инструкцию Micro Drive - распределение нагрузки (англ. язык)

инструкцию Micro Drive - распределение нагрузки (англ. язык)
Load sharing Application Note
1.
Micro Drive Load sharing application note
1.1
Index
1.
1.2
Page 1 of 17
Micro Drive Load sharing application note ...................................................... 1
1.1 Index ....................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Abstract ................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Limitations and special conditions ......................................................... 2
1.4 Inrush control by frame sizes .................................................................. 3
1.4.1 Micro drive Frame sizes ............................................................... 3
1.4.2 Frame size Combinations ............................................................. 4
1.5 Load sharing configurations ................................................................... 4
1.5.1 External DC supply with soft charge............................................ 5
1.5.2 One large drive supplied from mains supplies all others ............. 6
1.5.3 All drives supplied individually from mains ................................ 6
1.5.4 Using a DC-link back-up .............................................................. 9
1.5.5 Using a brake resistor ................................................................. 10
1.5.6 Using a re-generative unit........................................................... 12
1.6 Additional components needed for load sharing .................................. 13
1.6.1 DC fuses ..................................................................................... 13
1.6.2 Mains fuses ................................................................................. 15
1.6.3 Line reactors ............................................................................... 15
1.6.4 Common mains disconnect switch ............................................. 16
1.6.5 Example ...................................................................................... 17
Abstract
Load sharing gives the possibility to connect multiple Micro Drive over the same DC-link with the
following benefits.
Load sharing Application Note
Page 2 of 17
Energy savings
When a motor runs in regenerative mode it can supply the other drives that are running in motoring mode.
The alternative is to use a brake resistor on each single drive, to consume the energy when the motor runs in
regenerative mode.
Brake resistor
Typically only one common brake resistor is needed instead of a brake resistor for each drive.
Power back-up
At mains failure all the Micro Drive can be supplied through the DC-link from a backup. The application
can be shut down in a controlled way or the application can continue running.
1.3
Limitations and special conditions
WARNING: Some voltage related functions may not operate or may operate at reduced performance
levels while using load sharing. Example: A drive without brake is combined with a drive with brake.
When the drive with brake breaks the other drive will get an over current warning. Although inconvenient,
the performance will be maintained.
•
AC-brake will not work as expected. This function checks for regenerative power but in a load sharing
application the regenerative power can be power from another drive. Therefore AC-brake should be
turned off in load share applications (Par 2-10 Brake Function).
NOTE: The mains supply must have its own missing phase- and over current protection. DC-link has
higher capacity and one or more drives can have their rectifier overloaded even though the DC-link does not
show a high level of voltage ripple. Therefore it is important the mains supply is equipped with missing
phase and over current protection
NOTE: The start-up time of the drives may increase.
•
The drive must be equipped with load sharing terminals
o All Micro Drive M1-M5 have UDC+,UDC- terminal as default can be used as loading
sharing terminal.
•
Load sharing is only possible within the Micro Drive.
•
Load sharing is only possible within the same voltage class, e.g. use T4 with T4 only.
•
It is recommended to monitor if all the drives are ready (“drive ready” -signal) and take it into account
in the overall application control
•
Drives used for load sharing must be placed physically close to each other to allow the wiring between
them to be as short as possible, a maximum of 25 m. In addition the two wires must be close to each
other, twisted if possible, and built symmetrically around the drives(s) with highest power
•
When adding a brake resistor in a load sharing configuration, all drives must be equipped with a brake
chopper
Load sharing Application Note
1.4
Page 3 of 17
Inrush control by frame sizes
The concept for limiting the inrush current in the Micro Drive DC-link capacitors is all the same for all
frame sizes M1~M5.
NOTE: It is important to be aware of the differences in concept before combining drives in a load
sharing application. By not doing this, the consequence can be a fatal destruction of the drive!
The principles are listed in Table 1.
Frame
size
Principle
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
DC inrush self limited
Table 1 Principles of inrush control for individual frame sizes.
In order to understand the concept, it is necessary to distinguish between the two situations
1. Drive supplied from mains and supplying others via load sharing terminals
2. Drive supplied from load sharing terminals
1.4.1
Micro drive Frame sizes
The Micro drive inrush control is placed in series with the DC-link capacitors which controls the current
coming from mains and/or the load sharing terminals.
Power via Mains
If Micro drive is powered from mains they cannot control and limit the inrush to other frequency converters
connected via the load sharing terminals.
Power via Load Share Terminals
The Micro drive inrush control successfully limits inrush current when powered from the load sharing
terminals.
Load sharing Application Note
Page 4 of 17
Figure 1 Inrush principle for Micro drive M1~M5.
1.4.2
Frame size Combinations
Due to the different principles for inrush control, care must be taken when Micro drive combining different
type of inrush principle.
