SEU Mitigation in Cyclone V Devices ( 英語版 ・PDF)

SEU Mitigation in Cyclone V Devices ( 英語版 ・PDF)
Cyclone V Device Handbook
Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
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TOC-2
Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
Contents
Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules in Cyclone V Devices........... 1-1
LAB ............................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
MLAB ................................................................................................................................................1-2
Local and Direct Link Interconnects ............................................................................................1-3
LAB Control Signals........................................................................................................................ 1-4
ALM Resources ............................................................................................................................... 1-5
ALM Output .................................................................................................................................... 1-6
ALM Operating Modes .............................................................................................................................. 1-8
Normal Mode .................................................................................................................................. 1-8
Extended LUT Mode ...................................................................................................................... 1-8
Arithmetic Mode .............................................................................................................................1-8
Shared Arithmetic Mode ................................................................................................................1-9
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................1-11
Embedded Memory Blocks in Cyclone V Devices.............................................. 2-1
Types of Embedded Memory..................................................................................................................... 2-1
Embedded Memory Capacity in Cyclone V Devices.................................................................. 2-1
Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices............................................................2-2
Guideline: Consider the Memory Block Selection...................................................................... 2-2
Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution.................................................................. 2-3
Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior................................................................. 2-3
Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization............................................ 2-7
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption.................................................. 2-7
Embedded Memory Features..................................................................................................................... 2-7
Embedded Memory Configurations............................................................................................. 2-9
Mixed-Width Port Configurations................................................................................................2-9
Embedded Memory Modes...................................................................................................................... 2-10
Embedded Memory Clocking Modes..................................................................................................... 2-12
Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode.................................................................................. 2-12
Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes.................................................................................. 2-13
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write....................................................................... 2-13
Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes....................................................................... 2-14
Parity Bit in Memory Blocks.................................................................................................................... 2-14
Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks............................................................................................ 2-14
Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks....................................................................................2-14
Data Byte Output........................................................................................................................... 2-15
RAM Blocks Operations............................................................................................................... 2-16
Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support.................................................................................................. 2-16
Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support....................................................................................2-16
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................2-18
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Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
TOC-3
Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Cyclone V Devices........................................ 3-1
Features......................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Supported Operational Modes in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................ 3-2
Resources.......................................................................................................................................................3-3
Design Considerations................................................................................................................................ 3-4
Operational Modes.......................................................................................................................... 3-4
Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder...............................................................................................3-4
Accumulator..................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Chainout Adder................................................................................................................................3-4
Block Architecture....................................................................................................................................... 3-5
Input Register Bank......................................................................................................................... 3-6
Pre-Adder..........................................................................................................................................3-8
Internal Coefficient..........................................................................................................................3-8
Multipliers.........................................................................................................................................3-9
Adder................................................................................................................................................. 3-9
Accumulator and Chainout Adder................................................................................................3-9
Systolic Registers............................................................................................................................ 3-10
Double Accumulation Register....................................................................................................3-10
Output Register Bank.................................................................................................................... 3-10
Operational Mode Descriptions.............................................................................................................. 3-11
Independent Multiplier Mode..................................................................................................... 3-11
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode.................................................................................... 3-14
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode........................................................................................................3-16
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode........................................................3-16
Systolic FIR Mode.......................................................................................................................... 3-17
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................3-19
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices................................................ 4-1
Clock Networks............................................................................................................................................ 4-1
Clock Resources in Cyclone V Devices.........................................................................................4-2
Types of Clock Networks................................................................................................................ 4-4
Clock Sources Per Quadrant........................................................................................................ 4-10
Types of Clock Regions.................................................................................................................4-11
Clock Network Sources.................................................................................................................4-12
Clock Output Connections...........................................................................................................4-14
Clock Control Block...................................................................................................................... 4-15
Clock Power Down........................................................................................................................ 4-17
Clock Enable Signals......................................................................................................................4-18
Cyclone V PLLs.......................................................................................................................................... 4-19
PLL Physical Counters in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................4-20
PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices.......................................................................................... 4-20
PLL Migration Guidelines ........................................................................................................... 4-27
Fractional PLL Architecture......................................................................................................... 4-28
PLL Cascading................................................................................................................................ 4-28
PLL External Clock I/O Pins........................................................................................................ 4-29
PLL Control Signals.......................................................................................................................4-30
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TOC-4
Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
Clock Feedback Modes..................................................................................................................4-31
Clock Multiplication and Division.............................................................................................. 4-37
Programmable Phase Shift............................................................................................................4-38
Programmable Duty Cycle........................................................................................................... 4-38
Clock Switchover........................................................................................................................... 4-39
PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift........................................................................ 4-44
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................4-44
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices......................................................................5-1
I/O Resources Per Package for Cyclone V Devices................................................................................. 5-1
I/O Vertical Migration for Cyclone V Devices........................................................................................ 5-4
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility........................................................................................ 5-5
I/O Standards Support in Cyclone V Devices..........................................................................................5-6
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Cyclone V Devices.................................................... 5-6
I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Cyclone V Devices........................................................5-7
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices...................................................................5-8
MultiVolt I/O Interface in Cyclone V Devices.......................................................................... 5-10
I/O Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices.......................................................................................5-11
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards........................... 5-11
PLLs and Clocking......................................................................................................................... 5-12
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode...................................................................................5-15
Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group............................................... 5-18
Guideline: Ensure Compatible VCCIO and VCCPD Voltage in the Same Bank...................... 5-19
Guideline: VREF Pin Restrictions................................................................................................. 5-19
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing......................5-19
Guideline: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions and Differential Pad Placement Rules... 5-20
Guideline: Pin Placement for General Purpose High-Speed Signals......................................5-20
I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................................5-20
I/O Banks Groups in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................................... 5-23
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E Devices............................................................................ 5-23
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX Devices.........................................................................5-24
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT Devices.........................................................................5-25
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices.......................................................................... 5-26
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices..........................................................................5-27
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices..........................................................................5-28
I/O Element Structure in Cyclone V Devices........................................................................................ 5-28
I/O Buffer and Registers in Cyclone V Devices.........................................................................5-28
Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................. 5-30
Programmable Current Strength.................................................................................................5-32
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control.................................................................................5-33
Programmable IOE Delay.............................................................................................................5-34
Programmable Output Buffer Delay........................................................................................... 5-34
Programmable Pre-Emphasis...................................................................................................... 5-34
Programmable Differential Output Voltage.............................................................................. 5-35
Open-Drain Output.......................................................................................................................5-36
Bus-Hold Circuitry........................................................................................................................ 5-37
Pull-up Resistor..............................................................................................................................5-37
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices................................................................................. 5-37
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Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
TOC-5
RS OCT without Calibration in Cyclone V Devices..................................................................5-38
RS OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices........................................................................5-40
RT OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices....................................................................... 5-42
Dynamic OCT in Cyclone V Devices..........................................................................................5-44
LVDS Input RD OCT in Cyclone V Devices.............................................................................. 5-45
OCT Calibration Block in Cyclone V Devices...........................................................................5-46
External I/O Termination for Cyclone V Devices.................................................................................5-49
Single-ended I/O Termination.....................................................................................................5-50
Differential I/O Termination....................................................................................................... 5-52
Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries...........................................................................................................5-58
High-Speed Differential I/O Locations.......................................................................................5-58
LVDS SERDES Circuitry.............................................................................................................. 5-61
True LVDS Buffers in Cyclone V Devices..................................................................................5-62
Emulated LVDS Buffers in Cyclone V Devices......................................................................... 5-70
Differential Transmitter in Cyclone V Devices..................................................................................... 5-70
Transmitter Blocks.........................................................................................................................5-70
Serializer Bypass for DDR and SDR Operations....................................................................... 5-72
Differential Receiver in Cyclone V Devices........................................................................................... 5-72
Receiver Blocks in Cyclone V Devices........................................................................................ 5-73
Receiver Mode in Cyclone V Devices......................................................................................... 5-75
Receiver Clocking for Cyclone V Devices.................................................................................. 5-76
Differential I/O Termination for Cyclone V Devices............................................................... 5-76
Source-Synchronous Timing Budget...................................................................................................... 5-77
Differential Data Orientation.......................................................................................................5-77
Differential I/O Bit Position......................................................................................................... 5-78
Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew..................................................................................... 5-79
Receiver Skew Margin for LVDS Mode......................................................................................5-80
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................5-82
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone V Devices............................................ 6-1
External Memory Performance..................................................................................................................6-1
HPS External Memory Performance.........................................................................................................6-2
Memory Interface Pin Support in Cyclone V Devices............................................................................6-2
Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins.................................................................................................... 6-3
DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Cyclone V Devices........................................................................ 6-3
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V E.................................................................................................. 6-4
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GX...............................................................................................6-6
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GT...............................................................................................6-9
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SE.............................................................................................. 6-10
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SX..............................................................................................6-11
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V ST..............................................................................................6-11
External Memory Interface Features in Cyclone V Devices................................................................ 6-12
UniPHY IP......................................................................................................................................6-12
External Memory Interface Datapath......................................................................................... 6-12
DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry............................................................................................................6-13
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks............................................................................................... 6-21
DQS Logic Block............................................................................................................................ 6-26
Dynamic OCT Control................................................................................................................. 6-29
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Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
IOE Registers.................................................................................................................................. 6-30
Delay Chains...................................................................................................................................6-31
I/O and DQS Configuration Blocks............................................................................................ 6-33
Hard Memory Controller......................................................................................................................... 6-34
Features of the Hard Memory Controller.................................................................................. 6-34
Multi-Port Front End ................................................................................................................... 6-36
Bonding Support............................................................................................................................ 6-37
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V E....................................................................6-39
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GX................................................................ 6-40
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GT................................................................ 6-41
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V SE..................................................................6-41
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V SX................................................................. 6-42
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V ST..................................................................6-43
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................6-43
Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone V
Devices............................................................................................................. 7-1
Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol.....................................................................7-1
MSEL Pin Settings........................................................................................................................................7-2
Configuration Sequence..............................................................................................................................7-3
Power Up...........................................................................................................................................7-4
Reset................................................................................................................................................... 7-5
Configuration................................................................................................................................... 7-5
Configuration Error Handling....................................................................................................... 7-6
Initialization......................................................................................................................................7-6
User Mode.........................................................................................................................................7-6
Configuration Timing Waveforms............................................................................................................7-7
FPP Configuration Timing............................................................................................................. 7-7
AS Configuration Timing............................................................................................................... 7-9
PS Configuration Timing..............................................................................................................7-10
Device Configuration Pins....................................................................................................................... 7-10
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins...................................................... 7-12
Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software.................................................... 7-13
Fast Passive Parallel Configuration......................................................................................................... 7-13
Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration....................................................................7-14
Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration.....................................................................7-14
Transmitting Configuration Data............................................................................................... 7-16
Active Serial Configuration...................................................................................................................... 7-17
DATA Clock (DCLK)....................................................................................................................7-17
Active Serial Single-Device Configuration.................................................................................7-17
Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration..................................................................................7-19
Estimating the Active Serial Configuration Time..................................................................... 7-20
Using EPCS and EPCQ Devices.............................................................................................................. 7-20
Controlling EPCS and EPCQ Devices........................................................................................ 7-21
Trace Length and Loading Guideline..........................................................................................7-21
Programming EPCS and EPCQ Devices.................................................................................... 7-21
Passive Serial Configuration.....................................................................................................................7-25
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host..................................... 7-26
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TOC-7
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable.................... 7-26
Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration................................................................................ 7-27
JTAG Configuration..................................................................................................................................7-30
JTAG Single-Device Configuration.............................................................................................7-31
JTAG Multi-Device Configuration............................................................................................. 7-32
CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction...................................................................................................7-33
Configuration Data Compression........................................................................................................... 7-34
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation.................................................................7-34
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation................................................................... 7-34
Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration................................................................ 7-34
Remote System Upgrades......................................................................................................................... 7-35
Configuration Images....................................................................................................................7-36
Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode.............................................................7-37
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry..............................................................................................7-37
Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry............................................................................. 7-38
Remote System Upgrade Registers.............................................................................................. 7-38
Remote System Upgrade State Machine.....................................................................................7-40
User Watchdog Timer...................................................................................................................7-40
Design Security...........................................................................................................................................7-41
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core................................................................................................... 7-42
JTAG Secure Mode........................................................................................................................ 7-42
Security Key Types.........................................................................................................................7-42
Security Modes............................................................................................................................... 7-43
Design Security Implementation Steps.......................................................................................7-44
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................7-44
SEU Mitigation for Cyclone V Devices............................................................... 8-1
Error Detection Features.............................................................................................................................8-1
Configuration Error Detection.................................................................................................................. 8-1
User Mode Error Detection........................................................................................................................8-2
Internal Scrubbing....................................................................................................................................... 8-2
Specifications................................................................................................................................................ 8-2
Minimum EMR Update Interval................................................................................................... 8-3
Error Detection Frequency............................................................................................................. 8-3
CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device.................................................................................... 8-4
Using Error Detection Features in User Mode........................................................................................8-5
Enabling Error Detection................................................................................................................8-5
CRC_ERROR Pin.............................................................................................................................8-6
Error Detection Registers................................................................................................................8-6
Error Detection Process.................................................................................................................. 8-8
Testing the Error Detection Block...............................................................................................8-10
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................8-10
JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Cyclone V Devices......................................... 9-1
BST Operation Control .............................................................................................................................. 9-1
IDCODE ...........................................................................................................................................9-1
Supported JTAG Instruction .........................................................................................................9-3
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TOC-8
Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 1: Device Interfaces and Integration
JTAG Secure Mode ......................................................................................................................... 9-6
JTAG Private Instruction ...............................................................................................................9-6
I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation .............................................................................................................. 9-7
Performing BST ...........................................................................................................................................9-7
Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry ...................................................................... 9-8
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing.......................................................................9-9
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register ...............................................................................................9-9
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone V Device I/O Pin............................................................... 9-10
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................9-12
Power Management in Cyclone V Devices....................................................... 10-1
Power Consumption..................................................................................................................................10-1
Dynamic Power Equation.............................................................................................................10-1
Hot-Socketing Feature.............................................................................................................................. 10-2
Hot-Socketing Implementation............................................................................................................... 10-2
Power-Up Sequence.................................................................................................................................. 10-4
Power-On Reset Circuitry........................................................................................................................ 10-5
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry................................. 10-7
Document Revision History.....................................................................................................................10-7
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1
Logic Array Blocks and Adaptive Logic Modules
in Cyclone V Devices
2015.12.21
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This chapter describes the features of the logic array block (LAB) in the Cyclone® V core fabric.
The LAB is composed of basic building blocks known as adaptive logic modules (ALMs) that you can
configure to implement logic functions, arithmetic functions, and register functions.
You can use a quarter of the available LABs in the Cyclone V devices as a memory LAB (MLAB).
The Quartus® Prime software and other supported third-party synthesis tools, in conjunction with
parameterized functions such as the library of parameterized modules (LPM), automatically choose the
appropriate mode for common functions such as counters, adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions.
This chapter contains the following sections:
• LAB
• ALM Operating Modes
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
LAB
The LABs are configurable logic blocks that consist of a group of logic resources. Each LAB contains
dedicated logic for driving control signals to its ALMs.
MLAB is a superset of the LAB and includes all the LAB features.
© 2016 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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MLAB
Figure 1-1: LAB Structure and Interconnects Overview in Cyclone V Devices
This figure shows an overview of the Cyclone V LAB and MLAB structure with the LAB interconnects.
C2/C4
C12
Row Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
R14
R3/R6
ALMs
Connects to adjacent
LABs, memory blocks,
digital signal processing
(DSP) blocks, or I/O
element (IOE) outputs.
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect from
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Direct-Link
Interconnect to
Adjacent Block
Local Interconnect
LAB
MLAB
Fast Local Interconnect Is Driven
from Either Sides by Column Interconnect
and LABs, and from Above by Row Interconnect
Column Interconnects of
Variable Speed and Length
MLAB
Each MLAB supports a maximum of 640 bits of simple dual-port SRAM.
You can configure each ALM in an MLAB as a 32 x 2 memory block, resulting in a configuration of
32 x 20 simple dual-port SRAM block.
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Local and Direct Link Interconnects
1-3
Figure 1-2: LAB and MLAB Structure for Cyclone V Devices
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LAB Control Block
You can use an MLAB
ALM as a regular LAB
ALM or configure it as a
dual-port SRAM.
LAB Control Block
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
LUT-Based-32 x 2
Simple Dual-Port SRAM
ALM
MLAB
LAB
Local and Direct Link Interconnects
Each LAB can drive 30 ALMs through fast-local and direct-link interconnects. Ten ALMs are in any given
LAB and ten ALMs are in each of the adjacent LABs.
The local interconnect can drive ALMs in the same LAB using column and row interconnects and ALM
outputs in the same LAB.
Neighboring LABs, MLABs, M10K blocks, or digital signal processing (DSP) blocks from the left or right
can also drive the LAB’s local interconnect using the direct link connection.
The direct link connection feature minimizes the use of row and column interconnects, providing higher
performance and flexibility.
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LAB Control Signals
Figure 1-3: LAB Fast Local and Direct Link Interconnects for Cyclone V Devices
Direct Link Interconnect from
Left LAB, Memory Block,
DSP Block, or IOE Output
Direct Link Interconnect from
Right LAB, Memory Block,
DSP Block, or IOE Output
ALMs
ALMs
Direct Link
Interconnect
to Left
Direct Link
Interconnect
to Right
Fast Local
Interconnect
MLAB
LAB
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving the control signals to its ALMs, and has two unique clock
sources and three clock enable signals.
The LAB control block generates up to three clocks using the two clock sources and three clock enable
signals. Each clock and the clock enable signals are linked.
De-asserting the clock enable signal turns off the corresponding LAB-wide clock.
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ALM Resources
1-5
Figure 1-4: LAB-Wide Control Signals for Cyclone V Devices
This figure shows the clock sources and clock enable signals in a LAB.
There are two unique
clock signals per LAB.
6
Dedicated Row
LAB Clocks
6
6
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Local Interconnect
labclk0
labclk1
labclkena0
or asyncload
or labpreset
labclkena1
labclr1
syncload
labclk2
labclkena2
labclr0
synclr
ALM Resources
One ALM contains four programmable registers. Each register has the following ports:
•
•
•
•
Data
Clock
Synchronous and asynchronous clear
Synchronous load
Global signals, general-purpose I/O (GPIO) pins, or any internal logic can drive the clock and clear
control signals of an ALM register.
GPIO pins or internal logic drives the clock enable signal.
For combinational functions, the registers are bypassed and the output of the look-up table (LUT) drives
directly to the outputs of an ALM.
Note: The Quartus Prime software automatically configures the ALMs for optimized performance.
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ALM Output
Figure 1-5: ALM High-Level Block Diagram for Cyclone V Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
Combinational/
Memory ALUT0
dataf0
datae0
dataa
6-Input
LUT
adder0
labclk
D
Q
reg0
datab
D
Q
reg1
Combinational/
Memory ALUT1
datac
datad
datae1
dataf1
6-Input
LUT
adder1
D
Q
reg2
D
shared_arith_out
To General or
Local Routing
carry_out
Q
reg3
ALM Output
The general routing outputs in each ALM drive the local, row, and column routing resources. Two ALM
outputs can drive column, row, or direct link routing connections, and one of these ALM outputs can also
drive local interconnect resources.
The LUT, adder, or register output can drive the ALM outputs. The LUT or adder can drive one output
while the register drives another output.
Register packing improves device utilization by allowing unrelated register and combinational logic to be
packed into a single ALM. Another mechanism to improve fitting is to allow the register output to feed
back into the look-up table (LUT) of the same ALM so that the register is packed with its own fan-out
LUT. The ALM can also drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT or adder output.
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ALM Output
1-7
Figure 1-6: ALM Connection Details for Cyclone V Devices
syncload
aclr[1:0]
clk[2:0] sclr
shared_arith_in carry_in
dataf0
datae0
dataa
datab
datac0
GND
4-Input
LUT
3-Input
LUT
+
D
3-Input
LUT
datac1
D
CLR
CLR
Q
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Local
Interconnect
4-Input
LUT
D
+
CLR
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
3-Input
LUT
3-Input
LUT
VCC
D
CLR
Q
Row, Column
Direct Link Routing
Local
Interconnect
datae1
dataf1
shared_arith_out carry_out
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ALM Operating Modes
ALM Operating Modes
The Cyclone V ALM operates in any of the following modes:
•
•
•
•
Normal mode
Extended LUT mode
Arithmetic mode
Shared arithmetic mode
Normal Mode
Normal mode allows two functions to be implemented in one Cyclone V ALM, or a single function of up
to six inputs.
Up to eight data inputs from the LAB local interconnect are inputs to the combinational logic.
The ALM can support certain combinations of completely independent functions and various combina‐
tions of functions that have common inputs.
Extended LUT Mode
In this mode, if the 7-input function is unregistered, the unused eighth input is available for register
packing.
Functions that fit into the template, as shown in the following figure, often appear in designs as “if-else”
statements in Verilog HDL or VHDL code.
Figure 1-7: Template for Supported 7-Input Functions in Extended LUT Mode for Cyclone V Devices
datae0
datac
dataa
datab
datad
dataf0
datae1
5-Input
LUT
combout0
5-Input
LUT
D
Q
To General or
Local Routing
reg0
dataf1
This input is available
for register packing.
Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in arithmetic mode uses two sets of two 4-input LUTs along with two dedicated full adders.
The dedicated adders allow the LUTs to perform pre-adder logic; therefore, each adder can add the output
of two 4-input functions.
The ALM supports simultaneous use of the adder’s carry output along with combinational logic outputs.
The adder output is ignored in this operation.
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Shared Arithmetic Mode
1-9
Using the adder with the combinational logic output provides resource savings of up to 50% for functions
that can use this mode.
Figure 1-8: ALM in Arithmetic Mode for Cyclone V Devices
datae0
dataf0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
dataf1
carry_in
adder0
4-Input
LUT
reg0
4-Input
LUT
adder1
4-Input
LUT
reg1
To General or
Local Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
carry_out
reg3
Carry Chain
The carry chain provides a fast carry function between the dedicated adders in arithmetic or shared
arithmetic mode.
The two-bit carry select feature in Cyclone V devices halves the propagation delay of carry chains within
the ALM. Carry chains can begin in either the first ALM or the fifth ALM in a LAB. The final carry-out
signal is routed to an ALM, where it is fed to local, row, or column interconnects.
To avoid routing congestion in one small area of the device when a high fan-in arithmetic function is
implemented, the LAB can support carry chains that only use either the top half or bottom half of the LAB
before connecting to the next LAB. This leaves the other half of the ALMs in the LAB available for
implementing narrower fan-in functions in normal mode. Carry chains that use the top five ALMs in the
first LAB carry into the top half of the ALMs in the next LAB in the column. Carry chains that use the
bottom five ALMs in the first LAB carry into the bottom half of the ALMs in the next LAB within the
column. You can bypass the top-half of the LAB columns and bottom-half of the MLAB columns.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates carry chains longer than 20 ALMs (10 ALMs in arithmetic or shared
arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically. For enhanced fitting, a long carry chain runs
vertically, allowing fast horizontal connections to the TriMatrix memory and DSP blocks. A carry chain
can continue as far as a full column.
Shared Arithmetic Mode
The ALM in shared arithmetic mode can implement a 3-input add in the ALM.
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Shared Arithmetic Mode
This mode configures the ALM with four 4-input LUTs. Each LUT either computes the sum of three
inputs or the carry of three inputs. The output of the carry computation is fed to the next adder using a
dedicated connection called the shared arithmetic chain.
Figure 1-9: ALM in Shared Arithmetic Mode for Cyclone V Devices
shared_arith_in
carry_in
labclk
4-Input
LUT
datae0
datac
datab
dataa
datad
datae1
reg0
4-Input
LUT
reg1
4-Input
LUT
To General or
Local Routing
reg2
4-Input
LUT
reg3
shared_arith_out
carry_out
Shared Arithmetic Chain
The shared arithmetic chain available in enhanced arithmetic mode allows the ALM to implement a
3-input adder. This significantly reduces the resources necessary to implement large adder trees or
correlator functions.
The shared arithmetic chain can begin in either the first or sixth ALM in a LAB.
Similar to carry chains, the top and bottom half of the shared arithmetic chains in alternate LAB columns
can be bypassed. This capability allows the shared arithmetic chain to cascade through half of the ALMs in
an LAB while leaving the other half available for narrower fan-in functionality. In every LAB, the column
is top-half bypassable; while in MLAB, columns are bottom-half bypassable.
The Quartus Prime Compiler creates shared arithmetic chains longer than 20 ALMs (10 ALMs in
arithmetic or shared arithmetic mode) by linking LABs together automatically. To enhance fitting, a long
shared arithmetic chain runs vertically, allowing fast horizontal connections to the TriMatrix memory and
DSP blocks. A shared arithmetic chain can continue as far as a full column.
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Document Revision History
1-11
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2014
2014.01.10
Added multiplexers for the bypass paths and register outputs in the
following diagrams:
• ALM High-Level Block Diagram for Cyclone V Devices
• Template for Supported 7-Input Functions in Extended LUT Mode
for Cyclone V Devices
• ALM in Arithmetic Mode for Cyclone V Devices
• ALM in Shared Arithmetic Mode for Cyclone V Devices
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Removed register chain outputs information in ALM output section.
• Removed reg_chain_in and reg_chain_out ports in ALM highlevel block diagram and ALM connection details diagram.
December
2012
2012.12.28
Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
2.0
Updated for the Quartus II software v12.0 release:
• Restructured chapter.
• Updated Figure 1–6.
November
2011
1.1
Minor text edits.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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The embedded memory blocks in the devices are flexible and designed to provide an optimal amount of
small- and large-sized memory arrays to fit your design requirements.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
Types of Embedded Memory
The Cyclone V devices contain two types of memory blocks:
• 10 Kb M10K blocks—blocks of dedicated memory resources. The M10K blocks are ideal for larger
memory arrays while still providing a large number of independent ports.
• 640 bit memory logic array blocks (MLABs)—enhanced memory blocks that are configured from dualpurpose logic array blocks (LABs). The MLABs are ideal for wide and shallow memory arrays. The
MLABs are optimized for implementation of shift registers for digital signal processing (DSP) applica‐
tions, wide shallow FIFO buffers, and filter delay lines. Each MLAB is made up of ten adaptive logic
modules (ALMs). In the Cyclone V devices, you can configure these ALMs as ten 32 x 2 blocks, giving
you one 32 x 20 simple dual-port SRAM block per MLAB.
Embedded Memory Capacity in Cyclone V Devices
Table 2-1: Embedded Memory Capacity and Distribution in Cyclone V Devices
Variant
Cyclone V E
M10K
MLAB
Member
Code
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Total RAM Bit (Kb)
A2
176
1,760
314
196
1,956
A4
308
3,080
485
303
3,383
A5
446
4,460
679
424
4,884
A7
686
6,860
1338
836
7,696
A9
1,220
12,200
2748
1,717
13,917
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices
Variant
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
M10K
MLAB
Member
Code
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Block
RAM Bit (Kb)
Total RAM Bit (Kb)
C3
135
1,350
291
182
1,532
C4
250
2,500
678
424
2,924
C5
446
4,460
678
424
4,884
C7
686
6,860
1338
836
7,696
C9
1,220
12,200
2748
1,717
13,917
D5
446
4,460
679
424
4,884
D7
686
6,860
1338
836
7,696
D9
1,220
12,200
2748
1,717
13,917
A2
140
1,400
221
138
1,538
A4
270
2,700
370
231
2,460
A5
397
3,970
768
480
4,450
A6
557
5,570
994
621
5,761
C2
140
1,400
221
138
1,538
C4
270
2,700
370
231
2,460
C5
397
3,970
768
480
4,450
C6
557
5,570
994
621
5,761
D5
397
3,970
768
480
4,450
D6
557
5,570
994
621
5,761
Embedded Memory Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Guideline: Consider the Memory Block Selection
The Quartus Prime software automatically partitions the user-defined memory into the memory blocks
based on your design's speed and size constraints. For example, the Quartus Prime software may spread
out the memory across multiple available memory blocks to increase the performance of the design.
To assign the memory to a specific block size manually, use the RAM IP core in the IP Catalog.
For the memory logic array blocks (MLAB), you can implement single-port SRAM through emulation
using the Quartus Prime software. Emulation results in minimal additional use of logic resources.
Because of the dual-purpose architecture of the MLAB, only data input and output registers are available
in the block. The MLABs gain read address registers from the ALMs. However, the write address and read
data registers are internal to the MLABs.
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Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution
2-3
Guideline: Implement External Conflict Resolution
In the true dual-port RAM mode, you can perform two write operations to the same memory location.
However, the memory blocks do not have internal conflict resolution circuitry. To avoid unknown data
being written to the address, implement external conflict resolution logic to the memory block.
Guideline: Customize Read-During-Write Behavior
Customize the read-during-write behavior of the memory blocks to suit your design requirements.
Figure 2-1: Read-During-Write Data Flow
This figure shows the difference between the two types of read-during-write operations available—same
port and mixed port.
Port A
data in
FPGA Device
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The same-port read-during-write mode applies to a single-port RAM or the same port of a true dual-port
RAM.
Table 2-2: Output Modes for Embedded Memory Blocks in Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This table lists the available output modes if you select the embedded memory blocks in the same-port readduring-write mode.
Output Mode
"new data"
Memory Type
M10K
The new data is available on the rising edge
of the same clock cycle on which the new
data is written.
M10K, MLAB
The RAM outputs "don't care" values for a
read-during-write operation.
(flow-through)
"don't care"
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Figure 2-2: Same-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows sample functional waveforms of same-port read-during-write behavior in the “new
data” mode.
clk_a
0A
address
0B
rden
wren
byteena
data_a
q_a (asynch)
11
B456
A123
A123
DDDD
C789
B456
C789
EEEE
DDDD
FFFF
EEEE
FFFF
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
The mixed-port read-during-write mode applies to simple and true dual-port RAM modes where two
ports perform read and write operations on the same memory address using the same clock—one port
reading from the address, and the other port writing to it.
Table 2-3: Output Modes for RAM in Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
"new data"
Memory Type
MLAB
Description
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes
the MLAB registered output to reflect the “new data” on
the next rising edge after the data is written to the MLAB
memory.
This mode is available only if the output is registered.
"old data"
M10K, MLAB
A read-during-write operation to different ports causes
the RAM output to reflect the “old data” value at the
particular address.
For MLAB, this mode is available only if the output is
registered.
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Output Mode
"don't care"
Memory Type
2-5
Description
M10K, MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value.
• For M10K memory, the Quartus Prime software does
not analyze the timing between write and read
operations.
• For MLAB, the Quartus Prime software analyzes the
timing between write and read operations by default.
To disable this behavior, turn on the Do not analyze
the timing between write and read operation.
Metastability issues are prevented by never writing
and reading at the same address at the same time
option.
"constrained don't care"
MLAB
The RAM outputs “don’t care” or “unknown” value. The
Quartus Prime software analyzes the timing between
write and read operations in the MLAB.
Figure 2-3: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: New Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “new
data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
A0
address_a
data_a
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
byteena_a
rden_b
address_b
q_b (registered)
A0
XXXX
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A1
AAAA
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
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Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
Figure 2-4: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “old
data” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
A0
address_a
data_a
AAAA
A1
BBBB
CCCC
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
byteena_a
rden_b
address_b
q_b (registered)
A0
XXXX
A1
A0 (old data)
AAAA
BBBB
A1 (old data) DDDD
EEEE
Figure 2-5: Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Don’t Care or Constrained Don’t Care Mode
This figure shows a sample functional waveform of mixed-port read-during-write behavior for the “don’t
care” or “constrained don’t care” mode.
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
byteena_a
A1
A0
AAAA
BBBB
CCCC
11
01
10
DDDD
EEEE
FFFF
11
rden_b
address_b
q_b (asynch)
A1
A0
XXXX (unknown data)
In the dual-port RAM mode, the mixed-port read-during-write operation is supported if the input
registers have the same clock. The output value during the operation is “unknown.”
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM:2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) User Guide
Provides more information about the RAM IP core that controls the read-during-write behavior.
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Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
2-7
Guideline: Consider Power-Up State and Memory Initialization
Consider the power up state of the different types of memory blocks if you are designing logic that
evaluates the initial power-up values, as listed in the following table.
Table 2-4: Initial Power-Up Values of Embedded Memory Blocks
Memory Type
Output Registers
Power Up Value
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Read memory contents
Used
Zero (cleared)
Bypassed
Zero (cleared)
MLAB
M10K
By default, the Quartus Prime software initializes the RAM cells in Cyclone V devices to zero unless you
specify a .mif.
All memory blocks support initialization with a .mif. You can create .mif files in the Quartus Prime
software and specify their use with the RAM IP core when you instantiate a memory in your design. Even
if a memory is pre-initialized (for example, using a .mif), it still powers up with its output cleared.
Related Information
• Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM:2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) User
Guide
Provides more information about .mif files.
• Quartus II Handbook
Provides more information about .mif files.
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption
Reduce AC power consumption in your design by controlling the clocking of each memory block:
• Use the read-enable signal to ensure that read operations occur only when necessary. If your design
does not require read-during-write, you can reduce your power consumption by de-asserting the readenable signal during write operations, or during the period when no memory operations occur.
• Use the Quartus Prime software to automatically place any unused memory blocks in low-power mode
to reduce static power.
Embedded Memory Features
Table 2-5: Memory Features in Cyclone V Devices
This table summarizes the features supported by the embedded memory blocks.
Features
Maximum operating frequency
Capacity per block (including parity bits)
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M10K
MLAB
315 MHz
420 MHz
10,240
640
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Embedded Memory Features
Features
M10K
MLAB
Parity bits
Supported
Supported
Byte enable
Supported
Supported
Packed mode
Supported
—
Address clock enable
Supported
Supported
Simple dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
True dual-port mixed width
Supported
—
FIFO buffer mixed width
Supported
—
Memory Initialization File (.mif)
Supported
Supported
Mixed-clock mode
Supported
Supported
Fully synchronous memory
Supported
Supported
—
Only for flow-through read
memory operations.
Asynchronous memory
Power-up state
Output ports are
cleared.
• Registered output ports—
Cleared.
• Unregistered output ports—
Read memory contents.
Asynchronous clears
Output registers and
output latches
Output registers and output
latches
Write/read operation triggering
Rising clock edges
Rising clock edges
Same-port read-during-write
Output ports set to
"new data" or "don't
care".
Output ports set to "don't care".
(The "don't care"
mode applies only for
the single-port RAM
mode).
Mixed-port read-during-write
Output ports set to
"old data" or "don't
care".
Output ports set to "old data", "new
data", "don't care", or "constrained
don't care".
ECC support
Soft IP support using
the Quartus Prime
software.
Soft IP support using the Quartus
Prime software.
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM:2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) User Guide
Provides more information about the embedded memory features.
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Embedded Memory Configurations
Embedded Memory Configurations
Table 2-6: Supported Embedded Memory Block Configurations for Cyclone V Devices
This table lists the maximum configurations supported for the embedded memory blocks. The information is
applicable only to the single-port RAM and ROM modes.
Memory Block
Depth (bits)
Programmable Width
MLAB
32
x16, x18, or x20
256
x40 or x32
512
x20 or x16
1K
x10 or x8
2K
x5 or x4
4K
x2
8K
x1
M10K
Mixed-Width Port Configurations
The mixed-width port configuration is supported in the simple dual-port RAM and true dual-port RAM
memory modes.
Note: MLABs do not support mixed-width port configurations.
Related Information
Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM:2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) User Guide
Provides more information about dual-port mixed width support.
M10K Blocks Mixed-Width Configurations
Table 2-7: M10K Block Mixed-Width Configurations in Simple Dual-Port RAM Mode
Write Port
Read Port
8K x 1
4K x 2
2K x 4
2K x 5
1K x 8
1k x 10
512 x 1
6
512 x 2
0
256 x 3
2
256 x 40
8K x 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
1K x 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K x 10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
512 x 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
512 x 20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
256 x 32
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
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Embedded Memory Modes
Write Port
Read Port
256 x 40
8K x 1
4K x 2
2K x 4
2K x 5
1K x 8
1k x 10
512 x 1
6
512 x 2
0
256 x 3
2
256 x 40
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Table 2-8: M10K Block Mixed-Width Configurations in True Dual-Port Mode
Port B
Port A
8K x 1
4K x 2
2K x 4
2K x 5
1K x 8
1K x 10
512 x 16
512 x 20
8K x 1
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
4K x 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 4
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
2K x 5
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
1K x 8
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
1K x 10
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
512 x 16
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
512 x 20
—
—
—
Yes
—
Yes
—
Yes
Embedded Memory Modes
Caution: To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any of the
memory block input registers during read or write operations. This is applicable if you use the
memory blocks in single-port RAM, simple dual-port RAM, true dual-port RAM, or ROM
mode.
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Table 2-9: Memory Modes Supported in the Embedded Memory Blocks
This table lists and describes the memory modes that are supported in the Cyclone V embedded memory blocks.
Memory Mode
Single-port RAM
M10K
Support
MLAB
Support
Yes
Yes
Description
You can perform only one read or one write operation at a
time.
Use the read enable port to control the RAM output ports
behavior during a write operation:
• To retain the previous values that are held during the most
recent active read enable—create a read-enable port and
perform the write operation with the read enable port
deasserted.
• To show the new data being written, the old data at that
address, or a "Don't Care" value when read-during-write
occurs at the same address location—do not create a readenable signal, or activate the read enable during a write
operation.
Simple dual-port
RAM
Yes
Yes
You can simultaneously perform one read and one write
operations to different locations where the write operation
happens on port A and the read operation happens on port B.
True dual-port
RAM
Yes
—
You can perform any combination of two port operations: two
reads, two writes, or one read and one write at two different
clock frequencies.
Shift-register
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as a shift-register block to save
logic cells and routing resources.
This is useful in DSP applications that require local data storage
such as finite impulse response (FIR) filters, pseudo-random
number generators, multi-channel filtering, and auto- and
cross- correlation functions. Traditionally, the local data
storage is implemented with standard flip-flops that exhaust
many logic cells for large shift registers.
The input data width (w), the length of the taps (m), and the
number of taps (n) determine the size of a shift register
(w × m × n). You can cascade memory blocks to implement
larger shift registers.
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Embedded Memory Clocking Modes
Memory Mode
ROM
M10K
Support
MLAB
Support
Yes
Yes
Description
You can use the memory blocks as ROM.
• Initialize the ROM contents of the memory blocks using
a .mif or .hex.
• The address lines of the ROM are registered on M10K
blocks but can be unregistered on MLABs. However, the
unregistered address line on MLABs is supported for simple
dual-port RAM mode only.
• The outputs can be registered or unregistered.
• The output registers can be asynchronously cleared.
• The ROM read operation is identical to the read operation
in the single-port RAM configuration.
FIFO
Yes
Yes
You can use the memory blocks as FIFO buffers. Use the
SCFIFO and DCFIFO IP cores to implement single- and dualclock asynchronous FIFO buffers in your design.
For designs with many small and shallow FIFO buffers, the
MLABs are ideal for the FIFO mode. However, the MLABs do
not support mixed-width FIFO mode.
Related Information
• Embedded Memory (RAM: 1-PORT, RAM:2-PORT, ROM: 1-PORT, and ROM: 2-PORT) User
Guide
Provides more information memory modes.
• RAM-Based Shift Register (ALTSHIFT_TAPS) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about implementing the shift register mode.
• SCFIFO and DCFIFO IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about implementing FIFO buffers.
Embedded Memory Clocking Modes
This section describes the clocking modes for the Cyclone V memory blocks.
Caution: To avoid corrupting the memory contents, do not violate the setup or hold time on any of the
memory block input registers during read or write operations.
Clocking Modes for Each Memory Mode
Table 2-10: Memory Blocks Clocking Modes Supported for Each Memory Mode
Memory Mode
Clocking Mode
Single clock mode
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Single-Port
Simple DualPort
True DualPort
ROM
FIFO
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
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Single Clock Mode
Memory Mode
Clocking Mode
Single-Port
Simple DualPort
True DualPort
ROM
FIFO
Read/write clock mode
—
Yes
—
—
Yes
Input/output clock mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
Independent clock mode
—
—
Yes
Yes
—
Note: The clock enable signals are not supported for write address, byte enable, and data input registers
on MLAB blocks.
Single Clock Mode
In the single clock mode, a single clock, together with a clock enable, controls all registers of the memory
block.
Read/Write Clock Mode
In the read/write clock mode, a separate clock is available for each read and write port. A read clock
controls the data-output, read-address, and read-enable registers. A write clock controls the data-input,
write-address, write-enable, and byte enable registers.
Input/Output Clock Mode
In input/output clock mode, a separate clock is available for each input and output port. An input clock
controls all registers related to the data input to the memory block including data, address, byte enables,
read enables, and write enables. An output clock controls the data output registers.
Independent Clock Mode
In the independent clock mode, a separate clock is available for each port (A and B). Clock A controls all
registers on the port A side; clock B controls all registers on the port B side.
Note: You can create independent clock enable for different input and output registers to control the shut
down of a particular register for power saving purposes. From the parameter editor, click More
Options (beside the clock enable option) to set the available independent clock enable that you
prefer.
Asynchronous Clears in Clocking Modes
In all clocking modes, asynchronous clears are available only for output latches and output registers. For
the independent clock mode, this is applicable on both ports.
Output Read Data in Simultaneous Read/Write
If you perform a simultaneous read/write to the same address location using the read/write clock mode,
the output read data is unknown. If you require the output read data to be a known value, use single-clock
or input/output clock mode and select the appropriate read-during-write behavior in the IP Catalog.
Note: MLAB memory blocks only support simultaneous read/write operations when operating in single
clock mode.
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Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes
Independent Clock Enables in Clocking Modes
Independent clock enables are supported in the following clocking modes:
• Read/write clock mode—supported for both the read and write clocks.
• Independent clock mode—supported for the registers of both ports.
To save power, you can control the shut down of a particular register using the clock enables.
Related Information
Guideline: Control Clocking to Reduce Power Consumption on page 2-7
Parity Bit in Memory Blocks
Table 2-11: Parity Bit Support for the Embedded Memory Blocks
This table describes the parity bit support for the memory blocks.
M10K
MLAB
• The parity bit is the fifth bit associated with each • The parity bit is the ninth bit associated with
4 data bits in data widths of 5, 10, 20, and 40
each byte.
(bits 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, and 39).
• The ninth bit can store a parity bit or serve as an
• In non-parity data widths, the parity bits are
additional bit.
skipped during read or write operations.
• Parity function is not performed on the parity
• Parity function is not performed on the parity
bit.
bit.
Byte Enable in Embedded Memory Blocks
The embedded memory blocks support byte enable controls:
• The byte enable controls mask the input data so that only specific bytes of data are written. The
unwritten bytes retain the values written previously.
• The write enable (wren) signal, together with the byte enable (byteena) signal, control the write
operations on the RAM blocks. By default, the byteena signal is high (enabled) and only the wren
signal controls the writing.
• The byte enable registers do not have a clear port.
• If you are using parity bits, on the M10K blocks, the byte enable function controls 8 data bits and 2
parity bits; on the MLABs, the byte enable function controls all 10 bits in the widest mode.
• The MSB and LSB of the byteena signal correspond to the MSB and LSB of the data bus, respectively.
• The byte enables are active high.
Byte Enable Controls in Memory Blocks
Table 2-12: byteena Controls in x20 Data Width
byteena[1:0]
11 (default)
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Data Bits Written
[19:10]
[9:0]
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Data Byte Output
byteena[1:0]
2-15
Data Bits Written
10
[19:10]
—
01
—
[9:0]
Table 2-13: byteena Controls in x40 Data Width
byteena[3:0]
Data Bits Written
1111 (default)
[39:30]
[29:20]
[19:10]
[9:0]
1000
[39:30]
—
—
—
0100
—
[29:20]
—
—
0010
—
—
[19:10]
—
0001
—
—
—
[9:0]
Data Byte Output
In M10K blocks, the corresponding masked data byte output appears as a “don’t care” value.
In MLABs, when you de-assert a byte-enable bit during a write cycle, the corresponding data byte output
appears as either a “don't care” value or the current data at that location. You can control the output value
for the masked byte in the MLABs by using the Quartus Prime software.
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RAM Blocks Operations
RAM Blocks Operations
Figure 2-6: Byte Enable Functional Waveform
This figure shows how the wren and byteena signals control the operations of the RAM blocks. For the
M10K blocks, the write-masked data byte output appears as a “don’t care” value because the “current
data” value is not supported.
inclock
wren
address
data
byteena
contents at a0
an
a0
a1
XXXXXXXX
XXXX
a2
a3
XXXXXXXX
1000
0100
0010
0001
1111
FFCDFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a3
XXXX
ABFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a2
a0
ABCDEF12
FFFFFFFF
contents at a1
a4
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFFFF
contents at a4
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
FFFFFFFF
don’t care: q (asynch)
doutn
ABXXXXXX
XXCDXXXX
XXXXEFXX
XXXXXX12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
current data: q (asynch)
doutn
ABFFFFFF
FFCDFFFF
FFFFEFFF
FFFFFF12
ABCDEF12
ABFFFFFF
Memory Blocks Packed Mode Support
The M10K memory blocks support packed mode.
The packed mode feature packs two independent single-port RAM blocks into one memory block. The
Quartus Prime software automatically implements packed mode where appropriate by placing the
physical RAM block in true dual-port mode and using the MSB of the address to distinguish between the
two logical RAM blocks. The size of each independent single-port RAM must not exceed half of the target
block size.
Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support
The embedded memory blocks support address clock enable, which holds the previous address value for
as long as the signal is enabled (addressstall = 1). When the memory blocks are configured in dualport mode, each port has its own independent address clock enable. The default value for the address
clock enable signal is low (disabled).
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Memory Blocks Address Clock Enable Support
2-17
Figure 2-7: Address Clock Enable
This figure shows an address clock enable block diagram. The address clock enable is referred to by the
port name addressstall.
address[0]
1
0
address[0]
register
address[N]
1
0
address[N]
register
address[0]
address[N]
addressstall
clock
Figure 2-8: Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the read cycle.
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
an
q (synch) doutn-1
q (asynch)
doutn
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a1
a0
doutn
dout0
dout0
a4
dout4
dout1
dout1
a5
dout4
dout5
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Document Revision History
Figure 2-9: Address Clock Enable During the Write Cycle Waveform
This figure shows the address clock enable waveform during the write cycle.
inclock
wraddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
data
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
an
contents at a1
a1
a0
a4
a5
00
XX
XX
01
contents at a2
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a4
03
02
04
XX
XX
contents at a5
05
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Updated MLAB RAM bit (Kb) in Embedded Memory Capacity and
Distribution in Cyclone V Devices table as follows:
• Cyclone V GX C3: Updated from 181 to 182
• Cyclone V GX C4: Updated from 295 to 424
• Updated total RAM bit (Kb) in Embedded Memory Capacity and
Distribution in Cyclone V Devices table as follows:
• Cyclone V GX C3: Updated from 1,531 to 1,532
• Cyclone V GX C4: Updated from 2,795 to 2,924
• Updated MLAB block count in Embedded Memory Capacity and
Distribution in Cyclone V Devices table as follows:
• Cyclone V GX C4: Updated from 472 to 678
• Cyclone V GX C5: Updated from 679 to 678
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
January 2015
2015.01.23
2-19
Changes
• Updated Embedded Memory Capacity and Distribution in Cyclone V
Devices table for Cyclone V GX C3 devices.
•
•
•
•
•
M10K block: Updated from 119 to 135
M10K RAM bit (Kb): Updated from 1,190 to 1,350
MLAB block: Updated from 255 to 291
MLAB RAM bit (Kb): Updated from 159 to 181
Total RAM bit (Kb): Updated from 1,349 to 1,531
• Reword Total RAM bits in Memory Features in Cyclone V Devices
table to Capacity per Block.
June 2013
2014.06.30
Clarified that the address lines of the ROM are registered on M10K
blocks but can be unregistered on MLABs. However, the unregistered
address line on MLABs is supported for simple dual-port RAM mode
only.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Updated the maximum operating frequency of the MLAB.
• Corrected the description about the "don't care" output mode for
RAM in mixed-port read-during-write.
• Reorganized the structure of the supported memory configurations
topics (single-port and mixed-width dual-port) to improve clarity
about maximum data widths supported for each configuration.
• Added a description to the table listing the maximum embedded
memory configurations to clarify that the information applies only to
the single port or ROM mode.
• Removed the topic about mixed-width configurations for MLABs and
added a note to clarify that MLABs do not support mixed-width
configuration.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Added memory capacity information from the Cyclone V Device
Overview for easy reference.
• Moved information about supported memory block configurations
into its own table.
• Added short descriptions of each clocking mode.
• Added topic about the packed mode support.
• Added topic about the address clock enable support.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
June 2012
2.0
• Restructured the chapter.
• Updated the “Memory Modes”, “Clocking Modes”, and “Design
Considerations” sections.
• Updated Table 2–1.
• Added the “Parity Bit” and “Byte Enable” sections.
• Moved the memory capacity information to the Cyclone V Device
Overview.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes how the variable-precision digital signal processing (DSP) blocks in Cyclone V
devices are optimized to support higher bit precision in high-performance DSP applications.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
Features
The Cyclone V variable precision DSP blocks offer the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
High-performance, power-optimized, and fully registered multiplication operations
9-bit, 18-bit, and 27-bit word lengths
Two 18 x 19 complex multiplications
Built-in addition, subtraction, and dual 64-bit accumulation unit to combine multiplication results
Cascading 19-bit or 27-bit to form the tap-delay line for filtering applications
Cascading 64-bit output bus to propagate output results from one block to the next block without
external logic support
• Hard pre-adder supported in 19-bit, and 27-bit mode for symmetric filters
• Internal coefficient register bank for filter implementation
• 18-bit and 27-bit systolic finite impulse response (FIR) filters with distributed output adder
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about the number of multipliers in each Cyclone V device.
© 2016 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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Supported Operational Modes in Cyclone V Devices
Supported Operational Modes in Cyclone V Devices
Table 3-1: Variable Precision DSP Blocks Operational Modes for Cyclone V Devices
Variable-Precision
DSP Block Resource
1 variable
precision DSP
block
2 variable
precision DSP
blocks
(1)
Supported
Instance
Pre-Adder
Support
Coefficient
Support
Input
Cascade
Support(1)
Chainout Support
Independent
9x9
multiplication
3
No
No
No
No
Independent
18 x 18
multiplication
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Independent
18 x 19
multiplication
2
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Independent
18 x 25
multiplication
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Independent
20 x 24
multiplication
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Independent
27 x 27
multiplication
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Two 18 x 19
multiplier
adder mode
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
18 x 18
multiplier
adder summed
with 36-bit
input
1
Yes
No
No
Yes
Complex
18 x 19
multiplication
1
No
No
Yes
No
Operation
Mode
When you enable the pre-adder feature, the input cascade support is not available.
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Resources
Resources
Table 3-2: Number of Multipliers in Cyclone V Devices
The table lists the variable-precision DSP resources by bit precision for each Cyclone V device.
Independent Input and Output
Variant
Cyclone V E
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
Member
Code
Variableprecision
DSP Block
9x9
18 x 18
27 x 27
Multiplier
Multiplier
Multiplier
18 x 18
18 x 18
Multiplier
Adder
Mode
Multiplier Adder
Summed with
36 bit Input
A2
25
75
50
25
25
25
A4
66
198
132
66
66
66
A5
150
450
300
150
150
150
A7
156
468
312
156
156
156
A9
342
1,026
684
342
342
342
C3
57
171
114
57
57
57
C4
70
210
140
70
70
70
C5
150
450
300
150
150
150
C7
156
468
312
156
156
156
C9
342
1,026
684
342
342
342
D5
150
450
300
150
150
150
D7
156
468
312
156
156
156
D9
342
1,026
684
342
342
342
A2
36
108
72
36
36
36
A4
84
252
168
84
84
84
A5
87
261
174
87
87
87
A6
112
336
224
112
112
112
C2
36
108
72
36
36
36
C4
84
252
168
84
84
84
C5
87
261
174
87
87
87
C6
112
336
224
112
112
112
D5
87
261
174
87
87
87
D6
112
336
224
112
112
112
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Design Considerations
Design Considerations
You should consider the following elements in your design:
•
•
•
•
Operational modes
Internal coefficient and pre-adder
Accumulator
Chainout adder
Operational Modes
The Quartus Prime software includes IP cores that you can use to control the operation mode of the
multipliers. After entering the parameter settings with the IP Catalog, the Quartus Prime software
automatically configures the variable precision DSP block.
Altera provides two methods for implementing various modes of the Cyclone V variable precision DSP
block in a design—using the Quartus Prime DSP IP cores and HDL inferring.
The following Quartus Prime IP cores are supported for the Cyclone V variable precision DSP blocks
implementation:
•
•
•
•
LPM_MULT
ALTERA_MULT_ADD
ALTMULT_COMPLEX
ALTMEMMULT
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Altera IP Cores
Integer Arithmetic IP Cores User Guide
Floating-Point IP Cores User Guide
Quartus II Software Help
Internal Coefficient and Pre-Adder
To use the pre-adder feature, all input data and multipliers must have the same clock setting.
The input cascade support is not available when you enable the pre-adder feature.
In both 18-bit and 27-bit modes, you can use the coefficient feature and pre-adder feature independently.
Accumulator
The accumulator in the Cyclone V devices supports double accumulation by enabling the 64-bit double
accumulation registers located between the output register bank and the accumulator.
The double accumulation registers are set statically in the programming file.
Chainout Adder
You can use the output chaining path to add results from other DSP blocks.
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Block Architecture
Block Architecture
The Cyclone V variable precision DSP block consists of the following elements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Input register bank
Pre-adder
Internal coefficient
Multipliers
Adder
Accumulator and chainout adder
Systolic registers
Double accumulation register
Output register bank
If the variable precision DSP block is not configured in systolic FIR mode, both systolic registers are
bypassed.
Figure 3-1: Variable Precision DSP Block Architecture for Cyclone V Devices
CLK[2..0]
scanin
chainin[63..0]
ENA[2..0]
ACLR[1..0]
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
NEGATE
SUB_COMPLEX
dataa_y0[18..0]
dataa_x0[17..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
Systolic
Registers
(1)
+/Input Register Bank
dataa_z0[17..0]
Constant
Systolic
Register (1)
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
x
+/-
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
Multiplier
+/-
+
Chainout adder/
accumulator
+/-
datab_z1[17..0]
x
datab_x1[17..0]
COEFSELB[2..0]
Output Register Bank
Pre-Adder
datab_y1[18..0]
Double
Accumulation
Register
Result[73..0]
Internal
Coefficient
scanout
chainout[63..0]
Note:
1. When enabled, systolic registers are clocked with the same clock source as the output register bank.
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Input Register Bank
Input Register Bank
The input register bank consists of data, dynamic control signals, and two sets of delay registers.
All the registers in the DSP blocks are positive-edge triggered and cleared on power up. Each multiplier
operand can feed an input register or a multiplier directly, bypassing the input registers.
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the input registers within the variable
precision DSP block:
• CLK[2..0]
• ENA[2..0]
• ACLR[0]
In 18 x 19 mode, you can use the delay registers to balance the latency requirements when you use both
the input cascade and chainout features.
The tap-delay line feature allows you to drive the top leg of the multiplier input, dataa_y0 and datab_y1 in
18 x 19 mode and dataa_y0 only in 27 x 27 mode, from the general routing or cascade chain.
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Input Register Bank
3-7
Figure 3-2: Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in 18 x 19 Mode for Cyclone V Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[18..0]
ACLR[0]
dataa_y0[18..0]
dataa_z0[17..0]
dataa_x0[17..0]
Delay registers
datab_y1[18..0]
datab_z1[17..0]
datab_x1[17..0]
Delay registers
scanout[18..0]
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Pre-Adder
Figure 3-3: Input Register of a Variable Precision DSP Block in 27 x 27 Mode for Cyclone V Devices
The figures show the data registers only. Registers for the control signals are not shown.
CLK[2..0]
ENA[2..0]
scanin[26..0]
ACLR[0]
dataa_y0[26..0]
dataa_z0[25..0]
dataa_x0[26..0]
scanout[26..0]
Pre-Adder
Cyclone V Devices
Each variable precision DSP block has two 19-bit pre-adders. You can configure these pre-adders in the
following configurations:
• Two independent 19-bit pre-adders
• One 27-bit pre-adder
The pre-adder supports both addition and subtraction in the following input configurations:
• 18-bit (signed) addition or subtraction for 18 x 19 mode
• 17-bit (unsigned) addition or subtraction for 18 x 19 mode
• 26-bit addition or subtraction for 27 x 27 mode
Internal Coefficient
The Cyclone V variable precision DSP block has the flexibility of selecting the multiplicand from either
the dynamic input or the internal coefficient.
The internal coefficient can support up to eight constant coefficients for the multiplicands in 18-bit and
27-bit modes. When you enable the internal coefficient feature, COEFSELA/COEFSELB are used to control
the selection of the coefficient multiplexer.
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Multipliers
3-9
Multipliers
A single variable precision DSP block can perform many multiplications in parallel, depending on the
data width of the multiplier.
There are two multipliers per variable precision DSP block. You can configure these two multipliers in
several operational modes:
• One 27 x 27 multiplier
• Two 18 (signed)/(unsigned) x 19 (signed) multipliers
• Three 9 x 9 multipliers
Related Information
Operational Mode Descriptions on page 3-11
Provides more information about the operational modes of the multipliers.
Adder
You can use the adder in various sizes, depending on the operational mode:
• One 64-bit adder with the 64-bit accumulator
• Two 18 x 19 modes—the adder is divided into two 37-bit adders to produce the full 37-bit result of
each independent 18 x 19 multiplication
• Three 9 x 9 modes—you can use the adder as three 18-bit adders to produce three 9 x 9 multiplication
results independently
Accumulator and Chainout Adder
The Cyclone V variable precision DSP block supports a 64-bit accumulator and a 64-bit adder.
The following signals can dynamically control the function of the accumulator:
• NEGATE
• LOADCONST
• ACCUMULATE
The accumulator supports double accumulation by enabling the 64-bit double accumulation registers
located between the output register bank and the accumulator.
The double accumulation registers are set statically in the programming file.
The accumulator and chainout adder features are not supported in two independent 18 x 19 modes and
three independent 9 x 9 modes.
Table 3-3: Accumulator Functions and Dynamic Control Signals
This table lists the dynamic signals settings and description for each function. In this table, X denotes a "don't
care" value.
Function
Zeroing
Description
Disables the
accumulator.
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NEGATE
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
0
0
0
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Systolic Registers
Function
Description
NEGATE
LOADCONST
ACCUMULATE
Preload
Loads an initial value
to the accumulator.
Only one bit of the
64-bit preload value
can be “1”. It can be
used as rounding the
DSP result to any
position of the 64-bit
result.
0
1
0
Accumulation
Adds the current
result to the previous
accumulate result.
0
X
1
Decimation
This function takes
the current result,
converts it into two’s
complement, and
adds it to the
previous result.
1
X
1
Systolic Registers
There are two systolic registers per variable precision DSP block. If the variable precision DSP block is not
configured in systolic FIR mode, both systolic registers are bypassed.
The first set of systolic registers consists of 18-bit and 19-bit registers that are used to register the 18-bit
and 19-bit inputs of the upper multiplier, respectively.
The second set of systolic registers are used to delay the chainout output to the next variable precision
DSP block.
You must clock all the systolic registers with the same clock source as the output register bank.
Double Accumulation Register
The double accumulation register is an extra register in the feedback path of the accumulator. Enabling
the double accumulation register will cause an extra clock cycle delay in the feedback path of the
accumulator.
This register has the same CLK, ENA, and ACLR settings as the output register bank.
By enabling this register, you can have two accumulator channels using the same number of variable
precision DSP block.
Output Register Bank
The positive edge of the clock signal triggers the 64-bit bypassable output register bank and is cleared after
power up.
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Operational Mode Descriptions
3-11
The following variable precision DSP block signals control the output register per variable precision DSP
block:
• CLK[2..0]
• ENA[2..0]
• ACLR[1]
Operational Mode Descriptions
This section describes how you can configure an Cyclone V variable precision DSP block to efficiently
support the following operational modes:
•
•
•
•
•
Independent Multiplier Mode
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
Systolic FIR Mode
Independent Multiplier Mode
In independent input and output multiplier mode, the variable precision DSP blocks perform individual
multiplication operations for general purpose multipliers.
Table 3-4: Variable Precision DSP Block Independent Multiplier Mode Configurations
Configuration
Multipliers per block
9x9
3
18 (signed) x 18 (unsigned)
18 (unsigned) x 18 (unsigned)
18 (signed) x 19 (signed)
2
18 (unsigned) x 19 (signed)
18 x 25
1
20 x 24
1
27 x 27
1
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9 x 9 Independent Multiplier
9 x 9 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-4: Three 9 x 9 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Cyclone V
Devices
Three pairs of data are packed into the ax and ay ports; result contains three 18-bit products.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
27
ax[x2, x1, x0]
x
Output Register Bank
ay[y2, y1, y0]
Input Register Bank
27
54
Result[53..0]
(p2, p1, p0)
18 x 18 or 18 x 19 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-5: Two 18 x 18 or 18 x 19 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for
Cyclone V Devices
In this figure, the variables are defined as follows:
• n = 19 and m = 37 for 18 x 19 mode
• n = 18 and m = 36 for 18 x 18 mode
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
n
data_b1[(n-1)..0]
m
x
[(m-1)..0]
18
Multiplier
x
Output Register Bank
n
data_b0[(n-1)..0]
Input Register Bank
data_a1[17..0]
m
[(m-1)..0]
18
data_a0[17..0]
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18 x 25 Independent Multiplier
3-13
18 x 25 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-6: One 18 x 25 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Cyclone V
Devices
In this mode, the result can be up to 52 bits when combined with a chainout adder or accumulator.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
x
Output Register Bank
25
dataa_a0[24..0]
Input Register Bank
18
dataa_b0[17..0]
43
Result[42..0]
20 x 24 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-7: One 20 x 24 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Cyclone V
Devices
In this mode, the result can be up to 52 bits when combined with a chainout adder or accumulator.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
Variable Precision DSP Blocks in Cyclone V Devices
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x
Output Register Bank
24
dataa_a0[23..0]
Input Register Bank
20
dataa_b0[19..0]
44
Result[43..0]
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27 x 27 Independent Multiplier
27 x 27 Independent Multiplier
Figure 3-8: One 27 x 27 Independent Multiplier Mode per Variable Precision DSP Block for Cyclone V
Devices
In this mode, the result can be up to 64 bits when combined with a chainout adder or accumulator.
Variable-Precision DSP Block
Multiplier
x
Output Register Bank
27
dataa_a0[26..0]
Input Register Bank
27
dataa_b0[26..0]
54
Result[53..0]
Independent Complex Multiplier Mode
The Cyclone V devices support the 18 x 19 complex multiplier mode using two Cyclone V variableprecision DSP blocks.
Figure 3-9: Sample of Complex Multiplication Equation
The imaginary part [(a × d) + (b × c)] is implemented in the first variable-precision DSP block, while the
real part [(a × c) - (b × d)] is implemented in the second variable-precision DSP block.
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18 x 19 Complex Multiplier
3-15
18 x 19 Complex Multiplier
Figure 3-10: One 18 x 19 Complex Multiplier with Two Variable Precision DSP Blocks for Cyclone V
Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block 1
Multiplier
19
c[18..0]
x
Adder
Input Register Bank
19
d[18..0]
18
Multiplier
+
Output Register Bank
18
b[17..0]
38
Imaginary Part
(ad+bc)
x
a[17..0]
Variable-Precision DSP Block 2
Multiplier
19
d[18..0]
x
Adder
Multiplier
-
Input Register Bank
19
c[18..0]
18
Output Register Bank
18
b[17..0]
38
Real Part
(ac-bd)
x
a[17..0]
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Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
Multiplier Adder Sum Mode
Figure 3-11: One Sum of Two 18 x 19 Multipliers with One Variable Precision DSP Block for Cyclone V
Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block
SUB_COMPLEX
Multiplier
19
dataa_y0[18..0]
Chainout adder or
accumulator
x
18
datab_y1[18..0]
+/-
38
Output Register Bank
19
Input Register Bank
dataa_x0[17..0]
+
Multiplier
Adder
Result[37..0]
x
18
datab_x1[17..0]
18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode
Cyclone V variable precision DSP blocks support one 18 x 18 multiplication summed to a 36-bit input.
Use the upper multiplier to provide the input for an 18 x 18 multiplication, while the bottom multiplier is
bypassed. The datab_y1[17..0] and datab_y1[35..18] signals are concatenated to produce a 36-bit
input.
Figure 3-12: One 18 x 18 Multiplication Summed with 36-Bit Input Mode for Cyclone V Devices
Variable-Precision DSP Block
SUB_COMPLEX
Multiplier
18
dataa_y0[17..0]
Input Register Bank
18
datab_y1[35..18]
Chainout adder or
accumulator
+/-
+
Output Register Bank
x
18
dataa_x0[17..0]
37
Result[36..0]
18
datab_y1[17..0]
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Systolic FIR Mode
3-17
Systolic FIR Mode
The basic structure of a FIR filter consists of a series of multiplications followed by an addition.
Figure 3-13: Basic FIR Filter Equation
Depending on the number of taps and the input sizes, the delay through chaining a high number of
adders can become quite large. To overcome the delay performance issue, the systolic form is used with
additional delay elements placed per tap to increase the performance at the cost of increased latency.
Figure 3-14: Systolic FIR Filter Equivalent Circuit
x[n]
C1
C2
Ck-1
Ck
y[n]
Cyclone V variable precision DSP blocks support the following systolic FIR structures:
• 18-bit
• 27-bit
In systolic FIR mode, the input of the multiplier can come from four different sets of sources:
•
•
•
•
Two dynamic inputs
One dynamic input and one coefficient input
One coefficient input and one pre-adder output
One dynamic input and one pre-adder output
18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 18-bit systolic FIR mode, the adders are configured as dual 44-bit adders, thereby giving 8 bits of
overhead when using an 18-bit operation (36-bit products). This allows a total of 256 multiplier products.
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27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
Figure 3-15: 18-Bit Systolic FIR Mode for Cyclone V Devices
chainin[43..0]
44
dataa_x0[17..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
datab_y1[17..0]
datab_z1[17..0]
datab_x1[17..0]
COEFSELB[2..0]
+/-
18
Systolic
Registers (1)
18
x
+/-
3
18
18
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
+/-
+
Chainout adder or
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_z0[17..0]
18
Input Register Bank
dataa_y0[17..0]
Systolic
Register (1)
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
x
44
18
Result[43..0]
3
Internal
Coefficient
18-bit Systolic FIR
44
chainout[43..0]
Note:
1. The systolic registers have the same clock source as the output register bank.
27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode
In 27-bit systolic FIR mode, the chainout adder or accumulator is configured for a 64-bit operation,
providing 10 bits of overhead when using a 27-bit data (54-bit products). This allows a total of 1,024
multiplier products.
The 27-bit systolic FIR mode allows the implementation of one stage systolic filter per DSP block.
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Document Revision History
Figure 3-16: 27-Bit Systolic FIR Mode for Cyclone V Devices
chainin[63..0]
64
Multiplier
Pre-Adder
dataa_x0[26..0]
COEFSELA[2..0]
+/-
26
27
3
27
x
+/-
Internal
Coefficient
Adder
+
Chainout adder or
accumulator
Output Register Bank
dataa_z0[25..0]
26
Input Register Bank
dataa_y0[25..0]
27-bit Systolic FIR
64
chainout[63..0]
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Updated Systolic FIR Filter Equivalent Circuit figure.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Updated Number of Multipliers in Cyclone V Devices table for
Cyclone V GX C3 devices.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Variable-Precision DSP Block: Updated from 51 to 57.
9 x 9 Multiplier: Updated from 153 to 171.
18 x 18 Multiplier: Updated from 102 to 114.
27 x 27 Multiplier: Updated from 51 to 57.
18 x 18 Multiplier Adder Mode: Updated from 51 to 57.
18 x 18 Multiplier Adder Summed with 36 bit Input: Updated
from 51 to 57.
July 2014
2014.07.22
Reinstated input register bank and systolic registers to the block architec‐
ture.
June 2014
2014.06.30
Updated the supported megafunctions from ALTMULT_ADD and
ALTMULT _ACCUM to ALTERA_MULT_ADD.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Corrected variable-precision DSP block, 27 x 27 multiplier, 18 x 18
multiplier adder mode and 18 x 18 multiplier adder summed with 36
bit input for Cyclone V SE A4 from 58 to 84.
• Corrected 18 x 18 multiplier for Cyclone V SE A4 from 116 to 168.
• Corrected 9 x 9 multiplier for Cyclone V SE A4 from 174 to 252.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Updated the variable DSP blocks and multipliers counts for the
Cyclone V SX device variants.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added resources for Cyclone V devices.
• Updated design considerations for Cyclone V devices in operational
modes.
• Updated Figure 3-10, changed 37 to 38.
• Updated Figure 3-11, changed 37 to 38 and changed Result[36..0] to
Result [37..0].
June 2012
2.0
Updated for the Quartus II software v12.0 release:
• Restructured chapter.
• Added “Design Considerations”, “Adder”, and “Double Accumula‐
tion Register” sections.
• Updated Figure 3–1 and Figure 3–13.
• Added Table 3–3.
• Updated “Systolic Registers” and “Systolic FIR Mode” sections.
• Added Equation 3–2.
• Added Figure 3–12.
May 2011
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Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices
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This chapter describes the advanced features of hierarchical clock networks and phase-locked loops
(PLLs) in Cyclone V devices. The Quartus Prime software enables the PLLs and their features without
external devices.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
Clock Networks
The Cyclone V devices contain the following clock networks that are organized into a hierarchical
structure:
• Global clock (GCLK) networks
• Regional clock (RCLK) networks
• Periphery clock (PCLK) networks
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of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
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Clock Resources in Cyclone V Devices
Clock Resources in Cyclone V Devices
Table 4-1: Clock Resources in Cyclone V Devices
Clock Resource
Clock input pins
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Device
Number of Resources
Available
Source of Clock Resource
• Cyclone V E A5,
A7, and A9
• Cyclone V GX C4 24 single-ended or
, C5, C7, and C9 12 differential
• Cyclone V GT D5
, D7, and D9
CLK[0..11][p,n] pins
• Cyclone V E A2
18 single-ended or 9
and A4
differential
• Cyclone V GX C3
CLK[0..3][p,n], CLK[6]
[p,n], and CLK[8..11]
[p,n] pins
• Cyclone V SE A5
and A6
• Cyclone V SX C5 16 single-ended or 8
and C6
differential
• Cyclone V ST D5
and D6
CLK[0..7][p,n] pins
• Cyclone V SE A2
and A4
12 single-ended or 6
• Cyclone V SX C2 differential
and C4
CLK[0..3][p,n] and
CLK[6,7][p,n] pins
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Clock Resources in Cyclone V Devices
Clock Resource
Device
Number of Resources
Available
• Cyclone V E A5,
A7, and A9
• Cyclone V GX C4
, C5, C7, and C9 • GCLK networks:
• Cyclone V GT D5
16
, D7, and D9
• RCLK networks:
88
• Cyclone V E A2
and A4
• Cyclone V GX C3
GCLK and RCLK networks
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Source of Clock Resource
CLK[0..11][p,n] pins, PLL
clock outputs, and logic
array
CLK[0..3][p,n], CLK[6]
[p,n], CLK[8..11][p,n]
pins, PLL clock outputs, and
logic array
• Cyclone V SE A2 • GCLK networks:
and A4
16
• Cyclone V SX C2 • RCLK networks:
and C4
72
CLK[0..3][p,n] and
CLK[6,7][p,n] pins
• Cyclone V SE A5
and A6
• GCLK networks:
16
• Cyclone V SX C5
and C6
• RCLK networks:
66
• Cyclone V ST D5
and D6
CLK[0..7][p,n] pins, PLL
clock outputs, and logic
array
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices
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Types of Clock Networks
Clock Resource
Device
Number of Resources
Available
Cyclone V E A2 and
A4
PCLK networks
—
Cyclone V GX C3
6
• Cyclone V E A5
• Cyclone V GX C4
and C5
• Cyclone V GT D5
• Cyclone V SE A2
and A4
• Cyclone V SX C2
and C4
12
•
•
•
•
Source of Clock Resource
PLD-transceiver interface
clocks, I/O pins, and logic
array
Cyclone V E A7
Cyclone V GX C7
Cyclone V GT D7
Cyclone V SE A5
and A6
• Cyclone V SX C5
and C6
• Cyclone V ST D5
and D6
18
• Cyclone V E A9
• Cyclone V GX C9
• Cyclone V GT D9
24
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin connection guidelines.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Types of Clock Networks
Global Clock Networks
Cyclone V devices provide GCLKs that can drive throughout the device. The GCLKs serve as low-skew
clock sources for functional blocks, such as adaptive logic modules (ALMs), digital signal processing
(DSP), embedded memory, and PLLs. Cyclone V I/O elements (IOEs) and internal logic can also drive
GCLKs to create internally-generated global clocks and other high fan-out control signals, such as
synchronous or asynchronous clear and clock enable signals.
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Global Clock Networks
4-5
Figure 4-1: GCLK Networks in Cyclone V E, GX, and GT Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
GCLK[0..3]
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
GCLK[8..11]
CLK[4..7][p,n]
GCLK[12..15]
For Cyclone V E A2 and A4 devices,
and Cyclone V GX C3 device, only
CLK[6][p,n] pins are available.
GCLK[4..7]
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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Regional Clock Networks
Figure 4-2: GCLK Networks in Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[6,7][p,n]
GCLK[0..3]
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
GCLK[4..7]
GCLK[8..11]
CLK[4,5][p,n]
GCLK[12..15]
GCLK network is not available in
quadrant 2 for Cyclone V SE A5 and A6
devices, Cyclone V ST D5 and D6
devices, and Cyclone V SX C5 and C6
devices.
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Regional Clock Networks
RCLK networks are only applicable to the quadrant they drive into. RCLK networks provide the lowest
clock insertion delay and skew for logic contained within a single device quadrant. The Cyclone V IOEs
and internal logic within a given quadrant can also drive RCLKs to create internally generated regional
clocks and other high fan-out control signals.
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Regional Clock Networks
4-7
Figure 4-3: RCLK Networks in Cyclone V E, GX, and GT Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
RCLK[0..9]
RCLK[10..19]
RCLK[46..51]
RCLK[64..69]
RCLK[70..75]
CLK[4..7][p,n]
RCLK[40..45]
Q1 Q2
Q4 Q3
RCLK[82..87]
RCLK[76..81]
RCLK[58..63]
RCLK[52..57]
RCLK[30..39]
For Cyclone V E A2
and A4 devices, and
Cyclone V GX C3 device,
only CLK[6][p,n] pins are
available.
RCLK[20..29]
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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Periphery Clock Networks
Figure 4-4: RCLK Networks in Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[6,7][p,n]
RCLK[0..9]
RCLK[40..45]
RCLK[64..69]
CLK[4,5][p,n]
RCLK[70..75]
Q1 Q2
Q4 Q3
RCLK[82..87]
RCLK[76..81]
RCLK[58..63]
RCLK[52..57]
RCLK[30..39]
RCLK network is not
available in quadrant 2 for
Cyclone V SE A5 and A6
devices, Cyclone V ST
D5 and D6 devices, and
Cyclone V SX C5 and C6
devices.
RCLK[20..29]
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Periphery Clock Networks
Cyclone V devices provide only horizontal PCLKs from the left periphery.
Clock outputs from the programmable logic device (PLD)-transceiver interface clocks, horizontal I/O
pins, and internal logic can drive the PCLK networks.
PCLKs have higher skew when compared with GCLK and RCLK networks. You can use PCLKs for
general purpose routing to drive signals into and out of the Cyclone V device.
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Periphery Clock Networks
4-9
Figure 4-5: PCLK Networks in Cyclone V E, GX, and GT Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Horizontal
PCLK
Horizontal
PCLK
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
CLK[4..7][p,n]
Horizontal
PCLK
For Cyclone V E A2 and A4
devices and Cyclone V GX C3
device, only CLK[6][p,n]
pins are available.
Horizontal
PCLK
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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Clock Sources Per Quadrant
Figure 4-6: PCLK Networks in Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[6,7][p,n]
Horizontal
PCLK
Horizontal
PCLK
Q1
Q2
Q4
Q3
CLK[4,5][p,n]
Horizontal
PCLK
Horizontal
PCLK
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Clock Sources Per Quadrant
The Cyclone V devices provide 30 section clock (SCLK) networks in each spine clock per quadrant. The
SCLK networks can drive six row clocks in each logic array block (LAB) row, nine column I/O clocks, and
two core reference clocks. The SCLKs are the clock resources to the core functional blocks, PLLs, and I/O
interfaces of the device.
A spine clock is another layer of routing between the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks before each
clock is connected to the clock routing for each LAB row. The settings for spine clocks are transparent.
The Quartus Prime software automatically routes the spine clock based on the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK
networks.
The following figure shows SCLKs driven by the GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, or the PLL feedback clock
networks in each spine clock per quadrant. The GCLK, RCLK, PCLK, and PLL feedback clocks share the
same routing to the SCLKs. To ensure successful design fitting in the Quartus Prime software, the total
number of clock resources must not exceed the SCLK limits in each region.
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Types of Clock Regions
4-11
Figure 4-7: Hierarchical Clock Networks in Each Spine Clock Per Quadrant
9
Clock output from the PLL
that drives into the SCLKs.
GCLK
PLL Feedback Clock
PCLK
RCLK
There are up to 12 PCLKs that can drive the
SCLKs in each spine clock per quadrant in the
largest device.
There are up to 22 RCLKs that can drive the
SCLKs in each spine clock per quadrant in the
largest device.
16
5
12
22
SCLK
30
2
Column I/O clock: clock that drives
the I/O column core registers
and I/O interfaces.
Core reference clock: clock that feeds
into the PLL as the PLL reference clock.
6
Row clock: clock source to the LAB,
memory blocks, and row I/O interfaces
in the core row.
For Cyclone V E A5 device, Cyclone V GX C3, C4, and C5 devices, and
Cyclone V GT D5 device, only 18 SCLKs are available in quadrant 3 and quadrant 4,
which are SCLK[0,1], SCLK[5..10], SCLK[12..15], and SCLK[20..25].
Types of Clock Regions
This section describes the types of clock regions in Cyclone V devices.
Entire Device Clock Region
To form the entire device clock region, a source drives a signal in a GCLK network that can be routed
through the entire device. The source is not necessarily a clock signal. This clock region has the maximum
insertion delay when compared with other clock regions, but allows the signal to reach every destination
in the device. It is a good option for routing global reset and clear signals or routing clocks throughout the
device.
Regional Clock Region
To form a regional clock region, a source drives a signal in a RCLK network that you can route
throughout one quadrant of the device. This clock region provides the lowest skew in a quadrant. It is a
good option if all the destinations are in a single quadrant.
Dual-Regional Clock Region
To form a dual-regional clock region, a single source (a clock pin or PLL output) generates a dual-regional
clock by driving two RCLK networks (one from each quadrant). This technique allows destinations across
two adjacent device quadrants to use the same low-skew clock. The routing of this signal on an entire side
has approximately the same delay as a RCLK region. Internal logic can also drive a dual-regional clock
network.
Dual-regional clock region is only supported for quadrant 3 and quadrant 4 in Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST
devices.
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Clock Network Sources
Figure 4-8: Dual-Regional Clock Region for Cyclone V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Clock pins or PLL outputs can
drive half of the device to create
dual-regional clocking regions
for improved interface timing.
Clock Network Sources
In Cyclone V devices, clock input pins, PLL outputs, high-speed serial interface (HSSI) outputs, and
internal logic can drive the GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks.
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
You can use the dedicated clock input pins (CLK[0..11][p,n]) for high fan-out control signals, such as
asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables, for protocol signals through the GCLK or RCLK
networks.
CLK pins can be either differential clocks or single-ended clocks. When you use the CLK pins as singleended clock inputs, only the CLK<#>p pins have dedicated connections to the PLL. The CLK<#>n pins drive
the PLLs over global or regional clock networks and do not have dedicated routing paths to the PLLs.
Driving a PLL over a global or regional clock can lead to higher jitter at the PLL input, and the PLL will
not be able to fully compensate for the global or regional clock. Altera recommends using the CLK<#>p
pins for optimal performance when you use single-ended clock inputs to drive the PLLs.
Internal Logic
You can drive each GCLK, RCLK, and horizontal PCLK network using LAB-routing and row clock to
enable internal logic to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal.
Note: Internally-generated GCLKs, RCLKs, or PCLKs cannot drive the Cyclone V PLLs. The input clock
to the PLL has to come from dedicated clock input pins, PLL-fed GCLKs, or PLL-fed RCLKs.
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HSSI Outputs
4-13
HSSI Outputs
Every three HSSI outputs generate a group of four PCLKs to the core.
Related Information
• PLLs and Clocking on page 5-12
Provides more information about HSSI outputs.
• LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode on page 5-15
Provides more information about HSSI outputs.
PLL Clock Outputs
The Cyclone V PLL clock outputs can drive both GCLK and RCLK networks.
Clock Input Pin Connections to GCLK and RCLK Networks
Table 4-2: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the GCLK Networks for Cyclone V E, GX, and GT
Devices
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n Pins)
GCLK[0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
CLK[0,1,2,3]
GCLK[8,9,10,11]
CLK[4,5,6,7] (2)
GCLK[0,1,2,3,12,13,14,15]
CLK[8,9,10,11]
Table 4-3: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the GCLK Networks for Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST
Devices
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n Pins)
GCLK[0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
CLK[0,1,2,3]
GCLK[8,9,10,11]
CLK[4,5](3)
GCLK[0,1,2,3,12,13,14,15]
CLK[6,7]
Table 4-4: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the RCLK Networks for Cyclone V E, GX, and GT
Devices
A given clock input pin can drive two adjacent RCLK networks to create a dual-regional clock network.
Clock Resources
(2)
(3)
CLK (p/n Pins)
RCLK[20,24,28,30,34,38,58,59,60,61,62,63,6
4,68,82,86]
CLK[0]
RCLK[21,25,29,31,35,39,58,59,60,61,62,63,6
5,69,83,87]
CLK[1]
RCLK[22,26,32,36,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,6
0,61,62,63,66,84]
CLK[2]
For Cyclone V E A2 and A4 devices, and Cyclone V GX C3 device, only CLK[6] is available.
This applies to all Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices except for Cyclone V SE A2 and A4 devices, and
Cyclone V SX C2 and C4 devices.
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Clock Output Connections
Clock Resources
RCLK[23,27,33,37,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,6
0,61,62,63,67,85]
CLK (p/n Pins)
CLK[3]
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,70,74,76,80]
CLK[4] (4)
RCLK[46,47,48,49,50,51,71,75,77,81]
CLK[5] (4)
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,72,78]
CLK[6]
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,73,79]
CLK[7] (4)
RCLK[0,4,8,10,14,18,40,41,42,43,44,45,64,6
8,82,86]
CLK[8]
RCLK[1,5,9,11,15,19,40,41,42,43,44,45,65,6
9,83,87]
CLK[9]
RCLK[2,6,12,16,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,
49,50,51,66,84]
CLK[10]
RCLK[3,7,13,17,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,
49,50,51,67,85]
CLK[11]
Table 4-5: Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to the RCLK Networks for Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST
Devices
A given clock input pin can drive two adjacent RCLK networks to create a dual-regional clock network.
Clock Resources
CLK (p/n pins)
RCLK[20,24,28,30,34,38,58,59,60,61,62,63,6
4,68,82,86]
CLK[0]
RCLK[21,25,29,31,35,39,58,59,60,61,62,63,6
5,69,83,87]
CLK[1]
RCLK[22,26,32,36,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,6
0,61,62,63,66,84]
CLK[2]
RCLK[23,27,33,37,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,6
0,61,62,63,67,85]
CLK[3]
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,78]
CLK[4] (3)
RCLK[52,53,54,55,56,57,79]
CLK[5] (3)
RCLK[0,4,8,40,41,42,43,44,45,64,68,82,86]
CLK[6]
RCLK[1,5,9,40,41,42,43,44,45,65,69,83,87]
CLK[7]
Clock Output Connections
For Cyclone V PLL connectivity to GCLK and RCLK networks, refer to the PLL connectivity to GCLK
and RCLK networks spreadsheet.
(4)
This applies to all Cyclone V E, GX, and GT devices except for Cyclone V E A2 and A4 devices, and
Cyclone V GX C3 device.
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Clock Control Block
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Related Information
PLL Connectivity to GCLK and RCLK Networks for Cyclone V Devices
Clock Control Block
Every GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK network has its own clock control block. The control block provides the
following features:
• Clock source selection (dynamic selection available only for GCLKs)
• Global clock multiplexing
• Clock power down (static or dynamic clock enable or disable available only for GCLKs and RCLKs)
Pin Mapping in Cyclone V Devices
Table 4-6: Mapping Between the Input Clock Pins, PLL Counter Outputs, and Clock Control Block Inputs
Clock
Fed by
inclk[0] and inclk[1]
Any of the four dedicated clock pins on the same side of the Cyclone V
device.
inclk[2]
• PLL counters C0 and C2 from PLLs on the same side of the clock
control block (for top, bottom, and right side of the Cyclone V device)
.
• PLL counter C4 from PLLs on the same side of the clock control block
(for left side of the Cyclone V device).
inclk[3]
PLL counters C1 and C3 from PLLs on the same side of the clock control
block (for top, bottom, and right side of the Cyclone V device). This
input clock port is not connected for the clock control block on left side
of the Cyclone V device.
GCLK Control Block
You can select the clock source for the GCLK select block either statically or dynamically using internal
logic to drive the multiplexer-select inputs.
When selecting the clock source dynamically, you can select up to two PLL counter outputs and up to two
clock pins.
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RCLK Control Block
Figure 4-9: GCLK Control Block for Cyclone V Devices
CLKp
Pins
PLL Counter
Outputs
When the device is in user mode,
you can dynamically control the
clock select signals through internal
logic.
2
CLKSELECT[1..0]
2
2 CLKn
Pin
PLL Counter
Outputs
Internal
Logic
Static Clock
Select
This multiplexer
supports user-controllable
dynamic switching
Enable/
Disable
Internal
Logic
GCLK
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated clock
input when used as a single-ended
PLL clock input. The CLKn pin can
drive the PLL using the GCLK.
When the device is in user mode, you can only
set the clock select signals through a
configuration file (SRAM object file [.sof] or
programmer object file [.pof]) because the
signals cannot be controlled dynamically.
RCLK Control Block
You can only control the clock source selection for the RCLK select block statically using configuration bit
settings in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by the Quartus Prime software.
Figure 4-10: RCLK Control Block for Cyclone V Devices
CLKp CLKn
Pin Pin
PLL Counter
Outputs
2
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select
Enable/
Disable
The CLKn pin is not a dedicated
clock input when used as a
single-ended PLL clock input. The
CLKn pin can drive the PLL using
the RCLK.
When the device is in user mode,
you can only set the clock select
signals through a configuration file
(.sof or .pof); they cannot be
controlled dynamically.
Internal
Logic
RCLK
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK and RCLK network multiplexers
through the Quartus Prime software using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
Note: When selecting the clock source dynamically using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core, choose the inputs
using the CLKSELECT[0..1] signal. The inputs from the clock pins feed the inclk[0..1] ports of
the multiplexer, and the PLL outputs feed the inclk[2..3] ports.
Related Information
Clock Control Block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
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PCLK Control Block
4-17
PCLK Control Block
To drive the HSSI horizontal PCLK control block, select the HSSI output or internal logic .
Figure 4-11: Horizontal PCLK Control Block for Cyclone V Devices
HSSI Output
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select
Horizontal PCLK
External PLL Clock Output Control Block
You can enable or disable the dedicated external clock output pins using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
Figure 4-12: External PLL Output Clock Control Block for Cyclone V Devices
PLL Counter
Outputs
9
Static Clock Select
Enable/
Disable
The clock control block feeds to a
multiplexer within the
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin’s IOE. The
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin is a dualpurpose pin. Therefore, this multiplexer
selects either an internal signal or the
output of the clock control block.
Internal
Logic
IOE
Internal
Logic
When the device is in user mode,
you can only set the clock select
signals through a configuration file
(.sof or .pof); they cannot be
controlled dynamically.
Static Clock
Select
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pin
Related Information
Clock Control Block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
Clock Power Down
You can power down the GCLK and RCLK clock networks using both static and dynamic approaches.
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Clock Enable Signals
When a clock network is powered down, all the logic fed by the clock network is in off-state, reducing the
overall power consumption of the device. The unused GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks are automati‐
cally powered down through configuration bit settings in the configuration file (.sof or .pof) generated by
the Quartus Prime software.
The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows the internal logic to control power-up or power-down
synchronously on the GCLK and RCLK networks, including dual-regional clock regions. This feature is
independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network.
Note: You cannot dynamically enable or disable GCLK or RCLK networks that drive PLLs.
Clock Enable Signals
You cannot use the clock enable and disable circuit of the clock control block if the GCLK or RCLK
output drives the input of a PLL.
Figure 4-13: clkena Implementation with Clock Enable and Disable Circuit
This figure shows the implementation of the clock enable and disable circuit of the clock control block.
The R1 and R2 bypass paths are
not available for the PLL external
clock outputs.
clkena
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
D
Q
R1
D
Q
R2
GCLK/
RCLK/
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT
The select line is statically
controlled by a bit setting in
the .sof or .pof.
The clkena signals are supported at the clock network level instead of at the PLL output counter level.
This allows you to gate off the clock even when you are not using a PLL. You can also use the clkena
signals to control the dedicated external clocks from the PLLs.
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Cyclone V PLLs
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Figure 4-14: Example of clkena Signals
This figure shows a waveform example for a clock output enable. The clkena signal is synchronous to the
falling edge of the clock output.
Clock Select
Multiplexer Output
Use the clkena signals to
enable or disable the GCLK
and RCLK networks or the
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT pins.
clkena
AND Gate Output
with R2 Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as
Falling Edge of Input Clock)
AND Gate Output
with R2 Not Bypassed
(ena Port Registered as Double
Register with Input Clock)
Cyclone V devices have an additional metastability register that aids in asynchronous enable and disable
of the GCLK and RCLK networks. You can optionally bypass this register in the Quartus Prime software.
The PLL can remain locked, independent of the clkena signals, because the loop-related counters are not
affected. This feature is useful for applications that require a low-power or sleep mode. The clkena signal
can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant of frequency overshoot during resynchroniza‐
tion.
Cyclone V PLLs
PLLs provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management, external system clock
management, and high-speed I/O interfaces.
