N8974A Calibration Guide
Noise Figure Analyzers
NFA Series
Performance Verification and
Calibration Guide
The specifications in this manual are applicable to models having
Serial Prefix GB4446 and greater.
Manufacturing Part Number: N8973-90012
November 2004
© Copyright 2004 Agilent Technologies
Safety Notices
The information contained in this document is subject to change without
notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this
material, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual.
Familiarize yourself with the symbols and their meaning before
operating this instrument.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note until
the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until
the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
NOTE
Note calls out special information for the user’s attention. It provides
operational information or additional instructions of which the user
should be aware.
ii
General Safety Information
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in
this manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and
intended use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies assumes no
liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
DO NOT operate the product in an explosive atmosphere or in the
presence of flammable gasses or fumes.
DO NOT use repaired fuses or short-circuited fuseholders: For continued
protection against fire, replace the line fuse(s) only with fuse(s) of the
same voltage and current rating and type. Disconnect product from
mains supply voltage before replacing fuse.
DO NOT perform procedures involving cover or shield removal unless
you are qualified to do so: Operating personnel must not remove
equipment covers or shields. Procedures involving the removal of covers
and shields are for use by service-trained personnel only.
DO NOT service or adjust alone: Under certain conditions, dangerous
voltages may exist even with the equipment switched off. To avoid
dangerous electrical shock, service personnel must not attempt internal
service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first
aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT operate damaged equipment: Whenever it is possible that the
safety protection features built into this product have been impaired,
either through physical damage, excessive moisture, or any other reason,
REMOVE POWER and do not use the product until safe operation can be
verified by service-trained personnel. If necessary, return the product to
an Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office for service and repair to
ensure the safety features are maintained.
DO NOT substitute parts or modify equipment: Because of the danger of
introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform
any unauthorized modification to the product. Return the product to an
Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office for service and repair to
ensure the safety features are maintained.
iii
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains
plug shall only be inserted in a socket outlet provided with a
protected earth contact. Any interruption of the protective
conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided
by the equipment could be impaired. This product must be used
in a normal condition (in which all means for protection are
intact) only.
Safety Symbols
The following symbols on the instrument and in the manual indicate
precautions which must be taken to maintain safe operation of the
instrument.
The Instruction Documentation Symbol. The product is
marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the
user to refer to the instructions in the supplied
documentation.
This symbol indicates that the input power required is
Alternating current (AC).
This symbol indicates the position of the operating
switch for ‘On’ mode
This symbol indicates the position of the operating
switch for ‘Stand-by’ mode. Note, the instrument is
NOT isolated from the mains when the switch is in this
position.
To isolate the instrument, the mains coupler (mains
input cord) should be removed from the power supply.
iv
This symbol indicates that a device, or part of a device,
may be susceptible to electrostatic discharges (ESD)
which can result in damage to the product. Observe
ESD precautions given on the product, or its user
documentation, when handling equipment bearing this
mark.
The CE mark shows that the product complies with all
relevant European Legal Directives.
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the
Australian Communications Authority. This signifies
compliance with the Australian EMC Framework
Regulations under the terms of the Radio
communications Act of 1992.
ISM 1-A
This is a symbol of an Industrial, Scientific, and
Medical Group 1 Class A product.
ICES/NMB-001
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme à la norme NMB-001 du
Canada.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the
Canadian Standards Association, and indicates
compliance to the standards laid out by them.
Trademark Acknowledgement
Microsoft® is a US registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
v
Updated Information
Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about
the NFA Noise Figure Analyzer Series, including firmware upgrades and
application information, please visit the following Internet URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/nf/
Lifting and Carrying
Use the handle for lifting or carrying the unit.
Before attempting to lift or carry the instrument consider the following
basic lifting techniques to help avoid personal injury.
Using one arm to lift instrument.
• BRACE your body with the opposite arm, if possible.
• Reach for the instrument - bend your knees and waist, and keep your
back straight.
• GRASP the instrument firmly - using the handle.
• LIFT with your legs, using the free arm for balance.
• KEEP your shoulders level - switch hands regularly.
vi
Electromagnetic Compatibility
This product conforms with the protection requirements of European
Council Directive 89/336/EEC for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).
The conformity assessment requirements have been met using the
technical Construction file route to compliance, using EMC test
specifications EN 55011:1991 (Group 1, Class A) and EN 50082-1:1992.
In order to preserve the EMC performance of the product, any cable
which becomes worn or damaged must be replaced with the same type
and specification.
See “Declaration of Conformity” on page viii.
Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field
Immunity
When a 3 Vm-1 radio-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to the
Noise Figure Analyzer according to IEC 61000-4-3:1995, degradation of
performance may be observed. When the frequency of the incident field
matches the frequency of a measured noise figure or gain, the values
displayed will deviate from those expected. This phenomenon will only
affect that specific frequency, and the Analyzer will continue to perform
to specification at all other frequency sample points.
The Noise Figure Analyzer may be unable to calibrate a chosen
frequency sample point, if the frequency matches that of an incident
electromagnetic field.
vii
Declaration of Conformity
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
According to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and CEN/CENELEC EN 45014
DoC template
Manufacturer’s Name:
Manufacturer’s Address:
Supplier’s Address:
Agilent Technologies UK Limited
WBU Order Fulfilment
South Queensferry
West Lothian, EH30 9TG
Scotland, United Kingdom
Declares under sole responsibility that the product as originally delivered
Product Name:
Model Numbers:
Product Options:
NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzer
N8972A/N8973A/N8974A/N8975A
This declaration covers all options of the above product as
detailed in TCF A-5951-9852-02.
complies with the essential requirements of the following applicable European
Directives, and carries the CE marking accordingly:
• The Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC
• The EMC Directive 89/336/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC
As detailed in:
Technical Report Number:
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Technical Construction File (TCF) No. TCF A-5951-9852-02.
DTI Appointed Competent Body
EMC Test Centre,
GEC-Marconi Avionics Ltd.,
Maxwell Building,
Donibristle Industrial Park,
Hillend,
Dunfermline
KY11 9LB
Scotland, United Kingdom
6893/2201/CBR, dated 23 September 1997
EMC Test Specifications:
EN 55011:1991 (Group 1, Class A) and EN 50082-1:1992.
Assessed by:
and conforms with the following product standards:
Safety
EMC
IEC 61010-1:2001 / EN 61010-1:2001
Canada: CAN/CSA-C22.2 No 1010.1-92
Canada: ICES-001:1998
Australia/New Zealand: AS/NZS 2064.1
Supplementary Information:
This DoC applies to above-listed products placed on the EU market after:
17 December 2003
Date
Robert Tait
Quality & Regulations Manager
For further information, please contact your local Agilent Technologies sales office, agent or distributor,
or Agilent Technologies Deutschland GmbH, Herrenberger Straße 130, D 71034 Böblingen, Germany.
viii
Contents
1. Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Purpose of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Calibration Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Before You Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Recording the Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
2. Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Input VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
VSWR Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Related Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
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Contents
Frequency Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
37
38
38
39
39
Noise Source Supply Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
54
54
54
55
56
56
Gain Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
63
64
64
65
65
66
Instrument Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
x
Contents
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Measurement Jitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
3. Technical Specifications
Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Noise Figure and Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
RF Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Display units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Noise Source Drive Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
A. Model N8973A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . .102
Input VSWR Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
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Contents
Frequency Accuracy Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
106
106
107
108
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
B. Model N8974A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Input VSWR Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Frequency Accuracy Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
118
119
120
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
C. Model N8975A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Input VSWR Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
xii
Contents
Frequency Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
D. Caring for Connectors
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Connector Part Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Handling and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Obvious Defects and Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Mating Plane Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Precision 7 mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Sexed Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Cleaning Alcohol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Precision 7 mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Cleaning Interior Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Drying Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Precision 7mm Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
xiii
Contents
Sexed Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Using Connector Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Zeroing the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Making Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Align Connectors Carefully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Make a Preliminary Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
156
156
157
158
159
Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Principles of Microwave Connector Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
xiv
1
Preparing for Calibration and
Performance Verification Test
This chapter covers preparation and equipment required for doing the
calibration and performance verification tests.
1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Purpose of Tests
Purpose of Tests
The calibration and performance test procedures verify the electrical
performance of the Agilent Technologies N8973A, N8974A and N8975A
series of Noise Figure Analyzers (NFAs) in accordance with their
published specifications.
NOTE
You do not need to access the interior of the instrument to perform the
tests.
If for any reason the unit measures out-of-specification, then adjustment
procedures are supplied where applicable.
The Noise Figure Analyzers must be able to reach thermal equilibrium
in accordance with the temperature stability specifications before
performing any tests or adjustments.
NOTE
System performance is only guaranteed if each instrument in the test
system/process is within the manufacturer’s recommended calibration
period.
2
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Calibration Cycle
Calibration Cycle
The analyzer requires periodic verification of operational performance.
Under normal use and environmental conditions, the instrument should
be calibrated at 12 month intervals.
The tables on the following pages list the tests required to perform the
annual calibration, thus periodically verifying the instruments
performance.
Chapter 1
3
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Before You Start
Before You Start
Switch on the Noise Figure Analyzer and let it warm up for 1 hour.
Read the rest of this section before you start any of the tests, and make a
copy of the relevant test records for the model you are testing provided in
Appendices A through C.
CAUTION
Ensure that the recommended torque settings detailed in Table 1-3 are
adhered to at all times.
CAUTION
Ensure that a valid ENR measurement table has been loaded from the C:
or A: drive before carrying out any performance test. The analyzer will
not perform a measurement without an ENR table loaded.
4
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recording the Test Results
Recording the Test Results
Performance verification test records for each Noise Figure Analyzer are
provided in the section following the tests.
Each test result is identified as a TR (test record) entry in the
performance tests and in Appendix pertaining to the model you are
testing. We recommend that you make a copy of the performance
verification test record, record the test results on the copy, and keep the
copy for your calibration test record. This record could prove valuable in
tracking gradual changes in test results over long periods of time.
Chapter 1
5
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Recommended Test Equipment
The following tables list the recommended test equipment for the
performance tests. The tables also list recommended equipment for the
Noise Figure Analyzer adjustment procedures.
When performing the performance test manually any recommended
equipment that meets the critical specifications given in the table can be
substituted for the recommended model when manually testing.
NOTE
Substitution is not permitted when using the automated performance
verification and adjustment software.
Table 1-1
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25 ms to 100 ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5 Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy:
5071A
< 1 x 10-10/day
Vector Network Analyzer 1
10 MHz to 3 GHz
3753ES or
8753ET, opt 004
Vector Network Analyzer 2
3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
8722ES or
8722ET, opt 004
Type N Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85032B
UUT: N8973A
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85033D
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to 3 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
6
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-1
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85052D
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
83620/30/40/50B
Option 001 or 008
Power Level Range: -55 dBm
Digital Multimeter
Input Resistance of 10 MΩ
3458A
Accuracy of 10 mV on 100 V range
Attenuator/Switch Driver
Compatible with 8494G/H Programmable
step attenuators
11713A
1 dB Step Attenuator
Attenuation Range: 0 to 11 dB
8494G/H Option 2
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: 3.5 mm (F)
Calibrated at 50 MHz with accuracy of
0.010 dB
Noise Source
Frequency Range:10 MHz to 6.7 GHz
Typical ENR: 4.5 - 6.5 dB
346A Std or Option
001
Connection: 3.5 mm(M) or Type N
Noise Source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
346C
Typical ENR: 12.0 - 17.0 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm(M)
Chapter 1
7
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-2
Recommended Accessories, Adaptors and Cables
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Cable
50 Type N (M to M)
11500C
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
Cable (X 2)
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
11500E
3.5mm (M) to 3.5 mm (M), 61 cm
(24 in.)
Microwave Cable 2
2.4 mm (M) to 2.4 mm (M), 81 cm (32 in.)
85133C
Frequency band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
Adapter
50 Type N (F) to 7 mm (included in 85032B
Type N Calibration Kit)
85054-60001
Adapter
50 Type N (F) to 3.5 mm Precision (F)
1250-1745
Adapter
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm Precision (F)
11901C
Adapter
N8973A Type N (M) to 3.5 mm (F)
1250-1744
OR
N8974A/N8975A 3.5 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
Adapter
83620/83630 3.5 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
1250-1749 or
83059A
1250-1749 or
83059A
OR
83640/83650 2.4 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
11901C
DVM Adapter
BNC (F) to Dual Banana Plug (M) Adapter,
50 Ω
E9637A
BNC Lead
Length 12 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
8
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-3
Recommended Torque Settings
Type
Description
Precision
7mm
12 lb-in (136 N-cm.)
Precision
3.5mm
8 lb-in (90 N-cm)
SMA
5 lb-in (56 N-cm) Use the SMA wrench to connect male
SMA connectors to female precision 3.5min connectors.
Connections of male precision 3.5mm. connectors to female
SMA connectors can be made with the precision 3.5mm
torque wrench (8 lb-in).
Type-N
Type-N connectors may be connected finger tight. If a
torque wrench is used, 12 lb-in (136 N-cm) is
recommended.
Chapter 1
9
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures
Performance Verification and Adjustment
Procedures
To perform a calibration run, the performance verification tests listed in
Table 1-4 below must be completed.
If any of the performance verification tests fail, perform the
corresponding calibration adjustment listed in Table 1-4.
If the performance verification tests fail and no calibration adjustment
procedure is available, the instrument must be returned to Agilent
Technologies for repair. Please contact your local Agilent Technologies
Customer Sales and Service Office for replacement parts or repair
service information. See the NFA User’s Guide for the address of your
nearest office.
Table 1-4
Verification and adjustment listings
Test no.
Performance Verification Test
Calibration Adjustments
1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test 2 (if applicable)
2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
3
Input VSWR
4
Frequency Accuracy
5
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
6
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
7
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
8
Instrument Noise Figure
9
Measurement Jitter
10
Chapter 1
2
Test Descriptions
This chapter descibes each test required for calibration and performance
verification.
11
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Description
The test applies to NFAs with either the standard 10 MHz frequency
reference or 10 MHz precision frequency reference (Option 1D5).