•
Micro drive M1~M5 can be combined with other Micro drive frame sizes M1~M5 in load sharing.
•
When Micro drive with other type of inrush principle. In this combination the Micro drive can not be
connected to mains. See Figure 2.
WARNING: There exists a severe risk of destroying the Micro drive if they are connected to mains
while being connected to other inrush principle drives via load share. This is a result of the fact that
the rectifier in the Micro drive M1~M5 will be heavily overloaded during both inrush and normal
load condition.
Figure 2 No inrush limitation when Micro drive are supplied from mains and combined with AC-inrush limit.
1.5
Load sharing configurations
The most typical load sharing configurations are discussed.
a) All drives supplied from an external DC supply
b) One large drive supplied from mains supplies all others
c) All drives supplied individually from mains
Load sharing Application Note
Page 5 of 17
d) Using a DC-link back-up
e) Using a brake resistor
f) Using a re-generative unit
NOTE: All national regulations have to be followed and is the responsibility of the installer.
1.5.1
External DC supply with soft charge
If the external DC supply is equipped with inrush limitation, all frame sizes can be added on the load share
terminals
Figure 3. The drives are supplied from an external DC supply via the load share terminals. The DC supply
has soft charge.
No AC line reactors are necessary as the intermediate voltage is the same for all the connected drives.
To comply with relevant regulations and prevent further destruction from short circuits in a single drive, it is
required to fuse the load sharing terminals. Without individual fuses on the load share terminals, there is a
risk that a broken drive will be charged by the working drives.
The DC-coils in the drive will limit the ripple current and minimize the harmonic current to the common
DC-supply.
Requirements for the external DC supply
• The common DC-supply must limit the inrush current to the capacitive load related to the
intermediate circuits of the drives connected in parallel. For simplicity the input impedance of the
common DC-link can be calculated as the total capacitance of the DC-link in parallel.
•
The supply must be able to withstand short mains drop out and associated current spikes related to
these. The supply must observe the EMC requirements for the application itself or with additional
RFI-filters etc.
Load sharing Application Note
•
1.5.2
Page 6 of 17
The external DC-supply must be able to supply all connected drives and should be equipped with
the necessary fuses, mains switch and RFI filter.
One large drive supplied from mains supplies all others
In this configuration only the large drive is connected to mains.
Micro drive can be connected to the Load share terminals and supplied from the large drive. The large drive
can be any frame size as long as it is the largest drive in the load sharing configuration.
The large drive has to be dimensioned so it has capacity enough to supply the remaining drives. This means
the drive be dimensioned to supply the total motor power. For example, the large drive could run a large
flywheel and only provide power enough to overcome the friction after the start up; if the normal AC power
should disappear, the mechanical inertia can be used to supply power via the common DC-bus to smaller
VLT frequency converters. Possible application area is the textile industry.
Figure 4 One large drive supplies the others via load share terminals.
Components such as mains fuses and Line reactors can be saved for the drives that are not connected to
mains. Also, because only one drive is connected to mains it does not require any AC line reactors. Fuses in
the DC-link are still required to comply with relevant legislation.
1.5.3
All drives supplied individually from mains
This configuration is a typical load sharing application. If one or more motors are driven into regenerative
mode, they deliver power to the common DC-link. This power is then used by other drives, and in this way
the installation is more efficient. Also, in some cases this eliminates the need for a brake resistor.
WARNING: The mains fuses/ circuit breakers must be selected so that a cleared circuit can cause the
remaining fuses to clear if the load from the system is too high. The consequence of not doing this is
Load sharing Application Note
Page 7 of 17
that a potential clearing of one drive’s fuse will overload the remaining drives in the load sharing
application.
Micro drive can be combined in a load sharing application when supplied by mains without special
considerations.
Figure 5 Load sharing with Micro drives M1~M4 frame sizes supplied from mains and connected via Load
share terminals.
Load sharing Application Note
Page 8 of 17
Figure 6 Load sharing with Micro drives M5 frame sizes supplied from mains and connected via Load share
terminals.
WARNING:
Risk of destroying the drives if connecting Micro Drive to mains while being connected to other type
of AC-inrush limited principle on the load share terminals
M1~M4 Frame size is only allowed to load sharing with M1~M4. M5 frame size can only load sharing
with M5. No mix M1~M4 together with M5 in load sharing!
Load sharing Application Note
Page 9 of 17
Figure 7. Load sharing among Micro Drive and other drives AC-inrush limited from mains and connected
via load share terminals is not allowed.
The total power of the installation is the sum of the nominal powers of the drives connected to mains. This
means that the drives connected to mains can not be used at their full capacity as they are sharing their
capacity with the drives connected by load share terminals.
