RingCentral Router Configuration

RingCentral Router Configuration
RingCentral Router Configuration
Basic Start Guide for Administrators
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators
Contents
3
Getting Started
24
Tips and Additional Information
4
4
Quality of Service
Test Your Connection Quality & Capacity
5
Select Your Router
6
Select Your Router
7
Configure Your Router
8
8
9
11
17
19
Configure Your Router
ASUS RT-N66U Dark Knight Configuration
D-Link HD Media Router 2000
Linksys E1200
Linksys E2500
Linksys EA4500
21
How to Set Up a Network Router
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
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27
27
27
27
28
Tips and Additional Information
Media Access Control (MAC)
MAC Addresses
Find a MAC Address in Windows
Find a MAC Address in UNIX or Linux
Find a MAC Address on the Mac
Summary - How to Find a MAC Address
How to Change a MAC Address
Summary - Change a MAC Address
Change the Default SSID on Wireless Access Points and Routers
Find the IP Address of a Network Device
What’s My IP Address?
How to Find Your IP Address
How to Find Your IP and MAC Addresses On Windows
Wi-Fi Network Security Best Practices
22
How to Set Up a Network Router
22
What You Need
22Steps
*Available only on selected plans
2
Getting Started
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Getting Started
Quality of Service
RingCentral provides reliable, high-quality voice service. Your local network,
Internet connection, and router all contribute to overall call quality, with high
bandwidth being the biggest factor. To help you manage your call quality,
RingCentral offers tools to check your Internet connection speed, and
instructions to configure the Quality of Service (QoS) settings of your routers.
The Quality of Service (QoS) settings on your router enable it to give priority
to voice traffic over lower priority data traffic, such as large downloads.
RingCentral has tested and approved a set of QoS-enabled routers for use with
RingCentral VoIP services. Recommended routers appear in the next section
along with configuration settings to enable QoS on the router device you choose.
Test Your Connection Quality & Capacity
RingCentral provides a VoIP Quality test that will simulate VoIP calls between
your computer and RingCentral, and provide an estimate of the voice quality you
should expect when using our service. For the most accurate results, run this
test during peak usage times while connected to the network that you plan to
use for RingCentral.
A two-minute test is typically sufficient, while longer tests are useful to find
intermittent problems or to simultaneously test VoIP performance along with
other traffic such as file transfers or remote access.
The RingCentral Connection Capacity test will help determine the maximum
number of simultaneous RingCentral calls that can be supported on your
broadband connection. Run this test during normal business hours when
the connection is in use by other applications. When the test completes, you
will see the recommended number of simultaneous calls your connection can
support while maintaining high Quality of Service.
4
Select Your Router
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Select Your Router
Select Your Router
RingCentral has taken the “guesswork” out of
router selection. Since we know that Quality
of Service (QoS) is paramount to your business,
we have carefully selected and tested a set of
dependable routers suitable for supporting high
quality Voice‑over-IP conversations. Select your
router from the following list. Visit the RingCentral
Customer Support Center to learn whether the
router you may already own is on the recommended
list.
6
Configure Your Router
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
Configure Your Router
ASUS RT-N66U Dark Knight Configuration
Configuring QoS on the ASUS RT-N66U Dark Knight to
Prioritize VoIP Traffic
Brand: ASUS
Model: RT-N66U
Firmware Version: 3.0.0.3.112
1. Log in to the router.
Follow the prompts to create a password and a username
will be given to you
2. Click Traffic Manager on the left hand side.
3. Click on the QoS slider to turn QoS on.
4. When the QoS slider turns green, enter your current
bandwidth for both the upload and download. (If unsure
of your current bandwidth speed, please run a speed test
at http://www.speedtest.net/.)
5. Click Save after entering your bandwidth figures.
6. Be sure to power cycle/reboot the router before
proceeding.