The Cyclone V device family contains fractional PLLs that can function as fractional PLLs or integer PLLs.
The output counters in Cyclone V devices are dedicated to each fractional PLL that support integer or
fractional frequency synthesis.
The Cyclone V devices offer up to 8 fractional PLLs in the larger densities.
Table 4-7: PLL Features in Cyclone V Devices
Feature
Support
Integer PLL
Yes
Fractional PLL
Yes
C output counters
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PLL Physical Counters in Cyclone V Devices
Feature
Support
M, N, C counter sizes
1 to 512
Dedicated external clock outputs
2 single-ended and 1 differential
Dedicated clock input pins
4 single-ended or 4 differential
External feedback input pin
Single-ended or differential
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
Yes (5)
Source synchronous compensation
Yes
Direct compensation
Yes
Normal compensation
Yes
Zero-delay buffer compensation
Yes
External feedback compensation
Yes
LVDS compensation
Yes
Phase shift resolution
78.125 ps (6)
Programmable duty cycle
Yes
Power down mode
Yes
PLL Physical Counters in Cyclone V Devices
The physical counters for the fractional PLLs are arranged in the following sequences:
• Up-to-down
• Down-to-up
Figure 4-15: PLL Physical Counters Orientation for Cyclone V Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
Physical Counter C0
PLL
Physical Counter C1
Physical Counter
C0 to C8
(Up-to-Down
Sequence)
Physical Counter C8
Physical Counter C8
PLL
Physical Counter C7
Physical Counter
C8 to C0
(Down-to-Up
Sequence)
Physical Counter C0
PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Cyclone V devices provide a PLL for each group of three transceiver channels. These PLLs are located in a
strip, where the strip refers to an area in the FPGA.
(5)
(6)
Provided input clock jitter is within input jitter tolerance specifications. The modulation frequency of the
input clock is below the PLL bandwidth which is specified in the Fitter report.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) period divided by eight.
For degree increments, the Cyclone V device can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least 45°.
Smaller degree increments are possible depending on the frequency and divide parameters.
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For the PLL in the strip, only PLL counter C[4..8] of the strip fractional PLLs are used in a clock
network. PLL counter C[0..3] are used for supporting high-speed requirement of HSSI applications.
The total number of PLLs in the Cyclone V devices includes the PLLs in the PLL strip. However, the
transceivers can only use the PLLs located in the strip.
The following figures show the physical locations of the fractional PLLs. Every index represents one
fractional PLL in the device. The physical locations of the fractional PLLs correspond to the coordinates in
the Quartus Prime Chip Planner.
Figure 4-16: PLL Locations for Cyclone V E A2 and A4 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Pins
CLK[10,11]
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y38
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
2 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X54_Y38
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X54_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
3
Logical
Clocks
1
Pins
CLK[6][p,n]
2 Logical Clocks
CLK[2,3]
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Figure 4-17: PLL Locations for Cyclone V GX C3 Device
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Pins
CLK[10,11]
2 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y28
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X48_Y28
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y13
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X48_Y1
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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3
Logical
Clock
1
Pins
CLK[6][p,n]
2 Logical Clocks
CLK[2,3]
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Figure 4-18: PLL Locations for Cyclone V E A5 Device, Cyclone V GX C4 and C5 Devices, and
Cyclone V GT D5 Device
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Pins
CLK[10,11]
2 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y54
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X68_Y54
4
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y30
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y14
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X68_Y1
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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Pins
Logical CLK[4..5][p,n]
Clocks
4
4 Logical Clocks
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices
2
CLK[2,3]
4
2
Logical
Clocks
2 Logical
Clocks
Pins
CLK[6..7][p,n]
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PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Figure 4-19: PLL Locations for Cyclone V E A7 Device, Cyclone V GX C7 Device, and Cyclone V GT D7
Device
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Pins
CLK[10,11]
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y74
4
2 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X89_Y74
4
2
Logical
Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X89_Y1
4
2
Logical
Clocks
2 Logical
Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..5][p,n]
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y56
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y32
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y15
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
2
CLK[8,9]
2
CLK[0,1]
4
4
4 Logical Clocks
CLK[2,3]
Pins
CLK[6..7][p,n]
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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Figure 4-20: PLL Locations for Cyclone V E A9 Device, Cyclone V GX C9 Device, and Cyclone V GT D9
Device
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[8..11][p,n]
Pins
CLK[10,11]
4 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y108
4
2 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X121_Y108
4
2
Logical
Clocks
Pins
CLK[4..5][p,n]
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y81
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y64
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y39
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y22
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
4
4
4
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X121_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
CLK[2,3]
4
2
Logical
Clocks
2 Logical
Clocks
Pins
CLK[6..7][p,n]
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Figure 4-21: PLL Locations for Cyclone V SE A2 and A4 Devices, and Cyclone V SX C2 and C4 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[6,7][p,n]
Pins
2 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y54
2
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y30
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y14
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
2
2
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X68_Y1
2 Logical Clocks
4 Logical Clocks
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
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PLL Migration Guidelines
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Figure 4-22: PLL Locations for Cyclone V SE A5 and A6 Devices, Cyclone V SX C5 and C6 Devices, and
Cyclone V ST D5 and D6 Devices
This figure represents the top view of the silicon die that corresponds to a reverse view of the device
package.
CLK[6,7][p,n]
Pins
2 Logical Clocks
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y74
2
PLL Strip
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y56
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y32
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y15
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y1
2
2
2
4
4
FRACTIONALPLL_X89_Y1
4 Logical Clocks
CLK[2,3]
4
2
Logical
Clocks
2 Logical
Clocks
Pins
CLK[4,5][p,n]
Pins
CLK[0..3][p,n]
Related Information
PLL Migration Guidelines on page 4-27
Provides more information about PLL migration between Cyclone V SX C2, C4, C5, and C6 devices.
PLL Migration Guidelines
If you plan to migrate your design between Cyclone V SX C2, C4, C5, and C6 devices, and your design
requires a PLL to drive the HSSI and clock network (GCLK or RCLK), use the PLLs on the left side of the
device.
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Fractional PLL Architecture
Table 4-8: Location of PLLs for PLL Migration
Variant
Member Code
PLL Location (Left Side)
C2
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y14
C4
Cyclone V SX
C5
FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y32
C6
Related Information
PLL Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 4-20
Provides more information about CLKIN pin connectivity to the PLLs.
Fractional PLL Architecture
Figure 4-23: Fractional PLL High-Level Block Diagram for Cyclone V Devices
Lock
Circuit
pfdena
Dedicated
Clock Inputs
4
GCLK/RCLK
inclk0
Clock
inclk1 Switchover
Block
÷N
PFD
locked
CP
LF
VCO
8
÷2
8
÷C1
÷C2
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Casade Output
to Adjacent PLL
GCLKs
RCLKs
÷C0
VCO Post Divider
÷C3
Cascade Input
from Adjacent PLL
÷C8
Dedicated refclk
Delta Sigma
Modulator
÷M
Direct Compensation Mode
ZDB, External Feedback Modes
LVDS Compensation Mode
Source Synchronous, Normal Modes
PLL Output Multiplexer
For single-ended clock inputs, only the CLK<#>p pin
has a dedicated connection to the PLL. If you use the
CLK<#>n pin, a global or regional clock is used.
External Clock Outputs
TX Serial Clock
TX Load Enable
FBOUT
External Memory
Interface DLL
PMA Clocks
Only C0 and C2 drive the TX
serial clock and C1 and C3 can
drive the TX load enable.
This FBOUT port is fed by the
M counter in the PLLs.
FBIN
DIFFIOCLK Network
GCLK/RCLK Network
Fractional PLL Usage
You can configure the fractional PLL to function either in the integer or in the enhanced fractional mode.
One fractional PLL can use up to 9 output counters and all external clock outputs.
Fractional PLLs can be used as follows:
• Reduce the number of required oscillators on the board
• Reduce the clock pins used in the FPGA by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies from a single
reference clock source
• Compensate clock network delay
• Zero delay buffering
• Transmit clocking for transceivers
PLL Cascading
Cyclone V devices support two types of PLL cascading.
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PLL-to-PLL Cascading
This cascading mode synthesizes a more precise output frequency than a single PLL in integer mode.
Cascading two PLLs in integer mode expands the effective range of the pre-scale counter, N and the
multiply counter, M.
Cyclone V devices only use adjpllin input clock source for inter-cascading between fracturable
fractional PLLs.
Altera recommends using a low bandwidth setting for the source (upstream) PLL and a high bandwidth
setting for destination (downstream) PLL.
Counter-Output-to-Counter-Output Cascading
This cascading mode synthesizes a lower frequency output than a single post-scale counter, C. Cascading
two C counters expands the effective range of C counters.
PLL External Clock I/O Pins
All Cyclone V external clock outputs for corner fractional PLLs (that are not from the PLL strips) are
dual-purpose clock I/O pins. Two external clock output pins associated with each corner fractional PLL
are organized as one of the following combinations:
• Two single-ended clock outputs
• One differential clock output
• Two single-ended clock outputs and one single-ended clock input in the I/O driver feedback for zero
delay buffer (ZDB) mode support
• One single-ended clock output and one single-ended feedback input for single-ended external
feedback (EFB) mode support
• One differential clock output and one differential feedback input for differential EFB support
Note: The external clock outputs support is dependent on the device density and package.
The following figure shows that any of the output counters (C[0..8]) or the M counter on the PLLs can
feed the dedicated external clock outputs. Therefore, one counter or frequency can drive all output pins
available from a given PLL.
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PLL Control Signals
Figure 4-24: Dual-Purpose Clock I/O Pins Associated with PLL for Cyclone V Devices
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT0/ FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTp /
FPLL_<#>_FB
EXTCLKOUT[0]
C0
fbin
C1
C2
C3
Fractional PLL
VCO
EXTCLKOUT[1]
C4
C5
10
C6
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT1 /FPLL_<#>_ CLKOUTn
2
EXTCLKOUT[1..0]
I/O /FPLL_<#>_FBp
C7
C8
You can feed these clock output pins using
any one of the C[8..0] or M counters. When
not used as external clock outputs, you can
use these clock output pins as regular user
I/Os.
The FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT0 and
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT1 pins are single-ended
clock output pins.
The FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTp and
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTn pins are differential
output pins while the FPLL_<#>_FBp and
FPLL_<#>_FBn pins are differential
feedback input pins to support differential
EFB.
M
I/O / FPLL_<#>_FBn
The FPLL_<#>_FB pin is a
single-ended feedback input pin for
single-ended EFB mode.
Each pin of a single-ended output pair can be either in-phase or 180° out-of-phase. To implement the
180° out-of-phase pin in a pin pair, the Quartus Prime software places a NOT gate in the design into the
IOE.
The clock output pin pairs support the following I/O standards:
•
•
•
•
Same I/O standard for the pin pairs
LVDS
Differential high-speed transceiver logic (HSTL)
Differential SSTL
Cyclone V PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK or RCLK network. You can also
use the external clock output pins as user I/O pins if you do not require external PLL clocking.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Provides more information about the external clock output availability.
• I/O Standards Support in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-6
Provides more information about I/O standards supported by the PLL clock input and output pins.
• Zero-Delay Buffer Mode on page 4-34
• External Feedback Mode on page 4-36
PLL Control Signals
You can use the areset signal to control PLL operation and resynchronization, and use the locked signal
to observe the status of the PLL.
areset
The areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device input pins or internal
logic can drive these input signals.
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locked
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When areset is driven high, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and placing the PLL out-oflock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When areset is driven low again, the PLL resynch‐
ronizes to its input as it re-locks.
You must assert the areset signal every time the PLL loses lock to guarantee the correct phase relation‐
ship between the PLL input and output clocks. You can set up the PLL to automatically reset (self-reset)
after a loss-of-lock condition using the Quartus Prime IP Catalog.
You must include the areset signal if either of the following conditions is true:
• PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in the design
• Phase relationships between the PLL input and output clocks must be maintained after a loss-of-lock
condition
Note: If the input clock to the PLL is not toggling or is unstable after power up, assert the areset signal
after the input clock is stable and within specifications.
locked
The locked signal output of the PLL indicates the following conditions:
• The PLL has locked onto the reference clock.
• The PLL clock outputs are operating at the desired phase and frequency set in the IP Catalog.
The lock detection circuit provides a signal to the core logic. The signal indicates when the feedback clock
has locked onto the reference clock both in phase and frequency.
Clock Feedback Modes
This section describes the following clock feedback modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source synchronous
LVDS compensation
Direct
Normal compensation
ZDB
EFB
Each mode allows clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle.
The input and output delays are fully compensated by a PLL only when using the dedicated clock input
pins associated with a given PLL as the clock source.
The input and output delays may not be fully compensated in the Quartus Prime software for the
following conditions:
• When a GCLK or RCLK network drives the PLL
• When the PLL is driven by a dedicated clock pin that is not associated with the PLL
For example, when you configure a PLL in ZDB mode, the PLL input is driven by an associated dedicated
clock input pin. In this configuration, a fully compensated clock path results in zero delay between the
clock input and one of the clock outputs from the PLL. However, if the PLL input is fed by a nondedicated input (using the GCLK network), the output clock may not be perfectly aligned with the input
clock.
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Source Synchronous Mode
Source Synchronous Mode
If the data and clock arrive at the same time on the input pins, the same phase relationship is maintained
at the clock and data ports of any IOE input register. Data and clock signals at the IOE experience similar
buffer delays as long as you use the same I/O standard.
Altera recommends source synchronous mode for source synchronous data transfers.
Figure 4-25: Example of Phase Relationship Between Clock and Data in Source Synchronous Mode
Data Pin
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
Data at the Register
Clock at the Register
The source synchronous mode compensates for the delay of the clock network used and any difference in
the delay between the following two paths:
• Data pin to the IOE register input
• Clock input pin to the PLL phase frequency detector (PFD) input
The Cyclone V PLL can compensate multiple pad-to-input-register paths, such as a data bus when it is set
to use source synchronous compensation mode.
LVDS Compensation Mode
The purpose of LVDS compensation mode is to maintain the same data and clock timing relationship
seen at the pins of the internal serializer/deserializer (SERDES) capture register, except that the clock is
inverted (180° phase shift). Thus, LVDS compensation mode ideally compensates for the delay of the
LVDS clock network, including the difference in delay between the following two paths:
• Data pin-to-SERDES capture register
• Clock input pin-to-SERDES capture register
The output counter must provide the 180° phase shift.
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Direct Mode
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Figure 4-26: Example of Phase Relationship Between the Clock and Data in LVDS Compensation Mode
Data Pin
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
Data at the Register
Clock at the Register
Direct Mode
In direct mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This mode provides better jitter
performance because the clock feedback into the PFD passes through less circuitry. Both the PLL internaland external-clock outputs are phase-shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
Figure 4-27: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Direct Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the
Input Pin
The PLL clock outputs lag
the PLL input clocks
depending on routing
delays.
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
External PLL
Clock Outputs
Normal Compensation Mode
An internal clock in normal compensation mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. The external
clock output pin has a phase delay relative to the clock input pin if connected in this mode. The Quartus
Prime TimeQuest Timing Analyzer reports any phase difference between the two. In normal compensa‐
tion mode, the delay introduced by the GCLK or RCLK network is fully compensated.
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Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
Figure 4-28: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Normal Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
The external clock output can
lead or lag the PLL internal
clock signals.
Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
In ZDB mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin for zero delay
through the device. This mode is supported on all Cyclone V PLLs.
When using this mode, you must use the same I/O standard on the input clocks and clock outputs to
guarantee clock alignment at the input and output pins. You cannot use differential I/O standards on the
PLL clock input or output pins.
To ensure phase alignment between the clk pin and the external clock output (CLKOUT) pin in ZDB mode,
instantiate a bidirectional I/O pin in the design. The bidirectional I/O pin serves as the feedback path
connecting the fbout and fbin ports of the PLL. The bidirectional I/O pin must always be assigned a
single-ended I/O standard. The PLL uses this bidirectional I/O pin to mimic and compensate for the
output delay from the clock output port of the PLL to the external clock output pin.
Note: To avoid signal reflection when using ZDB mode, do not place board traces on the bidirectional
I/O pin.
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Figure 4-29: ZDB Mode in Cyclone V PLLs
C0
EXTCLKOUT[0]
fbout
fbin
C1
FPLL_<#>_FB
C2
EXTCLKOUT[1]
C3
inclk
C4
÷N
PFD
CP/LF
VCO
Multiplexer
10
2
C5
C6
C7
C8
M
Figure 4-30: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in ZDB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
The internal PLL clock
output can lead or lag
the external PLL clock
outputs.
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
Related Information
PLL External Clock I/O Pins on page 4-29
Provides more information about PLL clock outputs.
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External Feedback Mode
External Feedback Mode
In EFB mode, the output of the M counter (fbout) feeds back to the PLL fbin input (using a trace on the
board) and becomes part of the feedback loop.
One of the dual-purpose external clock outputs becomes the fbin input pin in this mode. The external
feedback input pin, fbin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin. Aligning these clocks allows you to
remove clock delay and skew between devices.
When using EFB mode, you must use the same I/O standard on the input clock, feedback input, and clock
outputs.
This mode is supported only on the corner fractional PLLs. For Cyclone V E A2 and A4 devices, and
Cyclone V GX C3 device, EFB mode is supported only on the left corner fractional PLLs.
Figure 4-31: EFB Mode in Cyclone V Devices
C0
EXTCLKOUT[0]
fbin
C1
C2
inclk
÷N
PFD
CP/LF
VCO 0
C3
C4
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT0
/ FPLL_<#>_CLKOUTp /
fbout[p] FPLL_<#>_FB
EXTCLKOUT[1]
10
Multiplexer
2
I/O / FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT1 /
fbout[n] FPLL_<#>_ CLKOUTn
fbout
C5
C6
fbin[p] I/O /FPLL_<#>_FBp
C7
C8
M
Altera Corporation
fbin[n] I/O / FPLL_<#>_FBn
External board connection for one
differential clock output and one
differential feedback input for
differential EFB support.
For differential EFB mode,
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT[p,n] are the
fbout[p,n] output pin; while
External
FPLL_<#>_FB[p,n] are the fbin[p,n]
Board Trace input pins.
External board connection for one
single-ended clock output and one
single-ended feedback input for
single-ended EFB support.
For single-ended EFB mode,
FPLL_<#>_CLKOUT1 is the fbout
output pin; while the FPLL_<#>_FB is
the fbin input pin.
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Figure 4-32: Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in EFB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the
Input Pin
The PLL clock outputs
can lead or lag the fbin
clock input.
PLL Clock at
the Register
Clock Port
Dedicated PLL
Clock Outputs
fbin Clock Input Pin
Related Information
PLL External Clock I/O Pins on page 4-29
Provides more information about PLL clock outputs.
Clock Multiplication and Division
Each Cyclone V PLL provides clock synthesis for PLL output ports using the M/(N × C) scaling factors.
The input clock is divided by a pre-scale factor, N, and is then multiplied by the M feedback factor. The
control loop drives the VCO to match fin × (M/N).
The Quartus Prime software automatically chooses the appropriate scaling factors according to the input
frequency, multiplication, and division values entered into the ALTERA_PLL IP core.
VCO Post Divider
A VCO post divider is inserted after the VCO. When you enable the VCO post divider, the VCO post
divider divides the VCO frequency by two. When the VCO post divider is bypassed, the VCO frequency
goes to the output port without being divided by two.
Post-Scale Counter, C
Each output port has a unique post-scale counter, C, that divides down the output from the VCO post
divider. For multiple PLL outputs with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the least common multiple
of the output frequencies that meets its frequency specifications. For example, if the output frequencies
required from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the Quartus Prime software sets the VCO to 660 MHz (the
least common multiple of 33 and 66 MHz within the VCO range). Then the post-scale counters, C, scale
down the VCO frequency for each output port.
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Programmable Phase Shift
Pre-Scale Counter, N and Multiply Counter, M
Each PLL has one pre-scale counter, N, and one multiply counter, M, with a range of 1 to 512 for both M
and N. The N counter does not use duty-cycle control because the only purpose of this counter is to
calculate frequency division. The post-scale counters have a 50% duty cycle setting. The high- and lowcount values for each counter range from 1 to 256. The sum of the high- and low-count values chosen for
a design selects the divide value for a given counter.
Delta-Sigma Modulator
The delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is used together with the M multiply counter to enable the PLL to
operate in fractional mode. The DSM dynamically changes the M counter divide value on a cycle to cycle
basis. The different M counter values allow the "average" M counter value to be a non-integer.
Fractional Mode
In fractional mode, the M counter divide value equals to the sum of the "clock high" count, "clock low"
count, and the fractional value. The fractional value is equal to K/2^X, where K is an integer between 0 and
(2^X – 1), and X = 8, 16, 24, or 32.
Integer Mode
For PLL operating in integer mode, M is an integer value and DSM is disabled.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Programmable Phase Shift
The programmable phase shift feature allows the PLLs to generate output clocks with a fixed phase offset.
The VCO frequency of the PLL determines the precision of the phase shift. The minimum phase shift
increment is 1/8 of the VCO period. For example, if a PLL operates with a VCO frequency of 1000 MHz,
phase shift steps of 125 ps are possible.
The Quartus Prime software automatically adjusts the VCO frequency according to the user-specified
phase shift values entered into the IP core.
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable duty cycle. This
feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters.
The duty-cycle setting is achieved by a low and high time-count setting for the post-scale counters. To
determine the duty cycle choices, the Quartus Prime software uses the frequency input and the required
multiply or divide rate.
The post-scale counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision is defined as 50%
divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for
duty-cycle choices from 5% to 90%. If the PLL is in external feedback mode, set the duty cycle for the
counter driving the fbin pin to 50%.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the generation of precise
non-overlapping clocks.
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Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input clocks. Use this feature
for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application where a system turns on the redundant clock
if the previous clock stops running. The design can perform clock switchover automatically when the
clock is no longer toggling or based on a user control signal, clkswitch.
The following clock switchover modes are supported in Cyclone V PLLs:
• Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference clock. If the current
reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
• Manual clock switchover—Clock switchover is controlled using the clkswitch signal. When the
clkswitch signal goes from logic low to logic high, and stays high for at least three clock cycles, the
reference clock to the PLL is switched from inclk0 to inclk1, or vice-versa.
• Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic switchover and manual
clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes high, it overrides the automatic clock switchover
function. As long as the clkswitch signal is high, further switchover action is blocked.
Automatic Switchover
Cyclone V PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
Figure 4-33: Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit Block Diagram
This figure shows a block diagram of the automatic switchover circuit built into the PLL.
clkbad[0]
clkbad[1]
activeclock
Clock
Sense
Switchover
State Machine
clksw
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
Multiplexer
Out
clkswitch
PFD
refclk
fbclk
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically switches to the
backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source as the backup clock by connecting it to the
inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit sends out three status signals—clkbad[0], clkbad[1], and activeclock—
from the PLL to implement a custom switchover circuit in the logic array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals indicate the status of the two clock
inputs. When they are asserted, the clock sense block detects that the corresponding clock input has
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Automatic Switchover
stopped toggling. These two signals are not valid if the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1
is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1) is being selected as
the reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference between the two clock inputs is more than
20%, the activeclock signal is the only valid status signal.
Note: Glitches in the input clock may cause the frequency difference between the input clocks to be more
than 20%.
Use the switchover circuitry to automatically switch between inclk0 and inclk1 when the current
reference clock to the PLL stops toggling. You can switch back and forth between inclk0 and inclk1 any
number of times when one of the two clocks fails and the other clock is available.
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency as the reference
clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that controls the multiplexer select input.
In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference clock for the PLL.
When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be satisfied:
• Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
• The period of the two clock inputs can differ by no more than 20%.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling, switchover is not
initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock inputs are not the same frequency, but
their period difference is within 20%, the clock sense block detects when a clock stops toggling. However,
the PLL may lose lock after the switchover is completed and needs time to relock.
Note: Altera recommends resetting the PLL using the areset signal to maintain the phase relationships
between the PLL input and output clocks when using clock switchover.
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Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
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Figure 4-34: Automatic Switchover After Loss of Clock Detection
This figure shows an example waveform of the switchover feature in automatic switchover mode. In this
example, the inclk0 signal is stuck low. After the inclk0 signal is stuck at low for approximately two
clock cycles, the clock sense circuitry drives the clkbad[0] signal high. Since the reference clock signal is
not toggling, the switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the clkswitch signal to
switch to the backup clock, inclk1.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on
which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling
edge of inclk1.
Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the clkswitch signal for user- or
system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for same-frequency switchover, or to switch
between inputs of different frequencies.
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control switchover using the
clkswitch signal. The automatic clock-sense circuitry cannot monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1)
frequencies with a frequency difference of more than 100% (2×).
This feature is useful when the clock sources originate from multiple cards on the backplane, requiring a
system-controlled switchover between the frequencies of operation.
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, C, and K counters so that the VCO operates
within the recommended operating frequency range. The ALTERA_PLL IP Catalog notifies you if a given
combination of inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies cannot meet this requirement.
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Manual Clock Switchover
Figure 4-35: Clock Switchover Using the clkswitch (Manual) Control
This figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the clkswitch signal. In this case, both
clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the reference clock; the clkswitch signal goes high,
which starts the switchover sequence. On the falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock,
muxout, is gated off to prevent clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock
multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The activeclock signal changes to
indicate the clock which is currently feeding the PLL.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
To initiate a manual clock switchover event,
both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when
the clkswitch signal goes high.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal mirrors the clkswitch
signal. Since both clocks are still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signal goes high.
Because the switchover circuit is positive-edge sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal does not
cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch signal goes high again, the
process repeats.
The clkswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to is available. If the
clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is available.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Manual Clock Switchover
In manual clock switchover mode, the clkswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or inclk1 is selected as
the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the clkswitch signal transitions from logic low to logic high,
and being held high for at least three inclk cycles.
You must bring the clkswitch signal back low again to perform another switchover event. If you do not
require another switchover event, you can leave the clkswitch signal in a logic high state after the initial
switch.
Pulsing the clkswitch signal high for at least three inclk cycles performs another switchover event.
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If inclk0 and inclk1 are different frequencies and are always running, the clkswitchsignal minimum
high time must be greater than or equal to three of the slower frequency inclk0 and inclk1 cycles.
Figure 4-36: Manual Clock Switchover Circuitry in Cyclone V PLLs
clkswitch
Clock Switch
Control Logic
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
You can delay the clock switchover action by specifying the switchover delay in the ALTERA_PLL IP
core. When you specify the switchover delay, the clkswitch signal must be held high for at least three
inclk cycles plus the number of the delay cycles that has been specified to initiate a clock switchover.
Related Information
Altera Phase-Locked Loop (Altera PLL) IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about PLL software support in the Quartus Prime software.
Guidelines
When implementing clock switchover in Cyclone V PLLs, use the following guidelines:
• Automatic clock switchover requires that the inclk0 and inclk1 frequencies be within 20% of each
other. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals to not function
properly.
• When using manual clock switchover, the difference between inclk0 and inclk1 can be more than
100% (2×). However, differences in frequency, phase, or both, of the two clock sources will likely cause
the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL ensures that you maintain the correct phase relationships
between the input and output clocks.
• Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to initiate the manual
clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clock switchover to not function
properly.
• Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift must use a lowbandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the low-bandwidth PLL reacts more slowly
than a high-bandwidth PLL. When switchover happens, a low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stopping
of the clock to the output more slowly than a high-bandwidth PLL. However, be aware that the lowbandwidth PLL also increases lock time.
• After a switchover occurs, there may be a finite resynchronization period for the PLL to lock onto a
new clock. The time it takes for the PLL to relock depends on the PLL configuration.
• The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and the output clock from the PLL is
important in your design. Assert areset for at least 10 ns after performing a clock switchover. Wait for
the locked signal to go high and be stable before re-enabling the output clocks from the PLL.
• The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the current clock is lost and then increases as the VCO
locks on to the backup clock, as shown in the following figure.
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PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift
Figure 4-37: VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Switchover Occurs
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
∆ F vco
PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift
For more information about PLL reconfiguration and dynamic phase shifting, refer to AN661.
Related Information
AN 661: Implementing Fractional PLL Reconfiguration with Altera PLL and Altera PLL Reconfig IP
Cores
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Updated RCLK Networks in Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST Devices
diagram. Mentioned that RCLK network is not available in quadrant
2 for Cyclone V SE A5 and A6 device, Cyclone V ST D5 and D6
devices, and Cyclone V SX C5 and C6 devices.
• Added CLK pins connection to FRACTIONALPLL_X0_Y32 in PLL
Locations for Cyclone V E A7 Device, Cyclone V GX C7 Device, and
Cyclone V GT D7 Device diagram.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
January 2014
2014.01.10
4-45
Changes
• Removed Preliminary tags for clock resources, clock input pin
connections to GCLK and RCLK networks, and PLL features tables.
• Updated clock resources table.
• Updated GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks diagrams for
Cyclone V E, GX, and GT devices.
• Added GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks diagrams for
Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices.
• Added notes to dedicated clock input pin connectivity to GCLK and
RCLK tables for Cyclone V SE, ST, and SX devices.
• Updated the following PLL locations diagrams:
• Cyclone V GX C3 device
• Cyclone V E A7 device, Cyclone V GX C7 device, and
Cyclone V GT D7 device
• Added the following PLL locations diagrams:
•
•
•
•
•
•
May 2013
2013.05.06
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices
Send Feedback
• Cyclone V SE A2 and A4 devices, and Cyclone V SX C2 and C4
devices
• Cyclone V SE A5 and A6 devices, Cyclone V SX C5 and C6
devices, and Cyclone V ST D5 and D6 devices
Added information on PLL migration guidelines.
Updated VCO post-scale counter, K, to VCO post divider.
Added information on PLL cascading.
Updated information on external clock output support.
Added information on programmable phase shift.
Updated automatic clock switchover mode requirement.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Updated PCLK clock sources in hierarchical clock networks in each
spine clock per quadrant diagram.
• Added PCLK networks in clock network sources section.
• Updated dedicated clock input pins in clock network sources section.
• Added descriptions for PLLs located in a strip.
• Added information on PLL physical counters.
• Updated the fractional PLL architecture diagram to add dedicated
refclk input port and connections.
• Updated PLL support for EFB mode.
• Updated the scaling factors for PLL output ports.
• Updated the fractional value for PLL in fractional mode.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Reorganized content.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added note to indicate that the figures shown are the top view of the
silicon die.
• Removed DPA support.
• Updated clock resources table.
• Updated diagrams for GCLK, RCLK, and PCLK networks.
• Updated diagram for clock sources per quadrant.
• Updated dual-regional clock region for Cyclone V SoC devices
support.
• Restructured and updated tables for clock input pin connectivity to
the GCLK and RCLK networks.
• Added tables for clock input pin connectivity to the GCLK and RCLK
networks for Cyclone V SoC devices.
• Updated PCLK control block diagram.
• Updated information on clock power down.
• Added diagram for PLL physical counter orientation.
• Updated PLL locations diagrams.
• Updated fractional PLL high-level block diagram.
• Removed information on pfdena PLL control signal.
• Removed information on PLL Compensation assignment in the
Quartus II software.
• Updated the fractional value for PLL in fractional mode.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
2.0
• Restructured chapter.
• Updated Figure 4–4, Figure 4–6, Figure 4–7, Figure 4–11, Figure 4–
13, Figure 4–15, Figure 4–16, Figure 4–17, Figure 4–19, and Figure 4–
20.
• Updated Table 4–2, Table 4–3, and Table 4–5.
• Added “Clock Regions”, “Clock Network Sources”, “Clock Output
Connections”, “Clock Enable Signals”, “PLL Control Signals”, “Clock
Multiplication and Division”, “Programmable Duty Cycle”, “Clock
Switchover”, and “PLL Reconfiguration and Dynamic Phase Shift”
sections.
February 2012
1.1
Updated Table 4–2.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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This chapter provides details about the features of the Cyclone V I/O elements (IOEs) and how the IOEs
work in compliance with current and emerging I/O standards and requirements.
The Cyclone V I/Os support the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Single-ended, non-voltage-referenced, and voltage-referenced I/O standards
Low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), RSDS, mini-LVDS, HSTL, HSUL, and SSTL I/O standards
Serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
Programmable output current strength
Programmable slew-rate
Programmable bus-hold
Programmable pull-up resistor
Programmable pre-emphasis
Programmable I/O delay
Programmable voltage output differential (VOD)
Open-drain output
On-chip series termination (RS OCT) with and without calibration
On-chip parallel termination (RT OCT)
On-chip differential termination (RD OCT)
High-speed differential I/O support
Note: The information in this chapter is applicable to all Cyclone V variants, unless noted otherwise.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
I/O Resources Per Package for Cyclone V Devices
The following package plan tables for the different Cyclone V variants list the maximum I/O resources
available for each package.
© 2016 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
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I/O Resources Per Package for Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-1: Package Plan for Cyclone V E Devices
M383
M484
U324
F256
U484
F484
F672
F896
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
A2
223
—
176
128
224
224
—
—
A4
223
—
176
128
224
224
—
—
A5
175
—
—
—
224
240
—
—
A7
—
240
—
—
240
240
336
480
A9
—
—
—
—
240
224
336
480
Member Code
Table 5-2: Package Plan for Cyclone V GX Devices
Member
Code
M301
M383
M484
U324
U484
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
C3
—
—
—
—
—
—
144
3
208
3
C4
129
4
175
6
—
—
—
—
224
6
C5
129
4
175
6
—
—
—
—
224
6
C7
—
—
—
—
240
3
—
—
240
6
C9
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
240
5
F484
Member Code
F672
F896
F1152
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
C3
208
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
C4
240
6
336
6
—
—
—
—
C5
240
6
336
6
—
—
—
—
C7
240
6
336
9
480
9
—
—
C9
224
6
336
9
480
12
560
12
Table 5-3: Package Plan for Cyclone V GT Devices
Transceiver counts shown are for transceiver ≤5 Gbps . 6 Gbps transceiver channel count support depends on the
package and channel usage. For more information about the 6 Gbps transceiver channel count, refer to the
Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 2: Transceivers.
M301
Member Code
M383
M484
U484
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
D5
129
4
175
6
—
—
224
6
D7
—
—
—
—
240
3
240
6
D9
—
—
—
—
—
—
240
5
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I/O Resources Per Package for Cyclone V Devices
F484
Member Code
F672
F896
F1152
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
GPIO
XCVR
D5
240
6
336
6
—
—
—
—
D7
240
6
336
9
480
9
—
—
D9
224
6
336
9
480
12
560
12
Table 5-4: Package Plan for Cyclone V SE Devices
The HPS I/O counts are the number of I/Os in the HPS and does not correlate with the number of HPS-specific
I/O pins in the FPGA. Each HPS-specific pin in the FPGA may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
U484
Member Code
U672
F896
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
A2
66
151
145
181
—
—
A4
66
151
145
181
—
—
A5
66
151
145
181
288
181
A6
66
151
145
181
288
181
Table 5-5: Package Plan for Cyclone V SX Devices
The HPS I/O counts are the number of I/Os in the HPS and does not correlate with the number of HPS-specific
I/O pins in the FPGA. Each HPS-specific pin in the FPGA may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
U672
Member Code
F896
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
XCVR
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
XCVR
C2
145
181
6
—
—
—
C4
145
181
6
—
—
—
C5
145
181
6
288
181
9
C6
145
181
6
288
181
9
Table 5-6: Package Plan for Cyclone V ST Devices
• The HPS I/O counts are the number of I/Os in the HPS and does not correlate with the number of HPSspecific I/O pins in the FPGA. Each HPS-specific pin in the FPGA may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
• Transceiver counts shown are for transceiver ≤5 Gbps . 6 Gbps transceiver channel count support depends on
the package and channel usage. For more information about the 6 Gbps transceiver channel count, refer to the
Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 2: Transceivers.
F896
Member Code
FPGA GPIO
HPS I/O
XCVR
D5
288
181
9
D6
288
181
9
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I/O Vertical Migration for Cyclone V Devices
For more information about each device variant, refer to the device overview.
Related Information
• 6.144-Gbps Support Capability in Cyclone V GT Devices, Cyclone V Device Handbook Volume 2:
Transceivers
Provides more information about 6 Gbps transceiver channel count.
• Cyclone V Device Overview
I/O Vertical Migration for Cyclone V Devices
Figure 5-1: Vertical Migration Capability Across Cyclone V Device Packages and Densities
The arrows indicate the vertical migration paths. The devices included in each vertical migration path are
shaded. You can also migrate your design across device densities in the same package option if the devices
have the same dedicated pins, configuration pins, and power pins.
Variant
Cyclone V E
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
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Member
Code
Package
M301
M383
M484
F256
U324
U484
F484
U672
F672
F896
F1152
A2
A4
A5
A7
A9
C3
C4
C5
C7
C9
D5
D7
D9
A2
A4
A5
A6
C2
C4
C5
C6
D5
D6
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Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility
5-5
You can achieve the vertical migration shaded in red if you use only up to 175 GPIOs for the M383
package, and 138 GPIOs for the U672 package. These migration paths are not shown in the Quartus
Prime software Pin Migration View.
Note: To verify the pin migration compatibility, use the Pin Migration View window in the Quartus
Prime software Pin Planner.
Related Information
• Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility on page 5-5
• Managing Device I/O Pins, Quartus II Handbook
Provides more information about vertical I/O migrations.
• What is the difference between pin-to-pin compatibility and drop-in compatibility?
Verifying Pin Migration Compatibility
You can use the Pin Migration View window in the Quartus Prime software Pin Planner to assist you in
verifying whether your pin assignments migrate to a different device successfully. You can vertically
migrate to a device with a different density while using the same device package, or migrate between
packages with different densities and ball counts.
1. Open Assignments > Pin Planner and create pin assignments.
2. If necessary, perform one of the following options to populate the Pin Planner with the node names in
the design:
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
• Analysis & Elaboration
• Analysis & Synthesis
• Fully compile the design
Then, on the menu, click View > Pin Migration View.
To select or change migration devices:
a. Click Device to open the Device dialog box.
b. Under Migration compatibility click Migration Devices.
To show more information about the pins:
a. Right-click anywhere in the Pin Migration View window and select Show Columns.
b. Then, click the pin feature you want to display.
If you want to view only the pins, in at least one migration device, that have a different feature than the
corresponding pin in the migration result, turn on Show migration differences.
Click Pin Finder to open the Pin Finder dialog box to find and highlight pins with specific function‐
ality.
If you want to view only the pins highlighted by the most recent query in the Pin Finder dialog box,
turn on Show only highlighted pins.
To export the pin migration information to a Comma-Separated Value file (.csv), click Export.
Related Information
• I/O Vertical Migration for Cyclone V Devices on page 5-4
• Managing Device I/O Pins, Quartus II Handbook
Provides more information about vertical I/O migrations.
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I/O Standards Support in Cyclone V Devices
I/O Standards Support in Cyclone V Devices
This section lists the I/O standards supported in the FPGA I/Os and HPS I/Os of Cyclone V devices, the
typical power supply values for each I/O standard, and the MultiVolt I/O interface feature.
I/O Standards Support for FPGA I/O in Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-7: Supported I/O Standards in FPGA I/O for Cyclone V Devices
I/O Standard
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
JESD8-B
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
JESD8-B
3.0 V PCI (7)
(7)
(8)
Standard Support
PCI Rev. 2.2
3.0 V PCI-X (8)
PCI-X Rev. 1.0
2.5 V LVCMOS
JESD8-5
1.8 V LVCMOS
JESD8-7
1.5 V LVCMOS
JESD8-11
1.2 V LVCMOS
JESD8-12
SSTL-2 Class I
JESD8-9B
SSTL-2 Class II
JESD8-9B
SSTL-18 Class I
JESD8-15
SSTL-18 Class II
JESD8-15
SSTL-15 Class I
—
SSTL-15 Class II
—
1.8 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-6
1.8 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-6
1.5 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-6
1.2 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-16A
1.2 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-16A
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
JESD8-9B
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
JESD8-9B
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
JESD8-15
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
JESD8-15
3.3 V PCI I/O standard is not supported.
3.3 V PCI-X I/O standard is not supported. PCI-X does not meet the PCI-X I–V curve requirement at the
linear region.
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I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Cyclone V Devices
I/O Standard
5-7
Standard Support
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
—
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
—
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-6
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-6
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-6
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-16A
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-16A
LVDS
ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
RSDS
—
(9)
Mini-LVDS(10)
—
LVPECL
—
SLVS
JESD8-13
Sub-LVDS
—
HiSpi
—
SSTL-15
JESD79-3D
SSTL-135
—
SSTL-125
—
HSUL-12
—
Differential SSTL-15
JESD79-3D
Differential SSTL-135
—
Differential SSTL-125
—
Differential HSUL-12
—
I/O Standards Support for HPS I/O in Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-8: Supported I/O Standards in HPS I/O for Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST Devices
I/O Standard
(9)
(10)
Standard Support
HPS Column I/O
HPS Row I/O
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
JESD8-B
Yes
—
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
JESD8-B
Yes
—
2.5 V LVCMOS
JESD8-5
Yes
—
The Cyclone V devices support true RSDS output standard with data rates of up to 230 Mbps using true
LVDS output buffer types on all I/O banks.
The Cyclone V devices support true mini-LVDS output standard with data rates of up to 340 Mbps using
true LVDS output buffer types on all I/O banks.
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I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices
I/O Standard
Standard Support
HPS Column I/O
HPS Row I/O
1.8 V LVCMOS
JESD8-7
Yes
Yes
1.5 V LVCMOS
JESD8-11
Yes
—
SSTL-18 Class I
JESD8-15
—
Yes
SSTL-18 Class II
JESD8-15
—
Yes
SSTL-15 Class I
—
—
Yes
SSTL-15 Class II
—
—
Yes
1.5 V HSTL Class I
JESD8-6
Yes
—
1.5 V HSTL Class II
JESD8-6
Yes
—
SSTL-135
—
—
Yes
HSUL-12
—
—
Yes
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-9: Cyclone V I/O Standards Voltage Levels
This table lists the typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in Cyclone V devices.
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
(11)
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
Input(11)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V
LVCMOS
3.3/3.0/2.5
3.3
3.3
—
—
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V
LVCMOS
3.3/3.0/2.5
3.0
3.0
—
—
3.0 V PCI
3.0
3.0
3.0
—
—
3.0 V PCI-X
3.0
3.0
3.0
—
—
2.5 V LVCMOS
3.3/3.0/2.5
2.5
2.5
—
—
1.8 V LVCMOS
1.8/1.5
1.8
2.5
—
—
1.5 V LVCMOS
1.8/1.5
1.5
2.5
—
—
1.2 V LVCMOS
1.2
1.2
2.5
—
—
SSTL-2 Class I
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
1.25
1.25
SSTL-2 Class II
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
1.25
1.25
SSTL-18 Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
SSTL-18 Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
SSTL-15 Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
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I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
(11)
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
5-9
Input(11)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
SSTL-15 Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.8 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
1.8 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
0.9
0.9
1.5 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.5 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
0.75
1.2 V HSTL Class I
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.6
1.2 V HSTL Class II
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.6
Differential SSTL-2 Class
I
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
1.25
Differential SSTL-2 Class
II
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
1.25
Differential SSTL-18
Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential SSTL-18
Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential SSTL-15
Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential SSTL-15
Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.8 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential 1.8 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.8
2.5
—
0.9
Differential 1.5 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.5 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
0.75
Differential 1.2 V HSTL
Class I
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
0.6
Differential 1.2 V HSTL
Class II
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
0.6
LVDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
RSDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
Mini-LVDS
VCCPD
2.5
2.5
—
—
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
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VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
VCCPD (V)
VREF (V)
VTT (V)
Input(11)
Output
(Pre-Driver
Voltage)
(Input Ref
Voltage)
(Board Termination
Voltage)
LVPECL (Differential
clock input only)
VCCPD
—
2.5
—
—
SLVS (Input only)
VCCPD
—
2.5
—
—
Sub-LVDS (input only)
VCCPD
—
2.5
—
—
HiSpi (input only)
VCCPD
—
2.5
—
—
SSTL-15
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
0.75
SSTL-135
VCCPD
1.35
2.5
0.675
SSTL-125
VCCPD
1.25
2.5
0.625
HSUL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
0.6
Differential SSTL-15
VCCPD
1.5
2.5
—
Differential SSTL-135
VCCPD
1.35
2.5
—
Differential SSTL-125
VCCPD
1.25
2.5
—
Differential HSUL-12
VCCPD
1.2
2.5
—
Typically does not
require board
termination
Typically does not
require board
termination
Related Information
• MultiVolt I/O Interface in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-10
• Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards on page 5-11
MultiVolt I/O Interface in Cyclone V Devices
The MultiVolt I/O interface feature allows Cyclone V devices in all packages to interface with systems of
different supply voltages.
Table 5-10: MultiVolt I/O Support in Cyclone V Devices
(11)
(12)
VCCIO (V)
VCCPD (V)
Input Signal (V)
Output Signal (V)
1.2
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.25(12)
2.5
1.25
1.25
1.35
2.5
1.35
1.35
1.5
2.5
1.5, 1.8
1.5
1.8
2.5
1.5, 1.8
1.8
2.5
2.5
2.5, 3.0, 3.3
2.5
(12)
Input buffers for the SSTL, HSTL, Differential SSTL, Differential HSTL, LVDS, RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
LVPECL, HSUL, and Differential HSUL are powered by VCCPD
Single-ended I/O standard at this voltage is not supported in the Cyclone V devices. This information
highlights that multiple single-ended I/O standards are not compatible with VCCIO at this voltage.