The number of power up is limited to maximum twice per minutes.as there must be time for cooling down of
the drive. This is mostly relevant for the biggest power size in each frame size.
In this configuration the DC capacitors voltage (intermediate voltage) can be slightly different from drive to
drive due to differences in the mains rectifiers, different temperature, etc. This small difference in DC
voltage requires installation of AC line reactors for each drive. Furthermore, it is also requires fuses in the
DC-bus.
1.5.4
Using a DC-link back-up
A battery backup can be added to the common DC-link and back-up can be supplied to all the drives during
mains failure. The application can be closed down as a controlled process or the application can be running
continuously.
The battery backup must contain soft charge and isolation. The principles are shown in
Figure . An isolation diode is placed in series with battery supply, so the drives can not charge into the
batteries. Circuitry is placed for inrush limitations.
Care must be taken on how to connect and disconnect the battery backup to the Load share terminals of the
drives.
During a stand-by situation the stand-by consumption of the drives will proceed draining the battery in the
battery back-up.
Load sharing Application Note
Page 10 of 17
Figure 8 Principal figure for load sharing w. battery backup
WARNING:
M1~M4 Frame size is only allowed to load sharing with M1~M4. M5 frame size can only load sharing
with M5. No mix M1~M4 together with M5 in load sharing!
1.5.5
Using a brake resistor
For applications where the regenerative loads require removal of energy from the DC-link this can be
established by adding a resistor.
As the DC-link connects the drives, it is possible to use only one brake resistor to dissipate the energy. The
brake resistor must be dimensioned to dissipate the maximum energy from braking of the motors and must
be connected to a drive that can withstand the braking power.
In Figure is shown a typical load sharing application with brake. Often it is sufficient to add a brake to only
one of the units as it can remove energy from all the drives in the application.
NOTE: The brake resistor must be connected to the drive with the largest power
WARNING: Risk of destroying the drives if connecting Micro Drive to mains while being connected
to AC-inrush limited principal Drive on the load share terminals
Load sharing Application Note
Figure 9 Load sharing w. resistor brake. Energy flow from one unit to another w. brake
Page 11 of 17
Load sharing Application Note
Page 12 of 17
Figure 10 Another common set-up is to equip all drives in the load sharing with a resistor brake.
NOTE: It can NOT be taken for granted the brakes will share the loads proportionally to the resistor
resistance value. Possibly, only one brake be 100% “ON” before the next brake will start braking.
This is due to tolerance between each drive’s DC link voltage measurements.
1.5.6
Using a re-generative unit
A re-generative unit can be connected to the common DC-link and power can be transferred back to mains.
In general the same requirements apply as for section Error! Reference source not found.. but further it
should be noted the voltage working range of the DC-link must be observed and taken into account. The regenerative unit must be able to keep the DC-link voltage below nominal mains supply +13% multiplied by
sqrt(2) and thereby below the actual value for braking.
For further guidance and information on how to install a regenerative unit refer to vendor installation
guidance.
WARNING:
Risk of destroying the drives if connecting Micro Drive to mains while being connected to AC-inrush
limited principal Drive on the load share terminals.
M1~M4 Frame size is only allowed to load sharing with M1~M4. M5 frame size can only load sharing
with M5. No mix M1~M4 together with M5 in load sharing!
Figure 11 Load sharing using re-generative unit
Load sharing Application Note
1.6
Page 13 of 17
Additional components needed for load sharing
In a load sharing application, some additional components are typically needed.
•
DC fuses
•
Mains fuses
•
Line reactors
•
Common mains disconnect switch
Figure 12 Typical load sharing application setup and the components needed.
1.6.1
DC fuses
Fuses must be installed in series with the load sharing terminals of all connected units. This is done to
protect the DC bus against short-circuits and the drives from overload.
NOTE: Respect the following guidelines when dimensioning the DC bus fuses.
•
The voltage class of the fuse must be able to handle the maximum DC bus voltage ( 1,35 ⋅ U LL )
Page 14 of 17
Load sharing Application Note
•
The fuse must be a fast semiconductor type, e.g. aR or gR. For guidelines to selecting a fuse, please
refer to application note MN.90.T1.
•
The maximum fuse current rating must not exceed the mains fuse current rating for the individual
drive (
I fuse , DC −link ,max ≤ I fuse ,mains
)
The recommended DC bus fuses below are based on equation Equation 1 and the fuse is selected one size up
after rounding up to the next available fuse size. The nominal voltage, U LL , is reduced by 10% as a worst
case scenario in the calculation to allow for tolerances.
I DC =
Pin
Pin
=
U DC 1,35 ⋅ U LL ,n ⋅ 0,9
Equation 1 Calculation of DC bus fuse. Remember to round one size up after rounding up to the next
available fuse size.