The test measures both the frequency reference accuracy and the ability
to set the timebase. The frequency reference accuracy is measured with
the NFA’s 10 MHz REF OUT connected to the frequency counter's
Channel A input. A cesium beam frequency standard, or some other
10 MHz ± “house standard” provides the frequency reference for the
frequency counter. The timebase to be set is measured by changing the
setting of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which controls the
frequency of the timebase. The frequency difference over the range of
DAC settings is calculated and compared to the specification.
Test Specification
Standard
Option 1D5
Ageing Rate
< ±2 ppm/year
< ±0.1 ppm/year
Settability
< ±0.5 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Temperature Stability
< ±6 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Related Adjustment
10 MHz Frequency Reference Adjustment (see page 18).
12
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25ms to 100ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
The frequency standard provides the reference for the Universal
Counter. You can use a company-specific standard in place of the 5071A,
providing it meets the critical specifications as listed in Table 2-1.
Test Setup
Before starting the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test,
connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
10 MHz
Ref Out
UNIVERSAL
COUNTER
10 MHz
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
Ref In
Channel 1
BNC Cable
Chapter 2
13
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Procedure
NOTE
The NFA must be on and in internal frequency mode for at least 1 hour
before you start the test.
NOTE
Throughout the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test
Procedure the term ‘the Worksheet’ refers to the 10 MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy Test Worksheet on page 17 and the term ‘the Test
Record’ refers to the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test
Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model number being
tested.
Step 1. Check that the NFA is not in the external reference mode. If the external
reference is connected, remove it from the 10 MHz Ref Input.
Step 2. Ensure that the NFA’s preset condition is set to its factory settings.
Press the System key, the More menu item, then set the Power On/Preset
menu item to Power On(Preset) and Preset to Preset (Factory).
Step 3. Preset the NFA by pressing the Preset key. Wait for the routine to finish.
Step 4. Set the Universal Counter controls as follows:
1. Press Gate and ExtArm
2. Press any one of the arrow keys until Time is displayed.
3. Press Gate and ExtArm again and using the arrow keys, set the Time
to 10s and press Enter to set the value.
4. On Channel 1, press 50Ω / 1MΩ until the LED is lit.
5. On Channel 1, press x10 Attenuator until the LED is extinguished.
6. On Channel 1, press AC/DC until LED next to DC extinguished.
7. On Channel 1, press 100 Hz Filter until the LED is extinguished.
14
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
8. On Channel 1, press Trigger/Sensitivity until Auto Trig is displayed.
9. Use the arrow keys (—>) to toggle to Off.
10. Press Freq and Ratio.
Step 5. When the Universal Counter reading has stabilized, record the reading
in the Worksheet as Counter Reading 1 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
This reading is taken as the actual frequency reference of the NFA.
Step 6. Increase the NFA's fine DAC control by 1 step from its initial value.
Press the System key, then the More, More and Service menu keys. Enter
the service password -2010, press Enter, then press Service, Time Base,
and Fine menu items. Press the Up Arrow key to increment the Fine
control menu item by 1. The value displayed in the Fine menu item is
now 1 more than the initial value.
Step 7. When the frequency counter reading has stabilized, record reading in the
Worksheet as Counter Reading 2 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
Step 8. Decrease the NFA’s fine DAC control by 1 step to return to its initial
value detailed in step 6, then again decrease the NFA’s fine DAC control
by 1 step.
Step 9. When the frequency counter reading has stabilized, record the reading in
the Worksheet as Counter Reading 3 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
Step 10. Press Preset on the NFA to return the DAC settings to their initial
values.
Step 11. Subtract Counter Reading 1 from Counter Reading 2 and record the
difference in the Worksheet as the Positive Frequency Change.
Positive Frequency Change = Counter Reading 2 - Counter Reading 1
Step 12. Subtract Counter Reading 1 from Counter Reading 3 and record the
difference in the Worksheet as the Negative Frequency Change.
Negative Frequency Change = Counter Reading 1 - Counter Reading 3
Chapter 2
15
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Step 13. Compare the Positive Frequency Change and Negative Frequency
Change values recorded in the Worksheet and record the largest value in
the Worksheet as the Maximum Frequency Change.
Step 14. Divide the Maximum Frequency Change by 2 (Maximum Frequency
Change/2) and record the result as the settability in the Worksheet.
Step 15. Ensure that the calculated measurement figure given in the Worksheet
is within the published specifications.
Step 16. Once verified that the value is within specifications, Counter Reading 1
with 0.1 Hz resolution is then taken as the actual frequency reference of
the Noise Frequency Analyzer and this reading is recorded on the Test
Record.
Step 17. Once verified that the value is within specifications, the measured
frequency is then recorded on the Test Record.
16
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Table 2-2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Worksheet
Description
Calculations
Counter Reading 1
Reading
Measurement
________________Hz
Counter Reading 2
Reading
________________Hz
Counter Reading 3
Reading
________________Hz
Positive Frequency Change =
Counter Reading 2 - Counter Reading 1
________________Hz
Negative Frequency Change =
Counter Reading 1 - Counter Reading 3
________________Hz
Maximum Frequency Change =
Highest Positive or Negative Value
________________Hz
Settability =
Maximum frequency Change / 2
________________Hz
Chapter 2
17
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Test Description
The adjustment applies to NFAs with both the standard 10 MHz
frequency reference and 10 MHz precision frequency reference (Option
1D5).
The adjustment is performed by calculating the actual frequency error in
Hertz from Counter Reading 1 given in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy
Test (see page 12). The negative or positive error is used to define what
the new DAC setting should be. After the DAC settings are adjusted and
saved, the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy Test is re-run to verify the unit
meets it’s published specification.
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-3
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25ms to 100ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
The frequency standard provides the reference for the Universal
Counter. You can use a company-specific standard in place of the 5071A,
provided it meets the critical specifications listed in Table 2-3.
18
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Test Setup
Before starting the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment,
connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
10 MHz
Ref Out
UNIVERSAL
COUNTER
10 MHz
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
Ref In
Channel 1
BNC Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Before performing any adjustments ensure that the 10 MHz Frequency
Reference Accuracy test has been done and that the measured frequency
is outside the published specification.
NOTE
The NFA must be on and in internal frequency mode for at least 1 hour
before you start the test.
Chapter 2
19
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Step 1. Note Counter Reading 1 for the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy Test and
calculate the actual error in Hertz.
Actual Error = 10 MHz - Counter Reading 1
Step 2. With the actual error calculated, determine which DAC setting to adjust
from the table below.
Table 2-4
DAC setting adjustments
Example 2-1
Control Setting
Standard Step Size (Hz)
Option 1D5 Step Size (Hz)
Coarse
≈ 7 Hz
≈ 0.1 Hz
Fine
≈ 1 Hz
≈ 0.0015 Hz
Standard NFA Actual Error
If a standard NFA Actual Error = 10,000,000 Hz - 10,000,012 Hz
the error is -12 Hz
From Table 2-4, the DAC setting must be decremented by 1 coarse
setting and 5 fine settings giving an approximate -12 Hz adjustment.
Therefore, if the original settings were, for example, Coarse = 127 and
Fine = 136, then the new settings after adjustment are Coarse = 126,
Fine = 131.
NOTE
A negative error value decrements [⇓], while a positive error value
increments [⇑].
Step 3. Access the Service menus Time Base sub-menu and press the System key.
Then press the More, More and Service menu keys. Enter the service
password -2010, press Enter, then press Service and Time Base.
Decrement [⇓] the NFAs DAC settings by pressing Coarse once and Fine
five times.
OR
You can type in the new value on the numeric keypad and then press
Enter.
20
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Step 4. Wait for the frequency counter reading to stabilize and ensure that the
adjusted value is within the published specification. Repeat the
adjustment procedure until the correct value is obtained.
Step 5. Press Save from the Time Base sub-menu to ensure that the values are
stored in memory.
NOTE
It is recommended that you preset the NFA and repeat the 10 MHz
Frequency Reference Accuracy Test (see page 12) to verify the adjusted
DAC settings.
Chapter 2
21
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Input VSWR
Test Description
The Input VSWR test measures the worst case VSWR over each of the
specified frequency bands detailed in the Table 2-1 on page 22. The test
measures VSWR directly from the Network Analyzer, however the
conversion below can be used if measuring return loss.
VSWR or voltage standing wave ratio can be calculated from the
reflection coefficient using the following equation:
Equation 2-1
[ 1 + rho ]
1 + ρ ]-⎞
VSWR = ----------------------- ≅ ⎛⎝ VSWR = [---------------[ 1 – rho ]
[ 1 – ρ ]⎠
Table 2-5
VSWR Frequency Test Bands
PART 1
CAL VNA 10 MHz - 3.0 GHz
PART 2
TEST VSWR
10 MHz - 500 MHz
PART 3
TEST VSWR
500 MHz -1500 MHz
PART 4
TEST VSWR
1500 MHz -3000 MHz
22
N8973A
N8974A
N8975A
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Table 2-5
VSWR Frequency Test Bands
N8973A
PART 5
CAL VNA 3.0 GHz - 6.7 OR
26.5 GHz
PART 6
TEST VSWR
3.0 GHz -6.7 GHz
N8974A
N8975A
•
•
•
•
PART 7
TEST VSWR
6.7 GHz -20.0 GHz
PART 8
TEST VSWR
20.0 GHz -26.5 GHz
NOTE
NOTE
•
•
• denotes test required for associated model number.
The NFA uses several frequency dependent paths within the front end
assemblies to cover its operating range. It is therefore not possible to
complete a single VSWR swept measurement at a single fixed frequency
point over its entire operating range.
Chapter 2
23
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
VSWR Test Specification
N8973A
N8974A
N8975A
10 MHz to 500 MHz
< 1.5:1
< 1.5:1
< 1.5:1
> 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
< 1.7:1
< 1.7:1
< 1.7:1
> 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 1.8:1
< 1.8:1
< 1.8:1
> 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
N/A
< 1.3:1
< 1.3:1
> 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz
N/A
N/A
< 2.1:1
> 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz
N/A
N/A
< 2.4:1
Related Adjustments
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-6
Test Equipment required for Input VSWR test
Equipment description
Critical specification for
equipment substitution
Recommended model
Vector Network Analyzer 1
10 MHz to 3 GHz
8753ES or 8753ET, Option 004a
Vector Network Analyzer 2
3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
8722ES or 8722ET, Option 004b
N Type Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85032B
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to
3 GHz c
UUT: N8973A
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50Ω
85033D
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to
3 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
24
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Table 2-6
Test Equipment required for Input VSWR test
Equipment description
Critical specification for
equipment substitution
Recommended model
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50Ω
85052D
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
Cable
50 N Type (M to M)
11500C
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
Adapter
50 N Type (F) to 7 mm
(included in 85032B N Type
Calibration Kit)
85054-60001
Adapter
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm
Precision (F)
1250-1745
Adaptor
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm
Precision (F)
11901C
UWave Cable
2.4 mm (M) to 2.4 mm (M),
81 cm (32 in.)
85133C
Frequency band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
a. Option 004 is only required for the ET models.
b. Option 004 is only required for the ET models.
c. Part 1 of this procedure lists hard and soft keys for the 8753ET. Other network analyzers such
as the 8753D or E may have different hard and soft key labelling. Please refer to the
appropriate Users Guide for the relevant menu maps.
Chapter 2
25
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Test Setup
Figure 2-3
Input VSWR: Equipment Connection
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 1
Adapter 2
(if Applicable)
Port 1
Adapter 1
(if Applicable)
Cable 1
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Input VSWR Test Procedure the term ‘the Test Record’
refers to the Input VSWR Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix
for the model number being tested.
The Input VSWR test requires the following stages:
1. Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 1 from 10 MHz to 3 GHz
2. Measuring VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz
3. Measuring VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
4. Measuring VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
5. Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 2 from 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz or
26.5 GHz
6. Measuring VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
7. Measuring VSWR from 6700 MHz to 26500 MHz
26
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 1 from 10 MHz to 3 GHz
Step 1. Press the Preset key on the Network Analyzer.
Step 2. Set the Active Channel to 1 (press Chan 1).
Step 3. Set the measurement mode to S11 (press the Meas key and Reflection).
Step 4. Set the start and stop frequencies.
For the N8973/4/5A models (frequency range 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz): press
Start, 1, 0, M/µ then Stop, 3, ., 0, G/n
Step 5. Set the measurement format to SWR (press the Format key and SWR).
Step 6. Set the number of measurement points to 801 points (press the Sweep
Setup key, and NUMBER of POINTS, 8, 0, 1, x1
Step 7. Set the power level to -30dBm (press the Sweep Setup key and Power, -, 3,
0, x1
Step 8. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-3.
NOTE
During this test procedure, ET model network analyzers do not require
adaptor 1, while NFA N8973A do not require adaptor 2.
Figure 2-4
Input VSWR Test Setup 1
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 1
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Port 1
Adapter 1
(if Applicable)
Chapter 2
Input
Cable 1
Adapter 2
(if Applicable)
27
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Step 9. Select the relevant calibration kit in use from the Cal menu, as the
calibration kit selection is dependant on the NFA being tested (press the
Cal key, Calibration Kit selection and Return).
NOTE
The connector type applies to the test port or adaptor if fitted and not the
NFA under test.
Step 10. Select an S11 port calibration (press the Cal key, then Calibrate Menu and
Reflection 1-port).
Step 11. Connect the Open to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Opens and then select the relevant menu
key).
Step 12. Connect the Short to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Shorts and then select the relevant menu
key).
Step 13. Connect the Load to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Load, select the relevant menu key and then
done 1-port CAL).
Step 14. Save the calibration (press the Save/recall key and then Save State).
28
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 27.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 10 MHz to
500 MHz.
Press the Start key then 1, 0, M/µ; then press the Stop key and 5, 0, 0 M/µ.
NOTE
Ensure the VNA Correction and Interpol functions are both set to On.
Step 3. On the NFA ensure that the preset is set to the factory settings (press
the System key and More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and
Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. On the NFA press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish
Step 5. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode: Single).
Step 6. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key and
Freq Mode, Fixed).