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I/O Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices
VCCIO (V)
VCCPD (V)
Input Signal (V)
Output Signal (V)
3.0
3.0
2.5, 3.0, 3.3
3.0
3.3
3.3
2.5, 3.0, 3.3
3.3
5-11
The pin current may be slightly higher than the default value. Verify that the VOL maximum and VOH
minimum voltages of the driving device do not violate the applicable VIL maximum and VIH minimum
voltage specifications of the Cyclone V device.
The VCCPD power pins must be connected to a 2.5 V, 3.0 V, or 3.3 V power supply. Using these power
pins to supply the pre-driver power to the output buffers increases the performance of the output pins.
Note: If the input signal is 3.0 V or 3.3 V, Altera recommends that you use a clamping diode on the I/O
pins.
Related Information
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-8
I/O Design Guidelines for Cyclone V Devices
There are several considerations that require your attention to ensure the success of your designs. Unless
noted otherwise, these design guidelines apply to all variants of this device family.
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
Each I/O bank can simultaneously support multiple I/O standards. The following sections provide
guidelines for mixing non-voltage-referenced and voltage-referenced I/O standards in the devices.
Non-Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
Each Cyclone V I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins and supports only one VCCIO of 1.2, 1.25, 1.35, 1.5, 1.8,
2.5, 3.0, or 3.3 V. An I/O bank can simultaneously support any number of input signals with different I/O
standard assignments if the I/O standards support the VCCIO level of the I/O bank.
For output signals, a single I/O bank supports non-voltage-referenced output signals that drive at the
same voltage as VCCIO. Because an I/O bank can only have one VCCIO value, it can only drive out the value
for non-voltage-referenced signals.
For example, an I/O bank with a 2.5 V VCCIO setting can support 2.5 V standard inputs and outputs, and
3.0 V LVCMOS inputs only.
Related Information
I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-8
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standards
To accommodate voltage-referenced I/O standards:
• Each Cyclone V I/O bank contains a dedicated VREF pin.
• Each bank can have only a single VCCIO voltage level and a single voltage reference (VREF) level.
An I/O bank featuring single-ended or differential standards can support different voltage-referenced
standards if the VCCIO and VREF are the same levels.
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For performance reasons, voltage-referenced input standards use their own VCCPD level as the power
source. This feature allows you to place voltage-referenced input signals in an I/O bank with a VCCIO of
2.5 V or below. For example, you can place HSTL-15 input pins in an I/O bank with 2.5 V VCCIO.
However, the voltage-referenced input with RT OCT enabled requires the VCCIO of the I/O bank to match
the voltage of the input standard. RT OCT cannot be supported for the HSTL-15 I/O standard when
VCCIO is 2.5 V.
Voltage-referenced bidirectional and output signals must be the same as the VCCIO voltage of the I/O
bank. For example, you can place only SSTL-2 output pins in an I/O bank with a 2.5 V VCCIO.
Mixing Voltage-Referenced and Non-Voltage Referenced I/O Standards
An I/O bank can support voltage-referenced and non-voltage-referenced pins by applying each of the rule
sets individually.
Examples:
• An I/O bank can support SSTL-18 inputs and outputs, and 1.8 V inputs and outputs with a 1.8 V
VCCIO and a 0.9 V VREF.
• An I/O bank can support 1.5 V standards, 1.8 V inputs (but not outputs), and 1.5 V HSTL I/O
standards with a 1.5 V VCCIO and 0.75 V VREF.
PLLs and Clocking
The Cyclone V device family supports fractional PLLs on each side of the device. You can use fractional
PLLs to reduce the number of oscillators and the clock pins used in the FPGA by synthesizing multiple
clock frequencies from a single reference clock source.
The corner fractional PLLs can drive the LVDS receiver and driver channels. However, the clock tree
network cannot cross over to different I/O regions. For example, the top left corner fractional PLL cannot
cross over to drive the LVDS receiver and driver channels on the top right I/O bank. The Quartus Prime
compiler automatically checks the design and issues an error message if the guidelines are not followed.
Related Information
• High-Speed Differential I/O Locations on page 5-58
PLL locations that are available for each device.
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS
To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode. The corner PLLs can drive the
LVDS receiver and transmitter channels.
Guideline: Reference Clock Restriction for LVDS Application
You must use the dedicated reference clock pin of the same I/O bank used by the data channel. For I/O
banks without a dedicated reference clock pin, use the reference clock pin in the I/O bank listed in the
following table.
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Table 5-11: Reference Clock Pin for I/O Bank Without Dedicated Reference Clock Pin
Device Variant
Member Code
Data Channel I/O
Bank
Reference Clock Pin I/O Bank
Banks using bottom
right PLL
4A
Banks using bottom
left PLL
3B
Banks using top
right PLL
7A
Banks using top left
PLL
8A
3A
3B
5A
5B
5A
5B
3A
3B
5A
5B
5A
5B
3A
3B
5A
5B
D7
3A
3B
A2, A4
3A
3B
A5, A6
5A
5B
C2, C4
3A
3B
C5, C6
5A
5B
D5, D6
5A
5B
A2, A4
Cyclone V E
A5, A9
A7
Cyclone V GX
C4, C5, C9
C3, C7
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
D5, D9
Guideline: Using LVDS Differential Channels
If you use LVDS channels, adhere to the following guidelines.
LVDS Channel Driving Distance
Each PLL can drive all the LVDS channels located at the same edge of the chip.
Using Both Corner PLLs
You can use both corner PLLs to drive LVDS channels simultaneously. You can use a corner PLL to drive
all the transmitter channels and the other corner PLL to drive all the receiver channels in the same I/O
bank. Both corner PLLs can drive duplex channels in the same I/O bank if the channels that are driven by
each PLL are not interleaved. You do not require separation between the groups of channels that are
driven by both corner PLLs.
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Guideline: Using LVDS Differential Channels
Note: The figures in this section show guidelines for using corner PLLs but do not necessarily represent
the exact locations of the high-speed LVDS I/O banks.
Figure 5-2: Corner PLLs Driving LVDS Differential I/Os in the Same Bank
Channels located
at the same edge of
the PLL
Corner
PLL
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Corner
PLL
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Diff RX
Reference
CLK
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Diff TX
Reference
CLK
Diff TX
Diff TX
Channels located
at the same edge of
the PLL
Left
Corner
PLL
Reference
CLK
Right
Corner
PLL
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Channels Driven
by Left Corner fPLL
Altera Corporation
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
No Separation
Buffer Needed
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Reference
CLK
Channels Driven
by Right Corner fPLL
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Figure 5-3: Invalid Placement of Differential I/Os Due to Interleaving of Channels Driven by the Corner
PLLs
Corner
PLL
Corner
PLL
Reference
CLK
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX Diff TX & RX
Diff TX & RX
Reference
CLK
Related Information
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone V Devices on page 4-1
LVDS Interface with External PLL Mode
The IP Catalog provides an option for implementing the LVDS interface with the Use External PLL
option. With this option enabled you can control the PLL settings, such as dynamically reconfiguring the
PLL to support different data rates, dynamic phase shift, and other settings. You must also instantiate the
an Altera_PLL IP core to generate the various clock and load enable signals.
If you enable the Use External PLL option with the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver, the following
signals are required from the Altera_PLL IP core:
• Serial clock input to the SERDES of the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver
• Load enable to the SERDES of the ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver
• Parallel clock used to clock the transmitter FPGA fabric logic and parallel clock used for the receiver
rx_syncclock port and receiver FPGA fabric logic
• Asynchronous PLL reset port of the ALTLVDS receiver
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Altera_PLL Signal Interface with ALTLVDS IP Core
Altera_PLL Signal Interface with ALTLVDS IP Core
Table 5-12: Signal Interface Between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP Cores
This table lists the signal interface between the output ports of the Altera_PLL IP core and the input ports of the
ALTLVDS transmitter and receiver. As an example, the table lists the serial clock output, load enable output, and
parallel clock output generated on ports outclk0, outclk1, and outclk2, along with the locked signal of the
Altera_PLL instance. You can choose any of the PLL output clock ports to generate the interface clocks.
From the Altera_PLL IP Core
Serial clock output (outclk0)
To the ALTLVDS
Transmitter
To the ALTLVDS Receiver
tx_inclock (serial clock
rx_inclock (serial clock input)
Load enable output (outclk1)
tx_enable (load enable to
rx_enable (load enable for the
Parallel clock output (outclk2)
Parallel clock used inside
the transmitter core logic
in the FPGA fabric
parallel clock used inside the receiver
core logic in the FPGA fabric
The serial clock output (outclk0) can
only drive tx_inclock on the
ALTLVDS transmitter, and rx_
inclock on the ALTLVDS receiver.
This clock cannot drive the core logic.
~(locked)
input to the transmitter)
the transmitter)
—
deserializer)
pll_areset (asynchronous PLL reset
port)
The pll_areset signal is automati‐
cally enabled for the LVDS receiver in
external PLL mode. This signal does
not exist for LVDS transmitter
instantiation when the external PLL
option is enabled.
Note: With soft SERDES, a different clocking requirement is needed.
Related Information
LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
More information about the different clocking requirement for soft SERDES.
Altera_PLL Parameter Values for External PLL Mode
The following example shows the clocking requirements to generate output clocks for ALTLVDS_TX and
ALTLVDS_RX using the Altera_PLL IP core. The example sets the phase shift with the assumption that
the clock and data are edge aligned at the pins of the device.
Note: For other clock and data phase relationships, Altera recommends that you first instantiate your
ALTLVDS_RX and ALTLVDS_TX interface without using the external PLL mode option. Compile
the IP cores in the Quartus Prime software and take note of the frequency, phase shift, and duty
cycle settings for each clock output. Enter these settings in the Altera_PLL IP core parameter editor
and then connect the appropriate output to the ALTLVDS_RX and ALTLVDS_TX IP cores.
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Table 5-13: Example: Generating Output Clocks Using an Altera_PLL IP Core
This table lists the parameter values that you can set in the Altera_PLL parameter editor to generate three output
clocks using an Altera_PLL IP core if you are not using DPA and soft-CDR mode.
Parameter
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
(Connects to the tx_inclock (Connects to the tx_enable
(Used as the core clock for
port of ALTLVDS_TX and the port of ALTLVDS_TX and the the parallel data registers for
rx_inclock port of
rx_enable port of ALTLVDS_
both transmitter and
ALTLVDS_RX)
RX)
receiver)
Frequency
data rate
data rate/serialization factor data rate/serialization
factor
Phase shift
–180°
[(deserialization factor – 2)/ –180/serialization factor
deserialization factor] x 360°
(outclk0 phase shift
divided by the serializa‐
tion factor)
Duty cycle
50%
100/serialization factor
50%
Figure 5-4: Phase Relationship for External PLL Interface Signals
inclk0
VCO clk
(internal PLL clk)
outclk0
(-180° phase shift)
outclk1
(288° phase shift)
outclk2
(-18° phase shift)
RX serial data
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
tx_outclk
TX serial data
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D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
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Connection between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS
Connection between Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS
Figure 5-5: LVDS Interface with the Altera_PLL IP Core
This figure shows the connections between the Altera_PLL and ALTLVDS IP core.
FPGA Fabric
Transmitter
Core Logic
D
Q
LVDS Transmitter
(ALTLVDS)
tx_in
tx_inclock
tx_enable
tx_coreclk
outclk0
outclk1
outclk2
rx_coreclk
Receiver
Core Logic
Q
D
LVDS Receiver
(ALTLVDS)
rx_out
locked
Altera_PLL
inclk0
pll_areset
rx_inclock
rx_enable
pll_areset
When generating the Altera_PLL IP core, the Left/Right PLL option is configured to set up the PLL in
LVDS mode. Instantiation of pll_areset is optional.
The rx_enable and rx_inclock input ports are not used and can be left unconnected.
Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group
In the Cyclone V devices, all I/O banks have individual VCCPD with the following exceptions:
• Cyclone V E, GX and GT devices:
• Banks 1A (if available) and 2A share the same VCCPD.
• Banks 3B and 4A share the same VCCPD.
• Banks 7A and 8A share the same VCCPD.
• Cyclone V SE, SX and ST devices:
• Banks 1A (if available) and 2A share the same VCCPD.
• Banks 3B and 4A share the same VCCPD.
• Banks 6A and 6B share the same VCCPD.
Examples of sharing the same VCCPD:
• If bank 3B uses a 3.0 V VCCPD, bank 4A must also use 3.0 V VCCPD.
• If bank 8A uses a 2.5 V VCCPD, bank 7A must also use 2.5 V VCCPD.
For more information about the I/O banks available in each device package, refer to the related links.
Related Information
• Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E Devices on page 5-23
• Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX Devices on page 5-24
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Guideline: Ensure Compatible VCCIO and VCCPD Voltage in the Same Bank
•
•
•
•
5-19
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT Devices on page 5-25
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices on page 5-26
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices on page 5-27
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices on page 5-28
Guideline: Ensure Compatible VCCIO and VCCPD Voltage in the Same Bank
When planning I/O bank usage for Cyclone V devices, you must ensure the VCCIO voltage is compatible
with the VCCPD voltage of the same bank. Some banks may share the same VCCPD power pin. This limits
the possible VCCIO voltages that can be used on banks that share VCCPD power pins.
Examples:
• VCCPD3B is connected to 2.5 V—VCCIO pins for banks 3B and 4A can be connected 1.2 V, 1.25 V,
1.35 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, or 2.5 V.
• VCCPD3B is connected to 3.0 V—VCCIO pins for banks 3B and 4A must be connected to 3.0 V.
Guideline: VREF Pin Restrictions
For the Cyclone V devices, consider the following VREF pins guidelines:
• You cannot assign shared VREF pins as LVDS or external memory interface pins.
• SSTL, HSTL, and HSUL I/O standards do not support shared VREF pins. For example, if a particular
B1p or B1n pin is a shared VREF pin, the corresponding B1p/B1n pin pair do not have LVDS transmitter
support.
• You must perform signal integrity analysis using your board design when using a shared VREF pin to
determine the FMAX for your system.
For more information about pin capacitance of the VREF pins, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Guideline: Observe Device Absolute Maximum Rating for 3.3 V Interfacing
To ensure device reliability and proper operation when you use the device for 3.3 V I/O interfacing, do
not violate the absolute maximum ratings of the device. For more information about absolute maximum
rating and maximum allowed overshoot during transitions, refer to the device datasheet.
Tip: Perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to make sure the overshoot and undershoot voltages are within
the specifications.
Transmitter Application
If you use the Cyclone V device as a transmitter, use slow slew-rate and series termination to limit the
overshoot and undershoot at the I/O pins. Transmission line effects that cause large voltage deviations at
the receiver are associated with an impedance mismatch between the driver and the transmission lines. By
matching the impedance of the driver to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line, you can
significantly reduce overshoot voltage. You can use a series termination resistor placed physically close to
the driver to match the total driver impedance to the transmission line impedance.
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Guideline: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions and Differential Pad...
Receiver Application
If you use the Cyclone V device as a receiver, use the on-chip clamping diode to limit the overshoot and
undershoot voltage at the I/O pins.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Guideline: Adhere to the LVDS I/O Restrictions and Differential Pad Placement
Rules
For Cyclone V LVDS applications, adhere to these guidelines to avoid adverse impact on LVDS perform‐
ance:
• I/O restrictions guideline—to avoid excessive jitter on the LVDS transmitter output pins.
• Differential pad placement rule for each device—to avoid crosstalk effects.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Describes the I/O restriction guidelines for the Cyclone V LVDS transmitters.
• Cyclone V Differential Pad Placement Rule and Pad Mapping Files
Provides the pad mapping spreadsheets for Cyclone V devices.
Guideline: Pin Placement for General Purpose High-Speed Signals
For general purpose high-speed signals faster than 200 MHz, follow these guidelines to ensure I/O timing
closure.
• Avoid using HMC DQ pins as the input pin.
• Avoid using HMC DQ and command pins as the output pin.
I/O signals that use the hard memory controller pins are routed through the HMCPHY_RE routing elements.
These routing elements have a higher routing delay compared to other I/O pins. To identify the hard
memory controller pins for your Cyclone V device and package, refer to the relevant pin-out files.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Provides the pin-out files for each Cyclone V device package.
I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices
The number of Cyclone V I/O banks in a particular device depends on the device density.
Note: The availability of I/O banks in device packages varies. For more details, refer to the related links.
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Figure 5-6: I/0 Banks for Cyclone V E Devices
Bank 7A
Bank 5A
Bank 2A
Bank 5B
Bank 6A
Bank 1A
Bank 8A
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 4A
Figure 5-7: I/0 Banks for Cyclone V GX and GT Devices
Bank 7A
Bank 5A
Bank 5B
Transceiver Block
Bank 6A
Bank 8A
Bank 3A
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Bank 3B
Bank 4A
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I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Figure 5-8: I/0 Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices
HPS Column I/O
Bank 5A
Bank 5B
HPS Core
HPS Row I/O
Bank 8A
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 4A
Figure 5-9: I/0 Banks for Cyclone V SX and ST Devices
HPS Column I/O
Bank 5A
Bank 5B
Transceiver Block
HPS Core
HPS Row I/O
Bank 8A
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 4A
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E Devices on page 5-23
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX Devices on page 5-24
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT Devices on page 5-25
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices on page 5-26
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices on page 5-27
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices on page 5-28
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I/O Banks Groups in Cyclone V Devices
The I/O pins in Cyclone V devices are arranged in groups called modular I/O banks:
• Modular I/O banks have independent power supplies that allow each bank to support different I/O
standards.
• Each modular I/O bank can support multiple I/O standards that use the same VCCIO and VCCPD
voltages.
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E Devices
Table 5-14: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E A2 and A4 Devices
Member Code
Package
I/O Bank
A2
A4
M383
U324
F256
U484
F484
M383
U324
F256
U484
F484
1A
16
—
—
—
—
16
—
—
—
—
2A
32
32
16
16
16
32
32
16
16
16
3A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
3B
21
16
16
32
32
21
16
16
32
32
4A
38
32
16
48
48
38
32
16
48
48
5A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
5B
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
7A
38
32
16
48
48
38
32
16
48
48
8A
30
16
16
32
32
30
16
16
32
32
223
176
128
224
224
223
176
128
224
224
Total
Table 5-15: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V E A5, A7, and A9 Devices
Member Code
Package
I/O Bank
A5
A7
A9
M383
U484
F484
M484
U484
F484
F672
F896
U484
F484
F672
F896
3A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
3B
21
32
32
32
32
32
32
48
32
32
32
48
4A
38
48
48
48
48
48
80
80
48
48
80
80
5A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
5B
14
32
16
16
48
16
64
48
48
16
32
48
6A
—
—
—
32
—
—
16
80
—
—
48
80
7A
39
48
80
48
48
80
80
80
48
64
80
80
8A
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
80
32
32
32
80
175
224
240
240
240
240
336
480
240
224
336
480
Total
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Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX Devices
Table 5-16: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX C3, C4, and C5 Devices
Member Code
C3
Package
I/O Bank
C4
C5
U324 U484 F484 M301 M383 U484 F484
F672 M301 M383 U484 F484
F672
3A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
3B
16
32
32
18
21
32
32
32
18
21
32
32
32
4A
32
48
48
22
38
48
48
80
22
38
48
48
80
5A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
5B
16
16
16
14
14
32
16
32
14
14
32
16
64
6A
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
48
—
—
—
—
16
7A
32
48
48
23
39
48
80
80
23
39
48
80
80
8A
16
32
32
20
31
32
32
32
20
31
32
32
32
144
208
208
129
175
224
240
336
129
175
224
240
336
Total
Table 5-17: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GX C7 and C9 Devices
Member Code
Package
I/O Bank
Total
C7
C9
M484
U484
F484
F672
F896
U484
F484
F672
F896
F1152
3A
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
48
3B
32
32
32
32
48
32
32
32
48
48
4A
48
48
48
80
80
48
48
80
80
96
5A
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
48
5B
16
48
16
64
48
48
16
32
48
48
6A
32
—
—
16
80
—
—
48
80
80
7A
48
48
80
80
80
48
64
80
80
96
8A
32
32
32
32
80
32
32
32
80
96
240
240
240
336
480
240
224
336
480
560
Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
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Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT Devices
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT Devices
Table 5-18: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT D5 and D7 Devices
Member Code
Package
I/O Bank
D5
D7
M301
M383
U484
F484
F672
M484
U484
F484
F672
F896
3A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
3B
18
21
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
48
4A
22
38
48
48
80
48
48
48
80
80
5A
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
5B
14
14
32
16
64
16
48
16
64
48
6A
—
—
—
—
16
32
—
—
16
80
7A
23
39
48
80
80
48
48
80
80
80
8A
20
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
80
129
175
224
240
336
240
240
240
336
480
Total
Table 5-19: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V GT D9 Devices
Member Code
D9
Package
I/O Bank
U484
F484
F672
F896
F1152
3A
16
16
16
32
48
3B
32
32
32
48
48
4A
48
48
80
80
96
5A
16
16
16
32
48
5B
48
16
32
48
48
6A
—
—
48
80
80
7A
48
64
80
80
96
8A
32
32
32
80
96
240
224
336
480
560
Total
Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
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Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices
Table 5-20: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SE Devices
Note: The HPS row and column I/O counts are the number of HPS-specific I/O pins on the device. Each HPSspecific pin may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
Member Code
Package
FPGA I/O
Bank
HPS Row I/
O Bank
HPS
Column I/O
Bank
FPGA I/O
Bank
Total
A2
A4
A5
A6
U484
U672
U484
U672
U484
U672
F896
U484
U672
F896
3A
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
32
3B
6
32
6
32
6
32
48
6
32
48
4A
22
68
22
68
22
68
80
22
68
80
5A
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
32
5B
—
—
—
—
—
7
16
—
7
16
6A
52
56
52
56
52
56
56
52
56
56
6B
23
44
23
44
23
44
44
23
44
44
7A
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
7B
21
22
21
22
21
22
22
21
22
22
7C
8
12
8
12
8
12
12
8
12
12
7D
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
8A
6
13
6
13
6
6
80
6
6
80
203
312
203
312
203
312
455
203
312
455
Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
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Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices
Table 5-21: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V SX Devices
Note: The HPS row and column I/O counts are the number of HPS-specific I/O pins on the device. Each HPSspecific pin may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
Member Code
C2
C4
Package
U672
U672
U672
F896
U672
F896
3A
16
16
16
32
16
32
3B
32
32
32
48
32
48
4A
68
68
68
80
68
80
5A
16
16
16
32
16
32
5B
—
—
—
16
—
16
6A
56
56
56
56
56
56
6B
44
44
44
44
44
44
7A
19
19
19
19
19
19
7B
22
22
22
22
22
22
7C
12
12
12
12
12
12
7D
14
14
14
14
14
14
8A
13
13
13
80
13
80
312
312
312
455
312
455
FPGA I/O Bank
HPS Row I/O
Bank
HPS Column I/O
Bank
FPGA I/O Bank
Total
C5
C6
Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
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Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices
Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices
Table 5-22: Modular I/O Banks for Cyclone V ST Devices
Note: The HPS row and column I/O counts are the number of HPS-specific I/O pins on the device. Each HPSspecific pin may be mapped to several HPS I/Os.
Member Code
D5
D6
Package
F896
F896
3A
32
32
3B
48
48
4A
80
80
5A
32
32
5B
16
16
6A
56
56
6B
44
44
7A
19
19
7B
22
22
7C
12
12
7D
14
14
8A
80
80
455
455
FPGA I/O Bank
HPS Row I/O Bank
HPS Column I/O Bank
FPGA I/O Bank
Total
Related Information
• I/O Banks Locations in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-20
• Guideline: Use the Same VCCPD for All I/O Banks in a Group on page 5-18
Provides guidelines about VCCPD and I/O banks groups.
I/O Element Structure in Cyclone V Devices
The I/O elements (IOEs) in Cyclone V devices contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and I/O registers to
support a complete embedded bidirectional single data rate (SDR) or double data rate (DDR) transfer.
The IOEs are located in I/O blocks around the periphery of the Cyclone V device.
The Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices also have I/O elements for the HPS.
I/O Buffer and Registers in Cyclone V Devices
I/O registers are composed of the input path for handling data from the pin to the core, the output path
for handling data from the core to the pin, and the output enable (OE) path for handling the OE signal to
the output buffer. These registers allow faster source-synchronous register-to-register transfers and
resynchronization.
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Table 5-23: Input and Output Paths in Cyclone V Devices
This table summarizes the input and output path in the Cyclone V devices.
Input Path
Output Path
Consists of:
Consists of:
• DDR input registers
• Alignment and synchronization registers
• Half data rate blocks
• Output or OE registers
• Alignment registers
• Half data rate blocks
You can bypass each block in the input path. The
You can bypass each block of the output and OE
input path uses the deskew delay to adjust the input paths.
register clock delay across process, voltage, and
temperature (PVT) variations.
Figure 5-10: IOE Structure for Cyclone V Devices
This figure shows the Cyclone V FPGA IOE structure. In the figure, one dynamic on-chip termination
(OCT) control is available for each DQ/DQS group.
From Core
DQS Logic Block
OE Register
OE
from
Core
2
D5_OCT
PRN
Half Data
Rate Block
D
Dynamic OCT Control
Q
OE Register
PRN
D
D5 Delay
Q
VCCIO
VCCIO
Programmable
Current
Strength and
Slew Rate
Control
Output Register
Write
Data
from
Core
Half Data
Rate Block
4
PRN
D
Q
Optional
PCI Clamp
Output
Buffer
D5 Delay
Programmable
Pull-Up Resistor
From OCT
Calibration
Block
On-Chip
Termination
Output Register
Open Drain
PRN
D
Q
Input Buffer
D3_0
Delay
clkout
To
Core
D3_1
Delay
To
Core
Bus-Hold
Circuit
D1
Delay
Same available settings in
the Quartus II software
Input Register
PRN
D
Read
Data
to
Core
4
Q
Read
FIFO
Input Register
Input Register
PRN
PRN
D
DQS
CQn
Q
D
Q
D4 Delay
clkin
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Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-24: Summary of Supported Cyclone V Programmable IOE Features and Settings
Feature
Setting
Assignment Name
Supported I/O Standards
Supported in HPS
I/O
(SoC Devices
Only)
(13)
Slew Rate
Control(13)
• 0 (Slow)
• 1 (Fast).
Default is 1.
Slew Rate
Programmable
Output Buffer
Delay
•
•
•
•
• 3.0/3.3-V LVTTL
Output
Buffer Delay • 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
LVCMOS
• SSTL-2, SSTL-18, SSTL15, SSTL-135, SSTL-125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2 V HSTL
• HSUL-12
• 3.0V PCI
• 3.0V PCI-X
• Differential SSTL-2/DiffSSTL-18/Differential
SSTL-15/Differential
SSTL-135/Differential
SSTL-125
• Differential 1.2/1.5/1.8V
HSTL
• Differential 1.2-V HSUL
0 ps (Default)
50 ps
100 ps
150 ps
Yes
• 3.0/3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL-15
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• 3.0V PCI
• 3.0V PCI-X
• Differential SSTL-2/
Differential SSTL-18/
Differential SSTL-15
• Differential 1.2/1.5/1.8V
HSTL
—
Disabled if you use the RS OCT feature.
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Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices
Feature
Setting
Assignment Name
Supported I/O Standards
5-31
Supported in HPS
I/O
(SoC Devices
Only)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Open-Drain
Output(14)
• On
• Off (Default)
—
• 3.0/3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL15/SSTL-135/SSTL-125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
• 3.0V PCI
• 3.0V PCI-X
Yes
Bus-Hold(15)
• On
• Off (Default)
Enable BusHold
Circuitry
• 3.0/3.3V LVTTL
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL15/SSTL-135/SSTL-125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
• 3.0V PCI
• 3.0V PCI-X
Yes
Weak Pull-up
Resistor(16)
• On
• Off (Default)
Weak Pull-Up • 3.0/3.3V LVTTL
Resistor
• 1.2/1.5/1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
LVCMOS
• SSTL-2/SSTL-18/SSTL15/SSTL-135/SSTL-125
• 1.8/1.5/1.2V HSTL
• HSUL-12
• 3.0V PCI
• 3.0V PCI-X
Yes
Pre-Emphasis
• 0 (disabled)
• 1 (enabled).
Default is 1.
Programmable • LVDS
Pre-emphasis • RSDS
• Mini-LVDS
—
Open drain feature can be enabled using the OPNDRN primitive.
Disabled if you use the weak pull-up resistor feature.
Disabled if you use the bus-hold feature.
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Programmable Current Strength
Feature
Setting
Assignment Name
Supported I/O Standards
Supported in HPS
I/O
(SoC Devices
Only)
Differential Output • 0 (low)
Voltage
• 1 (medium).
• 2 (high).
Default is 2.
Programmable • LVDS
Differential • RSDS
Output
• Mini-LVDS
Voltage
(VOD)
On-Chip Clamp
Diode(17) (18)
Clamping
Diode
• On
• Off (Default)
•
•
•
•
—
3.0/3.3V LVTTL
3.0/3.3 LVCMOS
3.0V PCI
3.0V PCI-X
Yes
Note: The on-chip clamp diode is available on all general purpose I/O (GPIO) pins in all Cyclone V
device variants.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Programmable Current Strength on page 5-32
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control on page 5-33
Programmable IOE Delay on page 5-34
Programmable Output Buffer Delay on page 5-34
Programmable Pre-Emphasis on page 5-34
Programmable Differential Output Voltage on page 5-35
Programmable Current Strength
You can use the programmable current strength to mitigate the effects of high signal attenuation that is
caused by a long transmission line or a legacy backplane.
Table 5-25: Programmable Current Strength Settings for Cyclone V Devices
The output buffer for each Cyclone V device I/O pin has a programmable current strength control for the I/O
standards listed in this table.
I/O Standard
3.3 V LVTTL
3.3 V LVCMOS
3.0 V LVTTL
(17)
(18)
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Supported in HPS
(Default setting in bold)
(SoC Devices Only)
16, 8, 4
Yes (except 16 mA)
2
Yes
16, 12, 8, 4
Yes
Recommended to turn on for 3.3 V I/O standards
PCI clamp diode is enabled by default for 3.0 V PCI and 3.0 V PCI-X standards.
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Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control
I/O Standard
IOH / IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Supported in HPS
(Default setting in bold)
(SoC Devices Only)
3.0 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
Yes
2.5 V LVCMOS
16, 12, 8, 4
Yes
1.8 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
Yes
1.5 V LVCMOS
12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2
Yes
1.2 V LVCMOS
8, 6, 4, 2
—
SSTL-2 Class I
12, 10, 8
—
SSTL-2 Class II
16
—
SSTL-18 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
Yes
SSTL-18 Class II
16
Yes
SSTL-15 Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
Yes
SSTL-15 Class II
16
Yes
1.8 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
1.8 V HSTL Class II
16
—
1.5 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
Yes
1.5 V HSTL Class II
16
Yes
1.2 V HSTL Class I
12, 10, 8, 6, 4
—
1.2 V HSTL Class II
16
—
5-33
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best current
strength setting for your specific application.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Programmable Output Slew-Rate Control
Programmable output slew-rate is available for single-ended I/O standards and emulated LVDS output
standards.
The programmable output slew-rate control in the output buffer of each regular- and dual-function I/O
pin allows you to configure the following:
• Fast slew-rate—provides high-speed transitions for high-performance systems.
• Slow slew-rate—reduces system noise and crosstalk but adds a nominal delay to the rising and falling
edges.
You can specify the slew-rate on a pin-by-pin basis because each I/O pin contains a slew-rate control.
Note: Altera recommends that you perform IBIS or SPICE simulations to determine the best slew rate
setting for your specific application.
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Programmable IOE Delay
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Programmable IOE Delay
You can activate the programmable IOE delays to ensure zero hold times, minimize setup times, or
increase clock-to-output times. This feature helps read and write timing margins because it minimizes the
uncertainties between signals in the bus.
Each pin can have a different input delay from pin-to-input register or a delay from output
register-to-output pin values to ensure that the signals within a bus have the same delay going into or out
of the device.
For more information about the programmable IOE delay specifications, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
• Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Programmable Output Buffer Delay
The delay chains are built inside the single-ended output buffer. There are four levels of output buffer
delay settings. By default, there is no delay.
The delay chains can independently control the rising and falling edge delays of the output buffer,
allowing you to:
• Adjust the output-buffer duty cycle
• Compensate channel-to-channel skew
• Reduce simultaneous switching output (SSO) noise by deliberately introducing channel-to-channel
skew
• Improve high-speed memory-interface timing margins
For more information about the programmable output buffer delay specifications, refer to the device
datasheet.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
• Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The VOD setting and the output impedance of the driver set the output current limit of a high-speed
transmission signal. At a high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast enough to reach the full VOD level
before the next edge, producing pattern-dependent jitter. With pre-emphasis, the output current is
boosted momentarily during switching to increase the output slew rate.
Pre-emphasis increases the amplitude of the high-frequency component of the output signal, and thus
helps to compensate for the frequency-dependent attenuation along the transmission line. The overshoot
introduced by the extra current happens only during a change of state switching to increase the output
slew rate and does not ring, unlike the overshoot caused by signal reflection. The amount of pre-emphasis
required depends on the attenuation of the high-frequency component along the transmission line.
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Figure 5-11: Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This figure shows the LVDS output with pre-emphasis.
Voltage boost
from pre-emphasis
VP
OUT
V OD
OUT
VP
Differential output
voltage (peak–peak)
Table 5-26: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable Pre-Emphasis
This table lists the assignment name for programmable pre-emphasis and its possible values in the Quartus Prime
software Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Pre-emphasis
Allowed values
0 (disabled), 1 (enabled). Default is 1.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Programmable Differential Output Voltage
The programmable VOD settings allow you to adjust the output eye opening to optimize the trace length
and power consumption. A higher VOD swing improves voltage margins at the receiver end, and a smaller
VOD swing reduces power consumption. You can statically adjust the VOD of the differential signal by
changing the VOD settings in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
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Open-Drain Output
Figure 5-12: Differential VOD
This figure shows the VOD of the differential LVDS output.
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p)
VOD
Negative Channel (n)
VCM
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD (diff peak - peak) = 2 x VOD (single-ended)
VOD
p-n=0V
VOD
Table 5-27: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—Programmable VOD
This table lists the assignment name for programmable VOD and its possible values in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
tx_out
Assignment name
Programmable Differential Output Voltage (VOD)
Allowed values
00 (low), 01 (medium), 10 (high). Default is 01.
Related Information
Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-30
Open-Drain Output
The optional open-drain output for each I/O pin is equivalent to an open collector output. If it is
configured as an open drain, the logic value of the output is either high-Z or logic low.
You can attach several open-drain output to a wire. This connection type is like a logical OR function and
is commonly called an active-low wired-OR circuit. If at least one of the outputs is in logic 0 state (active),
the circuit sinks the current and brings the line to low voltage.
You can use open-drain output if you are connecting multiple devices to a bus. For example, you can use
the open-drain output for system-level control signals that can be asserted by any device or as an
interrupt.
You can enable the open-drain output assignment using one these methods:
• Design the tristate buffer using OPNDRN primitive.
• Turn on the Auto Open-Drain Pins option in the Quartus Prime software.
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Although you can design open-drain output without enabling the option assignment, you will not be
using the open-drain output feature of the I/O buffer. The open-drain output feature in the I/O buffer
provides you the best propagation delay from OE to output.
Bus-Hold Circuitry
Each I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature that is active only after configuration. When the
device enters user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the value that is present on the pin by the end of
the configuration.
The bus-hold circuitry uses a resistor with a nominal resistance (RBH), approximately 7 kΩ, to weakly pull
the signal level to the last-driven state of the pin. The bus-hold circuitry holds this pin state until the next
input signal is present. Because of this, you do not require an external pull-up or pull-down resistor to
hold a signal level when the bus is tri-stated.
For each I/O pin, you can individually specify that the bus-hold circuitry pulls non-driven pins away from
the input threshold voltage—where noise can cause unintended high-frequency switching. To prevent
over-driving signals, the bus-hold circuitry drives the voltage level of the I/O pin lower than the VCCIO
level.
If you enable the bus-hold feature, you cannot use the programmable pull-up option. To configure the
I/O pin for differential signals, disable the bus-hold feature.
Pull-up Resistor
Each I/O pin provides an optional programmable pull-up resistor during user mode. The pull-up resistor
weakly holds the I/O to the VCCIO level. If you enable this option, you cannot use the bus-hold feature.
The Cyclone V device supports programmable weak pull-up resistors only on user I/O pins.
For dedicated configuration pins, dedicated clock pins, or JTAG pins with internal pull-up resistors, these
resistor values are not programmable. You can find more information related to the internal pull-up
values for dedicated configuration pins, dedicated clock pins, or JTAG pins in the Cyclone V Pin
Connection Guidelines.
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices
Dynamic RS and RT OCT provides I/O impedance matching and termination capabilities. OCT maintains
signal quality, saves board space, and reduces external component costs.
The Cyclone V devices support OCT in all FPGA I/O banks. For the HPS I/Os, the column I/Os do not
support OCT.
Table 5-28: OCT Schemes Supported in Cyclone V Devices
Direction
Output
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
Send Feedback
OCT Schemes
Supported in HPS Row I/Os
RS OCT with calibration
Yes
RS OCT without
calibration
Yes
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Direction
OCT Schemes
Supported in HPS Row I/Os
RT OCT with calibration
Yes
Input
RD OCT (LVDS, mini
LVDS, RSDS and SLVS I/
O standards only)
—
Bidirectional
Dynamic RS OCT and RT
OCT
Yes
Related Information
•
•
•
•
•
RS OCT without Calibration in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-38
RS OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-40
RT OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-42
LVDS Input RD OCT in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-45
Dynamic OCT in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-44
RS OCT without Calibration in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices support RS OCT for single-ended and voltage-referenced I/O standards. RS OCT
without calibration is supported on output only.
Table 5-29: Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT Without Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for uncalibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
25/50
2.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.8 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
1.2 V LVCMOS
25/50
SSTL-2 Class I
50
SSTL-2 Class II
25
SSTL-18 Class I
50
SSTL-18 Class II
25
SSTL-15 Class I
50
SSTL-15 Class II
25
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
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Uncalibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
25
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
25
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
25
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
SSTL-15
25, 50, 34, 40
SSTL-135
34, 40
SSTL-125
34, 40
HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
Differential SSTL-15
25, 50, 34, 40
Differential SSTL-135
34, 40
Differential SSTL-125
34, 40
Differential HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
Driver-impedance matching provides the I/O driver with controlled output impedance that closely
matches the impedance of the transmission line. As a result, you can significantly reduce signal reflections
on PCB traces.
If you select matching impedance, current strength is no longer selectable.
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Figure 5-13: RS OCT Without Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors.
Receiving
Device
Driver
Series Termination
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
Related Information
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-37
RS OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices support RS OCT with calibration in all banks.
Table 5-30: Selectable I/O Standards for RS OCT With Calibration
This table lists the output termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
2.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.8 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.5 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
1.2 V LVCMOS
25/50
100
SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
SSTL-2 Class II
25
100
SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
SSTL-18 Class II
25
100
SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
25
100
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
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I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Output)
RS (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
25
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
25
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
25
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
25
100
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
SSTL-135
34, 40
240
SSTL-125
34, 40
240
HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
25, 50
100
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-135
34, 40
240
Differential SSTL-125
34, 40
240
Differential HSUL-12
34, 40, 48, 60, 80
240
SSTL-15
Differential SSTL-15
5-41
The RS OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the external reference
resistor connected to the RZQ pin and dynamically enables or disables the transistors until they match.
Calibration occurs at the end of device configuration. When the calibration circuit finds the correct
impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the characteristics of the drivers.
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Figure 5-14: RS OCT with Calibration
This figure shows the RS as the intrinsic impedance of the output transistors.
Driver
Series Termination
Receiving
Device
V CCIO
RS
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RS
GND
Related Information
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-37
RT OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices support RT OCT with calibration in all banks. RT OCT with calibration is available
only for configuration of input and bidirectional pins. Output pin configurations do not support RT OCT
with calibration. If you use RT OCT, the VCCIO of the bank must match the I/O standard of the pin where
you enable the RT OCT.
Table 5-31: Selectable I/O Standards for RT OCT With Calibration
This table lists the input termination settings for calibrated OCT on different I/O standards.
I/O Standard
Calibrated OCT (Input)
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
SSTL-2 Class II
50
100
SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
SSTL-18 Class II
50
100
SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
SSTL-15 Class II
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.8 V HSTL Class II
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.5 V HSTL Class II
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
1.2 V HSTL Class II
50
100
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Calibrated OCT (Input)
I/O Standard
RT (Ω)
RZQ (Ω)
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
50
100
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
50
100
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
50
100
SSTL-15
20, 30, 40, 60,120
240
SSTL-135
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
SSTL-125
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-15
20, 30, 40, 60,120
240
Differential SSTL-135
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
Differential SSTL-125
20, 30, 40, 60, 120
240
The RT OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer to the external resistor
connected to the RZQ pin. The circuit dynamically enables or disables the transistors until the total
impedance of the I/O buffer matches the external resistor.
Calibration occurs at the end of the device configuration. When the calibration circuit finds the correct
impedance, the circuit powers down and stops changing the characteristics of the drivers.
Figure 5-15: RT OCT with Calibration
FPGA OCT
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
Transmitter
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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GND
Receiver
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Related Information
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-37
Dynamic OCT in Cyclone V Devices
Dynamic OCT is useful for terminating a high-performance bidirectional path by optimizing the signal
integrity depending on the direction of the data. Dynamic OCT also helps save power because device
termination is internal—termination switches on only during input operation and thus draw less static
power.
Note: If you use the SSTL-15, SSTL-135, and SSTL-125 I/O standards with the DDR3 memory interface,
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT
reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Table 5-32: Dynamic OCT Based on Bidirectional I/O
Dynamic RT OCT or RS OCT is enabled or disabled based on whether the bidirectional I/O acts as a receiver or
driver.
Dynamic OCT
Dynamic RT OCT
Dynamic RS OCT
Altera Corporation
Bidirectional I/O
State
Acts as a receiver
Enabled
Acts as a driver
Disabled
Acts as a receiver
Disabled
Acts as a driver
Enabled
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Figure 5-16: Dynamic RT OCT in Cyclone V Devices
V CCIO
V CCIO
Transmitter
Receiver
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
V CCIO
V CCIO
Receiver
Transmitter
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
50 Ω
GND
FPGA OCT
FPGA OCT
Related Information
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-37
LVDS Input RD OCT in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices support RD OCT in all I/O banks.
You can only use RD OCT if you set the VCCPD to 2.5 V.
Figure 5-17: Differential Input OCT
The Cyclone V devices support OCT for differential LVDS and SLVS input buffers with a nominal
resistance value of 100 Ω, as shown in this figure.
Transmitter
Receiver
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Related Information
On-Chip I/O Termination in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-37
OCT Calibration Block in Cyclone V Devices
You can calibrate the OCT using any of the available four OCT calibration blocks for each device. Each
calibration block contains one RZQ pin.
You can use RS and RT OCT in the same I/O bank for different I/O standards if the I/O standards use the
same VCCIO supply voltage. You cannot configure the RS OCT and the programmable current strength for
the same I/O buffer.
The OCT calibration process uses the RZQ pin that is available in every calibration block in a given I/O
bank for series- and parallel-calibrated termination:
• Connect the RZQ pin to GND through an external 100 Ω or 240 Ω resistor (depending on the RS or RT
OCT value).
• The RZQ pin shares the same VCCIO supply voltage with the I/O bank where the pin is located.
Cyclone V devices support calibrated RS and calibrated RT OCT on all I/O pins except for dedicated
configuration pins.
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Calibration Block Locations in Cyclone V Devices
Figure 5-18: OCT Calibration Block and RZQ Pin Location
This figure shows the location of I/O banks with OCT calibration blocks and RZQ pins in the Cyclone V
device.
RZQ pin
Bank 7A
Calibration block
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 4A
RZQ pin
Bank 5A
Bank 5B
Transceiver Block
Bank 6A
Bank 8A
RZQ pin
Sharing an OCT Calibration Block on Multiple I/O Banks
An OCT calibration block has the same VCCIO as the I/O bank that contains the block. All I/O banks with
the same VCCIO can share one OCT calibration block, even if that particular I/O bank has an OCT calibra‐
tion block.
I/O banks that do not have calibration blocks share the calibration blocks in the I/O banks that have
calibration blocks.
All I/O banks support OCT calibration with different VCCIO voltage standards, up to the number of
available OCT calibration blocks.
You can configure the I/O banks to receive calibration codes from any OCT calibration block with the
same VCCIO. If a group of I/O banks has the same VCCIO voltage, you can use one OCT calibration block
to calibrate the group of I/O banks placed around the periphery.
Related Information
• OCT Calibration Block Sharing Example on page 5-48
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• ALTOCT IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the OCT calibration block.
OCT Calibration Block Sharing Example
Figure 5-19: Example of Calibrating Multiple I/O Banks with One Shared OCT Calibration Block
As an example, this figure shows a group of I/O banks that has the same VCCIO voltage. The figure does
not show transceiver calibration blocks.
B an k 7A
I/O bank with different V
I/O bank with the same V
CB3
B an k 3A
B an k 3B
CCIO
B an k 5A
B an k 5B
Transceiver Block
B an k 6A
B an k 8A
CCIO
B an k 4A
Because banks 5A and 7A have the same VCCIO as bank 3A, you can calibrate all three I/O banks (3A, 5A,
and 7A) with the OCT calibration block (CB3) located in bank 3A.
