce the sounds of language
and use vocabulary and increasingly
complex utterances), communication
skills and knowledge (the developing
ability to communicate nonverbally
and verbally), and interest in print (the
developing interest in exploring print
in books and the environment). These
foundations in language development
in the infant/toddler years set the
stage for the development of language
and literacy skills during the preschool
years.
Table 3 presents an overview of
the alignment between the preschool
learning foundations and the infant/
toddler foundations in language development. As table 3 indicates, the
infant/toddler foundation communication skills and knowledge continues
to develop during the preschool years
and corresponds to the preschool substrand language use and conventions.
Receptive language and expressive language skills at the infant/toddler age
link to preschool children’s developing
abilities in the substrands of grammar,
vocabulary, phonological awareness,
and comprehension and analysis of
age-appropriate text. Children’s general
interest in print in the infant/toddler
years is the beginning of children’s
learning and development described
by foundations in the preschool substrands of concepts about print, alphabetic and word/print recognition, literacy interest and response, and writing
strategies.
(b) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in Language
and Literacy with the CCSS in
English Language Arts and Literacy
in History/Social Studies, Science,
and Technical Subjects
The CCSS specify the progression
of skills and understandings, from
kindergarten through grade twelve,
in two key domains: (a) English Language Arts and Literacy in History/
Social Studies, Science, and Technical
Subjects and (b) Mathematics. The following analysis provides an overview of
the alignment between the infant/toddler learning and development foundations and the CCSS for kindergarten
in the Language and Literacy domain.
A detailed alignment between specific
preschool learning foundations in Language and Literacy and specific CCSS
for kindergarten in language arts and
literacy may be viewed at http://www.
cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/
QTalignment.pdf.
The development of foundational
concepts and skills in Language and
Literacy during the preschool years
122 | Overview of the Alignment
relate to children’s development of
reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills while in kindergarten. The
preschool learning foundations in Language and Literacy and the CCSS in
English Language Arts are organized
according to the same basic categories
(strands): listening and speaking,
reading, and writing. The CCSS in
English Language Arts and Literacy
also include a strand called language
standards. Each of the strands in
the CCSS is organized according to
broad, overarching College and Career
Readiness (CCR) anchor standards.
For each strand, alignment between
the preschool learning foundations
and the CCSS occurs at both the substrand and the foundation levels. Table
3 shows the alignment between preschool substrands and key areas (CCR
anchor standards) in the CCSS for
English language arts and literacy.
Table 3 shows that the preschool
strand listening and speaking is
aligned with the CCSS strand speaking and listening. The strand reading
in the preschool foundations is aligned
with three sets of reading standards
in the CCSS: reading standards for
literature, for informational text, and in
foundational skills and standards for
speaking and listening. The preschool
strand writing is aligned with the
CCSS strand writing, and the CCSS
strand language standards is aligned
with components in the preschool
strand listening and speaking.
Table 3 also displays the alignment
of the substrands in the preschool
foundations with corresponding key
areas (CCR anchor standards) in the
CCSS. In the strand listening and
speaking, the substrand language
use and conventions is aligned with
the CCR anchor standards for speaking and listening: comprehension and
collaboration, and presentation of
knowledge and ideas. The preschool
substrands vocabulary and grammar
are aligned with the CCR anchor standards for language: vocabulary acquisition and use, and conventions of standard English, respectively. The reading
substrands in the preschool foundations are aligned with the CCR anchor
standards for reading: key ideas and
details, craft and structure, and integration of knowledge and ideas, and with
the CCSS reading standards: foundational skills in the areas of phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics
and word recognition.
The CCSS reading standards for kindergarten—fluency and range of reading and level of text complexity—present skills that emerge in kindergarten
and therefore have no corresponding
foundations at the preschool level.
Table 3 shows the specific alignment of
the reading substrands with the CCR
anchor standards for reading. Finally,
the substrand writing strategies is
aligned with the CCR anchor standard
text types and purposes. Additional
CCSS writing standards for kindergarten exist in the areas of production
and distribution of writing and research
to build and represent knowledge,
but these do not have corresponding
foundations at the preschool level.
All preschool substrands are aligned
with corresponding CCSS, except for
the substrand literacy interest and
response.
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞhƐĞĂŶĚŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨŐĞͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞdĞdžƚ
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ
/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽĨ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĂŶĚ/ĚĞĂƐ
<ĞLJ/ĚĞĂƐĂŶĚĞƚĂŝůƐ
Phonological Awareness
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĨŽƌ>ŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĨŽƌ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂůdĞdžƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͗&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶĂů^ŬŝůůƐ
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐĂŶĚ>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
WŚŽŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐŽĨ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚŶŐůŝƐŚ
'ƌĂŵŵĂƌ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĐƋƵŝƐŝƟŽŶĂŶĚhƐĞ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ
Language Standards WƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĂŶĚ/ĚĞĂƐ
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐĂŶĚ>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƌƚƐΘ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ ŝŶ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJͬ^ŽĐŝĂů^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ and Technical Subjects
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
Common Core State Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
Table 3
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJŽŵĂŝŶ and the Common Core State Standards
Overview of the Alignment | 123
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ
ůƉŚĂďĞƟĐƐĂŶĚtŽƌĚͬ WƌŝŶƚZĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ
ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĂďŽƵƚWƌŝŶƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
Table 3;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
dĞdžƚdLJƉĞƐĂŶĚWƵƌƉŽƐĞƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
WŚŽŶŝĐƐĂŶĚtŽƌĚZĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ
WƌŝŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
ƌĂŌĂŶĚ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ
WƌŝŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĨŽƌ>ŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĨŽƌ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂůdĞdžƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͗&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶĂů^ŬŝůůƐ
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐĂŶĚ>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƌƚƐΘ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ ŝŶ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJͬ^ŽĐŝĂů^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ and Technical Subjects
Common Core State Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
124 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 125
(c) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in Language
and Literacy with the Kindergarten
Content Standards in English–
Language Arts
Table 4 provides an overview of
the alignment between the preschool
learning foundations in Language and
Literacy and the kindergarten content
standards in English–language arts.
A detailed alignment between specific
preschool learning foundations for
Language and Literacy and specific
kindergarten content standards for
English–language arts may be viewed
at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/
documents/QTalignment.pdf.
The development of foundational
concepts and skills in language and literacy during the preschool years relate
to children’s development of reading,
writing, listening, and speaking skills
while in kindergarten. The preschool
learning foundations in language and
literacy and the kindergarten content
standards in English–language arts are
organized according to the same basic
categories (strands): listening and
speaking, reading, and writing. The
kindergarten content standards also
include a strand called written and
oral English language conventions.
For each strand, alignment between
the preschool learning foundations and
the kindergarten content standards
occurs at both the substrand and
foundation/content standard levels.
Table 4 shows how the preschool
learning foundations substrand of
language use and conventions corresponds to the kindergarten content
standards of listening and speaking
strategies, speaking applications, and
written and oral English language
conventions. The eight remaining
substrands of the preschool learning
foundations link to the substrands of
the kindergarten content standards in
the following way: grammar aligns with
written and oral English language conventions (sentence structure); vocabulary aligns with vocabulary and concept
development; phonological awareness
aligns with phonemic awareness; comprehension and analysis of age-appropriate text aligns with comprehension
and analysis of grade-level-appropriate
text and with narrative analysis of
grade-level-appropriate text. Concepts
about print align with concepts about
print, structural features of informational materials, and narrative analysis
of grade-level-appropriate text; alphabetic and word/print recognition aligns
with concepts about print and decoding and word recognition; and writing
strategies align with writing strategies.
In summary, for almost every substrand of preschool learning foundations, there is at least one substrand
of kindergarten content standards that
reflects the content of those preschool
foundations. Literacy interest and
response is the only preschool foundation substrand that does not align
with any of the kindergarten content
standards.
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ
'ƌĂŵŵĂƌ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞhƐĞĂŶĚŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ ĂŶĚŽŶĐĞƉƚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂů>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͗
^ĞŶƚĞŶĐĞ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂůŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂů>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͗
^ĞŶƚĞŶĐĞ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂůŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͗
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ >ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚʹ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƌƚƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
Table 4
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJŽŵĂŝŶ and the California Content Standards
126 | Overview of the Alignment
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ
ůƉŚĂďĞƟĐƐĂŶĚtŽƌĚͬWƌŝŶƚ ZĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ
ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĂďŽƵƚWƌŝŶƚ
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨŐĞͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞdĞdžƚ
WŚŽŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐďŽƵƚ
WƌŝŶƚ͖ĞĐŽĚŝŶŐĂŶĚtŽƌĚZĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͗EĂƌƌĂƟǀĞ
ŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ'ƌĂĚĞͲ>ĞǀĞůͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞdĞdžƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ͗^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů
&ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐŽĨ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂůDĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐďŽƵƚ
WƌŝŶƚ
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͗EĂƌƌĂƟǀĞ
ŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ'ƌĂĚĞͲ>ĞǀĞůͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞdĞdžƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ͗ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ'ƌĂĚĞͲ>ĞǀĞůͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ
dĞdžƚ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗WŚŽŶĞŵŝĐ
ǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚʹ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƌƚƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
Table 4 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
Overview of the Alignment | 127
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂůŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͗^ƉĞůůŝŶŐ
tƌŝƩĞŶĂŶĚKƌĂůŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͗KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ&ŽĐƵƐ͖ WĞŶŵĂŶƐŚŝƉ
tƌŝƟŶŐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚʹ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƌƚƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
tƌŝƟŶŐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
Table 4 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
128 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 129
English-Language Development
This section provides an overview of
the alignment of the preschool foundations in English-Language Development (ELD) with the infant/toddler
foundations in Language Development
and with the kindergarten content
standards for California public schools
in ELD.