Step 7. Set the fixed frequency to 250 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key and
Fixed Freq, 2, 5, 0, MHz).
Step 8. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 9. Set the Network Analyzer to autorange (press the Scale Ref key and
Auto Scale).
Step 10. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key and Mkr Search [ON], Search: Max).
Step 11. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 12. Verify that the measured VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz is within the
published specification.
Chapter 2
29
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 27.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 500 MHz to
1500 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 0, ., 5, G/n; then press the Stop key and 1, ., 5,
G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 1000 MHz (press the
Frequency/Points key and then Fixed Freq, 1, ., 0, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key, Mkr Search [ON] and then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz is within
the published specification.
30
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 27.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 1.5 GHz to
3.0 GHz.
Press the Start key then 1, ., 5, G/n then the Stop key and 3, ., 0, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 1750 MHz (press the
Frequency/Points key and then Fixed Freq, 1, 7, 5, 0, MHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key and Mkr Search [ON], Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz is within
the published specification.
Chapter 2
31
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 2 from 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz
or 26.5 GHz
Step 1. Press the Preset key on the Vector Network Analyzer.
Step 2. Set the Active Channel to 1 (press Chan 1).
Step 3. Set the measurement mode to S11 (press the Meas key and Reflection).
Step 4. Set the start and stop frequencies.
The start and stop frequencies depend on the frequency range of the
NFA:
For the N8974A (frequency range 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz): press Start, 3, G/n
then Stop, 6, ., 7, G/n
For the N8975A (frequency range 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz): press Start, 3, G/n
then Stop, 2, 6, ., 5, G/n
Step 5. Set the measurement format to SWR (press the Format key and SWR).
Step 6. Set the number of measurement points to 1601 points (press the Sweep
Setup key, and NUMBER of POINTS,1, 6, 0, 1, x1
Step 7. Set the power level to -30dBm (press the Sweep Setup key and Power, -, 3,
0, x1
Step 8. Connect the type adapter and the µWave cable to port 1 as shown in
figure inFigure 2-5.
32
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Figure 2-5
Vector Network Analyzer: Adaptor Connection
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 2
Adapter 3
Port 1
uWave Cable
Step 9. As the calibration kit selection is dependant on the NFA being tested,
select the relevant calibration kit in use from the Cal menu (press the Cal
key, Calibration Kit selection and Return).
NOTE
The connector type applies to the test port or adaptor if fitted and not the
NFA under test.
Step 10. Select an S11 port calibration (press the Cal key, then Calibrate Menu and
Reflection 1-port).
Step 11. Connect the Open to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Opens and then select the relevant menu
key).
Step 12. Connect the Short to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Shorts and then select the relevant menu
key).
Step 13. Connect the Load to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform
the open calibration (press Load, select the relevant menu key and then
done 1-port CAL).
Step 14. Save the calibration (press the Save/recall key and then Save State).
Chapter 2
33
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring Input VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
Figure 2-6
Input VSWR Test Setup 2
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 2
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Input
Port 1
Adapter 3
uWave Cable
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 34.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR
from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 3,., 0, G/n; then press the Stop key and 6, ., 7,
G/n
NOTE
Ensure the VNA Correction and Interpol functions are both set to On.
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 5000 MHz (press the
Frequency/Points key and then Fixed Freq, 5, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key, Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz is within
the published specification.
34
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring Input VSWR from 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 34.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR
from 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 6, .,7, G/n; then press the Stop key and 2, 0, .,
0, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 15 GHz (press the Frequency/Points
key and then Fixed Freq, 1, 5, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key, Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz is within
the published specification.
Chapter 2
35
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring Input VSWR from 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 34.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR
from 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 2, .,0, G/n; then press the Stop key and 2, 6, .,
5, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 23 GHz (press the Frequency/Points
key and then Fixed Freq, 2, 3, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the
maximum displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press
the Marker Fctn key, Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test
Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz is
within the published specification.
36
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Accuracy
Test Description
The NFA filter shape is asymmetrical. The center frequency is defined at
the half power level under the curve. The frequency accuracy tests are
performed by measuring selected Phot points along the filter curvature.
The half power value of the Phot measurements is then calculated. The
frequency which closest matches this value is given as the center
frequency point.
For test purposes the narrow bandwidths are verified at the narrowest
bandwidth of 100 kHz. This is due to the fact that the NFA uses digital
sample processing (DSP). It is therefore only necessary to verify the
narrowest bandwidth with the most accurate specification.
Test Specification
Bandwidth
Frequency range 10
MHz to 3 GHz
4 MHz
±100 KHz
+χ
2 MHz
±20 KHz
+χ
1 MHz
±20 KHz
+χ
400 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
200 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
100 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
Frequency range 3
GHz to 26.5 GHz
4 MHz
±400 KHz
+χ
2 MHz
±400 KHz
+χ
1 MHz
±200 KHz
+χ
400 KHz
±80 KHz
+χ
200 KHz
±40 KHz
+χ
100 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
χ is equal to the tuned frequency * (1 ± frequency standard in use).
Chapter 2
37
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-7
Equipment required for Frequency Accuracy test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
(see note)
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
83620/30/40/50B Option
001 and 008
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -55dBm
Adapter 1
Adapter 2
RF Cable
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm
(F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
11500E
3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61 cm (24 in.)
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
NOTE
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Synthesized Sweeper model 83620B cannot be used test NFA N8975A.
38
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-7
Frequency Accuracy test setup
BNC Cable
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
SYNTHESIZED
Ref In SWEEPER
Ref In
10 MHz
Input
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
RF Output
Adapter 2
Adapter 1
RF Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Frequency Accuracy Test Procedure the term ‘the
Worksheet’ refers to the Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet on page 44
and the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the Frequency Accuracy Test
Procedure Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model
number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-7 on page 39.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key and wait for the preset routine to complete.
2. Set the power level to -70dBm (press the Power Level key and -, 7, 0,
dB(m)).
3. Switch RF ON
Chapter 2
39
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 3. Set the NFA as follows:
1. On the NFA ensure that the preset is set to the factory settings (press
the System key and More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and
Preset (Factory)).
2. Press the Preset key and wait for the preset routine to complete.
3. Set the measured results to Phot (press the Result key and Phot).
4. Select a single graphical display of Phot, press the
key.
5. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode: single).
6. Set the frequency mode to sweep (press the Frequency/Points key and
Freq Mode, Sweep).
7. Set the number of measured points to 201 (press the Frequency/Points
key and More, Points, 2, 0, 1, Enter).
8. Set the measured units to linear (press the Scale key and Units Linear).
9. Fix the IF Gain (press the System key, More, More, and Service. Enter
the service password -, 2, 0,1 ,0 press Enter, Service and then press
IF Test and Fixed IF Gain (On). Set the IF Gain Value to 16 and press
IF Gain Value , 1, 6, Enter).
10. For models N8974A and N8975A, run the YIG Tuned Filter
alignment (press the System key, Alignment, and then press Align YTF
and wait for the alignment routine to complete).
Step 4. Set the Sweeper frequency to 14 MHz, the first frequency listed in the
Test Record (press the CW key and 1, 4, MHz).
Step 5. Set the NFA frequency to 14 MHz, the first frequency as listed in the
Test Record (press the Frequency/Points key and Center Freq, 1, 4, MHz).
Step 6. Set the NFA frequency span to 8 MHz, the first frequency span as listed
in the Test Record (press the Frequency/Points key and Freq Span, 8, MHz).
Step 7. Set the NFA bandwidth to 4 MHz, the first bandwidth as listed in the
Test Record (press the Averaging/Bandwidth key and Bandwidth, 4 MHz).
Step 8. Restart the NFA measurement sweep (press the Restart key).
40
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 9. Once the single sweep is complete set the NFA to autorange (press the
Scale key and Autoscale).
Step 10. Before obtaining the Phot measurements and performing the calculations
ensure that the filter shape is similar to the one relating to the
bandwidth in Figure 2-8 and Figure 2-9.
Step 11. Obtain the Phot tabulated measurements (press the Format key and
Table). Use the tab keys below the display to scroll through the results.
Alternatively output the trace data to disk, using the File Manager as
follows:
1. Insert a writable disk in drive A: and press the File key and Save,
Trace.
Ensure that drive A: is selected as the To: path.
2. Enter the file name or use the default provided and press Enter to
save the *.CSV file to disk.
The data can now be used in a spreadsheet application to perform the
following calculations.
Chapter 2
41
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Figure 2-8
Typical 4 MHz bandwidth filter shape
Figure 2-9
Typical 100 KHz bandwidth filter shape
42
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 12. Perform the frequency accuracy calculations either using a spreadsheet
such as Microsoft® Excel (see page 48), or manually (see page 49).
Step 13. Repeat steps 4 to 12 above for the remaining frequencies, spans and
bandwidths as listed in the data into the Test Record. Ensure the
measured values are within its published specification.
Step 14. Reset the IF Gain (press the System key, then More, More, and Service.
Enter the service password -, 2, 0,1 ,0 press Enter, Service and then press IF
Test and Fixed IF Gain (Off).
NOTE
The DSP bandwidths are verified at the narrowest bandwidth only. This
is due the fact that they use digital sample processing (DSP), therefore it
is only necessary to verify the narrowest bandwidth.
Chapter 2
43
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
1
22
43
2
23
44
3
24
45
4
25
46
5
26
47
6
27
48
7
28
49
8
29
50
9
30
51
10
31
52
11
32
53
12
33
54
13
34
55
14
35
56
15
36
57
16
37
58
17
38
59
18
39
60
19
40
61
20
41
62
21
42
63
44
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
64
85
106
65
86
107
66
87
108
67
88
109
68
89
110
69
90
111
70
91
112
71
92
113
72
93
114
73
94
115
74
95
116
75
96
117
76
97
118
77
98
119
78
99
120
79
100
121
80
101
122
81
102
123
82
103
124
83
104
125
84
105
126
Chapter 2
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
45
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
127
148
169
128
149
170
129
150
171
130
151
172
131
152
173
132
153
174
133
154
175
134
155
176
135
156
177
136
157
178
137
158
179
138
159
180
139
160
181
140
161
182
141
162
183
142
163
184
143
164
185
144
165
186
145
166
187
146
167
188
147
168
189
46
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
190
194
198
191
195
199
192
196
200
193
197
201
Center Frequency:
_______ MHz
Bandwidth:
_______ MHz
Span:
_______ MHz
Equation:
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
Power = Summed Phot reading 201/2
Power = ____________WattHz
Chapter 2
47
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Performing the frequency accuracy calculations using the CSV
file in a spreadsheet
The following procedure uses Microsoft Excel.
Step 1. Open Excel.
Step 2. Open the .csv file from the A: drive. From the File menu select Open and
Look in: (A:). Select files of Type: Text Files (*.prn; *.txt; *.csv).
Figure 2-10
Example Excel File
Column A contains the measured frequency. Column B contains the
corresponding Linear Phot value. Disregard Column C null terminator
information.
Step 3. Increase the column widths to 20 to view the data more accurately.
Step 4. Enter the following formula into cell D1 = SUM(B$1:B1), copy this
formula and paste it from cell D2:D201.
Step 5. Enter the following formula into cell D202 =D201/2. This value returns
the ½ Power reading.
48
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 6. Use Cells D1 to D201 as a look up reference and find the cell, which
closest matches the ½ Power Reading in cell D202.
The corresponding frequency in Column A is given as the center
frequency point. Enter the reading into the appropriate column in the
Test Record. Ensure that the measured value meets its published
specification.
Performing the frequency accuracy calculations manually
Step 1. Using the displayed Phot results sum the values and enter the summed
values on the Test Worksheet Table on page 44.
Example 2-2
1 GHz CW at the 4 MHz bandwidth
For the 1 GHz CW at the 4 MHz bandwidth each Phot reading shown in
the Figure 2-12 on page 50 is summed with the previous cell(s) until the
total power under the curve is equated in the lower right hand column.
Example sum reading 1 to reading 6 = 0.369.
Figure 2-11
Displayed Table Values
Chapter 2
49
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Figure 2-12
Example 2-2 summed Phot for reading 1 to reading 6
Step 2. Calculate the half power level from the data as shown in Figure 2-12.
Equation: ½ Power = Summed Phot Reading 201 / 2
Step 3. Use the summed value column as shown in Figure 2-12 as a look up
reference and find the cell, which closest matches the ½ Power Reading.
The corresponding frequency column is given as the center frequency
point. Enter the reading into the Test Worksheet Table on page 44 and
ensure the measured value is within its published specification.
50
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Test Description
The Noise Source Supply Accuracy test verifies that the noise source
drive supply meets the published specifications. A Digital Multimeter is
connected to the +28V noise source supply BNC connection. The supply
is then tested in the on and off states.
Test Specification
• Noise Off
0.0V ± 1.0V
• Noise On
+28V ± 0.1V
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
The following equipment is required for the Noise Source Supply
Accuracy test.
Table 2-9
Equipment required for Noise Source Supply Accuracy test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Digital Multimeter
Input Resistance of 10 MΩ
3458A
Accuracy of 10 mV on 100 V range
DVM BNC Adapter
BNC (F) to Dual Banana Plug (M) Adapter,
50 Ω
E9637A
BNC Lead
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Chapter 2
51
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-13
Equipment setup for Noise Source Supply Accuracy test
DIGITAL
MULTIMETER
NOISE
FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
+28V Noise
Source Supply
Adapter on
(2 Wire) HI/LO
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Procedure the term
‘the Test Record’ refers to the Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-13.
Step 2. Select the DC range on the digital multimeter (press DCV in the
FUNCTION/RANGE menu).
Step 3. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key,
then More, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. On the NFA press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish.
Step 5. Set sweep to single (press Sweep, Sweep Mode: single).
Step 6. Set the noise source off (press the System key, then More, More and
Service. Press Enter Password then enter the service password -2010.
Press Enter then Service and Noise Source Off).
Step 7. Enter the digital multimeter reading into the Test Record as the Noise
Source Supply Off measurement.
52
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Step 8. Set the noise source on (press the System key, then More, More and
Service. Press Noise Source On). Press Enter Password then enter the
service password -2010. Press Enter then Service and Noise Source On).