To enable this calibration, serially shift out the RS OCT calibration codes from the OCT calibration block
in bank 3A to the I/O banks around the periphery.
Related Information
• Sharing an OCT Calibration Block on Multiple I/O Banks on page 5-47
• ALTOCT IP Core User Guide
Provides more information about the OCT calibration block.
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External I/O Termination for Cyclone V Devices
Table 5-33: External Termination Schemes for Different I/O Standards
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
3.3 V LVTTL/3.3 V LVCMOS
3.0 V LVVTL/3.0 V LVCMOS
3.0 V PCI
3.0 V PCI-X
2.5 V LVCMOS
No external termination required
1.8 V LVCMOS
1.5 V LVCMOS
1.2 V LVCMOS
SSTL-2 Class I
SSTL-2 Class II
SSTL-18 Class I
SSTL-18 Class II
Single-Ended SSTL I/O Standard Termination
SSTL-15 Class I
SSTL-15 Class II
1.8 V HSTL Class I
1.8 V HSTL Class II
1.5 V HSTL Class I
1.5 V HSTL Class II
Single-Ended HSTL I/O Standard Termination
1.2 V HSTL Class I
1.2 V HSTL Class II
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential SSTL-15 Class I
Differential SSTL-15 Class II
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Single-ended I/O Termination
I/O Standard
External Termination Scheme
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.8 V HSTL Class II
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.5 V HSTL Class II
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class I
Differential 1.2 V HSTL Class II
LVDS
RSDS
Mini-LVDS
LVPECL
SLVS
LVDS I/O Standard Termination
RSDS/mini-LVDS I/O Standard Termination
Differential LVPECL I/O Standard Termination
SLVS I/O Standard Termination
SSTL-15 (19)
SSTL-135 (19)
SSTL-125 (19)
HSUL-12
Differential SSTL-15 (19)
No external termination required
Differential SSTL-135 (19)
Differential SSTL-125 (19)
Differential HSUL-12
Single-ended I/O Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require an input VREF and a termination voltage (VTT). The reference
voltage of the receiving device tracks the termination voltage of the transmitting device.
The supported I/O standards such as SSTL-125, SSTL-135, and SSTL-15 typically do not require external
board termination.
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT
reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
Note: You cannot use RS and RT OCT simultaneously. For more information, refer to the related
information.
(19)
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT reduces
the number of external termination resistors used.
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Single-ended I/O Termination
Figure 5-20: SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of SSTL I/O termination on Cyclone V devices.
Termination
SSTL Class I
SSTL Class II
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
V REF
Transmitter
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
OCT Receive
100 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
Receiver
100 Ω
GND
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
V REF
100 Ω
100 Ω
FPGA
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
100 Ω
V REF
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Receiver
V REF
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Send Feedback
100 Ω
V CCIO
V CCIO
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
Parallel OCT
V CCIO
50 Ω
100 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
GND
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
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Differential I/O Termination
Figure 5-21: HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of HSTL I/O termination on the Cyclone V devices.
Termination
HSTL Class II
HSTL Class I
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Receiver
V TT
V TT
V TT
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
50 Ω
OCT Transmit
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
Transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
V CCIO
Receiver
V TT
FPGA
Parallel OCT
100 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V REF
V REF
100 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
Series
OCT 50 Ω
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series
OCT 25 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
GND
FPGA
V REF
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
V REF
V CCIO
100 Ω
50 Ω
OCT in
Bidirectional
Pins
Receiver
GND
V CCIO
V REF
100 Ω
FPGA
Parallel OCT
50 Ω
100 Ω
OCT Receive
V CCIO
GND
100 Ω
Series
OCT 50 Ω
FPGA
GND
FPGA
100 Ω
V REF
GND
Series
OCT 25 Ω
FPGA
Related Information
Dynamic OCT in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-44
Differential I/O Termination
The I/O pins are organized in pairs to support differential I/O standards. Each I/O pin pair can support
differential input and output buffers.
The supported I/O standards such as Differential SSTL-15, Differential SSTL-125, and Differential
SSTL-135 typically do not require external board termination.
Altera recommends that you use OCT with these I/O standards to save board space and cost. OCT
reduces the number of external termination resistors used.
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Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL Termination
Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL inputs use LVDS differential input buffers. However, RD support is
only available if the I/O standard is LVDS.
Differential HSTL, SSTL, and HSUL outputs are not true differential outputs. These I/O standards use two
single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted.
Figure 5-22: Differential SSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential SSTL I/O termination on Cyclone V devices.
Termination
Differential SSTL Class I
Differential SSTL Class II
V TT
50 Ω
25 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
25 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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GND
Receiver
Transmitter
GND
Receiver
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LVDS, RSDS, SLVS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
Figure 5-23: Differential HSTL I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the details of Differential HSTL I/O standard termination on Cyclone V devices.
Termination
Differential HSTL Class I
Differential HSTL Class II
V TT
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
V TT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
V TT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
Transmitter
Receiver
V CCIO
Series OCT 50 Ω
Transmitter
Series OCT 25 Ω
Receiver
V TT
50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
OCT
V CCIO
V CCIO
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V TT
V CCIO
100 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
GND
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Transmitter
GND
100 Ω
Receiver
Transmitter
GND
Receiver
LVDS, RSDS, SLVS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
All I/O banks have dedicated circuitry to support the true LVDS, RSDS, SLVS, and mini-LVDS I/O
standards by using true LVDS output buffers without resistor networks.
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Figure 5-24: LVDS and SLVS I/O Standard Termination
This figure shows the LVDS and SLVS I/O standards termination. The on-chip differential resistor is
available in all I/O banks.
Termination
LVDS or SLVS
Differential Outputs
Differential Inputs
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
100 Ω
50 Ω
Differential Outputs
OCT Receiver
(True LVDS
or SLVS
Output)
Differential Inputs
OCT
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
Emulated LVDS, RSDS, and Mini-LVDS Termination
The I/O banks also support emulated LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O standards.
Emulated LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS output buffers use two single-ended output buffers with an
external single-resistor or three-resistor network, and can be tri-stated.
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Figure 5-25: Emulated LVDS, RSDS, or Mini-LVDS I/O Standard Termination
The output buffers, as shown in this figure, are available in all I/O banks. RS is 120 Ω and RP is 170 Ω.
Termination
Emulated LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS
≤ 1 inch
50 Ω
RS
External
On-Board
Termination
(RSDS_E_3R)
100 Ω
RP
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Receiver
Transmitter
OCT
≤ 1 inch
50 Ω
RS
OCT
100 Ω
RP
(RSDS_E_3R)
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Receiver
Transmitter
Single-Ended Outputs
Differential Inputs
OCT
OCT Receive
(Single-Ended
Output with
Single Resistor
LVDS_E_1R)
50 Ω
External
Resistor
100 Ω
RP
50 Ω
Receiver
Transmitter
Single-Ended Outputs
Differential Inputs
OCT
≤ 1 inch
OCT Receive
(Single-Ended
Output with
Three-Resistor
Network,
LVDS_E_3R)
50 Ω
RS
100 Ω
RP
RS
50 Ω
External Resistor
Transmitter
Receiver
To meet the RSDS or mini-LVDS specifications, you require a resistor network to attenuate the outputvoltage swing.
You can modify the three-resistor network values to reduce power or improve the noise margin. Choose
resistor values that satisfy the following equation.
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LVPECL Termination
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Figure 5-26: Resistor Network Calculation
Note: Altera recommends that you perform additional simulations with IBIS or SPICE models to validate
that the custom resistor values meet the RSDS or mini-LVDS I/O standard requirements.
For information about the data rates supported for external single resistor or three-resistor network, refer
to the device datasheet.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
• National Semiconductor (www.national.com)
For more information about the RSDS I/O standard, refer to the RSDS Specification on the National
Semiconductor web site.
LVPECL Termination
The Cyclone V devices support the LVPECL I/O standard on input clock pins only:
• LVPECL input operation is supported using LVDS input buffers.
• LVPECL output operation is not supported.
Use AC coupling if the LVPECL common-mode voltage of the output buffer does not match the LVPECL
input common-mode voltage.
Note: Altera recommends that you use IBIS models to verify your LVPECL AC/DC-coupled termination.
Figure 5-27: LVPECL AC-Coupled Termination
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
0.1 µF
Z 0 = 50 Ω
V ICM
50 Ω
0.1 µF
Z 0 = 50 Ω
50 Ω
Support for DC-coupled LVPECL is available if the LVPECL output common mode voltage is within the
Cyclone V LVPECL input buffer specification.
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Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries
Figure 5-28: LVPECL DC-Coupled Termination
LVPECL
Output Buffer
LVPECL
Input Buffer
Z 0 = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z 0 = 50 Ω
For information about the VICM specification, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Dedicated High-Speed Circuitries
The Cyclone V device has dedicated circuitries for differential transmitter and receiver to transmit or
receive high-speed differential signals.
Table 5-34: Features and Dedicated Circuitries of the Differential Transmitter and Receiver
Feature
Differential Transmitter
Differential Receiver
True differential buffer
LVDS, mini-LVDS, and
RSDS
LVDS, SLVS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS
SERDES
Up to 10 bit serializer
Up to 10 bit deserializer
Fractional PLL
Clocks the load and shift
registers
Generates different phases of a clock
for data synchronizer
Programmable VOD
Statically assignable
—
Programmable pre-emphasis
Boosts output current
—
Data realignment block (Bit-slip)
—
Inserts bit latencies into serial data
Skew adjustment
—
Manual
On-chip termination (OCT)
—
100 Ω in LVDS and SLVS standards
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
High-Speed Differential I/O Locations
The following figures show the locations of the dedicated serializer/deserializer (SERDES) circuitry and
the high-speed I/Os in the Cyclone V devices.
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Figure 5-29: High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in Cyclone V E A2 and A4 Devices
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with SERDES
Fractional PLL
FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
Figure 5-30: High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in Cyclone V GX C3 Devices
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with SERDES
Fractional PLL
Transceiver Block
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
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Figure 5-31: High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in Cyclone V GX C4, C5, C7, and C9 Devices, and
Cyclone V GT D5, D7, and D9 Devices
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with SERDES
Fractional PLL
Transceiver Block
FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
Figure 5-32: High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in Cyclone V SE A2, A4, A5, and A6 Devices
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with SERDES
HPS Core
Fractional PLL
HPS I/O
Altera Corporation
FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
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Figure 5-33: High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in Cyclone V SX C2, C4, C5, and C6 Devices, and
Cyclone V ST D5 and D6 Devices
General Purpose I/O and High-Speed
LVDS I/O with SERDES
HPS Core
Fractional PLL
HPS I/O
Transceiver Block
FPGA Fabric
(Logic Elements, DSP,
Embedded Memory,
Clock Networks)
Related Information
• PLLs and Clocking on page 5-12
I/O design guidelines related to PLLs and clocking.
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
LVDS SERDES Circuitry
The following figure shows a transmitter and receiver block diagram for the LVDS SERDES circuitry with
the interface signals of the transmitter and receiver data paths.
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Figure 5-34: LVDS SERDES
2
IOE
Serializer
tx_in
10 bits
maxiumum
data width
10
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
rx_out
tx_out
+
–
DOUT
DIN
2
10
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
rx_in
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
rx_outclock
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
The preceding figure shows a shared PLL between the transmitter and receiver. If the transmitter and
receiver do not share the same PLL, you require two fractional PLLs. In single data rate (SDR) and double
data rate (DDR) modes, the data width is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Note: For the maximum data rate supported by the Cyclone V devices, refer to the device overview.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Overview
• Ports, LVDS SERDES Transmitter/Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides a list of the LVDS transmitter and receiver ports and settings using ALTLVDS.
• Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
True LVDS Buffers in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V device family supports LVDS on all I/O banks:
• Both row and column I/Os support true LVDS input buffers with RD OCT and true LVDS output
buffers.
• Cyclone V devices offer single-ended I/O reference clock support for the fractional PLL that drives the
SERDES.
Note: True LVDS output buffers cannot be tri-stated.
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The following tables list the number of true LVDS buffers supported in Cyclone V devices with these
conditions:
• The LVDS channel count does not include dedicated clock pins.
• Each I/O sub-bank can support up to two independent ALTLVDS interfaces. For example, you can
place two ALTLVDS interfaces in bank 8A driven by two different PLLs, provided that the LVDS
channels are not interleaved.
Table 5-35: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V E Devices
Member Code
Package
256-pin FineLine BGA
324-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A2 and A4
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
TX
RX
Top
8
8
Left
4
4
Right
8
8
Bottom
12
12
Top
12
12
Left
8
8
Right
8
8
Bottom
16
16
Top
15
19
Left
12
12
Right
7
8
Bottom
16
20
Top
20
20
Left
4
4
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Left
4
4
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
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Member Code
Package
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
A5
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
TX
RX
Top
15
19
Right
7
8
Bottom
16
21
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
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Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
A9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
Side
TX
RX
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
24
24
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
Side
TX
RX
Top
12
12
Right
8
8
Bottom
16
16
Top
20
20
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
5-65
Table 5-36: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V GX Devices
Member Code
Package
324-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C3
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
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Member Code
Package
301-pin Micro FineLine BGA
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
C4
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
301-pin Micro FineLine BGA
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
C5
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
TX
RX
Top
6
15
Right
7
8
Bottom
8
20
Top
15
19
Right
7
8
Bottom
16
21
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
6
15
Right
7
8
Bottom
8
20
Top
15
19
Right
7
8
Bottom
16
21
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
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Member Code
Package
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
C9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
TX
RX
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
24
24
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
Top
48
48
Right
44
44
Bottom
48
48
5-67
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Table 5-37: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V GT Devices
Member Code
Package
301-pin Micro FineLine BGA
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
D5
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
D7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
TX
RX
Top
6
15
Right
7
8
Bottom
8
20
Top
15
19
Right
7
8
Bottom
16
21
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
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Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
D9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA
Side
TX
RX
Top
20
20
Right
16
16
Bottom
24
24
Top
24
24
Right
8
8
Bottom
24
24
Top
28
28
Right
24
24
Bottom
32
32
Top
40
40
Right
40
40
Bottom
40
40
Top
48
48
Right
44
44
Bottom
48
48
Side
TX
RX
Top
1
2
Right
4
4
Bottom
10
12
Top
1
2
Right
5
6
Bottom
26
29
Top
1
2
Right
4
4
Bottom
10
12
Top
1
2
Right
5
6
Bottom
26
29
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
40
40
5-69
Table 5-38: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V SE Devices
Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A2 and A4
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A5 and A6
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
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Table 5-39: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V SX Devices
Member Code
C2 and C4
Package
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C5 and C6
896-pin FineLine BGA
Side
TX
RX
Top
1
2
Right
5
6
Bottom
26
29
Top
1
2
Right
5
6
Bottom
26
29
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
40
40
Side
TX
RX
Top
20
20
Right
12
12
Bottom
40
40
Table 5-40: LVDS Channels Supported in Cyclone V ST Devices
Member Code
D5 and D6
Package
896-pin FineLine BGA
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Emulated LVDS Buffers in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V device family supports emulated LVDS on all I/O banks:
• You can use unutilized true LVDS input channels as emulated LVDS output buffers (eTX).
• The emulated LVDS output buffers use two single-ended output buffers with an external resistor
network to support LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards.
• The emulated differential output buffers support tri-state capability.
Differential Transmitter in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V transmitter contains dedicated circuitry to support high-speed differential signaling. The
differential transmitter buffers support the following features:
• LVDS signaling that can drive out LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS signals
• Programmable VOD and programmable pre-emphasis
Transmitter Blocks
The dedicated circuitry consists of a true differential buffer, a serializer, and fractional PLLs that you can
share between the transmitter and receiver. The serializer takes up to 10 bits wide parallel data from the
FPGA fabric, clocks it into the load registers, and serializes it using shift registers that are clocked by the
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Transmitter Clocking
fractional PLL before sending the data to the differential buffer. The MSB of the parallel data is
transmitted first.
Note: To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
The following figure shows a block diagram of the transmitter. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width is
1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Figure 5-35: LVDS Transmitter
2
FPGA
Fabric
10 bits
maximum
data width
tx_in
Serializer
10
DIN
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
Fractional PLL
LVDS Clock Domain
tx_inclock
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Transmitter Clocking
The fractional PLL generates the parallel clocks (rx_outclock and tx_outclock), the load enable
(LVDS_LOAD_EN) signal and the diffioclk signal (the clock running at serial data rate) that clocks the
load and shift registers. You can statically set the serialization factor to x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 using
the Quartus Prime software. The load enable signal is derived from the serialization factor setting.
You can configure any Cyclone V transmitter data channel to generate a source-synchronous transmitter
clock output. This flexibility allows the placement of the output clock near the data outputs to simplify
board layout and reduce clock-to-data skew.
Different applications often require specific clock-to-data alignments or specific data-rate-to-clock-rate
factors. You can specify these settings statically in the Quartus Prime IP Catalog:
• The transmitter can output a clock signal at the same rate as the data—with a maximum output clock
frequency that each speed grade of the device supports.
• You can divide the output clock by a factor of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10, depending on the serialization factor.
• You can set the phase of the clock in relation to the data using internal PLL option of the ALTLVDS IP
core. The fractional PLLs provide additional support for other phase shifts in 45° increments.
The following figure shows the transmitter in clock output mode. In clock output mode, you can use an
LVDS channel as a clock output channel.
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Figure 5-36: Transmitter in Clock Output Mode
Transmitter Circuit
Series
Parallel
Txclkout+
Txclkout–
FPGA
Fabric
diffioclk
Fractional
PLL
LVDS_LOAD_EN
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Serializer Bypass for DDR and SDR Operations
You can bypass the serializer to support DDR (x2) and SDR (x1) operations to achieve a serialization
factor of 2 and 1, respectively. The I/O element (IOE) contains two data output registers that can each
operate in either DDR or SDR mode.
Figure 5-37: Serializer Bypass
This figure shows the serializer bypass path. In DDR mode, tx_inclock clocks the IOE register. In SDR
mode, data is passed directly through the IOE. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width to the IOE is 1
and 2 bits, respectively.
2
FPGA
Fabric
tx_in
Serializer
2
DIN
IOE
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
+
–
DOUT
tx_out
LVDS Transmitter
tx_coreclock
3
(LVDS_LOAD_EN, diffioclk, tx_coreclock)
Fractional PLL
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
Differential Receiver in Cyclone V Devices
The receiver has a differential buffer and fractional PLLs that you can share among the transmitter and
receiver, a data realignment block, and a deserializer. The differential buffer can receive LVDS, mini-
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LVDS, and RSDS signal levels. You can statically set the I/O standard of the receiver pins to LVDS, SLVS,
mini-LVDS, or RSDS in the Quartus Prime software Assignment Editor.
Note: To drive the LVDS channels, you must use the PLLs in integer PLL mode.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Receiver Blocks in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V differential receiver has the following hardware blocks:
• Data realignment block (bit slip)
• Deserializer
The following figure shows the hardware blocks of the receiver. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width
from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively. The deserializer includes shift registers and parallel load
registers, and sends a maximum of 10 bits to the internal logic.
Figure 5-38: Receiver Block Diagram
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
rx_out
10 bits
maxiumum
data width
2
10
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
rx_in
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
2
DOUT
DIN
diffioclk
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
rx_outclock
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
Data Realignment Block (Bit Slip)
Skew in the transmitted data along with skew added by the link causes channel-to-channel skew on the
received serial data streams. To compensate for this channel-to-channel skew and establish the correct
received word boundary at each channel, each receiver channel has a dedicated data realignment circuit
that realigns the data by inserting bit latencies into the serial stream.
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Deserializer
An optional RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN port controls the bit insertion of each receiver independently
controlled from the internal logic. The data slips one bit on the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
The requirements for the RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN signal include the following items:
•
•
•
•
The minimum pulse width is one period of the parallel clock in the logic array.
The minimum low time between pulses is one period of the parallel clock.
The signal is an edge-triggered signal.
The valid data is available two parallel clock cycles after the rising edge of RX_CHANNEL_DATA_ALIGN.
Figure 5-39: Data Realignment Timing
This figure shows receiver output (RX_OUT) after one bit slip pulse with the deserialization factor set to 4.
rx_inclock
rx_in
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
rx_outclock
rx_channel_data_align
rx_out
3210
321x
xx21
0321
The data realignment circuit can have up to 11 bit-times of insertion before a rollover occurs. The
programmable bit rollover point can be from 1 to 11 bit-times, independent of the deserialization factor.
Set the programmable bit rollover point equal to, or greater than, the deserialization factor—allowing
enough depth in the word alignment circuit to slip through a full word. You can set the value of the bit
rollover point using the IP Catalog. An optional status port, RX_CDA_MAX, is available to the FPGA fabric
from each channel to indicate the reaching of the preset rollover point.
Figure 5-40: Receiver Data Realignment Rollover
This figure shows a preset value of four bit-times before rollover occurs. The rx_cda_max signal pulses for
one rx_outclock cycle to indicate that rollover has occurred.
rx_inclock
rx_channel_data_align
rx_outclock
rx_cda_max
Deserializer
You can statically set the deserialization factor to x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, or x10 by using the Quartus Prime
software. You can bypass the deserializer in the Quartus Prime IP Catalog to support DDR (x2) or SDR
(x1) operations, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 5-41: Deserializer Bypass
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
rx_out
2
10
LVDS Receiver
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
+
–
rx_in
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
rx_outclock
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
Fractional PLL
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
Note: Disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
The IOE contains two data input registers that can operate in DDR or SDR mode. In DDR mode,
rx_inclock clocks the IOE register. In SDR mode, data is directly passed through the IOE. In SDR and
DDR modes, the data width from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
Receiver Mode in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices support the LVDS receiver mode.
LVDS Receiver Mode
Input serial data is registered at the rising edge of the serial LVDS_diffioclk clock that is produced by the
left and right PLLs.
You can select the rising edge option with the Quartus Prime IP Catalog. The LVDS_diffioclk clock that
is generated by the left and right PLLs clocks the data realignment and deserializer blocks.
The following figure shows the LVDS datapath block diagram. In SDR and DDR modes, the data width
from the IOE is 1 and 2 bits, respectively.
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Figure 5-42: Receiver Data Path in LVDS Mode
IOE supports SDR, DDR, or non-registered datapath
rx_out
10 bits
maxiumum
data width
2
10
LVDS Receiver
+
–
IOE
Deserializer
Bit Slip
rx_in
10
DOUT
FPGA
Fabric
DIN
DOUT
DIN
diffioclk
2
(LOAD_EN,
diffioclk)
rx_outclock
3 (LVDS_LOAD_EN,
LVDS_diffioclk, rx_outclock)
LVDS Clock Domain
Fractional PLL
rx_inclock / tx_inclock
Note: All disabled blocks and signals are grayed out
Receiver Clocking for Cyclone V Devices
The fractional PLL receives the external clock input and generates different phases of the same clock.
The physical medium connecting the transmitter and receiver LVDS channels may introduce skew
between the serial data and the source-synchronous clock. The instantaneous skew between each LVDS
channel and the clock also varies with the jitter on the data and clock signals as seen by the receiver.
LVDS mode allows you to statically select the optimal phase between the source synchronous clock and
the received serial data to compensate skew.
Related Information
Guideline: Use PLLs in Integer PLL Mode for LVDS on page 5-12
Differential I/O Termination for Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V devices provide a 100 Ω, on-chip differential termination option on each differential
receiver channel for LVDS standards. On-chip termination saves board space by eliminating the need to
add external resistors on the board. You can enable on-chip termination in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
All I/O pins and dedicated clock input pins support on-chip differential termination, RD OCT.
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Figure 5-43: On-Chip Differential I/O Termination
Differential Receiver
with On-Chip 100 Ω
Termination
LVDS
Transmitter
Z 0 = 50 Ω
RD
Z 0 = 50 Ω
Table 5-41: Quartus Prime Software Assignment Editor—On-Chip Differential Termination
This table lists the assignment name for on-chip differential termination in the Quartus Prime software
Assignment Editor.
Field
Assignment
To
rx_in
Assignment name
Input Termination
Value
Differential
Source-Synchronous Timing Budget
The topics in this section describe the timing budget, waveforms, and specifications for source-synchro‐
nous signaling in the Cyclone V device family.
The LVDS I/O standard enables high-speed transmission of data, resulting in better overall system
performance. To take advantage of fast system performance, you must analyze the timing for these highspeed signals. Timing analysis for the differential block is different from traditional synchronous timing
analysis techniques.
The basis of the source synchronous timing analysis is the skew between the data and the clock signals
instead of the clock-to-output setup times. High-speed differential data transmission requires the use of
timing parameters provided by IC vendors and is strongly influenced by board skew, cable skew, and
clock jitter.
This section defines the source-synchronous differential data orientation timing parameters, the timing
budget definitions for the Cyclone V device family, and how to use these timing parameters to determine
the maximum performance of a design.
Differential Data Orientation
There is a set relationship between an external clock and the incoming data. For operations at 840 Mbps
and a serialization factor of 10, the external clock is multiplied by 10. You can set phase-alignment in the
PLL to coincide with the sampling window of each data bit. The data is sampled on the falling edge of the
multiplied clock.
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Differential I/O Bit Position
Figure 5-44: Bit Orientation in the Quartus Prime Software
This figure shows the data bit orientation of the x10 mode.
incloc k/outcloc k
10 LVDS Bits
MSB
9
data in
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
LSB
0
1
Differential I/O Bit Position
Data synchronization is necessary for successful data transmission at high frequencies.
The following figure shows the data bit orientation for a channel operation and is based on the following
conditions:
• The serialization factor is equal to the clock multiplication factor.
• The phase alignment uses edge alignment.
• The operation is implemented in hard SERDES.
Figure 5-45: Bit-Order and Word Boundary for One Differential Channel
Transmitter Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
tx_outclock
tx_out
X
X
X
Previous Cycle
X X X X
7 6
MSB
X
Current Cycle
5 4 3
2
1
0
LSB
X
Next Cycle
X X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Receiver Channel Operation (x8 Mode)
rx_inclock
rx_in
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
rx_outclock
rx_out [7..0]
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXX7654
3210XXXX
Note: These waveforms are only functional waveforms and do not convey timing information
For other serialization factors, use the Quartus Prime software tools to find the bit position within the
word.
Differential Bit Naming Conventions
The following table lists the conventions for differential bit naming for 18 differential channels. The MSB
and LSB positions increase with the number of channels used in a system.
Table 5-42: Differential Bit Naming
This table lists the conventions for differential bit naming for 18 differential channels, and the bit positions after
deserialization.
Receiver Channel Data Number
1
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Internal 8-Bit Parallel Data
MSB Position
LSB Position
7
0
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Internal 8-Bit Parallel Data
MSB Position
LSB Position
2
15
8
3
23
16
4
31
24
5
39
32
6
47
40
7
55
48
8
63
56
9
71
64
10
79
72
11
87
80
12
95
88
13
103
96
14
111
104
15
119
112
16
127
120
17
135
128
18
143
136
Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew
The receiver skew margin calculation uses the transmitter channel-to-channel skew (TCCS)—an
important parameter based on the Cyclone V transmitter in a source-synchronous differential interface:
• TCCS is the difference between the fastest and slowest data output transitions, including the TCO
variation and clock skew.
• For LVDS transmitters, the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer provides the TCCS value in the TCCS report
(report_TCCS) in the Quartus Prime compilation report, which shows TCCS values for serial output
ports.
• You can also get the TCCS value from the device datasheet.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
• Receiver Skew Margin and Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew, LVDS SERDES Transmitter/
Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about the LVDS Transmitter/Receiver Package Skew Compensation report
panel.
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Receiver Skew Margin for LVDS Mode
Receiver Skew Margin for LVDS Mode
In LVDS mode, use RSKM, TCCS, and sampling window (SW) specifications for high-speed sourcesynchronous differential signals in the receiver data path.
The following equation expresses the relationship between RSKM, TCCS, and SW.
Figure 5-46: RSKM Equation
Conventions used for the equation:
• RSKM—the timing margin between the receiver’s clock input and the data input sampling window.
• Time unit interval (TUI)—time period of the serial data.
• SW—the period of time that the input data must be stable to ensure that data is successfully sampled
by the LVDS receiver. The SW is a device property and varies with device speed grade.
• TCCS—the timing difference between the fastest and the slowest output edges, including tCO variation
and clock skew, across channels driven by the same PLL. The clock is included in the TCCS measure‐
ment.
You must calculate the RSKM value to decide whether the LVDS receiver can sample the data properly or
not, given the data rate and device. A positive RSKM value indicates that the LVDS receiver can sample
the data properly, whereas a negative RSKM indicates that it cannot sample the data properly.
The following figure shows the relationship between the RSKM, TCCS, and the SW of the receiver.
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Figure 5-47: Differential High-Speed Timing Diagram and Timing Budget for LVDS Mode
Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal
Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
TCCS
RSKM
SW
tSW (min)
Bit n
Timing Budget
Internal
Clock
Falling Edge
RSKM
tSW (max)
Bit n
TUI
External
Clock
Clock Placement
Internal
Clock
Synchronization
Transmitter
Output Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
2
Receiver
Input Data
SW
For LVDS receivers, the Quartus Prime software provides an RSKM report showing the SW, TUI, and
RSKM values for non-DPA LVDS mode:
• You can generate the RSKM report by executing the report_RSKM command in the TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer. You can find the RSKM report in the Quartus Prime compilation report in the
TimeQuest Timing Analyzer section.
• To obtain the RSKM value, assign the input delay to the LVDS receiver through the constraints menu
of the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer. The input delay is determined according to the data arrival time at
the LVDS receiver port, with respect to the reference clock.
• If you set the input delay in the settings parameters for the Set Input Delay option, set the clock name
to the clock that reference the source synchronous clock that feeds the LVDS receiver.
• If you do not set any input delay in the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, the receiver channel-to-channel
skew defaults to zero.
• You can also directly set the input delay in a Synopsys Design Constraint file (.sdc) using the
set_input_delay command.
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Related Information
• Receiver Skew Margin and Transmitter Channel-to-Channel Skew, LVDS SERDES Transmitter/
Receiver IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about the RSKM equation and calculation.
• The Quartus II TimeQuest Timing Analyzer, Quartus II Handbook Volume 3: Verification
Provides more information about .sdc commands and the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December 2015
2015.12.21
• Added assignment name and supported I/O standards in Summary of
Supported Programmable IOE Features and Settings Table.
• Added descriptions to package plan tables for Cyclone V GT and ST
devices.
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
• Updated figures in Guideline: Using LVDS Differential Channels.
• Updated restriction for Cyclone V devices PLL driving distance.
March 2015
2015.03.31
• Added the RS (120 Ω) and RP (170 Ω) values for the emulated LVDS,
RSDS, or Mini-LVDS I/O standard termination.
• Updated the I/O pin count of banks 5B (from 0 to 7) and 8A (from 13
to 6) for the U672 package of the Cyclone V SE A5 and A6 devices.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Corrected truncated sentence in the note about the recommendation
to use dynamic OCT for several I/O standards with DDR3 external
memory interface.
• Remove footnote of RS and RT OCT values pending silicon
characterization for Table RS OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V
Devices and RT OCT with Calibration in Cyclone V Devices.
• Updated Guideline: Use the Same Vccpd for All I/O Banks in a
Group to clarify that certain Cyclone V devices does not share the
same Vccpd for bank 7A and 8A.
• Updated images for High-Speed Differential I/O Locations in all
Cyclone V devices to show only 1 fractional PLL per each corner.
• Added mini LVDS and RSDS I/O standard in OCT Schemes
Supported in Cyclone V Devices Table for RD termination.
• Clarified that dedicated configuration pins, clock pins and JTAG pins
do not support programmable pull-up resistor but these pins have
fixed value of internal pull-up resistors.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
5-83
Changes
• Moved the Open-Drain Output, Bus-Hold Circuitry and Pull-up
Resistor sections to Programmable IOE Features in Cyclone V
Devices.
• Update Open-Drain Output section with steps to enable open-drain
output in Assignment Editor.
• Updated timing diagram for Phase Relationship for External PLL
Interface Signals to reflect the correct phase shift and frequency for
outclk2.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Updated the I/O vertical migration figure to clarify the migration
capability of Cyclone V SE and SX devices.
• Added footnote to clarify that some of the voltage levels listed in the
MultiVolt I/O support table are for showing that multiple singleended I/O standards are not compatible with certain VCCIO voltages.
• Corrected the number of I/O pins for I/O banks 5B and 6A in the
F672 package of the Cyclone V C4 device.
• Added pin placement guidelines for general purpose high-speed
signals faster than 200 MHz.
• Added information to clarify that programmable output slew-rate is
available for single-ended and emulated LVDS I/O standards.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Added 3.3 V VCCIO input for 3.0 V LVTTL/3.0 V LVCMOS and 2.5 V
LVCMOS I/O standards.
• Added 3.3 V input signal for 2.5 V VCCIO in the table listing the
MultiVolt I/O support.
• Updated the statement about setting the phase of the clock in relation
to data in the topic about transmitter clocking.
• Updated statements in several topics to clarify that each modular I/O
bank can support multiple I/O standards that use the same voltage.
• Updated the guideline topic about using the same VCCPD for I/O
banks in the same VCCPD group to improve clarity.
• Added the optional PCI clamp diode to the figure showing the IOE
structure.
• Changed all "SoC FPGA" to "SoC".
• Removed SSTL-125 from the list of supported I/O standards for the
HPS I/O.
• Added SSTL-15, SSTL-135, SSTL-125, HSUL-12, Differential
SSTL-15, Differential SSTL-135, Differential SSTL-125, and Differen‐
tial HSUL-12 to the list of output termination settings for
uncalibrated RS OCT.
• Removed I/O banks 5A and 5B from Cyclone V SE A2 and A4, and
Cyclone V SX C2 and C4 in the table that lists the reference clock pin
for I/O banks without dedicated reference clock pin. These devices do
not have I/O bank 5B.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
• Added the M301 and M383 packages to the modular I/O banks tables
for Cyclone V GX C4 device.
• Added the number of true LVDS buffers for the M301 and M383
packages of the Cyclone V GX C4 device.
• Added a figure that shows the phase relationship for the external PLL
interface signals.
• Clarified that you can only use RD OCT if VCCPD is 2.5 V.
• Removed all "preliminary" marks.
• Added link to Knowledge Base article that clarifies about vertical
migration (drop-in compatibility).
• Clarified that "internal PLL option" refers to the option in the
ALTLVDS megafunction.
• Updated the topic about emulated LVDS buffers to clarify that you
can use unutilized true LVDS input channels (instead of "buffers") as
emulated LVDS output buffers.
June 2013
2013.06.21
Updated the figure about data realignment timing to correct the data
pattern after a bit slip.
June 2013
2013.06.17
• Removed 3.3 V input signal for 2.5 V VCCIO in the table listing the
MultiVolt I/O support.
• Added a topic about LVDS I/O restrictions and differential pad
placement rule.
• Updated the preliminary I/O counts per bank for the following
packages:
•
•
•
•
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• M301 packages of Cyclone V GX C5 and GT D5 devices.
• U324 package of Cyclone V GX C3 device.
• M383 packages of Cyclone V E A5, GX C5, and GT D5 devices.
• M484 packages of Cyclone V E A7, GX C7, and GT D7 devices.
• U484 packages of Cyclone V E A9, GX C9, and GT D9 devices.
• F1152 packages of Cyclone V GX C9 and GT D9 devices.
Updated the preliminary LVDS channels counts for the M301 and
M383 packages of Cyclone V E, GX, and GT devices.
Added the preliminary LVDS channels counts for Cyclone V SE, SX,
and ST devices.
Updated the topic about LVDS input RD OCT to remove the require‐
ment for setting the VCCIO to 2.5 V. RD OCT now requires only that
the VCCPD is 2.5 V.
Updated the topic about LVPECL termination to improve clarity.
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Date
May 2013
Version
2013.05.06
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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Changes
• Moved all links in all topics to the Related Information section for
easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Updated the M386 package to M383.
• Updated the M383 package plan of the Cyclone V E device.
• Updated the GPIO count for the M301 package of the Cyclone V GX
devices.
• Updated the HPS I/O counts for Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices.
• Updated the I/O vertical migration table.
• Corrected the note in the MultiVolt I/O interface topic.
• Updated the 3.3 V LVTTL programmable current strength values to
add 16 mA current strength.
• Removed statements indicating that the clock tree network cannot
cross over to different I/O regions.
• Removed references to rx_syncclock port because the port does not
apply to Cyclone V devices.
• Added Bank 1A to the I/O banks location figure for Cyclone V E
devices because it is now available for the Cyclone V E A2 and A4
devices.
• Added the M383 and M484 packages to the modular I/O banks tables
for Cyclone V E devices, and added the U484 package for the Cyclone
V E A9 device.
• Added the U324, M301, M383, and M484 to the modular I/O banks
tables for the Cyclone V GX devices, and added the U484 package for
the Cyclone V GX C9 device.
• Added the M301, M383, and M484 to the modular I/O banks tables
for the Cyclone V GT devices, and added the U484 package for the
Cyclone V GT D9 device.
• Added notes to clarify the HPS row and column I/O counts in the
modular I/O banks tables for the Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices.
• Changed the color of the transceiver blocks in the high-speed
differential I/O location diagrams for clarity.
• Repaired the diagram for the example of calibrating multiple I/O
banks with a shared OCT calibration block for readability.
• Added a topic about emulated LVDS buffers.
• Edited the topic about true LVDS buffers.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
• Updated the tables listing the number of LVDS channels for the
Cyclone V devices:
• Removed the F256 package from Cyclone V GX C3 device.
• Removed the F324 package from the Cyclone V GX C4 and C5,
and Cyclone V GT D5 devices.
• Changed the F324 package of the Cyclone V GX C3 device to
U324.
• Separated the Cyclone V GX C4 and C5 devices to different rows.
• Removed the F672 package from Cyclone V E A5.
• Added the M301 package to the Cyclone V GX C5 and Cyclone V
GT D5 devices.
• Added the M383 package to the Cyclone V E A2, A4 and A4,
Cyclone V GX C5, and Cyclone V GT D5 devices.
• Added the M484 package to the Cyclone V E A7, Cyclone V GX
C7, and Cyclone V GT D7 devices.
• Added the U484 package to the Cyclone V E A9, Cyclone V GX
C9, and Cyclone V GT D9 devices.
• Added the F484 package to the Cyclone V GX C9 and Cyclone V
GT D9 devices.
• Updated the data realignment timing figure to improve clarity.
• Updated the receiver data realignment rollover figure to improve
clarity.
December 2012
Altera Corporation
2012.12.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Added the I/O resources per package and I/O vertical migration
sections for easy reference.
• Added the steps to verify pin migration compatibility using the
Quartus II software.
• Updated the I/O standards support table with HPS I/O information.
• Added topic about the reference clock pin restriction for LVDS
application.
• Updated the pin placement guideline for using LVDS differential
channels.
• Added guideline about using the external PLL mode.
• Rearranged the I/O banks groups tables for easier reference.
• Removed statements that imply that VREF pins can be used as normal
I/Os.
• Updated the 3.3 V LVTTL programmable current strength values.
• Restructured the information in the topic about I/O buffers and
registers to improve clarity and for faster reference.
• Added HPS information to the topic on programmable IOE features.
• Rearranged the tables about on-chip I/O termination for clarity and
topic-based reference.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
5-87
Changes
• Updated the high-speed differential I/O locations diagram for
Cyclone V GX, SX, and ST devices.
• Removed statements about LVDS SERDES being available on top and
bottom banks only.
• Removed the topic about LVDS direct loopback mode.
• Updated the true LVDS buffers count for Cyclone V E, GX, and GT
devices.
• Added the RSKM equation, description, and high-speed timing
diagram.
June 2012
2.0
Updated for the Quartus II software v12.0 release:
• Restructured chapter.
• Added “Design Considerations”, “VCCIO Restriction”, “LVDS
Channels”, “Modular I/O Banks”, and “OCT Calibration Block”
sections.
• Added Figure 5–3, Figure 5–4, Figure 5–5, Figure 5–6, and Figure 5–
27.
• Updated Table 5–1, Table 5–8, and Table 5–10.
• Updated Figure 5–22 with emulated LVDS with external single
resistor.
February 2012
1.2
• Updated Table 5–1, Table 5–2, Table 5–8, and Table 5–10.
• Updated “I/O Banks” on page 5–8.
• Minor text edits.
November 2011
1.1
• Updated Table 5–2.
• Updated Figure 5–3, Figure 5–4.
• Updated “Sharing an OCT Calibration Block on Multiple I/O Banks”,
“High-Speed Differential I/O Interfaces”, and “Fractional PLLs and
Cyclone V Clocking” sections.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
I/O Features in Cyclone V Devices
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The Cyclone V devices provide an efficient architecture that allows you to fit wide external memory
interfaces to support a high level of system bandwidth within the small modular I/O bank structure. The
I/Os are designed to provide high-performance support for existing and emerging external memory
standards.
Table 6-1: Supported External Memory Standards in Cyclone V Devices
Memory Standard
Hard Memory Controller
Soft Memory Controller
DDR3 SDRAM
Full rate
Half rate
DDR2 SDRAM
Full rate
Half rate
LPDDR2 SDRAM
Full rate
Half rate
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
• External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
For the latest information and to estimate the external memory system performance specification, use
Altera's External Memory Interface Spec Estimator tool.
• External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides more information about the memory types supported, board design guidelines, timing
analysis, simulation, and debugging information.
External Memory Performance
Table 6-2: External Memory Interface Performance in Cyclone V Devices
The maximum and minimum operating frequencies depend on the memory interface standards and the
supported delay-locked loop (DLL) frequency listed in the device datasheet.
Interface
DDR3 SDRAM
Maximum Frequency (MHz)
Voltage
(V)
Hard Controller
Soft Controller
1.5
400
303
303
1.35
400
303
303
Minimum Frequency (MHz)
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
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HPS External Memory Performance
Maximum Frequency (MHz)
Voltage
(V)
Hard Controller
Soft Controller
DDR2 SDRAM
1.8
400
300
167
LPDDR2 SDRAM
1.2
333
300
167
Interface
Minimum Frequency (MHz)
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
• External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
For the latest information and to estimate the external memory system performance specification, use
Altera's External Memory Interface Spec Estimator tool.
HPS External Memory Performance
Table 6-3: HPS External Memory Interface Performance
The hard processor system (HPS) is available in Cyclone V SoC devices only.
Interface
Voltage (V)
HPS Hard Controller (MHz)
1.5
400
1.35
400
DDR2 SDRAM
1.8
400
LPDDR2 SDRAM
1.2
333
DDR3 SDRAM
Related Information
External Memory Interface Spec Estimator
For the latest information and to estimate the external memory system performance specification, use
Altera's External Memory Interface Spec Estimator tool.
Memory Interface Pin Support in Cyclone V Devices
In the Cyclone V devices, the memory interface circuitry is available in every I/O bank that does not
support transceivers. The devices offer differential input buffers for differential read-data strobe and clock
operations.
The memory clock pins are generated with double data rate input/output (DDRIO) registers.
Related Information
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides more information about which pins to use for memory clock pins and pin location
requirements.
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Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins
6-3
Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins
The following list provides guidelines on using the DQ/DQS pins:
• The devices support DQ and DQS signals with DQ bus modes of x8 or x16. Cyclone V devices do not
support the x4 bus mode.
• You can use the DQSn pins that are not used for clocking as DQ pins.
• If you do not use the DQ/DQS pins for memory interfacing, you can use these pins as user I/Os.
However, unused HPS DQ/DQS pins on the Cyclone V SE, SX and ST devices cannot be used as user
I/Os.
• Some specific DQ pins can also be used as RZQ pins. If you need extra RZQ pins, you can use these the
DQ pins as RZQ pins instead.
Note: For the x8 or x16 DQ/DQS groups whose members are used as RZQ pins, Altera recommends that
you assign the DQ and DQS pins manually. Otherwise, the Quartus Prime software might not be
able to place the DQ and DQS pins, resulting in a “no-fit” error.
Reading the Pin Table
For the maximum number of DQ pins and the exact number per group for a particular Cyclone V device,
refer to the relevant device pin table.
In the pin tables, the DQS and DQSn pins denote the differential data strobe/clock pin pairs. The DQS
and DQSn pins are listed respectively in the Cyclone V pin tables as DQSXY and DQSnXY. X indicates the
DQ/DQS grouping number and Y indicates whether the group is located on the top (T), bottom (B), left
(L), or right (R) side of the device.
Note: The F484 package of the Cyclone V E A9, GX C9, and GT D9 devices can only support a 24 bit
hard memory controller on the top side using the T_DQ_0 to T_DQ_23 pin assignments. Even
though the F484 package pin tables of these devices list T_DQ_32 to T_DQ_39 in the "HMC Pin
Assignment" columns, you cannot use these pin assignments for the hard memory controller.
Related Information
•
•
•
•
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V E on page 6-39
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GX on page 6-40
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GT on page 6-41
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Cyclone V Devices
The following table lists the pin support per DQ/DQS bus mode, including the DQS and DQSn pin pairs.
The maximum number of data pins per group listed in the table may vary according to the following
conditions:
• Single-ended DQS signaling—the maximum number of DQ pins includes data mask connected to the
DQS bus network.
• Differential or complementary DQS signaling—the maximum number of data pins per group
decreases by one.
• DDR3 and DDR2 interfaces—each x8 group of pins require one DQS pin. You may also require one
DQSn pin and one DM pin. This further reduces the total number of data pins available.