Example: U LL = 230V and Pin = 3,7 kW gives I DC = 13,2A . The next available fuse size is aR-16, hence
aR-20 is selected.
NOTE: the recommendations are for ambient temperatures of around 20oC. At 40oC gR/ aR fuses are
rounded one size further up, i.e. rounded up to the nearest fuse size AND TWO further sizes up. For
high ambient temperatures, contact the fuse supplier.
Power[kW
]
0.18
0.25
0.37
0.55
0.75
1.1
1.5
2.2
3
3.7
4
5.5
7.5
11
15
18.5
22
Recommended
DC bus fuse
[email protected] 230V [A]
aR-4
aR-4
aR-4
aR-5
aR-5
aR-5
aR-8
aR-10
aR-16
aR-20
Table 2 DC bus fuses.
Recommended
DC bus fuse
[email protected] [A]
aR-4
aR-4
aR-4
aR-5
aR-5
aR-6
aR-10
aR-12
aR-16
aR-25
aR-40
aR-40
aR-63
aR-63
Load sharing Application Note
1.6.2
Page 15 of 17
Mains fuses
A frequency converter that works correctly limits the current it can draw from the supply. Still, it is
demanded to use fuses and/ or Circuit Breakers on the supply side as protection in case of component breakdown inside the frequency converter (first fault). This is mandatory in order to ensure compliance with IEC
60364 for CE or NEC 2009 for UL.
WARNING
Personnel and property must be protected against the consequence of component break-down
internally in the frequency converter.
Table 3 Main fuses data.
WARNING: The mains fuses/ circuit breakers must be selected so that a cleared circuit can cause the
remaining fuses to clear if the load from the system is too high. The consequence of not doing this is
that a potential clearing of one drive’s fuse will overload the remaining drives in the load sharing
application.
1.6.3
Line reactors
The Line reactors are only needed if the drives are powered from mains.
Page 16 of 17
Load sharing Application Note
In load sharing applications, the rectifiers of the drives are connected in parallel via the external DC bus
connection. When drives with different power size are connected in load sharing or when drives of same
power size are operated at different load conditions, the forward voltage drop of the rectifiers can be
different. This may result in unbalanced compensation within the load sharing network and thus must be
balanced out via Line reactors.
The Line reactors are placed in series with the mains fuses. They ensure that the load is shared
proportionally to the nominal power of each drive and prevent damage to any rectifier.
NOTE: The Line reactors add a load dependent voltage drop. The voltage drop (∆
∆U%) of the drives
must be the same for all drives in the load sharing network.
Tables with order numbers are provided for 50 Hz 230V and 380V.
NOTE: The values in Error! Reference source not found. and Table 3 are for Normal Overload.
Example: If a 22 kW FC-302 is used in Normal Overload, use 175U1009. If it is used in High
Overload, use 175U0047 (see Error! Reference source not found.).
The following formula can be used to calculate coils for 60Hz, for other voltage drops and for other mains
voltages, not listed in Error! Reference source not found. and Table 3.
L[H ] =
FC-51
P [kW]
400V
0.37
0.75
1.5
2.2
3
4
5.5
7.5
11
15
18.5
22
U phase −0 [V ] ⋅ ∆U %
I In ,max [ A] ⋅ 2π ⋅ f [Hz ]
Max I(in),
continuous
[A]
1.9
3.5
5.9
8.5
11.5
14.4
19.2
24.8
33
42
34.7
41.2
Line
reactor
current
[A]
2.6
2.6
5.3
7
9.1
12.2
15
32
37.5
44
60
60
=
U LL [V ] ⋅ ∆U %
I In ,max [ A] ⋅ 2π ⋅ f [Hz ] ⋅ 3
Voltage
drop Uk
[%]
0.73%
1.35%
1.11%
1.21%
1.26%
1.18%
1.28%
0.78%
0.88%
0.95%
0.58%
0.69%
AC coils
L [mH]
2.827
2.827
1.387
1.05
0.808
0.603
0.49
0.23
0.196
0.167
0.123
0.123
AC coils
code No.
175U0017
175U0017
175U0024
175U0025
175U0026
175U0028
175U0029
175U0030
175U0031
175U0032
175U0034
175U0034
Table 3 AC coil data
1.6.4
Common mains disconnect switch
The mains supply must be from the same source for all units in the load sharing network. When power is
applied or removed it must be via a common disconnect switch.
Load sharing Application Note
Page 17 of 17
If drives are powered on/off individually this might lead to blown fuses, or even unit destructions in certain
cases unless special attention is made to interlock for proper power up- and down sequencing.
1.6.5
Example
Figure 13 Example of load sharing with all drives supplied individually from mains. Values of DC fuses
and Line reactors are taken from the tables in this application note and the values for mains fuses are taken
from the Design Guide (also found in application note MN.90.T1)
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