Arrays

Arrays
Arrays
The array data structure

An array is an indexed sequence of components
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Typically, the array occupies sequential storage locations
The length of the array is determined when the array is
created, and cannot be changed
Each component of the array has a fixed, unique index
 Indices range from a lower bound to an upper bound
Any component of the array can be inspected
or updated by using its index

This is an efficient operation: O(1) = constant time
2
Array variations I

The array indices may be integers (C, Java) or other
discrete data types (Pascal, Ada)
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The lower bound may be zero (C, Java), one
(Fortran), or chosen by the programmer (Pascal, Ada)

In most languages, arrays are homogeneous (all
components must have the same type); in some (Lisp,
Prolog) the components may be heterogeneous (of
varying types)
3
Array variations II

In an object-oriented language, arrays may be objects
(Java) or not objects (C++)
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Arrays may carry additional information about
themselves, such as type and length (Java), or may
consist only of their components (C, C++)
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I will use the terms reflective and non-reflective, respectively,
to refer to these two types of arrays
This is not standard terminology, but it is consistent with other
uses of the terms
4
Arrays in Java I
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Array indices are integers
An array of length n has bounds 0 and n-1
Arrays are homogeneous

However, an array of an object type may contain objects
of any subtype of that object
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For example, an array of Animal may contain objects of type
Cat and objects of type Dog
An array of Object may contain any type of object (but cannot
contain primitives)
5
Arrays in Java II

Arrays are objects

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Arrays are allocated by new, manipulated by reference, and
garbage collected
However, the usual bracket notation a[i] is provided as
syntactic sugar
Arrays are reflective

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a.length is the length of array a
a.getClass() is the type of array a
 An array of integers has type [I
 An array of Strings has type [Ljava.lang.String;
6
Arrays in Java III

Here’s one way to visualize an array in Java:
myArray
class tag
length
0
1
2
3
[I
4
17
23
948
3
7
Subarrays
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A subarray is a consecutive portion of an array
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
array a [I 10 1
1
2
3
5
8 13 21 34 55
subarray a[2...6]
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Java provides no language support for subarrays
To use a subarray, you must keep track of (1) the array
itself, (2) the lower bound, and (3) the upper bound
Typically, these will be three parameters to a method that
does something with the subarray
8
Array as an ADT
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An array is an Abstract Data Type
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The array type has a set of values

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The array type has a set of operations that can be
applied uniformly to each of these values
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The values are all the possible arrays
The only operation is indexing
Alternatively, this can be viewed as two operations:
 inspecting an indexed location
 storing into an indexed location
It’s abstract because the implementation is hidden: all
access is via the defined operations
9
Subarray as an ADT
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As noted earlier, to use a subarray, you must keep track of (1) the
array itself, (2) the lower bound, and (3) the upper bound
This suggests:
class Subarray<V> {
V[ ] subarray;
int lowerBound;
int upperBound;
// Constructor, some methods...
}
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Advantage:
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Only one object to pass around
Disadvantages:
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The subarray must hold Objects, not primitives
You lose the nice array syntax
10
Two-dimensional arrays I
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Some languages (Fortran, Pascal) support two-dimensional (2D)
arrays: columns
rows
a b c d
e f g h
i j k l
logical view

A two-dimensional array may be stored
in one-dimensional computer memory
in either of two ways:
row 0
row 1
row 2
row major order: a b c d e f g h i j k l
col 0
col 1
col 2
col 3
column major order: a e i b f j c g k d h l
11
Two-dimensional arrays II

In a 2D array, we generally consider the first index to be the row,
and the second to be the column: a[row, col]
0
1
rows
2
3
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0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
columns
1
2
3
0,1 0,2 0,3
1,1 1,2 1,3
2,1 2,2 2,3
3,1 3,2 3,3
4
0,4
1,4
2,4
3,4
In most languages we don’t need to know the implementation-we work with this abstraction
In C and C++, we do need to know the implementation
12
2D arrays in Java
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Java doesn’t have “real” 2D arrays, but array elements can
themselves be arrays:
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We can define the above array like this:
x = new int[5][8];
and treat it as a regular 2D array
This is an array of 5 arrays
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int x[][] denotes an array x of array components, each of which is
an array of integer components
Each subarray is an array of 8 ints
However, we can do fancier things than this with arrays in
Java
13
Ragged arrays
int ragged[][] = new int[4][];
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
ragged[i] = new int[i + 1];
}
0
1
2
3
0
0 1
10 11 2
20 21 22 3
30 31 32 33
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < ragged[i].length; j++) {
ragged[i][j] = 10 * i + j;
}
}
14
Inserting an element into an array

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Suppose we want to insert the value 8 into this sorted array
(while keeping the array sorted)
1 3 3 7 12 14 17 19 22 30
We can do this by shifting all the elements after the mark right by
one location
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Of course, we have to discard the 30 when we do this
1
3
3
7
8
12 14 17 19 22
• Moving all those elements makes this a slow
operation (linear in the size of the array)
15
Deleting an element from an array
Deleting an element is similar--again, we have to move all
the elements after it
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1
3
3
7
1
3
3
7
8
12 14 17 19 22
12 14 17 19 22
?
Deletion is a slow operation; we don’t want to do it very often
Deletion leaves a “vacant” location at the end
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How do we mark it vacant?
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Every bit pattern represents a valid integer
We must keep a count of how many valid elements are in the array
16
Arrays and ArrayLists
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Here are the advantages of arrays:
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Very efficient, in terms of both time and space
Convenient syntax
Here is the main disadvantage:
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Fixed size
17
Vectors and ArrayLists
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Vector methods include the following:
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ArrayList methods include the following:
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public void insertElementAt(Object elem, int index)
public void removeElementAt(int index)
public void add(int index, Object elem)
public void remove(int index)
These are slow (linear time) methods
Should we avoid using these methods?
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Use them if this is the best way to make your program code simple and
easier to understand
Don’t use them if there is an equally simple alternative
Don’t use them if extreme speed is required, and there is a faster
alternative
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Conclusions
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Arrays are not identical in all languages
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Arrays have the following advantages:
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Accessing an element by its index is very fast (constant
time)
Arrays have the following disadvantages:
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All elements must be of the same type
The array size is fixed and can never be changed
Insertion into arrays and deletion from arrays is very slow
19
The End
Eclipse Hints
● If Eclipse persists in showing you
syntax errors where you think there
aren’t any, try choosing Project 
Clean...
20
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