Step 9. Enter the digital multimeter reading in the Test Record as the Noise
Source Supply On measurement.
Step 10. Press the Preset key to return to the default Noise Source Supply State.
Step 11. Verify that the measured values are within the published specifications.
Chapter 2
53
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Test Description
A precision step attenuator, calibrated at 50 MHz with an accuracy of
0.010dB, is used as an external standard to measure the NFA’s Noise
Figure Range and Accuracy over a 22dB range. The results are then used
to determine the Instrument Uncertainty for the given ENR values over
their respective measurement ranges.
A 50 MHz CW signal is passed through a precision step attenuator. The
signal path is referenced at 0dB attenuation. The attenuator is then
stepped in 1dB steps from 1 to 11 taking the analyzers Phot
measurement at each step. Only one step attenuator is used in the
measurement to reduce the overall measurement uncertainty of the
standard. It is therefore necessary to re-reference the measurement and
repeat the test covering the range from 12-22dB. All levels tested below
1dB are interpolated from the measured points, as the minimum step
attenuator setting is 1dB.
For test purposes the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy is only tested at
the lower frequency band with the most accurate specifications.
Test Specification
Table 2-10
N8973A, N8974A and N8975A specification
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7dB
12 - 17dB
20 - 22dB
Noise Figure Measurement Range
0 to 20dB
0 to 30dB
0 to 35dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
± 0.10dB
Related Adjustment
None
54
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-11
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy test equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range:
83620/30/40/50B
Option 001 and 008
50 MHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -54dBm to -65dBm
Attenuator/Switch Driver
Compatible with 8494G/H Programmable step
attenuators
11713A
1 dB Step Attenuator
Attenuation Range: 0 to 11dB
8494G/H Option 002
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: 3.5mm (F)
Calibrated at 50 MHz with accuracy of 0.010 dB
Adapter 1
Adapter
RF Cable (X 2)
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
50 MHz 3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61cm (24 in.)
11500E
Chapter 2
55
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-14
Equipment required for Noise Figure Range and Accuracy test
SYNTHESIZED
SWEEPER
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
ATTENUATOR
SWITCH DRIVER
Input
PRECISION 1dB
STEP ATTENUATOR
Adapter 1
Control
Adapter 2
Cable
Attenuator X
RF Cable
RF Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Procedure the
term ‘the Worksheet’ refers to the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test
Worksheet on page 60 and the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the Noise
Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record detailed in the relevant
Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-14.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key.
2. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the CW key and 5, 0, MHz.
3. Set the power level to -54 dBm (press the Power Level key and -, 5, 4,
dB(m).
4. Switch RF ON
56
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Step 3. Set the Switch Driver as follows:
1. Ensure the LOCAL LED is on.
2. Set the attenuator to 0dB. The settings are as follows:
Table 2-12
Switch Driver Attenuator Settings (1 = LED On, 0 = LED Off)
Attenuator X
1dB Step Attenuator
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
5
1
0
1
0
6
0
1
1
0
7
1
1
1
0
8
0
0
1
1
9
1
0
1
1
10
0
1
1
1
11
1
1
1
1
Step 4. Set the NFA as follows:
1. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key,
then More, Power On (Preset), Power On Preset and Preset (Factory)).
2. Press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish.
3. Set the measured result to Phot (press the Result key and Phot).
4. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode (Single)).
5. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key and
Freq Mode, Fixed).
Chapter 2
57
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
6. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key and Fixed
Freq, 5, 0, MHz).
7. Set the averaging to 101 (press the Averaging/Bandwidth key and
Average Mode (Point), Averages, 1, 0, 1, Enter, Averaging On).
8. Select the display to meter mode (press the Format key and Format,
Meter).
9. Fix the IF Gain (press the System key then More, More and Service.
Press Enter Password, then -2010 and Enter. Then press Service , IF
Test and Fix IF Gain On. Set the IF Gain Value to 16 and press IF Gain
Value, 1, 6 and Enter.
Step 5. Restart the NFA measurement sweep by pressing the Restart key.
Step 6. Record the measured Phot value in the Worksheet as the -54dB Ref 1
Level.
Step 7. Step the attenuator in 1dB steps from 1 - 11dB recording the measured
Phot at each point in the Worksheet as the -55 to -65dB levels. Remember
to press the Restart key at each measurement.
Step 8. Set the synthesizer power level to -65dBm (press the Power Level key,
then -, 6, 5, dB(m)).
Step 9. Reset the attenuator to 0dB and press the Restart key to restart the NFA
sweep.
Step 10. Record the measured Phot value in the Worksheet as the -65dB Ref 2
Level.
Step 11. Step the attenuator in 1dB steps from 1 - 11dB recording the measured
Phot at each point in the Worksheet as the -66 to -76dB levels.
Remember to press the Restart key at each measurement.
Step 12. Reset the IF Gain (press the System key then More, More and Service.
Press Enter Password, then -2010 and Enter. Then press Service , IF Test
and Fix IF Gain Off).
Step 13. Enter the attenuator metrology data information in the Worksheet
provided as Actual Attenuation using equation 1.
Step 14. Calculate the Measured Attenuation and enter the values in the
Worksheet using equation 2.
58
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Step 15. Use the Actual and Measured attenuations given in the Worksheet to
calculate the Actual and Measured Noise Figures in the Test Record.
Step 16. Calculate the Noise Figure Instrument Uncertainty Error for each ENR
measurement range detailed in the relevant model number tables in
Appendices A through D. Enter the values into the appropriate test
record and ensure that the measured values are within their published
specifications (pass/fail).
Chapter 2
59
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-13
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Worksheet
Attenuator
Step Size (dB)
Input
Level
(dBm)
Measured
Phot (dB)
Range
(dB)
Actual
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 1
Measured
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 2
0
-54 Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
-----
-----
-----
0.125
-----
-----
-----
0.5
1
-55
1
2
-56
2
3
-57
3
4
-58
4
5
-59
5
6
-60
6
7
-61
7
8
-62
8
9
-63
9
10
-64
10
11
-65
11
0 Ref 2
-65 Ref 2
Ref 2
Ref 2
1
-66
12
2
-67
13
3
-68
14
4
-69
15
5
-70
16
6
-71
17
7
-72
18
60
Ref 2
Ref 2
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-13
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Worksheet
Attenuator
Step Size (dB)
Input
Level
(dBm)
8
-73
19
9
-74
20
10
-75
21
11
-76
22
Equation 1
Measured
Phot (dB)
Range
(dB)
Actual
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 1
Range dB 0.125
= Metrology Data dB at 1dB / 8
Range dB 0.5
= Metrology Data dB at 1dB / 2
Measured
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 2
Range dB 1 to 11 = Metrology Data dB from 1 to 11
Range dB 12 to 22 = Metrology Data dB from 1 to 11 + (11dB to
re-reference)
Equation 2
Range dB 0.125
= Measured AttenuationdB at 1dB / 8
Range dB 0.5
= Measured AttenuationdB at 1dB / 2
Range dB 1 to 11 = Measured PhotdB Ref 1 - Measured PhotdB from -55
to -65
Range dB 12 to 22 = Measured PhotdB Ref 2 - Measured PhotdB from -66
to -76 + (11dB to re-reference)
NOTE
The ENR values given in the calculations are taken to be 5dB, 15dB and
22dB respectively. The actual and measured attenuations supplied
within the appropriate Test Records are calculated from in the equations
in the Tables on page 62.
Chapter 2
61
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-14
Table 2-15
4.5-6.5 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
5 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Actual
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
5 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^
(Measured AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
14-16 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
15 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^
(Actual AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
15 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^
(Measured AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Range dB 0.125 to 11
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
Range dB 12 to 15
=
Actual NF - Measured NF +
Instrumentation Uncertainty at
11 dB (re-reference)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
Table 2-16
20-22 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
22 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^
(Actual AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
22 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^
(Measured AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Range dB 0.125 to 11
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
Range dB 12 to 22
=
Actual NF - Measured NF +
Instrumentation Uncertainty at
11 dB (re-reference)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
62
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
NOTE
You must perform the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy performance
test (see page 54) before this test.
Test Description
The NFA uses internal IF attenuator values for measuring gain. The test
comprises of an internal IF attenuator calibration. Using an external
50 MHz CW signal at -46dBm the attenuator values are computed as
error ratios.
The analyzer only uses a range of 40dB for any given measurement from
-20dB to >+40dB within the available 0 - 70dB IF attenuator range.
Therefore, the actual Instrumentation Uncertainty is calculated as the
maximum peak to peak error over any 40dB range within the available
0 - 70dB IF attenuator range. The 30 available ranges are all tested for
the maximum and minimum Peak to Peak values within their respective
40dB range. The 30 peak to peak values are then compared and the
worst case error is reported as the Instrumentation Uncertainty error.
The graph below shows a typical plot of the data. 1 of the 30 available
ranges is shown giving the typical Instrumentation Uncertainty for the
specific range between 30 to 70dB.
Chapter 2
63
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Figure 2-15
Typical Instrumentation Uncertainty for the range 30 to 70dB
Test Specification
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Range: -20 to >+40dB
Instrumentation Uncertainty: ±< 0.17dB
Related Adjustment
None
64
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-17
Equipment required for Gain Measurement Uncertainty test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range:
83620/30/40/50B Option
001 and 008
50 MHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -46 dBm
Adapter 1
Adapter 2
RF Cable
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
50 MHz 3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61cm (24
in.)
11500E
Test Setup
Figure 2-16
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
SYNTHESIZED
SWEEPER
Input
Type N Cable
Chapter 2
RF Output
Adapter
65
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Procedure the
term ‘the Worksheet’ refers to the Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test
Worksheet 1 on page 68 or Worksheet 2 on page 70, and the term ‘the
Test Record’ refers to the Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-16.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key.
2. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the CW key, then 5, 0, MHz).
3. Set the power level to -46 dBm (press Power Level, then -, 4, 6, dB(m)).
4. Switch RF ON.
Step 3. Ensure that the NFA preset is set to factory settings (press the System
key, then More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait until the routine is finished.
Step 5. Set the NFA frequency mode to fixed (press Frequency/Points key,
Frequency Mode and Fixed).
Step 6. Set the NFA frequency to 50 MHz (press Frequency/Points key, Fixed
Frequency, then 5, 0, MHz).
Step 7. Run the IF attenuator calibration routine (press the System key, then
More, More and Service. Press Enter password, then -, 2, 0, 1, 0 and Enter.
Then press Service, followed by IF Test and Gain Lin Test). The test takes
approximately 30 seconds to complete the routine.
Step 8. Record the results. Press the Gain Lin Results menu item once the above
routine is complete. Use the tab keys below the display to scroll through
the results. Press [|<—] or [—>|]). Record the Delta results along side the
corresponding index value in the Worksheet No. 1.
66
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Step 9. Convert the delta ratios to dB error values using 10*LOG10 (Delta
reading from index 1 to 71). Enter the value in the Worksheet No. 1.
Example: Index 16 = 1.004545 = 10 * LOG10 (1.004545) = 0.019694dB
Step 10. Using the error data calculated in the Worksheet No. 1, enter the
peak-to-peak error in dB over the 30 available measurement ranges in
the Worksheet 2.
Step 11. Record the worst Instrumentation Uncertainty into the Test Record and
ensure that the measured value is within its published specification.
Chapter 2
67
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-18
Index
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 1
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Index
1
36
2
37
3
38
4
39
5
40
6
41
7
42
8
43
9
44
10
45
11
46
12
47
13
48
14
49
15
50
16
51
17
52
18
53
19
54
20
55
21
56
22
57
23
58
68
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-18
Index
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 1
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Index
24
59
25
60
26
61
27
62
28
63
29
64
30
65
31
66
32
67
33
68
34
69
35
70
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
71
Chapter 2
69
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-19
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 2
Index Range
Measured Range
(dB)
1 - 41
0 - 40
2 - 42
1 - 41
3 - 43
2 - 42
4 - 44
3 - 43
5 - 45
4 - 44
6 - 46
5 - 45
7 - 47
6 - 46
8 - 48
7 - 47
9 - 49
8 - 48
10 - 50
9 - 49
11 - 51
10 - 50
12 - 52
11 - 51
13 - 53
12 - 52
14 - 54
13 - 53
15 - 55
14 - 54
16 - 56
15 - 55
17 - 57
16 - 56
18 - 58
17 - 57
19 - 59
18 - 58
20 - 60
19 - 59
21 - 61
20 - 60
22 - 62
21 - 61
70
Peak-Peak
Instrumentation
Uncertainty (dB)
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-19
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 2
Index Range
Measured Range
(dB)
23 - 63
22 - 62
24 - 64
23 - 63
25 - 65
24 - 64
26 - 66
25 - 65
27 - 67
26 - 66
28 - 68
27 - 67
29 - 69
28 - 68
30 - 70
29 - 69
31 - 71
30 - 70
Chapter 2
Peak-Peak
Instrumentation
Uncertainty (dB)
71
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Description
A noise source is connected to the NFA's input. The instrument then
measures its own uncorrected noise figure. For test purposes the NFA is
tested at the most accurate 20-26°C performance specification.
Test Specification
N8973A
10 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 4.4dB
+0.00117dB/MHz
10 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 4.4dB
+0.00117dB/MHz
>3000 MHz to 13200 MHz
<10.5dB
>13200 MHz to 26500 MHz
<12.5dB
N8974A and N8975A
NOTE
Specifications covering the frequency range of 10 MHz to 3000 MHz are
referenced to 0 MHz. To calculate the specification for any given
frequency point within this range simply multiply the frequency by the
corresponding dB/MHz value and add the initial dB value.
For example:
Frequency = 1500 MHz
Specification = 1500 * 0.00117 + 4.4dB = <6.155 dB
72
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-17
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8973A
Chapter 2
73
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-18
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8974A
Figure 2-19
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8975A
74
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-20
Required equipment for Instrument Noise Figure Test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Noise source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 3 GHz
346A standard or Option
001
Typical ENR: 4.5 - 6.5 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm (M) or N Type
Noise source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to
26.5 GHz
346C
Typical ENR: 12.0 - 17.0 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm (M) or N Type
Adapter
3.5 mm Precision (F) to 3.5 mm (F)
83059B
BNC Lead
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
NOTE
Equipment selection for this test is dependant on the model number of
the NFA. Reference must be made to Figure 2-20 for the actual
equipment configuration required for each individual model number.