Children’s language and literacy
skills in their first language contribute
to acquiring English. Children who are
English-language learners transfer the
skills of their home language to the
process of learning English. The alignment draws the connection between
the infant/toddler foundations in Language Development and the preschool
foundations in ELD. As table 5 indicates, the development of children’s
receptive and expressive language
skills, communication skills, and interest in print in their home language
provides the foundation for their development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in English. The
infant/toddler foundation receptive
language is aligned with the preschool
ELD strand listening; the infant/toddler foundation expressive language is
aligned with the preschool ELD strand
speaking. The foundation communication skills and knowledge corresponds
to the preschool substrand of understanding and using social conventions
in English, and the infant/toddler
foundation interest in print is aligned
with the ELD strands reading and
writing.
Table 5 also presents the alignment of the preschool foundations in
ELD with the K–12 standards for ELD.
The four strands (listening, speaking,
reading and writing) in the preschool
foundations for ELD are aligned with
the content categories of California’s
ELD standards (listening and speaking, reading, writing) in K–12. The
K–12 ELD standards have three levels: beginning, intermediate, and
advanced. Similarly, the preschool
foundations in ELD are defined at the
beginning, middle, and later stages of
English acquisition.
The K–12 ELD standards do not
necessarily represent a developmental
progression from preschool to kindergarten. The K–12 ELD standards
apply to different aspects of children’s
individual levels of English acquisition.
Consequently, it is not appropriate to
align specific preschool foundations
with specific kindergarten standards in
the ELD domain. The alignment points
only to corresponding content areas
(substrands) in the preschool foundations and the K–12 ELD standards; it
does not identify the next level of English acquisition for children entering
kindergarten. Therefore, there is no
table aligning specific preschool foundations with specific K–12 standards
in the ELD domain.
The alignment draws upon the parallel content areas between the preschool foundations in ELD and the
K–12 standards in ELD. As table 5
shows, for almost every substrand
of preschool learning foundations in
ELD, there is at least one substrand
of the kindergarten content standards
that reflects the content of those preschool foundations. Two substrands
in the preschool learning foundations
have no corresponding content in the
K–12 standards in ELD: Children demonstrate an appreciation and enjoyment
of reading and literature and Children
demonstrate awareness that print carries meaning.
ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶďĞŐŝŶƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂŶĚƵƐĞ ƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵƐĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞ ŽƌĂůŶĂƌƌĂƟǀĞƐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞŝƌ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵƐĞŶŽŶǀĞƌďĂůĂŶĚ ǀĞƌďĂůƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐƚŽĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌƐ͘
^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶůŝƐƚĞŶǁŝƚŚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ͘
^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐĂŶĚƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͗KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ
ĂŶĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJŽĨ KƌĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ ĂŶĚŽŶĐĞƉƚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐĂŶĚƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͗KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ
ĂŶĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJŽĨ KƌĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ ĂŶĚŽŶĐĞƉƚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐĂŶĚƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͗
ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ
>ŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ
<ʹϭϮŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Listening California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Table 5
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽŵĂŝŶ and the California Content Standards
130 | Overview of the Alignment
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵƐĞǁƌŝƟŶŐƚŽ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞƚŚĞŝƌŝĚĞĂƐ͘
tƌŝƟŶŐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞ ƉŚŽŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶƚŚĞŝƌŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨƚŚĞĂůƉŚĂďĞƚ ŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ ƚŚĂƚƉƌŝŶƚĐĂƌƌŝĞƐŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ͘
^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐĂŶĚƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͗WĞŶŵĂŶƐŚŝƉ͖
KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ&ŽĐƵƐ
tƌŝƟŶŐ
tŽƌĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕&ůƵĞŶĐLJ͕ĂŶĚ^LJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗WŚŽŶĞŵŝĐ
ǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ͖ĞĐŽĚŝŶŐĂŶĚtŽƌĚ ZĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ͗ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ'ƌĂĚĞͲ>ĞǀĞůͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ
dĞdžƚ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞĂŶ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨƉƌŝŶƚĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͘
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ͗ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨ'ƌĂĚĞͲ>ĞǀĞůͲƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ
dĞdžƚ͖^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů&ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐŽĨ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂů
DĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƐŚŽǁĂŶŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨŬƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞĂŶ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĞŶũŽLJŵĞŶƚŽĨ ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐĂŶĚůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ͘
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
<ʹϭϮŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ZĞĂĚŝŶŐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Table 5 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
Overview of the Alignment | 131
132 | Overview of the Alignment
Mathematics
This section provides an overview of
the alignment of the preschool learning foundations in Mathematics with
(a) the infant/toddler learning and
development foundations in Cognitive
Development, (b) the CCSS for mathematics, and (c) the kindergarten content standards for mathematics.
(a) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in
Mathematics with the Infant/
Toddler Learning and Development
Foundations in Cognitive
Development
A range of core mathematical abilities identified in the preschool learning foundations in Mathematics
emerge and begin to develop during
the infant/toddler years. Five of the
infant/toddler foundations in Cognitive Development center on key mathematical concepts and skills: number
sense, classification, understanding
of personal care routines, spatial relationships, and problem solving. These
foundations in Cognitive Development
during the infant/toddler years set
the stage for the development of mathematical skills during the preschool
years.
Table 6 shows how the infant/toddler foundation number sense corresponds to the preschool substrands
related to number sense, focusing on
children’s understanding of quantity,
number relationships, and operations
(addition and subtraction). Similarly,
the infant/toddler foundation classification corresponds to the preschool
substrand classification, focusing on
children’s continuous development of
the ability to sort and classify objects
in their everyday environment. The
infant/toddler foundation understand-
ing of personal care routine is linked
to children’s ability to identify simple
repeating patterns. The daily routine
follows a pattern, and children are
able to anticipate and or predict what
comes next. Spatial relationships,
the developing understanding in the
infant/toddler years of how things
move and fit in space, set the stage for
children’s learning about shapes and
positions in space (geometry strand)
and about comparing, ordering and
measuring objects (measurement
strand). The development of problemsolving skills in the infant/toddler
years is linked to children’s mathematical reasoning, the ability to use mathematical thinking to solve problems that
arise in their everyday environment.
(b) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in
Mathematics with the Common Core
State Standards in Mathematics
The foundations and the CCSS in
Mathematics cover the same key areas
of learning. The first four strands in
the preschool foundations in Mathematics are aligned with CCSS for
mathematical content. The preschool
strand number sense is aligned with
the CCSS categories: counting and cardinality, operations and algebraic thinking, and number and operations in base
ten.
The preschool strand algebra and
functions (classification and patterning) is aligned with components
in the CCSS category of measurement
and data. Content related to classification appears under algebra and functions in the preschool foundations
and under measurement and data in
the CCSS. The preschool strand measurement is aligned with the CCSS of
measurement and data, and the strand
Overview of the Alignment | 133
geometry is directly aligned with the
CCSS cluster of standards in geometry. The last preschool strand, mathematical reasoning, is aligned with
the CCSS for mathematical practices.
Table 6 shows the alignment between
strands and substrands in the preschool foundations and the content
categories in the CCSS for Mathematics. The detailed alignment between
specific preschool foundations and
specific kindergarten standards in the
CCSS for Mathematics may be viewed
at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/
documents/QTalignment.pdf.