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V E
Table 6-4: DQ/DQS Bus Mode Pins for Cyclone V Devices
Data Mask
DQSn Support
(Optional)
Maximum Data Pins per Group
x8
Yes
Yes
11
x16
Yes
Yes
23
Mode
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V E
Table 6-5: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V E Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
Package
256-pin FineLine BGA
324-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A2
A4
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
x8
x16
Top
2
0
Left
1
0
Right
2
0
Bottom
3
0
Top
3
0
Left
2
0
Right
2
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
4
0
Left
2
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
5
1
Left
1
0
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Left
1
0
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V E
Member Code
Package
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
A5
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
x8
x16
Top
4
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
5
1
Right
3
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
4
1
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GX
Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
A9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GX
Table 6-6: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V GX Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
Package
324-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C3
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
Altera Corporation
Side
x8
x16
Top
3
0
Right
2
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
5
1
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
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Member Code
Package
301-pin Micro FineLine BGA
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
C4
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C5
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
x8
x16
Left
1
0
Bottom
2
0
Top
4
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
5
1
Right
3
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
4
1
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GX
Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
C9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
Top
12
4
Right
11
4
Bottom
12
4
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GT
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V GT
Table 6-7: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V GT Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
Package
301-pin Micro FineLine BGA
383-pin Micro FineLine BGA
D5
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
484-pin Micro FineLine BGA
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
D7
484-pin FineLine BGA
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
x8
x16
Left
1
0
Bottom
2
0
Top
4
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
4
0
Top
5
1
Right
3
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
4
1
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SE
Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
484-pin FineLine BGA
D9
672-pin FineLine BGA
896-pin FineLine BGA
1152-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Top
5
1
Right
4
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
5
1
Right
2
0
Bottom
6
1
Top
7
2
Right
6
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
10
3
Right
10
3
Bottom
10
3
Top
12
4
Right
11
4
Bottom
12
4
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SE
Table 6-8: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V SE Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
A2
A4
Altera Corporation
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Right
1
0
Bottom
2
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
8
2
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DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SX
Member Code
Package
484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A5
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
A6
896-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Right
1
0
Bottom
2
0
Right
1
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
5
2
Right
3
0
Bottom
10
3
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V SX
Table 6-9: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V SX Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
C2
C4
Package
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
672-pin Ultra FineLine BGA
C5
C6
896-pin FineLine BGA
Side
x8
x16
Right
1
0
Bottom
8
2
Right
1
0
Bottom
8
2
Top
5
2
Right
3
0
Bottom
10
3
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
DQ/DQS Groups in Cyclone V ST
Table 6-10: Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V ST Devices
This table lists the DQ/DQS groups for the soft memory controller. For the hard memory controller, you can get
the DQ/DQS groups from the pin table of the specific device.
Member Code
D5
D6
Package
896-pin FineLine BGA
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone V Devices
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Side
x8
x16
Top
5
2
Right
3
0
Bottom
10
3
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External Memory Interface Features in Cyclone V Devices
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
External Memory Interface Features in Cyclone V Devices
The Cyclone V I/O elements (IOE) provide built-in functionality required for a rapid and robust
implementation of external memory interfacing.
The following device features are available for external memory interfaces:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DQS phase-shift circuitry
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) networks
DQS logic block
Dynamic on-chip termination (OCT) control
IOE registers
Delay chains
Hard memory controllers
UniPHY IP
The high-performance memory interface solution includes the self-calibrating UniPHY IP that is
optimized to take advantage of the Cyclone V I/O structure and the Quartus Prime software TimeQuest
Timing Analyzer. The UniPHY IP helps set up the physical interface (PHY) best suited for your system.
This provides the total solution for the highest reliable frequency of operation across process, voltage, and
temperature (PVT) variations.
The UniPHY IP instantiates a PLL to generate related clocks for the memory interface. The UniPHY IP
can also dynamically choose the number of delay chains that are required for the system. The amount of
delay is equal to the sum of the intrinsic delay of the delay element and the product of the number of delay
steps and the value of the delay steps.
The UniPHY IP and the Altera memory controller IP core can run at half the I/O interface frequency of
the memory devices, allowing better timing management in high-speed memory interfaces. The Cyclone
V devices contain built-in circuitry in the IOE to convert data from full rate (the I/O frequency) to half
rate (the controller frequency) and vice versa.
Related Information
Functional Description - UniPHY, External Memory Interface Handbook Volume 3
Provide more information about the UniPHY IP
External Memory Interface Datapath
The following figure shows an overview of the memory interface datapath that uses the Cyclone V I/O
elements. In the figure, the DQ/DQS read and write signals may be bidirectional or unidirectional,
depending on the memory standard. If the signal is bidirectional, it is active during read and write
operations. You can bypass each register block.
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DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
6-13
Figure 6-1: External Memory Interface Datapath Overview for Cyclone V Devices
FPGA
Memory
DQS Postamble
Circuitry
DQS Enable
Control
Circuit
Postamble Enable
Postamble Clock
DQS
Enable
Circuit
DQS Delay
Chain
DLL
4n or 2n
2n
DDR Input
Registers
Read FIFO
4n
Clock
Management
and Reset
Full-Rate Clock
DQ Write Clock
Half-Rate Clock
DQS Write Clock
DQS (Read)
4
Half Data
Rate
Output
Registers
2n
Half Data
Rate
Output
Registers
2
DDR Output
and Output
Enable
Registers
DDR Output
and Output
Enable
Registers
n
n
DQ (Read)
DQ (Write)
DQS (Write)
Note: There are slight block differences for different memory interface standards. The shaded blocks are part of the I/O elements.
DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
The Cyclone V DLL provides phase shift to the DQS pins on read transactions if the DQS pins are acting
as input clocks or strobes to the FPGA.
The following figures show how the DLLs are connected to the DQS pins in the various Cyclone V
variants. The reference clock for each DLL may come from adjacent PLLs.
Note: The following figures show all possible connections for each device. For available pins and
connections in each device package, refer to the device pin-out files.
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DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
Figure 6-2: DQS Pins and DLLs in Cyclone V E (A2 and A4) Devices
DQS
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS Logic
Blocks
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
Δt
Δt
Δt
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS Logic
Blocks
DQS
Pin
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
Altera Corporation
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
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Figure 6-3: DQS Pins and DLLs in Cyclone V GX (C3) Devices
DQS
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
Δt
Δt
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
Transceiver Blocks
DLL
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
to IOE
Δt
Δt
Δt
Δt
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
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Pin
DQS
Pin
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DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
Figure 6-4: DQS Pins and DLLs in Cyclone V E (A5, A7, and A9), GX (C4, C5, C7, and C9), GT (D5, D7, and
D9) Devices
DQS
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
Δt
Δt
Δt
Δt
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
to
IOE
Transceiver Blocks
DLL
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
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to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to
IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
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Figure 6-5: DQS Pins and DLLs in Cyclone V SE (A2, A4, A5, and A6) Devices
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
Δt
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
DLL
HPS I/O
DQS Logic
Blocks
HPS
PLL
to IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
Δt
DQS
Pin
Δt
DQS
Pin
HPS Block
to
IOE
to
IOE
DQS Logic
Blocks
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
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DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
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Delay-Locked Loop
Figure 6-6: DQS Pins and DLLs in Cyclone V SX (C2, C4, C5, and C6) and ST (D5 and D6) Devices
DLL
Reference
Clock
DLL
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
Δt
Δt
to IOE
to IOE
DLL
HPS I/O
DQS Logic
Blocks
HPS
PLL
to IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
to IOE
Δt
DQS
Pin
Δt
DQS
Pin
Δt
DQS
Pin
Transceiver Blocks
HPS Block
to
IOE
to
IOE
DQS Logic
Blocks
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DQS Logic
Blocks
to
IOE
to
IOE
Δt
Δt
DQS
Pin
DQS
Pin
DLL
DLL
Reference
Clock
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Pin-Out Files
Download the relevant pin tables from this web page.
Delay-Locked Loop
The delay-locked loop (DLL) uses a frequency reference to dynamically generate control signals for the
delay chains in each of the DQS pins, allowing the delay to compensate for process, voltage, and tempera‐
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ture (PVT) variations. The DQS delay settings are gray-coded to reduce jitter if the DLL updates the
settings.
There are a maximum of four DLLs, located in each corner of the Cyclone V devices. You can clock each
DLL using different frequencies.
The DLLs can access the two adjacent sides from its location in the device. You can have two different
interfaces with the same frequency on the two sides adjacent to a DLL, where the DLL controls the DQS
delay settings for both interfaces.
I/O banks between two DLLs have the flexibility to create multiple frequencies and multiple-type
interfaces. These banks can use settings from either or both adjacent DLLs. For example, DQS1R can get its
phase-shift settings from DLL_TR, while DQS2R can get its phase-shift settings from DLL_BR.
The reference clock for each DLL may come from the PLL output clocks or clock input pins.
Note: If you have a dedicated PLL that only generates the DLL input reference clock, set the PLL mode to
Direct Compensation to achieve better performance (or the Quartus Prime software automatically
changes it). Because the PLL does not use any other outputs, it does not have to compensate for any
clock paths.
DLL Reference Clock Input for Cyclone V Devices
Table 6-11: DLL Reference Clock Input from PLLs for Cyclone V E (A2, A4, A5, A7, and A9), GX (C4, C5, C7,
and C9), and GT (D5, D7, and D9) Devices
DLL
PLL
Top Left
Top Right
Bottom Left
Bottom Right
DLL_TL
pllout
—
—
—
DLL_TR
—
pllout
—
—
DLL_BL
—
—
pllout
—
DLL_BR
—
—
—
pllout
Table 6-12: DLL Reference Clock Input from PLLs for Cyclone V GX (C3) Device
DLL
PLL
Top Left
Top Right
Bottom Left
Bottom Right
DLL_TL
pllout
—
—
—
DLL_TR
—
pllout
—
—
DLL_BL
—
—
—
—
DLL_BR
—
—
—
pllout
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DLL Phase-Shift
Table 6-13: DLL Reference Clock Input from PLLs for Cyclone V SE A2, A4, A5, and A6 Devices, Cyclone V SX
C2, C4, C5, and C6 Devices, and Cyclone V ST D5 and D6 Devices
DLL
PLL
Top Left
Top Right
Bottom Left
Bottom Right
DLL_TL
pllout
—
—
—
DLL_TR
—
—
—
—
DLL_BL
—
—
pllout
—
DLL_BR
—
—
—
pllout
DLL Phase-Shift
The DLL can shift the incoming DQS signals by 0° or 90°. The shifted DQS signal is then used as the clock
for the DQ IOE input registers, depending on the number of DQS delay chains used.
All DQS pins referenced to the same DLL, can have their input signal phase shifted by a different degree
amount but all must be referenced at one particular frequency. However, not all phase-shift combinations
are supported. The phase shifts on the DQS pins referenced by the same DLL must all be a multiple of 90°.
The 7-bit DQS delay settings from the DLL vary with PVT to implement the phase-shift delay. For
example, with a 0° shift, the DQS signal bypasses both the DLL and DQS logic blocks. The Quartus Prime
software automatically sets the DQ input delay chains, so that the skew between the DQ and DQS pins at
the DQ IOE registers is negligible if a 0° shift is implemented. You can feed the DQS delay settings to the
DQS logic block and logic array.
The shifted DQS signal goes to the DQS bus to clock the IOE input registers of the DQ pins. The signal
can also go into the logic array for resynchronization if you are not using IOE read FIFO for resynchroni‐
zation.
For Cyclone V SoC devices, you can feed the hard processor system (HPS) DQS delay settings to the HPS
DQS logic block only.
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Figure 6-7: Simplified Diagram of the DQS Phase-Shift Circuitry
This figure shows a simple block diagram of the DLL. All features of the DQS phase-shift circuitry are
accessible from the UniPHY IP core in the Quartus Prime software.
DLL
aload
Input Reference
Clock
upndnin
clk
Phase
Comparator
This clock can
come from a PLL
output clock or an
input clock pin
upndninclkena
DQS delay settings
can go to the logic
array and DQS logic
block
Up/Down
Counter
7
delayctrlout [6:0]
7
Delay Chains
7
DQS Delay
Settings
dqsupdate
The input reference clock goes into the DLL to a chain of up to eight delay elements. The phase
comparator compares the signal coming out of the end of the delay chain block to the input reference
clock. The phase comparator then issues the upndn signal to the Gray-code counter. This signal
increments or decrements a 7-bit delay setting (DQS delay settings) that increases or decreases the delay
through the delay element chain to bring the input reference clock and the signals coming out of the delay
element chain in phase.
The DLL can be reset from either the logic array or a user I/O pin. Each time the DLL is reset, you must
wait for 2,560 clock cycles for the DLL to lock before you can capture the data properly. The DLL phase
comparator requires 2,560 clock cycles to lock and calculate the correct input clock period.
For the frequency range of each DLL frequency mode, refer to the device datasheet.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks
The PHYCLK network is a dedicated high-speed, low-skew balanced clock tree designed for a highperformance external memory interface.
The top and bottom sides of the Cyclone V devices have up to four PHYCLK networks each. There are up
to two PHYCLK networks on the left and right side I/O banks. Each PHYCLK network spans across one
I/O bank and is driven by one of the PLLs located adjacent to the I/O bank.
The following figures show the PHYCLK networks available in the Cyclone V devices.
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PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks
Figure 6-8: PHYCLK Networks in Cyclone V E A2 and A4 Devices
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
PHYCLK Networks
FPGA Device
PHYCLK Networks
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
I/O Bank 6
Right
PLL
PHYCLK Networks
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 2
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 1
Left
PLL
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I/O Bank 7
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 5
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
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Figure 6-9: PHYCLK Networks in Cyclone V GX C3 Devices
I/O Bank 7
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
FPGA Device
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
Transceiver Banks
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
PHYCLK Networks
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
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I/O Bank 6
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 5
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
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PHY Clock (PHYCLK) Networks
Figure 6-10: PHYCLK Networks in Cyclone V E A7, A5, and A9 Devices, Cyclone V GX C4, C5, C7, and C9
Devices, and Cyclone V GT D5, D7, and D9 Devices
I/O Bank 7
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
FPGA Device
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
Transceiver Banks
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
PHYCLK Networks
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
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I/O Bank 6
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 5
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
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Figure 6-11: PHYCLK Networks in Cyclone V SE A2, A4, A5, and A6 Devices
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Left
PLL
I/O Bank 7
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
HPS I/O
HPS Block
HPS PHYCLK Networks
HPS
PLL
PHYCLK Networks
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
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Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 5
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
FPGA Device
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
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DQS Logic Block
Figure 6-12: PHYCLK Networks in Cyclone V SX C2, C4, C5, and C6 Devices, and Cyclone V ST D5 and D6
Devices
I/O Bank 8
Sub-Bank
Left
PLL
I/O Bank 7
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
Transceiver Banks
HPS I/O
HPS Block
HPS PHYCLK Networks
HPS
PLL
PHYCLK Networks
Left
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 3
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 5
Sub-Bank
PHYCLK Networks
FPGA Device
Right
PLL
Sub-Bank
Sub-Bank
I/O Bank 4
DQS Logic Block
Each DQS/CQ/CQn/QK# pin is connected to a separate DQS logic block, which consists of the update
enable circuitry, DQS delay chains, and DQS postamble circuitry.
The following figure shows the DQS logic block.
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Figure 6-13: DQS Logic Block in Cyclone V Devices
DQS Pin
DQS Enable
dqsin
D
The dqsenable
signal can also
come from the
FPGA fabric
dqsdisablen
D
Q
D
zerophaseclk
(Postamble clock)
Q
Q
dqsenableout
0
1
2
<delay dqs enable>
enaphasetransferreg
levelingclk
(Read-leveled postamble clock)
DQS del ay settings from the DLL
Q
D
dqsbusout
0
<dqs delay chain bypass>
Core Logic
D
0
1
Bypass
dqsin
dqsenable
dqsenablein
1
PRE
DQS Enable Control Circuit
Postamble
Enable
Q
DQS Del ay Chain
Applicable only if the DQS
delay settings come from a
side with two DLLs
DQS del ay settings from the DLL
DQS Postamble Circuitry
7
delayctrlin [6:0]
7
7
delayctrlin [6:0]
1
0
7
7
0
1
2
7
7
7
D Q
This clock can come from a PLL
output clock or an input clock pin
dqsupdateen
Input Reference
Clock
Update
Enable
Circuitry
Update Enable Circuitry
The update enable circuitry enables the registers to allow enough time for the DQS delay settings to travel
from the DQS phase-shift circuitry or core logic to all the DQS logic blocks before the next change.
Both the DQS delay settings and the phase-offset settings pass through a register before going into the
DQS delay chains. The registers are controlled by the update enable circuitry to allow enough time for any
changes in the DQS delay setting bits to arrive at all the delay elements, which allows them to be adjusted
at the same time.
The circuitry uses the input reference clock or a user clock from the core to generate the update enable
output. The UniPHY intellectual property (IP) uses this circuit by default.
Figure 6-14: DQS Update Enable Waveform
This figure shows an example waveform of the update enable circuitry output.
DLL Counter Update
(Every 8 cycles)
DLL Counter Update
(Every 8 cycles)
System Clock
DQS Delay Settings
Updated every 8 cycles
7 bit
Update Enable
Circuitry Output
DQS Delay Chain
DQS delay chains consist of a set of variable delay elements to allow the input DQS signals to be shifted by
the amount specified by the DQS phase-shift circuitry or the logic array.
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DQS Postamble Circuitry
There are two delay elements in the DQS delay chain that have the same characteristics:
• Delay elements in the DQS logic block
• Delay elements in the DLL
The DQS pin is shifted by the DQS delay settings.
The number of delay chains required is transparent because the UniPHY IP automatically sets it when
you choose the operating frequency.
In the Cyclone V SE, SX, and ST devices, the DQS delay chain is controlled by the DQS phase-shift
circuitry only.
Related Information
• ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about programming the delay chains.
• Delay Chains on page 6-31
DQS Postamble Circuitry
There are preamble and postamble specifications for both read and write operations in DDR3 and DDR2
SDRAM. The DQS postamble circuitry ensures that data is not lost if there is noise on the DQS line
during the end of a read operation that occurs while DQS is in a postamble state.
The Cyclone V devices contain dedicated postamble registers that you can control to ground the shifted
DQS signal that is used to clock the DQ input registers at the end of a read operation. This function
ensures that any glitches on the DQS input signal during the end of a read operation and occurring while
DQS is in a postamble state do not affect the DQ IOE registers.
• For preamble state, the DQS is low, just after a high-impedance state.
• For postamble state, the DQS is low, just before it returns to a high-impedance state.
For external memory interfaces that use a bidirectional read strobe (DDR3 and DDR2 SDRAM), the DQS
signal is low before going to or coming from a high-impedance state.
Half Data Rate Block
The Cyclone V devices contain a half data rate (HDR) block in the postamble enable circuitry.
The HDR block is clocked by the half-rate resynchronization clock, which is the output of the I/O clock
divider circuit. There is an AND gate after the postamble register outputs to avoid postamble glitches
from a previous read burst on a non-consecutive read burst. This scheme allows half-a-clock cycle latency
for dqsenable assertion and zero latency for dqsenable deassertion.
Using the HDR block as the first stage capture register in the postamble enable circuitry block is optional.
Altera recommends using these registers if the controller is running at half the frequency of the I/Os.
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Figure 6-15: Avoiding Glitch on a Non-Consecutive Read Burst Waveform
This figure shows how to avoid postamble glitches using the HDR block.
Postamble glitch
Postamble
Preamble
DQS
Postamble Enable
dqsenable
Delayed by
1/2T logic
Dynamic OCT Control
The dynamic OCT control block includes all the registers that are required to dynamically turn the onchip parallel termination (RT OCT) on during a read and turn RT OCT off during a write.
Figure 6-16: Dynamic OCT Control Block for Cyclone V Devices
OCT Control Path
OCT Control
DFF
DFF
OCT Control
Q
D
Q
D
0
1
1
0
OCT Enable
Q
D
Q
D
DFF
DFF
OCT Half-Rate Clock
Write Clock
The full-rate write clock comes from the PLL. The DQ write
clock and DQS write clock have a 90° offset between them
Related Information
Dynamic OCT in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-44
Provides more information about dynamic OCT control.
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IOE Registers
IOE Registers
The IOE registers are expanded to allow source-synchronous systems to have faster register-to-FIFO
transfers and resynchronization. All top, bottom, and right IOEs have the same capability.
Input Registers
The input path consists of the DDR input registers and the read FIFO block. You can bypass each block of
the input path.
There are three registers in the DDR input registers block. Registers A and B capture data on the positive
and negative edges of the clock while register C aligns the captured data. Register C uses the same clock as
Register A.
The read FIFO block resynchronizes the data to the system clock domain and lowers the data rate to half
rate.
The following figure shows the registers available in the Cyclone V input path. For DDR3 and DDR2
SDRAM interfaces, the DQS and DQSn signals must be inverted. If you use Altera’s memory interface IPs,
the DQS and DQSn signals are automatically inverted.
Figure 6-17: IOE Input Registers for Cyclone V Devices
Double Data Rate Input Registers
DQ
D
datain [0]
Q
The input
clock can be
from the DQS
logic block or
from a global
clock line.
DQS/CQ
D
Q
Q
DFF
Input Reg B
To core
Read FIFO
DFF
Input Reg A
D
dataout[3..0]
D
Q
datain [1]
This half-rate or
full-rate read clock
comes from a PLL
through the clock
network
DFF
Input Reg C
wrclk
rdclk
Half-rate or
full-rate clock
Output Registers
The Cyclone V output and output-enable path is divided into the HDR block, and output and outputenable registers. The device can bypass each block of the output and output-enable path.
The output path is designed to route combinatorial or registered single data rate (SDR) outputs and fullrate or half-rate DDR outputs from the FPGA core. Half-rate data is converted to full-rate with the HDR
block, clocked by the half-rate clock from the PLL.
The output-enable path has a structure similar to the output path—ensuring that the output-enable path
goes through the same delay and latency as the output path.
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Figure 6-18: IOE Output and Output-Enable Path Registers for Cyclone V Devices
The following figure shows the registers available in the Cyclone V output and output-enable paths.
Data coming from the FPGA core are at half the frequency of the
memory interface clock frequency in half-rate mode
From Core
Double Data Rate
Output-Enable Registers
Half Data Rate to Single
Data Rate Output-Enable
Registers
Q
D
DFF
Q
D
0
1
DFF
OE Reg A OE
From Core
Q
D
OR2
Q
D
DFF
1
0
DFF
OE Reg B OE
Half Data Rate to Single
Data Rate Output Registers
From Core
(wdata2)
Q
D
DFF
From Core
(wdata0)
Double Data Rate
Output Registers
DFF
0
1
TRI
DQ or DQS
OE Reg A O
Q
D
Q
D
0
1
DFF
From Core
(wdata3)
Q
D
DFF
From Core
(wdata1)
0
1
DFF
OE Reg B O
Q
D
Q
D
DFF
Half-Rate Clock
from PLL
Write Clock
The full-rate write clock can come from the PLL. The DQ
write clock have a 90° offset to the DQS write clock.
Delay Chains
The Cyclone V devices contain run-time adjustable delay chains in the I/O blocks and the DQS logic
blocks. You can control the delay chain setting through the I/O or the DQS configuration block output.
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Delay Chains
Every I/O block contains a delay chain between the following elements:
•
•
•
•
The output registers and output buffer
The input buffer and input register
The output enable and output buffer
The R T OCT enable-control register and output buffer
You can bypass the DQS delay chain to achieve a 0° phase shift.
Figure 6-19: Delay Chains in an I/O Block
DQ or DQS
OCT Enable
Output Enable
D5 OCT
delay
chain
D5
output-enable
delay chain
D5 Delay
delay
chain
0
1
D1 Delay
delay chain
Each DQS logic block contains a delay chain after the dqsbusout output and another delay chain before
the dqsenable input.
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Figure 6-20: Delay Chains in the DQS Input Path
DQS
Enable
dqsin
DQS
DQS delay
chain
D4
delay
chain
dqsenable
dqsbusout
T11
delay
chain
DQS
Enable
Control
Related Information
• ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Cores User Guide
Provides more information about programming the delay chains.
• DQS Delay Chain on page 6-27
I/O and DQS Configuration Blocks
The I/O and DQS configuration blocks are shift registers that you can use to dynamically change the
settings of various device configuration bits.
• The shift registers power-up low.
• Every I/O pin contains one I/O configuration register.
• Every DQS pin contains one DQS configuration block in addition to the I/O configuration register.
Figure 6-21: Configuration Block (I/O and DQS)
This figure shows the I/O configuration block and the DQS configuration block circuitry.
MSB
datain
update
ena
rankselectread
rankselectwrite
bit2
bit1
bit0
dataout
clk
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Hard Memory Controller
Related Information
ALTDQ_DQS2 IP Core User Guide
Provide details about the I/O and DQS configuration block bit sequence.
Hard Memory Controller
The Cyclone V devices feature dedicated hard memory controllers. You can use the hard memory
controllers for LPDDR2, DDR2, and DDR3 SDRAM interfaces. Compared to the memory controllers
implemented using core logic, the hard memory controllers allow support for higher memory interface
frequencies with shorter latency cycles.
The hard memory controllers use dedicated I/O pins as data, address, command, control, clock, and
ground pins for the SDRAM interface. If you do not use the hard memory controllers, you can use these
dedicated pins as regular I/O pins.
Related Information
• Functional Description - HPC II Controller Chapter, External
The hard memory controller is functionally similar to the High-Performance Controller II (HPC II).
• Functional Description - Hard Memory Interface chapter, External Memory Interface Handbook
Provides detailed information about application of the hard memory interface.
Features of the Hard Memory Controller
Table 6-14: Features of the Cyclone V Hard Memory Controller
Feature
Description
Memory Interface
Data Width
• 8, 16, and 32 bit data
• 16 bit data + 8 bit ECC
• 32 bit data + 8bit ECC
Memory Density
The controller supports up to four gigabits density parts and two chip selects.
Memory Burst
Length
• DDR3—Burst length of 8 and burst chop of 4
• DDR2—Burst lengths of 4 and 8
• LPDDR2—Burst lengths of 2, 4, 8, and 16
Command and Data
Reordering
The controller increases efficiency through the support for out-of-order execution
of DRAM commands—with address collision detection-and in-order return of
results.
Starvation Control
A starvation counter ensures that all requests are served after a predefined timeout period. This function ensures that data with low priority access are not left
behind when reordering data for efficiency.
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Features of the Hard Memory Controller
Feature
User-Configurable
Priority Support
6-35
Description
When the controller detects a high priority request, it allows the request to bypass
the current queuing request. This request is processed immediately and thus
reduces latency.
Avalon®-MM Data
By default, the controller supports the Avalon Memory-Mapped protocol.
Slave Local Interface
Bank Management
By default, the controller provides closed-page bank management on every access.
The controller intelligently keeps a row open based on incoming traffic. This
feature improves the efficiency of the controller especially for random traffic.
Streaming Reads and The controller can issue reads or writes continuously to sequential addresses every
Writes
clock cycle if the bank is open. This function allows for very high efficiencies with
large amounts of data.
Bank Interleaving
The controller can issue reads or writes continuously to 'random' addresses.
Predictive Bank
Management
The controller can issue bank management commands early so that the correct
row is open when the read or write occurs. This increases efficiency.
Multiport Interface
The interface allows you to connect up to six data masters to access the memory
controller through the local interface. You can update the multiport scheduling
configuration without interrupting traffic on a port.
Built-in Burst
Adaptor
The controller can accept bursts of arbitrary sizes on its local interface and map
these bursts to efficient memory commands.
Run-time Configura‐ This feature provides support for updates to the timing parameters without
tion of the Controller requiring reconfiguration of the FPGA, apart from the standard compile-time
setting of the timing parameters.
On-Die Termination The controller controls the on-die termination (ODT) in the memory, which
improves signal integrity and simplifies your board design.
User-Controlled
Refresh Timing
You can optionally control when refreshes occur—allowing the refreshes to avoid
clashing of important reads or writes with the refresh lock-out time.
Low Power Modes
You can optionally request the controller to put the memory into the self-refresh
or deep power-down modes.
Partial Array SelfRefresh
You can select the region of memory to refresh during self-refresh through the
mode register to save power.
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Multi-Port Front End
Feature
ECC
Description
Standard Hamming single error correction, double error detection (SECDED)
error correction code (ECC) support:
• 32 bit data + 8 bit ECC
• 16 bit data + 8 bit ECC
Additive Latency
With additive latency, the controller can issue a READ/WRITE command after the
ACTIVATE command to the bank prior to t RCD to increase the command
efficiency.
Write Acknowledg‐
ment
The controller supports write acknowledgment on the local interface.
User Control of
Memory Controller
Initialization
The controller supports initialization of the memory controller under the control
of user logic—for example, through the software control in the user system if a
processor is present.
Controller Bonding
Support
You can bond two controllers to achieve wider data width for higher bandwidth
applications.
Multi-Port Front End
The multi-port front end (MPFE) and its associated fabric interface provide up to six command ports,
four read-data ports and four write-data ports, through which user logic can access the hard memory
controller.
Figure 6-22: Simplified Diagram of the Cyclone V Hard Memory Interface
This figure shows a simplified diagram of the Cyclone V hard memory interface with the MPFE.
FPGA
FPGA
Core Logic
Avalon-MM Interface
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MPFE
Memory
Controller
PHY
Memory
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Numbers of MPFE Ports Per Device
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Numbers of MPFE Ports Per Device
Table 6-15: Numbers of MPFE Command, Write-Data, and Read-Data Ports for Each Cyclone V Device
Variant
Cyclone V E
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Member Code
MPFE Ports
Command
Write-data
Read-data
A2
4
2
2
A4
4
2
2
A5
6
4
4
A7
6
4
4
A9
6
4
4
C3
4
2
2
C4
6
4
4
C5
6
4
4
C7
6
4
4
C9
6
4
4
D5
6
4
4
D7
6
4
4
D9
6
4
4
Bonding Support
Note: Bonding is supported only for hard memory controllers configured with one port. Do not use the
bonding configuration when there is more than one port in each hard memory controller.
You can bond two hard memory controllers to support wider data widths.
If you bond two hard memory controllers, the data going out of the controllers to the user logic is
synchronized. However, the data going out of the controllers to the memory is not synchronized.
The bonding controllers are not synchronized and remain independent with two separate address buses
and two independent command buses. These buses are calibrated separately.
If you require ECC support for a bonded interface, you must implement the ECC logic external to the
hard memory controllers.
Note: A memory interface that uses the bonding feature has higher average latency. Bonding through the
core fabric will also cause a higher latency.
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Bonding Support
Figure 6-23: Hard Memory Controllers Bonding Support in Cyclone V E A7, A5, and A9 Devices,
Cyclone V GX C4, C5, C7, and C9 Devices, and Cyclone V GT D5, D7, and D9 Devices
This figure shows the bonding of two opposite hard memory controllers through the core fabric.
Bank 8A
Bank 7A
Bonding
(Core Routing)
Hard Memory Controller
Hard Memory Controller
Bank 3A
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V E
Figure 6-24: Hard Memory Controllers in Cyclone V SX C2, C4, C5, and C6 Devices, and Cyclone V ST D5
and D6 Devices
This figure shows hard memory controllers in the SoC devices. There is no bonding support.
Bank 8A
32-bit DDR3 Interface
Bank 5
HPS Block
HPS I/O
HPS Hard Memory Controller
HPS I/O
Hard Memory Controller
Bank 3A
Bank 3B
Bank 4A
32-bit Interface
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the dedicated pins.
• Bonding Does Not Work for Multiple MPFE Ports in Hard Memory Controller KDB
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V E
Table 6-16: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V E Devices
Member Code
Package
M383
A2
A4
A7
A9
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
≤ 24
0
≤ 24
0
≤ 24
0
—
—
—
—
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GX
Member Code
Package
A2
A4
A5
A7
A9
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
M484
—
—
—
—
—
—
24
24
—
—
F256
0
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
U324
0
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
U484
24
0
24
0
24
24
24
24
—
—
F484
24
0
24
0
40
24
40
24
24
24
F672
—
—
—
—
—
—
40
40
40
40
F896
—
—
—
—
—
—
40
40
40
40
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
• Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins on page 6-3
Important information about usable pin assignments for the hard memory controller in the F484
package of this device.
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GX
Table 6-17: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V GX Devices
Member Code
Package
C3
C4
C5
C7
C9
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
M301
—
—
0
0
0
0
—
—
—
—
M383
—
—
≤ 24
0
≤ 24
0
—
—
—
—
M484
—
—
—
—
—
—
24
24
—
—
U324
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
U484
24
0
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
F484
24
0
40
24
40
24
40
24
24
24
F672
—
—
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
F896
—
—
—
—
—
—
40
40
40
40
F1152
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
40
40
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GT
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
• Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins on page 6-3
Important information about usable pin assignments for the hard memory controller in the F484
package of this device.
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V GT
Table 6-18: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V GT Devices
Member Code
Package
D5
D7
D9
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
M301
0
0
—
—
—
—
M383
≤ 24
0
—
—
—
—
M484
—
—
24
24
—
—
U484
24
24
24
24
24
24
F484
40
24
40
24
24
24
F672
40
40
40
40
40
40
F896
—
—
40
40
40
40
F1152
—
—
—
—
40
40
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
• Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins on page 6-3
Important information about usable pin assignments for the hard memory controller in the F484
package of this device.
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V SE
Table 6-19: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V SE Devices
Member Code
Package
A2
A4
A5
A6
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
U484
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U672
0
40
0
40
0
40
0
40
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V SX
Member Code
Package
F896
A2
A4
A5
A6
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
—
—
—
—
0
40
0
40
Table 6-20: HPS Hard Memory Controller Width in Cyclone V SE Devices
Member Code
Package
A2
A4
A5
A6
U484
32
32
32
32
U672
40
40
40
40
F896
—
—
40
40
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V SX
Table 6-21: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V SX Devices
Member Code
Package
C2
C4
C5
C6
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
U672
0
40
0
40
0
40
0
40
F896
—
—
—
—
0
40
0
40
Table 6-22: HPS Hard Memory Controller Width in Cyclone V SX Devices
Package
Member Code
C2
C4
C5
C6
U672
40
40
40
40
F896
—
—
40
40
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V ST
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Hard Memory Controller Width for Cyclone V ST
Table 6-23: Hard Memory Controller Width Per Side in Cyclone V ST Devices
Member Code
Package
D5
F896
D6
Top
Bottom
Top
Bottom
0
40
0
40
Table 6-24: HPS Hard Memory Controller Width in Cyclone V ST Devices
Member Code
Package
F896
D5
D6
40
40
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about which device packages and feature options contain hard memory
controllers.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
March 2015
2015.03.31
• Removed all preliminary data.
• Updated values for C4 and C5 devices with 301pin MBGA package in
Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone GX Devices table.
• Updated number of DQ/DQS groups for the right side of the C4 and
C5 devices with 672 pin FBGA package x16 device in Number of DQ/
DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V GX Devices table.
• Updated values for D5 with 301 pin Micro FineLine BGA package in
Number of DQ/DQS Groups Per Side in Cyclone V GT Devices table.
• Updated number of DQ/DQS groups for the right side of the D5
device with 672 pin FBGA package x16 device in Number of DQ/DQS
Groups Per Side in Cyclone V GT Devices table.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Added Cyclone V SE device in the Guideline: Using DQ/DQS Pins to
clarify that the DQ/DQS pins for all Cyclone V devices with SoC
cannot be used as user I/Os.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Added links to the Cyclone V Device Overview for more information
about which device feature option supports the hard memory control‐
lers.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
January 2014
2014.01.10
Changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
Added Cyclone V SE DLL reference clock input information.
Added the DQ/DQS groups table for Cyclone V SE.
Added the DQS pins and DLLs figure for Cyclone V SE.
Added the PHYCLK networks figure for Cyclone V SE.
Updated the DQ/DQS numbers for the M383 package of Cyclone V E,
GX, and GT variants.
Removed the statement about the bottom hard memory controller
restrictions in the figure that shows the Cyclone V GX C5 hard
memory controller bonding.
Added information about the hard memory controller interface
widths for the Cyclone V SE.
Added the HPS hard memory controller widths for Cyclone V SE, SX,
and ST.
Added related information link to ALTDQ_DQS2 Megafunction
User Guide for more information about using the delay chains.
Changed all "SoC FPGA" to "SoC".
Added links to Altera's External Memory Spec Estimator tool to the
topics listing the external memory interface performance.
Updated the topic about using DQ/DQS pins to specify that only some
specific DQ pins can also be used as RZQ pins.
Updated the topic about DQS delay chain to remove statements about
using delayctrlin[6..0] signals in UniPHY IP to input your own
gray-coded 7 bit settings. This mode is not recommended with the
UniPHY controllers.
Updated topic about hard memory controller bonding support to
specify that bonding is supported only for hard memory controllers
configured with one port.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
6-45
Changes
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Added the supported minimum operating frequencies for the
supported memory interface standards.
• Added packages and updated the DQ/DQS groups of Cyclone V E,
GX, GT, and SX devices.
• Added the number of MPFE command, write-data, and read-data
ports for each Cyclone V E, GX, and GT device.
• Added a note about the usable hard memory controller pin
assignments for the F484 package of the Cyclone V E A9, GX C9, and
GT D9 devices.
• Updated the M386 package to M383.
• Removed the F672 package from the Cyclone V E A5 device in the
table listing Cyclone V E hard memory controller widths.
• Added the U484 package for the Cyclone V GX C9 device in the table
listing Cyclone V GX hard memory controller widths.
• Updated the hard memory controller widths of Cyclone V E, GX, SX,
and ST.
• Removed the restrictions on using the bottom hard memory
controller of the Cyclone V GX C5 device if the configuration is
3.3/3.0 V.
• Added note to clarify that the DQS phase-shift circuitry figures show
all possible connections and the device pin-out files have per package
information.
December
2012
2012.11.28
• Reorganized content and updated template.
• Added a list of supported external memory interface standards using
the hard memory controller and soft memory controller.
• Added performance information for external memory interfaces and
the HPS external memory interfaces.
• Separated the DQ/DQS groups tables into separate topics for each
device variant for easy reference.
• Updated the DQ/DQS numbers and device packages for the
Cyclone V E, GX, GT, SX, and ST variants.
• Moved the PHYCLK networks pin placement guideline to the
Planning Pin and FPGA Resources chapter of the External Memory
Interface Handbook.
• Moved information from the "Design Considerations" section into
relevant topics.
• Removed the "DDR2 SDRAM Interface" and "DDR3 SDRAM DIMM"
sections. Refer to the relevant sections in the External Memory
Interface Handbook for the information.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
• Added the I/O and DQS configuration blocks topic.
• Updated the term "Multiport logic" to "multi-port front end" (MPFE).
• Added information about the hard memory controller interface
widths for the Cyclone V E, GX, GT, SX, and ST variants.
June 2012
2.0
Updated for the Quartus II software v12.0 release:
• Restructured chapter.
• Updated “Design Considerations”, “DQS Postamble Circuitry”, and
“IOE Registers”sections.
• Added SoC devices information.
• Added Figure 6–5, Figure 6–10, and Figure 6–21.
February 2012
1.2
• Updated Figure 6–20.
• Minor text edits.
November
2011
1.1
• Updated Table 6–2.
• Added Figure 6–2.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the configuration schemes, design security, and remote system upgrade that are
supported by the Cyclone V devices.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
• Cyclone V Device Overview
Provides more information about configuration features supported for each configuration scheme.
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the estimated uncompressed .rbf file sizes, FPP DCLK-to-DATA[]
ratio, and timing parameters.
• Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Altera FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
• Hard Processor System Technical Reference Manual
Provides more information about configuration via HPS configuration scheme.
• Design Planning for Partial Reconfiguration
Provides more information about partial reconfiguration.
Enhanced Configuration and Configuration via Protocol
Cyclone V devices support 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.0 V, and 3.3 V programming voltages and several configuration
modes.
© 2016 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
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9001:2008
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MSEL Pin Settings
Table 7-1: Configuration Modes and Features Supported by Cyclone V Devices
Mode
Data
Width
Max
Clock
Rate
(MHz)
AS through the
EPCS and EPCQ
serial configura‐
tion device
1 bit, 4
bits
100
—
PS through
CPLD or
external
microcontroller
1 bit
125
8 bits
FPP
CvP (PCIe)
JTAG
Max Data Decompres‐
Rate
sion
(Mbps)
Design
Security
Partial
Reconfigu‐
ration(20)
Remote System
Update
Yes
Yes
—
Yes
125
Yes
Yes
—
—
125
—
Yes
Yes
—
16 bits
125
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
x1, x2,
and x4
lanes
—
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
1 bit
33
33
—
—
—
—
Parallel flash loader
Instead of using an external flash or ROM, you can configure the Cyclone V devices through PCIe using
CvP. The CvP mode offers the fastest configuration rate and flexibility with the easy-to-use PCIe hard IP
block interface. The Cyclone V CvP implementation conforms to the PCIe 100 ms power-up-to-active
time requirement.
Related Information
Configuration via Protocol (CvP) Implementation in Altera FPGAs User Guide
Provides more information about the CvP configuration scheme.
MSEL Pin Settings
To select a configuration scheme, hardwire the MSEL pins to VCCPGM or GND without pull-up or
pull-down resistors.
Note: Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins directly to VCCPGM or GND. Driving the MSEL pins
from a microprocessor or another controlling device may not guarantee the VIL or VIH of the MSEL
pins. The VIL or VIH of the MSEL pins must be maintained throughout configuration stages.
(20)
The partial reconfiguration feature is available for Cyclone V E, GX, SE, and SX devices with the "SC" suffix
in the part number. For device availability and ordering, contact your local Altera sales representatives.
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Configuration Sequence
7-3
Table 7-2: MSEL Pin Settings for Each Configuration Scheme of Cyclone V Devices
Configuration Scheme
Compression
Feature
Design
Security
Feature
VCCPGM (V)
Disabled
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
Disabled
Enabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
Enabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
Disabled
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
Disabled
Enabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
Enabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
PS
Enabled/
Disabled
Enabled/
Disabled
1.8/2.5/3.0/3.3
AS (x1 and x4)
Enabled/
Disabled
Enabled/
Disabled
3.0/3.3
Disabled
Disabled
—
FPP x8
FPP x16 (21)
JTAG-based
configuration
Power-On
Reset (POR)
Delay
Valid MSEL[4..0]
Fast
10100
Standard
11000
Fast
10101
Standard
11001
Fast
10110
Standard
11010
Fast
00000
Standard
00100
Fast
00001
Standard
00101
Fast
00010
Standard
00110
Fast
10000
Standard
10001
Fast
10010
Standard
10011
—
Use any valid MSEL pin
settings above
Note: You must also select the configuration scheme in the Configuration page of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software. Based on your selection, the option bit in the
programming file is set accordingly.
Related Information
• FPGA Manager
Provides more information about the MSEL pin settings for configuration with hard processor system
(HPS) in system on a chip (SoC) FPGA devices.
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about JTAG pins voltage-level connection.
Configuration Sequence
Describes the configuration sequence and each configuration stage.
(21)
For configuration with HPS in SoC FPGA devices, refer to the FPGA Manager for the related MSEL pin
settings.
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Power Up
Figure 7-1: Configuration Sequence for Cyclone V Devices
Power Up
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
driven low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Clears configuration RAM bits
Power supplies including V
CCPD and V CCPGM reach
recommended operating voltage
Reset
• nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
remain low
• All I/Os pins are tied to an
internal weak pull-up
• Samples MSEL pins
nSTATUS and nCONFIG released high
CONF_DONE pulled low
Configuration Error Handling
• nSTATUS pulled low
• CONF_DONE remains low
• Restarts configuration if option
enabled
Configuration
Writes configuration data to
FPGA
CONF_DONE released high
Initialization
• Initializes internal logic and
registers
• Enables I/O buffers
INIT_DONE released high
(if option enabled)
User Mode
Executes your design
You can initiate reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low to at least the minimum tCFG low-pulse
width except for configuration using the partial reconfiguration operation. When this pin is pulled low,
the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are pulled low and all I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up.
Power Up
Power up all the power supplies that are monitored by the POR circuitry. All power supplies, including
VCCPGM and VCCPD, must ramp up from 0 V to the recommended operating voltage level within the
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Reset
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ramp-up time specification. Otherwise, hold the nCONFIG pin low until all the power supplies reach the
recommended voltage level.
VCCPGM Pin
The configuration input buffers do not have to share power lines with the regular I/O buffers in Cyclone
V devices.
The operating voltage for the configuration input pin is independent of the I/O banks power supply,
VCCIO, during configuration. Therefore, Cyclone V devices do not require configuration voltage
constraints on VCCIO.
VCCPD Pin
Use the VCCPD pin, a dedicated programming power supply, to power the I/O pre-drivers and JTAG I/O
pins (TCK, TMS, TDI, and TDO). The supported configuration voltages are 2.5, 3.0, and 3.3 V.
If VCCIO of the bank is set to 2.5 V or lower, VCCPD must be powered up at 2.5 V. If VCCIO is set greater
than 2.5 V, VCCPD must be greater than VCCIO. For example, when VCCIO is set to 3.0 V, VCCPD must be
set at 3.0 V or above. When VCCIO is set to 3.3 V, VCCPD must be set at 3.3 V.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the ramp-up time specifications.
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about configuration pin connections.
• Device Configuration Pins on page 7-10
Provides more information about configuration pins.
• I/O Standards Voltage Levels in Cyclone V Devices on page 5-8
Provides more information about typical power supplies for each supported I/O standards in
Cyclone V devices.
