Flight Operations Support and Line Assistance
O
L
C K A R O
U
C
N
N
W
D
R L
A R
O
U
CE
AIRBUS
AIRBUS S.A.S.
31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX - FRANCE
CONCEPT DESIGN SCM12
REFERENCE SCM1-D388
DECEMBER 2002
PRINTED IN FRANCE
© AIRBUS S.A.S. 2002
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
AN EADS JOINT COMPANY
WITH BAE SYSTEMS
The statements made herein do not constitute an
offer. They are based on the assumptions shown
and are expressed in good faith. Where the
supporting grounds for these statements are not
shown, the Company will be pleased to explain
the basis thereof. This document is the property
of Airbus and is supplied on the express
condition that it is to be treated as confidential.
No use of reproduction may be made thereof
other than that expressely authorised.
Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
getting to grips with aircraft performance monitoring
VI
SC
USTOMER SER
S
O
BU
December 2002
D
T H E
T H E
D
A
IR
getting to grips with
aircraft performance
monitoring
Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
Customer Services
1, rond-point Maurice Bellonte, BP 33
31707 BLAGNAC Cedex FRANCE
Telephone (+33) 5 61 93 33 33
Telefax (+33) 5 61 93 29 68
Telex AIRBU 530526F
SITA TLSBI7X
getting to grips with
aircraft performance
monitoring
December 2002
FOREWORD
The purpose of this brochure is to provide airline flight operations with some
recommendations on the way to regularly monitor their aircraft performance.
This brochure was designed to provide guidelines for aircraft performance
monitoring based on the feedback obtained from many operators and on the
knowledge of Airbus aircraft and systems.
Should there be any discrepancy between the information given in this brochure
and that published in the applicable AFM, FCOM, AMM or SB, the latter prevails.
Airbus would be eager to work with some airlines on an ongoing application of this
projected performance monitoring system well in advance of its anticipated use on
the A380 program.
Airbus encourages to submit any suggestions or remarks concerning this brochure
to:
AIRBUS
CUSTOMER SERVICES DIRECTORATE
Flight Operations & Line Assistance - STL
1, rond point Maurice Bellonte
BP33
31707 BLAGNAC Cedex
FRANCE
Fax : + 33 (0) 61 93 29 68/44 65
TELEX : AIRBU 530526 F
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. Introduction
9
B. Background
11
1. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE MONITORING?
11
2. AIM OF THE AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE MONITORING
12
3. THE CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS METHODS
3.1. THE FUEL USED METHOD
3.2. THE FUEL BURN OFF METHOD
3.3. THE SPECIFIC RANGE METHOD
12
13
13
13
3.3.1. INTRODUCTION
3.3.2. DEFINITION
3.3.3. PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD
3.3.4. HOW TO GET SPECIFIC RANGE
13
13
14
15
3.4. CORRECTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
17
3.4.1. OPERATIONAL FACTORS
3.4.2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
3.4.3. TECHNICAL FACTORS
3.4.4. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT INFLUENCE FACTORS
3.5. CONCLUSION
3.5.1. TRENDS AND FACTORING
3.5.2. COMPARING PERFORMANCE MONITORING METHODS
3.5.3. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE MONITORING COMMUNITY
C. How to record in-flight parameters
17
25
36
40
42
42
43
44
47
1. INTRODUCTION
47
2. REQUIRED OBSERVED DATA
48
3. MANUAL RECORDING
3.1. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONS
49
49
3.1.1. AT DISPATCH
3.1.2. PRIOR TO TAKE OFF
3.1.3. IN FLIGHT
3.1.4. DATA RECORDING
1.2. FORMS FOR MANUAL READING
1.3. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
4. AUTOMATIC RECORDINGS
4.1. WHAT IS AUTOMATIC RECORDING?
4.2. A300/A310/A300-600 AIRCRAFT
4.3. A320 FAMILY/A330/A340 AIRCRAFT
49
49
50
51
51
54
55
55
55
56
4.3.1. INTRODUCTION
56
4.3.2. AIRCRAFT INTEGRATED DATA SYSTEM (A320 FAMILY AIDS) / AIRCRAFT CONDITION
MONITORING SYSTEM (A330/A340 ACMS)
57
4.3.3. GENERIC FUNCTIONS OF THE DMU/FDIMU
59
4.3.4. THE GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (GSE)
65
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4.4. THE CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT
66
4.4.1. GENERAL
4.4.2. TWO REPORT FORMATS
4.4.3. THE TRIGGER LOGIC
66
67
72
4.5. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
74
D. Cruise performance analysis
75
1. THE BOOK LEVEL
75
2. A TOOL FOR ROUTINE ANALYSIS : THE APM PROGRAM
2.1. INTRODUCTION
2.2. BASICS
2.3. THE INPUT DATA
2.4. APM OUTPUT DATA
2.5. THE APM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
75
75
76
77
80
82
2.5.1. GENERAL
1.1.2. MEAN VALUE (µ)
1.1.3. STANDARD DEVIATION (Σ)
1.1.4. DEGREES OF FREEDOM
1.1.5. VARIANCE
1.1.6. NORMAL OR GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION
1.1.7. CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
82
82
82
83
83
83
84
1.6. THE APM ARCHIVING SYSTEM
1.7. SOME NICE-TO-KNOWS
85
85
1.7.1. INFLUENCING FACTORS
1.7.2. AIRCRAFT BLEED CONFIGURATION
1.7.3. AIRCRAFT MODEL SPECIFICS
1.7.4. PROCESSING RULE
85
86
86
87
3. HOW TO GET THE IFP & APM PROGRAMS
88
E. Results appraisal
89
1. INTRODUCTION
89
2. INTERPRETING THE APM OUTPUT DATA
2.1. DFFA INTERPRETATION
2.2. DFFB INTERPRETATION
2.3. DSR INTERPRETATION
89
90
90
91
3. EXAMPLE
92
4. REMARKS
4.1. CORRELATING MEASURED DEVIATIONS TO THE AIRCRAFT
4.2. PRACTICES
94
94
94
F. Using the monitored fuel Factor
96
1. INTRODUCTION
97
2. FMS PERF FACTOR
2.1. PURPOSE
98
98
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.2. FMS PERF DATA BASE (PDB)
2.3. UPDATE OF THE PDB
2.4. PERF FACTOR DEFINITION
98
99
99
2.4.1. GENERAL
2.4.2. BASIC FMS PERF FACTOR
2.4.3. MONITORED FUEL FACTOR
2.4.4. FMS PERF FACTOR
99
100
101
102
2.5. BASIC FMS PERF FACTOR
2.5.1. GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
2.5.2. A300-600/A310 AIRCRAFT
2.5.3. A320 “CFM” ENGINES
2.5.4. A320 “IAE” FAMILY :
2.5.5. A330 AIRCRAFT
2.5.6. A340 AIRCRAFT
2.6. PROCEDURE TO CHANGE THE PERF FACTOR
2.6.1. A300-600/A310 AIRCRAFT
2.6.2. A320 FAMILY AIRCRAFT
2.6.3. A330/A340 AIRCRAFT
2.7. EFFECTS OF THE PERF FACTOR
2.7.1. ESTIMATED FUEL ON BOARD (EFOB) AND ESTIMATED LANDING WEIGHT
2.7.2. ECON SPEED/MACH NUMBER
2.7.3. CHARACTERISTIC SPEEDS
2.7.4. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM ALTITUDE (REC MAX ALT)
2.7.5. OPTIMUM ALTITUDE (OPT ALT)
102
103
103
103
105
106
107
108
109
109
110
110
110
111
111
111
112
3. FUEL FACTOR FOR FLIGHT PLANNING SYSTEMS
113
114
3.1. EFFECT OF THE FUEL FACTOR ON FLIGHT PLANNING
3.2. KEYS FOR DEFINING THE FUEL FACTOR
114
3.3. COMPARING FMS FUEL PREDICTIONS AND COMPUTERIZED FLIGHT PLANNING
116
4. AIRBUS TOOLS AND FUEL FACTOR
4.1. THE IFP PROGRAM
4.1.1. THE IFP CALCULATION MODES
4.1.2. SIMULATION OF THE FMS PREDICTIONS
4.1.3. DETERMINATION OF THE ACTUAL AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
4.2. THE FLIP PROGRAM
4.2.1. THE FLIP MISSIONS
4.2.2. SIMULATION OF FMS PREDICTIONS
4.2.3. DETERMINATION OF THE ACTUAL AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
G. Policy for updating the Fuel Factor
117
118
118
119
120
121
121
123
123
125
1. INTRODUCTION
125
2. STARTING OPERATIONS WITH A NEW AIRCRAFT
125
3. A PERF FACTOR FOR EACH AIRCRAFT?
126
4. CHANGING THE FUEL FACTOR
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2. SOME PRECAUTIONS
126
126
127
4.2.1. MONITORED FUEL FACTOR TREND LINE
4.2.2. UPDATE FREQUENCY
4.2.3. TWO EXAMPLES OF TRIGGER CONDITION FOR UPDATING THE FUEL FACTORS
127
128
128
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
5. WHO CHANGES THE FUEL FACTOR(S)?
131
H. Appendices
132
1. APPENDIX 1 : HIGH SPEED PERFORMANCE SOFTWARE
1.1. P.E.P FOR WINDOWS
135
135
1.1.1. W HAT IS P.E.P. ?
1.1.2. PERFORMANCE COMPUTATION PROGRAMS
1.1.3. THE IFP PROGRAM
1.1.4. THE APM PROGRAM
1.1.5. THE FLIP PROGRAM
135
137
139
139
140
1.2. SCAP PROGRAMS AND UNIX VERSIONS
141
2. APPENDIX 2 - FUEL-USED METHOD
2.1. GENERAL PRINCIPLE
2.2. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONS
143
143
147
2.2.1. PRIOR TO TAKE-OFF
2.2.2. IN FLIGHT
147
151
2.3. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
152
2.3.1. NOTES
2.3.2. EXAMPLE
153
153
3. APPENDIX 3 - TRIP FUEL BURN-OFF METHOD
156
APPENDIX 4 - AIRBUS SERVICE INFORMATION LETTER 21-091
160
5. APPENDIX 5 - AMM EXTRACTS - CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
167
6. APPENDIX 6 - AUDITING AIRCRAFT CRUISE PERFORMANCE IN AIRLINE
REVENUE SERVICE
168
I. Glossary
171
J. Bibliography
177
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
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Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
INTRODUCTION
A. INTRODUCTION
For years, the business environment has become more and more
challenging. Yields are dropping while competition is increasing.
Business traffic is volatile, aircraft operations are becoming more and
more expensive and spare parts are changing faster and faster.
Airlines are faced with new objectives to adapt to this environment.
Fuel burn contributes up to ten percent to direct operating costs. Engine
maintenance is up to another quarter. The operator's main concern is therefore to
have a high quality information about the condition and the performance of the
aircraft whenever needed.
That’s why Airbus feels deeply involved in aircraft performance monitoring and has
been proposing for years some tools for aircraft performance monitoring as well as
some guidelines to perform aircraft performance audits.
Today’s aeronautics industry has been undeniably dominated by generation and
acquisition of large amounts of data in all airline departments. In particular, airline
flight operations have been staggering under a high flow of data. The key point in
this massive data flow is to identify what is needed and for what purpose.
Amongst this huge flow of data, some may be used to monitor the performance of
a given airplane and/or of the whole fleet. Long term trend monitoring of the
aircraft performance really takes place in the frame of maintenance actions and
complements all other monitoring methods.
Likewise, aircraft performance monitoring involves the whole company:
- Flight crew and flight operations staff members are the primary source of
information. Indeed, data acquisition and analysis is one of their
responsibilities.
- Maintenance staff members play a role in the process, as keeping the aircraft
in the best condition possible is their main concern. Tracking of non-clean
surfaces, monitoring of the engine performance, calibration of airspeed/Mach
number/altitude is their responsibility.
- Management offices are also involved for their awareness, directives and
funding of the whole process.
This booklet has a five-field purpose. First, it will introduce performance
monitoring, presenting the different analysis methods and tools. Second, as a
consequence of the amount of data required for analysis, the most common ways
to get data routinely recorded are detailed, through a quick overview of the
available aircraft systems. Third, it will give some guidelines on the way to process
the data thanks to one of the Airbus aircraft performance-monitoring tool, namely
the APM program. The fourth part will help assessing data coming from regular
cruise performance analysis. Finally, it will give Airbus recommendations on the
way to us the results the analysis in daily aircraft operations.
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Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
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INTRODUCTION
A glossary at the end of the document gives a definition of the terms used in this
brochure. Finally, there is a list of documents in the bibliography that may help in
the interpretation of the results of the various types of analyzes.
10
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
B. BACKGROUND
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a basic knowledge on aircraft
performance monitoring. The method used for analysis as well as the appropriate
tools are detailed here below.
This brochure is focused on the specific range method and on the utilization of the
APM program. This chapter also gives some information on other methods that
can be used for cruise performance analysis.
1. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE MONITORING?
Aircraft performance monitoring is performed in the
frame of fuel conservation and of aircraft drag
assessment. It is a procedure devoted to gathering
aircraft data in order to determine the actual
performance level of each airplane of the fleet with
respect to the manufacturer’s book level.
The aircraft performance book level is established by
the aircraft manufacturer and represents a fleet average of brand new airframe
and engines. This level is established in advance of production. Normal scatter of
brand new aircraft leads to individual performance above and below the book
value. The performance data given in the Airbus documentation (Flight Crew
Operating Manual) reflects this book value. The high-speed book value data is
stored in the high-speed performance databases used by Airbus performance
software such as the IFP, the FLIP or the APM programs.
The performance levels are measured in their variations over time. Resulting
trends can be made available to the operators’ various departments, which
perform corrective actions to keep a satisfactory aircraft condition.
The actual aircraft performance deterioration endows two main origins: engine
performance degradation (fuel consumption increase for a given thrust) and
airframe deterioration (seals, doors, slats and flaps rigging, spoilers rigging, etc...).
A starting point is required so as to monitor the trend of the performance
deterioration. The baseline level is an aircraft performance level retained as a
reference to get the trend of aircraft performance deterioration. Most of the time
the baseline is established at the aircraft entry into service during the first flight or
delivery flight. The baseline can be above or below the book level as a result of
above-mentioned scatter.
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Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
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BACKGROUND
2. AIM OF THE AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE MONITORING
Results of aircraft performance monitoring are used to reach the following
objectives:
- To adjust the performance factor for:
ƒ the computerized flight plan,
ƒ the FMS predictions and
-
To monitor the aircraft condition periodically in order to analyze the trend of a
given tail number or of a whole fleet,
-
To identify the possible degraded aircraft within the fleet and take care of the
necessary corrective actions:
ƒ Maintenance actions
ƒ Route restrictions
-
To demonstrate the performance factor for ETOPS which may be used instead
of the 5% factor imposed by regulations.
It also allows operators to perform various statistics about fuel consumption and as
such is a good aid to define the operators’ fuel policy.
As a general rule, regulation requires to take into account “realistic” aircraft fuel
consumption.
3. THE CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS METHODS
There are mainly three methods to compare actual aircraft performance level to
the book value:
1. The fuel used method,
2. The fuel on board method,
3. The specific range method.
This chapter is focused on the specific range method. For further details about the
two other methods, read Chapter H - Appendices.
This subject was already presented during the 7th Performance and Operations
Conference held at Cancun, Mexico in year 1992. This brochure is based upon the
leading article “Auditing aircraft cruise performance in airline revenue service”
presented by Mr. J.J. SPEYER, which was used as reference material.
This article is appended at the end of this brochure, see Chapter 0 - Appendix 6 Auditing aircraft cruise performance in airline revenue service.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
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Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
3.1. The fuel used method
The basis of the fuel used method is to measure aircraft fuel burnt in level flight
and over a significantly long time leg and to compare it to the fuel prediction of the
Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM, Flight Planning sections) or of the High
Speed Performance calculation program developed by Airbus (the IFP program).
This method probably provides less information than the specific range method but
is also less constraining in terms of stability and data acquisition requirements.
The method is also less accurate because of the lack of stability checks on the
observed data.
3.2. The fuel burn off method
The trip fuel burn analysis compares genuine aircraft performance data for a whole
flight with the forecasted computerized flight planning. Actual aircraft performance
should be corrected depending on the differences between the actual flight profile
and the predicted one.
3.3. The specific range method
3.3.1. Introduction
The data observed in flight represents punctual (instantaneous) airframe/engine
performance capability. It is used to generate a measured Specific Range, which
represents the actual aircraft fuel mileage capability (NM/kg or lb of fuel). The
specific range represents the aircraft/engine performance level under stabilized
conditions and thus constitutes the main reference criterion. It may not be
representative of the actual fuel consumption of the aircraft during a whole flight.
3.3.2. Definition
The specific range (SR) is the distance covered per fuel burn unit.
Basically, the specific range is equal to:
SR
(Ground)
=
ground speed (GS)
fuel consumption per hour (FF)
Considering air distance, the specific range is equal to:
SR
(Air)
=
true air speed (TAS)
fuel consumption per hour (FF)
As TAS is expressed in nautical miles per hour (NM/h), and Fuel Flow (FF) in
kilograms per hour (kg/h), the SR is expressed in NM/kg or NM/ton.
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13
BACKGROUND
Moreover, SR depends on aerodynamic characteristics (Mach number and lift-todrag ratio), engine performance (Specific Fuel Consumption)1, aircraft weight (mg)
and sound velocity at sea level (a0).
Aerodynamics
SR =
ao M L
D
SFC
mg
T
T0
Engine
Weight
Figure B0 - Illustration of the contributors on the Specific Range
Where
SR is the Specific Range in NM/kg
a0 is the celerity of sound at sea level in m/s
M is the Mach Number
L/D is the lift-to-drag ratio
SFC is the Specific Fuel Consumption
M is the aircraft mass in kg
T is the static air temperature in degrees Kelvin
T0 is the static air temperature in degrees Kelvin at sea level
M . L/D Ê
m Ê
SFC Ê
Ö
Ö
Ö
SR Ê
SR Ì
SR Ì
3.3.3. Principle of the method
The following parameters is determined based on data recorded during stable
cruise flight legs:
- the actual specific range,
- the delta (difference in) specific range in percentage relative to the book level
(predicted specific range),
- the delta EPR/N1 required to maintain flight conditions,
- the delta fuel flow resulting from this delta EPR/N1,
- the delta fuel flow required to maintain this delta EPR/N1.
1
Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is equal to the fuel flow (FF) divided by the available thrust. It is
expressed in kg/h.N (kilogram per hour per Newton) and represents the fuel consumption per thrust
unit.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
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Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
The predicted specific range can be obtained thanks to Airbus featured software:
- The In-Flight Performance calculation program (IFP) or
- The Aircraft Performance Monitoring program. This program effectively
compares recorded data with the performance book level.
This predicted specific range corresponds to the book level. It is consistent with
the FCOM performance charts.
The specific range method is the only technique, which enables to assess the
respective contribution of the airframe and the engines in the observed delta
specific range, even though utmost precautions must be taken when doing so.
3.3.4. How to obtain Specific Range
In the FCOM, cruise tables are established for several Mach numbers in different
ISA conditions with normal air conditioning and anti-icing off. Basic aircraft
performance levels are presented in Figure B1 on next page.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
15
BACKGROUND
IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
3.05.15
P 9
CRUISE
SEQ 110
REV 31
R
CRUISE - M.78
MAX. CRUISE THRUST LIMITS
NORMAL AIR CONDITIONING
ANTI-ICING OFF
WEIGHT
(1000KG)
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
FL290
ISA
CG=33.0%
FL310
84.0
.780
84.0
1276
302 1189
180.9
462 192.5
84.2
.780
84.2
1288
302 1202
179.2
462 190.3
84.4
.780
84.5
1300
302 1216
177.5
462 188.1
84.7
.780
84.8
1314
302 1231
175.7
462 185.9
84.9
.780
85.1
1328
302 1246
173.9
462 183.6
85.2
.780
85.3
1342
302 1262
172.0
462 181.3
85.5
.780
85.6
1357
302 1279
170.1
462 178.8
85.7
.780
85.9
1373
302 1297
168.2
462 176.4
86.0
.780
86.2
1389
302 1316
166.2
462 173.9
86.2
.780
86.5
1406
302 1335
164.2
462 171.4
86.5
.780
86.8
1424
302 1355
162.1
462 168.9
86.8
.780
87.1
1442
302 1375
160.0
462 166.4
87.1
.780
87.5
1462
302 1397
157.9
462 163.9
87.4
.780
87.8
1482
302 1419
155.8
462 161.3
LOW AIR CONDITIONING
wFUEL = − 0.5 %
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
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289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
.780
289
458
FL330
FL350
84.0
.780
84.1
.780
1112
277 1044
264
204.0
454 215.4
450
84.3
.780
84.5
.780
1127
277 1060
264
201.4
454 212.0
450
84.6
.780
84.8
.780
1142
277 1079
264
198.6
454 208.4
450
84.9
.780
85.2
.780
1159
277 1097
264
195.7
454 204.8
450
85.2
.780
85.6
.780
1176
277 1117
264
192.8
454 201.3
450
85.6
.780
85.9
.780
1195
277 1137
264
189.8
454 197.6
450
85.9
.780
86.3
.780
1214
277 1158
264
186.8
454 194.1
450
86.2
.780
86.7
.780
1234
277 1182
264
183.8
454 190.2
450
86.6
.780
87.2
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1254
277 1209
264
180.9
454 186.0
450
86.9
.780
87.8
.780
1275
277 1242
264
177.9
454 181.0
450
87.3
.780
88.4
.780
1299
277 1277
264
174.6
454 176.1
450
87.7
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89.0
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1325
277 1314
264
171.2
454 171.1
450
88.2
.780
89.8
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1357
277 1356
264
167.1
454 165.7
450
88.8
.780
90.5
.780
1392
277 1400
264
162.9
454 160.5
450
ENGINE ANTI ICE ON
wFUEL = + 2 %
N1 (%)
KG/H/ENG
NM/1000KG
FL370
84.7
992
225.6
85.1
1011
221.3
85.5
1031
217.0
85.9
1052
212.6
86.4
1075
208.1
86.9
1102
203.0
87.6
1135
197.1
88.2
1170
191.2
89.0
1209
185.0
89.8
1252
178.7
90.8
1298
172.3
MACH
IAS (KT)
TAS (KT)
FL390
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
.780
252
447
85.9
955
234.1
86.3
977
229.0
86.9
1003
223.1
87.6
1036
216.0
88.3
1070
209.0
89.2
1110
201.5
90.1
1153
194.0
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
.780
241
447
TOTAL ANTI ICE ON
wFUEL = + 5 %
Figure B1: Cruise table example for a particular A320 model
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3.4. Corrections and precautions
In order to establish a valid comparison between observed data and the applicable
book level, one should clearly identify the following items. A few approximations
may indeed lead to an apparent deterioration, which may significantly alter the
analysis of the actual performance deterioration.
3.4.1. Operational factors
The intent of the following is to describe the potential factors that can occur during
normal aircraft operations and which may have an adverse effect on the cruise
performance analysis in terms of systematic error or random error.
3.4.1.1. Assumed gross weight deviation
The aircraft gross weight deviation may be originating from three different sources.
3.4.1.1.1. Operating Weight Empty (OEW)
Error on the Operating Empty Weight (OEW) can be caused by the normal
increase of the OEW due to the incorporation of modifications, and dust and water
accumulation. This error may amount to a few hundred of kilograms after several
years.
Both the JAA and the FAA impose that operators regularly establish and verify
aircraft weight to account for the accumulated weight due to repairs and/or aircraft
modifications. For more information on requirements and means, read JAR-OPS
1.605 or FAA AC 120-27C.
3.4.1.1.2. Cargo hold weight
Cargo hold weight can be biased due to unweighted cargo and/or unaccounted
last minute changes.
3.4.1.1.3. Passenger and baggage weights
Errors on passenger weights are usually due to underestimations of both
passenger and hand luggage weights. JAA and FAA have each published some
material to define and regulate the estimation of passenger and baggage weights.
The following reminds main statements extracted from the JAR-OPS and from the
FAR.
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JAR-OPS guidelines
The JAA has produced specific JAR-OPS requirements on passenger and
baggage standard weights: JAR-OPS 1.620. This paragraph proposes that, for the
purpose of calculating the weight of an aircraft, the total weights of passengers,
their hand baggage and checked-in baggage entered on the load sheet shall be
computed using either:
-
Actual weighing just prior to boarding (if the flight should be
identified as carrying excessive weights) or
-
Standard weight values. Male/female passenger standard
weights can be used alternatively to all-adult standard weights.
Refer to tables below.
Type of flight
Male
Female
Children
All adult
(2~12 years old)
All flights except holiday
charters
Holiday charters
88 kg
195 lb
83 kg
183 lb
70 kg
155 lb
69 kg
152 lb
35 kg
77 lb
35 kg
77 lb
84 kg
185 lb
76 kg
168 lb
Table B1 - JAR-OPS Standard passenger weights including hand baggage
Note : Infants below 2 years of age would not be counted if carried by adults on passenger
seats, and would be regarded as children when occupying separate passenger seats.
Type of flight
Domestic
Within the European region
Intercontinental
All other
Baggage standard
mass
11 kg
24 lb
13 kg
29 lb
15 kg
33 lb
13 kg
29 lb
Table B2 - JAR-OPS Standard weight values for each piece of checked-in baggage
Available data does not show large differences between summer and winter
weights. No difference was therefore made. Short-haul flights are predominantly
used by businessmen travelling without checked-in baggage. On long-haul flights,
there are obviously less “hand baggage only “passengers. The non-scheduled
“summer holiday” passenger is generally lighter and carries less hand baggage.
In practice, although the male/female ratio depicts large variations, there are many
flights with significantly less than 20% female passengers, and there are not a lot
of high quality surveys available. Therefore a conservative ratio of 80 / 20 was
retained for determining the present all-adult standard weight value of 84 kg on
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scheduled flights. For non-scheduled flights (76 kg) a 50 / 50 ratio was chosen.
Any variation from these ratios on specific routes or flights would have to be
substantiated by a survey-weighing plan.
The use of other standard weights is also considered in the JAR-OPS:
-
A suitable statistical method is given in Appendix 1 to JAR-OPS 1.620(g) for
verification or updating of standard weight values for passengers and baggage,
should an airline choose to prove other weights by looking into its own
operations. This would involve taking random samples, the selection of which
should be representative of passenger volume (weighing at least 2000 pax),
type of operation and frequency of flights on various routes. Significant
variations in passenger and baggage weights must clearly be accounted for.
Anyway, a review of these weights would have to be performed every five
years, and the load sheet should always contain references to the weighting
method hereby adopted.
-
Results of the airline weighing survey should then be validated and approved
by the Authority before the airline-standard weight actually becomes
applicable.
FAR guidelines
The FAA has issued an Advisory Circular (ref. AC 120-27C) to provide methods
and procedures for developing weight and balance control. Similarly to JAR-OPS,
it also involves initial and periodic re-weighting of aircraft (every 3 years) to
determine average empty and actual operating weight and CG position for a fleet
group of the same model and configuration. The following standard average
weights were adopted and are reminded in the following tables.
Type of flight
Male
Female
Children
All adult
(2~12 years old)
Summer flights
(from May, 1st till October, 31st)
Winter flights
(from November 1st till April, 30th)
88 kg
195 lb
91 kg
200 lb
70 kg
155 lb
73 kg
160 lb
36 kg
80 lb
36 kg
80 lb
82 kg
180 lb
84 kg
185 lb
Table B3 - AC 120-27C Standard passenger weights including hand baggage
Notes: 1. Infants below 2 years of age have already been factored into adult weights.
2. The above weight values include 10 kg/20 lb carry-on baggage for adult passengers.
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Type of flight
Domestic
International and non-scheduled
Baggage standard
mass
11 kg
25 lb
14 kg
30 lb
Table B4 - AC 120-27C Standard check baggage weights
When passengers belong to a very specific group such as athletic squads, soccer
teams… the actual weight of the group should be retained.
Similarly to JAA and FAA requests, airlines have to adopt standard weights unless
they request different values, which would have to be proven by a weighing survey
at the risk of ending up with higher statistics. Regional exceptions would be
allowed when substantiated by means of an accepted methodology.
3.4.1.1.4. Impact on monitored aircraft performance
The impact of these regulatory stipulations on cruise mileage is evident. An
underestimation of the aircraft gross weight is considered to result in an apparent
increase of fuel used and in a decrease of specific range. It causes apparent
airframe degradation. A bias on the analysis result is often observed.
3.4.1.2. Airframe maintenance and aerodynamic deterioration
One of the penalties in terms of fuel mileage is an increased drag due to the poor
airframe condition of the aircraft. Normal aerodynamic deterioration of an aircraft
over a given period of time can include incomplete retraction of moving surfaces,
or surface deterioration due to bird strikes or damages repairs. Each deterioration
induces increased drag and as a consequence increased fuel consumption.