For every substrand of the preschool learning foundations, there
is a category in the CCSS with corresponding content. The substrands
under number sense—understanding
numbers and quantities and understanding number relationships and
operations—correspond directly to the
CCSS in the categories counting and
cardinality and operations and algebraic thinking, respectively. Content
in number and operations in base ten
of the CCSS is too advanced for there
to be corresponding content in the
preschool foundations. The preschool
substrand addressing sorting and classifying objects aligns with the CCSS of
classify objects and count the number
of objects in each category. However,
preschool substrand 2.0 on patterning
has no corresponding content in the
CCSS. The preschool strand on measurement, about comparing, ordering,
and measuring objects, is aligned with
the kindergarten CCSS of Describe and
compare measurable attributes. The
preschool substrand under geometry
(Children identify and use a variety of
shapes in their environment) is aligned
with the standards in the CCSS categories under geometry: Identify and
describe shapes and Analyze, compare,
create, and compose shapes. Finally,
the preschool substrand Children use
mathematical thinking to solve problems, under the strand mathematical
reasoning is aligned with the CCSS for
mathematical practices. These include
processes that involve mathematical
problem solving such as Make sense
of problems and persevere in solving
them, and Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƐŽƌƚĂŶĚĐůĂƐƐŝĨLJŽďũĞĐƚƐŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞͬĞdžƉĂŶĚ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨƐŝŵƉůĞƌĞƉĞĂƟŶŐ ƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ͘
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨWĞƌƐŽŶĂůZŽƵƟŶĞ
ůŐĞďƌĂĂŶĚ&ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ;ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚWĂƩĞƌŶŝŶŐͿ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŶƵŵďĞƌ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐĂŶĚŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚƋƵĂŶƟƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
ŽƵŶƟŶŐĂŶĚĂƌĚŝŶĂůŝƚLJ
Number Sense
ůĂƐƐŝĨLJŽďũĞĐƚƐĂŶĚĐŽƵŶƚƚŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨŽďũĞĐƚƐŝŶĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ
Measurement and Data
tŽƌŬǁŝƚŚŶƵŵďĞƌƐϭϭʹϭϵƚŽŐĂŝŶ
ĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐĨŽƌƉůĂĐĞǀĂůƵĞ
EƵŵďĞƌĂŶĚKƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐŝŶĂƐĞdĞŶ
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂƐƉƵƫŶŐƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ĂŶĚĂĚĚŝŶŐƚŽ͕ĂŶĚƐƵďƚƌĂĐƟŽŶĂƐƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂƉĂƌƚĂŶĚƚĂŬŝŶŐĨƌŽŵ
KƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚůŐĞďƌĂŝĐdŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ
ŽŵƉĂƌĞŶƵŵďĞƌƐ
ŽƵŶƚƚŽƚĞůůƚŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨŽďũĞĐƚƐ
<ŶŽǁŶƵŵďĞƌŶĂŵĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽƵŶƚ
ƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Common Core State Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ
EƵŵďĞƌ^ĞŶƐĞ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 6
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞDĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐŽŵĂŝŶĂŶĚƚŚĞŽŵŵŽŶŽƌĞ^ƚĂƚĞ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
134 | Overview of the Alignment
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƉŽƐŝƟŽŶƐ ŝŶƐƉĂĐĞ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶŝĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚƵƐĞƐŚĂƉĞƐ͘
'ĞŽŵĞƚƌLJ
/ĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐŚĂƉĞƐ;ƐƋƵĂƌĞƐ͕ ĐŝƌĐůĞƐ͕ƚƌŝĂŶŐůĞƐ͕ƌĞĐƚĂŶŐůĞƐ͕ŚĞdžĂŐŽŶƐ͕ ĐƵďĞƐ͕ĐŽŶĞƐ͕ĐLJůŝŶĚĞƌƐ͕ĂŶĚƐƉŚĞƌĞƐͿ͘
ŶĂůLJnjĞ͕ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ͕ĐƌĞĂƚĞ͕ĂŶĚĐŽŵƉŽƐĞ ƐŚĂƉĞƐ͘
/ĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐŚĂƉĞƐ;ƐƋƵĂƌĞƐ͕
ĐŝƌĐůĞƐ͕ƚƌŝĂŶŐůĞƐ͕ƌĞĐƚĂŶŐůĞƐ͕ŚĞdžĂŐŽŶƐ͕
ĐƵďĞƐ͕ĐŽŶĞƐ͕ĐLJůŝŶĚĞƌƐ͕ĂŶĚƐƉŚĞƌĞƐͿ͘
'ĞŽŵĞƚƌLJ
ĞƐĐƌŝďĞĂŶĚĐŽŵƉĂƌĞŵĞĂƐƵƌĂďůĞ ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞƐ
Measurement and Data
Measurement ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ͕ŽƌĚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞŽďũĞĐƚƐ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Common Core State Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 6 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
Overview of the Alignment | 135
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵƐĞŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚŽƐŽůǀĞƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ
ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 6 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
>ŽŽŬĨŽƌĂŶĚĞdžƉƌĞƐƐƌĞŐƵůĂƌŝƚLJŝŶ
ƌĞƉĞĂƚĞĚƌĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ͘
>ŽŽŬĨŽƌĂŶĚŵĂŬĞƵƐĞŽĨƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘
ƩĞŶĚƚŽƉƌĞĐŝƐŝŽŶ͘
hƐĞĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞƚŽŽůƐƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJ͘
DŽĚĞůǁŝƚŚŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ͘
ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚǀŝĂďůĞĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚĐƌŝƟƋƵĞ ƚŚĞƌĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐŽĨŽƚŚĞƌƐ͘
ZĞĂƐŽŶĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚůLJĂŶĚƋƵĂŶƟƚĂƟǀĞůLJ͘
DĂŬĞƐĞŶƐĞŽĨƉƌŽďůĞŵƐĂŶĚƉĞƌƐĞǀĞƌĞ ŝŶƐŽůǀŝŶŐƚŚĞŵ͘
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĨŽƌDĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůWƌĂĐƟĐĞ
;<ͲϭϮͿ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Common Core State Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
136 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 137
(c) Alignment of the Preschool
Learning Foundations in
Mathematics with the Mathematics
Content Standards for Kindergarten
The foundations and the kindergarten standards cover the same general
categories (strands): number sense,
algebra and functions (classification and patterning), measurement,
geometry, and mathematical reasoning. In the kindergarten content standards, there is an additional strand:
statistics, data analysis, and probability, which focuses on data collection and patterning. In addition, kindergarten standards in measurement
and geometry are combined into one
strand, measurement and geometry,
rather than divided into two separate
strands. Table 7 shows the alignment
between strands and substrands in the
preschool foundations and the kindergarten strands and substrands. The
detailed alignment between specific
preschool foundations and specific
kindergarten content standards for
Mathematics may be viewed at http://
www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/QTalignment.pdf.
As table 7 indicates, the strands in
the preschool foundations correspond
directly to strands in the kindergarten
standards. For every substrand of the
preschool learning foundations, there
are kindergarten content standards
that reflect the content of those preschool foundations. The substrands
under number sense, understanding
numbers and quantities and understanding number relationships and
operations, correspond directly to the
kindergarten content standards of
number sense: Students understand
the relationships between numbers and
quantities, and students understand
and describe simple additions and subtractions. The substrand addressing
sorting and classifying objects aligns
with the kindergarten substrand Students sort and classify objects, and
the patterning substrand aligns with
the kindergarten substrand Students
collect information about objects and
events in their environment. The preschool strand on measurement (about
comparing, ordering, and measuring
objects) is aligned with the kindergarten substrand under measurement and geometry in which students
understand that objects have properties, such as length, weight, and
capacity, and that comparisons may
be made by referring to those properties. The preschool substrand under
geometry, Children identify and use a
variety of shapes in their environment,
is aligned with the second kindergarten substrand under measurement
and geometry: Students identify common objects in their environment and
describe the geometric features. The
preschool geometry substrand on the
understanding of positions in space
is aligned with substrands outside
the mathematics domain. It is directly
related to kindergarten content in
the physical education standards
for movement concepts, and in history–social science: Students compare
and contrast the locations of people,
places, and environments and describe
their characteristics. Finally, the preschool strand mathematical reasoning
matches the kindergarten strand mathematical reasoning.
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƐŽƌƚĂŶĚĐůĂƐƐŝĨLJŽďũĞĐƚƐ ŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞͬĞdžƉĂŶĚ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨƐŝŵƉůĞƌĞƉĞĂƟŶŐ ƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ͘
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨWĞƌƐŽŶĂůZŽƵƟŶĞ
ůŐĞďƌĂĂŶĚ&ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŶƵŵďĞƌ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐĂŶĚŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĐŽůůĞĐƚŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂďŽƵƚ
ŽďũĞĐƚƐĂŶĚĞǀĞŶƚƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͕ĂƚĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕ĂŶĚWƌŽďĂďŝůŝƚLJ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐŽƌƚĂŶĚĐůĂƐƐŝĨLJŽďũĞĐƚƐ͘
ůŐĞďƌĂĂŶĚ&ƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞ
ƐŝŵƉůĞĂĚĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƐƵďƚƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ͘
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ
ďĞƚǁĞĞŶŶƵŵďĞƌƐĂŶĚƋƵĂŶƟƟĞƐ͘
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ
ďĞƚǁĞĞŶŶƵŵďĞƌƐĂŶĚƋƵĂŶƟƟĞƐ͘
Number Sense
Number Sense
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚƋƵĂŶƟƟĞƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ
EƵŵďĞƌ^ĞŶƐĞ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 7
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞDĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐŽŵĂŝŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂŽŶƚĞŶƚ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
138 | Overview of the Alignment
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƉŽƐŝƟŽŶƐ ŝŶƐƉĂĐĞ͘
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶŝĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚƵƐĞƐŚĂƉĞƐ͘
'ĞŽŵĞƚƌLJ
<͘ϰ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĂŶĚĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚ
ƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ƉůĂĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ
ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƚŚĞŝƌ
ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͘
ŽŵĂŝŶ͗,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨ
ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͕ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ
ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƉƉůLJƚŽƚŚĞůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ
ĂŶĚƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞŽĨƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘
ŽŵĂŝŶ͗WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϮ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝĚĞŶƟĨLJĐŽŵŵŽŶŽďũĞĐƚƐŝŶ
ƚŚĞŝƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƚŚĞ
ŐĞŽŵĞƚƌŝĐĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ͘
DĞĂƐƵƌĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ'ĞŽŵĞƚƌLJ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚŽďũĞĐƚƐŚĂǀĞ
ƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐůĞŶŐƚŚ͕ǁĞŝŐŚƚ͕ĂŶĚ
ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĂƚĐŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶƐŵĂLJďĞ ŵĂĚĞďLJƌĞĨĞƌƌŝŶŐƚŽƚŚŽƐĞƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ͘
DĞĂƐƵƌĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ'ĞŽŵĞƚƌLJ Measurement ŚŝůĚƌĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ͕ŽƌĚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞŽďũĞĐƚƐ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 7 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
Overview of the Alignment | 139
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚŝůĚƌĞŶƵƐĞŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚŽƐŽůǀĞƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ
ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
Table 7 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐŽůǀĞƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŝŶƌĞĂƐŽŶĂďůĞ
ǁĂLJƐĂŶĚũƵƐƟĨLJƚŚĞŝƌƌĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ͘
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŵĂŬĞĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐĂďŽƵƚŚŽǁƚŽ
ƐĞƚƵƉĂƉƌŽďůĞŵ͘
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
140 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 141
Visual and Performing Arts
This section describes the alignment
of the preschool foundations in the
Visual and Performing Arts with the
infant/toddler learning and development foundations and the California
content standards for kindergarten in
the Visual and Performing Arts (visual
arts, music, theatre, and dance).