7. Your QoS should now be configured.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
D-Link HD Media Router 2000 (DIR 827)
Configuring QoS on the D-Link HD Media Router 2000 to
Prioritize VoIP Traffic
Brand: D-Link
Model: HD Media Router 2000
Firmware Version: v 1.04
1. Log in to D-link router. The default IP address is 192.168.0.1.
2. Click on ADVANCED.
3. Click on QOS ENGINE.
4. Click on Enable Traffic Shaping.
5. Enter your broadband provider’s uplink speed (1024K
in this example). This information is typically listed
on your monthly service invoice.
6. Select all checkboxes in QOS ENGINE SETUP.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
7. Add QoS rule for port 5060 – 5090 UDP
Rule name: RC1
Priority 1
Protocol UDP
Local IP range 0.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255
Local port range 0 – 65353
Remote IP range 0.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255
Remote port range 5060 – 5090
8. Add QoS rule for port 5060 – 5090 UDP
Rule name: RC2
Priority 1
Protocol UDP
Local IP range 0.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255
Local port range 0 – 65353
Remote IP range 0.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255
Remote port range 20000 – 52001
9. Save Settings and click Reboot Now.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
Linksys E1200
Configuring QoS on the Linksys E1200 to Prioritize VoIP Traffic
(MAC Method)
Brand: Linksys
Model: E1200
Firmware Version: 2.0.04 build 1
1. Log in to the router. The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
The default username is admin. The default password is admin.
2. Click on Applications & Gaming tab.
3. Click on QoS.
4. Select the radio button Enabled next to the field labeled
Internet Access Priority.
5. In the field labeled Upstream Bandwidth, select Manual
from the drop-down menu and enter your current
upload speed. (If unsure of your current upload speed, please
run a speed test at http://www.ringcentral.com/support/
capacity.html)
6. Select MAC Address from the drop-down menu labeled
Category.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
7. You will need the MAC address for each IP device to continue.
In the field labeled Enter a Name, enter a unique name
for the device for which you will prioritize traffic.
8. In the field labeled MAC Address enter the MAC address for the
device.
9. In the field labeled Priority, select High from
the drop‑down menu
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
10. Click Apply to save changes.
11. Repeat steps 6-10 until you have entered all of the IP phones.
When all have been entered and you see them in the Summary
section, click on Save Settings.
12. Power cycle/reboot the router before proceeding.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
Linksys E1200
Configuring QoS on the Linksys E1200 to Prioritize VoIP Traffic
(Port Method)
1. Log in to the router. The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
The‑default username is admin. The default password is admin.
2. Click on Applications & Gaming tab.
3. Click on QoS.
4. Select the radio button Enabled next to the field labeled
Internet Access Priority.
5. In the field labeled Upstream Bandwidth, select Manual from
the drop-down menu and enter your current upload speed.
(If unsure of your current upload speed, please run a speed test
at http://www.ringcentral.com/support/capacity.html.)
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
6. In the Category section, select Applications from
the drop‑down menu.
7. In the field labeled Applications, select Add a New Application
from the drop-down menu.
8. Enter a unique name in the Enter a Name field. Enter
the following port ranges and select UDP from the drop-down
menu to the right of each port range field and set the priority
to High on the drop-down menu: 5060-5090, 8000-8200,
16384-16482.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
9. Click Apply. You will see your changes in the Summary section.
10. Click on Save Settings.
11. Power cycle/reboot the router before proceeding.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
Linksys E2500
Configuring QoS on the Linksys E2500 to Prioritize VoIP Traffic
Brand: Linksys
Model: E2500
Firmware Version: 1.0.07
1. Log in to Linksys router.
2. Select Applications & Gaming.
3. Click on QoS.
4. Select Enabled to enable QoS service. Enter your broadband
provider’s uplink speed. This information is typically listed on your
monthly service invoice. It’s 1Mbps in our example.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
5. Select MAC address. Set Priority to High.
6. Enter the Name of your device and MAC Address of each phone.
The MAC Address can be found on the back of your device
or in the device menu.