Reset
POR delay is the time frame between the time when all the power supplies monitored by the POR
circuitry reach the recommended operating voltage and when nSTATUS is released high and the Cyclone V
device is ready to begin configuration.
Set the POR delay using the MSEL pins.
The user I/O pins are tied to an internal weak pull-up until the device is configured.
Related Information
• MSEL Pin Settings on page 7-2
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the POR delay specification.
Configuration
For more information about the DATA[] pins for each configuration scheme, refer to the appropriate
configuration scheme.
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Configuration Error Handling
Configuration Error Handling
To restart configuration automatically, turn on the Auto-restart configuration after error option in the
General page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
If you do not turn on this option, you can monitor the nSTATUS pin to detect errors. To restart configura‐
tion, pull the nCONFIG pin low for at least the duration of tCFG.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about tSTATUS and tCFG timing parameters.
Initialization
The initialization clock source is from the internal oscillator, CLKUSR pin, or DCLK pin. By default, the
internal oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If you use the internal oscillator, the Cyclone V
device will be provided with enough clock cycles for proper initialization.
Note: If you use the optional CLKUSR pin as the initialization clock source and the nCONFIG pin is pulled
low to restart configuration during device initialization, ensure that the CLKUSR or DCLK pin
continues toggling until the nSTATUS pin goes low and then goes high again.
The CLKUSR pin provides you with the flexibility to synchronize initialization of multiple devices or to
delay initialization. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin during initialization does not affect configura‐
tion. After the CONF_DONE pin goes high, the CLKUSR or DCLK pin is enabled after the time specified by
tCD2CU. When this time period elapses, Cyclone V devices require a minimum number of clock cycles as
specified by Tinit to initialize properly and enter user mode as specified by the tCD2UMC parameter.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about tCD2CU, tinit, and tCD2UMC timing parameters, and initialization clock
source.
User Mode
You can enable the optional INIT_DONE pin to monitor the initialization stage. After the INIT_DONE pin is
pulled high, initialization completes and your design starts executing. The user I/O pins will then function
as specified by your design.
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Configuration Timing Waveforms
Configuration Timing Waveforms
FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 7-2: FPP Configuration Timing Waveform when DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is 1
tCFG
tCF2ST1
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
tSTATUS
tST2CK
tCH tCL
(3)
DCLK
DATA[15..0] (4)
(5)
tCLK
tDH
Word 0 Word 1 Word 2 Word 3
Word n-2 Word n-1
tDSU
User I/O
High-Z
User Mode
User Mode
INIT_DONE (6)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) For FPP x16, use DATA[15..0]. For FPP x8, use DATA[7..0]. DATA[15..5] are available as a user I/O pin after configuration. The state of this
pin depends on the dual-purpose pin settings.
(5) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high when the FPGA
receives all the configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and
enter user mode.
(6) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
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FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 7-3: FPP Configuration Timing Waveform when DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio is >1
tCFG
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
tCF2CK
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
DCLK (4)
tSTATUS
tST2CK
tCH
1
2
r
1
tCL
(6)
2
r
(5)
1
r
1
(3)
2
tCLK
DATA[15..0] (6)
tDSU
User I/O
Word 0
Word 1
tDH
tDH
Word 3
User Mode
Word (n-1)
User Mode
High-Z
INIT_DONE (7)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time as specified by the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) “r” denotes the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio. For the DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio based on the decompression and the design security feature enable settings, refer to the DCLK-to-DATA[] Ratio
table.
(5) If needed, pause DCLK by holding it low. When DCLK restarts, the external host must provide data on the DATA[15..0] pins prior to sending the first DCLK rising edge.
(6) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high after the FPGA device receives all the configuration data successfully.
After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(7) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
• FPP Configuration Timing when DCLK-to-DATA[] = 1
• FPP Configuration Timing when DCLK-to-DATA[] >1
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AS Configuration Timing
AS Configuration Timing
Figure 7-4: AS Configuration Timing Waveform
t
CF2ST1
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCSO
DCLK
t
CO
AS_DATA0/ASDO
t
DH
Read Address
t
SU
AS_DATA1 (1)
bit 0
bit 1
bit (n - 2)
bit (n - 1)
t
CD2UM
(2)
INIT_DONE (3)
User I/O
User Mode
Notes:
(1) If you are using AS x4 mode, this signal represents the AS_DATA[3..0] and EPCQ sends in 4-bits of data for each DCLK cycle.
(2) The initialization clock can be from the internal oscillator or CLKUSR pin.
(3) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
AS Configuration Timing
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PS Configuration Timing
PS Configuration Timing
Figure 7-5: PS Configuration Timing Waveform
tCFG
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
tCF2CK
nSTATUS (1)
tCF2ST0
tSTATUS
CONF_DONE (2)
tCF2CD
DCLK
tST2CK
DATA0
User I/O
(4)
t CLK
tCH tCL
(3)
tDH
Bit 0
Bit 1
tDSU
Bit 2
Bit 3
Bit (n-1)
High-Z
User Mode
INIT_DONE (5)
tCD2UM
Notes:
(1) After power up, the FPGA holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
(2) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(3) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. DCLK is ignored after configuration is complete. It can toggle high or low if required.
(4) To ensure a successful configuration, send the entire configuration data to the FPGA. CONF_DONE is released high after the FPGA receives all
the configuration data successfully. After CONF_DONE goes high, send two additional falling edges on DCLK to begin initialization and enter user mode.
(5) After the option bit to enable the INIT_DONE pin is configured into the device, the INIT_DONE goes low.
Related Information
PS Configuration Timing
Device Configuration Pins
Configuration Pins Summary
The following table lists the Cyclone V configuration pins and their power supply.
Note: The TDI, TMS, TCK, and TDO pins are powered by VCCPD of the bank in which the pin resides.
Note: The CLKUSR, DEV_OE, DEV_CLRn, and DATA[15..5] pins are powered by VCCPGM during configura‐
tion and by VCCIO of the bank in which the pin resides if you use it as a user I/O pin.
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Device Configuration Pins
7-11
Table 7-3: Configuration Pin Summary for Cyclone V Devices
Configuration Pin
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
TDI
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TMS
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TCK
JTAG
Input
—
VCCPD
TDO
JTAG
Output
—
VCCPD
All
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Optional,
all
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
FPP and
PS
Input
—
VCCPGM
AS
Output
—
VCCPGM
Optional,
all
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Optional,
all
schemes
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Optional,
all
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
All
schemes
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM/Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
All
schemes
Output
I/O
Pull-up
All
schemes
Input
—
VCCPGM
FPP x8
and x16
Input
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
CLKUSR
CRC_ERROR
CONF_DONE
DCLK
DEV_OE
DEV_CLRn
INIT_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
nCONFIG
DATA[15..5]
(22)
Configuration
Scheme
This pin is powered by VCCPGM during configuration and powered by VCCIO of the bank in which the
pin resides when you use this pin as a user I/O pin.
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I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
Configuration Pin
nCSO/DATA4
AS_DATA[3..1]/
DATA[3..1]
AS_DATA0/DATA0/ASDO
PR_REQUEST
PR_READY
PR_ERROR
PR_DONE
CvP_CONFDONE
Configuration
Scheme
Input/Output
User Mode
Powered By
AS
Output
—
VCCPGM
FPP
Input
—
VCCPGM
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
FPP
Input
—
VCCPGM
AS
Bidirectional
—
VCCPGM
FPP and
PS
Input
—
VCCPGM
Partial
Input
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Partial
Output
Reconfigur
ation
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
CvP
(PCIe)
I/O
VCCPGM/VCCIO (22)
Output
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about each configuration pin.
I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
In configuration mode, the output drive strength is set as listed in the table below. Dual-function pin
output drive strength is programmable if it is used as a regular I/O pin.
Table 7-4: I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
Configuration Pin
Type
I/O Standard
Drive Strength (mA)
nSTATUS
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
4
CONF_DONE
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
4
CvP_CONFDONE
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
4
DCLK
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
12
TDO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
12
AS_DATA0/ASDO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
AS_DATA1
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
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Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software
Configuration Pin
Type
I/O Standard
Drive Strength (mA)
AS_DATA2
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
AS_DATA3
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
INIT_DONE
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
8
CRC_ERROR
Dual Function
3.0 V LVTTL
8
nCSO
Dedicated
3.0 V LVTTL
8
7-13
Configuration Pin Options in the Quartus Prime Software
The following table lists the dual-purpose configuration pins available in the Device and Pin Options
dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Table 7-5: Configuration Pin Options
Configuration Pin
Category Page
Option
CLKUSR
General
Enable user-supplied start-up clock
(CLKUSR)
DEV_CLRn
General
Enable device-wide reset
(DEV_CLRn)
DEV_OE
General
Enable device-wide output enable
(DEV_OE)
INIT_DONE
General
Enable INIT_DONE output
nCEO
General
Enable nCEO pin
Enable Error Detection CRC_ERROR
pin
CRC_ERROR
Error Detection CRC
Enable open drain on CRC_ERROR
pin
Enable internal scrubbing
PR_REQUEST
PR_READY
PR_ERROR
General
Enable PR pin
PR_DONE
Related Information
Reviewing Printed Circuit Board Schematics with the Quartus Prime Software
Provides more information about the device and pin options dialog box setting.
Fast Passive Parallel Configuration
The FPP configuration scheme uses an external host, such as a microprocessor, MAX® II device, or
MAX V device. This scheme is the fastest method to configure Cyclone V devices. The FPP configuration
scheme supports 8- and 16-bits data width.
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Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an external storage such as
flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the configuration process resides in the external host.
You can store the configuration data in Raw Binary File (.rbf), Hexadecimal (Intel-Format) File (.hex), or
Tabular Text File (.ttf) formats.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data from the flash
memory device and configure the Cyclone V device.
Note: Two DCLK falling edges are required after the CONF_DONE pin goes high to begin the initialization of
the device for both uncompressed and compressed configuration data in an FPP configuration.
Related Information
• Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the FPP configuration timing.
Fast Passive Parallel Single-Device Configuration
To configure a Cyclone V device, connect the device to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-6: Single Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal
for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be
high enough to meet the V
IH
specification of the I/O on the device
and the external host. Altera
recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR DATA[7..0]
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
nCEO
N.C.
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Fast Passive Parallel Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone V devices that are connected in a chain.
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Pin Connections and Guidelines
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Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA[]
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and enter user mode at the
same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you
must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the
nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered for every fourth device to prevent signal integrity and clock
skew problems.
• All devices in the chain must use the same data width.
• If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data, the devices must be
of the same package and density.
Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to an external host as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-7: Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive a
Different Set of Configuration Data
Connect the resistor to a supply
that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device.
V CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends
powering up all configuration
system I/Os with V CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR
V CCPGM
DATA[7..0]
10 kΩ
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM
FPGA Device Master
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
FPGA Device Slave
MSEL[4..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
nCE
MSEL[4..0]
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA[]
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
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Using One Configuration Data
Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect the devices to
an external host as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-8: Multiple Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive the
Same Data
Connect the resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal for the
FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high
enough to meet the V IH specification of
the I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends powering up all
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
Memory
ADDR
DATA[7..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
V CCPGM V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device Slave
FPGA Device Master
10 kΩ
MSEL[4..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
nCEO
MSEL[4..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
N.C.
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
GND
DATA[]
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
Buffers
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for DATA[]
and DCLK for every fourth device.
The nCE pins of the device in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration for these devices to
begin and end at the same time.
Transmitting Configuration Data
This section describes how to transmit configuration data when you are using .rbf file for FPP x8, x16,
and x32 configuration modes. The configuration data in the .rbf file is little endian.
For example, if the .rbf file contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01, refer to the following tables for details
on how this data is transmitted in the FPP x8, x16, and x32 configuration modes.
Table 7-6: Transmitting Configuration Data for FPP x8 Configuration Mode
In FPP x8 configuration mode, the LSB of a byte is BIT0, and the MSB is BIT7.
Altera Corporation
BYTE0 = 02
BYTE1 = 1B
BYTE2 = EE
BYTE3 = 01
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
D[7..0]
0000 0010
0001 1011
1110 1110
0000 0001
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Active Serial Configuration
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Table 7-7: Transmitting Configuration Data for FPP x16 Configuration Mode
In FPP x16 configuration mode, the first byte in the file is the LSB of the configuration word, and the second byte
in the file is the MSB of the configuration word.
WORD0 = 1B02
WORD1 = 01EE
LSB: BYTE0 = 02
MSB: BYTE1 = 1B
LSB: BYTE2 = EE
MSB: BYTE3 = 01
D[7..0]
D[15..8]
D[7..0]
D[15..8]
0000 0010
0001 1011
1110 1110
0000 0001
Ensure that you do not swap the the upper bits or bytes with the lower bits or bytes when performing the
FPP configuration. Sending incorrect configuration data during the configuration process may cause
unexpected behavior on the CONF_DONE signal.
Active Serial Configuration
The AS configuration scheme supports AS x1 (1-bit data width) and AS x4 (4-bit data width) modes. The
AS x4 mode provides four times faster configuration time than the AS x1 mode. In the AS configuration
scheme, the Cyclone V device controls the configuration interface.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the AS configuration timing.
DATA Clock (DCLK)
Cyclone V devices generate the serial clock, DCLK, that provides timing to the serial interface. In the AS
configuration scheme, Cyclone V devices drive control signals on the falling edge of DCLK and latch the
configuration data on the following falling edge of this clock pin.
The maximum DCLK frequency supported by the AS configuration scheme is 100 MHz except for the AS
multi-device configuration scheme. You can source DCLK using CLKUSR or the internal oscillator. If you
use the internal oscillator, you can choose a 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 MHz clock under the Device and Pin
Options dialog box, in the Configuration page of the Quartus Prime software.
After power-up, DCLK is driven by a 12.5 MHz internal oscillator by default. The Cyclone V device
determines the clock source and frequency to use by reading the option bit in the programming file.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the DCLK frequency specification in the AS configuration scheme.
Active Serial Single-Device Configuration
To configure a Cyclone V device, connect the device to a serial configuration (EPCS) device or quad-serial
configuration (EPCQ) device, as shown in the following figures.
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Active Serial Single-Device Configuration
Figure 7-9: Single Device AS x1 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 3.0- or 3.3-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCS or EPCQ Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
MSEL[4..0]
GND
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
N.C.
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
Figure 7-10: Single Device AS x4 Mode Configuration
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at 3.0- or 3.3-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ Device
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA0
DATA1
AS_DATA0/
ASDO
AS_DATA1
DATA2
AS_DATA2
DATA3
AS_DATA3
DCLK
nCS
Altera Corporation
GND
DCLK
nCSO
nCEO
N.C.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
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Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration
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Active Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone V devices that are connected to a chain. Only AS x1 mode supports
multi-device configuration.
The first device in the chain is the configuration master. Subsequent devices in the chain are configuration
slaves.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Hardwire the MSEL pins of the first device in the chain to select the AS configuration scheme. For
subsequent devices in the chain, hardwire their MSEL pins to select the PS configuration scheme. Any
other Altera® devices that support the PS configuration can also be part of the chain as a configuration
slave.
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA[]
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE, nSTATUS, and nCONFIG pins together, the devices initialize and enter user
mode at the same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire
chain and you must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an
error on the nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• Ensure that DCLK and DATA[] are buffered every fourth device to prevent signal integrity and clock
skew problems.
Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to an EPCS or EPCQ device, as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 7-11: Multiple Device AS Configuration When Both Devices in the Chain Receive Different Sets
of Configuration Data
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 3.0- or 3.3-V power
supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCS or EPCQ Device
FPGA Device Master
FPGA Device Slave
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user I/O
pin when it does not feed another
device’s nCE pin.
GND
DATA
DCLK
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
nCSO
ASDO
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
DATA0
DCLK
MSEL [4..0]
For the appropriate MSEL settings
based on POR delay settings, set the
slave device MSEL setting to the PS
scheme.
Buffers
For more information, refer to the
MSEL pin settings.
Connect the repeater buffers between the
FPGA master and slave device for AS_DATA1
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the
external clock source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
or DATA0 and DCLK for every fourth device.
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
Estimating the Active Serial Configuration Time
The AS configuration time is mostly the time it takes to transfer the configuration data from an EPCS or
EPCQ device to the Cyclone V device.
Use the following equations to estimate the configuration time:
• AS x1 mode
.rbf Size x (minimum DCLK period / 1 bit per DCLK cycle) = estimated minimum configuration time.
• AS x4 mode
.rbf Size x (minimum DCLK period / 4 bits per DCLK cycle) = estimated minimum configuration time.
Compressing the configuration data reduces the configuration time. The amount of reduction varies
depending on your design.
Using EPCS and EPCQ Devices
EPCS devices support AS x1 mode and EPCQ devices support AS x1 and AS x4 modes.
Related Information
• Serial Configuration (EPCS) Devices Datasheet
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• Quad-Serial Configuration (EPCQ) Devices Datasheet
Controlling EPCS and EPCQ Devices
During configuration, Cyclone V devices enable the EPCS or EPCQ device by driving its nCSO output pin
low, which connects to the chip select (nCS) pin of the EPCS or EPCQ device. Cyclone V devices use the
DCLK and ASDO pins to send operation commands and read address signals to the EPCS or EPCQ device.
The EPCS or EPCQ device provides data on its serial data output (DATA[]) pin, which connects to the
AS_DATA[] input of the Cyclone V devices.
Note: If you wish to gain control of the EPCS pins, hold the nCONFIG pin low and pull the nCE pin high.
This causes the device to reset and tri-state the AS configuration pins.
Trace Length and Loading Guideline
The maximum trace length and loading apply to both single- and multi-device AS configuration setups as
listed in the following table. The trace length is the length from the Cyclone V device to the EPCS or
EPCQ device.
Table 7-8: Maximum Trace Length and Loading Guideline for AS x1 and x4 Configurations for Cyclone V
Devices
Maximum Board Trace Length (Inches)
Cyclone V Device AS Pins
12.5/ 25/ 50 MHz
Maximum Board Load (pF)
100 MHz
DCLK
10
6
5
DATA[3..0]
10
6
10
nCSO
10
6
10
Programming EPCS and EPCQ Devices
You can program EPCS and EPCQ devices in-system using a USB-Blaster™, EthernetBlaster,
EthernetBlaster II, or ByteBlaster™ II download cable. Alternatively, you can program the EPCS or EPCQ
using a microprocessor with the SRunner software driver.
In-system programming (ISP) offers you the option to program the EPCS or EPCQ either using an AS
programming interface or a JTAG interface. Using the AS programming interface, the configuration data
is programmed into the EPCS by the Quartus Prime software or any supported third-party software.
Using the JTAG interface, an Altera IP called the serial flash loader (SFL) must be downloaded into the
Cyclone V device to form a bridge between the JTAG interface and the EPCS or EPCQ. This allows the
EPCS or EPCQ to be programmed directly using the JTAG interface.
Related Information
• AN 370: Using the Serial Flash Loader IP Core with the Quartus Prime Software
• AN 418: SRunner: An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming
Programming EPCS Using the JTAG Interface
To program an EPCS device using the JTAG interface, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
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Programming EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
Figure 7-12: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the JTAG Interface
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Connect the pull-up
resistors to V CCPGM at a
3.0- or 3.3-V power supply.
V CCPD V CCPD
EPCS Device
The resistor value can vary
from 1 k Ω to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for
your setup.
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply
the external clock source to drive
DCLK during configuration.
GND
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
TCK
TDO
V CCPD
TMS
TDI
Serial
Flash
Loader
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Instantiate SFL in your
design to form a bridge
between the EPCS and the
10-pin header.
Pin 1
1 kΩ
Download Cable
GND 10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
GND
Programming EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
To program an EPCQ device using the JTAG interface, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
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Figure 7-13: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ Using the JTAG Interface
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
EPCQ Device
Connect the pull-up resistors to
V CCPGM at a 3.0- or 3.3-V
power supply.
V CCPD V CCPD
The resistor value can vary
from 1 k Ω to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for your
setup.
FPGA Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
DATA0
GND
TCK
TDO
V CCPD
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
AS_DATA0/ASDO
DATA1
AS_DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
DCLK
nCS
Serial
AS_DATA2
Flash
AS_DATA3
Loader
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
nCSO
CLKUSR
1 kΩ
Instantiate SFL in your
design to form a bridge
between the EPCQ and
the 10-pin header.
Download Cable
GND 10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
GND
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK during configuration.
Programming EPCS Using the Active Serial Interface
To program an EPCS device using the AS interface, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
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Programming EPCQ Using the Active Serial Interface
Figure 7-14: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the AS Interface
Connect the pull-up resistors to V
at a 3.0- or 3.3-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
EPCS Device
nCEO
N.C.
nCE
10 kΩ
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
AS_DATA1
DCLK
nCSO
ASDO
Pin 1
For more information, refer
to the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to
supply the external clock
source to drive DCLK
during configuration.
V CCPGM
Power up the USB-Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, EthernetBlaster, or
EthernetBlaster II cable’s V
CC(TRGT)
to V CCPGM .
USB-Blaster or ByteBlaster II
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
Programming EPCQ Using the Active Serial Interface
To program an EPCQ device using the AS interface, connect the device as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 7-15: Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ Using the AS Interface
Using the AS header, the programmer serially transmits the operation commands and configuration bits
to the EPCQ on DATA0. This is equivalent to the programming operation for the EPCS.
Connect the pull-up resistors to V
at a 3.0- or 3.3-V power supply.
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
EPCQ Device
nCEO
N.C.
10 kΩ
DATA0
DATA1
AS_DATA0/ASDO
AS_DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
AS_DATA2
AS_DATA3
DCLK
nCS
DCLK
nCSO
Pin 1
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
MSEL[4..0]
CLKUSR
Use the CLKUSR pin to supply
the external clock source to
drive DCLK during
configuration.
V CCPGM
Power up the USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II cable’s
V CC(TRGT) to V CCPGM .
USB-Blaster or ByteBlaster II
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
When programming the EPCS and EPCQ devices, the download cable disables access to the AS interface
by driving the nCE pin high. The nCONFIG line is also pulled low to hold the Cyclone V device in the reset
stage. After programming completes, the download cable releases nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the
pull-down and pull-up resistors to drive the pin to GND and VCCPGM, respectively.
During the EPCQ programming using the download cable, DATA0 transfers the programming data,
operation command, and address information from the download cable into the EPCQ. During the EPCQ
verification using the download cable, DATA1 transfers the programming data back to the download cable.
Passive Serial Configuration
The PS configuration scheme uses an external host. You can use a microprocessor, MAX II device,
MAX V device, or a host PC as the external host.
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Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host
You can use an external host to control the transfer of configuration data from an external storage such as
flash memory to the FPGA. The design that controls the configuration process resides in the external host.
You can store the configuration data in Programmer Object File (.pof), .rbf, .hex, or .ttf. If you are using
configuration data in .rbf, .hex, or .ttf, send the LSB of each data byte first. For example, if the .rbf
contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA, the serial data transmitted to the device must be 0100-0000
1101-1000 0111-0111 1000-0000 0101-1111.
You can use the PFL IP core with a MAX II or MAX V device to read configuration data from the flash
memory device and configure the Cyclone V device.
For a PC host, connect the PC to the device using a download cable such as the Altera USB-Blaster USB
port, ByteBlaster II parallel port, EthernetBlaster, and EthernetBlaster II download cables.
The configuration data is shifted serially into the DATA0 pin of the device.
If you are using the Quartus Prime programmer and the CLKUSR pin is enabled, you do not need to
provide a clock source for the pin to initialize your device.
Related Information
• Parallel Flash Loader IP Core User Guide
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the PS configuration timing.
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an External Host
To configure a Cyclone V device, connect the device to an external host, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-16: Single Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
V CCPGM
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable
input signal for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to
meet the V IH specification of the I/O on the device and the external
host. Altera recommends powering up all the configuration system
I/Os with V CCPGM .
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a user
I/O pin when it does not feed
another device’s nCE pin.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
Passive Serial Single-Device Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
To configure a Cyclone V device, connect the device to a download cable, as shown in the following
figure.
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Figure 7-17: Single Device PS Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (V
CCIO ) as the
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II
cable.
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
GND
nCEO
N.C.
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
Pin 1
V CCIO
V IO
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download
cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a MAX II device, MAX V
device, or microprocessor, you do not
need the pull-up resistors on DATA0
and DCLK.
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
Shield
GND
GND
In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this
pin is connected to nCE
when you use it for AS
programming. Otherwise,
this pin is a no connect.
Passive Serial Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone V devices that are connected in a chain.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Tie the following pins of all devices in the chain together:
•
•
•
•
•
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
DCLK
DATA0
CONF_DONE
By tying the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together, the devices initialize and enter user mode at the
same time. If any device in the chain detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you
must reconfigure all the devices. For example, if the first device in the chain flags an error on the
nSTATUS pin, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low.
• If you are configuring the devices in the chain using the same configuration data, the devices must be
of the same package and density.
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Using Multiple Configuration Data
Using Multiple Configuration Data
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices in a chain using multiple configuration data, connect the devices
to the external host as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-18: Multiple Device PS Configuration when Both Devices Receive Different Sets of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input signal for
the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to meet the V
IH specification of the
I/O on the device and the external host. Altera recommends powering up all the
configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
V CCPGM
FPGA Device 1
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
10 kΩ
nCEO
FPGA Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
You can leave the nCEO pin
unconnected or use it as a
user I/O pin when it does not
feed another device’s nCE
pin.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information, refer
to the MSEL pin settings.
After a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain. Configuration automatically begins for the second device in one clock cycle.
Using One Configuration Data
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices in a chain using one configuration data, connect the devices to
an external host, as shown in the following figure.
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Using PC Host and Download Cable
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Figure 7-19: Multiple Device PS Configuration When Both Devices Receive the Same Set of
Configuration Data
Memory
ADDR
DATA0
Connect the resistor to a power supply that provides an acceptable input
signal for the FPGA device. V
CCPGM must be high enough to meet the V
IH
specification of the I/O on the device and the external host. Altera
recommends powering up all the configuration system I/Os with V
CCPGM .
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device,
MAX V Device, or
Microprocessor
10 kΩ
FPGA Device 2
FPGA Device 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
N.C.
nCEO
GND
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
N.C.
MSEL[4..0]
For more information,
refer to the MSEL pin
settings.
You can leave the nCEO
pin unconnected or use it
as a user I/O pin.
The nCE pins of the devices in the chain are connected to GND, allowing configuration for these devices
to begin and end at the same time.
Using PC Host and Download Cable
To configure multiple Cyclone V devices, connect the devices to a download cable, as shown in the
following figure.
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JTAG Configuration
Figure 7-20: Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an Altera Download Cable
Connect the pull-up resistor to the
same supply voltage (V
CCIO ) as the
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
EthernetBlaster, or EthernetBlaster II
cable.
V CCPGM
10 k Ω
10 k Ω
FPGA Device 1
V CCPGM
CONF_DONE
10 k Ω
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 k Ω (2)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(PS Mode)
Pin 1
V CCPGM
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL[4..0]
GND
V IO
V CCPGM
nCE
10 k Ω
You only need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK if the download cable
is the only configuration scheme used
on your board. This ensures that
DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating
after configuration. For example, if you
are also using a configuration device,
you do not need the pull-up resistors on
DATA0 and DCLK.
For more information, refer to
the MSEL pin settings.
nCEO
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
GND
In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this
pin is connected to nCE
when you use it for AS
programming. Otherwise,
this pin is a no connect.
FPGA Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[4..0]
DCLK
nCEO
N.C.
nCE
DATA0
nCONFIG
When a device completes configuration, its nCEO pin is released low to activate the nCE pin of the next
device. Configuration automatically begins for the second device.
JTAG Configuration
In Cyclone V devices, JTAG instructions take precedence over other configuration schemes.
The Quartus Prime software generates an SRAM Object File (.sof) that you can use for JTAG configura‐
tion using a download cable in the Quartus Prime software programmer. Alternatively, you can use the
JRunner software with .rbf or a JAM™ Standard Test and Programming Language (STAPL) Format File
(.jam) or JAM Byte Code File (.jbc) with other third-party programmer tools.
Related Information
• JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Cyclone V Devices on page 9-1
Provides more information about JTAG boundary-scan testing.
• Device Configuration Pins on page 7-10
Provides more information about JTAG configuration pins.
• JTAG Secure Mode on page 7-42
• AN 425: Using the Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device Programming
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the JTAG configuration timing.
• Programming Support for Jam STAPL Language
• USB-Blaster Download Cable User Guide
• ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide
• EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide
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JTAG Single-Device Configuration
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• EthernetBlaster II Communications Cable User Guide
JTAG Single-Device Configuration
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software sets the other devices to the
bypass mode. A device in a bypass mode transfers the programming data from the TDI pin to the TDO pin
through a single bypass register. The configuration data is available on the TDO pin one clock cycle later.
The Quartus Prime software can use the CONF_DONE pin to verify the completion of the configuration
process through the JTAG port:
• CONF_DONE pin is low—indicates that configuration has failed.
• CONF_DONE pin is high—indicates that configuration was successful.
After the configuration data is transmitted serially using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port is clocked an
additional 1,222 cycles to perform device initialization.
To configure a Cyclone V device using a download cable, connect the device as shown in the following
figure.
Figure 7-21: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
V CCPD
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
GND
V CCPD
FPGA Device
10 kΩ
N.C.
nCE
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[4..0]
DCLK
The resistor value can vary
from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ. Perform
signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for
your setup.
TCK
TDO
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPD .
TMS
TDI
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect
nCONFIG to V CCPGM and MSEL[4..0] to GND.
Pull DCLK either high or low whichever is
convenient on your board. If you are using JTAG
in conjunction with another configuration scheme,
connect MSEL[4..0], nCONFIG, and DCLK based
on the selected configuration scheme.
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode) (Top View)
Pin 1
V CCPD
GND
1 kΩ
GND
GND
To configure Cyclone V device using a microprocessor, connect the device as shown in the following
figure. You can use JRunner as your software driver.
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JTAG Multi-Device Configuration
Figure 7-22: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that
provides an acceptable input signal for all
FPGA devices in the chain. V
CCPGM must be
high enough to meet the V
IH specification of
the I/O on the device.
Memory
ADDR
V CCPGM
DATA
10 kΩ
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
FPGA Device
TDI
TCK
TMS
TDO
Microprocessor
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[4..0]
nCEO
nCE
The microprocessor must use
the same I/O standard as
V CCPD to drive the JTAG pins.
N.C.
GND
If you only use the JTAG configuration,
connect nCONFIG to V
CCPGM and
MSEL[4..0] to GND. Pull DCLK high or
low. If you are using JTAG in conjunction
with another configuration scheme, set
the MSEL[4..0] pins and tie nCONFIG and
DCLK based on the selected
configuration scheme.
Related Information
AN 414: The JRunner Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration
JTAG Multi-Device Configuration
You can configure multiple devices in a JTAG chain.
Pin Connections and Guidelines
Observe the following pin connections and guidelines for this configuration setup:
• Isolate the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to allow each device to enter user mode independently.
• One JTAG-compatible header is connected to several devices in a JTAG chain. The number of devices
in the chain is limited only by the drive capability of the download cable.
• If you have four or more devices in a JTAG chain, buffer the TCK, TDI, and TMS pins with an on-board
buffer. You can also connect other Altera devices with JTAG support to the chain.
• JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains multiple devices or when testing
your system using the JTAG boundary-scan testing (BST) circuitry.
Using a Download Cable
The following figure shows a multi-device JTAG configuration.
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CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction
Figure 7-23: JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable
If you only use the JTAG configuration, connect nCONFIG to V
CCPGM and MSEL[4..0]
to GND. Pull DCLK either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board. If you are
using JTAG in conjunction with another configuration scheme, connect MSEL[4..0],
nCONFIG, and DCLK based on the selected configuration scheme.
Connect the pull-up
resistor V CCPD .
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
(JTAG Mode)
Pin 1
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
V CCPD
GND
1 kΩ
V CCPD
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
V CCPD
V IO
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
GND
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
FPGA Device
V CCPGM
V CCPGM
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
DCLK CONF_DONE
MSEL[4..0]
nCE
GND
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
The resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10
kΩ. Perform signal integrity analysis to
select the resistor value for your setup.
Related Information
AN 656: Combining Multiple Configuration Schemes
Provides more information about combining JTAG configuration with other configuration schemes.
CONFIG_IO JTAG Instruction
The CONFIO_IO JTAG instruction allows you to configure the I/O buffers using the JTAG port before or
during device configuration. When you issue this instruction, it interrupts configuration and allows you
to issue all JTAG instructions. Otherwise, you can only issue the BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE JTAG
instructions.
You can use the CONFIO_IO JTAG instruction to interrupt configuration and perform board-level testing.
After the board-level testing is completed, you must reconfigure your device. Use the following methods
to reconfigure your device:
• JTAG interface—issue the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction.
• FPP, PS, or AS configuration scheme—pulse the nCONFIG pin low.
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Configuration Data Compression
Configuration Data Compression
Cyclone V devices can receive compressed configuration bitstream and decompress the data in real-time
during configuration. Preliminary data indicates that compression typically reduces the configuration file
size by 30% to 55% depending on the design.
Decompression is supported in all configuration schemes except the JTAG configuration scheme.
You can enable compression before or after design compilation.
Enabling Compression Before Design Compilation
To enable compression before design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the Assignment Menu, click Device.
2. Select your Cyclone V device and then click Device and Pin Options.
3. In the Device and Pin Options window, select Configuration under the Category list and turn on
Generate compressed bitstreams.
Enabling Compression After Design Compilation
To enable compression after design compilation, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Select the programming file type (.pof, .sof, .hex, .hexout, .rbf, or .ttf). For POF output files, select a
configuration device.
3. Under the Input files to convert list, select SOF Data.
4. Click Add File and select a Cyclone V device .sof.
5. Select the name of the file you added to the SOF Data area and click Properties.
6. Turn on the Compression check box.
Using Compression in Multi-Device Configuration
The following figure shows a chain of two Cyclone V devices. Compression is only enabled for the first
device.
This setup is supported by the AS or PS multi-device configuration only.
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Figure 7-24: Compressed and Uncompressed Serial Configuration Data in the Same Configuration File
Serial Configuration Data
Compressed
Configuration
Data
Decompression
Controller
Uncompressed
Configuration
Data
FPGA
Device 1
nCE
EPCS, EPCQ, or
External Host
FPGA
Device 2
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
For the FPP configuration scheme, a combination of compressed and uncompressed configuration in the
same multi-device configuration chain is not allowed because of the difference on the DCLK-to-DATA[]
ratio.
Remote System Upgrades
Cyclone V devices contain dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry. You can use this feature to upgrade
your system from a remote location.
Figure 7-25: Cyclone V Remote System Upgrade Block Diagram
2
1
Development
Location
3
Data
Data
Data
FPGA
Remote System
Upgrade Circuitry
Configuration
Memory
FPGA Configuration
4
You can design your system to manage remote upgrades of the application configuration images in the
configuration device. The following list is the sequence of the remote system upgrade:
1. The logic (embedded processor or user logic) in the Cyclone V device receives a configuration image
from a remote location. You can connect the device to the remote source using communication
protocols such as TCP/IP, PCI, user datagram protocol (UDP), UART, or a proprietary interface.
2. The logic stores the configuration image in non-volatile configuration memory.
3. The logic starts reconfiguration cycle using the newly received configuration image.
4. When an error occurs, the circuitry detects the error, reverts to a safe configuration image, and
provides error status to your design.
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Configuration Images
Configuration Images
Each Cyclone V device in your system requires one factory image. The factory image is a user-defined
configuration image that contains logic to perform the following:
• Processes errors based on the status provided by the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry.
• Communicates with the remote host, receives new application images, and stores the images in the
local non-volatile memory device.
• Determines the application image to load into the Cyclone V device.
• Enables or disables the user watchdog timer and loads its time-out value.
• Instructs the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to start a reconfiguration cycle.
You can also create one or more application images for the device. An application image contains selected
functionalities to be implemented in the target device.
Store the images at the following locations in the EPCS or EPCQ devices:
• Factory configuration image—PGM[23..0] = 24'h000000 start address on the EPCS or EPCQ device.
• Application configuration image—any sector boundary. Altera recommends that you store only one
image at one sector boundary.
When you are using EPCQ 256, ensure that the application configuration image address granularity is
32'h00000100. The granularity requirement is having the most significant 24 bits of the 32 bits start
address written to PGM[23..0] bits.
Note: If you are not using the Quartus Prime software or SRunner software for EPCQ 256 programming,
put your EPCQ 256 device into four-byte addressing mode before you program and configure your
device.
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Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode
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Configuration Sequence in the Remote Update Mode
Figure 7-26: Transitions Between Factory and Application Configurations in Remote Update Mode
Configuration Error
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Power Up
Configuration
Error
Factory
Configuration
(page 0)
Application 1
Configuration
Reload a
Different Application
Reload a
Different Application
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Application n
Configuration
Configuration Error
Related Information
Remote System Upgrade State Machine on page 7-40
A detailed description of the configuration sequence in the remote update mode.
Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
The remote system upgrade circuitry contains the remote system upgrade registers, watchdog timer, and a
state machine that controls these components.
Note: If you are using the Altera Remote Update IP core, the IP core controls the RU_DOUT, RU_SHIFTnLD,
RU_CAPTnUPDT, RU_CLK, RU_DIN, RU_nCONFIG, and RU_nRSTIMER signals internally to perform all
the related remote system upgrade operations.
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Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Figure 7-27: Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
[4..0]
Control Register
[37..0]
Logic Array
Update Register
[37..0]
update
Remote
System
Upgrade
State
Machine
Shift Register
dout
din
Bit [4..0]
dout
din
Bit [37..0]
capture
capture
clkout capture
Logic Array
RU_DOUT
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
Timeout
User
Watchdog
Timer
update
clkin
RU_CLK
RU_DIN
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about remote system upgrade circuitry timing specifications.
Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
To enable the remote system upgrade feature, follow these steps:
1. Select Active Serial x1/x4 or Configuration Device from the Configuration scheme list in the
Configuration page of the Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
2. Select Remote from the Configuration mode list in the Configuration page of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box in the Quartus Prime software.
Enabling this feature automatically turns on the Auto-restart configuration after error option.
Altera Remote Update IP core provides a memory-like interface to the remote system upgrade circuitry
and handles the shift register read and write protocol in the Cyclone V device logic.
Related Information
Altera Remote Update IP Core User Guide
Remote System Upgrade Registers
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Control Register
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Table 7-9: Remote System Upgrade Registers
Register
Description
Shift
Accessible by the logic array and clocked by RU_CLK.
• Bits[4..0]—Contents of the status register are shifted into these bits.
• Bits[37..0]—Contents of the update and control registers are shifted
into these bits.
Control
This register is clocked by the 10-MHz internal oscillator. The contents of
this register are shifted to the shift register for the user logic in the application
configuration to read. When reconfiguration is triggered, this register is
updated with the contents of the update register.
Update
This register is clocked by RU_CLK. The factory configuration updates this
register by shifting data into the shift register and issuing an update. When
reconfiguration is triggered, the contents of the update register are written to
the control register.
Status
After each reconfiguration, the remote system upgrade circuitry updates this
register to indicate the event that triggered the reconfiguration. This register
is clocked by the 10-MHz internal oscillator.
Related Information
• Control Register on page 7-39
• Status Register on page 7-40
Control Register
Table 7-10: Control Register Bits
Bit
0
Name
AnF
Reset
Value(23)
1'b0
Description
Application not Factory bit. Indicates the
configuration image type currently loaded in
the device; 0 for factory image and 1 for
application image. When this bit is 1, the
access to the control register is limited to read
only and the watchdog timer is enabled.
Factory configuration design must set this bit
to 1 before triggering reconfiguration using
an application configuration image.
1..24
(23)
PGM[0..23]
24'h000000 Upper 24 bits of AS configuration start
address (StAdd[31..8]), the 8 LSB are zero.
This is the default value after the device exits POR and during reconfiguration back to the factory configura‐
tion image.
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Status Register
Bit
Name
Reset
Value(23)
Description
25
Wd_en
1'b0
User watchdog timer enable bit. Set this bit to
1 to enable the watchdog timer.
26..37
Wd_timer[11..0]
12'b000000000000
User watchdog time-out value.
Status Register
Table 7-11: Status Register Bits
Bit
Name
Reset
Value(24)
Description
0
CRC
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates CRC error during applica‐
tion configuration.
1
nSTATUS
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nSTATUS is asserted by
an external device due to error.
2
Core_nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that reconfiguration has
been triggered by the logic array of the device.
3
nCONFIG
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that nCONFIG is asserted.
4
Wd
1'b0
When set to 1, indicates that the user watchdog
time-out.
Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The operation of the remote system upgrade state machine is as follows:
1. After power-up, the remote system upgrade registers are reset to 0 and the factory configuration image
is loaded.
2. The user logic sets the AnF bit to 1 and the start address of the application image to be loaded. The user
logic also writes the watchdog timer settings.
3. When the configuration reset (RU_CONFIG) goes low, the state machine updates the control register
with the contents of the update register, and triggers reconfiguration using the application configura‐
tion image.
4. If error occurs, the state machine falls back to the factory image. The control and update registers are
reset to 0, and the status register is updated with the error information.
5. After successful reconfiguration, the system stays in the application configuration.
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from stalling the device indefinitely.
You can use the timer to detect functional errors when an application configuration is successfully loaded
(23)
(24)
This is the default value after the device exits POR and during reconfiguration back to the factory configura‐
tion image.
After the device exits POR and power-up, the status register content is 5'b00000.
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into the device. The timer is automatically disabled in the factory configuration; enabled in the application
configuration.
Note: If you do not want this feature in the application configuration, you need to turn off this feature by
setting the Wd_en bit to 1'b0 in the update register during factory configuration user mode
operation. You cannot disable this feature in the application configuration.
The counter is 29 bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying the user watchdog
timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. The granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The
cycle time is based on the frequency of the user watchdog timer internal oscillator.
The timer begins counting as soon as the application configuration enters user mode. When the timer
expires, the remote system upgrade circuitry generates a time-out signal, updates the status register, and
triggers the loading of the factory configuration image. To reset the time, assert RU_nRSTIMER.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the operating range of the user watchdog internal oscillator's frequency.
Design Security
The Cyclone V design security feature supports the following capabilities:
• Enhanced built-in advanced encryption standard (AES) decryption block to support 256-bit key
industry-standard design security algorithm (FIPS-197 Certified)
• Volatile and non-volatile key programming support
• Secure operation mode for both volatile and non-volatile key through tamper protection bit setting
• Limited accessible JTAG instruction during power-up in the JTAG secure mode
• Supports board-level testing
• Supports in-socket key programming for non-volatile key
• Available in all configuration schemes except JTAG
• Supports both remote system upgrades and compression features
The Cyclone V design security feature provides the following security protection for your designs:
• Security against copying—the security key is securely stored in the Cyclone V device and cannot be
read out through any interface. In addition, as configuration file read-back is not supported in Cyclone
V devices, your design information cannot be copied.
• Security against reverse engineering—reverse engineering from an encrypted configuration file is very
difficult and time consuming because the Cyclone V configuration file formats are proprietary and the
file contains millions of bits that require specific decryption.
• Security against tampering—After you set the tamper protection bit, the Cyclone V device can only
accept configuration files encrypted with the same key. Additionally, programming through the JTAG
interface and configuration interface is blocked.
When you use compression with the design security feature, the configuration file is first compressed and
then encrypted using the Quartus Prime software. During configuration, the device first decrypts and
then decompresses the configuration file.
When you use design security with Cyclone V devices in an FPP configuration scheme, it requires a
different DCLK-to-DATA[] ratio.
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Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core
The Altera Unique Chip ID IP core provides the following features:
• Acquiring the chip ID of an FPGA device.
• Allowing you to identify your device in your design as part of a security feature to protect your design
from an unauthorized device.
Related Information
Altera Unique Chip ID IP Core User Guide
JTAG Secure Mode
When you enable the tamper-protection bit, Cyclone V devices are in the JTAG secure mode after
power-up. During this mode, many JTAG instructions are disabled. Cyclone V devices only allow
mandatory JTAG 1149.1 instructions to be exercised. These JTAG instructions are SAMPLE/PRELOAD,
BYPASS, EXTEST, and optional instructions such as IDCODE and SHIFT_EDERROR_REG.
To enable the access of other JTAG instructions such as USERCODE, HIGHZ, CLAMP, PULSE_nCONFIG, and
CONFIG_IO, you must issue the UNLOCK instruction to deactivate the JTAG secure mode. You can issue the
LOCK instruction to put the device back into JTAG secure mode. You can only issue both the LOCK and
UNLOCK JTAG instructions during user mode.
Related Information
• Supported JTAG Instruction on page 9-3
Provides more information about JTAG binary instruction code related to the LOCK and UNLOCK
instructions.
• JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing in Cyclone V Devices
Provides more information about JTAG binary instruction code related to the LOCK and UNLOCK
instructions.
Security Key Types
Cyclone V devices offer two types of keys—volatile and non-volatile. The following table lists the
differences between the volatile key and non-volatile keys.
Table 7-12: Security Key Types
Key Types
(25)
(26)
Key Programmability Power Supply for Key
Storage
Programming Method
Volatile
• Reprogrammable Required external
battery, VCCBAT (25)
• Erasable
On-board
Non-volatile
One-time
programming
On-board and in-socket
programming (26)
Does not require an
external battery
VCCBAT is a dedicated power supply for volatile key storage. VCCBAT continuously supplies power to the
volatile register regardless of the on-chip supply condition.
Third-party vendors offer in-socket programming.
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Both non-volatile and volatile key programming offers protection from reverse engineering and copying.