The skills and knowledge in the
Visual and Performing Arts are built
on ones that children develop in the
Language, Perceptual, Motor, Cognitive, and Social–Emotional Development domains. Whether children
improvise vocally and instrumentally
or act out with others through music
and movement, the visual arts, music,
drama, and dance tap children’s intellectual, social, and physical competencies. Children’s developing capacity to
communicate, express themselves
verbally, move their bodies with competence, engage in symbolic play,
interact with peers and adults cooperatively, along with other skills, form
the foundation of their development
in the Visual and Performing Arts. For
this reason, as table 8 indicates, the
Visual and Performing Arts domain
is aligned with all four developmental
domains in the infant/toddler foundations: Social–Emotional Development,
Language Development, Cognitive
Development, and Perceptual and
Motor Development. Each domain
plays a role in children’s development
in the Visual and Performing Arts.
The preschool learning foundations
in visual art, music, drama, and dance
are also aligned with the kindergarten
content standards in the corresponding domains: Visual Arts, Music,
Theatre, and Dance. The kindergarten content standards in each artistic
domain are organized by the following main categories (strands): artistic
perception, creative expression,
historical and cultural context,
aesthetic valuing, and connections,
relationships, applications. Table
8 shows the alignment between preschool substrands and kindergarten
strands in Visual Arts, Music, Theatre,
and Dance. The detailed alignment
between specific preschool foundations and specific kindergarten content
standards in the Visual and Performing Arts domains may be viewed at
http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/
documents/QTalignment.pdf.
In general, the preschool substrand
notice, respond, and engage, in each
artistic discipline, is aligned with the
kindergarten strands artistic perception
and aesthetic valuing. In some strands,
the preschool substrand notice,
respond, and engage is also aligned
with components of the kindergarten
strand historical and cultural context.
The other two preschool substrands—
develop skills and create, invent, and
express—are aligned with the kindergarten strand creative expression. As
table 8 indicates, for every substrand
of the preschool learning foundations
in the Visual and Performing Arts,
there is at least one substrand of the
kindergarten content standards that
reflects the content of the corresponding preschool foundations.
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ƌĞĂƚĞ͕/ŶǀĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚdžƉƌĞƐƐ dŚƌŽƵŐŚsŝƐƵĂůƌƚ
ĞǀĞůŽƉ^ŬŝůůƐŝŶsŝƐƵĂůƌƚ
EŽƟĐĞ͕ZĞƐƉŽŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŶŐĂŐĞ
Visual Art
Visual and Performing Arts
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Visual and Performing Arts
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶdŚƌŽƵŐŚKƌŝŐŝŶĂůtŽƌŬƐŽĨƌƚ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉWĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂů ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚsŝƐƵĂůƌƚƐsŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗^ŬŝůůƐ͕WƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͕
DĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͕ĂŶĚdŽŽůƐ͖ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶdŚƌŽƵŐŚKƌŝŐŝŶĂůtŽƌŬƐŽĨƌƚ
ĞƐƚŚĞƟĐsĂůƵŝŶŐ͗ ĞƌŝǀĞDĞĂŶŝŶŐ͖DĂŬĞ
/ŶĨŽƌŵĞĚ:ƵĚŐŵĞŶƚƐ
,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂŶĚƵůƚƵƌĂůŽŶƚĞdžƚ͗ ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨƚŚĞsŝƐƵĂůƌƚƐ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ ĞǀĞůŽƉWĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂů
^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚsŝƐƵĂůƌƚƐsŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ͖ŶĂůLJnjĞ
ƌƚůĞŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚWƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐŽĨĞƐŝŐŶ
Visual Art
sŝƐƵĂůĂŶĚWĞƌĨŽƌŵŝŶŐƌƚƐ͗sŝƐƵĂů
Arts, Music, Theatre, and Dance
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
Table 8
Overview of the Alignment Between the Visual and Performing Arts Domain and the California Content Standards
142 | Overview of the Alignment
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ĞǀĞůŽƉ^ŬŝůůhƐĞĚƚŽƌĞĂƚĞ͕/ŶǀĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚdžƉƌĞƐƐdŚƌŽƵŐŚƌĂŵĂ
EŽƟĐĞ͕ZĞƐƉŽŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŶŐĂŐĞ
Drama
ƌĞĂƚĞ͕/ŶǀĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚdžƉƌĞƐƐ dŚƌŽƵŐŚDƵƐŝĐ
ĞǀĞůŽƉ^ŬŝůůƐŝŶDƵƐŝĐ
EŽƟĐĞ͕ZĞƐƉŽŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŶŐĂŐĞ
Music
Visual and Performing Arts
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Visual and Performing Arts
Table 8 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂŶĚƵůƚƵƌĂůŽŶƚĞdžƚ͗ ZŽůĞĂŶĚ
ƵůƚƵƌĂů^ŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶĐĞŽĨdŚĞĂƚƌĞ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨ
dŚĞĂƚƌŝĐĂů^ŬŝůůƐ͖ƌĞĂƟŽŶͬ/ŶǀĞŶƟŽŶŝŶ dŚĞĂƚƌĞ
ĞƐƚŚĞƟĐsĂůƵŝŶŐ͗ƌŝƟĐĂůƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ
ŽĨdŚĞĂƚƌĞ͖ĞƌŝǀĂƟŽŶŽĨDĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƌŽŵ
tŽƌŬƐŽĨdŚĞĂƚƌĞ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ
sŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJŽĨdŚĞĂƚƌĞ͖ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ
ĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƚŚĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐŽĨdŚĞĂƚƌĞ
Theatre
ĞƐƚŚĞƟĐsĂůƵŝŶŐ͗ĞƌŝǀĞDĞĂŶŝŶŐ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗ ŽŵƉŽƐĞ͕ƌƌĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ/ŵƉƌŽǀŝƐĞ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗ƉƉůLJsŽĐĂůĂŶĚ
/ŶƐƚƌƵŵĞŶƚĂů^ŬŝůůƐ
ĞƐƚŚĞƟĐsĂůƵŝŶŐ͗ ĞƌŝǀĞDĞĂŶŝŶŐ
,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂŶĚƵůƚƵƌĂůŽŶƚĞdžƚ͗ ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨDƵƐŝĐ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗>ŝƐƚĞŶƚŽ͕ŶĂůLJnjĞ͕ ĂŶĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞDƵƐŝĐ
Music
sŝƐƵĂůĂŶĚWĞƌĨŽƌŵŝŶŐƌƚƐ͗sŝƐƵĂů
Arts, Music, Theatre, and Dance
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
Overview of the Alignment | 143
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ƌĞĂƚĞ͕/ŶǀĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚdžƉƌĞƐƐ dŚƌŽƵŐŚĂŶĐĞ
ĞǀĞůŽƉ^ŬŝůůƐŝŶĂŶĐĞ
EŽƟĐĞ͕ZĞƐƉŽŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŶŐĂŐĞ
Dance
Visual and Performing Arts
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Visual and Performing Arts
Table 8 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͗ƌĞĂƟŽŶͬ/ŶǀĞŶƟŽŶ ŽĨĂŶĐĞDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ
DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϮ
DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͖ ZŚLJƚŚŵŝĐ^ŬŝůůƐ
ŽŵĂŝŶ͗WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨDŽƚŽƌ
^ŬŝůůĂŶĚdĞĐŚŶŝĐĂůdžƉĞƌƟƐĞ
ĞƐƚŚĞƟĐsĂůƵŝŶŐ͗ĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶ͕ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕ ĂŶĚƌŝƟĐŝƐŵŽĨĂŶĐĞ
ƌƟƐƟĐWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨ DŽƚŽƌ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚdĞĐŚŶŝĐĂůdžƉĞƌƟƐĞ͖ ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨĂŶĐĞ
ůĞŵĞŶƚƐ͖ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨĂŶĐĞsŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ
Dance
sŝƐƵĂůĂŶĚWĞƌĨŽƌŵŝŶŐƌƚƐ͗sŝƐƵĂů
Arts, Music, Theatre, and Dance
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
144 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 145
Physical Development
This section describes an overview of
the alignment of the preschool foundations in Physical Development with the
infant/toddler learning and development foundations in the domains of
Perceptual–Motor Development and
Cognitive Development, and with the
physical education content standards
in kindergarten. Table 9 shows how
the strands and substrands of the preschool learning foundations in Physical Development align with infant/toddler foundations in the Perceptual and
Motor and the Cognitive Development
domains and with the physical education content standards for kindergarten. The detailed alignment between
specific preschool learning foundations
in Physical Development and specific
kindergarten content standards in
physical education may be viewed at
http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/
docuemnts/QTalignment.pdf.