The induced fuel burn penalty largely depends on the location of the drag-inducing
item. These items can be classified in several groups, depending on their location
on the aircraft. The aircraft can be split into three main areas from the most critical
one to the less critical one. This zones depend on the aircraft type. The complete
description of these zones is given in a separate Airbus brochure (refer to Chapter
J-Bibliography, document [J-3]).
Routine aircraft performance monitoring performed using the Airbus APM program
can help detecting a poor aircraft surface condition. Although APM results have to
be interpreted with lots of care, it can trigger an alarm for induced drag increase.
Of course, this approach is a first step approach that can be confirmed by means
of a visual inspection of the aircraft surface, and though direct measurements in
the suspected area as detailed in the Airplane Maintenance Manual (AMM).
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If the APM program is not used but another method, it could be worth
implementing an aerodynamic inspection for example at the occasion of a C
check.
In order to complement cruise performance analyses, and whenever possible, the
aircraft should be observed on ground (to be confirmed with photographs) and in
flight for any surface misalignment or other aerodynamic discrepancies such as:
- door misrigging (see figure B3)
- missing or damaged door seal sections
- control surface misrigging (see figure B2)
- missing or damaged seal sections on movable surfaces
- skin dents and surface roughness
- skin joint filling compound missing or damaged.
Figure B2 - Example of misrigged slat
Figure B3 - Example of misrigged doors
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In flight this would specifically pertain to :
- slats alignment and seating
- pylons and pylon – to – wing interfaces
- engine cowlings
- spoilers trailing edge seating and seal condition (rubber or brush)
- flaps, flap tabs and all-speed ailerons trailing edge alignment.
On ground this would specifically pertain to most forward and middle areas:
- Static and dynamic pitot condition
- Nose radome misalignment
- Cargo door to fuselage alignment
- Service door condition
- Engine fan blade condition (curling,
etc).
- Surface cleanliness (hydraulic fluid,
dirt, paint peeling (see figure B4),
etc).
- Under-wing condition
- Wing-body fairing
Figure B4 - Paint Peeling
- Nose and main landing gear door
adjustment
- Temporary surface protection remnants.
Figure B5 shows an example of a very unclean aircraft. This parasitic drag
assessment shows an estimated amount of 6.09 extra drag count resulting in a
2%-loss of Specific Range.
More details on that subject is available in another Airbus publication “Getting
hands on experience with Aerodynamic deterioration” (see Chapter J-Bibliography,
document [J-3]).
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GENERIC EXAMPLE
Figure B5 - Parasitic Drag Assessment example for an A310 aircraft
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3.4.1.3. Aircraft trimming and asymmetry diagnosis (BIAS)
Accurate and repetitive trimming allows to identify the origin of small but persistent
asymmetries to be identified especially on A300B2/B4 and A310 / A300-600
aircraft.
The reasons for these asymmetries can be several:
- General production tolerances, particularly wing tolerances and asymmetry
between both wings in dimensions, wing / fuselage local setting, wing twist
- Control surface rigging tolerances, particularly for rudder, ailerons and spoilers,
- Fuel loading asymmetries between both wings, although displayed FQI values
are symmetrical
- Thrust setting asymmetries between both engines, although displayed N1 /
EPR values are symmetrical
- Cargo or passenger loading asymmetries.
All of these could lead to an aircraft not flying straight in cruise with all lateral /
directional control surfaces in perfectly neutral positions.
On A310/A300-600 aircraft, Airbus recommends to laterally trim an asymmetrical
aircraft with the zero control wheel technique because it is less fuel consuming
than any other technique.
On fly-by-wire aircraft, the flight control system compensates almost 100% for
changes of trim due to changes in speed and configuration. Changes in thrust
result in higher changes in trim and are compensated for by changing the aircraft
attitude.
The apparent drag, resulting from a lateral asymmetry of the aircraft will bias
cruise performance analysis. On A310/A300-600, an aircraft lateral asymmetry
can result in a 0.3% deterioration of the specific range.
Procedures for checking the aircraft lateral symmetry are given in the Flight Crew
Operating Manual:
- In section 2.02.09 for A310 and A300-600 aircraft types
- In section 3.04.27 for fly-by-wire aircraft
3.4.1.4. Bleed and pressurization (BIAS)
Cabin air leakage may result in increased engine bleed extraction (for the same
thrust) and aerodynamic flow losses. This is most of the time of second order
influence but in some cases it should be closely monitored and carefully corrected
(whenever possible) so as to decrease the bias on the analysis.
Selecting anti-ice and measuring cruise performance can also give a useful
comparison with anti-ice off. The nominal extra fuel consumption at flight
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conditions can be calculated from the IFP and can be compared with the
measured difference in fuel consumption / SR with and without anti-ice. For those
cases where this measured difference is below the nominal difference, it can be
hypothesized that some bleed leaks in the anti-ice ducts may be at the origin of
engine fuel flow deviation with anti-ice off. This test is performed for qualitative
purposes only, and suggests the possibility of leaks without necessarily estimating
the extent or amount of actual engine deviation.
For the purpose of performance monitoring, Airbus recommendations are to fly in
as stabilized conditions as possible. In particular, the bleed configuration should
be as follows to have the data collected:
- anti ice OFF
- air conditioning NORM
Additionally, asymmetrical bleed configuration must be avoided to get relevant
data for analysis. In case of asymmetrical bleed configuration, no data is
automatically recorded via the Data Management Unit (DMU) or via the Flight Data
Interface and Management Unit (FDIMU).
3.4.2. Environmental factors
Weather is one natural phenomenon that man has not yet learnt to reliably predict,
although accuracy is really increasing. Weather has of a critical influence on
aircraft performance and on the outcome of the flight operations.
The intent of the following is to describe potential factors often encountered and
may have a significant effect on cruise performance analysis in terms of scatter.
3.4.2.1. Isobaric slope due to pressure gradient
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model assumes that the pressure
decreases with altitude. This model is a very reliable law, enabling to represent
temperature, pressure, density of the atmosphere, depending on the altitude.
Surfaces of constant pressure
The surfaces of constant
pressure
are
supposed
horizontal.
These surfaces are not
modified by terrain.
Figure B8 - Isobaric-pressure surfaces
Aircraft fly in cruise at given pressure altitude, with a common pressure reference,
which is agreed worldwide: 1013 hPa. That common reference makes sure all
aircraft are correctly separated when flying and ensures common language is used
between all the different aircraft and between the aircraft and the Air Traffic
Controls.
Altitudes given in Flight Level (e.g. FL350) refer to the 1013 hPa isobar.
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Of course, the principle shown in figure B8 is theory. When an aircraft flies over
long ranges, the weather conditions change continuously. In particular, at a given
geometric height, pressure varies. Or the other way around, for a particular
pressure, the geometric height will for sure vary.
Therefore, when flying along an isobaric line,
• In LP zones, the aircraft actually descends relative to lifting air in order to
maintain pressure altitude. Hence aircraft performance is slightly better than
reality (since Mach number slightly increases).
• In HP zones, the aircraft actually climbs relative to lifting air in order to maintain
the pressure altitude. Thus, the aircraft performance is slightly worse than
reality (since Mach number slightly decreases).
The aircraft vertical velocity can be estimated from the wind and pressure forecast
maps at a given FL and on a given sector. On this type of maps (see Figure B9),
Isobaric or iso-altitude lines are indicated. As a reminder, 1 hPa near the ground is
equivalent to 28 feet while 1 hPa at FL380 is equivalent to 100 feet.
Figure B9 - Isobars FL100/700 hPa - iso-Altitudes, temperatures and winds
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Weather offices can provide isobars at different altitudes, indicated in Flight Levels
(FL): FL50/850 hPa, FL100/700 hPa, FL180/500 hPa, FL250/300 hPa, FL340/250
hPa, FL390/200 hPa.
Thus, as a result of the isobaric surface slope, the aircraft may be flying uphill or
downhill depending on the pressure field. In performance demonstration flight test,
isobars are usually followed to minimize drift angle. In airline revenue service, this
is not feasible since airways cut across the isobars.
The isobaric slope can be related to the drift angle as illustrated on figure B10.
Figure B10 - Isobaric slope and drift angle
In the Northern Hemisphere:
-
Right Hand (RH) drift angle corresponds to wind from the left.
The aircraft is flying towards a low pressure, i.e. it is flying downhill,
* In the troposphere, SAT decreases / wind increases
* In the stratosphere, SAT increases / wind decreases
-
Left Hand (LH) drift angle corresponds to wind from the right
The aircraft is flying towards a high-pressure zone, i.e. it is flying uphill,
* In the troposphere, SAT increases / wind decreases
* In the stratosphere, SAT decreases / wind increases
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The opposite phenomenon prevail in the Southern Hemisphere.
Wind velocity increases below the tropopause and decreases above the
tropopause by approximately 5% per 1000 ft except in jet stream zones. Near the
tropopause, the wind velocity is maximum.
In order account for the isobaric slope, the aircraft should be given a bonus when
flying uphill (LH drift angle in Northern Hemisphere, RH drift angle in Southern
hemisphere) and a penalty when the aircraft is flying downhill (RH drift angle in
Northern hemisphere, LH drift angle in Southern hemisphere).
The correction is applied on the
∆SR
∆FU
(or −
) as follows:
SR
FU
 ∆SR 
 ∆FU 
= −
= −1.107 × 10 − 2 × TAS × sin(LAT) × tan(DA)



FU
SR

 CORR

 CORR
where TAS is the true airspeed in knots
DA is the drift angle
LAT is the latitude
Figure B11 - Example of SR deviation correction
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In practice, drift (track-heading), temperature (SAT) and wind observations
(direction/speed) allow to consider:
ƒ Pressure patterns (high and lows)
ƒ Wind barbs (direction/speed / FL)
ƒ Tropopause height
ƒ Stratospheric lapse rate
ƒ Temperature trends around tropopause
ƒ Jetstream core locations
ƒ Turbulence
In any case the aircraft must be stabilized (Flight Path Acceleration, Vertical
Velocity).
Whilst carrying out an aircraft performance monitoring audit, one would refrain
from taking stabilized cruise performance readings if the pressure system is
changing rapidly or when drift angles are greater or equal to 5 degrees. Very often,
a positive ∆T can be observed (≅ 10° C in horizontal flight) when passing through
the tropopause from the troposphere to the stratosphere. This temperature
increase is even more noticeable when the tropopause slope angle is steep and
therefore when wind velocity is highest at the point where the tropopause is
passed through.
The equation in Figure B11 is valid only for high-altitude winds; less-than ideal
conditions like topographic effects (mountain waves) or strong curvature for the
isobars > 5° drift would lead to erroneous results.
3.4.2.2. Isobaric slope due to the temperature gradient
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model assumes pressure decreases
with altitude. This model is a very reliable law, enabling to represent temperature,
pressure, and density of the atmosphere, depending on the altitude.
From the ground up to the tropopause, the mean temperature decreases
continuously with altitude (see figure B12 on next page).
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BACKGROUND
Meters
Feet
11 000 m
36 000 ft
Tropopause
-2°C/1000ft
7 500 ft
2 300 m
-56.5 °C
Temperature
+15 °C
Figure B12 - ISA Temperature model
Indeed, in the real world, at a given FL, the temperature changes continuously.
Engine efficiency depends on the difference between the fuel temperature (in fuel
tanks, the temperature is fixed) and the outside air temperature (static
temperature, SAT). In cruise, if the SAT increases, engine thrust decreases and
vice-versa. The autothrust corrects this in order to maintain the pressure altitude.
Recordings should be performed in a zone where the SAT is forecasted stable.
41
40
40
Recording
40
39
38
41
35
No Recording
38
40
34
35
Figure B13 - Stable Temperature zone
For aircraft performance monitoring purposes, the autothrust being
disengaged, the SAT variation should be limited to 1°C during the actual
data recording leg.
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In order to verify the influence of the temperature gradient on aircraft performance,
the following should be considered. Temperature gradients also modify the slope
of the isobaric surfaces. For example, low-pressure areas are cold compared to
high-pressure areas but the colder the low pressure, the steeper the isobaric
surface slope.
140 ft
15 °C
132 ft
0 °C
147 ft
30 °C
Figure B14 - Illustration of the isobaric slope due to the temperature
In order to compensate for the modified isobaric slope, the aircraft will be given a
bonus or a penalty depending on the temperature gradient, and as follows:
C
1
 ∆SR 
= 9.4 × 10 − 3 × (0.25 × FL − 11.5)× L × ∂SAT ×


CD
TAS
 SR  CORR
A graphic example is given in following Figure B15.
Figure B15 - Example of graphical result
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Note:
The usefulness of these isobaric slope corrections is, in fact, rather questionable since
the theoretical assumptions are usually not applicable to the real atmosphere. What we
are looking for is the change in potential energy represented:
ƒ
by the slope of the flight path, and / or
ƒ
by the change of geopotential altitude
However, when performing an assessment of this slope through the observed drift,
and/or temperature trend, only the conditions between, earth’s surface and flight altitude
are relevant ; this applies for both the assessment of the pressure-related slope as well
as for a temperature related slope. There is presently no system which is capable of
sensing flight path slope with the required accuracy (better than 0.002°).
The only valuable approach today is to compute this slope from inertial information. This
then would include all possible isobaric slope effects (pressure or temperature,
geostrophic winds) without having to distinguish between those.
3.4.2.3. Winds and Pressure zones
Let us start with basic reminders on winds and pressure zones.
3.4.2.3.1. Wind
At high altitudes, the wind direction follows isobaric lines, while at low altitudes, the
wind direction cuts through isobaric lines.
As illustrated on figure B15bis, when crossing over isobaric lines, and when in the
North hemisphere (the contrary for South hemisphere),
- if left hand wind, the aircraft flies from a high pressure zone to a low pressure
zone
- if right hand wind, the aircraft flies from a low pressure zone to a high pressure
zone
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H
L
L
Figure B15 bis - Wind / Pressure zones relationship
3.4.2.3.2. Pressure versus wind relationship
Pressure variations are linked to the wind velocity. Indeed,
ƒ Low wind velocity corresponds to slow pressure variations
ƒ High wind velocity corresponds to quick pressure variations
Thus, at a given flight level or pressure altitude, successive isobaric lines are
distant with weak wind, close with strong wind.
As a result, the wind force is linked to the pressure distribution, and as of a
consequence, it has an impact on the actual aircraft profile.
3.4.2.4. Low and high pressure zones
The low pressure (LP) zones are small and scattered. The isobaric lines are
concentrated and close to circles. In these LP zones, the air is unstable and climbs
strongly. Some turbulence may be encountered.
The high pressure (HP) zones are wide. Isobaric lines are distant and have
awkward shapes. In these HP zones, the air is stable and gently descents.
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BACKGROUND
L
H
Figure B16 - Example of HP and LP zones
In practice, the air mass vertical velocity cannot be measured on board the aircraft.
The aircraft trim is modified to maintain pressure altitude.
In Europe, statistical air vertical velocities encountered are centimetric (from
0.01m/s to 0.1 m/s). Worldwide, the mean value of vertical winds encountered is
0.6 m/second.
Most of the monitoring procedures probably do induce a unfavorable bias in cruise
performance measurements because the crew usually concentrates on calm
atmospheres. As explained above, extremely calm atmospheres necessarily
correspond to sinking zones since these tend to increase stability. The problem is
therefore to estimate the bias that can be attributed to vertical winds. As a
preliminary study, the specific range deviation generated by an air mass vertical
velocity was established on an A320 aircraft model and was equal to a DSR of 1%
for 0.17 m/second.
Consequently, to gather data of better quality, recordings should be
performed in a mildly agitated atmosphere rather than in a calm zone.
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3.4.2.5. The Coriolis effect
The Coriolis effect is the tendency for any moving body on or above the earth's
surface to drift sideways from its course because of the earth's rotational direction
(west to east) and speed, which is greater for a surface point near the equator
than towards the poles.
In the Northern Hemisphere the drift is to the right of the body’s motion; in the
Southern Hemisphere, it is to the left.
The Coriolis deflection is therefore related to the motion of the object, the motion
of the Earth, and the latitude. The Coriolis acceleration results in an increase or
decrease of the apparent aircraft gross weight.
∆GW
= −7.63 × 10 − 6 × GS × sin(TT) × cos(LAT)
GW
Where
GW is the aircraft gross weight
GS is the ground speed in knots
TT is the true track
LAT is the latitude
At a given ground speed and latitude,
ƒ In the Northern Hemisphere, the aircraft gross weight increases when flying
westwards and decreases when flying eastwards.
ƒ In the Southern Hemisphere, the aircraft gross weight decreases when flying
westwards and increases when flying eastwards.
In order to account for the gross weight deviation, a positive correction when the
aircraft is flying westwards and negative correction when the aircraft is flying
eastwards (in Northern Hemisphere, and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere)
could be applied to the specific range.
The correction is applied on the
∆SR
as follows:
SR
∆Cd
∆Cl
∆GW
 ∆SR 
=
= +k ×
= +k ×


Cd
Cl
GW
 SR  CORR
where
k is a function of the drag and lift coefficients.
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Hence,
 ∆SR 
= −k × 7.63 × 10 − 6 × GS × sin(TT) × cos(LAT)


 SR  CORR
Where
GS is the ground speed in knots
TT is the true track
LAT is the latitude
3.4.3. Technical factors
3.4.3.1. Fuel Lower Heating Value (Fuel LHV)
The Fuel LHV defines the fuel specific heat or heat capacity of the fuel. The usual
unit for this parameter is BTU/LB.
Fuel flow is directly impacted by this value. The effect of the fuel LHV on the
apparent cruise performance level is explained below thanks to a basic reminder
of the operation of a gas-turbine engine.
The engines are required to produce a certain amount of thrust (i.e. a N1/EPR
thrust setting parameter is required) to maintain the aircraft in steady cruise level
flight. For given flight conditions, a given engine provides an amount of thrust,
which depends on the amount of heat energy coming from the fuel burning in the
combustion chamber.
The heat energy per unit of time is given by the following formula:
Q = J x Hf x Wf
Where
J is physical constant
Hf is the fuel specific heat (Fuel LHV) in BTU1/lb
Wf is the fuel flow in lb/h
As a consequence, the fuel flow required to produce a given amount of thrust is:
Wf =
Q
1
Q
=
×
J × Hf FLHV J
The required thrust being fixed, the heat energy Q is also fixed. Thus, the higher
the FLHV, the lower the required fuel flow.
1
BTU is the British Thermal Unit. It corresponds to the heat quantity required to
increase the temperature of one pound of water from 39.2°F to 40.2°F. 1 BTU =
1.05506 kJ
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The following conclusions can be drawn from the above equations:
1. Any deviation in the fuel LHV will result in a deviation in fuel flow
2. As the heat energy remains constant whenever fuel LHV and fuel flow vary, the
engine thermodynamic cycle is unchanged. The high-pressure rotor speed N2
and the Exhaust Gas Temperature remain unchanged.
3. The only affected parameters are fuel flow (FF) and specific range (SR).
∆FF
∆FLHV
∆SR
∆FLHV
=−
=+
and
FF
FLHV
SR
FLHV
The FLHV local and seasonal variations being a fact of industry, the accuracy can
be increased by a FLHV measurement.
It is in any case essential to perform FLHV measurements, as variations in fuel
quality exist throughout the world (crude oil quality) and in between flights. Airbus
now has a fairly large database we have been receiving lots of samples from our
audits worldwide as shown in figure B17.
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BACKGROUND
FLHV BTU/LB)
Fuel
density
Figure B17 - FLHV values versus fuel density - Sample measurements
Figure B17 shows that the minimum fuel LHV encountered over a significant
population of samples is 18400 BTU/LB.
In routine performance analysis, this FLHV is rather difficult to obtain, because of
the wide variety of fuel quality, depending on various world regions. Most of the
airlines subsequently use the same value for all their analysis. Although this
method is rather questionable if an accurate performance audit is intended, it is
quite acceptable for routine analysis.
In this case, one should keep in mind the FLHV effect on the monitored fuel factor,
especially when implementing the fuel factors in the airline flight planning systems,
or in aircraft FMS systems. The monitored fuel should be corrected for the FLHV
effect (see also chapter 0-2.4.3. Monitored fuel factor & 0-3.2.Keys for defining the
fuel factor).
3.4.3.2. Data acquisition / transmission (Scatter/Bias)
Before data is automatically collected by means of the various aircraft recording
systems, some conditions are checked. In particular, the variation of a few
parameters over a 100-second time period allows to identify cruise stabilized
segments. More details are available in chapter D- How to record in-flight
parameters.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
38
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
Figure B18:
Stable frame = PMAX-PMIN < DP limit for all parameters
The FDIMU/DMU collects most of the data. The data comes from the various
aircraft systems (such as the ADIRS, the FAC…). Potential accuracy tolerance
remains in the normal industrial tolerances for each of these systems.
Some of the data is measured by the systems, and therefore can suffer from
measurement error. Some other data (such as the flight path acceleration
parameter, which quantifies the change of aircraft speed along the flight path) are
calculated by means of the FDIMU/DMU based on an average of several other
parameters. As a consequence, a rounding error comes on top of the
measurement and tolerance errors.
Yet, the total error on the overall data collection remains quite low when compared
to the other potential sources of errors described in this chapter.
On the data transmission side (either via ACARS, or dumping on a PCMCIA or
disk), the only errors possible are due to a FDIMU/DMU malfunction.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
39
BACKGROUND
3.4.4. Taking into account influence factors
When doing an aircraft performance audit, it is important to deal with all these bias
/ scatter effects in the best way possible. The following measurement
considerations/corrections factors are essential:
Introducing bias
Introducing scatter
Fuel LHV
data acquisition/transmission
Aircraft weight
instrument scatter
air conditioning
options
/
bleed
selection Auto-throttle / autopilot activity
aircraft trimming
atmospheric influences
instrument accuracy
stabilizer / elevator / trim
When doing routine aircraft performance monitoring, it is difficult to try assessing
the impact of the previously mentioned factors. Indeed, taking a fuel sample to the
laboratory for each flight is really not feasible. Hence, some assumptions must be
made, leading to introduce some uncertainty on the cruise performance analysis.
Routine aircraft performance monitoring is based on a statistical approach, which
gives an average deterioration and the associated scatter.
Figure B19:
Performance monitoring trends
Identifying trends is rather the goal of routine performance monitoring. Figure B20
illustrates the type of trending that can be performed with the APM program.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
40
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
*
A I R B U S
C R U I S E
P E R F O R M A N C E
*
A I R C R A F T
P E R F O R M A N C E
M O N I T O R I N G *
* ===================================================================================================================== *
*
*** PROGRAM: A P M - Version 2.43 - Jul. 2002 ***
*
*
*
* ------ AIRCRAFT TYPE:
A319-114
ENGINE TYPE:
CFM56-5A5
----------------------------- *
*
*
* ------ DATABASES: AERODYN. : A319113.BDC
DATE: 27/07/00
------ *
*
---------- ENGINE
: M565A5.BDC
DATE: 06/06/96
------ *
*
GENERAL : G319113.BDC
DATE: 26/02/01
------ *
*
*
* ------ JOB-INFORMATION:
----------------------------- *
***************************************************************************************************************************
DIRECT ANALYSIS OUTPUT (INPUT BY ADIF)
DATA BLOCK/FLEET:
1/ 1
F L I G H T
D A T A
CASE IDENTIFICATION
NO.
TAIL-NO
DATE
D/M/Y
FL-NO
CASE
(UTC)
ESN1
ESN2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
AIB001
25/05/02
24/05/02
07/06/02
29/05/02
04/06/02
28/05/02
10/06/02
10/06/02
27/05/02
03/06/02
19/05/02
24/05/02
202
471
850
1019
1019
1020
1023
1515
1550
1550
1628
1835
22:55
11:59
11:54
13:27
18:16
21:38
23:21
11:04
21:38
21:48
19:51
20:05
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733266
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
733267
ALT
MACH
TAT
WEIGHT
CG
FPAC
VV
GRAV
----------------------------------------------------------------FEET
C
LB
%
G FT/MIN
M/S*S
37011.
39003.
37017.
39006.
38988.
37010.
37004.
39001.
37024.
37028.
37003.
35012.
0.8015
0.7700
0.7990
0.8000
0.7765
0.7805
0.8000
0.7995
0.7990
0.8005
0.7990
0.8015
-32.55
-38.30
-21.85
-35.75
-21.95
-34.45
-19.65
-27.75
-30.95
-30.05
-33.85
-24.75
119400.
122300.
123500.
119000.
122250.
128450.
130000.
114000.
126200.
127900.
120700.
134050.
23.7 0.0005
25.2 -0.0011
25.7 0.0001
24.2 0.0006
24.9 0.0012
24.4 0.0013
23.9 0.0001
24.7 -0.0001
25.7 0.0001
25.1 0.0009
26.3 0.0004
24.1 0.0009
6.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
-5.0
11.0
3.0
3.5
-22.0
-22.0
-1.0
4.5
9.7319
9.7703
9.7330
9.7817
9.7833
9.7483
9.7535
9.7690
9.7426
9.7442
9.7435
9.7803
* A I R B U S
C R U I S E
P E R F O R M A N C E
*
A I R C R A F T
P E R F O R M A N C E
M O N I T O R I N G *
* ===================================================================================================================== *
*
*** PROGRAM: A P M - Version 2.43 - Jul. 2002 ***
*
*
*
* ------ AIRCRAFT TYPE:
A319-114
ENGINE TYPE:
CFM56-5A5
----------------------------- *
*
*
* ------ DATABASES: AERODYN. : A319113.BDC
DATE: 27/07/00
------ *
*
---------- ENGINE
: M565A5.BDC
DATE: 06/06/96
------ *
*
GENERAL : G319113.BDC
DATE: 26/02/01
------ *
*
*
* ------ JOB-INFORMATION:
----------------------------- *
***************************************************************************************************************************
AIRCRAFT TAIL-NO.: AIB001
DIRECT ANALYSIS OUTPUT (INPUT BY ADIF)
DATA BLOCK/FLEET:
1/ 1
E N G I N E
D A T A
N11
N12
FFA1
FFA2
EGT1
EGT2 BC WBLL WBLR
FLHV
N1TH
FFTH
FFC1
FFC2
EGTC1
EGTC2
NO. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
%
LB/H
LB/H
C
C
LB/S LB/S BTU/LB
%
LB/H
LB/H
LB/H
C
C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
86.60
85.80
88.40
87.00
89.20
86.50
89.60
87.00
86.60
87.30
85.90
87.90
85.70
85.80
88.20
87.00
88.90
86.20
89.50
86.90
86.50
86.90
85.70
87.60
2410.0
2180.0
2500.0
2340.0
2420.0
2440.0
2630.0
2280.0
2460.0
2510.0
2390.0
2770.0
2440.0
2180.0
2530.0
2370.0
2430.0
2440.0
2670.0
2280.0
2470.0
2520.0
2380.0
2760.0
584.0
576.0
626.0
596.2
647.0
585.6
648.8
608.0
593.0
604.0
579.0
612.2
581.0
576.0
624.0
603.0
646.0
590.6
648.4
609.0
593.0
601.0
583.0
618.6
0.960
0.930
0.960
0.930
0.930
0.930
0.960
0.930
0.960
0.960
0.930
0.960
0.960
0.930
0.960
0.860
0.930
0.940
0.960
0.930
0.960
0.960
0.930
0.960
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
18590.