Chapter 2
75
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Setup
Figure 2-20
Instrument Noise Figure Test Setup
N8973A
Type N
Opt 001
346A
OR
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Adapter
OR
N8974A
3.5mm
Std.
Insert ENR Disk
and Load from A:
Load ENR Data from C:
346A
OR
OR
Input
+28V Noise
Source Supply
Adapter
BNC Cable
N8975A
3.5mm
Std.
346C
76
Create File from Data on
Noise Source Label
NOISE
SOURCE
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Instrument Noise Figure Test Procedure the term ‘the
Test Record’ refers to the Instrument Noise Figure Test Record detailed
in the relevant Appendix for the model number being tested
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-20 on page 76.
Step 2. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key,
then More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 3. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait for the preset routine to finish.
Step 4. Load the noise source ENR calibration file from diskette (A:) or from the
NFA’s internal memory (C:). Alternatively, create an ENR file from the
data supplied on the noise source label (refer to the Noise Figure
Analyzers NFA Series User's Guide for more details). Do not calibrate
the source. The NFA should display Uncorrected in the active window.
Step 5. Configure the NFA as follows:
1. Set the measured result to Noise Figure (press the Result key, then
Noise Figure).
2. Select a single graphical display of Noise Figure (press the
key).
3. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key, then Sweep Mode: single).
4. Set the frequency mode to sweep (press the Frequency/Points key, then
Freq Mode and Sweep).
5. Set the start frequency (press the Frequency/Points key, then Start, 1,
0, MHz).
Chapter 2
77
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
6. Set the stop frequency dependant on the NFA’s upper frequency
range.
For the N8973A set the stop frequency to 3.0 GHz (press Stop , 3, ., 0,
GHz).
For the N8974A set the stop frequency to 6.7 GHz (press Stop , 6, ., 7,
GHz).
For the N8975A set the stop frequency to 26.5 GHz (press Stop, 2, 6,.,
5, GHz).
7. Set the number of measured points to 401 (press the Frequency/Points
key, then More, Points, 4, 0, 1, Enter).
Step 6. Models N8974A and N8975A only: run the Yig Tuned Filter alignment
by pressing System, Alignment and Align YTF then wait for the alignment
routine to complete.
Step 7. Restart the NFA sweep by pressing the Restart key.
Step 8. Once the single sweep is complete set the NFA to autorange (press the
Scale key and the Autoscale menu item.
Step 9. Set the specification limit lines as follows:
1. Press the Limit Lines key, then Limit Line 1⇑, Type Upper and Editor.
2. Set the first frequency to 10 MHz and the limit to 4.4dB, connected to
Yes by default (press 1, 0, MHz, [—>|], 4, ., 4, Enter or X1).
3. Dependant on the NFA being tested, repeat 2. for the remaining
frequencies and limits as detailed in Figure 2-21 thru Figure 2-23.
78
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-21
Specification limit line setup for N8973A
Figure 2-22
Specification limit line setup for N8974A
Chapter 2
79
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-23
Specification limit line setup for N8975A
4. Display the limit line on the screen (press <—Prev key and then
Display On).
Step 10. Ensure the trace is below the limit line and enter the overall pass/fail
result within the Test Record.
Step 11. Complete the Test Record by entering values at fixed frequency points on
the trace. These values are purely for reference to the historical data,
alternatively the screen could be saved to disk and archived, printed etc.
Step 12. Activate the markers function on the analyzer (press the Marker key and
the Marker 1, State and Normal menu items).
Step 13. Set the marker readout to 10 MHz, the first frequency with the Test
Record. Press 1, 0, MHz and enter the marker value in the Test Record
beside the corresponding frequency point.
Step 14. Repeat step 12 and step 13 for the remaining frequency points within the
Test Record, recording the marker reading at each point and ensuring
that the measured points are within the published specifications.
80
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Measurement Jitter
Test Description
A noise source is connected to the NFA's input. The Analyzer then
measures linear Y-Factor over 100 samples. The standard deviation is
then calculated using the "non-biased" or "n-1" method. STDEV uses the
following formula:
σ =
Equation 2-2
2
n x – ⎛⎝ x⎞⎠
----------------------------------------n( n – 1 )
∑
2
∑
The linear value is then converted to Log10 to give the Y-factor Standard
Deviation with no averaging.
Test Specification
Jitter with no averaging: Y-factor Standard Deviation <0.10dB
Related Adjustment
None
Chapter 2
81
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-21
Required equipment for Instrument Measurement Jitter Test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Noise source
Frequency Range: 1 GHz
346A Standard or option
001
Typical ENR: 4 - 7dB
Connection: 3.5 mm(M) or N Type(M)
Adapter
3.5 mm Precision (F) to 3.5 mm(F)
83059B
BNC cable
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
Test Setup
Figure 2-24
Measurement Jitter Test Setup
N8973A
Type N
Opt 001
346A
OR
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Adapter
N8974A
N8975A
3.5mm
Std.
Insert ENR Disk
and Load from A:
OR
Load ENR Data from C:
346A
OR
Input
+28V Noise
Source Supply
BNC Cable
Create File from Data on
Noise Source Label
NOISE
SOURCE
82
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Measurement Jitter Test Procedure the term ‘the
Worksheet’ refers to the Measurement Jitter Test Worksheet on page 86.
The term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the Measurement Jitter Test Record
detailed in the relevant model number Appendix for the being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-24.
Step 2. Ensure the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then
More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 3. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait for the routine to finish.
Step 4. Load the noise source diskette (A:) or from the NFA’s internal memory
(C:). Alternatively, create an ENR file from the data supplied on the noise
source label (refer to the Noise Figure Analyzers NFA Series User's
Guide) for more details). Do not calibrate the source. The NFA should
display Uncorrected in the active window.
Step 5. Set the NFA as follows:
1. Set the measure result to Y-Factor (press the Result key, then
Y-Factor).
2. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key, then Sweep Mode: single).
3. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key, then
Freq Mode and Fixed).
4. Set the fixed frequency to 1 GHz (press Frequency/Points, Fixed Freq,
1, GHz.
5. Set measure to Linear mode (press the Scale key, then Units Linear).
6. Select the display to meter mode (press the Format key, then Format
and Meter).
Step 6. Restart the NFA sweep (press the Restart key).
Step 7. Repeat step 6, recording 100 displayed linear Y-Factor values within the
Worksheet.
Step 8. Calculate the linear standard deviation with the equation given below:
Chapter 2
83
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
σ =
Equation 2-3
2
n x – ⎛ x⎞
⎝
⎠
----------------------------------------n( n – 1 )
∑
2
∑
where n = number of samples, ∑ = sum, x = measured values
Using an example result of approximately 2.5, the standard deviationLin
can be calculated as follows.
σ
84
=
√ 100*sum(value 1 to 1002) - (sum value 1 to 100)2 / 100(100-1)
=
√ 100* 638.3963 - 63838.4147 / 9900
=
√ 0.000123
=
0.011071Lin
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Table 2-22
Example worksheet
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
1-10
11-20
81-90
91-100
2.51173
2.53236
2.51882
2.54814
2.52119
2.52459
2.52375
2.51989
2.53333
2.52733
2.54246
2.52309
2.50778
2.50358
2.52668
2.52371
2.51997
2.52640
2.53861
2.53395
2.53139
2.52554
2.53976
2.54141
2.51906
2.53011
2.54001
2.52784
2.49573
2.51576
2.54133
2.50001
2.52075
2.54708
2.54232
2.54418
2.53547
2.53010
2.55278
2.52636
Step 9. Convert the linear standard deviation to Log10 using
10 * LOG10 (1+ standard deviationLin)
to give the standard deviation for Y-Factor results with no Averaging.
Enter the result into the Test Record ensuring that the measured value
is within its published specification.
Example:
Standard Deviation
=
10 * LOG10 (1+ standard deviationLin)
=
10 * LOG10 (1+ 0. 011071Lin)
=
0.0478dB
Chapter 2
85
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Table 2-23
Measurement Jitter Test Worksheet
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
1-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
86
Chapter 2
3
Technical Specifications
Specifications apply over 0° C to +55° C unless otherwise stated. The
Noise Figure Analyzer meets specification after 2 hours storage within
the operating temperature range, 1 hour after the analyzer is turned on
with ALIGNMENT running.
87
Technical Specifications
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency Range1 N8973A
Measurement
Bandwidth
(nominal)
10 MHz to 3 GHz
N8974A
10 MHz to 6.7 GHz
N8975A
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
N8973/4/5A
4 MHz, 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 400 KHz, 200 KHz, 100 KHz
Frequency
Reference2
Standard
Opt. 1D5a
Aging
< ±2 ppmb/year
< ±0.1 ppm/year
Temperature Stability
< ±6 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Settability
< ±0.5 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
a. Option 1D5 is recommended for applications requiring high frequency
stability.
b. ppm = parts per million(10-6)
1. The N8974A and N8975A NFA models have a mechanical switch fitted to allow them to switch
between the 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz frequency range and the 3.0 GHz to 6.7 GHz and the 3.0 GHz
to 26.5 GHz frequency ranges respectively. If the frequency range you are working in crosses the
3.0 GHz point, the mechanical switch operates. The mechanical switch has a limited number of
cycles over which it is reliable. To maximize the switches reliable life, switching over the
3.0 GHz switch should be limited where possible.
2. Temperature stability on the Standard Frequency reference is achieved 60 minutes after the
Analyzer is powered on.
88
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Frequency
Tuning Accuracy
(Start, Stop,
Centre, Marker)
Frequency (MHz)
Temperature (0oC - 55oC)
At measurement bandwidth of 4 MHz
10 - 3000
± Reference error + 100 kHz
> 3000 - 26500
± Reference error + 400 kHz
At measurement bandwidth of < 4 MHz
10 - 3000
± Reference error + 20 kHz
> 3000 - 26500
± Reference error + 20% of measurement
bandwidth
Chapter 3
89
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Noise Figure and Gain
Performance is dependent on the ENR1 of the noise source used:
N8973A
N8974A (< 3.0 GHz), N8975A (< 3.0 GHz)
Noise Figure
Gain
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7 dB
12 - 17 dB
20 - 22 dB
Measurement Range
0 to 20 dB
0 to 30 dB
0 to 35 dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± < 0.05 dB
± < 0.05 dB
± < 0.1 dB
Measurement Range
-20 to +40 dB
Instrument Uncertaintya
± < 0.17 dB
a. For measurement bandwidths below 4 MHz, and spacing between measurement points below
3 MHz, gain uncertainty may increase to a maximum of ±0.7 dB.
N8974A, N8975A (> 3.0 - 26.5 GHz)
Noise Figure
Gain
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7 dB
12 - 17 dB
20 - 22 dB
Measurement Range
0 to 20 dB
0 to 30 dB
0 to 35 dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± < 0.15 dB
± < 0.15 dB
± < 0.2 dB
Measurement Range
-20 to +40 dB
Instrument Uncertaintya
± < 0.17 dB
a. For measurement bandwidths below 4 MHz, and spacing between measurement points below
3 MHz, gain uncertainty may increase to a maximum of ±0.7 dB.
1. Excess Noise Ratio
90
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Instrument's own
Noise Figure
Frequency
Noise Figure
Noise Figure over a limited
temperature range of 23o C ± 3o C
10 MHz to
3.0 GHz
< 4.8 dB + (0.00124 * freq in MHz)
< 4.4 dB + (0.00117 * freq in MHz)
> 3.0 GHz to
13.2 GHz
< 12.0 dB
< 10.5 dB
>13.2 GHz to
26.5 GHz
< 16.0 dB
< 12.5 dB
Figure 3-1
Characteristic1 Noise Figure at 23°C ± 3°C (10 MHz to 3.0 GHz)
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
Chapter 3
91
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Figure 3-2
Characteristic1 Noise Figure at 23°C ± 3°C (3.0 GHz to 26.5 GHz)
Max external gain >65 dB
between noise
source output and
RF input2
Averaging
Up to 999 measurement results
Jitter3,4
Jitter with no averaging 5 dB Y-factor standard deviation <0.15 dB
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
2. Subject to maximum operating input power
3. Specified for a 4 MHz measurement bandwidth. Jitter in noise figure is equivalent to jitter in
Y-factor to within 10% for ENR >14dB and F <4dB. At minimum smoothing, jitter can limit
accuracy; the small jitter at high smoothing does not.
4. For true Gaussian noise, jitter reduces with increased averaging, typically by a factor of
1/√(number of averages)
92
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
RF Input
RF Input
Connector
N8973A
N female, 50Ω nominal
N8974/5A
APC 3.5 mm, 50Ω nominal (ESD sensitive)
SWR (50 Ω
reference)
SWR
Figure 3-3
10 MHz to
500 MHz
> 500 MHz
to 1.5 GHz
> 1.5 GHz
to 3.0 GHz
3.0 GHz to
6.7 GHz
6.7 GHz to
20.0 GHz
20.0 GHz to
26.5 GHz
< 1.5:1
< 1.7:1
< 1.8:1
< 1.3:1
< 2.1:1
< 2.4:1
Characteristic1 SWR at 23° C (10.0 MHz to 3.0 GHz)
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
Chapter 3
93
Technical Specifications
RF Input
Figure 3-4
Characteristic1 SWR at 23° C (3.0 GHz to 26.5 GHz)
Maximum
Operating Input
Power2
-10 dBm
Maximum
Protected Input
Level
±20Vdc; +15 dBm peak (or average) at RF
Note that this is the total wide-band noise power. Contributing factors
are: Noise source ENR, external gain, noise figure, and bandwidth
(including DUT).
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
2. This is the total wide-band noise power. Contributing factors are: Noise Source ENR, external
gain, noise figure and bandwidth (including DUT).