Core concepts and a range of skills
identified in the preschool learning
foundations in Physical Development
emerge and develop during the infant/
toddler years. The infant/toddler foundations in Perceptual and Motor Development (gross motor, fine motor, and
perceptual development) and the Cognitive Development foundation (spatial relationships) set the stage for the
development of key skills and concepts
in Physical Development during the
preschool years. Table 9 displays the
alignment between the infant/toddler
foundations in Perceptual and Motor
Development and spatial relationships,
and the strands and substrands covered in the preschool learning foundations in Physical Development. As
table 9 indicates, the infant/toddler
foundation gross motor is aligned with
the substrands balance and locomotor
skills, and the foundation fine motor
corresponds to the preschool substrand manipulative skills. Perceptual
development and spatial relationships
set the stage for children’s development of spatial awareness and directional awareness.
The preschool learning foundations in Physical Development are also
aligned with the physical education
content standards in kindergarten. The
kindergarten standards consist of five
main standards in the following areas:
s + ˆ MOTOR SKILLS AND MOVEMENT
patterns
s + ˆ KNOWLEDGE OF MOVEMENT CONcepts, principles, and strategies
s + ˆ LEVEL OF PHYSICAL lTNESS
s + ˆ KNOWLEDGE OF PHYSICAL lTNESS
concepts, principles, and strategies
s + ˆ KNOWLEDGE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
and sociological concepts, principles,
and strategies that apply to the
learning and performance of physical activity
The standards cover a broad range
of concepts and skills organized by
categories such as movement concepts,
body management, locomotor movement, manipulative skills, rhythmic
skills, fitness concepts, and aerobic
capacity. The kindergarten standards
K.1–K.4 in physical education are
aligned with the preschool foundations
in Physical Development. Kindergarten
standard K.5 involves knowledge and
skills that are not reflected in the preschool foundations in Physical Development and therefore is not included
in this alignment. Table 9 shows the
alignment between strands and substrands in the domain of Physical
Development with key content standards for kindergarten in physical edu-
146 | Overview of the Alignment
cation. For every strand and substrand
in the preschool learning foundations
in Physical Development, there are
kindergarten content standards that
reflect the content of those preschool
foundations. The strands fundamental
movement skills and perceptual–
motor skills and movement concepts
are aligned with the kindergarten
physical education standards focusing
on skills and knowledge of movement
(standards K.1 and K.2). The strand
active physical play is aligned with
the kindergarten standards focusing
on skills and knowledge of physical fitness (standards K.3 and K.4).
Table 9 also displays the correspondence between the preschool
substrands and the categories of concepts and skills covered in each of the
kindergarten standards in physical
education. The substrand balance corresponds to skills in the category of
body management; the substrand loco-
motor skills is aligned with kindergarten category locomotor movement; and
the substrand manipulative skills corresponds directly to the kindergarten
category manipulative skills. Similarly,
in the second strand of the preschool
foundations, the substrand body
awareness is aligned with body management; the substrand spatial awareness is aligned with the kindergarten
category movement concepts; and the
concepts and skills in the substrand
directional awareness correspond to
skills and concepts in two categories of
kindergarten standards: body management and movement concepts. Finally,
in the strand of active physical play,
the substrand active participation is
aligned with fitness concepts; cardiovascular endurance is aligned with aerobic capacity; and the substrand muscular strength, muscular endurance,
and flexibility is directly aligned with
the kindergarten categories muscular
strength/endurance and flexibility.
^ƉĂƟĂůǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
ŝƌĞĐƟŽŶĂůǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
;ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
ŽĚLJǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůDŽƚŽƌ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚ DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
DĂŶŝƉƵůĂƟǀĞ^ŬŝůůƐ
>ŽĐŽŵŽƚŽƌ^ŬŝůůƐ
ĂůĂŶĐĞ
&ƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ^ŬŝůůƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
;ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
&ŝŶĞDŽƚŽƌ
'ƌŽƐƐDŽƚŽƌ
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ůƐŽĂůŝŐŶĞĚǁŝƚŚĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĨƌŽŵ͗
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϭĂŶĚϮͿ
ŽĚLJDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭͿ
DŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϭĂŶĚϮͿ
ŽĚLJDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϮͿ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭ͗DŽƚŽƌ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ
WĂƩĞƌŶƐ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϮ͗<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ
ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
DĂŶŝƉƵůĂƟǀĞ^ŬŝůůƐ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭͿ
>ŽĐŽŵŽƚŽƌDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϭĂŶĚϮͿ
ŽĚLJDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭͿ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϭ͗DŽƚŽƌ^ŬŝůůƐĂŶĚDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ
WĂƩĞƌŶƐ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϮ͗<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨDŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ
ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
dĂďůĞϵ
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞWŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽŵĂŝŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂŽŶƚĞŶƚ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
Overview of the Alignment | 147
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ůƐŽĂůŝŐŶĞĚǁŝƚŚĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĨƌŽŵ͗
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ĞƌŽďŝĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϯĂŶĚϰͿ
ĂƌĚŝŽǀĂƐĐƵůĂƌŶĚƵƌĂŶĐĞ
DƵƐĐƵůĂƌ^ƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ͕DƵƐĐƵůĂƌ ŶĚƵƌĂŶĐĞ͕ĂŶĚ&ůĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ
&ŝƚŶĞƐƐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϯĂŶĚϰͿ
ĐƟǀĞWĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ
&ůĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϯĂŶĚϰͿ
DƵƐĐƵůĂƌ^ƚƌĞŶŐƚŚͬŶĚƵƌĂŶĐĞ ;^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐϯĂŶĚϰͿ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϯ͗>ĞǀĞůŽĨWŚLJƐŝĐĂů&ŝƚŶĞƐƐ
^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚϰ͗<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨWŚLJƐŝĐĂů&ŝƚŶĞƐƐ
ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
ĐƟǀĞWŚLJƐŝĐĂůWůĂLJ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
dĂďůĞϵ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
148 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 149
Health
This section describes an overview
of the alignment of the preschool foundations in health science with the
infant/toddler learning and development foundations and the California
health education content standards for
kindergarten. The detailed alignment
between specific preschool learning
foundations in Health and specific kindergarten content standards in Health
Education may be viewed at http://
www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/QTalignment.pdf.
The basic skills and concepts
acquired during the infant/toddler
years set the stage for the development of health behaviors and concepts
during the preschool years. Whether
washing hands, communicating to an
adult about not feeling well, following
emergency routines, or demonstrating knowledge of body parts, children
practice health habits and understand
concepts that draw on cognitive, language, social, and physical competencies. Children’s developing capacity
to communicate, establish relationships with adults in the environment,
understand and participate in personal
care routines, reason about cause and
effect, perform fine-motor manipulative activities, and acquire other skills
forms the foundation of health concepts, skills, and behaviors. For this
reason, as shown in Table 10, the preschool health domain is aligned with
all four developmental domains in the
infant/toddler foundations: Social–
Emotional Development, Language
Development, Cognitive Development,
and Perceptual and Motor Development. Each domain plays a role in
children’s development of health practices, knowledge, and skills.
As children grow, they develop a
deeper understanding of the concepts
related to health and illness; have
a greater ability to practice healthenhancing behaviors; and communicate and reason about health concepts. The kindergarten standards in
health education cover a broader range
of content areas, and include more
aspects of health concepts, behaviors,
and skills. The health education standards in kindergarten are organized
according to the following categories
(strands): nutrition and physical
activity; growth and development;
injury prevention and safety, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; mental, emotional and social health;
and personal and community health.
Table 10 shows the alignment of the
kindergarten strands in health education with the strands in the preschool foundations. The first preschool
strand, health habits, is aligned with
two of the kindergarten strands (personal and community health and
growth and development). The preschool strand, safety, is aligned with
the kindergarten strand injury prevention and safety, and nutrition is
aligned with the kindergarten strand
nutrition and physical activity. The
content in the kindergarten strand
alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is
not addressed in the preschool foundations; therefore that strand is not
part of the alignment. The content
in the kindergarten strand mental,
emotional, and social health maps
to the content in the preschool foundations in Social–Emotional Development; therefore, it is aligned with the
preschool foundations in Social–Emotional Development rather than with
the Health foundations.