7. Save Settings.
8. Select Continue to finish and return to the configuration menu.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
Linksys EA4500
Configuring QoS on the Linksys EA4500 to Prioritize VoIP Traffic
Brand: Linksys
Model: EA4500
Firmware Version: 4.21.5
1. Log in to Linksys router.
2. Select Applications & Gaming.
3. Click on QoS.
4. Select Enabled to enable QoS service. Enter your broadband
provider’s uplink speed. This information is typically listed on your
monthly service invoice. It’s 1Mbps in our example.
5. Select Applications from the category menu.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Configure Your Router
6. Enter an application name and select Priority High.
Enter the following port range:
Port Range: 20000 – 65535 Protocol: UDP
Port Range: 5060 – 5090 Protocol: UDP
Click on Apply to save settings.
7. Click on Save Settings to finish your setup.
8. Select Continue to finish and return to the router
configuration screen.
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How to Set Up a Network Router
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | How to Set Up a Network Router
How to Set Up a Network
Router
This section explains how to set up a router for office computer networks.
The exact names of configuration settings on a network router vary
depending on the model and whether it is wired or wireless. However, this
general procedure will guide you through the process for the common
kinds of network equipment
What You Need
•
A network router (wireless or wired)
•
Network adapters installed on all devices to be connected
to the router
•
A working Internet modem (optional)
•
A Web browser installed at least one computer in the network
Steps
1. Choose a convenient location to begin installing your router
such as an open floor space or table. This does not need
to be the permanent location of the device. Particularly for wireless
routers, you may find it necessary to re-position the unit after
installing it as the cables / signals may not reach all areas needed.
At the beginning, it’s better to choose a location where it’s easiest
to work with the router and worry about final placement later.
2. Plug in the router’s electrical power source; then turn on the router
by pushing the power button.
3. (Optional) Connect your Internet modem to the router. Most network
modems connect via an Ethernet cable but USB connections are
becoming increasingly common. The cable plugs into the router jack
named WAN or uplink or Internet After connecting the cable, be sure
to power cycle (turn off and turn back on) the modem to ensure
the router recognizes it.
4. Connect one computer to the router, by cable or wirelessly.
The routers recommended by RingCentral are capable of reliable
connection by either method.
5. Open the router’s administration tool. From the computer connected
to the router, first open your Web browser. Then enter the router’s
address for network administration in the Web address field and hit
return to reach the router’s home page.
Many routers are reached by either the Web address
http://192.168.1.1 or http://192.168.0.1 Consult your router’s
documentation to determine the exact address for your model. Note
that you do not need a working Internet connection for this step.
6. Log in to the router. The router’s home page will ask you for
a username and password. Both are provided in the router’s
documentation. You should change the router’s password for security
reasons, but do this after the installation is complete to avoid
unnecessary complications during the basic setup.
7. If you want your router to connect to the Internet, you must enter
Internet connection information into that section of the router’s
configuration (exact location varies). If using DSL Internet, you may
need to enter the PPPoE username and password. Likewise, if you
have been issued a static IP address by your provider (you would
need to have requested it), the static IP fields (including network
mask and gateway) given to you by the provider must also must be set
in the router.
8. If you were using a primary computer or an older network router
to connect to the Internet, your provider may require you to update
the MAC address of the router with the MAC address of the device
you were using previously. Read How to Change a MAC Address
for a detailed description of this process.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | How to Set Up a Network Router
9. If this is a wireless router, change the network name (often called
SSID). While the router comes to you with a network name
set at the factory, you will never want to use this name on your
network. Read Change the Default SSID on Wireless Access Points
and Routers for detailed instructions.
10. Verify the network connection is working between your one computer
and the router. To do this, you must confirm that the computer
has received IP address information from the router. See Find
the IP Address of a Network Device for a description of this process.
11. (If applicable) Verify your one computer can connect to the Internet
properly. Open your Web browser and visit a few Internet sites such as
http://compnetworking.about.com/.
12. Connect additional computers to the router as needed. If connecting
wirelessly, ensure the network name (SSID) of each computer matches
that of the router.
13. Finally, configure additional network security features as desired
to guard your systems against Internet attackers. These Wi-Fi
Network Security Best Practices offer a good checklist to follow.