86.05
85.41
87.99
86.81
89.16
86.11
89.19
87.32
86.55
87.27
85.71
87.69
2405.5
2139.1
2481.7
2306.7
2348.2
2394.2
2600.1
2264.9
2435.2
2507.9
2378.0
2730.7
2468.3
2179.2
2530.8
2327.7
2352.1
2437.7
2648.9
2231.2
2441.1
2511.4
2400.7
2756.8
2364.0
2179.2
2507.1
2324.8
2320.3
2404.8
2637.0
2220.6
2429.6
2465.9
2377.2
2718.8
577.5
563.2
613.5
582.0
627.4
574.7
633.6
588.8
578.9
589.9
565.9
601.6
564.4
563.2
610.4
581.0
622.9
570.5
632.1
587.4
577.5
584.0
563.0
597.2
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
41
BACKGROUND
* A I R B U S
C R U I S E
P E R F O R M A N C E
*
A I R C R A F T
P E R F O R M A N C E
M O N I T O R I N G *
* ===================================================================================================================== *
*
*** PROGRAM: A P M - Version 2.43 - Jul. 2002 ***
*
*
*
* ------ AIRCRAFT TYPE:
A319-114
ENGINE TYPE:
CFM56-5A5
----------------------------- *
*
*
* ------ DATABASES: AERODYN. : A319113.BDC
DATE: 27/07/00
------ *
*
---------- ENGINE
: M565A5.BDC
DATE: 06/06/96
------ *
*
GENERAL : G319113.BDC
DATE: 26/02/01
------ *
*
*
* ------ JOB-INFORMATION:
----------------------------- *
***************************************************************************************************************************
AIRCRAFT TAIL-NO.: AIB001
DIRECT ANALYSIS OUTPUT (INPUT BY ADIF)
DATA BLOCK/FLEET:
1/ 1
A P M
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0.547
0.392
0.412
0.190
0.037
0.393
0.411
-0.321*
0.051
0.031
0.194
0.207
-0.353
0.392
0.212
0.190
-0.263
0.093
0.311
-0.421
-0.049
-0.369
-0.006
-0.093
2.612
1.877
1.978
0.909
0.168
1.820
1.877
-1.490*
0.241
0.142
0.954
0.955
-1.726
1.877
1.023
0.785
-1.188
0.442
1.420
-1.956
-0.232
-1.674
-0.032
-0.436
-2.364
0.036
-1.217
0.529
2.886
0.093
-0.713
2.187
0.775
-0.057
-0.445
0.480
MV
SD
NR
0.260
0.179
11
-0.030
0.278
12
1.230
0.848
11
-0.142
1.294
12
0.183
1.402
12
*
D E V I A T I O N
D A T A
DN11
DN12
DFFA1
DFFA2
DFFB1
DFFB2
DEGT1
DEGT2
DN1M
DFFAM
DFFBM
DEGTM
DSR
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
3.215
0.036
0.914
1.943
4.729*
1.466
1.252
2.674
1.664
2.195
0.116
1.516
0.765*
1.531
1.414
1.666
2.174
1.282
1.678
2.223
1.650
1.628
1.556
1.211
1.980
1.531
1.535
2.575
2.573
2.377
1.805
2.510
1.820
1.978
2.395
2.465
0.097
0.392
0.312
0.190
-0.113
0.243
0.361
-0.371*
0.001
-0.169
0.094
0.057
0.443
1.877
1.500
0.847
-0.510
1.131
1.649
-1.723*
0.005
-0.766
0.461
0.259
0.365
0.036
-0.157
1.235
3.801*
0.774
0.267
2.430
1.218
1.059
-0.166
0.995
1.368
1.531
1.474
2.120
2.373
1.828
1.742
2.366
1.735
1.803
1.975
1.836
-0.803
-1.877
-1.323
-2.050
-3.168*
-1.878
-1.884
-0.661
-1.208
-0.284
-0.294
-1.241
1.545
0.973
11
1.637
0.318
11
2.129
0.398
12
0.133
0.185
11
0.627
0.865
11
0.733
0.773
11
1.846
0.321
12
-1.228
0.650
11
VALUES OUT OF RANGE (MARKED BY A TRAILING "*") ARE NOT INCLUDED IN MEAN VALUES (MV) AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS (SD).
SO NUMBER OF CASES MAY BE REDUCED TO NUMBER OF READINGS (NR). ".---" MEANS FAILED OR NOT CALCULATED.
Figure B20:
Trending with the APM program
Figure B20 analysis shows that this particular tail number consumes more fuel
than the IFP book level by 1.228% (worse specific range by 1.228%) in average.
Based on the sample in-flight records that were snapshot during the flight, the
deviation to this mean value was ±0.65%. Eleven records were used to calculate
the statistics.
More details concerning data interpretation is available in Chapter D-Cruise
Performance Analysis.
3.5. Conclusion
3.5.1. Trends and factoring
Routine aircraft performance monitoring is double-purpose. First, it enables to
establish the different fuel factors for aircraft operations for each individual aircraft.
Second, it allows to monitor the natural performance deterioration trend with time.
Trends can provide essential information concerning the impact of a maintenance
policy provided adequate book-keeping is performed to record:
- numeric APM outputs before and after maintenance actions,
- strategic maintenance actions (airframe, engines, instruments).
Deteriorating from delivery, each individual aircraft specific range trends compared
to the Airbus baseline provide the performance factor that is eventually entered
into that aircraft’s FMS and in the flight planning system for fuel padding.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
42
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
To illustrate the trend of the aircraft performance deterioration with time, and
based on the feedback from A320 family customers, the following typical in-service
performance values in terms of specific range versus the corresponding IFP level
are as follows:
- after 1 year from delivery:
2.0% below IFP +/- 1%
- after 2 years from delivery:
3.5% below IFP +/- 1%
- after 3 years from delivery:
4.0% below IFP +/- 1%
3.5.2. Comparing performance monitoring methods
Moreover, when checking the actual performance level of an aircraft, many factors
may influence the analysis by introducing bias and/or scatter. Although corrections
may be calculated for each individual factor, this procedure appears to be quite
hard when routine performed.
Overall, three basic methods are available to check the actual performance level
∆SR
of the aircraft versus the book level: the specific range method (
), the fuel
SR
∆FU
∆FBO
), the fuel on board method (
). Depending on the
used method (
FU
FBO
method used, part or all of the influencing factors are taken into account. Each
method gives an apparent performance level of the aircraft, which is the
combination of the actual aircraft performance level and of the influencing factors.
Figure B21 illustrates how the specific range method, the fuel used method, the
fuel on board method relate to each other and relative to the IFP baseline.
∆FBO
FBO
∆FU
FU
∆SR
SR
PREDICTION VARIATIONS
(Flight Profile and Conditions)
2% (1% to 3%)
STABILZATION
(Flight Path and Atmosphere)
1% (0.5% to 1%)
GLOBAL AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
DEGRADATION
X % (Monitored fuel factor)
IFP level
Figure B21:
Performance monitoring method comparison
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
43
BACKGROUND
All the above methods naturally have relative advantages and disadvantages
which airlines have to weigh out against each other.
Advantages
Specific
Potential
splitting
range
engine and airframe
method
Easy processing
Fuel-used Easy data gathering
Method
Scatter elimination
ATS remaining in use
Trip fuel Scatter elimination
burn-off
ATS remaining in use
analysis
Disadvanges
of Scatter, sensitive
Stability critical
No bias elimination
Tedious processing
More crew attention
required Tedious data
gathering and
processing
Comments
Not adapted for
factoring on
short/medium-haul
Adapted for flight
planning Operational
conditions
Adapted
for
fuel
factoring on shorthaul.
4. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE MONITORING COMMUNITY
Aircraft Performance Monitoring involves many actors within the airline. On the
next page, a sample data flow was drawn for a typical airline. Of course, the
organization of the airline may impose different data flows but this aims at giving
an overall idea of the task sharing when dealing with aircraft performance
monitoring.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
44
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BACKGROUND
R02-5000.000³
99SEP24³
13:46:21³
XXXXXX³
01:06:59³ CRUISE PERFORMANCE
³
5000³R02-5000.000³ "BEST"
STABILITY
99SEP24³
13:46:21³
XXXXXX³
³
04034B20³
.F-GLZE³
00000036³ ³ 00000000³
01:06:59³ CRUISE
PERFORMANCE
12210.00³
XXXXXX³ XXXXX ³"BEST"
000A340³SE1N03
5000³R02-5000.000³
STABILITY
99SEP24³
13:46:21³
XXXXXX³
³
04034B20³
.F-GLZE³
00000036³ ³ 00000000³
01:06:59³ CRUISE
PERFORMANCE
12210.00³
000A340³SE1N03
5000³ XXXXXX³ XXXXX ³"BEST"
STABILITY
³
04034B20³
.F-GLZE³
00000036³
00000000³
12210.00³ XXXXXX³ XXXXX ³ 000A340³SE1N03
A340 CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
PAGE 01 OF 02
A340 CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
ACID
UTC
FROM TO
FLT
PAGE 01 DATE
OF 02
CODE CNT
A340 CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
ACID
DATE
UTC
FROM TO
FLT
PAGE 01 OF
02
C1 .XXXXXX
XXXXXX 01.06.59 XXXX XXXX XXXXXXXXXX
CODE CNT
5000 849 68
ACID
DATE
UTC
FROM TO
FLT
C1 .XXXXXX
XXXXXX
01.06.59
XXXX
XXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
CODE CNT
PRV
PH 849TIEBCK
DMU IDENTIFICATION
MOD AP1
5000
68
AP2
C1 .XXXXXX XXXXXX 01.06.59 XXXX XXXX XXXXXXXXXX
PRV
PH 849 TIEBCK
DMU IDENTIFICATION
MOD AP1
5000
68
C2 001
000 052
AP206.0 000000 SXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX
052 28
PRV PH
TIEBCK DMU IDENTIFICATION
MOD AP1
C2 001
000 052
AP206.0 000000 SXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX
TAT
ALT
MN
SYS (....... BLEED STATUS
052 28
.......) APU
C2 001 06.0 000000 SXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX
000 052
TAT
ALT
MN
SYS (....... BLEED STATUS
052 28
C3 N18.5
37000APU
0.821 111 1.19 1111 1010 0 0101
.......)
1111 1 17 - AF
TAT
ALT
MN
SYS (....... BLEED STATUS
C3 N18.5
37000
.......)
APU0.821 111 1.19 1111 1010 0 0101
1111 1 17 - AF
Snapshots of
cruise data
C3 N18.5 37000 0.821 111 1.19 1111 1010 0 0101
1111 1 17 - AF
FLIGHT OPERATIONS OR
DEDICATED STAFF MEMBERS
IDENTIFY
DEGRADED
AIRCRAFT
MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING
-
Monitoring of the engine
performance
Repair airframe non-clean
surfaces (flight control
rigging, seals, …)
Calibration of airspeed
system and static sources
Control of the OEW
-
Flight planning
Route restrictions
AIRFRAME AND POWER
ENGINEERING
-
Long term engine
condition monitoring
Assess the effectiveness
of maintenance
procedures and airframe
modifications
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
45
BACKGROUND
LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
46
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
HOW TO RECORD IN-FLIGHT PARAMETERS
C. HOW TO RECORD IN-FLIGHT PARAMETERS
This chapter introduces to the Airbus’ methodology for fuel mileage determination
in terms of monitoring procedures and data retrieval.
1. INTRODUCTION
Data retrieval is the key point to aircraft performance monitoring. The quality and
the quantity of records will govern the reliability of performance monitoring to a
great extent. Two procedures for data retrieval from the aircraft will be detailed:
1. Manual recording of in-flight data based on data monitoring of the cruise
performance.
2. Automatic recording of in-flight data based on the use of data recorders on
board the aircraft.
These procedures have been developed to monitor cruise performance during
stable flight conditions.
For all aircraft types, data collection can be performed manually by means of a
dedicated staff member in the cockpit or by one of the pilots. It is worth noticing
that the manual data collection quickly becomes tedious when the aircraft
performance level is monitored systematically and repetitively.
That is why Airbus promotes the automatic data collection (whenever possible) for
routine aircraft performance monitoring. Airbus worked this out and defined a
standard report format produced by aircraft systems and a tool for analysis that is
able to cope with the report without any further handling operations.
Note that both procedures should give the same results and that the choice of the
method remains at the user’s discretion. Both methods are not exclusive and can
be performed simultaneously and independently from each other to increase
reliability of data readings.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
47
HOW TO RECORD IN-FLIGHT PARAMETERS
2. REQUIRED OBSERVED DATA
The data that is required for further analysis is given below. Each observed data
set is like a snapshot of aircraft condition. As many records as possible should be
obtained so as to increase the statistical adequacy of performance analysis.
Parameter
Aircraft Tail Number
Date
Flight Number
Flight Case or
DMU recording time
Unit
(–)
YYMMDD
(–)
1-99
hhmm
Engine serial numbers
Altitude
Mach number
Total Air Temperature
Aircraft mass (weight)
Center of Gravity
Flight Path Acceleration
Vertical Velocity
True Heading
(–)
(ft)
(–)
(°C)
(kg or lb)
(%)
(g)
(ft/min)
(°)
Latitude
(°)
Wind speed
(kt)
Wind direction
(°)
Average
fuel
temperature
Average fuel density
N1 - Power setting
EPR - Power Setting
(°C)
Actual fuel flow
Exhaust
gas
temperature
Fuel lower heating value
Engine bleed flow (left)
(l/kg)
(%)
(–)
(kg/h, lb/h)
(°C)
Comments
Number of data of a same flight. If no
value is set, the program sets a "1".
Time at which the performance point was
taken in flight.
From the two air data computers (ADC)
From the two air data computers (ADC)
From the two air data computers (ADC)
Horizontal acceleration measured in g.
Vertical acceleration
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated
NOT ACTIVE
NOT ACTIVE
Depends on engine type EPR for IAE, RR
and P&W engines, N1 for GE and CFM
engines.
Fuel flow for each engine (FFA1, FFA2, ...)
To be set for each engine (EGT1, EGT2,
...)
(BTU/lb)
(kg/s or lb/s) Engine 1 flow (twin engine A/C) or sum of
engines 1 and 2 (4 engine-aircraft)
Engine bleed flow (right) (kg/s or lb/s) Engine 2 flow (twin engine A/C) or sum of
engines 3 and 4 (4 engine-aircraft)
Engine
bleed
code (–)
0
...
off (no bleed)
(alternatively to pack
E
...
economic (low)
flows)
N
...
normal
H
...
high (max)
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3. MANUAL RECORDING
Manual readings have to be performed when the aircraft is not equipped with the
appropriate equipment required for automated data retrieval. The required material
is detailed in the next paragraph.
Doing manual readings requires to comply with strict rules to avoid irrelevant
points. Some highlights will also be given concerning analysis procedures and the
use of recording systems.
3.1. Measurement procedures and precautions
A performance monitoring must be carried out considering all the following
measurement procedures and precautions.
These recommendations have been summarized in the form given at the end of
this paragraph.
-
3.1.1. At dispatch
Take a copy of the computerized flight plan, the weather forecast and of the
load sheet.
-
Take a fuel sample from the refueling truck for analysis and determination
of the fuel LHV. The FLHV of the sample can be determined by specialized
laboratories.
-
Check the external aspect of the aircraft to detect any seal degradation, any
flight control surface and door misrigging, any airframe repair, the airframe
surface condition, which all could increase the aircraft drag. Take pictures
and annotate aircraft schematics to detail observations.
-
Note aircraft tail number, date and flight sector.
3.1.2. Prior to take off
-
Record the fuel on board (FOB) at Main Engine Start (MES), either by the
on-board fuel quantity indication (FQI).
-
Note Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) from the load sheet.
-
Calculate aircraft gross weight at MES (read it on the ECAM).
-
Note APU running time after MES and compute APU fuel consumption to
amend engine fuel used (100 / 150 kg / hour).
-
Note the take off Center of Gravity
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3.1.3. In flight
-
Check the aircraft is flying in cruise on a straight leg that will take at least 15
minutes.
-
Perform fuel balancing if unbalance between wing tanks exists. Check fuel
unbalance is not due to a fuel leak.
-
Disconnect autothrust and set N1/EPR at an appropriate value to maintain a
constant speed
-
Do not touch the thrust levers during the whole subsequent period unless
recordings are stopped because of instability.
-
Engage autopilot in ALT HLD/HDG SEL mode.
-
Select air conditioning flow normal, both bleeds packs ON, engine anti-ice
OFF, wing anti-ice OFF.
-
Wait for 5 minutes for aircraft stabilization before starting the data recording
(take EGT, ground speed and SAT as references).
-
Check the initial drift angle is less than 5 degrees and that the rate of
change does not exceed 0.5 degree per minute.
-
Start the recording process after stability criteria are achieved (refer to
paragraph 3.1.4. Data Recording).
Notes
1. When flying on a long-range flight, it is recommended to collect data at different
gross weight/altitude combinations whenever possible (high gross weight/low
altitude at the beginning of a flight, low gross weight/high altitude at the end of
a flight).
2. A visual inspection of spoilers, ailerons, slats and flaps position can be
conducted in cruise, to detect any possible aerodynamic disturbance which
could increase aircraft apparent drag.
3. It is recommended not to start recording before 15 minutes after the top of
climb, in order to avoid transient engine behaviors.
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3.1.4. Data Recording
Data recording will be carried out during at least 6 minutes if favorable stability
conditions are maintained.
Data recordings samples will be validated considering the following stability
criteria:
-
Delta pressure altitude: ∆Zp ≤ ± 20 ft
-
-
Delta static air temperature: ∆SAT ≤ ± 1°C
∆GS
Delta Ground Speed to delta time ratio:
≤ 1kt / min
∆t
Delta Mach Number: ∆Mach ≤ ± 0.003.
-
Drift angle less than 5 degrees
-
The following parameters will be recorded at the rate specified in the table below:
Parameter
-
Altitude (Zp)
Mach (M) / TAS
TAT / SAT
N1 (or EPR)
CG and rudder
trim
Note at
intervals of
60 seconds
60 seconds
60 seconds
60 seconds
60 seconds
Parameter
-
Fuel flow (FF)
EGT
Fuel used (FU)
Ground speed (GS)
Note at intervals
of
60 seconds
60 seconds
60 seconds
60 seconds (check
every 30 seconds
for variations)
In addition the approaching station will be noted, as well as the drift angle. The
drift angle is a triggering condition used to assess one record.
Heading, wind velocity and direction, track will be also monitored so as to
determine their respective impact due to the Coriolis effect. The latter is an
optional step as the Coriolis effect is of a second order effect.
Do not forget to consult weather charts (forecasted and actual ones) to confirm
actual pressure patterns.
3.2. Forms for manual reading
When collecting data manually in the cockpit, a number of data has to be written
down in a short period of time so as to constitute a complete record.
The following pages show some pre-formatted forms are available to properly
record the data:
- a check list of what to do before flight,
- an in-flight observation form,
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CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS - PRE-FLIGHT FORM
Page
A/C No
Flight No
Date
From
To
CHECK LIST
AT DISPATCH
Computerized flight plan
Weather forecast
Load sheet
Fuel sample for FLHV analysis
Aircraft visual inspection
BLOCK
TAKEOFF
FOB
APU START TIME
ZFW
APU STOP TIME
ZFCG
APU RUNNING TIME
AIRCRAFT WEIGHT
APU FUEL CONSUMPTION
ENGINE START TIME
TAKEOFF TIME
TAKEOFF WEIGHT
QNH
TAKEOFF CG
V1/VR/V2
RWY ID
CRUISE
COST INDEX
PERF FACTOR
Before any point is recorded in-flight, you have to go through the following process
Only start recording after going through the preliminary process.
Leg of at least 15 minutes flight long
Fuel unbalance between wing tanks
Disconnect autothrust and set N1/EPR to appropriate value
Engaged autopilot in ALT HLD/HDG SEL mode.
Select AC flow normal, both bleed/pack ON, engine and wing A/I OFF
Additional recommendations
Do not touch the thrust levers during the whole subsequent period unless recordings are stopped because of instability.
Wait for 5 minutes for aircraft stabilization before starting actual data recording (references are EGT, N1/EPR, ground speed and
SAT).
Check the initial drift angle to be less than 2.5 degrees and rate of change not exceeding 0.5 degree per minute.
Specific checks have to be performed during flight - refer to the in-flight observation form
COMMENTS
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-4
-3 -2 -1
0
1
2
GROUND SPEED
3
4
OFF
ON
CARGO COOLING
-5
HI
NO
LO/ECON
AC
In-flight data
5
Disconnect A/THR and switch to HDG mode
ALT
TAT
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
1
/
4
/
3
/
FF
/
2
/
1
/
4
KG
%
DEG
DEG
/
N1/EPR
3
2
REPORT INITIAL WEIGHT
CG
HEADING
LATITUDE
START TIME
A/C No
/
1
DEG
SAT
MN
DEG
DRIFT ANGLE
WIND
HDG/F
Monitor stability of: G/S, Mn, Drift, SAT, FPAC, Wind (force and direction), balance of fuel in the tanks
Recommendations
CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS - FLIGHT OBSERVATION FORM
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
2
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
3
Page
FU/EGT
Flight No
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
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HOW TO RECORD IN-FLIGHT PARAMETERS
3.3. Data analysis procedure
Based on in-flight recorded data, aircraft stability will be assessed from the ground
speed. The most representative of a 6-minute run will be selected. One or more 6minute shots will be retained if possible. Stability criteria given in the previous
paragraph will also guide this choice.
The input data must be prepared for and analysis according to the following rules:
- Pressure altitude, Mach number, TAT, N1 (or EPR) and fuel flow will be
averaged over the selected 6 minute-portion.
- Aircraft gross weight will be based on the difference between ramp weight at
MES and fuel used at center point of the selected 6 minute-portion.
- The aircraft CG will be calculated from takeoff CG and fuel schedule (when not
part of the recorded data)
- Aircraft acceleration along the flight path (FPAC) will be the slope (linear
regression) of ground speed over the 3-minutes frames ; the same applies for
the vertical speed but sloped through altitude.
FLHV, latitude, heading are introduced to take into account fuel calorific content
and Coriolis / Centrifugal and local gravity effects respectively as discussed in
chapter B.
The selection of 6 minute-portions from the recorded data enables to obtain a
mean value, to evaluate scatter, which is indicative of measurement stability. Final
assessment is only possible when taking into account correction factors, which, in
turn, also allow to decrease bias and scatter. In particular, the application of the
FPAC correction effectively reduces scatter. An uncorrected FPAC of 1kt/minute
corresponds to a drag deviation of approximately 1.3%.
Then, for each 6-minute segment, one set of data is obtained. The analysis of the
resulting points can be performed with an Airbus specific tool, based on the
specific range method: the APM program.
Statistical elimination can be selected before the analysis in the APM program. For
each parameter (fuel flow, N1/EPR,…), the mean value and the standard deviation
is calculated over all the records. The user can filter these records so as to get rid
of lesser quality readings.
Two filters are implemented in the APM program:
- standard elimination which discards the points which are outside a 95%confidence interval
- pre-elimination window which allows the user to eliminate the parameters
which are outside a user’s defined window, which is centered around the mean
value.
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4. AUTOMATIC RECORDINGS
4.1. What is automatic recording?
Manual recording was introduced in paragraph 3. It is obvious that this way of
collecting data cannot apply in case of routine aircraft performance monitoring.
At Airbus we have conceived a process, that minimizes handling operations. This
process is based on the utilization of the aircraft recording systems for data
collection. Automatic recording means configuring aircraft systems so as to get inflight data automatically recorded for further analysis by the IFP or APM program.
To accomplish this, some specific systems are required to get the data at the
relevant format. The next paragraph will give a basic comprehension of the aircraft
recording systems. Note that the description depends on the aircraft type.
4.2. A300/A310/A300-600 aircraft
The aircraft data recording system includes an expanded Aircraft Integrated Data
System. The AIDS allows condition and performance monitoring and/or specific
engineering investigations by the operators.
An additional optional Data Management Unit (DMU) can also be installed. On the
A300/A310/A300-600 aircraft types, all equipment is Buyer Furnished Equipment
(BFE).
Airbus is not responsible for the AIDS/ACMS features: architecture, functions,
ground requirements. As a consequence, no specification defining standard
reports is available. This means that the format of the produced data is not known
in advance. Saying there are as many formats as operators would be a little bit of
a caricature but not that much.
Therefore, no automatic data collection for fully automated aircraft performance
monitoring purpose is available for A300/A310/A300-600 aircraft types.
On the operator’s side, the alternatives are:
- To manually observe the cruise phases. In that case, some constraining
stability criteria must be taken into account,
- To build an in-house tool to be able to convert the material produced by the
aircraft DMU into an appropriate format (provided all required data is available).
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4.3. A320 family/A330/A340 aircraft
4.3.1. Introduction
The analysis requires many parameters for one record or inflight data set. Each in-flight data set is like a snapshot of
the aircraft conditions. As many records as possible should
be obtained to increase the reliability of the statistical
results.
This chapter will provide an overview of the various aircraft recording systems and
the way to retrieve the information.
The Aircraft Recording and Monitoring Systems are basically divided into three
categories:
1. The Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS)
2. The Flight Data Recording System (FDRS)
3. The Aircraft Integrated Data System (AIDS) for the A320 family aircraft or the
Aircraft Condition Monitoring System (ACMS) for A330/A340 aircraft
The FDRS and AIDS/ACMS systems are devoted to collecting some aircraft
parameters. The following diagram sums up the functions of both systems. In both
cases, the feedback from the aircraft allows the operators to take the appropriate
actions.
Operational
Recommendation
Incident /
Accident
Investigations
FDRS
Engine Condition
Monitoring
Processed
Data
AIDS/ACMS
Raw
Data
APU
Health
Monitoring
Aircraft
Performance
Monitoring
Engineering
Specific
Investigations
Maintenance
Action
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Only the AIDS/ACMS system is described in the following as it is the appropriate
system to collect data for automatic processing thanks to the APM program.
4.3.2. Aircraft Integrated Data System (A320 Family AIDS) / Aircraft
Condition Monitoring System (A330/A340 ACMS)
With the integration of modern state-of-the-art technology like the fly-by-wire and
the Full Authorized Digital Engine Control (FADEC), the complexity of the aircraft
systems led to the development of the Aircraft Integrated Data System.
While the FDRS is intended to assist operators in case of incidents/accidents, the
main objectives of the AIDS/ACMS are more of a preventive nature
Long term trend monitoring of the aircraft performance really takes place in the
frame of maintenance actions and is complementary to all other monitoring actions
on the engines or the APU.
4.3.2.1. The AIDS/ACMS functions
AIDS/ACMS is used to monitor the aircraft systems mainly the engines, the APU
and the aircraft performance in order to perform preventive action. As a
consequence, it will enable operational recommendations to be formulated.
The AIDS/ACMS main functions are described in the picture below.
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4.3.2.2. How AIDS/ACMS is implemented
The AIDS/ACMS is mainly interfaced with the Data Management Unit (DMU) or
Flight Data Interface and Management Unit (FDIMU). Depending on the aircraft
configuration, DMU or FDIMU may be fitted on the aircraft.
Basically, the FDIMU is a hardware combining the DMU and FDIU. Only the data
management part of the FDIMU will be considered in the following.
The DMU/FDIMU is a high-performance avionics computer specialized for the
acquisition of ARINC 429 Digital Information Transfer System (DITS) data and
associated processing. All tasks are performed in real time. The DMU/FDIMU is
the central part of the AIDS/ACMS and may be reconfigured via the Ground
Support Equipment tools of the operator.
The DMU/FDIMU interfaces with other aircraft systems such as the FAC or the
ADIRU. Approximatively 13000 parameters are fed into the DMU/FDIMU.
CFDIU
(BITE)
MCDU
AIDS/ACMS data sources
(up to 48 ARINC 429 busses)
AIDS/ACMS DMU
Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) for
reports & SAR data (raw data
in compressed form) storage
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4.3.3. Generic functions of the DMU/FDIMU
Based on these parameters, the DMU/FDIMU performs several tasks:
- It processes incoming data to determine stable frame conditions, and to
monitor limit exceedances,
- It generates reports according to specific programmed trigger conditions.
- Associated with a ground tool, the DMU/FDIMU is very flexible as it can be reprogrammed by the operator.
4.3.3.1. The Airbus standard reports
One of the generic functions of the DMU/FDIMU is the generation of aircraft &
engine reports as a result of specific events defined by triggering conditions.
The Airbus Standard Reports are a set of pre-programmed AIDS/ACMS reports,
which are operative at delivery of the DMU/FDIMU.
These reports have been defined and validated by Airbus. They depend on the
aircraft type (A320 family or A330 or A340) and on the engine type.
Here are all the reports available:
For Aircraft Performing Monitoring
- Aircraft Cruise Performance Report (02)
For Engine Trend Monitoring
- Engine Take-Off Report (04)
- Engine Cruise Report (01)
- Engine Divergence Report (09)
For Engine Exceedance Monitoring
- Engine Start Report (10)
- Engine Gas Path Advisory Report (06)
- Engine Mechanical Advisory Report (07)
For Engine Trouble Shooting
- Engine Run up Report (11)
- Engine On Request Report (05)
For APU Monitoring
- APU Main Engine Start/APU idle Report (13)
- APU Shutdown Report (14)
For Miscellaneous Monitoring Functions
- Hard Landing/Structural Load Report (15)
- Environmental Control System Report (19)
Report (01), (02), (04), (10) and (13) are designed for long term trend analysis.
Report (05) and (11) are designed to collect important engine data used by line
maintenance for engine troubleshooting at run-up or during flight.
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When reports (06), (07), (09), (14), (15) or (19) are automatically triggered,
maintenance and investigative actions are required.
Most of these reports allow a change in the trigger limits or in the length of the
report. In addition, user specific trigger conditions can be created for each report
using the Ground Support Equipment tool (see below).
The reports are described in the relevant Aircraft Maintenance Manual, section 3136-00 or in the Technical Description Note provided at the aircraft delivery by the
DMU/FDIMU system manufacturer.
4.3.3.2. DMU/FDIMU transfer file interfaces
The DMU/FDIMU provides various communication interfaces for operator dialogue
and ground communications. The usage of these communication channels is
mostly programmable. For instance, reports can be printed out or, transmitted to
the ground via ACARS or retrieved on a floppy disk via the airborne data loader
(MDDU).
This means that each operator can set up the DMU/FDIMU to most efficiently
support the airline specific data link structure.
The picture below shows different data flows from the aircraft to ground
operations. All interfaces are then described one by one.