150 | Overview of the Alignment
Each strand in the kindergarten
standards in health education includes
standards related to key areas in
health: essential concepts, analyzing
influences, accessing valid information,
interpersonal communication, decision making, goal setting, practicing
health-enhancing behaviors, and health
promotion. Table 10 also displays the
alignment between the substrands in
the preschool foundations in Health
and the kindergarten standards in
health education. For example, the
preschool substrands basic hygiene
and oral health are aligned with two
kindergarten standards in personal
and community health: essential concepts and practicing health-enhancing
behaviors. As Table 10 indicates, for
every strand and substrand in the preschool learning foundations in health
there is a corresponding category of
kindergarten content standards, with
the exception of the preschool substrand self-regulation of eating.
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
^ƵŶ^ĂĨĞƚLJ
<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨtĞůůŶĞƐƐ
KƌĂů,ĞĂůƚŚ
ĂƐŝĐ,LJŐŝĞŶĞ
Health Habits
Health
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Health
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ,ĞĂůƚŚ
/ŶƚĞƌƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
ĐĐĞƐƐŝŶŐsĂůŝĚ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ,ĞĂůƚŚ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
'ƌŽǁƚŚĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
WƌĂĐƟĐŝŶŐ,ĞĂůƚŚͲŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐĞŚĂǀŝŽƌ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ,ĞĂůƚŚ
WƌĂĐƟĐŝŶŐ,ĞĂůƚŚͲŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐĞŚĂǀŝŽƌƐ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ,ĞĂůƚŚ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ,ĞĂůƚŚ
'ƌŽǁƚŚĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
,ĞĂůƚŚĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
Table 10
Overview of the Alignment Between the Health Domain and the California Content Standards
Overview of the Alignment | 151
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
WĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůĂŶĚDŽƚŽƌĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
^ĞůĨͲZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨĂƟŶŐ
EƵƚƌŝƟŽŶŚŽŝĐĞƐ
EƵƚƌŝƟŽŶ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
EƵƚƌŝƟŽŶ
/ŶũƵƌLJWƌĞǀĞŶƟŽŶ
/ŶũƵƌLJWƌĞǀĞŶƟŽŶĂŶĚ^ĂĨĞƚLJ
^ĂĨĞƚLJ
WƌĂĐƟĐŝŶŐ,ĞĂůƚŚͲŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐĞŚĂǀŝŽƌƐ
/ŶƚĞƌƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
ŶĂůLJnjŝŶŐ/ŶŇƵĞŶĐĞƐ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
EƵƚƌŝƟŽŶĂŶĚWŚLJƐŝĐĂůĐƟǀŝƚLJ
WƌĂĐƟĐŝŶŐ,ĞĂůƚŚͲŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐĞŚĂǀŝŽƌƐ
ĞĐŝƐŝŽŶDĂŬŝŶŐ
/ŶƚĞƌƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
ĐĐĞƐƐŝŶŐsĂůŝĚ/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ
ƐƐĞŶƟĂůŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ
,ĞĂůƚŚĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
Health
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Health
Table 10 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
152 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 153
History–Social Science
This section describes an overview
of the alignment of the preschool
foundations in History–Social Science
with the infant/toddler learning and
development foundations and with the
California content standards in history–social science for kindergarten.
Table 11 shows how the strands and
substrands of the preschool learning
foundations in History–Social Science
align with the infant/toddler foundations and with the kindergarten content standards in history–social science. The detailed alignment between
specific preschool learning foundations and specific kindergarten content standards in history–social science may be viewed at http://www.
cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/
QTalignment.pdf.
As table 11 indicates, the preschool
foundations in History–Social Science, particularly the strands self and
society and becoming a preschool
community member, are aligned
with infant/toddler foundations in the
domains of social–emotional development and cognitive development. The
preschool substrand culture and diversity is aligned with the infant/toddler
foundation identity of self in relation to
others. In preschool, children’s sense
of self develops and encompasses their
cultural, ethnic, and racial identity.
The substrand relationships, which
focuses on children’s ability to create
and maintain relationships with adults
and friends, is aligned with the infant/
toddler foundations relationships with
adults and relationships with peers.
The range of competencies under
the strand becoming a preschool
community member (civics), including skills for democratic participation,
responsible conduct, fairness and
respect for other people, and conflict
resolution, are aligned with the following infant/toddler foundations:
interactions with adults, interactions
with peers, empathy, impulse control,
and problem solving. These social and
cognitive competencies set the stage
for preschoolers to become responsible and cooperative group members,
be attentive to others’ feelings and
needs, and be capable of negotiation
and compromise while resolving conflicts. Finally, the substrands under
sense of place navigating familiar
locations and understanding the physical world through drawings and maps
are aligned with the infant/toddler
foundation spatial relationships, the
early understanding of the location of
objects in space.
The kindergarten content standards
in history–social science consist of
six key standards (K.1–K.6). Table 11
shows the alignment between preschool substrands/foundations and
the kindergarten substrands, and
table. As table 11 indicates, the first
three content standards are aligned
with substrands under the strand self
and society. The substrand culture
and diversity is aligned with standard
K.2, recognition of national and state
symbols. The substrand relationships,
and all substrands under the strand
becoming a preschool community member (civics), are aligned with kindergarten standard K.1, which focuses on
students’ understanding that being a
good citizen involves acting in a certain
way. The substrand social roles and
occupations is directly related to standard K.3, which focuses on children’s
knowledge of people’s occupations at
school and in the local community.
154 | Overview of the Alignment
The preschool substrand related to
sense of time understanding past
events is aligned with standard K.5,
which describes students’ ability to
put events in temporal order; the substrand historical changes in people and
the world is aligned with kindergarten standard K.6, the understanding
that history relates to events, people,
and places. Finally, the preschool
substrands related to sense of place
navigating familiar locations and understanding the physical world through
drawing and maps are aligned with
kindergarten standard K.4, the ability
to compare and contrast the locations
of people, places, and environments
and describe their characteristics.
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ ;ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
ĂƵƐĞĂŶĚīĞĐƚ ;ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
ŵƉĂƚŚLJ
/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚWĞĞƌƐ
/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚĚƵůƚƐ
/ŵƉƵůƐĞŽŶƚƌŽů
ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐǁŝƚŚWĞĞƌƐ
ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐǁŝƚŚĚƵůƚƐ
/ĚĞŶƟƚLJŽĨ^ĞůĨŝŶZĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽKƚŚĞƌƐ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
<͘ϯ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŵĂƚĐŚƐŝŵƉůĞĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ
ŽĨǁŽƌŬƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞĚŽĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĂŵĞƐŽĨ
ƌĞůĂƚĞĚũŽďƐĂƚƚŚĞƐĐŚŽŽů͕ŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͕
ĂŶĚĨƌŽŵŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ͘
^ŽĐŝĂůZŽůĞƐĂŶĚKĐĐƵƉĂƟŽŶƐ
ŽŶŇŝĐƚZĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶ
&ĂŝƌŶĞƐƐĂŶĚZĞƐƉĞĐƚĨŽƌ KƚŚĞƌWĞŽƉůĞ
ZĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞŽŶĚƵĐƚ
^ŬŝůůƐĨŽƌĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐWĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ
<͘ϭ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚďĞŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚ
ĐŝƟnjĞŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĂĐƟŶŐŝŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶǁĂLJƐ͘
<͘ϭ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚďĞŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚ
ĐŝƟnjĞŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĂĐƟŶŐŝŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶǁĂLJƐ͘
ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ĞĐŽŵŝŶŐĂWƌĞƐĐŚŽŽůŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ
DĞŵďĞƌ;ŝǀŝĐƐͿ
<͘Ϯ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂŶĚƐƚĂƚĞ
ƐLJŵďŽůƐĂŶĚŝĐŽŶƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂŶĚ
ƐƚĂƚĞŇĂŐƐ͕ƚŚĞďĂůĚĞĂŐůĞ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞ^ƚĂƚƵĞŽĨ
>ŝďĞƌƚLJ͘
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
ƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ
^ĞůĨĂŶĚ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJ
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
Table 11
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁŽĨƚŚĞůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞŽŵĂŝŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂŽŶƚĞŶƚ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ
Overview of the Alignment | 155
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ ;ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
džĐŚĂŶŐĞ
DĂƌŬĞƚƉůĂĐĞ;ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐͿ
ĂƌŝŶŐĨŽƌƚŚĞEĂƚƵƌĂůtŽƌůĚ
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐƚŚĞWŚLJƐŝĐĂůtŽƌůĚ dŚƌŽƵŐŚƌĂǁŝŶŐƐĂŶĚDĂƉƐ
EĂǀŝŐĂƟŶŐ&ĂŵŝůŝĂƌ>ŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ
^ĞŶƐĞŽĨWůĂĐĞ;'ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚLJĂŶĚĐŽůŽŐLJͿ
,ŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůŚĂŶŐĞƐŝŶWĞŽƉůĞ ĂŶĚƚŚĞtŽƌůĚ
WĞƌƐŽŶĂů,ŝƐƚŽƌLJ
ŶƟĐŝƉĂƟŶŐĂŶĚWůĂŶŶŝŶŐ&ƵƚƵƌĞǀĞŶƚƐ
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐWĂƐƚǀĞŶƚƐ
^ĞŶƐĞŽĨdŝŵĞ;,ŝƐƚŽƌLJͿ
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
Table 11 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
<͘ϰ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĂŶĚĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚ
ƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ƉůĂĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ
ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƚŚĞŝƌ
ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͘
<͘ϭ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚďĞŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚ
ĐŝƟnjĞŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐĂĐƟŶŐŝŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶǁĂLJƐ͘
<͘ϲ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJƌĞůĂƚĞƐ
ƚŽĞǀĞŶƚƐ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ĂŶĚƉůĂĐĞƐŽĨŽƚŚĞƌƟŵĞƐ͘
<͘ϱ^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƉƵƚĞǀĞŶƚƐŝŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůŽƌĚĞƌ
ƵƐŝŶŐĂĐĂůĞŶĚĂƌ͕ƉůĂĐŝŶŐĚĂLJƐ͕ǁĞĞŬƐ͕ĂŶĚ
ŵŽŶƚŚƐŝŶƉƌŽƉĞƌŽƌĚĞƌ͘
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
156 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 157
Science
This section describes an overview of
the alignment of the preschool foundations in Science with the infant/toddler learning and development foundations and with the California science
content standards in kindergarten.