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Tips and Additional Information
RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Tips and Additional Information
Tips and Additional Information
programs that allow you to find (and sometimes change) MAC address
settings.
When connecting devices with network cables, be sure each
end of the cable connects tightly. Loose cables are one of the most
common sources of network setup problems.
Find a MAC Address in Windows
Media Access Control (MAC)
MAC technology provides unique identification and access control
for computers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. In wireless
networking, MAC is the radio control protocol on the wireless network
adapter. Media Access Control works at the lower sub-layer of the data
link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.
MAC Addresses
Media Access Control assigns a unique number to each IP network adapter
called the MAC address. A MAC address is 48 bits long. The MAC address
is commonly written as a sequence of 12 hexadecimal digits as follows:
48-3F-0A-91-00-BC
MAC addresses are uniquely set by the network adapter manufacturer
and are sometimes called physical addresses. The first six hexadecimal
digits of the address correspond to a manufacturer’s unique identifier,
while the last six digits correspond to the device’s serial number.
MAC addresses map to logical IP addresses through the Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP).
Some Internet service providers track the MAC address of a router
for security purposes. Many routers support a process called cloning that
allows the MAC address to be simulated so that it matches one the service
provider is expecting. This allows households to change their router
(and their real MAC address) without having to notify the provider.
The method used to find a MAC address depends on the type of network
device involved. All popular network operating systems contain utility
Use the ipconfig utility (with the /all option) to display the computer’s
MAC address in modern versions of Windows. Very old versions like
Windows 95 and Windows 98 used the winipcfg utility instead.
Both ‘winipcfg’ and ‘ipconfig’ may display multiple MAC addresses
for one computer. One MAC address exists for each installed network
card. Additionally, Windows maintains one or more MAC addresses that
are not associated with hardware cards.
For example, Windows dial-up networking uses virtual MAC addresses
to manage the phone connection as if it were a network card.
Some Windows VPN clients likewise have their own MAC address.
The MAC addresses of these virtual network adapters are the same length
and format as true hardware addresses.
Find a MAC Address in UNIX or Linux
The specific command used in UNIX to find a MAC address varies
depending on the version of the operating system. In Linux and in some
forms of UNIX, the command ifconfig -a returns MAC addresses.
You can also find MAC addresses in UNIX and Linux in the boot message
sequence. These operating systems display the computer’s MAC address
on-screen as the system reboots. Additionally, boot-up messages are
retained in a log file (usually “/var/log/messages” or “/var/adm/messages”).
Find a MAC Address on the Mac
You can find MAC addresses on Apple Mac computers in the TCP/IP
Control Panel. If the system is running Open Transport, the MAC address
appears under the “Info” or “User Mode/Advanced” screens. If the system
is running MacTCP, the MAC address appears under the “Ethernet” icon.
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Tips and Additional Information
Summary - How to Find a MAC Address
no longer match the one registered at the ISP. The ISP will often disable
the customer’s Internet connection for security (and billing) reasons.
The list below summarizes options to find a computer’s MAC address:
•
Windows: ipconfig /all, or winipcfg
•
Linux and some Unix: ifconfig -a
•
Mac with Open Transport: TCP/IP Control Panel - Info or User Mode/
Advanced
•
Mac with MacTCP: TCP/IP Control Panel - Ethernet icon
•
MAC addresses were designed to be fixed numbers that cannot
be changed. However, there are several valid reasons to want
to change your MAC address
How to Change a MAC Address
Most Internet subscriptions allow the customer only a single IP address.
The Internet Service Provider (ISP) may assign one static (fixed)
IP address to each customer. However, this approach is an inefficient
use of IP addresses that are currently in short supply. The ISP more
commonly issues each customer dynamic IP address that may change each
time the customer connects to the Internet.
ISPs ensure each customer receives only one dynamic address using
several methods. Dial-up and many DSL services typically require
the customer to log in with a username and password. Cable modem
services, on the other hand, do this by registering and tracking
the MAC address of the device that connects to the ISP.