AIDS/ACMS
DAR
(option)
Raw
data
FDIMU/DMU
Dumping
from
DMU
memory
via the
MDDU
SAR files
Reports
Airline data processing
center
Dumping
from
DMU
memory
via the
PCMCIA
card
Snapshot data
DMU reports
Printer
In-flight data
ATSU
ACARS function
(reports)
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The DMU/FDIMU interface is composed of several devices.
- a Multi purpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU)
The aim of the Multi purpose Control and Display Unit is to display and print real
time AIDS/ACMS data (documentary data, status of various reports and
recordings).
The MCDU also provides:
- manual triggering of reports and recordings,
- distribution of reports to multiple output devices,
- temporary reprogramming of some DMU/FDIMU parameters,
- report inhibition,
- control of the DAR/SAR.
The operator has the ability to display any digital data on the aircraft that is
available to the DMU/FDIMU via the MCDU.
MCDU location
-
the cockpit printer, featuring the following functions:
-
manually initiated (via the MCDU) print out of reports
automatic print out of reports
print out of MCDU screens
-
an MDDU (airborne data loader), featuring the following functions:
-
manually initiated (via the MCDU) retrieval of reports
automatic retrieval of reports
load of DMU/FDIMU software
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- an optional Digital AIDS/ACMS Recorder (DAR)
The DMU/FDIMU data can also be stored on an optional recorder: the Digital AIDS
Recorder (DAR). It is a magnetic tape cartridge or an optical disk. This is only
available for aircraft equipped with Teledyne DMU/FDIMU. The retrieval of data
can be:
- manually initiated (via the MCDU) recording of reports
- automatic
- a Smart Access Recorder (SAR)
An integral part of the DMU/FDIMU is the optional Smart Access Recorder (SAR).
It is used to store flight data. Sophisticated data compression algorithms ensure an
efficient usage of the limited DMU/FDIMU memory (Solid State Mass Memory,
SSMM). To read out the SAR data, the operator can use a diskette via the MDDU
or a PCMCIA card via the PCMCIA interface.
The data from the SAR storage buffer can be retrieved through the airborne data
loader.
To manually initiate some specific reports, a remote print button is located on the
pedestal in the cockpit. The report/SAR channel assignment of the remote print
button is programmable via the Ground Support Equipment (see below).
- An optional PCMCIA card (A320 FAM aircraft only)
The integrated PCMCIA interface can store the AIDS/ACMS standard reports. To
store data via the PCMCIA interface, a PCMCIA card in MS-DOS format is
required.
The advantage of the PCMCIA card is that the time to access the media is much
lower than when using a floppy disk in the airborne data loader.
The PCMCIA card can be connected to a Personal Computer to dump the data for
further analysis.
- An optional ATSU (ACARS function).
For those aircraft equipped with the Aircraft Communication and Reporting
System, it is possible to send the AIDS/ACMS reports directly on the ground. The
format of the reports is different from the ones that can be retrieved directly from
the DMU/FDIMU (see above) because every transmission costs money.
This system is essential for engine and aircraft monitoring of important fleets. It
allows to transfer high quantities of data and treat these automatically.
The ACARS function / AIDS/ACMS interface provides the capability to transmit to
the ground reports for the following applications:
- aircraft performance monitoring : APM
- engine condition monitoring : ECM
- APU health monitoring : AHM
Any of the AIDS/ACMS DMU/FDIMU reports can be downloaded:
- manually on ground or in flight
- automatically after a particular event
- after ground request
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MCDU
Data
loader
Printer
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4.3.3.3. Example of manual triggering downlink
AIDS
< PARAM LABEL
< DMU PROG/DOC
PARAM ALPHA >
PREV REP >
< SPECIAL REP
RUN
MAN REQ REP
< SEND/PRINT
Manual triggering
and downlink of
reports
AIDS MAN REQ REP
SEND
(←DUMP
SEND→)
* CRUISE 01
* A/C PERFORMANCE 02
* TAKE OFF 04
* ON REQUEST 05
* GAS PATH ADVISORY
<RETURN
↑↓ SCROLL
PRINT*
←→ SELECT
STOP *
STORED REP
SEND/PRINT
Downlink of
automatically
triggered
reports
AIDS STORED REP
SEND
(←DUMP
SEND→)
* CRUISE 01
DNLKD
LEG 00 PRINTED
* A/C PERFORMANCE 02
LEG 00 PRINTED
* TAKE OFF 04
LEG 01 PRINTED
* ON REQUEST 05
DNLKD
LEG 02 PRINTED
* GAS PATH ADVISORY
DNLKD
LEG 02
<RETURN
PRINT*
↑↓ SCROLL
←→ SELECT
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4.3.3.4. Summary
The AIDS/ACMS reports can be:
- printed out on the cockpit printer in flight or on ground,
- collected by retrieving the PCMCIA card,
- downloaded on ground only from the DMU/FDIMU memory via the MDDU
using a floppy disk or via the PCMCIA interface to a PCMCIA card,
- downloaded through ACARS in flight or on ground.
4.3.4. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE)
For the individual programming of the DMU/FDIMU functions, the DMU/FDIMU is
programmable either with the assistance of an AIDS/ACMS GSE or partially
through the MCDU (very limited). The GSE is a software developed by the
DMU/FDIMU manufacturer. The GSE is under airline responsibility.
4.3.4.1. AIDS/ACMS reconfiguration tool
The tool can be used:
- to program trigger conditions, processing algorithms, layout of report formats,
and the DAR & SAR recording format.
- to configure the AIDS/ACMS DMU/FDIMU database
- to create user programmable reports, sophisticated aircraft monitoring and data
collection functions.
The program is loaded into the DMU/FDIMU on ground using the MDDU or the
PCMCIA card
4.3.4.2. AIDS/ACMS readout tool
It allows the operator to view the reports.
4.3.4.3. Data processing analysis
Once the in-flight data have been retrieved, they can be processed and analyzed
with the APM program.
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4.3.4.4. Example of SFIM GSE – Triggering condition programming
4.4. The Cruise Performance Report
In brief, the recording systems described above produce a series of reports. Only
the Cruise Performance Report or DMU/FDIMU report number <02> (CPR<02>) is
of interest for aircraft performance monitoring.
The present paragraph describes this particular file and may be considered as a
reference.
4.4.1. General
The DMU/FDIMU is configured at the delivery of the aircraft to produce one report
per hour. This may be changed via reprogramming the DMU/FDIMU via the
Ground Support Equipment (GSE). It is the operator’s responsibility to update the
DMU/FDIMU software.
The report <02> provides aircraft and engine data recorded in stabilized cruise.
Some stability conditions and triggering conditions are mandatory so that the
DMU/FDIMU can store data on the report. The stability criteria are given in this
paragraph.
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The CPR<02> can be obtained:
- on a piece of paper via a printout on the cockpit printer
- in digital format (on a diskette, on the DAR optical disk (A330/A340 only), on a
PCMCIA card (A320 FAM aircraft only) or via transmission by ACARS)
The advantages of automatic recording are that::
- all data required for cruise performance analysis are stored in the CPR<02>
format
- the report in digital format can be used “as is” without any additional handling
operations. When the report is not in a digital format, the same typing
operations as in case of manual recording will have to be done by the operator.
4.4.2. Two report formats
There are actually two different formats of CPR<02> files depending on the
DMU/FDIMU interface used for report retrieval.
4.4.2.1. Printed report, diskette or PCMCIA dumped reports
These reports have the following format.
Reports
have
standard
header
comprising:
- Three lines programmable by the airlines
- Report identification (name and number)
- Documentary data identifying aircraft,
DMU and summarizing report trigger
conditions
Body of the report defined by the report
type and will contain data relevant to
each report
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4.4.2.1.1. Example of CPR<02> for an A319 aircraft fitted with EPR
controlled Engines
A319 CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
A/C
CC AI-001
DATE
feb99
UTC
113412
CODE
5000
FROM
LFBO
TO
LFBO
FLT
05080
C1
PH CNT
06 00514
BLEED STATUS
48 0010 0 0100 48
CE
CN
TAT
N240
N240
EC
EE
ESN
0100003
0100004
N1
N2
EPR
1284
1284
S1
S2
P25
11155
11137
T1
T2
BAF ACC
094 082
096 082
V1
V2
ECW1
03D01
03D01
V3
V4
VB1
024
007
X1
X2
WFQ
02652
02772
ELEV
N003
N001
AOA
0025
0025
SLP
0000
0000
CFPG
N0001
N0000
CIVV
0001
0003
X3
RUDD
0000
RUDT
0008
AILR
N001
AILL
N006
STAB
N008
ROLL
N000
X4
X5
RSP2
N000
0000
RSP3
0000
0000
RSP4
0000
0000
RSP5
0000
0000
FLAP
0000
0000
SLAT
0000
0000
X6
X7
THDG
1905
XXXX
LONP
E0019
E0019
LATP
N450
N450
WS
050
050
ALT
33000.
33000.
CAS
276
276
EHRS
03000
03000
N1
8321
8320
T25
0557
0556
MN
780
780
GW
6500
6500
ECYC
00600
00600
N2
8320
8321
P3
1243
1231
VB2
005
001
EVM
08000
08004
CG DMU/SW
330 I51001
330 I51001
AP QA QE
71 12 12
71
EGT
3580
3580
T3
4313
4324
FF
1283
1283
P49
06150
06142
LP GLE PD TN
00 035 40 180
00 023 36 180
ECW2
00008
00008
APU
0
P125
06892
06892
SVA
069
068
P2
T2
04219 N255
04215 N271
OIP
245
234
OIT
121
120
OIQH
0000
0000
PHA
043
078
WD
011
011
FT
0110
0108
YAW
N000
FD
XXXX
0785
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4.4.2.1.2. Example of CPR<02> for an A319 aircraft fitted with N1
controlled Engines
A319 CRUISE PERFORMANCE REPORT <02>
CC
A/C
AI-001
DATE
feb02
C1
PH
06
CE
CN
TAT
N240
N240
EC
EE
ESN
0100003
0100004
N1
N2
N1
868
868
N1C
869
869
N2
875
875
S1
S2
P25
11155
11137
T25
0557
0556
P3
1243
1231
T3
4313
4324
T1
T2
BAF ACC
094 082
096 082
GLE PD
035 40
023 36
TN
180
180
V1
V2
ECW1
03D01
03D01
EVM
08000
08004
OIP
245
234
V3
V4
VB1
024
007
X1
X2
WFQ
02652
02772
ELEV
N003
N001
AOA
0025
0025
SLP
0000
0000
CFPG
N0001
N0000
CIVV
0001
0003
X3
RUDD
0000
RUDT
0008
AILR
N001
AILL
N006
STAB
N008
ROLL
N000
X4
X5
RSP2
N000
0000
RSP3
0000
0000
RSP4
0000
0000
RSP5
0000
0000
FLAP
0000
0000
SLAT
0000
0000
X6
X7
THDG
1905
XXXX
LONP
E0019
E0019
LATP
N450
N450
WS
050
050
CNT
00514
UTC
110117
CODE
5000
ALT
33000.
33000.
ECW2
00008
00008
VB2
005
001
TO
LFBO
FLT
05080
BLEED STATUS
48 0010 0 0100 48
CAS
276
276
EHRS
03000
03000
LP
00
00
FROM
LFBO
MN
780
780
ECYC
00600
00600
EGT
5850
5850
GW
6500
6500
AP
71
71
APU
0
CG DMU/SW
330 C51001
330 C51001
QA
12
QE
12
FF
1320
1320
PS13
06892
06892
P49
06150
06142
SVA
069
068
P2
T2
04219 N255
04215 N271
OIT
121
120
OIQH
0000
0000
PHA
043
078
WD
011
011
FT
0110
0108
YAW
N000
FD
XXXX
0785
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HOW TO RECORD IN-FLIGHT PARAMETERS
4.4.2.1.3. Parameters taken from report <02>
Report output
A/C
DATE
FLT
UTC
CODE
APM input
TAILNO
DATE
FLNO
FCASE
-
DMU/SW
CODE
ALT
MN
TAT
ALT
MACH
TAT
GW
CG
CFPG
MASS
CG
FPAC
CIVV
VV
THDG
LATP
WS
WD
FT
FD
THDG
LAT
CWI
DWI
AFT
AFD
ESN
N1 (EPR)
FF
EGT (TGT)
ESN
REG
FFA
EGT
Remarks
Tail Number
Date
Flight Number
Hour/min. taken far case ident
Trigger logic code (see below for details)
Codification example
XXXXXX
AAA99
9999
999999
5000 or 4000 on all flyby-wire aircraft
depending on the engine
type fitted on the aircraft.
For aircraft/engine type check and report XXXXXX
format variations. The last three digits allo X=Engine type (C=cfm, I=IAE)
X=Engine version 1…8
stable frame identification
X=Hardware number 0..9
XXX=Software version(001..009)
Two values read. Enter the mean value.
Standard altitude (eg –500 or 35000 ft)
Mach Number (eg 0.78)
X9999 (eg N0500 or 35000)
Total Air Temperature (eg –10°C)
999 (eg 780)
X999 (eg N100)
Values from two systems read.
Enter the mean value.
9999
Gross Weight
999
Center of gravity
Calculated Flight Path Acceleration
N9999 to 40000
(-0.9999 to 4.0000 g)
Calculated Inertial Vertical Speed
N999 to 0999
(-999 to 999 ft/min)
0000 to 3599
True Heading (0° to 359.9°)
N899 to S899
Latitude (N89.9° to S89.9°)
000 to 100
Wind speed (0 to 100 kt)
000 to 359
Wind direction (0° to 359°)
N600 to 1700
Fuel Temperature (-60.0° to 170°C)
0000 to 0999
Fuel Density (0 to 0.999 kg/l)
for engine 1 to 2
XXXXXX
Engine serial number
0000 to 1200 or 0600 to 1800
N1 (0 to 120%) or EPR(0.6 to 1.8)
0000 to 7000
Fuel flow (0 to 7000 kg/h/eng)
Exhaust gaz Temperature
(-55° to 999.9°C)
N550 to 9999
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Report output APM input
BLEED
WBLL
STATUS“
WBLR
Remarks
Left engine
Righ engine
Eg. 99 0100 0 0010 99
Codification example
99 LH Pack flow 0.99 kg/s
LH Wing AI/V Fully Closed=0
Eng1 NAC AI/V Open=1
Eng 1 PRV Fully Closed=0
Eng 1 HPV Fully Closed=0
Cross Feed V Fully Closed=0
Eng 2 HPV Fully Closed=0
Eng 2 PRV Fully Closed=0
Eng 2 NAC AI/V Open=1
RH Wing AI/V Fully Closed=0
APU
FLHV
Eg. 1
not on report.
99 RH Pack flow 0.99 kg/s
Apu bleed Valve State Open=1
4.4.2.2. Report transmitted by ACARS
As ACARS transmissions are expensive, when the CPR<02> is transmitted to the
ground, the format of the received file is slightly different so as to decrease the
length of the file and its size.
The sample file below is an example of ACARS transmission. It contains two
points recorded for the same aircraft registered AI-002.
- A02/A32102,1,1/CCAI002,APR11,153333,EFOU,EFHK,0368/C106,34201,5000,54,0010,0,0100,54,X/CEN17
3,31019,290,782,7080,242,C73001/CNN171,31053,290,783,7080,242/ECSN0001,00
208,00256,00165,73,33,22/EESN0002,00208,00260,00165,73/N10844,0845,0928,5
947,1428,07947/N20844,0845,0929,5888,1443,07827/S115521,0712,1537,4321,39
80,020,006/S215528,0713,1531,4308,4019,018,002/T1099,096,026,46,045,0
6271,0336/T2099,096,023,46,036,06335,0305/V105,00,287,168,03,00,00000/V20
2,02,135,105,01,00,00000/V3XX,XX,XXX,XXX,XXXX/V4XX,XX,XXX,XXX,XXXX/V511,0
1,283,046,0916/V612,02,182,268,0916/V7044,083,00081,22222222222111/V8043,
082,00061,22222222222111/X102541,N002,0017,0000,00000,0000/X202527,0000,0
014,0000,00000,N000/X3N000,0004,N006,N007,N006,N002,N000/X40000,0000,0000
,0000,0000,0000/X50000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000/X61891,E0256,N625,056,278
,N000,0807/X71893,E0255,N624,055,279,0001,0806,/
- A02/A32102,1,1/CCAI002,APR11,104839,LFPG,EFHK,0872/C106,33901,5000,50,0010,0,0100,50,X/CEN25
6,37008,256,790,6865,277,C73001/CNN255,37041,256,791,6865,277/ECSN0001,00
205,00253,00163,73,14,07/EESN0002,00205,00257,00163,73/N10868,0868,0934,6
281,1296,06317/N20868,0869,0935,6209,1308,06231/S112372,0668,1325,4367,42
28,001,004/S212375,0670,1321,4360,4253,N00,001/T1099,079,026,42,042,0
4750,0103/T2099,079,022,43,028,04795,0094/V105,02,303,142,03,00,00000/V20
6,02,137,112,01,00,00000/V3XX,XX,XXX,XXX,XXXX/V4XX,XX,XXX,XXX,XXXX/V511,0
1,283,046,0916/V612,02,182,268,0916/V7043,087,00061,22222222222111/V8042,
087,00081,22222222222111/X103612,N003,0022,0000,00004,N000/X203525,N000,0
020,0000,00004,N000/X3N000,0006,N004,N007,N006,0000,N000/X40000,0000,0000
,0000,0000,0000/X50000,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000/X60293,E0074,N543,030,250
,N011,0812/X70293,E0075,N543,028,252,N012,0813,/
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The correspondence between this file and the standard report can be obtained by
tracking the lines identifiers. For instance, the aircraft registration is identified as
A/C in the standard report. It is written on line CC.
In the ACARS-transmitted file, the first characters are:
- A02/A32102,1,1/CCAI-002 […]
Each data is separated by a comma “,”. After a slash “/”, the line identifier is
written. So in this record, we can read AI-002 is the aircraft registration.
4.4.2.3. Report specification
Both Print-like report and ACARS report have been defined in accordance with a
specification.
The exhaustive description of the print-like file is given to the operators in another
part of the Airbus documentation, the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) in
section 31-36-00. Read Chapter H-Appendix 5 – AMM extracts, Cruise
Performance Report <02> description.
As far as the ACARS format is concerned, no specification is made available to
the customers. Airbus is ready to provide such a description of the ACARS report
upon request.
4.4.3. The trigger logic
A trigger logic is a set of conditions checked before the DMU/FDIMU generates a
report.
There are several trigger logics for the cruise performance report <02>. For
example, one is for the manual selection via the MCDU; another one is for the use
of the remote print button as an order for the data collection.
In particular, trigger logic n°5000 (or 4000 depending on the aircraft model) is
called the best stable frame report logic. This trigger logic aims at detecting stable
flight conditions in order to avoid report triggering in flight phases where
parameters are of no use.
Airbus recommends the use of these reports for aircraft performance-monitoring
purposes.
The AIDS/ACMS Cruise Performance report <02> is generated when the
DMU/FDIMU detects that the conditions defining a stable cruise are met. When
the cruise flight phase is reached, this stability searching is made by monitoring
some aircraft parameters.
When the variation of all these parameters are within a range defined for each one
of them during a customizable time-period, then the stable cruise conditions are
met and the report is generated. If the conditions are not met, the report <02> will
not be generated.
Note that the operator is not allowed to change any of the trigger limits.
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An aircraft quality number characterizes each report. It is defined thanks to the
below formula:
QA =
VAR ( N )
∑W ( N ) × TOL( N )
where
2
N is parameter number N (can be the N1, fuel flow…)
W(N) is a weighing factor (between 0 and 1)
VAR(N) is the individual variance
TOL(N) is the individual variation value
The lower the quality numbers the better the stable frame report. QA varies
between 0 and 999. Common values seen in routine monitoring are around 40.
The quality numbers are not used as a trigger condition but are used to detect the
best report during a searching period.
The operators can use it so as to eliminate possible irrelevant recordings. Most of
the time, quality numbers are not used because it is hard to get some points,
especially for short-range flights.
Example of trigger logic and conditions for an A320 aircraft fitted with IAE engines
The DMU/FDIMU generates the CPR<02> based on flight hours or flight legs. The
choice is programmable via the GSE.
Depending on the basis for searching, the DMU/FDIMU searches in cruise phase
for report generation with stable frame criteria where the best aircraft quality
number is calculated. The report with the best quality number is then stored in the
report buffer.
The basic DMU/FDIMU configuration for the A320 aircraft is:
1. Searching time frame: 1 hour
2. Observed data during five sub-periods of 20 seconds each. The best period is
retained thanks to the quality number.
3. The stability criteria, which must be met are:
Parameter
Inertial Altitude
Ground Speed
Roll Angle
TAT
N2
EGT
Vertical
Acceleration
Mach Number
N1
P2
Fuel Flow
EPR
Limit
150 feet
6 kt
0.8 degrees
1.1 degrees
C
0.9 %
18 degrees
C
0.03 g
0.008 Mach
1.6 %
0.05 psia
100 kg/h
0.035
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4.5. Data analysis procedure
The analysis procedure is much simpler compared to the case when performing
manual recordings because the stability criteria were already checked by the
DMU/FDIMU before parameters are recorded. As of a consequence, no further
assessment of the parameter stability is required.
All the input data were stored in the Cruise Performance Report <02> apart from a
few parameters that are given down below:
-
The fuel Lower Heating Value: as this value cannot be read in the report, it
must be obtained from another source. When performing an audit, a fuel
sample will be analyzed and the corresponding FLHV will be identified. In case
of routine performance monitoring, the FLHV will be assumed equal to a
standard value. Most commonly, the value 18590 BTU/LB is used for analysis.
Yet some precautions have to be taken, in order not to bias the calculated
different fuel factors (see Chapter F-Using monitored fuel factor).
-
The year of recording may not be stored in reports for some aircraft type. The
year should then be provided for the analysis and for history purposes.
-
When the parameters are automatically recorded thanks to the DMU/FDIMU,
non relevant points are simply eliminated (for instance, points which are
recorded below FL200 are not taken into account). It may happen that such
points are recorded due to DMU/FDIMU malfunctions. As a consequence,
particular attention is required so as to assess the validity of each particular
point. This check is often performed when a discrepancy in the cruise
performance analysis is noticed on a few points.
The analysis of the resulting points can be performed with an Airbus specific tool,
based on the specific range method: the APM program. Airbus has implemented a
specific routine that allows automatic loading of cruise performance reports
number 02, when in digital format.
Statistical elimination can be selected before the actual analysis with the APM
program. For each parameter (fuel flow, N1/EPR,…), the mean value and the
standard deviation is calculated over all the records. The user can then filter the
records so as to get rid of inappropriate low quality readings.
Two filters are implemented in the APM program:
- standard elimination which discards the points which are outside a 95%confidence interval
- pre-elimination window which enables the user to eliminate the parameters
which are outside a user’s defined window, which is centered on the mean
value
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CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
D. CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Several Airbus tools are available to perform cruise performance analysis. The
Airbus Aircraft Performance Monitoring (APM) program comes first for routine
aircraft performance monitoring due to the amount of data to process. Indeed, this
program features a DMU/FDIMU report loading function, which relieves from
tedious handling operations.
Some other Airbus tools (the IFP program…) are available for these analyses and
may be used. The tool choice is at the airline's discretion.
The following lines deal with the software aspect of cruise performance analysis.
The pre-requisite for this chapter is a basic comprehension of how to get the
parameters from the aircraft, as well as general background on the specific range
method itself.
1. THE BOOK LEVEL
As a reminder, the aircraft performance book level is established by the aircraft
manufacturer and represents a fleet average of brand new aircraft and engines.
This level is established in advance of production and is derived from flight tests.
Normal scatter of brand new aircraft leads to performance above and below the
book value. The performance data given in the Airbus documentation (Flight Crew
Operating Manual) reflects this book value.
The high-speed book value data is stored in the high-speed performance
databases used by Airbus performance software such as the IFP, the FLIP or the
APM programs. This aircraft Performance model is built based on results from
extensive performance flight tests: the IFP model.
Most of the Computerized Flight Plan systems as well as the published
Performance tables in the Flight Crew Operating Manual and in the Quick
Reference Handbook use the IFP model.
2. A TOOL FOR ROUTINE ANALYSIS : THE APM PROGRAM
2.1. Introduction
The Airbus Aircraft Performance Monitoring program (APM) is devoted to highspeed performance analysis of all Airbus aircraft. It is useful a software anytime
performance analysis is required. Indeed, the APM program enables to compare
the aircraft cruise performance level (fuel consumption, engine parameters,
specific range) as recorded during flight to book value performance data as stored
in the aircraft’s high speed performance databases.
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CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
It calculates the deviation of flight parameters such as fuel flow, and N1/EPR
engine parameters from nominal book values. The end result is a delta specific
range, which reflects how far the aircraft is from its book value.
The specific range can of course be worse but also better than the book level
because this book level only represents an average performance level over a
number of brand new aircraft/engine combinations.
The delta specific range is the monitored fuel factor (opposite sign), which will
allow the operator to tune:
- the aircraft FMS flight plan on board the aircraft,
- the computerized flight planning and every high-speed performance related
studies in maintenance servicing, engineering or dispatch of the aircraft.
2.2. Basics
The APM calculates aircraft cruise performance in a so-called deterministic way.
That is with the use of mathematical methods from the fields of probability, optimal
estimation or filtering techniques and by using familiar equations of lift, drag and
engine thrust in stabilized conditions during cruise. The analysis is called the
Specific Range method. For each flight case, in flight recorded data is used to
calculate a measured Specific Range (SR, distance covered per unit of fuel burnt).
Results are then compared to the SR that is predicted for the given flight
conditions (weight, altitude, TAT, Mach) based on a theoretical model. Following
which, the program determines a deviation in specific range. Furthermore, it also
enables a distinction between airframe and engine influence.
By comparing book and measured values of engine power setting, fuel flow and
exhaust gas temperature, a set of deviation parameters is being calculated to be
produced in a result file.
The APM program schematically works as described in the following diagram.
Orange boxes represent the theoretical model, blue boxes represent actual data.
Point
of
Cruise
THEORETICAL
Airframe
N1
Engine
Theoretical
FF
Apparent Airframe
contribution
GW
CG
EPR
Bleeds
Mach
TAT
Fuel
Flow
...
Airframe
Actual N1
Engine
Calculated
.FF
Aircraft Global
Performance
degradation
Apparent Engine
contribution
Airframe
Actual N1
Engine
Measured
FF
Figure D1 – Schematic APM process (FF stands for Fuel Flow)
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CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
The input file contains information about Mach number, altitude, TAT, aircraft
gross weight, CG location, bleed flow, FPAC (Flight Path Acceleration), IVV
(Inertial Vertical Velocity).
2.3. The input data
This paragraph details the input, which the APM program needs for cruise
performance analysis.
Following is a reference table for cross-checking that all required parameters can
be accessed easily.
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Engine serial number
Altitude
Mach number
Total Air Temperature
Aircraft mass (weight)
Center of Gravity
Flight Path Acceleration
Vertical Velocity
True Heading
Latitude
Wind speed
Wind direction
Average fuel temperature
Average fuel density
N1 - Power setting
EPR - Power Setting
ESN
ALT
MACH
TAT
MASS
CG
FPAC
VV
THDG
LAT
CWI
DWI
AFT
AFD
REG
78
Parameter
Aircraft Tail Number
Date
Flight Number
Flight Case or
DMU/FDIMU recording time
Label
AILNO
DATE
FLNO
FCASE
CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
(°C)
(l/kg)
(%)
(–)
(°)
(kt)
(°)
(–)
(ft)
(–)
(°C)
(kg or lb)
(%)
(g)
(ft/min)
(°)
hhmm
Unit
(–)
YYMMDD
(–)
1-99
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Influence on the result
None
None
None
Number of data of a same flight. If no value None
is set, the program sets a "1".
Time at which the performance point was None
taken in flight.
None
From the two air data computers (ADC)
From the two air data computers (ADC)
From the two air data computers (ADC)
Impact on DFFA
Impact on DFFA
Horizontal acceleration measured in g.
Impact on DFFA
Vertical acceleration
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated.
Optional - used only if gravity correction
activated
NOT ACTIVE
None
NOT ACTIVE
None
Depends on engine type EPR for IAE, RR
and P&W engines, N1 for GE and CFM
engines.
Comments
Engine bleed flow (right)
Engine bleed code
(alternatively to WBLL and
WBLR)
WBLR
BLC
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Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Actual fuel flow
Parameter
Exhaust gas temperature
Fuel lower heating value
Engine bleed flow (left)
FFA
Label
EGT
FLHV
WBLL
(kg/h, lb/h)
Unit
(°C)
(BTU/lb)
(kg/s
or
lb/s)
(kg/s
or
lb/s)
(–)
Impact on DFFB
Influence on the result
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Impact on DSR
Engine 1 flow (twin engine A/C) or sum of Impact on DFFA
engines 1 and 2 (4 engine-aircraft)
Engine 2 flow (twin engine A/C) or sum of Impact on DFFA
engines 3 and 4 (4 engine-aircraft)
0
...
off (no bleed)
Impact on DFFA
E
...
economic (low)
AC NORM / AI OFF is recommended
N
...
normal
bleed configuration for performance
H
...
high (max)
monitoring recording.