If you set the tamper-protection bit, the design is also protected from tampering.
You can perform key programming through the JTAG pins interface. Ensure that the nSTATUS pin is
released high before any key-programming attempts.
Note: To clear the volatile key, issue the KEY_CLR_VREG JTAG instruction. To verify the volatile key has
been cleared, issue the KEY_VERIFY JTAG instruction.
Related Information
• Supported JTAG Instruction on page 9-3
Provides more information about the KEY_CLR_VREG and KEY_VERIFY instructions.
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about the VCCBAT pin connection recommendations.
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about battery specifications.
Security Modes
Table 7-13: Supported Security Modes
There is no impact to the configuration time required when compared with unencrypted configuration modes
except FPP with AES (and/or decompression), which requires a DCLK that is up to ×4 the data rate.
Security Mode
Tamper
Protection Bit
Setting
Device Accepts
Unencrypted File
Device Accepts
Encrypted File
Security Level
No key
—
Yes
No
—
Volatile Key
—
Yes
Yes
Secure
Volatile Key with
Tamper Protection Bit
Set
Set
No
Yes
Secure with tamper
resistant
Non-volatile Key
—
Yes
Yes
Secure
Non-volatile Key with
Tamper Protection Bit
Set
Set
No
Yes
Secure with tamper
resistant
The use of unencrypted configuration bitstream in the volatile key and non-volatile key security modes is
supported for board-level testing only.
Note: For the volatile key with tamper protection bit set security mode, Cyclone V devices do not accept
the encrypted configuration file if the volatile key is erased. If the volatile key is erased and you
want to reprogram the key, you must use the volatile key security mode.
Enabling the tamper protection bit disables the test mode in Cyclone V devices and disables programming
through the JTAG interface. This process is irreversible and prevents Altera from carrying out failure
analysis.
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Design Security Implementation Steps
Design Security Implementation Steps
Figure 7-28: Design Security Implementation Steps
AES Key
Programming File
Step 3
Key Storage
Step 1
256-bit User-Defined
Key
FPGA Device
AES Decryption
Quartus Prime Software
AES Encryptor
Step 4
Step 1
Encrypted
Configuration
File
Step 2
Memory or
Configuration
Device
To carry out secure configuration, follow these steps:
1. The Quartus Prime software generates the design security key programming file and encrypts the
configuration data using the user-defined 256-bit security key.
2. Store the encrypted configuration file in the external memory.
3. Program the AES key programming file into the Cyclone V device through a JTAG interface.
4. Configure the Cyclone V device. At the system power-up, the external memory device sends the
encrypted configuration file to the Cyclone V device.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
• Added the CvP_CONFDONE pin to the Configuration Pin Summary for
Cyclone V Devices table.
• Added the I/O Standards and Drive Strength for Configuration Pins
table.
June 2015
2015.06.12
•
•
•
•
Altera Corporation
Added timing waveforms for FPP, AS, and PS configuration.
Updated the Trace Length and Loading Guideline section.
Updated the Transmitting Configuration Data section.
Updated the Partial Reconfiguration note in the Configuration Modes
and Features Supported by Cyclone V Devices table.
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Document Revision History
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Date
Version
Changes
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Added the Transmitting Configuration Data section.
• Updated the Configuration Images section.
June 2014
2014.06.30
• Updated Figure 7-17: JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a
Download Cable.
• Updated Figure 7-19: JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using
a Download Cable.
• Updated the MSEL pin settings recommendation in the MSEL Pin
Settings section.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Added decompression support for the CvP configuration mode.
• Added a link to the FPGA Manager chapter for details about the
MSEL pin settings for the HPS in SoC FPGA devices.
• Updated the Enabling Remote System Upgrade Circuitry section.
• Updated the Configuration Pin Summary section.
• Updated Figure 7-3, Figure 7-7, and Figure 7-14.
June 2013
2013.06.11
Updated the Configuration Error Handling section.
May 2013
2013.05.10
Removed support for active serial multi-device configuration using the
same configuration data.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Added the ALTCHIP_ID megafunction section.
• Updated "Connection Setup for Programming the EPCS Using the
JTAG Interface" and "Connection Setup for Programming the EPCQ
Using the JTAG Interface" figures.
• Added links for AS, PS, FPP, and JTAG configuration timing to
device datasheet.
• Updated CvP support for partial reconfiguration in the Table 7-1:
Configuration Modes and Features Supported by Cyclone V Devices.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added configuration modes and features for Cyclone V devices.
• Added PR_REQUEST, PR_READY, PR_ERROR, and PR_DONE pins to
Configuration Pin Options table.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
2.0
Restructured the chapter.
November
2011
1.1
Updated Table 7-4.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the error detection features in Cyclone V devices. You can use these features to
mitigate single event upset (SEU) or soft errors.
Related Information
Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
Error Detection Features
The on-chip error detection CRC circuitry allows you to perform the following operations without any
impact on the fitting or performance of the device:
• Auto-detection of CRC errors during configuration.
• Optional CRC error detection and identification in user mode.
• Optional internal scrubbing in user mode. When enabled, this feature corrects single-bit and doubleadjacent errors automatically.
• Testing of error detection functions by deliberately injecting errors through the JTAG interface.
Configuration Error Detection
When the Quartus Prime software generates the configuration bitstream, the software also computes a 16bit CRC value for each frame. A configuration bitstream can contain more than one CRC values
depending on the number of data frames in the bitstream. The length of the data frame varies for each
device.
When a data frame is loaded into the FPGA during configuration, the precomputed CRC value shifts into
the CRC circuitry. At the same time, the CRC engine in the FPGA computes the CRC value for the data
frame and compares it against the precomputed CRC value. If both CRC values do not match, the
nSTATUS pin is set to low to indicate a configuration error.
You can test the capability of this feature by modifying the configuration bitstream or intentionally
corrupting the bitstream during configuration.
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User Mode Error Detection
User Mode Error Detection
In user mode, the contents of the configured CRAM bits may be affected by soft errors. These soft errors,
which are caused by an ionizing particle, are not common in Altera devices. However, high-reliability
applications that require the device to operate error-free may require that your designs account for these
errors.
You can enable the error detection circuitry to detect soft errors. Each data frame stored in the CRAM
contains a 32-bit precomputed CRC value. When this feature is enabled, the error detection circuitry
continuously computes a 32-bit CRC value for each frame in the CRAM and compares the CRC value
against the precomputed value.
• If the CRC values match, the 32-bit CRC signature in the syndrome register is set to zero to indicate
that no error is detected.
• Otherwise, the resulting 32-bit CRC signature in the syndrome register is non-zero to indicate a CRC
error. The CRC_ERROR pin is pulled high, and the error type and location are identified.
Within a frame, the error detection circuitry can detect all single-, double-, triple-, quadruple-, and
quintuple-bit errors. When a single-bit or double-adjacent error is detected, the error detection circuitry
reports the bit location and determines the error type for single-bit and double-adjacent errors. The
probability of other error patterns is very low and the reporting of bit location is not guaranteed. The
probability of more than five CRAM bits being flipped by soft errors is very low. In general, the
probability of detection for all error patterns is 99.9999%. The process of error detection continues until
the device is reset by setting the nCONFIG signal low.
Internal Scrubbing
Internal scrubbing is the ability to internally correct soft errors in user mode. This feature corrects singlebit and double-adjacent errors detected in each data frame without the need to reconfigure the device.
Note: The SEU internal scrubbing feature is available for Cyclone V E, GX, SE, and SX devices with the
"SC" suffix in the part number. For device availability and ordering, contact your local Altera sales
representatives.
Figure 8-1: Block Diagram
Error Detection
State Machine
32-Bit CRC
Calculation and Error
Search Engine
Internal Scrubbing
Data Registers, CRC
Registers, and CRAM
Array
Specifications
This section lists the EMR update interval, error detection frequencies, and CRC calculation time for error
detection in user mode.
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Minimum EMR Update Interval
8-3
Minimum EMR Update Interval
The interval between each update of the error message register depends on the device and the frequency
of the error detection clock. Using a lower clock frequency increases the interval time, hence increasing
the time required to recover from a single event upset (SEU).
Table 8-1: Estimated Minimum EMR Update Interval in Cyclone V Devices
Variant
Cyclone V E
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
Member Code
Timing Interval (µs)
A2
1.47
A4
1.47
A5
1.79
A7
2.33
A9
3.23
C3
1.09
C4
1.79
C5
1.79
C7
2.33
C9
3.23
D5
1.79
D7
2.33
D9
3.23
A2
1.77
A4
1.77
A5
2.31
A6
2.31
C4
1.77
C5
2.31
C6
2.31
D5
2.31
D6
2.31
Error Detection Frequency
You can control the speed of the error detection process by setting the division factor of the clock
frequency in the Quartus Prime software. The divisor is 2n, where n can be any value listed in the
following table.
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CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device
The speed of the error detection process for each data frame is determined by the following equation:
Figure 8-2: Error Detection Frequency Equation
Error Detection Frequency
=
Internal Oscillator Frequency
2n
Table 8-2: Error Detection Frequency Range for Cyclone V Devices
The following table lists the frequencies and valid values of n.
Internal Oscillator
Frequency
100 MHz
Error Detection Frequency
Maximum
100 MHz
Minimum
390 kHz
n
Divisor Range
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 1 – 256
CRC Calculation Time For Entire Device
While the CRC calculation is done on a per frame basis, it is important to know the time taken to
complete CRC calculations for the entire device. The entire device detection time is the time taken to do
CRC calculations on every frame in the device. This time depends on the device and the error detection
clock frequency. The error detection clock frequency also depends on the device and on the internal
oscillator frequency, which varies from 42.6 MHz to 100 MHz.
You can calculate the minimum and maximum time for any number of divisor based on the following
formula:
Maximum time (n) = 2^(n-8) * tMAX
Minimum time (n) = 2^n * tMIN
where the range of n is from 0 to 8.
Table 8-3: Device EDCRC Detection Time in Cyclone V Devices
The following table lists the minimum and maximum time taken to calculate the CRC value:
• The minimum time is derived using the maximum clock frequency with a divisor of 0.
• The maximum time is derived using the minimum clock frequency with a divisor of 8.
Variant
Cyclone V E
Altera Corporation
Member Code
tMIN (ms)
tMAX (s)
A2
4
2.08
A4
4
2.08
A5
7
3.54
A7
7
3.62
A9
15
7.40
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Using Error Detection Features in User Mode
Variant
Member Code
tMIN (ms)
tMAX (s)
C3
8
4.05
C4
7
3.54
C5
7
3.54
C7
7
3.62
C9
15
7.40
D5
7
3.54
D7
7
3.62
D9
15
7.40
A2
7
3.59
A4
7
3.59
A5
13
6.30
A6
13
6.30
C4
7
3.59
C5
13
6.30
C6
13
6.30
D5
13
6.30
D6
13
6.30
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
8-5
Using Error Detection Features in User Mode
This section describes the pin, registers, process flow, and procedures for error detection in user mode.
Enabling Error Detection
To enable user mode error detection and internal scrubbing in the Quartus Prime software, follow these
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
On the Assignments menu, click Device.
In the Device dialog box, click Device and Pin Options.
In the Category list, click Error Detection CRC.
Turn on Enable Error Detection CRC_ERROR pin.
To set the CRC_ERROR pin as output open drain, turn on Enable open drain on CRC_ERROR pin.
Turning off this option sets the CRC_ERROR pin as output.
6. To enable the on-chip error correction feature, turn on Enable internal scrubbing.
7. In the Divide error check frequency by list, select a valid divisor.
8. Click OK.
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CRC_ERROR Pin
CRC_ERROR Pin
Table 8-4: Pin Description
Pin Name
Pin Type
Description
I/O or output/
An active-high signal, when driven high indicates that an
output open-drain error is detected in the CRAM bits. This pin is only used
when you enable error detection in user mode.
Otherwise, the pin is used as a user I/O pin.
CRC_ERROR
When using the WYSIWYG function, you can route the
crcerror port from the WYSIWYG atom to the
dedicated CRC_ERROR pin or any user I/O pin. To route
the crcerror port to a user I/O pin, insert a D-type
flipflop between them.
Error Detection Registers
This section describes the registers used in user mode.
Figure 8-3: Block Diagram for Error Detection in User Mode
The block diagram shows the registers and data flow in user mode.
Readback
Bitstream with
Expected CRC
Error
Detection
State
Machine
Error Injection
Block
Fault
Injection
Register
JTAG
Fault
Injection
Register
Control
Signals
32-bit Error Detection
CRC Calculation and
Error Search Engine
Error
Message
Register
Altera Corporation
CRC_ERROR
JTAG
Update
Register
User
Update
Register
JTAG
Shift
Register
User
Shift
Register
JTAG TDO
Syndrome
Register
General Routing
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Error Detection Registers
8-7
Table 8-5: Error Detection Registers
Name
Width
(Bits)
Description
Syndrome register
32
Contains the 32-bit CRC signature calculated for the
current frame. If the CRC value is 0, the CRC_ERROR pin is
driven low to indicate no error. Otherwise, the pin is
pulled high.
Error message register (EMR)
67
Contains error details for single-bit and double-adjacent
errors. The error detection circuitry updates this register
each time the circuitry detects an error. The Error
Message Register Map figure shows the fields in this
register and the Error Type in EMR table lists the possible
error types.
JTAG update register
67
This register is automatically updated with the contents of
the EMR one clock cycle after the content of this register is
validated. The JTAG update register includes a clock
enable, which must be asserted before its contents are
written to the JTAG shift register. This requirement
ensures that the JTAG update register is not overwritten
when its contents are being read by the JTAG shift
register.
JTAG shift register
67
This register allows you to access the contents of the JTAG
update register via the JTAG interface using the SHIFT_
EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction.
User update register
67
This register is automatically updated with the contents of
the EMR one clock cycle after the contents of this register
are validated. The user update register includes a clock
enable, which must be asserted before its contents are
written to the user shift register. This requirement ensures
that the user update register is not overwritten when its
contents are being read by the user shift register.
User shift register
67
This register allows user logic to access the contents of the
user update register via the core interface.
JTAG fault injection register
46
You can use this register with the EDERROR_INJECT JTAG
instruction to inject errors in the bitstream. The JTAG
Fault Injection Register Map table lists the fields in this
register.
Fault injection register
46
This register is updated with the contents of the JTAG
fault injection register.
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Error Detection Process
Figure 8-4: Error Message Register Map
MSB
LSB
Syndrome
Frame Address
32 bits
Double Word
Location
Byte Offset
Bit Offset
10 bits
2 bits
3 bits
16 bits
Error Type
4 bits
Table 8-6: Error Type in EMR
The following table lists the possible error types reported in the error type field in the EMR.
Error Type
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Description
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
No CRC error.
0
0
0
1
Location of a single-bit error is identified.
0
0
1
0
Location of a double-adjacent error is identified.
1
1
1
1
Error types other than single-bit and double-adjacent errors.
Table 8-7: JTAG Fault Injection Register Map
Field Name
Bit Range
Description
Error Byte
Value
31:0
Contains the location of the bit error that
corresponds to the error injection type to this
field.
Byte Location
41:32
Contains the location of the injected error in
the first data frame.
45:42
Error Type
Specifies the following error types.
Bit 45
Bit 44
Bit 43
Bit 42
0
0
0
0
No error
0
0
0
1
Single-bit error
0
0
1
0
Double adjacent error
Error Detection Process
When enabled, the user mode error detection process activates automatically when the FPGA enters user
mode. The process continues to run until the device is reset even when an error is detected in the current
frame.
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Error Detection Process
8-9
Figure 8-5: Error Detection Process Flow in User Mode
Receive
Data Frame
Calculate and
Compare
CRC Values
Pull CRC_ERROR
Signal Low for
32 Clock Cycles
No
Error
Detected?
Yes
Update Error
Message Register
(Overwrite)
Drive
CRC_ERROR
Signal High
Search for
Error Location
Timing
The CRC_ERROR pin is always driven low during CRC calculation. When an error occurs, the EDCRC hard
block takes 32 clock cycles to update the EMR, the pin is driven high once the EMR is updated. Therefore,
you can start retrieving the contents of the EMR at the rising edge of the CRC_ERROR pin. The pin stays
high until the current frame is read and then driven low again for 32 clock cycles. To ensure information
integrity, complete the read operation within one frame of the CRC verification. The following diagram
shows the timing of these events.
Figure 8-6: Timing Requirements
Frame
Data Integrity
N
No CRC Error
N+1
N+2
CRC Error
CRC Error
N+3
No CRC Error
N+4
CRC Error
N+5
No CRC Error
Read Data Frame
CRC ERROR Pin
CRC Calculation
(32 clock cycles)
Read Error Message
Register (allowed time)
Read Error Message
for frame N+1
Read Error Message
for frame N+2
Read Error Message
for frame N+4
Retrieving Error Information
You can retrieve the error information via the core interface or the JTAG interface using the
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG JTAG instruction.
Recovering from CRC Errors
The system that hosts the FPGA must control device reconfiguration. To recover from a CRC error, drive
the nCONFIG signal low. The system waits for a safe time before reconfiguring the device. When reconfigu‐
ration completes successfully, the FPGA operates as intended.
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Testing the Error Detection Block
Related Information
• Error Detection Frequency on page 8-3
• Minimum EMR Update Interval on page 8-3
Provides more information about the duration of each Cyclone Vdevice.
• Test Methodology of Error Detection and Recovery using CRC in Altera FPGA Devices
Provides more information about how to retrieve the error information.
Testing the Error Detection Block
You can inject errors into the configuration data to test the error detection block. This error injection
methodology provides design verification and system fault tolerance characterization.
Testing via the JTAG Interface
You can intentionally inject single or double-adjacent errors into the configuration data using the
EDERROR_INJECT JTAG instruction.
Table 8-8: EDERROR_INJECT instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
00 0001 0101
EDERROR_INJECT
Description
Use this instruction to inject errors into the
configuration data. This instruction controls the
JTAG fault injection register, which contains the
error you want to inject into the bitstream.
You can only inject errors into the first frame of the configuration data. However, you can monitor the
error information at any time. Altera recommends that you reconfigure the FPGA after the test
completes.
Automating the Testing Process
You can automate the testing process by creating a Jam™ file (.jam). Using this file, you can verify the
CRC functionality in-system and on-the-fly without reconfiguring the device. You can then switch to the
CRC circuitry to check for real errors caused by an SEU.
Related Information
Test Methodology of Error Detection and Recovery using CRC in Altera FPGA Devices
Provides more information about how to test the error detection block.
Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
• Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
• Updated the clock cycles for the CRC calculation in the Error
Detection Process section.
March 2015
2015.03.31
Added support for the internal scrubbing feature.
January 2015
2015.01.23
Updated the description in the CRC Calculation Time section.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
8-11
Changes
June 2014
2014.06.30
Updated the CRC Calculation Time section.
November
2013
2013.11.12
• Updated the CRC Calculation Time section to include a formula to
calculate the minimum and maximum time.
• Removed preliminary for the Minimum EMR Update Interval and
CRC Calculation Time.
• Removed related information for the Internal Scrubbing feature.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Updated the minimum EMR Update Interval and CRC Calculation
Time for Cyclone V E, Cyclone V GX, and Cyclone V GT devices.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Updated the width of the JTAG fault injection and fault injection
registers.
June 2012
2.0
• Added the “Basic Description”, “Error Detection Features”, “Types of
Error Detection”, “Error Detection Components”, “Using the Error
Detection Feature”, and “Testing the Error Detection Block” sections.
• Updated Table 8–4, Table 8–5, and Table 8–6.
• Restructured the chapter.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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This chapter describes the boundary-scan test (BST) features in Cyclone V devices.
Related Information
• JTAG Configuration on page 7-30
Provides more information about JTAG configuration.
• Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
BST Operation Control
Cyclone V devices support IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST. You can perform BST on Cyclone V devices before,
after, and during configuration.
IDCODE
The IDCODE is unique for each Cyclone V device. Use this code to identify the devices in a JTAG chain.
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trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
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IDCODE
Table 9-1: IDCODE Information for Cyclone V Devices
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Variant
Cyclone V E
Cyclone V GX
Cyclone V GT
Cyclone V SE
Altera Corporation
Member Code Version (4 Bits)
Part Number
(16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity
(11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit)
A2
0000
0010 1011
0001 0101
000 0110 1110
1
A4
0000
0010 1011
0000 0101
000 0110 1110
1
A5
0000
0010 1011
0010 0010
000 0110 1110
1
A7
0000
0010 1011
0001 0011
000 0110 1110
1
A9
0000
0010 1011
0001 0100
000 0110 1110
1
C3
0000
0010 1011
0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
C4
0000
0010 1011
0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
C5
0000
0010 1011
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
C7
0000
0010 1011
0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
C9
0000
0010 1011
0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
D5
0000
0010 1011
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
D7
0000
0010 1011
0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
D9
0000
0010 1011
0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
A2
0000
0010 1101
0001 0001
000 0110 1110
1
A4
0000
0010 1101
0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
A5
0000
0010 1101
0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
A6
0000
0010 1101
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
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Supported JTAG Instruction
9-3
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Variant
Member Code Version (4 Bits)
Cyclone V SX
Cyclone V ST
Part Number
(16 Bits)
Manufacture
Identity
(11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit)
C2
0000
0010 1101
0001 0001
000 0110 1110
1
C4
0000
0010 1101
0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
C5
0000
0010 1101
0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
C6
0000
0010 1101
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
D5
0000
0010 1101
0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
D6
0000
0010 1101
0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
Supported JTAG Instruction
Table 9-2: JTAG Instructions Supported by Cyclone V Devices
JTAG Instruction
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
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Instruction Code
00 0000 0101
Description
• Allows you to capture and
examine a snapshot of signals at
the device pins during normal
device operation and permits an
initial data pattern to be an output
at the device pins.
• Use this instruction to preload the
test data into the update registers
before loading the EXTEST instruc‐
tion.
• Used by the SignalTap™ II
Embedded Logic Analyzer.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
EXTEST
00 0000 1111
• Allows you to test the external
circuit and board-level intercon‐
nects by forcing a test pattern at
the output pins, and capturing the
test results at the input pins.
Forcing known logic high and low
levels on output pins allows you to
detect opens and shorts at the pins
of any device in the scan chain.
• The high-impedance state of
EXTEST is overridden by bus hold
and weak pull-up resistor features.
BYPASS
11 1111 1111
Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal device operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the BST
data to pass synchronously through
the selected devices to adjacent
devices.
USERCODE
00 0000 0111
• Examines the user electronic
signature (UES) within the devices
along a JTAG chain.
• Selects the 32-bit USERCODE
register and places it between the
TDI and TDO pins to allow serial
shifting of USERCODE out of TDO.
• The UES value is set to default
value before configuration and is
only user-defined after the device
is configured.
IDCODE
00 0000 0110
• Identifies the devices in a JTAG
chain. If you select IDCODE, the
device identification register is
loaded with the 32-bit
vendor-defined identification
code.
• Selects the IDCODE register and
places it between the TDI and TDO
pins to allow serial shifting of
IDCODE out of TDO.
• IDCODE is the default instruction at
power up and in the TAP RESET
state. Without loading any
instructions, you can go to the
SHIFT_DR state and shift out the
JTAG device ID.
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Supported JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
9-5
Description
HIGHZ
00 0000 1011
• Sets all user I/O pins to an inactive
drive state.
• Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the
BST data to pass synchronously
through the selected devices to
adjacent devices while tri-stating
all I/O pins until a new JTAG
instruction is executed.
• If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the HIGHZ
value at the pin.
CLAMP
00 0000 1010
• Places the 1-bit bypass register
between the TDI and TDO pins.
During normal operation, the
1-bit bypass register allows the
BST data to pass synchronously
through the selected devices to
adjacent devices while holding the
I/O pins to a state defined by the
data in the boundary-scan register.
• If you are testing the device after
configuration, the programmable
weak pull-up resistor or the bus
hold feature overrides the CLAMP
value at the pin. The CLAMP value
is the value stored in the update
register of the boundary-scan cell
(BSC).
PULSE_NCONFIG
00 0000 0001
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin
low to trigger reconfiguration even
though the physical pin is not
affected.
CONFIG_IO
00 0000 1101
Allows I/O reconfiguration (after or
during reconfigurations) through the
JTAG ports using I/O configuration
shift register (IOCSR) for JTAG
testing. You can issue the CONFIG_IO
instruction only after the nSTATUS pin
goes high.
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JTAG Secure Mode
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
LOCK
01 1111 0000
Put the device in JTAG secure mode.
In this mode, only BYPASS, SAMPLE/
PRELOAD, EXTEST, IDCODE,
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG, and UNLOCK
instructions are supported. This
instruction can only be accessed
through JTAG core access in user
mode. It cannot be accessed through
external JTAG pins in test or user
mode.
UNLOCK
11 0011 0001
Release the device from the JTAG
secure mode to enable access to all
other JTAG instructions. This
instruction can only be accessed
through JTAG core access in user
mode. It cannot be accessed through
external JTAG pins in test or user
mode.
KEY_CLR_VREG
00 0010 1001
Clears the volatile key.
KEY_VERIFY
00 0001 0011
Verifies the non-volatile key has been
cleared.
Note: If the device is in a reset state and the nCONFIG or nSTATUS signal is low, the device IDCODE might
not be read correctly. To read the device IDCODE correctly, you must issue the IDCODE JTAG
instruction only when the nCONFIG and nSTATUS signals are high.
Related Information
JTAG Secure Mode on page 7-42
Provides more information about PULSE_NCONFIG, CONFIG_IO, LOCK, and UNLOCK JTAG instructions.
JTAG Secure Mode
If you enable the tamper-protection bit, the Cyclone V device is in JTAG secure mode after power up. In
the JTAG secure mode, the JTAG pins support only the BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, EXTEST, IDCODE,
SHIFT_EDERROR_REG, and UNLOCK instructions. Issue the UNLOCK JTAG instruction to enable support for
other JTAG instructions.
JTAG Private Instruction
Caution: Never invoke the following instruction codes. These instructions can damage and render the
device unusable:
•
•
•
•
•
•
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1100010000
0011001001
1100010011
1100010111
0111100000
1110110011
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I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation
•
•
•
•
9-7
0011100101
0011100110
0000101010
0000101011
I/O Voltage for JTAG Operation
The Cyclone V device operating in IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST mode uses four dedicated JTAG pins—TDI, TDO,
TMS, and TCK. Cyclone V devices do not support the optional TRST pin.
The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resistor, while the TDI and TMS pins have internal weak pullup resistors. The 3.3-, 3.0-, or 2.5-V VCCPD supply of I/O bank 3A powers the TDO, TDI, TMS, and TCK pins.
All user I/O pins are tri-stated during JTAG configuration.
The JTAG chain supports several different devices. Use the supported TDO and TDI voltage combinations
listed in the following table if the JTAG chain contains devices that have different VCCIO levels. The
output voltage level of the TDO pin must meet the specification of the TDI pin it drives.
Table 9-3: Supported TDO and TDI Voltage Combinations
The TDO output buffer for VCCPD of 3.3 V or 3.0 V meets VOH (MIN) of 2.4 V, and the TDO output buffer for
VCCPD of 2.5 V meets VOH (MIN) of 2.0 V.
Device
Cyclone V
Non- Cyclone V(27)
TDI Input Buffer
Power (V)
Cyclone V TDO VCCPD
VCCPD = 3.3 V
VCCPD = 3.0 V
VCCPD = 2.5 V
VCCPD = 3.3
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCCPD = 3.0
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCCPD = 2.5
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCC = 3.3
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCC = 2.5
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCC = 1.8
Yes
Yes
Yes
VCC = 1.5
Yes
Yes
Yes
Performing BST
You can issue BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE JTAG instructions before, after, or during configuration
without having to interrupt configuration.
To issue other JTAG instructions, follow these guidelines:
• To perform testing before configuration, hold the nCONFIG pin low.
• To perform BST during configuration, issue CONFIG_IO JTAG instruction to interrupt configuration.
While configuration is interrupted, you can issue other JTAG instructions to perform BST. After BST
is completed, issue the PULSE_CONFIG JTAG instruction or pulse nCONFIG low to reconfigure the
device.
(27)
The input buffer must be tolerant to the TDO VCCPD voltage.
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Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on Cyclone V devices do
not affect JTAG boundary-scan or configuration operations. Toggling these pins does not disrupt BST
operation (other than the expected BST behavior).
If you design a board for JTAG configuration of Cyclone V devices, consider the connections for the
dedicated configuration pins.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides more information about pin connections.
• JTAG Configuration
Provides more information about JTAG configuration.
• FPGA JTAG Configuration Timing
Provides more information about JTAG configuration timing.
Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry is enabled after the Cyclone V device powers up. However for Cyclone
V SoC FPGAs, you must power up both HPS and FPGA to perform BST.
The HPS should be held in reset while performing BST to stop the I/Os being accessed or setup by the
HPS.
To ensure that you do not inadvertently enable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry when it is not required,
disable the circuitry permanently with pin connections as listed in the following table.
Table 9-4: Pin Connections to Permanently Disable the IEEE Std. 1149.1 Circuitry for Cyclone V Devices
JTAG Pins(28)
(28)
Connection for Disabling
TMS
VCCPD supply of Bank 3A
TCK
GND
TDI
VCCPD supply of Bank 3A
TDO
Leave open
The JTAG pins are dedicated. Software option is not available to disable JTAG in Cyclone V devices.
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Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
9-9
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
Consider the following guidelines when you perform BST with IEEE Std. 1149.1 devices:
• If the “10...” pattern does not shift out of the instruction register through the TDO pin during the first
clock cycle of the SHIFT_IR state, the TAP controller did not reach the proper state. To solve this
problem, try one of the following procedures:
• Verify that the TAP controller has reached the SHIFT_IR state correctly. To advance the TAP
controller to the SHIFT_IR state, return to the RESET state and send the 01100 code to the TMS pin.
• Check the connections to the VCC, GND, JTAG, and dedicated configuration pins on the device.
• Perform a SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle before the first EXTEST test cycle to ensure that known data is
present at the device pins when you enter EXTEST mode. If the OEJ update register contains 0, the data
in the OUTJ update register is driven out. The state must be known and correct to avoid contention
with other devices in the system.
• Do not perform EXTEST testing during in-circuit reconfiguration because EXTEST is not supported
during in-circuit reconfiguration. To perform testing, wait for the configuration to complete or issue
the CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt configuration.
• After configuration, you cannot test any pins in a differential pin pair. To perform BST after configu‐
ration, edit and redefine the BSC group that correspond to these differential pin pairs as an internal
cell.
Related Information
IEEE 1149.1 BSDL Files
Provides more information about BSC group definitions.
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register
The boundary-scan register is a large serial shift register that uses the TDI pin as an input and the TDO pin
as an output. The boundary-scan register consists of 3-bit peripheral elements that are associated with
Cyclone V I/O pins. You can use the boundary-scan register to test external pin connections or to capture
internal data.
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Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone V Device I/O Pin
Figure 9-1: Boundary-Scan Register
This figure shows how test data is serially shifted around the periphery of the IEEE Std. 1149.1 device.
Each peripheral
element is either an
I/O pin, dedicated
input pin, or
dedicated
configuration pin.
Internal Logic
TAP Controller
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone V Device I/O Pin
The Cyclone V device 3-bit BSC consists of the following registers:
• Capture registers—Connect to internal device data through the OUTJ, OEJ, and PIN_IN signals.
• Update registers—Connect to external data through the PIN_OUT and PIN_OE signals.
The TAP controller generates the global control signals for the IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST registers (shift,
clock, and update) internally. A decode of the instruction register generates the MODE signal.
The data signal path for the boundary-scan register runs from the serial data in (SDI) signal to the serial
data out (SDO) signal. The scan register begins at the TDI pin and ends at the TDO pin of the device.
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Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone V Device I/O Pin
9-11
Figure 9-2: User I/O BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry for Cyclone V Devices
Capture
Registers
SDO
Update
Registers
INJ
PIN_IN
0
1
D
Q
D
INPUT
0
1
Q
INPUT
OEJ
From or
To Device
I/O Cell
Circuitry
And/Or
Logic
Array
0
1
D
Q
D
OE
Q
OE
VCC
0
1
0
1
PIN_OE
0
1
PIN_OUT
OUTJ
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
SHIFT
CLOCK
UPDATE
Pin
Output
Buffer
SDI
HIGHZ
MODE
Global
Signals
Note: TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK pins, all VCC and GND pin types, and VREF pins do not have BSCs.
Table 9-5: Boundary-Scan Cell Descriptions for Cyclone V Devices
This table lists the capture and update register capabilities of all BSCs within Cyclone V devices.
Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Pin Type
User I/O pins OUTJ
Dedicated
clock input
0
OE Capture
Register
Input
Capture
Register
OEJ
PIN_IN
1
PIN_IN
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Drives
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Input
Update
Register
Comments
PIN_OUT
PIN_OE
INJ
—
No
Connect
(N.C.)
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
to the clock
network or
logic array
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Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Pin Type
Drives
OE Capture
Register
Input
Capture
Register
Dedicated
input (29)
0
1
PIN_IN
Dedicated
bidirectional
(open drain)
0
OEJ
OUTJ
OUTJ
Output
Update
Register
OE Update
Register
Input
Update
Register
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
to the
configuration
control
OEJ
PIN_IN
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
PIN_IN drives
to the
configuration
control and
OUTJ drives to
the output
buffer
0
0
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
OUTJ drives to
the output
buffer
(30)
Dedicated
bidirec‐
tional(31)
Dedicated
output(32)
Comments
to the control
logic
Document Revision History
Date
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
Added a note in the Enabling and Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST
Circuitry section.
June 2014
2014.06.30
Removed a note in the Performing BST section.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Added a note to the Performing BST section.
• Updated the KEY_CLR_VREG JTAG instruction.
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
This includes the PLL_ENA, VCCSEL, PORSEL, nIO_PULLUP, nCONFIG, MSEL0, MSEL1, MSEL2, MSEL3, MSEL4, and
nCE pins.
This includes the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins.
This includes the DCLK pin.
This includes the nCEO pin.
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2012
2012.12.28
June 2012
2.0
• Restructured the chapter.
• Updated Table 9-1 and Table 9-2.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
Reorganized content and updated template.
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Power Management in Cyclone V Devices
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This chapter describes the hot-socketing feature, power-on reset (POR) requirements, and their
implementation in Cyclone V devices.
Related Information
• Cyclone V Device Handbook: Known Issues
Lists the planned updates to the Cyclone V Device Handbook chapters.
• PowerPlay Power Analysis
Provides more information about the Quartus®Prime PowerPlay Power Analyzer tool.
• Cyclone V Device Datasheet
Provides more information about the recommended operating conditions of each power supply.
• Cyclone V Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
Provides detailed information about power supply pin connection guidelines and power regulator
sharing.
• Support Resources: Board Design
Provides detailed information about power supply design requirements.
• Arria V and Cyclone V Design Guidelines
Power Consumption
The total power consumption of a Cyclone V device consists of the following components:
• Static power—the power that the configured device consumes when powered up but no clocks are
operating.
• Dynamic power— the additional power consumption of the device due to signal activity or toggling.
Dynamic Power Equation
Figure 10-1: Dynamic Power
The following equation shows how to calculate dynamic power where P is power, C is the load
capacitance, and V is the supply voltage level.
© 2016 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, ENPIRION, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos are
trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance
of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any
products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information,
product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device
specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
www.altera.com
101 Innovation Drive, San Jose, CA 95134
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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Hot-Socketing Feature
The equation shows that power is design-dependent and is determined by the operating frequency of your
design. Cyclone V devices minimize static and dynamic power using advanced process optimizations.
This technology allows Cyclone V designs to meet specific performance requirements with the lowest
possible power.
Hot-Socketing Feature
Cyclone V devices support hot socketing—also known as hot plug-in or hot swap.
The hot-socketing circuitry monitors the VCCIO, VCCPD, and VCC power supplies and all VCCIO and
VCCPD banks.
You can power up or power down these power supplies in any sequence.
During the hot-socketing operation, the I/O pin capacitance is less than 15 pF and the clock pin
capacitance is less than 20 pF.
The hot-socketing capability removes some of the difficulty that designers face when using the Cyclone V
devices on PCBs that contain a mixture of devices with different voltage requirements.
The hot-socketing capability in Cyclone V devices provides the following advantages:
• You can drive signals into the I/O, dedicated input, and dedicated clock pins before or during power
up or power down without damaging the device. External input signals to the I/O pins of the
unpowered device will not power the power supplies through internal paths within the device.
• The output buffers are tri-stated during system power up or power down. Because the Cyclone V
device does not drive signals out before or during power up, the device does not affect the other
operating buses.
• You can insert or remove a Cyclone V device from a powered-up system board without damaging or
interfering with the system board's operation. This capability allows you to avoid sinking current
through the device signal pins to the device power supply, which can create a direct connection to
GND that causes power supply failures.
• During hot socketing, Cyclone V devices are immune to latch up that can occur when a device is hotsocketed into an active system.
Altera uses GND as a reference for hot-socketing and I/O buffer circuitry designs. To ensure proper
operation, connect GND between boards before connecting the power supplies. This prevents GND on
your board from being pulled up inadvertently by a path to power through other components on your
board. A pulled up GND could otherwise cause an out-of-specification I/O voltage or over current
condition in the Altera device.
Related Information
Hot Socketing
Provides details about the Cyclone V hot-socketing specifications.
Hot-Socketing Implementation
The hot-socketing feature tri-state the output buffer during power up and power down of the power
supplies. When these power supplies are below the threshold voltage, the hot-socketing circuitry generates
an internal HOTSCKT signal.
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Hot-socketing circuitry prevents excess I/O leakage during power up. When the voltage ramps up very
slowly, I/O leakage is still relatively low, even after the release of the POR signal and configuration is
complete.
Note: The output buffer cannot flip from the state set by the hot-socketing circuitry at very low voltage.
To allow the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins to operate during configuration, the hot-socketing
feature is not applied to these configuration pins. Therefore, these pins will drive out during power
up and power down.
Figure 10-2: Hot-Socketing Circuitry for Cyclone V Devices
Power-On
Reset (POR)
Monitor
V CCIO
Weak
Pull-Up
Resistor
PAD
R
Output Enable
Voltage
Tolerance
Control
Hot-Socket
Output
Pre-Driver
Input Buffer
to Logic Array
The POR circuitry monitors the voltage level of the power supplies and keeps the I/O pins tri-stated until
the device is in user mode. The weak pull-up resistor (R) in the Cyclone V input/output element (IOE) is
enabled during configuration download to keep the I/O pins from floating.
The 3.3-V tolerance control circuit allows the I/O pins to be driven by 3.3 V before the power supplies are
powered and prevents the I/O pins from driving out before the device enters user mode.
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Power-Up Sequence
Power-Up Sequence
Figure 10-3: Power-Up Sequence Recommendation for Cyclone V Devices
To ensure the minimum current draw during device power up for Cyclone V devices, follow the
power-up sequence recommendations as shown in the following figure.
Power up VCCBAT at any time. Ramp up the power rails in Group 1 to a minimum of 80% of their full rail
before Group 2 starts. Power up VCCE_GXB and VCCL_GXB together with VCC.
Group 1
1.1V
V CC
V CCE_GXB
V CCL_GXB
Group 2
2.5V
V CCPGM
V CCIO
V CCPD
V CCA_FPLL
V CCH_GXB
V CC_AUX
V CC_HPS
V CCPD_HPS
V CCIO_HPS
V CCRSTCLK_HPS
V CCPLL_HPS
V CC_AUX_SHARED
Power rails that are
only available with
Cyclone V SX, SE,
and ST devices.
This table lists the current transient that you may observe at the indicated power rails after powering up
the Cyclone V device, and before configuration starts. These transients have a finite duration bounded by
the time at which the device enters configuration mode. For Cyclone V SX, SE and ST devices, you may
observe the current transient in the following table after powering up the device, and before all the power
supplies reach the recommended operating range.
For details about the minimum current requirements, refer to the PowerPlay Early Power Estimator
(EPE), and compare to the information listed in the following table. If the current transient exceeds the
minimum current requirements in the PowerPlay EPE, you need to take the information into considera‐
tion for your power regulator design.
Table 10-1: Maximum Power Supply Current Transient and Typical Duration
Maximum Power Supply
Current Transient (mA)
Typical Duration (µs) (33)
VCCPD (34)(35)
1000
50
VCCIO (35)(36)
250
200
Power Rail
(33)
(34)
(35)
(36)
Only typical duration is provided as it may vary on the board design.
You may observe the current transient at VCCPD only when you do not follow the recommended power-up
sequence. To avoid the current transient at VCCPD, follow the recommended power-up sequence.
The maximum current for VCCIO and VCCPD applies to all voltage levels supported by the Cyclone V device.
You may observe the current transient at VCCIO if you power up VCCIO before VCCPD. To avoid the current
transient at VCCIO, follow the recommended power-up sequence by powering up VCCIO and VCCPD
together.
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Power-On Reset Circuitry
Maximum Power Supply
Current Transient (mA)
Typical Duration (µs) (33)
VCC_AUX (37)
400
10
VCC
350
100
VCCPD_HPS(38)(39)(40)
400
50
VCCIO_HPS(38)(40)(41)
100
200
VCC_HPS(37)(38)
420
100
Power Rail
(37)
10-5
Related Information
PowerPlay Early Power Estimators (EPE) and Power Analyzer
Provides more information about the PowerPlay EPE support for Cyclone V devices.
Power-On Reset Circuitry
The POR circuitry keeps the Cyclone V device in the reset state until the power supply outputs are within
the recommended operating range.
A POR event occurs when you power up the Cyclone V device until the power supplies reach the
recommended operating range within the maximum power supply ramp time, tRAMP. If tRAMP is not met,
the Cyclone V device I/O pins and programming registers remain tri-stated, during which device configu‐
ration could fail.
(33)
(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)
(41)
Only typical duration is provided as it may vary on the board design.
You may observe the current transient at VCC_AUX, VCC, and VCC_HPS with any power-up sequence.
These power rails are only available on Cyclone V SX, SE and ST devices.
You may observe the current transient at VCCPD_HPS only when you do not follow the recommended powerup sequence. To avoid the current transient at VCCPD_HPS, follow the recommended power-up sequence.
The maximum current for VCCIO_HPS and VCCPD_HPS applies to all voltage levels supported by the Cyclone
V device.
You may observe the current transient at VCCIO_HPS if you power up VCCIO_HPS before VCCPD_HPS. To avoid
the current transient at VCCIO_HPS, follow the recommended power-up sequence by powering up VCCIO_HPS
and VCCPD_HPS together.
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Power-On Reset Circuitry
Figure 10-4: Relationship Between tRAMP and POR Delay
Volts
POR trip level
first power
supply
last power
supply
Time
POR delay
tRAMP
configuration
time
The Cyclone V POR circuitry uses an individual detecting circuitry to monitor each of the
configuration-related power supplies independently. The main POR circuitry is gated by the outputs of all
the individual detectors. The main POR signal is asserted when the power starts to ramp up. This signal is
released after the last ramp-up power reaches the POR trip level during power up.
In user mode, the main POR signal is asserted when any of the monitored power goes below its POR trip
level. Asserting the POR signal forces the device into the reset state.
The POR circuitry checks the functionality of the I/O level shifters powered by the VCCPD and VCCPGM
power supplies during power-up mode. The main POR circuitry waits for all the individual POR
circuitries to release the POR signal before allowing the control block to start programming the device.
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Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
10-7
Figure 10-5: Simplified POR Diagram for Cyclone V Devices
V CC
V CC POR
V CC_AUX
Modular
Main POR
V CC_AUX POR
Main POR
V CCPD
V CCPGM
Related Information
POR Specifications
Provides more information about the POR delay specification and tRAMP.
Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the POR Circuitry
Table 10-2: Power Supplies Monitored and Not Monitored by the Cyclone V POR Circuitry
Power Supplies Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCC_AUX
VCCBAT
VCC
VCCPD
VCCPGM
VCC_HPS
VCCPD_HPS
VCCRSTCLK_HPS
VCC_AUX_SHARED
Power Supplies Not Monitored
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VCCE_GXBL
VCCH_GXBL
VCCL_GXBL
VCCA_FPLL
VCCIO
VCCIO_HPS
VCCPLL_HPS
Note: For the device to exit POR, you must power the VCCBAT power supply even if you do not use the
volatile key.
Related Information
• Reset Manager
Provides information from the Hard Processor System Technical Reference Manual.
• MSEL Pin Settings
Provides more information about the MSEL pin settings for each POR delay.
Document Revision History
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Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
December
2015
2015.12.21
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
January 2015
2015.01.23
• Added VCC_AUX_SHARED to the power supplies monitored by the
Cyclone V POR circuitry.
• Added a link to the Arria V and Cyclone V Design Guidelines.
January 2014
2014.01.10
• Updated the note to the VCCPD_HPS power rail that current transient
at VCCPD_HPS is observed only when the recommended power-up
sequence is not followed. To avoid the current transient at
VCCPD_HPS, follow the recommended power-up sequence.
• Added Group 1 and Group 2 to the Power-Up Sequence.
June 2013
2013.06.28
• Added power-up sequences for Cyclone V SX, SE and ST devices.
• Added the current transient that occurs on HPS power rails during
power-up
May 2013
2013.05.06
• Added link to the known document issues in the Knowledge Base.
• Moved all links to the Related Information section of respective topics
for easy reference.
• Updated dynamic power in Power Consumption for improve clarity.
December
2012
2012.12.28
• Added the Power-Up Sequence section.
• Reorganized content and updated template.
June 2012
2.0
Restructured the chapter.
October 2011
1.0
Initial release.
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