94
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Measurement
Measurement
Sweep
Number of points
2 to 401, or fixed frequency
Setting
Start/Stop, Center/Span, Frequency list of up to 401
points
Sweep trigger
Continuous or Single
Measurement
Speed (nominal)1,2
8 averages
64 averages
N8973A1
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8974A1 (≤ 3.0GHz)
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8975A1 (≤ 3.0GHz)
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8974A2 (> 3.0GHz)
< 70 ms/measurement
< 50 ms/measurement
N8975A2 (> 3.0GHz)
< 70 ms/measurement
< 50 ms/measurement
1. Corrected Noise Figure and Gain measured on a 3dB pad with a repetitive sweep of 101 points
from 600 MHz to 1.0 GHz with 4 MHz measurement bandwidth.
2. Corrected noise figure and gain measured on a 3 dB pad with a repetitive sweep of 101 points
from 4 GHz to 6 GHz with a 4 MHz measurement bandwidth.
Chapter 3
95
Technical Specifications
Measurement
Modes
Amplifier
Downconverter in DUT
With fixed or variable IF
Instrument can control an external LO via dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
Upconverter in DUT
With fixed or variable IF
Instrument can control an external LO via dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
System downconverter
Allows the use of an external downconverting mixer as part of the
measurement system. Instrument can control an external LO via
dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
Loss compensation
Single value between noise source and DUT, and between DUT and
analyzer
SNS Series Noise
Source
ENR tables automatic upload. Continuous upload of Tcold.
96
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Display
Display
Type
17cm color LCD panel
Output format
Graphical, table of values, or meter mode
Display channels
2
Number of
markers
4
Limit lines
Upper and lower for each of 2 channels
Display units
Noise figure
Noise figure (F dB), or as a ratio (F)
Gain
Gain (G dB), or as a ratio (G)
Y-factor
Y-factor (Y dB) or as a ratio (Y)
Effective noise
temperature
Effective input noise temperature in Kelvin, °C, °F
Phot
Relative power density in dB or as a ratio
Pcold
Relative power density in dB or as a ratio
Chapter 3
97
Technical Specifications
Connectivity
Connectivity
General
GPIB
IEEE-488 bus connector
LO GPIB
IEEE-488 bus connector dedicated to local oscillator control (SCPI or
custom command set)
Serial
RS-232, 9-pin D-SUB male
Printer
25-pin parallel D-Sub female, for connection with IEEE 1284 cable to a
PCL3 or PCL5 compatible printer
VGA Output1
15-pin mini D-SUB female
Probe Power
(nominal)
+15 Vdc, -12.6 Vdc at 150 mA max.
10 MHz REF OUT
50 Ω nominal BNC (f), >0 dBm
10 MHz REF IN
50 Ω nominal BNC (f), -15 to +10 dBm
Noise Source Drive Output
Connector
50 Ω-type BNC (f)
Output Voltage
ON:
28.0 V ±0.1 V at up to 60mA peak
OFF:
<1 V
1. 31.5 KHz horizontal, 60 Hz vertical sync rates, non-interlaced, Analog RGB 640 x
480
98
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
General Specifications
Data Storage
(nominal)
Internal drive:
30 traces, states or ENR tables
Floppy disk:
30 traces, states or ENR tables
Power
Requirements
On (line 1):
90 to 132 V rms, 47 to 440 Hz
195 to 250 V rms, 47 to 66 Hz
Power consumption <300 W
Standby (line 0): <5 W
Dimensions
Without handle: 222mm(H) x 410mm(D) x 375mm(W)
With handle (max): 222mm(H) x 515mm(D) x 409mm(W)
Weight (typical,
without options)
N8973A:
15.5 kg (34.2 lbs.)
N8974A:
17.5 kg (38.6 lbs.)
N8975A:
17.5 kg (38.6 lbs.)
Audible Noise
<42 dBa pressure and <5.0 bels power (ISODP7779)
Temperature
Range
Operating:
0° C to +55° C
Storage:
-40° C to +70° C
Humidity Range
Operating
Up to 95% relative humidity to 40° C (non-condensing)
Altitude Range
Operating
to 4,600 meters
Calibration
interval
1-year minimum recommended
Chapter 3
99
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
Electromagnetic
Compatibility
This product conforms with the protection requirements of European
Council Directive 89/336/EEC for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).
The conformity assessment requirements have been met using the
technical Construction file route to compliance, using EMC test
specifications EN 55011:1991 (Group 1, Class A) and EN 50082-1:1992.
In order to preserve the EMC performance of the product, any cable
which becomes worn or damaged must be replaced with the same type
and specification.
Radio-Frequency
Electromagnetic
Field Immunity
When a 3 Vm-1 radio-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to the
Noise Figure Analyzer according to IEC 61000-4-3:1995, degradation of
performance may be observed. When the frequency of the incident field
matches the frequency of a measured noise figure or gain, the values
displayed will deviate from those expected. This phenomenon will only
affect that specific frequency, and the Analyzer will continue to perform
to specification at all other frequency sample points.
The Noise Figure Analyzer may be unable to calibrate a chosen
frequency sample point, if the frequency matches that of an incident
electromagnetic field.1
1. Radiated Immunity Testing. When tested at 3 V/m, according to IEC 801-3/1984, the displayed
average noise level will be within specifications over the full immunity test frequency range of
27 MHz to 500 MHz except at the immunity test frequencies of 223.5714 MHz ± selected
resolution bandwidth, and 437.1429 MHz ± selected resolution bandwidth, where the displayed
average noise level can be up to -45 dBm. When the Noise Figure Analyzer tuned frequency is
identical to these immunity test frequencies, the measurements could be corrupted and there
may be signals of up to -70 dBm displayed on the screen.
100
Chapter 3
A
Model N8973A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when
working through each calibration and performance verification test on
model N8973A.
101
Model N8973A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
102
Pass/Fail
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
1500MHz to 3000 Hz
≤ 1.8:1
Appendix A
Pass/Fail
103
Model N8973A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2996.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
104
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
Appendix A
Pass/Fail
105
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
106
± 0.05dB
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
± 0.05dB
-63
9
± 0.05dB
-64
10
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
0 - 30 dB
Appendix A
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass
/Fail
± 0.05dB
107
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
108
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass
/Fail
± 0.10dB
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
-20 to > +40 dB
Appendix A
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
109
Model N8973A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 3000
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
110
Pass/Fail
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix A
111
Model N8973A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
112
Appendix A
B
Model N8974A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when
working through each calibration and performance verification test on
model N8974A.
113
Model N8974A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
114
Pass/Fail
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
> 500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
> 1500MHz to 3000MHz
≤ 1.8:1
> 3000MHz to 6700MHz
≤ 1.3:1
Appendix B
Pass/Fail
115
Model N8974A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
4000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
5000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6696.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
116
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
Appendix B
Pass/Fail
117
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
118
± 0.05dB
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
0 - 30 dB
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-63
9
-64
10
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
Appendix B
119
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measure
d NF
(dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
120
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.10dB
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
-20 to > +40 dB
Appendix B
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
121
Model N8974A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 6700
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
4000.00
< 10.50dB
5000.00
< 10.50dB
6000.00
< 10.50dB
6700.00
< 10.50dB
122
Pass/Fail
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix B
123
Model N8974A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
124
Appendix B
C
Model N8975A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when
working through each calibration and performance verification test on
model N8975A.
125
Model N8975A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
126
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
1500MHz to 3000MHz
≤ 1.8:1
3000MHZ to 6700MHz
≤ 1.3:1
6700MHz to 20000MHz
≤ 2.1:1
20000MHz to 26500MHz
≤ 2.4:1
Appendix C
Pass/Fail
127
Model N8975A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
4000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
5000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
7000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
8000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
9000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
10000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
11000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
12000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
13000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
14000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
128
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
15000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
16000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
17000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
18000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
19000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
20000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
21000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
22000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
23000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
24000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
25000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
26000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
26496.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
Appendix C
129
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
130
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
Appendix C
± 0.05dB
131
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
0 - 30 dB
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-63
9
± 0.05dB
-64
10
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
132
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
Appendix C
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.10dB
133
Model N8975A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
-20 to > +40 dB
134
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 26500
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
4000.00
< 10.50dB
5000.00
< 10.50dB
6000.00
< 10.50dB
7000.00
< 10.50dB
8000.00
< 10.50dB
9000.00
< 10.50dB
10000.00
< 10.50dB
11000.00
< 10.50dB
12000.00
< 10.50dB
Appendix C
Pass/Fail
135
Model N8975A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
13000.00
< 10.50dB
14000.00
< 12.50dB
15000.00
< 12.50dB
16000.00
< 12.50dB
17000.00
< 12.50dB
18000.00
< 12.50dB
19000.00
< 12.50dB
20000.00
< 12.50dB
21000.00
< 12.50dB
22000.00
< 12.50dB
23000.00
< 12.50dB
24000.00
< 12.50dB
25000.00
< 12.50dB
26000.00
< 12.50dB
26500.00
< 12.50dB
136
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix C
137
Model N8975A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
138
Appendix C
D
Caring for Connectors
The material contained in this appendix may not be apply to the
connector you are using on the instrument.
139
Caring for Connectors
Introduction
Introduction
Recent advances in measurement capabilities have made connectors and
connection techniques more important than ever before. Damage to the
connectors on calibration and verification devices, test ports, cables, and
other devices represent an increasing burden in downtime and expense.
This Appendix will help you get the best performance from all coaxial
microwave connectors:
• To know what to look for when cleaning and inspecting them, in order
to preserve their precision and extend their life.
• To make the best possible microwave connections, improving the
accuracy and repeatability of all of your measurements, saving both
time and money.
Connector Part Numbers
Refer to the latest edition of the HP RF and Microwave Test Accessories
Catalog for connector part numbers.
Handling and Storage
Microwave connectors must be handled carefully, inspected before use
and when not in use, stored in a way that gives them maximum
protection. Avoid touching the connector mating plane surfaces and
avoid setting the connectors contact-end down, especially on a hard
surface.
Never store connectors with the contact end exposed. Plastic end caps
are provided with all Agilent connectors and these should be retained
after unpacking and placed over the ends of the connectors whenever
they are not in use. Extend the threads of connectors that have a
retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut, then put the plastic end cap
over the end of the connector.
Above all, never store any devices loose in a box or in a desk or a bench
drawer. Careless handling of this kind is the most common cause of
connector damage during storage.
140
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Visual Inspection
Visual inspection and, if necessary, cleaning should be done every time a
connection is made.
Metal and metal by-product particles from the connector threads often
find their way onto the mating plane surfaces when a connection is
disconnected and even one connection made with a dirty or damaged
connector can damage both connectors beyond repair.
Magnification is helpful when inspecting connectors, but it is not
required and may actually be misleading. Defects and damage that
cannot be seen without magnification generally have no effect on
electrical or mechanical performance. Magnification is of great use in
analyzing the nature and cause of damage and in cleaning connectors,
but it is not required for inspection.
Obvious Defects and Damage
Examine the connectors first for obvious defects or damage: badly worn
plating, deformed threads or bent, broken, or misaligned center
conductors. Connector nuts should move smoothly and be free of burrs,
loose metal particles, and rough spots.
Immediately discard, or mark for identification and send away for repair,
any connector that has obvious defects like these.
Mating Plane Surfaces
Flat contact between the connectors at all points on their mating plane
surfaces is required for a good connection. Therefore, particular attention
should be paid to deep scratches or dents, and to dirt and metal or metal
by-product particles on the connector mating plane surfaces.
Also look for bent or rounded edges on the mating plane surfaces of the
center and outer conductors and for any signs of damage due to excessive
or uneven wear or misalignment.
Appendix D
141
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Light burnishing of the mating plane surfaces is normal, and is evident
as light scratches or shallow circular marks distributed more or less
uniformly over the mating plane surface. Other small defects and
cosmetic imperfections are also normal. None of these affect electrical or
mechanical performance.
If a connector shows deep scratches or dents, particles clinging to the
mating plane surfaces, or uneven wear, clean it and inspect it again.
Damage or defects like dents or scratches, which are deep enough to
displace metal on the mating plane surface of the connector, may indicate
that the connector itself is damaged and should not be used. Try to
determine the cause of the damage before making further connections.
Precision 7 mm Connectors
®
Precision 7mm connectors, among them APC-7 connectors, should be
inspected visually with the center conductor collets in place, and
whenever the collet has been removed. See Figure D-1.
The collet itself should be inspected for edge or surface damage and for
any signs that the spring contacts are bent or twisted. If they are, replace
the collet. When the collet has been re-inserted, verify that it springs
back immediately when pressed with a blunt plastic rod or with the
rounded plastic handle of the collet removing tool. Never use a pencil or
your finger for this purpose.
142
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Figure D-1
Precision 7mm Connector
Outer Conductor
Center Conductor
Collet
Outer
Conductor
Mating Plane
Dielectric
Support bead
Sexed Connectors
On sexed connectors, especially precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors,
pay special attention to the female center conductor contact fingers
(Figure D-2 and Figure D-3). These are very easily bent or broken, and
damage to them is not always easy to see. Any connector with damaged
contact fingers will not make good electrical contact and must be
replaced.
Figure D-2
Precision 3.5mm connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Appendix D
143
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Figure D-3
SMA connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
144
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning
Careful cleaning of all connectors is essential to assure long, reliable
connector life, to prevent accidental damage to connectors, and to obtain
maximum measurement accuracy and repeatability. Yet it is the one step
most often neglected or done improperly. Supplies recommended for
cleaning microwave connectors are as follows:
• Compressed Air.
• Alcohol.
• Cotton Swabs.
• Lint-Free Cleaning Cloth.
Compressed Air
Loose particles on the connector mating plane surfaces can usually be
removed with a quick blast of compressed air. This is very easy to do and
should always be tried first using compressed air from a small
pressurized can. The stream of air can be directed exactly where it is
wanted through a plastic (not metal) nozzle. No hoses or other
connections are needed. Hold the can upright, to avoid spraying liquid
along with the vapor.