Fuel flow for each engine (FFA1, FFA2, ...)
Comments
To be set for each engine (EGT1, EGT2, ...)
CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
CRUISE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
2.4. APM output data
Before detailing the APM output data, the following lines will remind the principle of
the Airbus APM program.
Figure D2 – Principle of the APM program calculation
Based on the flight mechanics equations, and thanks to some of the parameters
recorded in-flight, it is possible to determine the amount of lift or lift coefficient (CL).
The aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft are known from the IFP model. The
drag to lift relation and the calculated lift allows to get the corresponding amount of
drag (CD).
In the flight mechanics equation, the drag is the required thrust to maintain the
flight. The thrust at N1 (in the example) is deduced from the IFP engine model,
giving us the N1 as per the book level or theoretical N1 (N1TH).
Second, at a given N1, the IFP model allows us to determine what the fuel flow is.
The fuel flow corresponding to the measured N1 (N1A) is called the Calculated
Fuel Flow (FFC). The fuel flow corresponding to the theoretical N1 (N1TH) is
called the theoretical fuel flow (FFTH).
The APM output file provides for each engine:
. DN1 = N1 – N1TH or DEPR = EPR - EPRTH
. DFFA = (FFC - FFTH) / FFTH x 100 (%)
. DFFB = (FFA - FFC) / FFC x 100 (%)
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The APM output file also provides average figures for the two (or four) engines:
. DFFAM = (FFCM - FFTH) / FFTH x 100 (%)
. DFFBM = (FFAM - FFCM) / FFCM x 100 (%)
. DSR = (FFTH - FFAM) / FFAM x 100 (%).
DSR represents global aircraft performance degradation (in %), in terms of
Specific Range degradation.
DFFB is the deviation of fuel flow due to engine deterioration.
DFFA is the deviation fuel flow due to "apparent" airframe deterioration.
Some aspects need to be underlined to better appreciate results of the APM
program:
DFFB is only linked to N1/EPR and FF recordings, and is independent of the EPR
thrust relationship and of the associated engine model. This means that a high
level of confidence can be given to the DFFB value.
DFFB is also linked to the fuel lower heating value (FLHV). The Airbus nominal
value is 18590 Btu/lb. The FLHV is used to calculate theoretical parameters such
as the fuel flow (FFTH), the N1/EPR (N1TH/EPRTH).
DFFB is also linked to the calibration of the engine fuel-flow meters.
DFFB results can be confirmed by a separate EGT analysis performed by the
engine maintenance specialists in the airline.
DFFA is linked to flight conditions. Flight conditions are the main source of error,
especially inaccurate aircraft gross weight (payload based on standard weights)
and non-negligible FPAC. Therefore, the DFFA value needs to be interpreted with
the utmost precaution.
In other words, a high DFFA does not necessarily indicate a high aerodynamic
deterioration of the airframe. An altered EPR/thrust relationship versus the
reference engine can be responsible for part of the deviation. This is also valid for
a brand new engine.
All APM results should be compared to the result of the performance tests carried
out during the first flight of the aircraft. This is valid provided the engines on the
wings are the same. Some differences can be expected because the first flight of
the aircraft is outside normal operational constraints.
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2.5. The APM statistical analysis
The aim of this paragraph is to give a reminder and some explanations on the way
statistics were implemented in the APM program.
2.5.1. General
The APM program features a statistical elimination of measurement points. For the
output results DN1/DEPR, DFFA, DFFB, and DSR, the mean value and the
standard deviation are calculated.
Whenever any point of measurement result is outside the 95 % interval of
confidence (µ - 2 σ, µ + 2 σ) it is eliminated (replaced by a trailing "*") and not
included in the relevant parameter mean value and standard deviation.
A low standard deviation value provides a high level of confidence, since it means
that all results are consistent and within a limited range.
2.5.2. Mean value (µ)
The simplest statistic is the mean or average. It is easy to calculate an average
value and use that value as the "target" to be achieved.
The mean value characterizes the "central tendency" or "location" of the data.
Although the average is the value most likely to be observed, many of the actual
values are different from the mean. When assessing control materials, it is obvious
that technologists will not achieve the mean value each and every time a check is
being performed. The values observed would show a dispersion or distribution
around the mean, and this distribution would need to be characterized to set a
range of acceptable control values.
2.5.3. Standard deviation (σ)
The dispersion of values around the mean value is predictable and can be
characterized mathematically through a series of steps, as described below.
1. The first mathematical manipulation is to sum () all individual points and
calculate the mean or average.
2. The second manipulation is to subtract the mean value from each control
value. This term is called the difference score. Individual difference scores can
be positive or negative and the sum of the difference scores is always zero.
3. The third manipulation is to square the difference score to make all the terms
positive. Next the squared difference scores are summed.
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4. Finally, the predictable dispersion or standard deviation (σ) can be calculated
as follows:
σ=
∑ (x
where
i
− x) 2
(n − 1)
xi
x
n
measurement number i
mean value of all the measurement points
number of measurement points
2.5.4. Degrees of freedom
The "n-1" term in the above expression represents the degrees of freedom.
Loosely interpreted, the term "degrees of freedom" indicates how much freedom or
independence there is within a group of numbers. For example, if you were to sum
four numbers to get a total, you have the freedom to select any numbers you like.
However, if the sum of the four numbers is supposed to be 92, the choice of the
first 3 numbers is fairly free (as long as they are low numbers), but the last choice
is restricted by the condition that the sum must equal 92. For example, if the first
three numbers chosen at random are 28, 18, and 36, these numbers add up to 82,
which is 10 short of the goal. For the last number there is no freedom of choice.
The number 10 must be selected to make the sum come out to 92. Therefore, the
degrees of freedom have been reduced by 1 and only n-1 degrees of freedom
remain. In the standard deviation formula, the degrees of freedom are n minus 1
because the mean value of the data has already been calculated (which imposes
one condition or restriction on the data set).
2.5.5. Variance
Another statistical term that is related to the distribution is the variance, which is
the standard deviation squared (variance = σ² ). The STANDARD DEVIATION
may be either positive or negative in value because it is calculated as a square
root, which can be either positive or negative. By squaring the STANDARD
DEVIATION, the problem of signs is eliminated. One common application of the
variance is its use in the determination whether there is a statistically significant
difference in the imprecision between different methods.
In many applications (especially in the APM program), the STANDARD
DEVIATION is often preferred because it is expressed in the same units as the
data. Using the STANDARD DEVIATION, it is possible to predict the range of
control values that should be observed if the method remains stable. The
STANDARD DEVIATION is often used to impose "gates" on the expected normal
distribution of control values. Additional gates can also be defined thanks to the
APM program.
2.5.6. Normal or Gaussian distribution
Traditionally, after the discussion of the mean, standard deviation, degrees of
freedom, and variance, the next step is to describe the normal distribution (a
frequency polygon) in terms of the standard deviation "gates”.
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The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution, which is used to
characterize a wide variety of types of data. It is a symmetric distribution and is
completely determined by its mean and standard deviation. The normal distribution
is particularly important in statistics because of the tendency for sample means to
follow the normal distribution.
The figure hereafter is a representation of the frequency distribution of a large set
of values obtained by measuring a single control material. This distribution shows
the shape of a normal curve. Note that a "gate" consisting of ±1 σ accounts for
68% of the distribution or 68% of the area under the curve, ±2 σ accounts for 95%
and ±3 σ accounts for >99%. At ±2 σ, 95% of the distribution is inside the "gates,"
2.5% of the distribution is in the lower or left tail, and the same amount (2.5%) is
present in the upper tail. This curve is like an error curve that illustrates that small
errors from the mean value occur more frequently than large ones.
Number of
events
68%
95%
-2σ -1σ
µ
+1σ +2σ
value
Figure D3 – Gaussian distribution law
The normal distribution is also known as the Gaussian distribution after its
inceptor, Johann Carl Fredirich Gauss.
2.5.7. Confidence interval
A confidence interval is a statistic constructed from a set of data to provide an
interval estimate for a parameter. For example, when estimating the mean value of
a normal distribution, the sample average provides a point particular estimate or
best guess about the value of the mean. However, this estimate is almost surely
not exactly the correct physical value. A confidence interval provides a range of
values around that estimate to show how precise the estimate is. The confidence
level associated with the interval, usually 90%, 95%, or 99%, is the percentage of
times in repeated sampling that the intervals will contain the true value of the
unknown parameter.
Confidence intervals rely on results from the normal distribution.
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2.6. The APM archiving system
The APM program enables the storage of aircraft performance
data in libraries for long term trend monitoring.
Both input data coming from measurements and output data
issued from the analysis can be stored in libraries. This feature
enables to monitor the aircraft degradation trend with time so
as to identify any corrective actions to be taken. It also enables to obtain average
results over all the tail numbers of the fleet.
A nice-handling interface provides an efficient and proper data management via
these so-called APM libraries.
2.7. Some nice-to-knows about the APM
To determine the aircraft performance level with accuracy, a certain number of
parameters must be recorded prior to take off and in-flight.
2.7.1. Influencing factors
Chapter B-Background introduced to the aircraft performance monitoring methods
and reminded the possible causes for bias and/or scatter on the analysis.
The APM program has evolved over the past twenty years so as to account for
automated correction calculations to take into account part of the influencing
factors.
Amongst these, the Coriolis effect is taken into account. Entering the aircraft
position and heading will make the influence calculated automatically.
An energy correction is included to the APM to take into account variations in
kinetic (FPAC – acceleration / deceleration) and potential energy (IVV - inertial
vertical velocity). The energy variations due to horizontal and/or vertical
accelerations are taken into account through the values recorded in-flight (flight
path acceleration, inertial vertical velocity). This reduces the scatter of the APM
results but is only valid for small movements around the equilibrium point
respecting the stabilization criteria. It boils down to remain in the linearized part of
the equations of movement programmed into the APM.
Note: No FPAC / IVV, C.G. corrections taken into account in the A300B2 / B4 program.
The other corrections (such as loss/gain of performance due to isobar slope, …,
etc, …) are not taken into account and as a result will introduce bias and/or scatter
on the output result. The purpose of routine monitoring being to monitor the trend
of the aircraft performance, the APM analysis does not require any further
corrections as long as the same assumptions are kept for the analysis (especially
the fuel Lower Heating Value).
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2.7.2. Aircraft bleed configuration
The APM program can use DMU cruise performance report number 02
(CPR<02>) as an input file. One of the entries, which is required by the APM
program, is the bleed flow for each pack. The cruise performance report 02
contains the pack bleed flows.
As far as the bleeds are concerned,
- No cruise performance report is produced whenever the configuration is not as
required: anti ice OFF, cross feed valve open, symmetrical valve positions
- A given record is not analyzed whenever the recorded difference between pack
flow 1 and pack flow 2 is higher than 10%.
Focusing on the second item, the following is worth mentioning it.
The bleed flow asymmetry has an impact on the theoretical fuel flow (FFTH). The
APM program must use the mean value of left and right bleed flows to iterate the
FFTH. A 10%-margin was retained so as to avoid error in calculating the DSR
greater than 0.1%. More precisely, when the data is read from a CPR<02>, the
bleed flow is defined by pack left/right flows. The APM program cope with these
two values by:
- averaging both values to get a single value,
- reading in the engine high speed database the related fuel flow by interpolating
between two bleed ratings (OFF, LO/ECON, NORM, HI).
In practice, bleed flows between both packs can be different. This item is more
significant on A320 aircraft types, where the old standard of Flow Control
components (including flow control valves) had a less restrictive industrial
tolerance than the newer standard. Airbus published a specific Service Information
Letter (SIL) to inform airlines of this issue. This SIL is given in Chapter H Appendix 4 – Airbus Service Information Letter 21-091.
The APM program will evidence that some troubleshooting may be required on
this specific ATA 21 item. The Trouble Shooting Manual (TSM) contains a couple
of entries in the form of crew observations in section 21-51. The procedures will
lead relevant trouble shooting procedures.
2.7.3. Aircraft model specifics
Two aspects need to be underlined to appreciate the results of the APM program.
2.7.3.1. The thrust / drag uncertainty
The aircraft drag assessment assumes the invariability with time of thrust at
N1/EPR relationship. However a scatter exists from one engine to another. This
relationship can therefore essentially vary with the production of built material and
slightly over time.
CL at flight condition for a measurement point corresponds to CD through the drag
polar (quadrant (A) ; thrust is to compensate drag and is related to N1 (quadrant
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(B) with the possibility of engine-to-engine model alteration (N1 (EPR) /thrust
relationship).
2.7.3.2. Engine-to-engine model N1 (EPR) / thrust relationship
alterations whereby DFFA – aerodynamic part – (quadrant may shift).
An observed ∆N1 or ∆EPR does not necessarily indicate an aerodynamic
deterioration of the airframe. An altered N1 /thrust or EPR / thrust relationship with
respect to the reference engine is, in many cases, responsible for such a
deviation. This is also valid for new engines as well. Engine test-cell-gathered N1
or EPR versus thrust ratios cannot be transmitted to cruise high Mach / high
altitude conditions with an acceptable confidence level.
Mach number, Altitude, TAT
Aircraft weight, CG position
FPAC, IVV, Bleed flow
DFFB
FFA
}
FF th
LOWER DRAG
AIRCRAFT
DRAG POLAR
DFFA
DSR
FUEL FLOW
CL (Lift)
CD (Drag)
Thrust
FFC
N1 meas
THERMODYNAMICS
N1
N1 th
HIGHER THRUST
ENGINE MODEL
N1 meas : N1 measured on the aircraft
FFA : fuel flow measured on the aircraft
FFC = FF (N1 meas) via the engine model
FF th : provided by the overall aircraft model
DSR = (FFA - FF th ) / FF th (%) (overall aircraft)
DFFA = (FFC-FF th) / FF th (%) (thrust/drag balance)
DFFB = (FFA - FFC) / FFC (%) (engine contribution)
Figure D4 – Illustration of the thrust at N1/EPR uncertainty
2.7.4. Processing rule
The recorded data are processed considering the following rule. If one of the
mandatory parameters is missing, an average value will be taken in replacement
to run the APM program, but the final result will be biased accordingly. This is
particularly true for the fuel lower heating value (FLHV) or the center of gravity
location.
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3. HOW TO GET THE IFP & APM PROGRAMS
The APM program is part of the Performance Engineers’ Package (PEP), which
includes a number of performance software.
The package is available for all Airbus aircraft types and can be customized
depending on individual needs.
It can run on many computer platforms to satisfy the airlines’ particular needs.
These platforms are:
- Personal computers equipped with Microsoft Windows
- Mainframes (IBM-MVS/VM systems…)
- Unix workstations
The PEP is a software mostly used by airlines’ Engineering and/or Flight
Operations. Airbus Flight Operations & Line Assistance department is responsible
for the dispatch and the maintenance of this software. The contact address for this
is:
CUSTOMER SERVICES DIRECTORATE
Flight Operations & Line Assistance - STL
1, rond point Maurice Bellonte
BP33
31707 BLAGNAC Cedex
FRANCE
Fax : + 33 (0) 5 61 93 29 68/44 65
TELEX : AIRBU 530526 F
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E. RESULTS APPRAISAL
1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with the way to relate the results of the cruise performance
analysis to a practical interpretation and gives hints at understanding where the
apparent deterioration that is measured on an aircraft may come from and, in
some cases, gives recommendations to actually improve the aircraft’s condition.
The following is focusing on results obtained with the APM program. The prerequisite for this chapter is a good knowledge of the APM program and of the
output data that it can produce. More details on that subject are given in Chapter
D-Cruise performance analysis.
As a reminder, the APM output data are:
- DSR represents aircraft performance degradation (in %), in terms of Specific
Range degradation.
- DFFBx is the deviation of fuel flow due to the engine deterioration (engine
number x).
- DFFAx is the deviation of fuel flow due to the "apparent" airframe deterioration
(DFFAx is equivalent to a delta of drag) linked to engine number x.
- DN1x (resp. DEPRx) is the deviation of N1 (resp. EPR) for engine number x to
maintain flight conditions.
2. INTERPRETING THE APM OUTPUT DATA
As a reminder, the purpose of the APM program is to compare the actual aircraft
performance level versus the book level. The following lines give the possible
conclusions when interpreting the output data.
Figure E1 reminds the APM principle.
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Figure E1 - APM principle
The above figure proves that a positive N1/EPR deviation results in a positive
DFFA.
2.1. DFFA interpretation
Case 1 - DN11 and DN12 >0 and thus DFFA1 and DFFA2 >0
DFFA> 0, i.e. higher apparent drag or lower thrust at N1than model
Case 2 - DN11 and DN12 <0 and thus DFFA1 and DFFA2<0
DFFA<0 i.e. lower apparent drag (or higher thrust at N1) than model
2.2. DFFB interpretation
Case 1 - DFFB1 and/or DFFB2>0
higher fuel consumption than model
Case 2 - DFFB1 and/or DFFB2< 0
lower fuel consumption than model
Case 3 - DFFB1 >0 andDFFB2<0
DFFB1 > DFFB2  ⇒ DFFB > 0: higher consumption from engine part
DFFB1  <  DFFB2 ⇒ DFFB < 0: lower consumption from engine part
Case 4 - DFFB1 < 0 and DFFB2> 0
DFFB1  >  DFFB2 ⇒ DFFB < 0: lower consumption from engine part
DFFB1 < DFFB2 ⇒ DFFB >0: higher consumption from engine part
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2.3. DSR interpretation
Combining paragraphs 2.1 and 2.2 gives the following possibilities with regard to
specific range deviation.
Case 1 - DFFA > 0 and DFFB > 0 ⇒ DSR < 0
Compounded effect resulting in specific range deviation (worse than book value)
Case 2 - DFFA < 0 and DFFB > 0
1) if DFFA  > DFFB ⇒ DSR > 0
Higher engine fuel consumption than model is being compensated by an
apparently better than nominal aerodynamic condition resulting in better specific
range than book value
2) if DFFA < DFFB⇒ DSR < 0
Partial compensation of resulting in worse specific range than book value
Case 3 - DFFA > 0 and DFFB < 0:
1) If DFFA < DFFB ⇒ DSR < 0
Partial compensation of resulting in worse specific range than book value
2) if DFFA < DFFB ⇒ DSR > 0
An apparently worse than nominal aerodynamic condition is being compensated
by lower engine consumption than model, resulting in better specific range than
book value.
Case 4 - DFFA < 0 and DFFB < 0 ⇒ DSR > 0
Compounded effect resulting in specific range deviation (better than book value)
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3. EXAMPLE
This paragraph is based on a cruise performance analysis that was performed for
an A310-304 fitted with CF6-80C2A2 in year 1990.
Figure E2 shows manual readings that were taken at that time. The three stable
points identified from the manual recordings of Figure E2 were processed by APM.
Only two of these were retained by the statistical procedure and are framed in
Figure E3.
The result of DFFA and DFFB (with DFFA < 0 and DFFB > 0 and DFFA < DFFB) is
a marginal deviation in DSR (-0.56%). Higher engine fuel consumption than model
is very often observed and at times is partially compensated by an apparently
better than nominal aerodynamic condition as exemplified in the APM outputs
shown in Figure E3.
Figure E2 - Example of manual recordings
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Figure E3 - Example of APM output
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4. REMARKS
A few remarks are given below, based on the feedback Airbus has had from the
operators. Any suggestion or comment on this part is welcome. These remarks
apply to both manual and automatic readings.
These remarks have been classified depending on their theme.
4.1. Correlating measured deviations to the aircraft
1. Up to now, engine modular analysis has been barely capable of supporting
aircraft performance monitoring with respect to distinguishing airframe and
engine contributors to performance deviations. Yet, this type of analysis should
be quite consistent with the APM analysis (DFFB parameter) in terms of
trending. Indeed, the APM / IFP (global aircraft performance) of Airbus and in
the Engine Condition Monitoring (engine performance) provided by the engine
manufacturer use consistent engine models. As a consequence, the trends
observed with both tools should be consistent with each other.
2. A suspected airframe deterioration resulting from an observed ∆N1 or ∆EPR
should be confirmed by verified (visible) aerodynamic drag / airflow disturbance
sources such as misrigging, dents, missing seals, steps, gaps, etc.
3. Therefore, conduct a visual inspection (extended walk around) of the aircraft
noting any possible aerodynamic discrepancies and possibly confirming these
by photographs. Also do this in flight, should a visual observation of the (upper)
wing surfaces be performed (slats, spoilers, flap, ailerons) and pictures be
taken (zoom photographs).
4. For A300/A310 Aircraft asymmetry drag diagnosis can be performed using the
Zero Control Wheel technique (FCOM 2.02.09 for A310 / A300-600).
4.2. Practical aspects
1. The Specific Range (SR) method is the most effective procedure to be used in
airline practice, but crew additional considerations may pre-empt its use.
Indeed, the statistical approach in the specific range method makes the
measured delta specific range fluctuates. This analysis could be cross-checked
via other means (like periodic flight crew reporting) in order to assess the
measured fuel factor. More details on this subject is given in Chapter G-Policy
for updating the Fuel Factor.
2. When performing manual reading, parallel AIDS or ACMS analysis may be
performed for back-to-back comparisons, if the event marker is activated every
minute or if the printer can be used in conjunction with manual recordings.
3. Data trends should be tracked when assessing APM outputs, as illustrated in
Chapter G-Policy for updating the Fuel Factor.
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4. As a reminder, the analysis performed with the Airbus tools is based on aircraft
models or databases called IFP databases or High Speed Performance
databases. These databases are valid for cruise analysis in the expected usual
operational conditions. Should not-expected conditions be encountered, the
cruise performance analysis could be biased due to an aircraft database effect.
For instance, points recorded below 20000 feet (it sometimes occurs even
though the systems for automatic retrieval are configured not to record such
points), should be disregarded. However a range of altitudes above 20000 ft
should be recorded to have a spectrum of different wing loading (W/δ) so as to
assess the consistency of any positive or negative SR deviation.
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LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
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USING THE MONITORED FUEL FACTOR
F. USING THE MONITORED FUEL FACTOR
1. INTRODUCTION
Airline Flight Planning systems are based on a reference aircraft performance
level (book level or IFP level, see paragraph A-1. The book level). In order to
establish a fuel policy, an adjustment of this level is required by most of the
regulations (e.g. JAR-OPS) in order to get scheduled flight planning consistent
with the actual aircraft performance level.
Furthermore, airlines flight operations are usually in charge of performing route
studies both for operational and commercial purposes. These studies are usually
conducted with the Airbus high speed performance calculation software. This
software allows to get aircraft performance relevant for the book level. As a
consequence, tuning the different fuel studies by means of the monitored fuel
factor is mandatory for day-to-day flight operations.
On the other hand, the FMS onboard the aircraft also performs fuel consumption
predictions based on a reference model: the FMS performance database. The
PERF FACTOR entered in the MCDU helps to the FMS predictions.
Implementing aircraft performance monitoring aims to determine the monitored
fuel factor. The intent of this paragraph is to correlate the factors required in the
various fields of application on one hand with the monitored fuel factor on the
other.
In the following, the term "fuel factor" will be applied to both mathematically factor
(ie the modified fuel flow is the reference fuel flow times the fuel factor) or
arithmetic deviation (in percent, ie the modified fuel flow is the reference fuel flow,
times the fuel factor plus 1). The same terminology will be used and the symbol %
will be added to deviations in percentage.
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2. FMS PERF FACTOR
2.1. Purpose
The intent of this paragraph is to explain how to tune the FMGEC/FMC fuel
predictions using the PERF FACTOR. It mostly synthesizes the contents of the
Flight Crew Operating Manual focusing on the FMS PERF FACTOR.
Should a discrepancy be noticed between the following and the FCOM, the latter
prevails.
This concerns the following FMS manufacturers:
Aircraft type
A300-600/A310
A320 Family
A330/A340
Manufacturer
Smith
Generic name
Honeywell
(Sperry)
Honeywell
Honeywell
Thales
FMS
FMS1
FMS2
FMS2
Other designation
Honeywell FMS Legacy
Honeywell FMS Pegasus
-
2.2. FMS Perf Data Base (PDB)
The main FMS aircraft performance predictions deal with:
- fuel consumption, time,
- climb and descent path,
- recommended maximum altitude, and
- optimization of speeds and cruise altitude taking into account economic criteria
defined by the airline Cost Index.
The PDB is derived from the IFP aircraft databases, which is consistent with the
book level (see also A-1. The book level). Slight simplifications were taken into
account because of the limited size of the FMS memory. For example, only one air
conditioning setting is available (LO/ECON as appropriate).
The FMGEC/FMC contains an integrated aircraft performance database. This
database is used by the FM part of the FMGEC/FMC to compute the predictions.
The airlines cannot modify any data in the aircraft performance database. Fuel
predictions can be adjusted by using a PERF FACTOR (see below) or an IDLE
FACTOR (A330/A340 only).
Per design, the aircraft performance databases are stored in the FMS Perf Data
Base (PDB). There is only a single PDB per family of aircraft. The activation of the
right model in the PDB is done when the FMGEC/FMC is installed on the aircraft
by a pin program setting.
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The
corresponding
aircraft
model
identification is then displayed on the
MCDU A/C STATUS page.
2.3. Update of the PDB
For aircraft not fitted with FMS2, the FMS PDB is part of the FM hardware. Update
of the Perf Data Base can be done, on current FMS, only at the opportunity of a
new FMGEC standard certification.
For aircraft fitted with FMS2, the FMS PDB is part of the FM software. Its update is
subject to a Service Bulletin and installation of a new PDB part number.
2.4. PERF FACTOR definition
2.4.1. General
The FMS PERF FACTOR is used for fuel prediction computation within the Flight
Management part of the FMGS. The PERF FACTOR is a positive or negative
percentage that is used to tune the predicted fuel flow used for fuel prediction
computation. In other words, the PERF FACTOR is used to adjust the FMS aircraft
performance level to the actual aircraft performance capability.
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The predicted fuel flow is modified according to the following formula:
 PERF FACTOR(%) 
FFPRED = FFMODEL × 1 +

100


where
• FFPRED is the fuel flow used for prediction
• FFMODEL is the fuel flow out of the FMS aircraft performance database
• PERF FACTOR(%) is the performance factor entered in the MCDU in
percent
This correction is applied throughout the flight.
The PERF FACTOR can only be entered/modified on ground. It is entered in the
AIRCRAFT STATUS page, like any other data. Read paragraph 0-2.6. Procedure
to change the PERF FACTOR.
The PERF FACTOR is the sum of two different factors:
- The basic FMS PERF FACTOR
- The monitored fuel factor, using an aircraft performance monitoring method
(read chapter B-3 The cruise performance analysis methods)
In the following, the FMS performance factor will be referred to as FMS PERF
FACTOR or PERF FACTOR.
2.4.2. Basic FMS PERF FACTOR
As a reminder, the nominal performance level of the aircraft is what we call the IFP
level or book level (read paragraph D-1.The book level for more details). There is
one IFP level per aircraft model. Several aircraft models may have the same IFP
level if they strictly have the same in-flight performance.
On the other hand, the size of the FMS performance database is not sufficient to
contain all the different aircraft performance models. Depending on the
aircraft/engine combination, the FMS performance model may not be exactly the
one of the aircraft on which it is installed. As a consequence, the engine type that
is displayed on A/C STATUS page may not correspond to the installed one.
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Therefore, a correction should be applied when the aircraft FMS database does
not exactly fit to the aircraft model. It results in FMS predictions consistent with the
aircraft book level.
2.4.3. Monitored fuel factor
On the other hand, the actual aircraft drag and engine performance deviate from
the nominal model due to the aircraft's aging process. Applying a correction will
shift the performance level from the book level to the actual performance level
enabling better fuel predictions.
As a reminder, the monitored fuel factor can be obtained from one of the aircraft
performance monitoring methods.
In the absence of measurements, the monitored fuel factor makes a default
assumption in terms of fuel quality. Basically, FMS predictions are performed with
a basic FLHV equal to 18400 BTU/LB (which is very conservative). As of a
consequence, and in order not to over-penalize the FMS prediction, the monitored
fuel factor should be corrected for the FLHV effect.
Corrected
Monitored
fuel factor
1
Monitored
fuel factor
Book level (18590 BTU/LB)
Book level (18400 BTU/LB) for FMS predictions
FLHV
correction
2
LEVEL 1 - Actual aircraft
Fuel
Flow
1
LEVEL 2 - Penalized Actual aircraft performance
Figure F1 - Effect of the FLHV on the monitored fuel factor for the FMS predictions
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The arrows “1” represent the monitored fuel factor, based on a 18590 BTU/LB. If
this monitored fuel factor is entered in the MCDU, the fuel predictions will be
consistent with LEVEL 2 (see figure F1). FMS predictions will be hence somewhat
penalized. Correcting the monitored fuel factor (arrow “2”) ensures the FMS
predictions are consistent with LEVEL 1 (see figure F1).