Table 12 shows how the strands and
substrands of the preschool learning
foundations in science align with the
infant/toddler foundations and with
the kindergarten content standards
in science. The detailed alignment
between specific preschool learning
foundations and specific kindergarten
content standards in science may be
viewed at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/
cd/re/documents/QTalignment.pdf.
Core concepts and a range of skills
identified in the preschool learning
foundations in science emerge and
begin to develop during the infant/
toddler years. The practice of scientific inquiry draws on children’s cognitive, language, social, and physical
competencies. Certain cognitive and
language abilities are fundamental in
the development of scientific concepts
and skills. Children’s developing abilities to group and sort objects, identify
the cause of events and anticipate the
effect, engage in a purposeful effort to
reach a goal, and explore how something works and how things move and
fit in space provide the mental tools for
investigating and learning about the
characteristics of objects and events
in the environment. As table 12 indicates, the infant/toddler foundations
in Cognitive Development classification, cause-and-effect, problem solving,
and spatial relationships set the stage
for the development of inquiry skills
and the learning of concepts in physi-
cal sciences, life sciences, and earth
sciences.
Through the process of science,
children record observations and communicate ideas and explanations with
others. Language and communication
skills are fundamental in the development of scientific concepts and
skills. Preschool children learn to use
language and specific terminology to
describe their observations, to plan
explorations, and to communicate
their findings, explanations, and ideas
with others. They also use different
forms of communication to record and
document information (e.g., oral, written, drawings, photos, graphs, charts).
These language and literacy skills
emerge at a young age and involve
children’s ability to understand others,
to engage in back-and-forth conversations, and to use expanded vocabulary
to express themselves through words.
As table 12 indicates, the infant/toddler foundations in receptive language,
expressive language, and interest in
print are aligned with the preschool
science substrand documentation and
communication.
The preschool learning foundations
in science are also aligned with the
kindergarten content standards in science. Table 12 shows the alignment
between strands and substrands in
the preschool foundations in Science
and the corresponding kindergarten
strands. As table 12 indicates, the
foundations and the kindergarten
standards cover the same general categories (strands): physical sciences,
life sciences, and earth sciences.
The preschool strand scientific
inquiry is aligned with the kindergarten strand investigation and experimentation. Both the foundations in
158 | Overview of the Alignment
observation and investigation and the
kindergarten standards in investigation and experimentation focus on
children’s ability to ask meaningful
questions, conduct careful investigations, and observe and describe properties of common objects. The preschool foundations and the kindergar-
ten standards in physical sciences, life
sciences, and earth sciences center on
the same key ideas: children’s ability
to observe and describe the properties
of materials, the similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior
of plants and animals, and the basic
characteristics of the earth.
/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶWƌŝŶƚ ;>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
džƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ;>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
ZĞĐĞƉƟǀĞ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ;>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͿ
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ
^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝƐŵĂĚĞďLJĂƐŬŝŶŐ
ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƵůƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŽŶĚƵĐƟŶŐ
ĐĂƌĞĨƵůŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŽŶƐ͘
KďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ/ŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŽŶ
^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĐŽůůĞĐƚŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂďŽƵƚŽďũĞĐƚƐ
ĂŶĚĞǀĞŶƚƐŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘
^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͕ĂƚĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͕ĂŶĚWƌŽďĂďŝůŝƚLJ
ŽŵĂŝŶ͗DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝƐŵĂĚĞďLJĂƐŬŝŶŐ
ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƵůƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŽŶĚƵĐƟŶŐ
ĐĂƌĞĨƵůŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŽŶƐ͘
/ŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ
/ŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ
Science
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐ/ŶƋƵŝƌLJ
Science
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Science
Table 12
Overview of the Alignment Between the Science Domain and the California Content Standards
Overview of the Alignment | 159
ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ĂƵƐĞͲĂŶĚͲīĞĐƚ
ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ĂƵƐĞͲĂŶĚͲīĞĐƚ
ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ
WƌŽďůĞŵ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ
^ƉĂƟĂůZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ĂƵƐĞͲĂŶĚͲīĞĐƚ
ŽŐŶŝƟǀĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
California Infant/Toddler Learning ĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ŚĂŶŐĞƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌƚŚ
WƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐĂŶĚŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨĂƌƚŚDĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ
ĂƌƚŚ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ
ŚĂŶŐĞƐŝŶ>ŝǀŝŶŐdŚŝŶŐƐ
WƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐĂŶĚŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ>ŝǀŝŶŐdŚŝŶŐƐ
Life Sciences
ŚĂŶŐĞƐŝŶEŽŶůŝǀŝŶŐKďũĞĐƚƐ ĂŶĚDĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ
WƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐĂŶĚŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨ EŽŶůŝǀŝŶŐKďũĞĐƚƐĂŶĚDĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ
Science
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
Science
Table 12 ;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚͿ
ĂƌƚŚŝƐĐŽŵƉŽƐĞĚŽĨůĂŶĚ͕Ăŝƌ͕ĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͘
ĂƌƚŚ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ
ŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚLJƉĞƐŽĨƉůĂŶƚƐĂŶĚĂŶŝŵĂůƐ
ŝŶŚĂďŝƚƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚ͘
Life Sciences
WƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐŽĨŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĐĂŶďĞŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ͕
ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ͕ĂŶĚƉƌĞĚŝĐƚĞĚ͘
WŚLJƐŝĐĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ
Science
California Content Standards <ŝŶĚĞƌŐĂƌƚĞŶ
160 | Overview of the Alignment
Overview of the Alignment | 161
An Overview of the Alignment
Between the California Preschool
Learning Foundations and the
Head Start Child Development
and Early Learning Framework
This section provides a summary of
the alignment between the California
Preschool Learning Foundations and
the Head Start Learning Framework.
The detailed alignment, which delineates the alignment between specific
preschool learning foundations and
specific components in the Head
Start Learning Framework for each
domain, may be viewed at http://www.
cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/
QTalignment.pdf.
The Head Start Act (as amended in
2007) promotes alignment of the Head
Start Learning Framework) with state
curriculum, assessment, and standards. In California, these standards
are represented by the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes
1–3 (CDE 2008, 2010, and forthcoming).
The California Head Start Collaboration Office—in partnership with the
California Head Start Association,
California Center of the Office of Head
Start Training and Technical Assistance Network, California Department
of Education, and WestEd—spearheaded the development of an alignment of the Head Start Learning
Framework with the California Preschool Learning Foundations to address
the needs of Head Start programs.
This document supports Head Start
education managers and education
supervisors by showing how these two
sources align with each other and the
similarities of goals for children in all
areas of learning and development.
The alignment of the Head Start Learn-
ing Framework with the California Preschool Learning Foundations provides a
valuable resource to make sure all the
components of education in an early
childhood program—curriculum goals,
teaching strategies, and assessment—
are coordinated and aligned.
The California Center of the Office
of Head Start Training and Technical
Assistance Network can provide support to programs through the process
of reviewing the alignment of the Head
Start Learning Framework and the California Preschool Learning Foundations
to ensure the programs’ curriculum,
assessment, and school-readiness
goals are also aligned with these two
documents.
The California Preschool Learning Foundations and the Head Start
Learning Framework share common
goals—to strengthen preschool education and young children’s readiness
for school and to promote all aspects
of child learning and development in
early childhood programs. The California preschool learning foundations
describe knowledge and skills that
most children, with appropriate support, can be expected to exhibit as they
complete their first and second year of
preschool. Foundations are established
for children at around 48 months of
age and at around 60 months of age.
Nine domains of learning and development are addressed: Social–Emotional
Development, Language and Literacy,
English-Language Development,
Mathematics, Visual and Performing
Arts, Physical Development, Health,
History–Social Science, and Science.