Cleaning Alcohol
Dirt and stubborn contaminants that cannot be removed with
compressed air can often be removed with a cotton swab or lint free
cleaning cloth moistened with alcohol.
NOTE
Use the least amount of alcohol possible, and avoid wetting any plastic
parts in the connectors with the alcohol.
Appendix D
145
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Alcohol should be used in liquid rather than spray form. If a spray must
be used, always spray the alcohol onto a cloth or swab, never directly into
a connector.
Very dirty connectors can be cleaned with pure alcohol. Other solutions
that contain additives should not be used.
Carefully avoid wetting the plastic support bead (which is easily
damaged by alcohol) inside the connector and blow the connector dry
immediately with a gentle stream of compressed air.
Precision 7 mm Connectors
When precision 7mm connectors have been cleaned with the center
conductor collet removed, insert the collet and clean the mating plane
surfaces again.
When the connector is attached to a small component, or to a cable,
calibration, or verification standard, the easiest way to do this is to put a
lint-free cleaning cloth flat on a table and put a couple of drops of alcohol
in the center of the cloth. It should be noted that it is not necessary to
remove the collet to use this cleaning method.
Retract the connector sleeve threads so that the connector interface is
exposed. Gently press the contact end of the connector into the cloth
moistened with alcohol, then turn the connector.
Dirt on the connector interface will be scrubbed away by the cloth
without damaging the connector. Blow the connector dry with a gentle
stream of compressed air.
This cleaning method can be adapted even for fixed connectors such as
those attached to test ports. Simply fold the cloth into several layers of
thickness, moisten it, press it against the connector interface, and turn it
to clean the connector. Blow the connector dry with a gentle stream of
compressed air.
146
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning Interior Surfaces
Interior surfaces, especially on precision 3.5mm connectors, are very
difficult to reach, and it is easy to damage connectors in trying to clean
them. The openings are very small, and generally the center conductor is
supported only at the inner end, by a plastic dielectric support bead. This
makes it very easy to bend or break the center conductor.
One suitable method (Figure D-4) is to cut off the sharp tip of a round
wooden toothpick, or a smaller diameter wooden rod, and then to wrap it
with a single layer of lint-free cleaning cloth.
Figure D-4
Cleaning interior surfaces
NOTE
Metal must never be used (it will scratch the plated surfaces), and in
cleaning precision 3.5mm connectors the diameter must not exceed 0.070
in. (1.7 mm). The wooden handle of a cotton swab, for example, is too
large for this purpose. Even though the handle can sometimes be
inserted into the connector, even when wrapped in lint-free cloth,
movement of the handle against the center conductor can exert enough
force on the center conductor to damage it severely.
Appendix D
147
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Moisten the cloth with a small amount of alcohol and carefully insert it
into the connector to clean the interior surfaces. Use an illuminated
magnifying glass or microscope to see clearly the areas you wish to clean.
Drying Connectors
When you have cleaned a connector, always be sure that it is completely
dry before reassembling or using it. Blow the connector dry with a gentle
stream of clean compressed air and inspect it again under a magnifying
glass to be sure that no particles or alcohol residues remain.
148
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Even a perfectly clean, unused connector can cause problems if it is
mechanically out of specification. Since the critical tolerances in
microwave connectors are on the order of a few ten-thousandths of an
inch, using a connector gage is essential.
Before using any connector for the first time, inspect it mechanically
using a connector gage. How often connectors should be gaged after that
depends upon usage.
In general, connectors should be gaged whenever visual inspection or
electrical performance suggests that the connector interface may be out
of specification, for example due to wear or damage. Connectors on
calibration and verification devices should also be gaged whenever they
have been used by someone else or on another system or piece of
equipment.
Precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors should be gaged relatively more
often than other connectors, owing to the ease with which the center pins
can be pulled out of specification during disconnection.
Connectors should also be gaged as a matter of routine - after every 100
connections and disconnections initially, more or less often after that as
experience suggests.
Table D-1
Recommended connector gages
Connector gage kits containing all of the items required are included in many
Agilent calibration kits. They are also available separately. Part numbers are as
follows.
Type
Part Number/Ordering Information
Precision 7mm
(APC-7)
85050-80012
Precision 3.5mm
11752D
Precision 2.4mm
11752E
Type-N
85054-60047
Appendix D
149
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Mechanical Specifications
The critical dimension to be measured, regardless of connector type, is
the position (generally, the recession or setback) of the center conductor
relative to the outer conductor mating plane.
Mechanical specifications for connectors specify a maximum distance
and a minimum distance that the center conductor can be positioned
behind (or, in female Type-N connectors, in front of) the outer conductor
mating plane. Nominal specifications for each connector type exist, but
the allowable tolerances (and sometimes the dimensions themselves)
differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from device to device.
Therefore, before gaging any connector, consult the mechanical
specifications provided with the connector or the device itself.
Precision 7mm Connectors
In precision 7mm connectors, contact between the center conductors is
made by spring-loaded contacts called collets. These protrude slightly in
front of the outer conductor mating plane when the connectors are apart.
When the connection is tightened, the collets are compressed into the
same plane as the outer conductors.
For this reason, two mechanical specifications are generally given for
precision 7mm connectors: the maximum recession of the center
conductor behind the outer conductor mating plane with the center
conductor collet removed; and a minimum and maximum allowable
protrusion of the center conductor collet in front of the outer conductor
mating plane with the collet in place.
The center conductor collet should also spring back immediately when
pressed with a blunt plastic rod or with the rounded plastic handle of the
collet removing tool. Never use a pencil or your finger for this purpose.
With the center conductor collet removed, no protrusion of the center
conductor in front of the outer conductor mating plane is allowable, and
sometimes a minimum recession is required. Consult the mechanical
specifications provided with the connector or the device itself.
150
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Sexed Connectors
In Type-N and precision 3.5mm connectors, the position of the center
conductor in the male connector is defined as the position of the shoulder
of the male contact pin - not the position of the tip. The male contact pin
slides into the female contact fingers and electrical contact is made by
the inside surfaces of the tip of the female contact fingers on the sides of
the male contact pin.
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors
NOTE
No Type-N connector should ever be used when there is any possibility of
interference between the shoulder of the male contact pin and the tip of
the female contact fingers when the connectors are mated. In practice
this means that no Type-N connector pair should be mated when the
separation between the tip of the female contact fingers and the shoulder
of the male contact pin could be less than zero when the connectors are
mated. Gage Type-N connectors carefully to avoid damage.
Type-N connectors differ from other connector types in that the outer
conductor mating plane is offset from the mating plane of the center
conductors. The outer conductor sleeve in the male connector extends in
front of the shoulder of the male contact pin. When the connection is
made, this outer conductor sleeve fits into a recess in the female outer
conductor behind the tip of the female contact fingers (Figure D-5).
Appendix D
151
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Figure D-5
Type-N connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Therefore the mechanical specifications of Type-N connectors give a
maximum protrusion of the female contact fingers in front of the outer
conductor mating plane and a minimum recession of the shoulder of the
male contact pin behind the outer conductor mating plane.
As Type-N connectors wear, the protrusion of the female contact fingers
generally increases, due to wear of the outer conductor mating plane
inside the female connector. This decreases the total center conductor
contact separation and should be monitored carefully.
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors
75Ω Type-N connectors differ from 50Ω Type-N connectors most
significantly in that the center conductor, male contact pin, and female
contact hole are smaller. Therefore, mating a male 50Ω Type-N
connector with a female 75Ω Type-N connector will destroy the female
75Ω connector by spreading the female contact fingers apart
permanently or even breaking them.
NOTE
If both 75Ω and 50Ω Type-N connectors are among those on the devices
you are using, identify the 75 Ω Type-N connectors to be sure that they
are never mated with any 50Ω Type-N connectors.
152
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Using Connector Gages
Before a connector gage is used, it must be inspected, cleaned, and
zeroed.
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage
Inspect the connector gage and the gage calibration block carefully,
exactly as you have inspected the connector itself. Clean or replace the
gage or the block if necessary (dirt on the gage or block will make the
gage measurements of the connectors inaccurate and can transfer dirt to
the connectors themselves, damaging them during gaging or when the
connection is made).
Zeroing the Gage
Zero the gage by following the steps described below. Be sure that you
are using the correct connector gage and correct end of the gage
calibration block for the connector being measured.
• Hold the gage by the plunger barrel (not the dial housing or cap) and,
for male connectors, slip the protruding end of the calibration block
into the circular bushing on the connector gage. For precision 7mm,
female precision 3.5mm use the flat end of the gage calibration block.
For female Type-N connectors, use the recessed end of calibration
block.
• Hold the gage by the plunger barrel only (Figure D-6). Doing so will
prevent errors in gage readings due to the application of stresses to
the gage plunger mechanism through the dial indicator housing.
• Carefully bring the gage and gage block together, applying only
enough pressure to the gage and gage block to result in the dial
indicator pointer settling at a reading.
Appendix D
153
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
• Gently rock the two surfaces together, to make sure that they have
come together flatly. The gage pointer should now line up exactly with
the zero mark on the gage. If it does not, inspect and clean the gage
and gage calibration block again and repeat this process. If the gage
pointer still does not line up with the zero mark on the gage, loosen
the dial lock screw and turn the graduated dial until the gage pointer
exactly lines up with zero. Then retighten the lock screw.
Figure D-6
Using the connector gage
NOTE
Gages should be checked often, to make sure that the zero setting has
not changed. Generally, when the gage pointer on a gage that has been
zeroed recently does not line up exactly with the zero mark, the gage or
calibration block needs cleaning. Clean carefully and check the zero
setting again.
154
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Measuring Connectors
Measuring the recession of the center conductor behind the outer
conductor mating plane in a connector is done in exactly the same way as
zeroing the gage, except of course that the graduated dial is not re-set
when the measurement is made.
If the connector has a retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut precision 7mm connectors, for example - extend the sleeve or nut fully.
This makes it easier to keep the gage centered in the connector.
Hold the gage by the plunger barrel and slip the gage into the connector
so that the gage plunger rests against the center conductor. Carefully
bring the gage into firm contact with the outer conductor mating plane.
Apply only enough pressure to the gage so that the gage pointer settles
at a reading.
Gently rock the connector gage within the connector, to make sure that
the gage and the outer conductor have come together flatly. Read the
recession (or protrusion) from the gage dial. (For maximum accuracy,
measure the connector several times and take an average of the
readings.)
Rotate the gage relative to the connector between each measurement. To
monitor connector wear, record the readings for each connector over time.
Appendix D
155
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Making Connections
Making good connections is easy if a few simple principles are kept in
mind:
• Aall connectors must be undamaged, clean, and within mechanical
specification.
• The connectors must be precisely aligned with one another and in flat
physical contact at all points on the mating plane surfaces.
• The connection must not be too tight or too loose.
• Lateral or horizontal (bending) force must not be applied to the
connection, nor should any connection ever be twisted.
Align Connectors Carefully
Careful alignment of the connectors is critical in making a good
connection, both to avoid damaging connectors and devices and to assure
accurate measurements.
As you bring one connector up to the other and as you make the actual
connection, be alert for any sign that the two connectors are not aligned
perfectly. If you suspect that misalignment has occurred, stop and begin
again.
Alignment is especially important in the case of sexed connectors, such
as precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors, to avoid bending or breaking
the contact pins. The center pin on the male connector must slip
concentrically into the contact fingers of the female connector. This
requires great care in aligning the two connectors before and as they are
mated.
When they have been aligned, the center conductors must be pushed
straight together, not twisted or screwed together, and only the connector
nut (not the device itself) should then be rotated to make the connection.
(slight resistance is generally felt as the center conductors mate).
156
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Alignment of precision 7mm connectors is made easier by the fact that
the connector sleeve on one of the connectors must be extended fully (and
the sleeve on the other connector retracted fully) in order to make the
connection. Extending the sleeve creates a cylinder into which the other
connector fits.
If one of the connectors is fixed, as on a test port, extend that connector
sleeve and spin its knurled connector nut to make sure that the threads
are fully extended, while on the other connector, fully retract the
connector sleeve.
To Make a Preliminary Connection
Align the two connectors carefully and engage the connector nut over the
exposed connector sleeve threads on the other connector.
Gently turn the connector nut until a preliminary connection is made.
Let the connector nut pull the two connectors straight together. Do not
twist one connector body into the other (as you might drive a screw or
insert a light bulb) as this is extremely harmful and can damage the
connectors.
When the mating plane surfaces make uniform, light contact, the
preliminary connection is tight enough. Do not overtighten this
connection.
NOTE
At this stage all you want is a connection in which the outer conductors
make gentle contact at all points on both mating surfaces. Very light
finger pressure (no more than 2 inch-ounces of torque) is enough.
Appendix D
157
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench
When the preliminary connection has been made, use a torque wrench to
make the final connection. Tighten the connection only until the “break”
point of the wrench is reached, when the wrench handle gives way at its
internal pivot point. Do not tighten the connection further.
Also make sure that torque actually is being applied to the connection
through the torque wrench, not only to the wrench handle or in any way
that prevents the break point of the wrench from controlling the torque
applied to the connection. Suggestions to ensure that torque is actually
being applied are given in Table D-2 on page 159.
Using a torque wrench guarantees that the connection will not be too
tight, thus preventing possible damage to the connectors and impaired
electrical performance. It also guarantees that all connections will be
made with the same degree of tightness every time they are made.
Torque wrenches pre-set to the correct value for each connector type are
included in many Agilent calibration kits, and they are also available
separately. Torque settings are detailed in Table D-2.
When using a torque wrench, prevent rotation of anything other than the
connector nut that is being tightened with the torque wrench. Generally
this is easy to do by hand (all the more so if one of the connectors is fixed)
as on a test port. In other situations, an open-end wrench can be used to
keep the bodies of the connectors from turning.
Hold the torque wrench lightly by the knurled end of the handle only.
Apply force at the end of the torque wrench only, perpendicular to the
wrench and always in a plane parallel to the outer conductor mating
planes. This will result in torque being applied to the connection through
the wrench until the break point of the wrench is reached.