The device whose MAC address is monitored by an ISP can be the cable
modem, a broadband router, or the PC that hosts the Internet connection.
The customer is free to build a network behind this equipment, but the
ISP expects the MAC address to match the registered value at all times.
Whenever a customer replaces that device, however, or changes
the network adapter inside it, the MAC address of this new equipment will
Summary - Change a MAC Address
The MAC address is an important element of computer networking.
MAC addresses uniquely identify a computer on the LAN.
MAC is an essential component required for network protocols like TCP/IP
to function.
Computer operating systems and broadband routers support viewing and
sometimes changing MAC addresses. Some ISPs track their customers
by MAC address. Changing a MAC address can be necessary in some cases
to keep an Internet connection working. Some broadband modems also
monitor the MAC address of their host computer.
Although MAC addresses do not reveal any geographic location
information like IP addresses do, changing MAC addresses may improve
your Internet privacy in some situations.
Change the Default SSID on Wireless Access
Points and Routers
Wi-Fi access points and routers establish a wireless network using
a name called an SSID (Service Set Identifier). Routers are configured with
a default SSID pre-defined and set by the manufacturer at the factory.
Typical default SSIDs are simple names like
•
“wireless”
•
“netgear”
•
“linksys”
•
“default”
The SSID can be accessed from within the router’s Web-based
or Windows-based configuration utilities. It can be changed at any time,
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Tips and Additional Information
but wireless clients must then recognize the new SSID in order
to reconnect to that router and wireless network.
To improve the security of your wireless network, consider changing
the router’s SSID to a different name than the default. Here are some
recommended do’s and dont’s, based on recommended network security
practices:
•
Don’t embed your name, address, birth date, or other
personal information as part of the SSID
•
Likewise, don’t use any of your Windows or Internet
web site passwords
•
Don’t tempt would-be intruders by using tantalizing
network names like “SEXY-BOX” or “TOP-SECRET”
•
Do pick an SSID that contains both letters and numbers
•
Do choose a name as long or nearly as long
as the maximum length allowed
•
Do consider changing your SSID periodically (at least
once every few months)
•
Do disable SSID broadcast on your network; make users
manually find it.
Find the IP Address of a Network Device
Every computer or other device connected to the Internet or other
IP network is given at least one IP address. Various methods exist to find
the IP addresses of your computer, your router, or even someone else’s
web site or other network equipment in some cases
How to Find Your IP Address
Follow these guidelines to find your IP network address (or addresses)
in different situations. It’s not difficult once you know where to look.
How to Find Your IP and MAC Addresses On Windows
Follow these steps to quickly find the Internet Protocol (IP) and Media
Access Control (MAC) address of a computer running Microsoft Windows
XP, Windows Vista, or Windows 7.
1. Click go to Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
2. If not at the C: root, type C: at the flashing prompt.
3. At C: type “ipconfig /all” (minus the quotes). Details are shown for each
of the computer’s network adapters. Computers installed with
VPN software or emulation software will possess one or more virtual
adapters.
4. The “IP Address” field states the current IP address for that network
adapter.
5. The “Physical Address” field states the MAC address for that adapter.
Tips:
1. Take care to read the IP address from the correct adapter. Virtual
adapters generally show a private address rather than an actual
Internet address.
2. Virtual adapters possess software-emulated MAC addresses
and not the actual physical address of the network interface card.
What’s My IP Address?
What You Need
A network may contain multiple computers or others devices each
having their own IP address (or addresses). Answering the question
“What’s My IP Address?” depends on exactly which one(s) you seek.
•
Microsoft Windows XP or newer version of the operating system
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Tips and Additional Information
Wi-Fi Network Security Best Practices
Many folks setting up wireless networks rush through the job to get their
Internet connectivity working as quickly as possible. That’s totally
understandable. It’s also quite risky as numerous security problems
can result. Today’s Wi-Fi networking products don’t always help
the situation as configuring their security features can be time-consuming
and non-intuitive. The recommendations below summarize the steps
you should take to improve the security of your wireless network.