For example, if:
1. the cruise performance analysis is performed with a FLHV equal to 18590
BTU/LB, and
2. the monitored fuel factor is equal to 2%
Keeping in mind the FMS predictions are based on a 18400-FLHV, the corrected
monitored fuel factor is equal to the monitored fuel factor corrected for the FLHV
effect, that is to say:
 18400 
2 .0 % −  1 −
 × 100 ≈ 0.98% ≈ 1.0%
 18590 
2.4.4. FMS PERF FACTOR
The FMS PERF FACTOR must be entered in the aircraft MCDU on the A/C
STATUS page. The PERF FACTOR for the FMS predictions is the sum of the
basic PERF FACTOR (in percent) and the monitored fuel burn deviation (in
percent).
2.5. Basic FMS PERF FACTOR
On A300-600/A310 aircraft and fly-by-wire aircraft fitted with FMS1, the default
PERF FACTOR is defined in the hardware and is equal to 0.0.
On aircraft fitted with FMS2, the default PERF FACTOR is either 0.0 (hardware) or
is defined in the FMS Airline Modifiable Information (AMI) file, also called FM
airline configuration file. The basic value defined in the AMI file corresponds to 1.0.
For more information on that subject, read Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM),
section 1.22.10 P2.
Of course, the PERF FACTOR that is entered in the MCDU overrides the default
value.
This paragraph details the basic FMS PERF FACTOR to be considered when
updating the FMS PERF FACTOR. The following figures are given in percentage.
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2.5.1. General assumptions
All these factors were determined with the following hypotheses:
ƒ Anti-Ice OFF
ƒ FLHV: 18400 BTU/LB
ƒ Air conditioning:
- NORM for A319, A320 (except A320 CFM fitted with FMS2), A321, A340
with FMS1
- LO/ECON for A320 CFM fitted with FMS2, A330, A340 with FMS2
Note: The FMS performance databases are based on a default Fuel Lower Heating Value
(FLHV, see also paragraph "B-3.4.3.1.Fuel Lower Heating Value (Fuel LHV)") set to
18400 BTU/LB. So, when FLHV goes up from 18400 BTU/LB to 18590 BTU/LB, it is
necessary to reset the performance factor values to –1.0%.
2.5.2. A300-600/A310 aircraft
The basic PERF FACTOR entered in the MCDU at delivery is "0.0" for all A300600/A310 aircraft.
2.5.3. A320 “CFM” engines
The “CFM” family is split into several tables due to the numerous versions on
aircraft fitted with CFM56-5B engines. Indeed, this engine type (5B) enables to
have SAC (Single Annular Combustion chamber) or DAC (Double Annular
Combustion chamber) and the “/P” option, which is a SFC (Specific Fuel
Consumption) improvement (“physically” resulting from a HP blade and LP
compressor modification).
For all these aircraft the basic performance factor is given below.
2.5.3.1. CFM56-5A engines
2.5.3.1.1. FMS1
Perf Factor
A319-113 CFM56-5A4
0.0
A319-114 CFM56-5A5
0.0
A320-111 CFM56-5A1
0.0
A320-211 CFM56-5A1
+0.5
A320-212 CFM56-5A3
+0.5
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2.5.3.1.2. FMS2
Perf Factor
A319-113 CFM56-5A4
0.0
A319-114 CFM56-5A5
0.0
A320-111 CFM56-5A1
0.0
A320-211 CFM56-5A1
0.0
A320-212 CFM56-5A3
0.0
2.5.3.2. CFM56-5B engines
2.5.3.2.1. FMS1
Non /P
/P
SAC
DAC
SAC
DAC
A319-111
CFM56-5B5
0.0
0.0
-4.5
-3.5
A319-112
CFM56-5B6
0.0
0.0
-4.5
-3.5
A319-115
CFM56-5B7
0.0
0.0
-4.5
-3.5
A320-214
CFM56-5B4
0.0
0.0
-3.0
-2.0
A321-111
CFM56-5B1
0.0
0.0
-2.0
-1.5
A321-112
CFM56-5B2
0.0
0.0
-2.0
-1.5
A321-211
CFM56-5B3
0.0
0.0
-2.0
-1.5
A321-212
CFM56-5B1
0.0
0.0
-2.0
-1.5
A321-213
CFM56-5B2
0.0
0.0
-2.0
-1.5
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2.5.3.2.2. FMS2
Non /P
/P
SAC
DAC
SAC
DAC
A319-111
CFM56-5B5
4.5
4.5
0.0
1.0
A319-112
CFM56-5B6
4.5
4.5
0.0
1.0
A319-115
CFM56-5B7
4.5
4.5
0.0
1.0
A320-214
CFM56-5B4
3.0
3.0
0.0
1.0
A321-111
CFM56-5B1
2.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
A321-112
CFM56-5B2
2.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
A321-211
CFM56-5B3
2.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
A321-212
CFM56-5B1
2.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
A321-213
CFM56-5B2
2.0
2.0
0.0
1.0
2.5.4. A320 “IAE” family :
2.5.4.1. FMS1
Perf Factor
A319-131
V2522-A5
–0.5
A319-132
V2524-A5
–0.5
A319-133
V2527M-A5
–0.5
A320-231
V2500-A1
0.0
A320-232
V2527-A5
+0.5
A320-233
V2527E-A5
+0.5
A321-131
V2530-A5
-0.5
A321-231
V2533-A5
-0.5
A321-232
V2530-A5
-0.5
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2.5.4.2. FMS2
Perf Factor
A319-131
V2522-A5
0.0
A319-132
V2524-A5
0.0
A319-133
V2527M-A5
0.0
A320-231
V2500-A1
0.0
A320-232
V2527-A5
0.0
A320-233
V2527E-A5
0.0
A321-131
V2530-A5
0.0
A321-231
V2533-A5
0.0
A321-232
V2533-A5
0.0
2.5.5. A330 aircraft
2.5.5.1. FMS1
Perf Factor
A330-202
CF6-80E1A2
-1.0
A330-223
PW4168A
-1.0
A330-243
TRENT772B-60
-3.0
A330-301
CF6-80E1A2
0.0
A330-321
PW4164
0.0
A330-322
PW4168
0.0
A330-323
PW4168A
0.0
A330-341
TRENT768-60
0.0
A330-342 TRENT772-60 OH (*1)
0.0
( 1)
A330-342 TRENT772-60 NH *
-2.0
A330-343
-2.0
TRENT772B-60
(*1) : OH: Old Hardware, before Engine Serial Number 41054.
NH: New Hardware, since Engine Serial Number 41054.
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2.5.5.2. FMS2
Perf Factor
A330-201
CF6-80E1A2
-1.0
A330-202
CF6-80E1A4
-1.0
A330-203
CF6-80E1A3
-1.0
A330-223
PW4168A
-1.0
A330-243
TRENT772B-60
-1.0
A330-301
CF6-80E1A2
0.0
A330-302
CF6-80E1A4
0.0
A330-303
CF6-80E1A3
0.0
A330-321
PW4164
0.0
A330-322
PW4168
0.0
A330-323
PW4168A
0.0
A330-324
PW4173
0.0
A330-341
TRENT768-60
0.0
( 1)
A330-342 TRENT772-60 OH *
0.0
A330-342 TRENT772-60 NH (*1)
-2.0
A330-343
-2.0
TRENT772B-60
(*1) : OH: Old Hardware, before Engine Serial Number 41054;
NH: New Hardware, since Engine Serial Number 41054.
2.5.6. A340 aircraft
2.5.6.1. FMS1
Perf Factor
A340-211
CFM56-5C2
-1.5
A340-212
CFM56-5C3
-3.0
A340-213
CFM56-5C4
-2.0
A340-311
CFM56-5C2
-1.5
A340-312
CFM56-5C3
-1.5
A340-313
CFM56-5C4
-0.5
A340-313E
CFM56-5C4
0.0
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2.5.6.2. FMS2
Perf Factor
A340-211
CFM56-5C2
-2.0
A340-212
CFM56-5C3
-2.5
A340-213
CFM56-5C4
-1.0
A340-213E
CFM56-5C4
0.0
A340-311
CFM56-5C2
0.0
A340-312
CFM56-5C3
-1.0
A340-313
CFM56-5C4
0.0
A340-313E
CFM56-5C4
0.0
A340-642
TRENT 556
+ 0.5 %
2.6. Procedure to change the PERF FACTOR
The PERF FACTOR should be regularly updated based on the routine aircraft
performance monitoring. This paragraph details the procedure to change the
PERF FACTOR in the CDU/MCDU.
Airbus recommends that only authorized and qualified staff members perform this
procedure. The crew should not change the value by themselves.
The PERF FACTOR can only be modified on ground.
Note: On fly-by-wire aircraft, the PERF FACTOR is displayed in CYAN when on ground
(modifiable) and in GREEN when airborne or when no change code was entered (not
modifiable). It is displayed in large blue font, following a modification.
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2.6.1. A300-600/A310 aircraft
1. Select the CDU A/C STATUS page
2. Type the new value
3. Press LSK 6L.
2.6.2. A320 Family aircraft
2.6.2.1. Aircraft fitted with FMS1
1. Select the MCDU A/C STATUS page
2. Type the new value
3. Press LSK 6R. The new value is displayed in large fonts (CYAN on the ground,
GREEN in-flight)
2.6.2.2. Aircraft fitted with FMS2
If no PERF FACTOR was entered, the Airline Modifiable Information (AMI) values
are taken into account and are displayed in small font. Changing the PERF
FACTOR value thanks to the below procedure will over-ride the PERF FACTOR
value that is defined in the AMI.
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Following steps describe how to change the PERF FACTOR value:
1. Enter “ARM ”in the CHG CODE line [5L ]brackets (or appropriate password)
2. Write the new IDLE/PERF factor in the scratchpad
3. Enter this new factor in line [6L ]. The entered factor is displayed in large CYAN
font.
The airline may change the ARM code by modifying the NAV DATA BASE policy
file.
2.6.3. A330/A340 aircraft
On the MCDU A/C STATUS page:
1. Enter ARM into brackets in the CHG CODE line [5L ]
2. Write the new IDLE/PERF factors
3. Insert the new factor using [6L] key. A manually entered IDLE/PERF factor is
displayed in large CYAN fonts.
2.7. Effects of the PERF FACTOR
Adjusting the PERF FACTOR has an impact on fuel flow predictions. As of a
consequence, comparing the scheduled fuel consumption with or without defining
a PERF FACTOR will exhibit noticeable differences. The purpose of this
paragraph is to succinctly describe the influence of the PERF FACTOR.
First, PERF FACTOR is an FMS internal correction. It is not sent to any other
computer linked to the FMS (FADEC, EIU…).
Second, as defined above, the PERF FACTOR basically modifies the FMS
predicted fuel flow. Hence, it impacts the items listed below.
2.7.1. Estimated fuel on board (EFOB) and estimated landing weight
The EFOB is calculated based on integration of the predicted fuel flow over time.
Thus, the PERF FACTOR has an influence of the EFOB displayed on both MCDU
PERF and F-PLN pages.
Also, the estimated landing weight is calculated taking into account the zero fuel
weight (ZFW) entered in the MCDU and the EFOB at destination. Consequently,
the PERF FACTOR has also an impact on the estimated landing weight at
destination.
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2.7.2. ECON speed/Mach number
The ECON speeds are calculated so as to minimize the cost function. The cost
function depends on the predicted fuel flow or predicted specific range, on the
Cost Index entered in the MCDU and on the ground speed.
The PERF FACTOR therefore has an influence on the predicted ECON speeds.
The Cost Index used for ECON speeds computation is modified according to the
following formula:
CI PF =
where
CI
PERF FACTOR
1+
100
CI is the Cost Index entered in the MCDU
CIPF is the corrected Cost Index for the PERF FACTOR
PERF FACTOR is the factor entered in the MCDU
Yet, the influence of the PERF FACTOR is quite small. The highest deviations are
generally observed at high gross weights. The effect is more significant on
A330/A340 aircraft types.
As a general rule, the higher the PERF FACTOR, the lower the ECON speeds.
2.7.3. Characteristic speeds
The FMS computes flight characteristic speeds and displays the predicted values
in the MCDU PERF pages. As a reminder, the characteristic speeds are F, S and
O speeds during the T/O and APPR phases, VLS and VAPP CONF3 and CONF
FULL during the APPR phase.
The characteristic speeds are calculated based on the predicted aircraft gross
weight, which is the sum of the zero fuel weight (ZFW) and the estimated fuel on
board (EFOB).
As the PERF FACTOR modifies the EFOB, it also impacts characteristic speeds.
The higher the PERF FACTOR, the lower the EFOB, the lower the characteristic
speeds.
2.7.4. Recommended Maximum altitude (REC MAX ALT)
The FMS RECommended MAXimum ALTitude (REC MAX ALT) is defined as the
altitude, which can be:
- flown with a speed higher than GREEN DOT and lower than VMO/MMO,
- reached with a minimum vertical speed of 300ft/mn at Max climb thrust,
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-
flown in level flight without acceleration with an engine rating less than Max
cruise,
reached before buffeting (the margin depends on the aircraft models, 0.3g for
fly-by-wire aircraft)
It is displayed on the MCDU PROG page.
The REC MAX ALT is less than or equal to the CERtified MAXimum ALTitude as
provided in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). This calculation is permanently
updated during flight.
The REC MAX ALT is a pre-computed value function of the aircraft gross weight
and the ISA deviation (the ISA model is defined in the FMGEC thanks to the
temperature and the tropopause altitude that are entered in the MCDU).
As a consequence, the PERF FACTOR has no influence on the REC MAX ALT.
2.7.5. Optimum altitude (OPT ALT)
The Optimum Altitude function is defined as the altitude at which the cost, - and at
the optimum speed, - at its minimum. This calculation is permanently updated
during flight.
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It is displayed on the MCDU PROG page.
The calculation is made taking into account: the Cost Index, the aircraft gross
weight (GW), the wind model, the temperature model (International Standard
Atmosphere) and the ISA deviation.
Since the PERF FACTOR modifies the fuel flow, it changes the cost function. As a
consequence, the OPT ALT is also impacted.
A positive PERF FACTOR decreases the OPT ALT, all other conditions being
fixed.
3. FUEL FACTOR FOR FLIGHT PLANNING SYSTEMS
During the dispatch of any aircraft, each operator must determine the fuel quantity
that is required for a safe trip along the scheduled route, and reserves to cover
deviations from the planned route according to locally prevailing regulations.
Each operator has his own fuel policy and tools to prepare the required flight
planning. Some operators have built in-house programs. Some others subcontract
this to third party specialized in that area.
No matter which the option is chosen by the operator, all flight planning is basically
based on:
- the Airbus aircraft High Speed Performance databases (IFP databases, FMS
IFP databases, see paragraph A-1.The book level)
- The Airbus IFP program (see 0-4.Airbus Tools)
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The intent of the following lines is to clarify Airbus recommendations in term of fuel
factor for flight planning preparation.
3.1. Effect of the fuel factor on Flight Planning
The following picture illustrates the different fuel quantities and associated flight
phases of a typical trip.
The fuel factor defined in flight planning will modify (except fixed values of course):
- the trip fuel
- the contingency fuel (generally a percentage of the trip fuel)
- the alternate fuel
- the final reserve (holding at alternate fuel)
- the additional fuel
3.2. Keys for defining the fuel factor
Basically, the nominal performance level that is used in flight planning systems is
the same as the Airbus book level (or IFP level, see A-1.The book level).
This performance level may not be representative of the actual aircraft
performance level. Amongst the airlines information required to feed any flight
planning system, a fuel factor must be defined in accordance with the airline fuel
policy (see chapter G-Policy for updating the Fuel Factor).
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The following points must be emphasized:
1. When determining an operational flight plan at fixed speed (FMS selected or
manual mode), the flight planning fuel factor must be the same as the one
measured with an appropriate aircraft performance monitoring method. In other
words, the fuel factor for flight planning is equal to the monitored fuel factor.
2. When determining a flight plan (or a part of it) at Cost Index ECON speeds,
• the ECON speeds must be calculated taking into account the FMS PERF
FACTOR
• the flight plan must be calculated with the pre-calculated ECON speeds,
using a method consistent with the standard IFP algorithm and taking into
account the monitored fuel factor.
Note:
Read paragraph 4. Airbus Tools and Fuel Factor to have more information on the
capabilities of the Airbus tools covering that subject.
3. The Fuel Lower Heating Value is included within airline information pertaining
to Flight Planning. The FLHV should be the same as the one used for the
cruise performance analysis. If not, a correction will be applied on the
monitored fuel factor.
If the FLHV for cruise performance analysis is 1% higher than the FLHV used
in the flight planning system, decrease the monitored fuel factor by 1%.
For example, if :
1. the cruise performance analysis is performed with a FLHV equal to 18590
BTU/LB, and
2. the flight planning is calculated based on a FLHV equal to 18400 BTU/LB,
and
3. the monitored fuel factor is equal to 2%
Assuming no Cost Index calculation is done, the flight planning fuel factor is
equal to the monitored fuel factor corrected for the FLHV effect, that is to say:
 18400 
2 .0 % −  1 −
 × 100 ≈ 0.98% ≈ 1.0%
 18590 
4. The FMS PERF FACTOR should be indicated on the computerized flight plan
so that pilots can check the computerized flight planning and FMS predictions
are consistent with each other. Of course, the FMS PERF FACTOR can be
different from the flight planning fuel factor determined above. But the pilots
only have at hand the fuel factor that is defined for the FMS predictions, that is
to say, the FMS PERF FACTOR.
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3.3. Comparing FMS fuel predictions and Computerized Flight
Planning
FMS fuel predictions and scheduled fuel
planning indeed have different purposes. Yet,
it is tempting to try to compare both fuel
schedules. The intent of the following is to
remind the main reasons for these
differences.
As explained in this chapter, the FMS
predictions are based on an FMS simplified
performance database, which is different
from the CFP aircraft database (consistent
with the book level).
1. The fuel factors defined in the FMS
(PERF FACTOR) and those destinated for
flight planning computation (flight planning
fuel factor) must be consistent with each
other.
2. The FMS predictions may be calculated
with different wind predictions than the
Computerized Flight Planning (wind
profile). The influence of the wind on
performance is tantamont.
Figure F1 - Example of computerized Flight Planning
3. The flight planning computation method can induce hidden effects:
ƒ Some flight plannings are based on Flight Crew Operating Manual precalculated data. The flight plan is then calculated interpolating within FCOM
data.
ƒ Some flight planning systems are based on pre-calculated data using the
Airbus IFP program. The flight plan is then calculated interpolating within
resulting data tables
ƒ Some other flight planning systems are based on real-condition
computation, which is the most accurate method, avoiding interpolation
errors
4. The ECON speeds may be determined based on an algorithm, which is not
exactly consistent with the Airbus one. As of a consequence, a slight difference
between scheduled ECON speeds and observed ECON speeds may occur.
5. The FMS predictions are updated in real-time, based on the actual flight
profile. The Computerized Flight Planning is established at dispatch and
does not include any correction for deviations from planned conditions.
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Example of difference between CFP and FMS predictions
Figure F2 shows an example of predictions, for the same route, all above specified
conditions being fulfilled.
Figure F2 - Comparison CFP versus FMS predictions
Apart from the routing errors, the figures in both cases are quite consistent with
each other.
4. AIRBUS TOOLS AND FUEL FACTOR
All airline Flight Operations use or at least have heard about the Airbus High
Speed Performance calculation software. The intent of this paragraph is to briefly
explain how to use fuel factors with these tools.
The Airbus HSP software is composed of:
- the IFP program
- the FLIP program
- the APM program
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4.1. The IFP program
This paragraph describes the way to use fuel factors (monitored fuel factor, FMS
PERF FACTOR) in the IFP program, depending on what is needed. For more
details on the IFP functions, read 0-1.1.3. The IFP program.
4.1.1. The IFP calculation modes
The IFP has three basic calculation modes. They are described down below.
4.1.1.1. Standard mode
Calculations performed with this mode are based on the most accurate physical
model of the aircraft available (so-called the IFP model or book level), giving the
most accurate fuel predictions for given speeds. Calculations are possible at
economic speeds for the cruise phase only, by selecting the "optimum speed"
option. But, the resulting calculations will not match up entirely with the speeds the
aircraft will be adopt by means of the FMS and in equivalent conditions. These are
indeed based on the optimization of the cost function using slightly different data
than those stored in the FMS.
This calculation mode is based on:
- Standard IFP aerodynamic and engine database (same as book level)
- Standard IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
- Standard data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- All air conditioning settings available
- All anti ice settings available
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable drag factor (modification of the aircraft drag)
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor (modification of the fuel flow)
4.1.1.2. FMS mode
Calculations performed with this mode are based on the databases stored in the
FMS (FMS Perf Data Base or PDB) on the simplified equations used therein (due
to the real-time constraints). For a given cost index and fuel factor, speeds given in
this mode are thus the same as those flown by the aircraft in the same conditions.
Fuel consumption may be slightly different from the ones actually observed, since
there are some simplifications, like the assumption of low air conditioning and no
anti ice whatever the actual bleed flow (see conditions below). Another restriction
is that only flight conditions that can be flown under FMS managed mode are
available for computation.
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This calculation mode is based on:
- Simplified IFP aerodynamic and engine database (FMS aircraft performance
level),
- Simplified IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
consistent with the ones implemented in the FMS,
- Data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations consistent
with the FMS ones
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- LO/ECON air conditioning only, no anti-ice, as the FMS predictions
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable drag factor
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor
4.1.1.3. hybrid mode (standard with FMS speeds)
This mode uses a mix of the two previous database sets in order to obtain the best
of both worlds: the actual FMS speeds and accurate fuel consumption predictions
under given conditions. For example, you may calculate data for any bleed setting
available on the aircraft. For the flight phases being covered, this mode is ideal for
flight plan performance data production. The ones not covered are usually flown in
FMS selected or manual mode (single engine performance, gear down...). The
FMS managed mode is equivalent to a calculation in standard mode (holding at
green dot speed...).
This calculation mode is based on:
- Standard IFP aerodynamic and engine database (same as book level)
- Standard IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
- Data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations consistent
with the FMS ones
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- All air conditioning settings available
- All anti ice settings available
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable drag factor
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor
4.1.2. Simulation of the FMS predictions
The intent of this paragraph is to explain how to use the IFP program to reproduce
FMS predictions on board the aircraft.
4.1.2.1. Flight at given Cost Index
The IFP FMS mode should be used with the following assumptions:
1. FLHV set equal to 18400. BTU/LB (as in the on-board FMS)
2. LO/ECON air conditioning
3. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
4. Drag factor set equal to 1.0
5. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the ones used by the FMS
6. Cost Index as applicable
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4.1.2.2. Flight at given speed (CAS/Mach)
This type of calculation is only possible for the CRZ and DES phases. No similar
calculations can be performed for the CLB phase as the IFP FMS calculates the
climb Mach depending on the Cost Index entered.
The IFP FMS mode should be used with the following assumptions:
1. FLHV set equal to 18400. BTU/LB (as in the on-board FMS)
2. LO/ECON air conditioning
3. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
4. Drag factor set equal to 1.0
5. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the ones used by the FMS
6. Speeds as applicable
4.1.3. Determination of the actual aircraft performance
The intent of this paragraph is to explain how to use the IFP program to calculate
actual aircraft performance.
4.1.3.1. Flight at given Cost Index
Airbus recommendation is to use the HYBRID mode.
The HYBRID mode will perform the ECON speeds and fuel flow calculations. The
fuel factor(s) have an influence on both types of items. The point is that two
different fuel factor(s) must be used:
- FMS PERF FACTOR to obtain ECON speeds
- Monitored fuel factor to obtain fuel flows
In the IFP, only one consumption factor can be entered. The following gives Airbus
recommendations to bypass that constraint.
The FLHV is used during the calculation of fuel flows. Basically, the higher the
FLHV, the lower the fuel flow. The whole idea is to modify the FLHV by a certain
amount in order to compensate for the difference between the FMS PERF
FACTOR and the monitored fuel factor, that is to say, to compensate the Basic
FMS PERF FACTOR.
As a general assumption, one percent FLHV deviation results in one percent
deviation in fuel flow. Then,
FLHVCORR − FLHVACTUAL
= ∆FMS _ PERF _ FACTOR(%)
FLHVACTUAL
where
FLHVACTUAL is the actual FLHV
FLHVCORR is the corrected FLHV
∆FMS_PERF_FACTOR(%) is the basic FMS PERF FACTOR in percent
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Then,
FLHVCORR = ∆FMS _ PERF _ FACTOR(%) × FLHVACTUAL + FLHVACTUAL
The IFP HYBRID mode should be used with the following assumptions:
1. Corrected FLHV (see above)
2. Air conditioning/Anti Ice as appropriate
3. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
4. Drag factor set equal to 1.0
5. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the actual ones
6. Cost Index as applicable
4.1.3.2. Flight at given speed (CAS/Mach)
The IFP STANDARD mode should be used with the following assumptions:
1. FLHV as appropriate
2. Air conditioning/Anti ice as appropriate
3. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to monitored fuel factor
4. Drag factor set equal to 1.0
5. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the actual ones
6. Speeds as applicable
4.2. The FLIP program
This paragraph describes the way to use the FLIP program with the different fuel
factors, depending on the objective.
4.2.1. The FLIP missions
4.2.1.1. Standard Flight Planning
Calculations performed with this mode are based on the most accurate physical
model of the aircraft available (so-called the IFP model), giving the most accurate
fuel predictions for given speeds.
This mission is based on:
- Standard IFP aerodynamic and engine database (same as book level)
- Standard IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
- Standard data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- All Air Conditioning settings available
- All Anti Ice settings available
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable thrust factor (modification of the maximum thrust/N1/EPR at a given
thrust rating)
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor
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4.2.1.2. FMS Flight Planning
Calculations performed with this mode are based on the databases stored in the
FMS (FMS Perf Data Base or PDB) and on simplified equations used therein (due
to the real-time constraints).
For a given cost index and fuel factor, speeds given in this mode are thus the
same as those flown by the aircraft in identical conditions. The fuel consumption
may be slightly different from the ones actually observed, since there are some
simplifications, like the assumption of low air conditioning and no anti ice whatever
the actual bleed flow. Another restriction: only flight conditions that can be flown
under FMS managed mode by the crew are available for computation.
This calculation mode is based on:
- Simplified IFP aerodynamic and engine database (FMS aircraft performance
level)
- Simplified IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
consistent with the ones implemented in the FMS
- Data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations consistent
with the FMS ones
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- LO/ECON air conditioning only, no anti-ice, as the FMS predictions
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable thrust factor
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor
4.2.1.3. Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds
This mode uses a mix of the two previous database sets in order to obtain the best
of both worlds: the actual FMS speeds and accurate fuel consumption predictions
under given conditions. For example, you may calculate data for any bleed setting
available on the aircraft. The FMS managed mode is equivalent to a calculation in
standard mode.
This calculation mode is based on:
- Standard IFP aerodynamic and engine database (same as book level)
- Standard IFP algorithms for data extraction and flight mechanics equations
- Data and algorithms for flight guidance parameters and limitations consistent
with the FMS ones
- Adjustable atmospheric conditions
- All air conditioning settings available
- All anti ice settings available
- Adjustable FLHV
- Adjustable thrust factor
- Adjustable fuel consumption factor
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4.2.2. Simulation of FMS predictions
The intent of this paragraph is to explain how to use the FLIP program to
reproduce actual FMS predictions on board the aircraft.
4.2.2.1. Flight planning at given Cost Index
The Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds should be used with the following
assumptions:
1. ECON speed selection (Managed mode)
2. FLHV set equal to 18400. BTU/LB (as in the on-board FMS)
3. LO/ECON air conditioning
4. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
5. Thrust factor set equal to 1.0
6. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the ones used by the FMS
7. Cost Index as applicable
4.2.2.2. Flight planning at given speed (CAS/Mach)
The Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds should be used with the following
assumptions:
1. Use Selected mode with FMS regulations
2. FLHV set equal to 18400. BTU/LB (as in the on-board FMS)
3. LO/ECON air conditioning
4. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
5. Thrust factor set equal to 1.0
6. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the ones used by the FMS
7. Speeds as applicable
4.2.3. Determination of the actual aircraft performance
The intent of this paragraph is to explain how to use the FLIP program to calculate
the actual aircraft performance.
4.2.3.1. Flight at given Cost Index
Airbus recommendation is to use the Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds.
The Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds will perform the ECON speeds and
fuel flow calculations. The fuel factor(s) have an influence on these two items. The
point is that two different fuel factor(s) must be used:
- FMS PERF FACTOR to obtain ECON speeds
- Monitored fuel factor to obtain fuel flows
In the FLIP, only one consumption factor can be entered. The following gives
Airbus recommendations to bypass this constraint.