The Head Start Learning Framework
delineates the developmental building
blocks essential for children’s school
and long-term success. The Framework is intended for children three
162 | Overview of the Alignment
to five years old and is organized into
11 domains: Physical Development &
Health, Social & Emotional Development, Approaches to Learning, Logic
& Reasoning, Language Development,
English Language Development, Literacy Knowledge & Skills, Mathematics
Knowledge & Skills, Science Knowledge
& Skills, Creative Arts Expression, and
Social Studies Knowledge & Skills.
About the Alignment
The following analysis describes the
alignment between the California Preschool Learning Foundations and the
Head Start Learning Framework. The
alignment shows the ways in which
these two sources correspond in
content and share similar goals for
children in all areas of learning and
development. In this alignment, the
nine domains of the preschool foundations are presented in the same
order and structure shown as the
original California Preschool Learning
Foundations volumes. For each foundation, the alignment indicates the
components in the Head Start Learning Framework that correspond in
content. In other words, the preschool
foundations are the starting point of
the alignment, and components from
the 11 domains in the Framework are
aligned with the preschool learning
foundations.
An alternative version of the alignment, one in which components of the
preschool learning foundations are
aligned with the Head Start Learning
Framework, may be viewed at http://
www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/QTalignment.pdf . The 11
domains in the Head Start Learning
Framework are presented in the same
structure and order as the original
Framework. For each domain in the
Framework, the alignment indicates
the components of the preschool foundations that correspond in content.
While the Head Start Learning
Framework generally applies to children who are three to five years old,
the preschool learning foundations are
separated at two age levels, showing a
progression on a continuum of learning. Foundations are established for
children at around 48 months of age
(four years) and at around 60 months
of age (five years). The alignment of
the preschool learning foundations
and the Framework presents only the
foundations for children at around
48 months of age, a midpoint in the
age range addressed in the Head Start
Learning Framework. The complete set
of foundations, including the foundations for children at about 60 months
of age, can be found in the California
Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1–3 (CDE 2008, 2010, and forthcoming).
General Alignment at the Domain
Level
Table 13 outlines the nine domains
in the preschool learning foundations and the corresponding domain(s)
in the Head Start Learning Framework. The table also delineates other
domains in the Framework with content corresponding to the foundations.
For example, the Social–Emotional
Development domain of the preschool
foundations is aligned with the Social
& Emotional Development domain in
the Framework, as well as with components from two additional domains in
the Framework: namely, Approaches
to Learning and Logic & Reasoning.
Table 13 shows how both the California Preschool Learning Foundations
and the Head Start Learning Frame-
Overview of the Alignment | 163
Table 13
KǀĞƌǀŝĞǁůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŽŵĂŝŶƐŝŶƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐĐŚŽŽů>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
ĂŶĚƚŚĞ,ĞĂĚ^ƚĂƌƚŚŝůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĂƌůLJ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ
Domains in the California WƌĞƐĐŚŽŽů>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
^ŽĐŝĂůʹŵŽƟŽŶĂů
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ
ŶŐůŝƐŚͲ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ
sŝƐƵĂůĂŶĚWĞƌĨŽƌŵŝŶŐƌƚƐ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
,ĞĂůƚŚ
,ŝƐƚŽƌLJʹ^ŽĐŝĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ
Domains in the Head Start Child ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĂƌůLJ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ
&ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ
ĚĚŝƟŽŶĂůŽŵĂŝŶƐŝŶƚŚĞ
,ĞĂĚ^ƚĂƌƚ&ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬǁŝƚŚ
ŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐŽŶƚĞŶƚ
^ŽĐŝĂůΘŵŽƟŽŶĂů
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞΘ^ŬŝůůƐ
ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐƚŽ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ
>ŽŐŝĐΘZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
DĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐƐ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
Θ^ŬŝůůƐ
ƌĞĂƟǀĞƌƚƐdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Θ,ĞĂůƚŚ
WŚLJƐŝĐĂůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
Θ,ĞĂůƚŚ
^ŽĐŝĂů^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ
Θ^ŬŝůůƐ
^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞΘ^ŬŝůůƐ
>ŽŐŝĐΘZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
ƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐƚŽ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ
>ŽŐŝĐΘZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
work cover parallel content, though
some of it is organized differently.
As evident in table 13, each domain
in the preschool learning foundations
maps to a major corresponding domain
in the Head Start Learning Framework.
For example, the Mathematics domain
in the preschool foundations is aligned
with the Mathematics Knowledge &
Skills domain from the Framework.
In addition, some of the domains
align with multiple domains from the
Framework. The Mathematics domain,
for example, is also aligned with components from the Approaches to Learning and Logic & Reasoning domains.
The Language and Literacy domain
has two corresponding domains in
the Head Start Learning Framework:
>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞΘ^ŬŝůůƐ
^ŽĐŝĂůΘŵŽƟŽŶĂů
ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ
ƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐƚŽ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ
>ŽŐŝĐΘZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
(1) Language Development and (2)
Literacy Knowledge & Skills. The preschool foundations in English-Language Development are aligned with
the Head Start English Language
Development domain and with components in the Head Start Literacy
Knowledge & Skills domain. Also,
the preschool foundations in History–
Social Science are aligned with components in the Head Start domains of
Social Studies Knowledge & Skills
and Social & Emotional Development. Although the Approaches to
Learning and Logic & Reasoning
domains appear only in the Head Start
Learning Framework, the content of
those two domains is covered by different domains of the preschool learning
164 | Overview of the Alignment
foundations: Mathematics, Social–
Emotional Development, Visual and
Performing Arts, and Science.
Alignment within Each Domain
The extent of the alignment between
the California Preschool Learning Foundations and the Head Start Learning
Framework becomes clear when the
elements within each domain of these
two resources are directly lined up
next to each other. In the preschool
learning foundations, each domain
consists of several main strands, and
each strand consists of substrands.
The foundations are organized under
the substrands. In the Head Start
Learning Framework, each domain
includes elements and examples to
illustrate key knowledge, behaviors, or
skills within the element. The alignment draws connections between (1)
the strands and substrands within
each domain of the preschool foundations and the corresponding Head
Start domain elements; and (2) the
foundations under each substrand
and the corresponding examples in the
Head Start Learning Framework. Table
14 shows how different components
in each document align with or match
each other.
In sum, for each of the nine domains
in the preschool foundations, the
alignment draws the connection
between the strands and substrands
in the preschool learning foundations
domain and the corresponding domain
elements in the Head Start Learning Framework, and between specific
foundations in each substrand and the
corresponding examples in the Framework.
Analysis of the Alignment
The alignment indicates a close correspondence between the domains and
foundations in the preschool learning
foundations and the matching components in the Head Start Learning
Framework. Overall, as evident in the
tables, for almost every substrand in
the preschool learning foundations,
there is at least one domain element in
the Framework that reflects the content of the corresponding preschool
foundations. The few substrands in
the preschool foundations with no
corresponding content in the Head
Start Learning Framework are social
conventions in the English-Language
Development domain, body awareness
in the Physical Development domain,
self-regulation of eating in the Health
Table 14
KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐĐŚŽŽů>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞ
,ĞĂĚ^ƚĂƌƚŚŝůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĂƌůLJ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ
California Preschool Learning &ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
,ĞĂĚ^ƚĂƌƚŚŝůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĂƌůLJ
>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ&ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ
ŽŵĂŝŶ
ŽŵĂŝŶ
^ƚƌĂŶĚƐ
-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐
^ƵďƐƚƌĂŶĚƐ
ŽŵĂŝŶĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ
&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ
džĂŵƉůĞƐ
Overview of the Alignment | 165
domain, and marketplace (economics)
in the History–Social Science domain.
Similarly, a close inspection of the
Head Start alignment indicates that
36 of the 37 domain elements in the
Head Start Learning Framework have a
corresponding substrand with similar
content in the preschool foundations.
The only domain element with no
direct correspondence in the preschool foundations is physical health
status (Head Start, Physical Development & Health). This domain element
addresses the health aspects that
programs need to monitor in order to
ensure children’s physical well-being.
Although physical health status is
not addressed in the alignment, this
domain element is significant, and
programs should follow local policy for
monitoring children’s physical health
status.
In some domains, there is a noteworthy amount of direct correspondence,
both in content and in level of specificity, between the preschool foundations
and the corresponding examples in the
Head Start Learning Framework. This
correspondence is particularly evident
in domains such as Social–Emotional
Development, Language and Literacy,
and Mathematics. In domains such
as English- Language Development,
Visual and Performing Arts, Physical
Development, History–Social Science,
and Science, the preschool foundations are more detailed. Even so, the
preschool foundations and the Framework cover the same key content areas
in those domains.
Bibliography
California Department of Education. California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2009.
———. California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 1). Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2008.
———. California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 2). Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2010.
———. California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 3). Sacramento: California Department of Education, forthcoming.
———. English–Language Arts Content
Standards for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.
Sacramento: California Department of
Education, 1998.
———. Health Education Content Standards for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.
Sacramento: California Department of
Education, 2009.
———. History–Social Science Content
Standards for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.
Sacramento: California Department of
Education, 2000.
———. Mathematics Content Standards for
California Public Schools, Kindergarten
Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento:
California Department of Education,
1999.
———. Physical Education Model Content
Standards for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.
Sacramento: California Department of
Education, 2006.
———. Science Content Standards for
California Public Schools, Kindergarten
Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento:
California Department of Education,
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ISBN 978-0-8011-1727-5
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