1. Change Default Administrator Passwords (and Usernames)
At the core of most Wi-Fi networks is an access point or router. To set
up these pieces of equipment, manufacturers provide Web pages that
allow owners to enter their network address and account information.
These Web tools are protected with a login screen (username
and password) so that only the rightful owner can do this. However,
for any given piece of equipment, the logins provided are simple and very
well‑known to hackers on the Internet. Change these settings immediately.
2. Turn on (Compatible) WPA / WEP Encryption
All Wi-Fi equipment supports some form of encryption. Encryption
technology scrambles messages sent over wireless networks so that
they cannot be easily read by humans. Several encryption technologies
exist for Wi-Fi today. Naturally you will want to pick the strongest form
of encryption that works with your wireless network. However, the way
these technologies work, all Wi-Fi devices on your network must share
the identical encryption settings. Therefore you may need to find a “lowest
common denominator” setting.
3. Change the Default SSID
All Wi-Fi equipment supports some form of encryption. Encryption
technology scrambles messages sent over wireless networks so that
they cannot be easily read by humans. Several encryption technologies
exist for Wi-Fi today. Naturally you will want to pick the strongest form
of encryption that works with your wireless network. However, the way
these technologies work, all Wi-Fi devices on your network must share
the identical encryption settings. Therefore you may need to find a “lowest
common denominator” setting.
4. Enable MAC Address Filtering
Each piece of Wi-Fi gear possesses a unique identifier called the physical
address or MAC address. Access points and routers keep track of the
MAC addresses of all devices that connect to them. Many such products
offer the owner an option to key in the MAC addresses of their equipment,
which restricts the network to only allow connections from those devices.
Do this, but also know that the feature is not as powerful as it may seem.
Hackers and their software programs can fake MAC addresses easily.
5. Disable SSID Broadcast
In Wi-Fi networking, the wireless access point or router typically
broadcasts the network name (SSID) over the air at regular intervals.
This feature was designed for businesses and mobile hotspots where
Wi‑Fi clients may roam in and out of range. Most Wi-Fi access points allow
the SSID broadcast feature to be disabled by the network administrator.
6. Do Not Auto-Connect to Open Wi-Fi Networks
Connecting to an open Wi-Fi network such as a free wireless hotspot
or your neighbor’s router exposes your computer to security risks.
Although not normally enabled, most computers have a setting available
allowing these connections to happen automatically without notifying
you (the user). This setting should not be enabled except in temporary
situations.
7. Assign Static IP Addresses to Devices
Most network devices permit using dynamic IP addresses. DHCP
technology is indeed easy to set up. Unfortunately, this convenience
also works to the advantage of network attackers, who can easily obtain
valid IP addresses from your network’s DHCP pool. Turn off DHCP
on the router or access point, set a fixed IP address range instead, and then
configure each connected device to match. Use a private IP address range
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RingCentral Router Configuration | Basic Start Guide for Administrators | Tips and Additional Information
(like 10.0.0.x) to prevent computers from being directly reached from
the Internet.
8. Enable Firewalls On Each Computer and the Router
Modern network routers contain built-in firewall capability, but the option
also exists to disable them. Ensure that your router’s firewall is turned
on. For extra protection, consider installing and running additional firewall
software on each computer connected to the router.
9. Position the Router or Access Point Safely
Wi-Fi signals often reach to the exterior of a building. A small amount
of signal leakage outdoors is not a problem, but the further this signal
reaches, the easier it is for others to detect and exploit. Wi-Fi signals often
reach through neighboring businesses and into streets, for example. When
installing a wireless network, the position of the access point or router
determines its reach. Try to position these devices near the center
of the building rather than near windows to minimize leakage.
10. Turn Off the Network During Extended Periods of Non-Use
While impractical to turn off and on the devices frequently, at least
consider doing so during travel or extended periods offline.
If you own a wireless router but are only using it wired (Ethernet)
connections, you can also sometimes turn off Wi-Fi on a broadband
router without powering down the entire network.
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