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The FLHV is used during the calculation of fuel flows. Basically speaking the
higher the FLHV, the lower the fuel flow. The point is to modify the FLHV by a
certain amount in order to compensate for the difference between the FMS PERF
FACTOR and the monitored fuel factor, that is to say, to compensate the Basic
FMS PERF FACTOR.
As a general assumption, one percent FLHV deviation results in one percent
deviation in fuel flow. Then,
FLHVCORR − FLHVACTUAL
= ∆FMS _ PERF _ FACTOR(%)
FLHVACTUAL
where
FLHVACTUAL is the actual FLHV
FLHVCORR is the corrected FLHV
∆FMS_PERF_FACTOR(%) is the basic FMS PERF FACTOR in percent
Then,
FLHVCORR = ∆FMS _ PERF _ FACTOR(%) × FLHVACTUAL + FLHVACTUAL
The Standard Flight Planning with FMS speeds mission should be used with the
following assumptions:
1. Use ECON speeds (managed mode)
2. Corrected FLHV (see above)
3. air conditioning/anti ice as appropriate
4. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to (1+FMS PERF FACTOR(%)/100)
5. Thrust factor set equal to 1.0
6. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the actual ones
7. Cost Index as applicable
4.2.3.2. Flight at given speed (CAS/Mach)
The Standard Flight Planning mission should be used with the following
assumptions:
1. FLHV as appropriate
2. Air Conditioning/Anti Ice as appropriate
3. Fuel Consumption Factor set equal to monitored fuel factor
4. Drag factor set equal to 1.0
5. Atmospheric conditions as close as possible to the actual ones
6. Speeds as applicable
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G. POLICY FOR UPDATING THE FUEL FACTOR
1. INTRODUCTION
When implementing routine aircraft performance monitoring one of the tasks is to
define some indicators and trigger conditions that may help deciding WHEN to
actually change the aircraft fuel factors. The intent of this paragraph is to give
Airbus recommendations to the operators updating of the Flight Planning fuel
factor and the FMS PERF FACTOR. It is the operator's responsibility to implement
this update procedure within its company fuel policy.
The previous paragraphs made an exhaustive review of the different ways to put
these indicators into place: monitored fuel factor, monitored delta specific range…
This chapter focuses on the main items that must be taken into account and
illustrates this with examples coming from the field.
The following is based on Airbus experience as well as on feedback obtained from
some operators.
2. STARTING OPERATIONS WITH A NEW AIRCRAFT
At delivery of a new aircraft, no data is available for this tail number to determine
the required fuel factors to adjust the computerized flight planning or the FMS
predictions. At delivery, it is common practice to perform a flight taking some
sample points to establish fuel factors.
With these few points, an FMS PERF FACTOR and a flight planning fuel factor are
determined in accordance with chapter F-Using the monitored fuel factor. The
FMS and flight planning system are adjusted with these factors.
Later on, fuel factors are adjusted for each individual aircraft by means of aircraft
performance monitoring. At the very beginning of the operation, an additional
cross check may be performed with another method to assess the quality of the
aircraft performance monitoring method.
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3. A PERF FACTOR FOR EACH AIRCRAFT?
For the sake of simplification, it may be tempting to try and determine fuel factors,
applicable to all tail numbers. Indeed, doing so will avoid multiple calculations for a
specific aircraft and would allow to use the same flight planning basic information
for the whole fleet.
Yet, this will certainly penalize most of the fleet. Indeed, the different tails of an
airline are not delivered at the same date. The different aircraft may be allocated
on different routes, accumulating different cycles and flight hours. The
maintenance done on the aircraft may also result in different consequences for
cruise performance analysis (engine change on a specific aircraft will definitively
change the monitored fuel factor for the concerned aircraft). To sum up, each
individual aircraft has its own history.
Airlines usually tailor the performance factor to each individual aircraft. Refining
the cruise performance analysis at the tail number level allows to adjust the book
level to the actual aircraft performance of each tail number. Thus, for a given tail
number, the computerized flight planning, the FMS predictions and any route study
will be customized to each individual aircraft.
It is worth mentioning that the other advantage of routine performance monitoring
is that analysis result may evidence unusual conditions by comparing each tail
number to the rest of the fleet. Thus, this procedure may also contain trigger
conditions for warning the airline maintenance department, in order to keep the
aircraft as good as possible.
4. CHANGING THE FUEL FACTOR
4.1. Introduction
Changing the fuel factors is defined in each airline fuel policy. It may vary a lot
depending on the airline structure and means available for flight planning and flight
operations. The following will show some examples, which cannot be put into
place "as is" but should anyway be adapted to each individual airline’s needs.
Basically, the fuel factor(s) has(ve) to be updated following noticeable modification
of the fuel consumption. Specific attention is required after major maintenance
actions (engine change for instance). Such a modification is of course determined
based on the aircraft performance history. The point is to identify what lies behind
"noticeable modification". This definition is the airline’s responsibility.
Indeed, some airlines change the fuel factor as soon as an evolution is
detected/monitored, while some others use various smoothing techniques. The
difference between the two is of course the margin for conservatism.
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Whatever the airline policy, some techniques are usually used to monitor the trend
of the fuel factor evolution versus time.
4.2. Some precautions
The following illustrates the way to change the fuel factors throughout aircraft life.
The result of cruise performance analysis gives the fuel factor as a function of
time. Figure G1 shows an example of monitored fuel factor versus time.
Monitored Fuel Factor (%)
4
3
Tail #1
Trend curve
2
1
Sep-01 Oct-01 Nov-01 Dec-01 Jan-02 Feb-02 Mar-02 Apr-02 May-02
Month
Figure G1 - Example of Monitored Fuel Factor degradation with time
4.2.1. Monitored fuel factor trend line
The monitored fuel factor is established with a certain accuracy level as already
explained at the beginning of this brochure. The determination method is a
statistical one. For each month, the monitored fuel factor displays a certain scatter.
This induces that the trend of the fuel factor is not purely monotonous. The
monitored fuel factor can decrease from one month to another, while common
sense may make one wonder how aircraft performance can increase with time.
This state of affairs imposes to be careful when changing the fuel factor. Indeed,
changing it based on the monitored fuel factor over the preceding month will make
the fuel factor go up and down by a few decimals. Some techniques are possible
to get around these ups and downs. Some examples are given in paragraphs
follows.
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4.2.2. Update frequency
Figure G1 shows something interesting about the evolution of the measured fuel
factor. Indeed, over 6 months, the monitored fuel factor went up by 0.5%.
As of a consequence, checking the evolution of the monitored fuel factor is
useless when it is performed too often. Most of the airlines check fuel factors once
a month, which ensures noticeable and acceptable variations.
This rule applies for fuel factors determination. Aircraft performance monitoring
with the APM program may also be used to monitor the aircraft and engine
condition. In that case, the frequency must be adapted in order not to smooth the
variations of the different and to hide some indicators.
4.2.3. Two examples of trigger condition for updating the fuel factors
The two examples explained below illustrate the way the decision to change the
fuel factor is made in two different airlines. This procedure depends on the amount
of conservatism the airline is ready to add to fuel fact determination of the fuel
factor.
Indeed, changing fuel factors too early will increase predicted aircraft fuel
consumption on computerized flight planning, leading to possibly carry more fuel
than required. Airbus has not yet performed any check concerning the possible
impact and is ready to discuss this item with any airline interested in the subject.
Yet, the uncertainty on the monitored fuel factor is such that this does not affect
the operations in a large extent.
4.2.3.1. Example 1: Step Fuel Factors
The principle of this method is to retain approximate values for monitored fuel
factors. The fuel factor is changed when a difference of more than a given
percentage is noticed between the new figure and the last one retained. In other
words, this technique allows a certain margin or error in the determination of the
fuel factor.
Figure G2 on next page shows the actual monitored fuel factor as measured each
month, and the associated retained monitored fuel factor.
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Monitored Fuel Factor (%)
3.5
3
2.7
2.5
2.4
3
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.5
2
1.5
1
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Month
Actual Monitored Fuel Factor
Retained Monitored Fuel Factor
Figure G2 - Step Fuel Factor method
This example assumes a minimum delta of 0.5% is the condition for the update of
the fuel factor.
In October 2001, the monitored fuel factor was set to 2.5 %. All the fuel factors
(FMS PERF FACTOR, Flight Planning fuel factor…) were updated taking into
account this new value.
In the following months, until March 2002, the monitored fuel factor was being
evaluated monthly to be compared to the previous one retained (2.5%). None of
the monitored fuel factors got above 2.5% + 0.5% = 3.0%, so no update was
performed. In April 2002, the monitored fuel factor got equal to 3.0%. The retained
fuel factor became 3.0% instead of 2.5%, because the margin was exceeded.
In May 2002, the monitored fuel factor got below 3.0% again. No change is made
to avoid ups and downs (which cannot be avoided around the step values).
Definitely the advantage of this method is that it is a simple technique, easily
controllable. The only point is to define the margin. In common practice, the
determination of the fuel factor is scattered and biased. One should ensure the
retained margin does not bias the fuel factor too much.
Using this technique, one could also imagine to retain a more conservative fuel
factor envelope (i.e. changing the fuel factor as soon as a monitored factor goes
above the retained one). In figure G2, we would set the retained fuel factor to 3.0%
starting as from October 2001.
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4.2.3.2. Example 2: Smoothed Fuel Factors
The principle of this method is to get rid of the monitored fuel factor variations by
smoothing the curve to get a purely monotonous curve.
No more margin is then required. This smoothing technique allows to increase the
accuracy of the fuel factor to the decimal. A margin can still be implemented but it
can be reduced compared to the previous method.
Generally, this technique is more sophisticated and gives a more accurate trend
line.
Figure G3 shows the evolution of the actual monitored fuel factor and the retained
one over time. The actual monitored fuel factors were averaged over the last three
months, which gives quite acceptable results and trends.
Monitored Fuel Factor (%)
3.5
3
2.7
2.5
2.4
3
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.5
2
1.5
1
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Month
Actual Monitored Fuel Factor
Retained Monitored Fuel Factor
Figure G3 - Smoothed Fuel Factor method
In September 2001, the first available monitored fuel factor is retained.
In October 2001, the monitored fuel factor is 2.5%. Averaging this factor with the
September one gives 2.45%, which is rounded up to 2.5%. The retained fuel factor
is 2.5%.
In November, the average is performed over the past three months. 2.4% in
September, 2.5 in October, and 2.7% in November. The retain fuel factor is the
average of the three, 2.6%.
In December, the average of the actual fuel factors over October, November and
December results in a 2.7% fuel factor being retained.
Using this technique is a little bit more sophisticated than the previous. The
advantage of the method is that it minimizes possible errors and allows to really
stick to the fuel factor trend line.
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Of course, this smoothing technique is a quite simple (but efficient) one, and one
could imagine developing a specific smoothing technique based on polynoms or
the like. Airbus is prepared to share its view with any airline interested, and for the
sake of airline operations improvement.
5. WHO CHANGES THE FUEL FACTOR(S)?
The intent of this paragraph is to give the Airbus view on who must be informed of
a change of fuel factor on one hand, and who should have the authority to do so. It
does not impose any way of working neither aim to substitute to any airline
practice.
Airline Flight Operations staff members should define the different fuel factor(s)
based on an aircraft performance monitoring method. For routine aircraft
performance monitoring, the Specific Range method and the use of the APM
program will facilitate recurrent analysis.
Note: The AMM does not provide any procedure to change this factor.
Airline Flight Operations will trigger a change in fuel factor(s) and provide the
relevant figures to supervisory management and to operational teams:
- in charge of the flight planning system update (Flight Planning Office)
- in charge of updating of the FMS PERF FACTOR on board the aircraft
(Maintenance, Avionics…)
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LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
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APPENDICES
H. APPENDICES
This chapter gathers additional material dealing with aircraft performance
monitoring.
Appendix 1 : High Speed Performance Software
P134
Appendix 2 - Fuel-Used method
P138
Appendix 3 - Trip fuel burn-off method
P145
Appendix 4 - Airbus Service Information Letter 21-091
P147
Appendix 5 – AMM extracts
P154
Appendix 6 – Auditing aircraft performance in airline revenue service
P155
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APPENDICES
1. APPENDIX 1 : HIGH SPEED PERFORMANCE SOFTWARE
1.1. P.E.P for Windows
1.1.1. What is P.E.P. ?
The PEP for Windows working environment aims at providing the necessary tools
to handle the performance aspects of flight preparation, but also to monitor aircraft
performance after flight. It is dedicated to airlines’ Flight operations and design
offices. Based on the Microsoft Windows © operating system, the PEP for
Windows is a stand-alone application, which offers access to all the Airbus aircraft
performance computation programs in a user friendly and customizable
environment. In addition to an easy-to-use setup tool, useful tools like the “Airport
Manager”, the “Batch manager” and the “On-line Help” have been implemented
1.1.1.1. Objectives
In order to better understand the main objectives of the PEP for Windows working
environment we first need to recall that the previous working environment was
based on the DOS operating system. Each performance calculation program had
been developed separately from the others.
This is why the main objectives of this working environment are :
- To provide a working environment using the Microsoft Windows © operating
system for all Airbus performance computation programs.
- To harmonize layout and behavior of all program interfaces.
- To improve user-friendliness of these user interfaces.
- To develop and introduce new tools in order to ease the handling and
management of data.
- To improve access to Performance Programs documentation by the user
thanks to an On-line Help.
Some of these objectives have been achieved through one of the PEP version 1
(16-bit for transition) and others through the PEP version 2 (32-bit).
1.1.1.2. Scope
The PEP for Windows working environment is applicable to all Airbus Performance
Calculations.
Calculation programs plugged into the PEP for Windows structure provide “low
speed” and “high speed” performance for all A320 FAMILY, A300, A310, A330 and
A340 Airbus aircraft types.
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1.1.2. Performance Computation Programs
The PEP for Windows platform provides access to the following Airbus Aircraft
Performance Programs :
FM program: It is the computerized Flight Manual and it covers the TAB
program for A300-600, A310 and A320 (certified for A320 only) and the
certified part of the OCTOPUS program for A319, A321, A330 and
A340.
TLO program: It allows takeoff and landing optimization including
“Takeoff Charts” and it consists of TLC (or TCP program for A300), for
A310 and A320 and the former optimization part of the OCTOPUS
program for A319, A321, A330 and A340.
IFP program: It provides aircraft performance for “High Speed” flight
phases such as climb, cruise, descent, … and also includes a
consultation tool of aerodynamic and engine data. It is applicable to all
Airbus aircraft types.
OFP program: It is devoted to determining the aircraft trajectory (all
engine operating) and various configuration parameters for a user
defined flight path at takeoff or in approach (i.e. Low Speed phases). It
also computes trajectories (with cutbacks for example) for noise level
determination, which then becomes an input for the NLC program. It is
applicable for all Airbus aircraft types (but with possible production
delays for some of them).
APM program: It allows the user to compare and monitor the actual
aircraft In-flight performance level versus the theoretical baseline all
along the aircraft life for all Airbus aircraft types.
FLIP program: It is a Flight planning software, which can compute a
complete mission (standard, reclearance or ETOPS) for a given ground
distance and an average wind, including taxi, diversion to alternate,
route reserves, … , for all Airbus aircraft types.
NLC program: It has replaced the Noise Definition Manual (NDM) for
some aircraft types and can compute on ground and in flight noise level
for all Airbus aircraft types. The In-flight part of NLC uses flight paths
calculated with the OFP program at takeoff or in approach.
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APPENDICES
1.1.3. The IFP program
The In Flight Performance program is the first program for high
speed performance calculation within the PEP package.
This tool is an engineering oriented tool and as such it is to be used
within the frame of specific studies and various calculations
required by the day-to-day work of an operation engineer.
The main tasks in which the IFP program can assist the engineer are:
-
Computation of instantaneous or integrated performance data for a flight phase
Simulation of FMS computation
Extraction of aerodynamic characteristics and engine performance data for an
aircraft model
1.1.4. The APM program
For years, the business environment has been becoming more and
more challenging. Yields are dropping while competition is increasing.
Business traffic is volatile, aircraft operations are becoming more and
more expensive and the price of spare parts are escalating faster and
faster. Airlines have to face with new objectives to adapt to this
environment.
Fuel burn makes up for ten percent of the direct operating costs. Engine
maintenance makes up for another quarter. The operator's main concern is
therefore to have high quality information about the condition and the performance
of the aircraft whenever needed.
That’s why Airbus feels deeply involved in aircraft performance monitoring and as
a consequence has been proposing for years some tools for aircraft performance
monitoring as well as some guidelines for performing aircraft performance audits.
Airbus has developed one tool within its aircraft
performance
software
devoted
to
cruise
performance
analysis:
the
Airbus
Aircraft
Performance Monitoring program (APM).
1.1.5. The FLIP program
Flight Planning is one of the major tasks of a dispatcher. Two
essential aspects have to be examined when a new route is to be
opened: Feasibility and economics. Both involve an accurate and
representative estimation of the fuel burn that has to be expected
on the given route.
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Commercial flight planning providers like Jeppesen, SITA or Air Data provide
accurate routing information taking into account actual weather conditions, but
these systems work with pre-calculated aircraft performance data.
For some critical routes, this level of precision may not be high enough to allow for
a financially sound operation. This is why Airbus provides the ability for the
operator to validate the fuel burn predicted by such commercial flight plans with its
own software, the FLIP.
1.2. SCAP Programs and Unix Versions
Airbus Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance Department
regularly participates to the IATA SCAP (Standard Computerized
Aircraft Performance) meetings with other manufacturers and airlines
representative.
In accordance with the “Standard definition” agreed by all participants
to these meetings, Airbus provides Airlines Flight Operations with
“SCAP compliant” computation programs written in FORTRAN 77.
These calculation programs are called “SCAP programs”. Subsequently, each
operator, has to write its own calling program, which defines each input parameter,
calls the calculation sub-routine and recovers the output parameters.
The available “SCAP Programs” are:
- SCAP TAKEOFF (OCTOPUS-SCAP-TAKEOFF or ATAM for takeoff
performance optimization),
- SCAP LANDING (OCTOPUS-SCAP-LANDING or ALAM for landing
performance optimization),
- SCAP CLIMB-OUT (for takeoff or approach trajectories computation),
- SCAP IFP (for in-flight performance computation),
- SCAP APM (for aircraft performance monitoring).
The SCAP programs are not embodied in the PEP for Windows environment, but
are available upon request from operators receiving the PEP for Windows product.
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2. APPENDIX 2 - FUEL-USED METHOD
2.1. General Principle
The basis of the Fuel Used method is to measure the fuel burnt by the aircraft in
level flight and to compare it to the fuel burn prediction of the IFP for the given
flight conditions and time span.
The Fuel Used (FU) analysis is conducted under normal flying conditions and does
not require stabilized conditions. It is less restrictive then the Specific Range (SR)
analysis in terms of stability and data acquisition requirements, the autothrottle
being allowed to remain selected.
As an alternative method, it is sufficient to check or prove the accuracy or
confidence level of the applied flight planning method since it accounts for all
operational factors such a ATS on, CG movements, aircraft maneuvering, flight
path and vertical accelerations, weather influences, etc. The FU method is used as
a complement so as to account for changing external or flight conditions. It is also
used whenever the stabilization criteria required for the SR method cannot be met
(e.g. short legs, turbulence areas…).
Indeed, the SR method is based on a short time span measurement that needs to
satisfy stringent criteria, the FU method relies an a long time span measurement
(not shorter than 30 minutes) that is very flexible in terms of data acquisition
requirements. Although it is more easily integrated into daily cockpit recording, the
efficiency of this method is not very high. Due to the relatively long time intervals
(around 40 minutes) the relevant parameters change significantly and require
careful integration (averaging) time to avoid misleading conclusions. Conclusions
of the FU method are only suited to operationally oriented departments as
technical engineering departments. Do not attempt to obtain the diagnostic
information potentially available from the SR method trends.
Fuel consumption is determined by subtracting fuel used indications at time over
station (from switchover on FMS and RMI bearings). Time between stations ∆T is
determined from a personal stopwatch chronometer.
At high drift angles (> 5 degrees) the wind triangle equations must be taken into
account to correctly calculate TAS, GS and longitudinal wind component.
The FU method is operationally attractive but can only be accomplished if
conditions and procedures specified above are strictly and precisely adhered to.
This makes this improved version of the FU method cumbersome to apply,
although it is easy to integrate into normal aircraft operating procedures.
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2.2. Measurement procedures and precautions
The next page figure shows a sample recording form for handwritten observations.
-
2.2.1. Prior to take-off
Calculate fuel on board at MES by taking remaining fuel + truck uplift
(measured at truck) accounting for actual fuel density.
Determine ZFW and take-off CG
Note APU running time since MES
Compute APU fuel consumption to amend FU
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2.2.2. In flight
•
•
•
Verify aircraft to be flying level in cruise for at least 40 minutes
Perform fuel balancing if tank balance exists
Establish nominal aircraft configuration for the cruise segment where measurements
will be taken, i.e. :
- Autothrottle:
- Autopilot:
- Air conditioning:
- Anti-icing:
- Trimming:
ON
As required e.g. ALT HLD / HDG / NAV
or ALT HLD / NAV
or PROF / NAV
NORM
OFF
ZCW on A310 / A300-600
•
Whenever possible, the analysis will be conducted on selected data frames, meeting
the following stability criteria:
∆Zp
< 50 feet/ 30 minutes
∆SAT < 5°C / 30 minutes
∆GS < 10 kts / 30 minutes
∆TAS < 10 kts / 30 minutes
•
•
Note the accurate values of fuel used engine 1 & 2 (FU1 & FU2) at initial time
Record data for at least 30 minutes, if conditions permit, from start of period every 5
minutes until the end, using adjacent fuel-used recording form:
- UTC, latitude or station
- CG,
- FU1 / FU2
- Total fuel on board (FQI)
- altitude (Zp) – (channel 1 and 2)
- Mach – (channel 1 and 2)
- SAT / TAT
•
•
•
•
•
- Track / course
- Wind speed / direction
- Heading and drift
- TAS / Ground Speed
- N11 / N12 (EPR1 / EPR2) (engine 1 & 2)
- FF1 / FF2 (engine 1 & 2)
Note the accurate values of fuel used engine 1 & 2 (FU1 & FU2) at initial time
Note also latitude or station approaching, drift, heading, wind velocity / direction, track
/ course for calculation of effects mentioned in section 3.
Do not forget to consult weather charts (forecasts and actual) to confirm pressure
patterns
On A310/A300-600, do not omit to mention TCCS / ARCCS on or off
Do not omit to note tail number, date flight sector for referencing
2.3. Data analysis procedure
Based on the flight data over the recorded time span, the following parameters will be
calculated:
−
−
−
−
Time span (∆T) = UTCStop – UTCStart
Gross weight at start
Average altitude (Zp)
Average Mach number (M)
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APPENDICES
−
−
−
Average TAT/SAT
Fuel used = (fuel used at end – fuel used at start) or (FQI start – FQI end)
Aircraft CG (based on takeoff CG and fuel burn schedule (if not mentioned).
The IFP is then used to compute the predicted fuel used for the aircraft flying at the
average recorded flight conditions, over a time span equal to ∆t and starting at a weight
equal to GW start. The ratio of measured and predicted fuel used will provide the level of
performance relative to the published model. The following schematic shows the
procedure flow:
2.3.1. Notes
1) Selection of several 40-minutes samples from the recorded data allows a mean value
to be obtained and measurement scatter to be evaluated, which is indicative of flight
stability and smoothness.
2) The improved FU method (whose principle is explained in paragraph 2.2.1) gives
refined results and allows very precise measurements.
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3. APPENDIX 3 - TRIP FUEL BURN-OFF METHOD
This method compounds genuine performance (engine/airframe, instrument
accuracy) with apparent performance deviations caused by differences between
the actual flight profile (and conditions) and the IFP – predicted flight profile (and
conditions) such as:
-
Wind and SAT profile predictions,
Flight profile (Climb profile, Top of Climb, Cruise Mach, Step Climbs, Top of
Descent, Descent profile, Holding) predictions.
Fuel burn-off predictions (model, performance factor, LHV)
Operational factors (e.g. center of gravity position, air conditioning mode,
aircraft weight, aircraft trimming).
Environmental factors (e.g. coriolis-Effect, local gravity, centrifugal effect,
isobaric slopes caused by pressure and temperature gradients).
As in the FU-method all flight parameters are averaged over time segments to
allow a numeric approximation per flight phase prior to input into the flight plan
recalculation.
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4. APPENDIX 4 - AIRBUS SERVICE INFORMATION LETTER 21-091
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5. APPENDIX 5 - AMM EXTRACTS - CRUISE PERFORMANCE
REPORT <02> DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
The following pages show an example of technical description for the DMU/FDIMU
cruise performance report. The following was extracted from a documentation for
an A320 aircraft fitted with an IAE engine.
As a reminder, this file may be used as the primary source of information for
routine performance monitoring.
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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code|Item |
|Progr.|Standard |
| No.|No.
|
Description of Function Item
|MCDU |Value or |
|
|
|
|GSE
|Table TXY|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| AI = Programmable by Airbus Industrie
|
| C
= Programmable by Customer
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
L. Cruise Performance Report <02>
(Ref. Fig. 012)
The cruise performance report is a collection of aircraft and engine
information averaged over a period of time in which both the engine and
the aircraft met the appropriate stability criteria. The cruise
performance report is generated when one of the logic conditions 1000 to
5000 (for details see cruise performance report logic) is present.
(1) Cruise Performance Report Data Field Description (Engine Type IAE)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| TAT/ALT/CAS/|
In the report line CE is the averange value for
|
| MN/GW/CG
|
F02 * 20 sec. of System 1 parameters printed.
|
|
|
|
|
|
In the report line CN is the averange value for
|
|
|
F02 * 20 sec. of System 2 parameters printed.
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ESN
|
Engine Serial Number
|
| 999999
|
(000000 to 999999)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.046.01 digit 3, 2, 1
|
|
|
7C.1.047.01 digit 6, 5, 4
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.046.01 digit 3, 2, 1
|
|
|
7C.2.047.01 digit 6, 5, 4
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EHRS
|
Engine Flight Hours
|
| 99999
|
(00000 to 99999 hours)
|
|
|
DMU Engine 1 and Engine 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ECYC
|
Engine Cycle
|
| 99999
|
(00000 to 99999)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| AP
|
Auto Pilot Status
|
| 99
|
(00 to G8)
|
|
|
FMGC 1 and 2 (FGC part) for Auto Pilot AP1 and AP2 |
|
|
|
&23<
ABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBC
31-36-00
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D
&23<31-36-00
Cruise Performance Report <02>
(Engine Type IAE)
Figure 012
ABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBC
D
D
D
D
Config-2 Aug 01/02
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|
|
XX Auto Pilot Modes:
|
|
|
||
|
|
|
||__Lateral Modes: 0 = NO MODE
|
|
|
|
1 = HEADING
|
|
|
|
2 = TRACK
|
|
|
|
3 = NAV
|
|
|
|
4 = LOC CAPTURE
|
|
|
|
5 = LOC TRACK
|
|
|
|
6 = LAND TRACK
|
|
|
|
7 = RUNWAY
|
|
|
|
8 = ROLL GO AROUND
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|__Longitudinal Modes: 0 = NO MODE
|
|
|
1 = PITCH G/A
|
|
|
2 = PITCH T/O
|
|
|
3 = G/S TRACK
|
|
|
4 = G/S CAPTURE
|
|
|
5 = V/S
|
|
|
6 = FPA
|
|
|
7 = ALT
|
|
|
8 = ALT ACQ
|
|
|
9 = OPEN CLB
|
|
|
A = OPEN DES
|
|
|
B = IM CLB
|
|
|
C = IM DES
|
|
|
D = CLB
|
|
|
E = DES
|
|
|
F = FINAL DES
|
|
|
G = EXPEDITE
|
|
|
|
|
| AP1
| AP2
|
|
| Report Line EC:
| Report Line EE:
|Difinition: |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
|
/
|
/
|No Mode Act. |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.11 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.11 = 1|RUNWAY Mode |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.12 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.12 = 1|NAV Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.13 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.13 = 1|LOC CAPTURE |
|
|
|
|Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.14 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.14 = 1|LOC TRACK
|
|
|
|
|Mode
|
&23<
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.15 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.15 = 1|Roll GO
|
|
|
|
|AROUND Mode |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.16 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.16 = 1|HEADING Mode |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.275.00.17 = 1 | 01.2.275.00.17 = 1|TRACK Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.15 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.15 = 1|PITCH TO Mode|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.16 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.16 = 1|PITCH GA Mode|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.17 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.17 = 1|V/S Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.18 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.18 = 1|FPA Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|-------------|
|
| 01.1.274.00.19 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.19 = 1|ALT Mode
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.20 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.20 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.19 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.19 = 1|ALT ACQ
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.21 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.21 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.20 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.20 = 1|G/S TRACK
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.22 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.22 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.21 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.21 = 1|G/S CAPTURE |
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.22 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.22 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.23 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.23 = 1|FINAL DES
|
|
|
|
|Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.2.274.00.24 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.24 = 1|EXPED. Mode |
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.146.00.14 = 1 | 01.2.146.00.14 = 1|LAND TRACK
|
|
|
|
|Mode
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.11 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.11 = 1|CLB Mode
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.13 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.13 = 0|
|
|
|
OR
|
OR
|
|
&23<
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D
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|
| 01.1.274.00.14 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.14 = 0|
|
|
|
OR
|
OR
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.24 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.24 = 0|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.12 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.12 = 1|DES Mode
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.13 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.13 = 0|
|
|
|
OR
|
OR
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.14 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.14 = 0|
|
|
|
OR
|
OR
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.24 = 0 | 01.2.274.00.24 = 0|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.11 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.11 = 1|IM. CLIMB
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.13 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.13 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.12 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.12 = 1|IM. DES Mode |
|
|
AND
|
AND
|
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.13 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.13 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.11 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.11 = 1|OPEN CLB
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.14 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.14 = 1|
|
|
| -------------------|-------------------|------------ |
|
| 01.1.274.00.12 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.12 = 1|OPEN DES
|
|
|
AND
|
AND
|Mode
|
|
| 01.1.274.00.14 = 1 | 01.2.274.00.14 = 1|
|
|
| ---------------------------------------------------- |
|
| Auto Pilot Status DMU:
|
|
| AP1 printed in report line EC
|
|
| AP2 printed in report line EE
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| QA
|
Aircraft Quality Number, Report Stability
|
| 99
|
(00 to 99)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| QE
|
Engine Quality Number, Report Stability
|
| 99
|
(00 to 99)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EPR
|
EPR Actual
|
| 9999
|
(0.6 to 1.8)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.340.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.340.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EPRC
|
EPR Command
|
&23<
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| 9999
|
(0.6 to 1.8)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.341.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.341.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EGT
|
Selected T495 (Exhaust Gas Temperature)
|
| X999
|
(-80 to 999.9 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.345.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.345.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| N1
|
Selected N1 Actual
|
| 9999
|
(0 to 120.0 %rpm)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.346.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.346.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| N2
|
Selected N2 Actual
|
| 9999
|
(0 to 120.0 %rpm)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.344.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.344.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| FF
|
Engine Fuel Flow
|
| 9999
|
( 0 to 8500 kg/h)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.244.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.244.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| P125
|
PS125 Static Air Pressure at Position 12.5
|
| 99999
|
(0.0 to 30.000 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.257.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.257.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| P25
|
Total Air Pressure at Position 2.5
|
| 99999
|
(0.0 to 30.000 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.262.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.262.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| T25
|
Selected T25
|
| X999
|
(-30.0 to 300.0 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.263.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.263.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| P3
|
Selected PS3
|
| 9999
|
(0.0 to 550.0 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.264.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.264.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
&23<
ABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBC
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
D
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| T3
|
Temperature at Position 3
|
| X999
|
(-89.0 to 700.0 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.265.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.265.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| P49
|
Pressure on position 4.9
|
| 99999
|
(1 to 25 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.132.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.132.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| SVA
|
Stator Vane Actuator Feedback
|
| 999
|
(0 to 100 %)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.325.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.325.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| BAF
|
2.5 bleed Actuator Feedback
|
| 999
|
(0 to 100 %)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.335.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.335.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ACC
|
Active Clearance Control Feedback
|
| 999
|
(0 to 100 %)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.330.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.330.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| LP
|
LPT ACC Solenoid Position
|
| 01
|
Bit status 1 = closed
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.271.01.17
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.271.10.17
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| GLE
|
Engine Generator Load
|
| 999
|
(0 to 100 %)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 29.1.077.01
|
|
|
29.2.077.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 29.1.077.10
|
|
|
29.2.077.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| PD
|
Precooler Inlet Pressure
|
| 99
|
(0 to 50 psi)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 06F.1.143.01
|
|
|
06F.1.143.10
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 06F.2.142.10
|
|
|
06F.2.142.01
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| TN
|
Nacelle Temperature
|
| X99
|
(-55 to 300 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 26.1.322.01
|
|
|
26.2.322.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 26.1.322.10
|
|
|
26.2.322.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| P2
|
Total Air Pressure at Position 2
|
| 99999
|
(0.0 to 25.000 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.131.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.131.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| T2
|
T2 Temperature
|
| X999
|
(-80 to 90.0 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.130.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.130.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ECW1
|
Engine Control Word 1
|
| XXXXX
|
Each NXN represents 4 Bits in hexadecimal code of |
|
|
a defined ARINC 429 word:
|
|
|
XXXXX
Bits
HEX
|
|
|
|||||___________ 14, 13, 12, 11
0...F
|
|
|
||||____________ 18, 17, 16, 15
0...F
|
|
|
|||_____________ 22, 21, 20, 19
0...F
|
|
|
||______________ 26, 25, 24, 23
0...F
|
|
|
|_______________
29, 28, 27
0...7
|
|
|
-------------------------------------------|
|
|
Bit Label
Parameter Description
|
|
|
11 7C.X.270.XX.17 = 1
Manual Thrust Mode Active |
|
|
12 7C.X.270.XX.18 = 1
N1 Rated Mode Engaged
|
|
|
13 7C.X.270.XX.20 = 1
Auto Thrust Mode Actuvated|
|
|
14 7C.X.270.XX.21 = 1
2.5 Bleed Failed
|
|
|
15 7C.X.270.XX.23 = 1
Autothrust TLA Limited
|
|
|
16 SPARE
|
|
|
17 SPARE
|
|
|
18 7C.X.270.XX.27 = 1
SVA Failed
|
|
|
19 7C.X.271.XX.16 = 1
FDV Off
|
|
|
20 SPARE
|
|
|
21 7C.X.271.XX.19 = 1
7th Bleed #1 Solenoid
|
|
|
Closed (4020KS3)
|
|
|
22 7C.X.271.XX.20 = 1
7th Bleed #2 Solenoid
|
|
|
Closed (4020KS1)
|
|
|
23 7C.X.271.XX.21 = 1
10th Bleed Solenoid
|
|
|
Closed
|
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D
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|
|
24 7C.X.271.XX.28 = 1
P2/T2 Probe Heater Relay |
|
|
On
|
|
|
25 7C.X.351.XX.14 = 1
Left ADC Link Failed
|
|
|
26 7C.X.351.XX.15 = 1
Right ADC Link Failed
|
|
|
27 SPARE
|
|
|
28 SPARE
|
|
|
29 SPARE
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ECW2
|
Engine Control Word 2
|
| XXXXX
|
Each NXN represents 4 Bits in hexadecimal code of |
|
|
a defined ARINC 429 word:
|
|
|
XXXXX
Bits
HEX
|
|
|
|||||___________ 14, 13, 12, 11
0...F
|
|
|
||||____________ 18, 17, 16, 15
0...F
|
|
|
|||_____________ 22, 21, 20, 19
0...F
|
|
|
||______________ 26, 25, 24, 23
0...F
|
|
|
|_______________
29, 28, 27
0...7
|
|
|
-------------------------------------------|
|
|
Bit Label
Parameter Description
|
|
|
11 7C.X.272.XX.22 = 1
Bleed Config. K1 Selected |
|
|
12 7C.X.272.XX.23 = 1
Bleed Config. K2 Selected |
|
|
13 7C.X.272.XX.24 = 1
Bleed Config. K3 Selected |
|
|
14 7C.X.272.XX.25 = 1
Bleed Config. K4 Selected |
|
|
15 7C.X.272.XX.26 = 1
Bleed Config. K5 Selected |
|
|
16 7C.X.272.XX.27 = 1
Bleed Config. K6 Selected |
|
|
17 7C.X.272.XX.28 = 1
Bleed Config. Data Failed |
|
|
18 SPARE
|
|
|
19 7C.X.272.XX.19 = 1
Bump Mode is selected
|
|
|
20 7C.X.272.XX.20 = 1
Bump Mode is selected
|
|
|
21 7C.X.272.XX.21 = 1
Bump Mode is selected
|
|
|
22 SPARE
|
|
|
23 SPARE
|
|
|
24 SPARE
|
|
|
25 SPARE
|
|
|
26 SPARE
|
|
|
27 SPARE
|
|
|
28 SPARE
|
|
|
29 SPARE
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EVM
|
Engine Vibration Status Word
|
| XXXXX
|
Eng 1 param. 3D.1.035.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 3D.1.035.10
|
|
|
Each NXN represents 4 Bits in hexadecimal code of |
|
|
a defined ARINC 429 word:
|
&23<
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31-36-00
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
D
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|
|
XXXXX
Bits
HEX
|
|
|
|||||___________ 14, 13, 12, 11
0...F
|
|
|
||||____________ 18, 17, 16, 15
0...F
|
|
|
|||_____________ 22, 21, 20, 19
0...F
|
|
|
||______________ 26, 25, 24, 23
0...F
|
|
|
|_______________
29, 28, 27
0...7
|
|
|
-------------------------------------------|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| OIP
|
Engine Oil Pressure
|
| 999
|
(0 to 400 psia)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 26.1.317.01
|
|
|
26.2.317.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 26.1.317.10
|
|
|
26.2.317.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| OIT
|
Engine Oil Temperature
|
| X99
|
(-60 to 250 C)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 26.1.316.01
|
|
|
26.2.316.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 26.1.316.10
|
|
|
26.2.316.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| OIQH
|
Oil Consumption from the previous flight
|
| X999
|
(-9.99 to 20.00 qts/h)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| VB1
|
N1 Vibration
|
| 999
|
(0 to 10.0)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 3D.1.135.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 3D.1.135.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| VB2
|
N2 Vibration
|
| 999
|
(0 to 10.0)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 3D.1.136.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 3D.1.136.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| PHA
|
FAN Pick Up Phase Angle
|
| 999
|
(0 to 360 deg)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 3D.1.226.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 3D.1.226.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| WFQ
|
Fuel Quantity Inner Cell
|
| 99999
|
(0 to 99999 kg)
|
|
|
param. 5A.2.257.10 Left Inner Cell
|
|
|
param. 5A.2.261.19 Right Inner Cell
|
&23<
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
D
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ELEV
|
Elevator Position
|
| X999
|
(-30 to 15 deg)
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.314.01 Left Elevator Position
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.314.10
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.334.01 Right Elevator Position
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.334.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| AOA
|
Corrected Angle of Attack
|
| X999
|
(-30 to 85 deg)
|
|
|
param. 06.1.241.01 AOA System 1
|
|
|
param. 06.2.241.10 AOA System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| SLP
|
Side Slip Angle
|
| X999
|
(-32.0 to 32.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 0A.1.226.00 System 1
|
|
|
param. 0A.2.226.00 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| CFPG
|
Side Slip Angle
|
| X9999
|
(-0.9999 to 4.0000 g)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| CIVV
|
Calculated Inertial Vertical Speed
|
| X999
|
(-999 to 999 ft/min)
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RUDD
|
Rudder Position
|
| X999
|
(-30.0 to 30.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 29.1.312.00
|
|
|
param. 29.2.312.00
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RUDD
|
Rudder Trim Position
|
| X999
|
(-25.0 to 25.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 0A.1.313.00
|
|
|
param. 0A.2.313.00
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| AILL
|
Left Aileron Position
|
| X999
|
(-25.0 to 25.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.310.01
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.310.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| AILR
|
Right Aileron Position
|
| X999
|
(-25.0 to 25.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.330.01
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.330.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| STAB
|
Stabilizer Position #1
|
| X999
|
(-13.5 to 4.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.315.01
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.315.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ROLL
|
Roll Angle
|
| X999
|
(-90.0 to 90.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.325.01
|
|
|
param. 04.2.325.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| YAW
|
Body Axis Yaw Rate
|
| X999
|
(-45.0 to 45.0 deg/sec)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.330.01
|
|
|
param. 04.2.330.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RSP2
|
Roll Spoiler 2 Position
|
| X999
|
(-45.0 to 0 deg )
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.362.01 Left Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.362.10
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.372.01 Right Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.372.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RSP3
|
Roll Spoiler 3 Position
|
| X999
|
(-45.0 to 0 deg )
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.363.01 Left Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.363.10
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.373.01 Right Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.373.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RSP4
|
Roll Spoiler 4 Position
|
| X999
|
(-45.0 to 0 deg )
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.364.01 Left Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.364.10
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.374.01 Right Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.374.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| RSP5
|
Roll Spoiler 5 Position
|
| X999
|
(-45.0 to 0 deg )
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.365.01 Left Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.365.10
|
|
|
param. 6C.1.375.01 Right Spoiler
|
|
|
param. 6C.2.375.10
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| FLAP
|
Flap Actual Position
|
&23<
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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| X999
|
(-9.0 to 40.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 1B.1.137.01 System 1
|
|
|
param. 1B.2.137.10 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| SLAT
|
Slat Actual Position
|
| X999
|
(-9.0 to 27.0 deg)
|
|
|
param. 1B.1.127.01 System 1
|
|
|
param. 1B.2.127.10 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| THDG
|
True Heading (BCD)
|
| X9999
|
(0 to 359.9 deg)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.044.01 System 1
|
|
|
param. 04.2.044.10 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| LONP
|
Longitude Position
|
| X9999
|
(East 179.9 deg to West 179.9 deg)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.311.XX System 1
|
|
|
param. 04.2.311.XX System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| LATP
|
Latitude Position
|
| X9999
|
(North 89.9 to South 89.9 deg)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.310.XX System 1
|
|
|
param. 04.2.310.XX System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| WS
|
Wind Speed
|
| 999
|
(0 to 100 kts)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.315.01 System 1
|
|
|
param. 04.2.315.10 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| WD
|
WIND Direction - True
|
| 999
|
(0 to 359 deg)
|
|
|
param. 04.1.316.01 System 1
|
|
|
param. 04.2.316.10 System 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| FT
|
Fuel Temperature
|
| X999
|
(-60.0 to 170.0 C)
|
|
|
param. 5A.2.177.10 Fuel Temp. Left Wing Tank
|
|
|
param. 5A.2.201.10 Fuel Temp. Right Wing Tank
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| FD
|
Fuel Temperature
|
| 0999
|
(0 to 0.999 kg/l)
|
|
|
param. 5A.2.272.10
|
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
&23<
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Config-2 Aug 01/02
D
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(2) Cruise Performance Report Logic (Engine Type IAE)
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code|Item |
|Progr.|Standard |
| No.|No.
|
Description of Function Item
|MCDU |Value or |
|
|
|
|GSE
|Table TXY|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|
|A
| Report Format
|
|
|
|
|B
| Parameter Table
|
|
|
|
|C
| First three lines of Report
| C
| Blank
|
|
|D
| Print Out Rules
| C
| 2
|
|
|E
| Transfer to ACARS MU
| C
| No
|
|
|F
| Increment of the report counter if the | C
| 1
|
|
|
| report was triggered by a code number
|
|
|
|
|
| > 1000; 1=yes, 0=no
|
|
|
|
|G
| Averange intervales in seconds
| AI
| 20
|
|
|H
| Overall Average of NF02N averages
| AI
| 5
|
|
|I
| OIQ values taken from Ntaxi outN used
|
|
|
|
|
| for QIQH calculation the same program- |
|
|
|
|
| ming as for Report <01> is apply.
|
|
|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|1000|1
| Manual selection via MCDU
|
|
|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|2000|2
| Flight phase dependent manual
|
|
|
|
|
| selection via remote print button
|
|
|
|
|
| if programmed.
|
|
|
|
|2.1
| Logic algorithm
|
|
|
|
|2.2
| Remote Print Button assignment
| C
| not
|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|3000|3
| Programmable Start Logic
|
|
|
|
|3.1
| Logic algorithm
| C
|
|
|
|3.2
| Trigger condition
| C
| not
|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|5000|
| The DMU generates the Cruise Performance|
|
|
|
|
| Report based on NFlight HoursN or
|
|
|
|
|
| NFlight LegsN programmable via GSE.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| Logic based on Flight Hours:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| During a time frame of NY02.1N flight
|
|
|
|
|
| hours the DMU search in flight phase 6 |
|
|
|
|
| for report generation with stable frame |
|
|
|
|
| criteria where the best aircraft quality|
|
|
|
|
| number QA is calculated. The report with|
|
|
|
|
| the best quality number QA is stored in |
|
|
|
|
| the report buffer:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code|Item |
|Progr.|Standard |
| No.|No.
|
Description of Function Item
|MCDU |Value or |
|
|
|
|GSE
|Table TXY|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|
|
| Logic based on Flight Legs:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| Every NY02.2N flight legs the DMU search|
|
|
|
|
| in flight phase 6 for report generation |
|
|
|
|
| with stable frame criteria where the
|
|
|
|
|
| best aircraft quality number QA is cal- |
|
|
|
|
| culated. The report with the best quali-|
|
|
|
|
| ty number QA is stored in the report
|
|
|
|
|
| buffer.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5
| The default programming is NFlight LegsN| C
| Legs
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.1
| Logic algorithm
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.2
| NY02.1N flight hours
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.3
| NY02.2N flight legs
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.4
| NPO2N stable periods
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
| (5 subperiods = 100 sec)
|
|
|
|
|5.5
| 78% < ACC < 100%
|
|
|
|
|
|
param. 7C.1.330.01
Eng.1
|
|
|
|
|
|
param. 7C.2.330.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| Stable frame conditions:
|
|
|
|
|
| During NP02N seconds the following
|
|
|
|
|
| parameters are stable as defined below: |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| The stable frame variation is customer |
|
|
|
|
| programmable, but only in the range
|
|
|
|
|
| defined in the column for standard
|
|
|
|
|
| values.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.6
| IALT
04.1.361.-ft
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
04.2.361.-|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.6.1 | WA of IALT
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.7
| GS
04.1.312.01
kts
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
04.2.312.10
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.7.1 | WA of GS
| C
| T24/T25 |
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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code|Item |
|Progr.|Standard |
| No.|No.
|
Description of Function Item
|MCDU |Value or |
|
|
|
|GSE
|Table TXY|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.8
| ROLL ANGLE
04.1.325.01
degr.
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
04.2.325.10
|
|
|
|
|5.8.1 | WA of ROLL ANGLE
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.9
| TAT
06.1.211.01
C
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
06.2.211.10
|
|
|
|
|5.9.1 | WA of TAT
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.10 | N2
7C.1.344.01
Eng.1 %
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.344.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|5.10.1| WA of N2
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.11 | EGT
7C.1.345.01
Eng.1 C
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.345.10
Eng 2
|
|
|
|
|5.11.1| WA of EGT
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.12 | VACC
04.1.364.01
g
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
04.2.364.10
|
|
|
|
|5.12.1| WA of VACC
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.13 | MN
06.1.205.01
Mach
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
06.2.205.10
|
|
|
|
|5.13.1| WA of MN
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.14 | N1
7C.1.346.01
Eng.1 %
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.346.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|5.14.1| WA of N1
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.15 | PT2
7C.1.131.91
Eng.1 psia | AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.131.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|5.15.1| WA of PT2
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.16 | FF
7C.1.244.01
Eng.1 kg/h | AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.244.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|5.16.1| WA of FF
| C
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|5.17 | EPR
7C.1.340.01
Eng.1 %
| AI
| T24/T25 |
|
|
|
7C.2.340.10
Eng.2
|
|
|
|
|5.17.1| WA of EPR
| C
| T24/T25 |
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|8100|8.1
| ACARS MU uplink request with IMI NREQ02N|
|
|
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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code|Item |
|Progr.|Standard |
| No.|No.
|
Description of Function Item
|MCDU |Value or |
|
|
|
|GSE
|Table TXY|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|
|
| The report <02> is immediately generated|
|
|
|
|
| and transmitted to the ACARS MU.
|
|
|
|----|------|-----------------------------------------|------|---------|
|8200|8.2
| ACARS MU uplink request with IMI NG02N |
|
|
|
|
| The report <02> is generated as soon as |
|
|
|
|
| stable frame criteria are met, i.e. the |
|
|
|
|
| DMU is immediately start searching for |
|
|
|
|
| stable frame criteria independing from |
|
|
|
|
| any other logic.
|
|
|
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| AI = Programmable by Airbus Industrie
|
| C
= Programmable by Customer
|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
M. Engine Take-Off Report <04>
(Ref. Fig. 013, 014)
The Engine Take-Off Report is an average data collection of aircraft and
engine around the point of peak N1 while in take-off flight phase.
The engine take-off report, is generated when one of the logic conditions
1000 to 5009 (for details see engine take-off report logic) is present.
Each Take-Off Report is contain a T/O delta N1 respective EPR summary.
(1) Engine Take-Off Report Data Field Description (Engine Type IAE)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Value
|
Content Description
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ESN
|
Engine Serial Number
|
| 999999
|
(000000 to 999999)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.046.01 digit 3, 2, 1
|
|
|
7C.1.047.01 digit 6, 5, 4
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.046.01 digit 3, 2, 1
|
|
|
7C.2.047.01 digit 6, 5, 4
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| EHRS
|
Engine Flight Hours
|
| 99999
|
(00000 to 99999 hours)
|
|
|
DMU Engine 1 and Engine 2
|
|--------------|------------------------------------------------------|
| ERT
|
Engine Running Time
|
| 99999
|
(00000 to 65536 hours)
|
|
|
Eng 1 param. 7C.1.050.01
|
|
|
Eng 2 param. 7C.2.050.10
|
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APPENDICES
6. APPENDIX 6 - AUDITING AIRCRAFT CRUISE PERFORMANCE IN
AIRLINE REVENUE SERVICE
The following pages are a copy of the article that was distributed during the 7th
Performance and Operations Conference held at Cancun, Mexico in year 1992.
This brochure is based upon the leading article “Auditing aircraft cruise
performance in airline revenue service” presented by Mr. J.J. SPEYER, which was
used as reference material.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
171
APPENDICES
LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
230
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
GLOSSARY
I.
GLOSSARY
Greek letters
α
γ
δ
∆
φ
θ
ρ
ρ0
σ
( alpha )
( gamma )
( delta )
( DELTA )
( phi )
( theta )
( rho )
( rho zero )
( sigma )
Angle of attack
Climb or descent angle
Pressure ratio = P / P0
Parameters’ variation (ex : ∆ISA, ∆P)
Bank angle
Aircraft attitude
Air density
Air density at Mean Sea Level
Air density ratio = ρ / ρ0
A
ACARS
ADIRS
ADIRU
AFM
AIDS
ALD
AMC
AMJ
AOM
APM
APU
Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System
Air Data / Inertial Reference System
Air Data/Inertial Reference Unit
Aircraft Flight Manual
Aircraft Integrated Display System
Actual Landing Distance
Acceptable Means of Compliance (JAA)
Advisory Material Joint (JAA)
Airline Operation Manual
Aircraft Performance Monitoring (program)
Auxiliary Power Unit
ARMS
ATC
ATSU
Aircraft Recording and Monitoring System
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Service Unit
B
BITE
Built In-Test Equipment
C
CFDIU
Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit
CFDS
CAS
CG
CI
Centralized Fault Display System
Calibrated Air Speed
Center of gravity
Cost Index
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
231
GLOSSARY
D
DA
DAR
Drift Angle
Digital AIDS/ACMS Recorder
DGAC
DITS
Optional recorder
Direction Générale de l’Aviation Civile
Digital Information Transfer System
DMU
DOC
DOW
Data Management Unit
Direct Operating Cost
Dry operating weight
E
ECON
EGT
EPR
ETOPS
Economic (minimum cost) speed
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Engine Pressure Ratio
Extended range with Twin engine aircraft OPerationS
F
f( )
FAA
FAC
FAR
FBW
FCOM
FDIU
Function of ( )
Federal Aviation Administration
Flight Augmentation Computer
Federal Aviation Regulation
Fly-By-Wire (aircraft)
Flight Crew Operating Manual
Flight Data Interface Unit
FDRS
Flight Data Reporting System
FF
FL
FLIP
FMGS
FOB
Mandatory parameters
Fuel Flow (hourly consumption)
Flight Level
Flight Planning (program)
Flight Management and Guidance System
Fuel On Board
FQI
Fuel Quantity Indicator
FWC
Flight Warning Computer
G
g
GAL
GDS
GS
232
Gravitational acceleration
US gallon
Green Dot speed
Ground Speed
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
GLOSSARY
H
hPa
hecto Pascal
I
IAS
ICAO
IFP
IFR
IL
IMC
in Hg
ISA
Indicated Air Speed
International Civil Aviation Organization
In Flight Performance (program)
Instrument Flight Rules
Information Leaflet (JAA)
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Inches of mercury
International Standard Atmosphere
J
JAA
JAR
Joint Aviation Authority
Joint Airworthiness Requirements
K
Ki
Instrumental correction (Antenna error)
L
LAT
LPC
LRC
Latitude
Less Paper Cockpit (program)
Long Range Cruise speed
M
MLR
MMR
MMO
MCDU
Mach of Long Range
Mach of Maximum Range
Maximum Operating Mach number
Multipurpose Control and Display Unit
MDDU
MCT
MEL
MES
MEW
MSL
MTOW
MTW
MZFW
Multipurpose Disk Drive Unit
Maximum Continuous Thrust
Minimum Equipment List
Main Engine Start
Manufacturer Empty Weight
Mean Sea Level
Maximum TakeOff Weight
Maximum Taxi Weight
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
233
GLOSSARY
N
n
nz
N1
NLC
NPA
NPRM
Load factor
Load factor component normal to the aircraft’s longitudinal
axis
Speed rotation of the fan
Noise Level Computation (program)
Notice for Proposed Amendment (JAA)
Notice for Proposed Rule Making (FAA)
O
OAT
OCTOPUS
OEW
OFP
Outside Air Temperature
Operational and Certified Takeoff and landing Universal
Software
Operational Empty Weight
Operational Flight Path (program)
P
P
P0
PEP
PFD
Pressure
Standard pressure at Mean Sea Level
Performance Engineering Programs
Primary Flight Display
Q
QAR
Quick Access Recorder
Optional equipment
S
SAR
Smart Access Recorder
SAT
SFC
SR
SSFDR
Internal DMU/FDIMU memory
Static Air Temperature
Specific Fuel Consumption
Specific Range
Solid State Flight Data Recorder
SSMM
STD
Solid State Mass Memory
Standard
234
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
GLOSSARY
T
T
T0
TISA
TREF
TAS
TAT
TLC
TLO
TOGA
TOW
Temperature
Standard temperature at Mean Seal Level
Standard temperature
Flat Rating Temperature
True Air Speed
Total Air Temperature
Takeoff and Landing Computation (program)
TakeOff and Landing Optimization (program)
TakeOff / Go-Around thrust
TakeOff Weight
V
V
VLS
VMO
VS
VS1G
VSR
VFR
VMC
Velocity
Lowest selectable speed
Maximum Operating speed
Stalling speed
Stalling speed at one g
Reference stalling speed
Visual Flight Rules
Visual Meteorological Conditions
W
W
Wa
WC
Weight
Apparent weight
Wind component
Z
ZFW
Zero Fuel Weight
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
235
GLOSSARY
LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
236
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
BIBLIOGRAPHY
J. BIBLIOGRAPHY
[J-1]
7th Performance and Operations Conference – “Auditing aircraft cruise
performance in airline revenue service”, Jean Jacques SPEYER, Airbus
Flight Operations & Line Assistance, STL. Leading article appended to this
brochure (Appendix 6).
[J-2]
Performance Programs Manual
[J-3]
“Getting hands-on-experience with aerodynamic deterioration” Airbus
brochure, reference STL 945.3399/96, October 2001, Issue 2.
Flight Operations & Line Assistance
Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance Monitoring
237
For any comment, suggestion, or enquiry concerning this brochure please contact
the Airbus Customer Services, Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
department (STL)
Fax: +33 561 93 29 68/44 65,
E-mail : account.fops@airbus.com
AIRBUS
31707 Blagnac Cedex
France
Ref.: STL 94B.0510/02
© Airbus 2002
All rights reserved.
The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the
assumptions shown and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds
for these statements is not shown, the Company will be pleased to explain the basis
thereof.
This document is the property of Airbus and is supplied on the express condition
that it is to be treated as confidential. No use or reproduction may be made thereof
other than that expressly authorized.
Flight Operations Support and Line Assistance
O
L
C K A R O
U
C
N
N
W
D
R L
A R
O
U
CE
AIRBUS
AIRBUS S.A.S.
31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX - FRANCE
CONCEPT DESIGN SCM12
REFERENCE SCM1-D388
DECEMBER 2002
PRINTED IN FRANCE
© AIRBUS S.A.S. 2002
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
AN EADS JOINT COMPANY
WITH BAE SYSTEMS
The statements made herein do not constitute an
offer. They are based on the assumptions shown
and are expressed in good faith. Where the
supporting grounds for these statements are not
shown, the Company will be pleased to explain
the basis thereof. This document is the property
of Airbus and is supplied on the express
condition that it is to be treated as confidential.
No use of reproduction may be made thereof
other than that expressely authorised.
Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
getting to grips with aircraft performance monitoring
VI
SC
USTOMER SER
S
O
BU
December 2002
D
T H E
T H E
D
A
IR
getting to grips with
aircraft performance
monitoring
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