Avoid pivoting the wrench handle on the thumb or other fingers. This
results in an unknown amount of torque being applied to the connection
when the break point of the wrench is reached. Avoid twisting the head
of the wrench relative to the outer conductor mating plane. This results
in applying more than the recommended torque.
158
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Table D-2
Recommended Torque Settings
Type
Description
Precision
7mm
12 lb-in (136 N-cm.)
Precision
3.5mm
8 lb-in (90 N-cm)
SMA
5 lb-in (56 N-cm) Use the SMA wrench to connect male
SMA connectors to female precision 3.5min connectors.
Connections of male precision 3.5mm. connectors to female
SMA connectors can be made with the precision 3.5mm
torque wrench (8 lb-in).
Type-N
Type-N connectors may be connected finger tight. If a
torque wrench is used, 12 lb-in (136 N-cm) is
recommended.
To reiterate the main do’s and do not’s detailed previously:
• Avoid holding the wrench tightly, in such a way that the handle is not
pivoted but simply pushed downward the same amount throughout
its length. If this is done, an unlimited amount of torque can be
applied.
• Hold the wrench at the same point near the end of the handle every
time, and always in the same orientation. Whenever possible, begin
tightening the connection with the wrench held horizontally
Disconnection
Disconnect connectors by first loosening the connector nut that was
tightened in order to make the connection. If necessary, use the torque
wrench or an open-end wrench to start the process, but leave the
connection finger tight. At all times support the devices and the
connection to avoid putting lateral (bending) force on the connectors.
Complete the disconnection by disconnecting the connector nut
completely.
Appendix D
159
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
NOTE
Never disconnect connectors by twisting one connector or device out of
the other as one might remove a screw or a light bulb. This is extremely
harmful and connector damage can occur whenever the device body
rather than the nut alone is being turned.
If the connection is between sexed connectors, pull the connectors
straight apart and be especially careful not to twist the body of any
device as you do so. Twisting the connection can damage the connector by
damaging the center conductors or the interior component parts to which
the connectors themselves are attached. It can also scrape the plating
from the male contact pin or even (in rare instances) unscrew the male or
female contact pin slightly from its interior mounting, bringing it out of
specification (this can also occur if the female contact fingers are
unusually tight).
160
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Adapters
Adapters are used to connect a device with one connector interface to a
device or to test equipment that has another interface, or to reduce wear
on connectors that may be difficult or expensive to replace. Reducing
wear is possibly the most important use of adapters, especially when
devices that have SMA connectors are being used.
SMA connectors are low-cost connectors generally used up to about
23GHz. They are not precision mechanical devices and are not designed
for repeated connections and disconnections as they wear out quickly
and are very often found, upon assembly, to be out of specification, even
before they have been used. This makes them potentially destructive to
any precision 3.5mm connectors with which they might be mated.
CAUTION
Worn, damaged, or out-of-specification SMA connectors can destroy a
precision 3.5mm connector even on the very first connection. For this
reason it is recommended that you use high-quality precision adapters,
sometimes called “connector savers”, whenever more than a few
connections are to be made between SMA and precision 3.5mm
connectors.
In most applications two adapters will be required, one each at the input
and the output of the device. Male-female adapters cause no change in
the sex of the interface. The same interface is presented when the
adapter is in place as is presented in the original setup.
Same-sex adapters (male-male, female-female) change the sex of the
interface. For example, if the original interface presents a male
connector, attaching a female-female adapter will result in a female
interface to which devices or cables that have male SMA (or male
precision 3.5mm) connectors can be connected.
Adapters are included in many Agilent calibration kits and with many
Agilent devices, or they may be ordered separately.
Appendix D
161
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Table D-3
Adapters
Type
Description
Precision 7mm and
Type-N
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5 mm
Precision 7mm/male 50Ω Type-N Precision
7mm/female 50Ω Type-N
Precision 3.5mm
and SMA
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
Female 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5mm “Connector
saver” male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
“Connector saver” male 3.5mm/male 3.5mm
162
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table D-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Handling and Storage
DO
DO NOT
•
Keep connectors clean.
•
Touch mating plane surfaces.
•
Extend sleeve or connector nut.
•
Set connectors contact-end down.
•
Use plastic end caps during
storage.
Visual Inspection
DO
DO NOT
•
Inspect each connector carefully
before every connection.
•
Look for metal particles, scratches
and dents.
•
Use a damaged connector EVER.
Cleaning
DO
DO NOT
•
Try compressed air first.
•
Use any abrasives.
•
Clean connector threads.
•
Get liquid onto plastic support
beads.
Appendix D
163
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table D-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Gaging
DO
DO NOT
•
Clean and zero the gage before
using.
•
Use correct gage type.
•
Use correct end of calibration
block.
•
Gage all connectors before first
use.
•
Use an out-of-spec connector.
Making Connections
DO
DO NOT
•
Align connectors carefully.
•
•
Make preliminary connection
lightly.
Apply bending force to
connection.
•
Overtighten preliminary
connection.
•
Twist or screw in connectors.
•
Tighten past “break” point of
torque wrench.
•
Turn connector nut only to tighten.
•
Use a torque wrench for final
connection.
164
Appendix D
Index
Numerics
10MHz Out Freqency Reference
Adjustment
Test Procedure, 19
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy
Related Adjustment, 12
Required Test Equipment, 13
Test Description, 12
Test Procedure, 14
Test Record, 102, 114, 126
Test Setup, 13
Test Specification, 12
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Adjustment
Required Test Equipment, 18
Test Description, 18
Test Setup, 19
10MHz REF IN, 98
10MHz REF OUT , 98
3.0 GHz switch, 88
A
adaptors and cables
recommended, 8
adaptors for connectors, 161
adjustment procedures, 10
Aging, 88
alignment
connectors, 156
Altitude Range, 99
Audible Noise, 99
B
Buyer’s remedies, vi
C
Calibration
Cycle, 3
calibration
annual, 3
Index
Input VSWR vector network
analyzer, 27
Input VSWR vector network
analyzer 2, 32
interval, 3
preparing for test, 1, 4
test description , 11
Calibration interval, 99
Caring for Connectors, 139
75 ohm type-n connectors, 152
adaptors, 161
alignment, 156
cleaning, 145
cleaning interior surfaces, 147
cleaning solvents, 145
compressed air, 145
disconnection, 159
drying, 148
final connection, 158
gages, 153
handling and storage, 140
inspecting and cleaning the
gage, 153
introduction, 140
making connections, 156
mating plane surfaces, 141
measuring connectors, 155
mechanical inspection, 149
mechanical specifications, 150
microwave principles, 163
obvious defects and damage,
141
precision 7mm , 142
precision 7mm cleaning, 146
precision 7mm mechanical
specifications, 150
preliminary connection, 157
sexed connectors, 143, 151
type-n connectors, 151
visual inspection, 141
zeroing the gage, 153
Caution definition, ii
center frequency, 37
cleaning
connectors, 145
drying connectors, 148
interior connector surfaces,
147
precision 7mm connectors, 146
solvents for connectors, 145
compressed air
connector cleaning, 145
connectivity
10MHz REF IN, 98
10MHz REF OUT, 98
GPIB, 98
LO GPIB, 98
printer, 98
probe power, 98
serial, 98
technical specifications, 98
VGA output, 98
Connector, RF input, 93
D
Data Storage, 99
Declaration of conformity
N8973A, viii
N8974A, viii
N8975A, viii
defects and damage
connectors, 141
Dimensions, 99
disconnection of connectors, 159
display
technical specifications, 97
Display channels, 97
display output format, 97
display type, 97
Display units, 97
Downconverter in DUT, 96
E
Electromagnetic compatibility,
100
165
Index
exclusive remedies, vi
F
filter shape, 37
final connection
connectors, 158
Floppy disk storage, 99
frequency
technical specifications, 88
Frequency Accuracy
mdel N8975A Test Record, 128
model N8973A Test Record,
104
model N8974A Test Record,
116
performing calculations
manually, 49
performing calculations using
CSV file, 48
Related Adjustment, 38
Required Test Equipment, 38
Test Description, 37
Test Procedure, 39
Test Setup, 39
Test Specification, 37
G
gages
inspecting and cleaning, 153
measuring connectors, 155
using with connectors, 153
zeroing, 153
gain
technical specifications, 90
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Related Adjustment, 64
Required Test Equipment, 65
Test Description, 63
Test Procedure, 66
Test Record, 109, 121, 134
Test Setup, 65
Test Specification, 64
166
Test Worksheet No. 1, 68
Test Worksheet No. 2, 70
GPIB connector, 98
Test Setup, 76
Test Specification, 72
Internal drive storage, 99
H
handling and storage
connectors, 140
Humidity Range, 99
L
Limit lines, 97
LO GPIB connector, 98
Loss compensation, 96
I
Input VSWR
10MHz to 500MHz
measurement, 29
1500MHz to 3000MHz
measurement, 31, 34
500MHz to 1500MHz
measurement, 30
6700MHz to 26500MHz
measurement, 35, 36
model N8973A Test Record,
103
model N8974A Test Record,
115
model N8975A Test Record,
127
Related Adjustments, 24
Required Test Equipment, 24
Test Description, 22
Test Procedure, 26
Test Setup, 26
Test Specification, 24
vector network analyzer 2
calibration, 32
vector network analyzer
calibration, 27
Instrument Noise Figure
model N8974A Test Record,
123
Related Adjustment, 75
Required Test Equipment, 75
Test Description, 72
Test Procedure, 77
M
markers, 97
Maximum operating input
power, 94
Maximum protected input level,
94
measuement
using gages on connectors, 155
measurement
Input VSWR 10MHz to
500MHz, 29
Input VSWR 1500MHz to
3000MHz, 31, 34
Input VSWR 500MHz to
1500MHz, 30
Input VSWR 6700MHz to
26500MHz, 35, 36
technical specifications, 95
Measurement Jitter
Related Adjustment, 81
Required Test Equipment, 82
Test Description, 81
Test Procedure, 83
Test Record, 111, 123, 137
Test Setup, 82
Test Specification, 81
mechanical
connector inspection, 149
connector specifications, 150
precision 7mm connector
specifications, 150
mechanical 3.0 GHz switch, 88
microwave
Index
Index
principles of connector care,
163
model N8973A
worksheets and test records,
101
model N8974A
worksheets and test records,
113
model N8975A
worksheets and test records,
125
Modes, 96
N
N8973A
Declaration of conformity, viii
N8974A
Declaration of conformity, viii
N8975A
Declaration of conformity, viii
noise figure
instrument’s own, 91
technical specifications, 90
Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy
model N8973A Test Record,
106
model N8973A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 107
model N8973A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 108
model N8973A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 106
model N8974A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 119
model N8974A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 120
model N8974A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 118
model N8975A Test Record,
131
Index
model N8975A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 132
model N8975A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 133
model N8975A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 131
model N8975A Test
Worksheet, 60
Related Adjustment, 54
Required Test Equipment, 55
Test Description, 54
Test Procedure, 56
Test Setup, 56
Test Specification, 54
Noise Source Drive Output, 98
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Related Adjustment, 51
Required Test Equipment, 51
Test Description, 51
Test Procedure, 52
Test Record, 105, 117, 130
Test Setup, 52
Test Specification, 51
Note definition, ii
number of, 97
Number of markers, 97
Number of points, 95
O
Operating altitude range, 99
Operating humidity range, 99
Operating temperature, 99
Output format, 97
P
performance verification
preparing for test, 1, 4
test description , 11
performance verification and
adjustment procedures, 10
Power Requirements, 99
preliminary connection
connectors, 157
Preparing for Calibration and
Performance Verification
Test, 1, 4
Printer port, 98
Probe power, 98
purpose of tests, 2
R
recommended accessories, 8
recommended test equipment, 6
recording of test results, 5
required test equipment
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy , 13
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Adjustment, 18
Frequency Accuracy, 38
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 65
Input VSWR, 24
Instrument Noise Figure, 75
Measurement Jitter, 82
Noise figure Range and
Accuracy , 55
Noise Source Supply Accuracy,
51
RF Input
technical specifications, 93
S
Safety Notices, ii
Serial port, 98
Settability , 88
Setting , 95
SNS Series Noise Source, 96
Speed per frequency point, 95
Storage temperature, 99
Sweep, 95
Sweep trigger, 95
switch reliability, 88
SWR (50 W reference), 93
167
Index
System downconverter, 96
T
technical specifications, 87
altitude range, 99
audible noise, 99
averaging , 92
calibration interval, 99
connectivity , 98
connector, 93
data storage, 99
dimensions, 99
display , 97
electromagnetic compatibility,
100
frequency, 88
frequency range, 88
humidity range, 99
jitter, 92
max operating input power, 94
max protected input level, 94
measurement, 95
modes, 96
noise figure and gain, 90
power requirements, 99
RF Input, 93
SNS, 96
speed per frequency point, 95
sweep, 95
tuning accuracy, 89
valid temperature range, 87
weight, 99
Temperature Range, 99
Temperature Stability, 88
test descripntion
Measurement Jitter, 81
Test description, 11
test description
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy, 12
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Adjustment, 18
168
Frequency Accuracy, 37
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 63
Input VSWR , 22
Instrument Noise Figure, 72
Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy, 54
Noise Source Supply Accuracy ,
51
test equipment
recommended, 6
test procedure
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy, 14
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Adjustment, 19
Frequency Accuracy, 39
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 66
Input VSWR , 26
Instrument Noise Figure, 77
Measurement Jitter, 83
Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy, 56
Noise Source Supply Accuracy ,
52
test purposes, 2
test record
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy, 102,
114, 126
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 109, 121, 134
Measurement Jitter, 111, 123,
137
model N8973A frequency
accuracy, 104
model N8973A input VSWR,
103
model N8973A noise figure
range and accuracy
14-16dB results, 107
model N8973A noise figure
range and accuracy
20-22dB results, 108
model N8973A noise figure
range and accuracy
4.5-6.5dB results, 106
model N8974A frequency
accuracy, 116
model N8974A input VSWR,
115
model N8974A instrument
noise figure, 123
model N8974A noise figure
range and accuracy
14-16dB results, 119
model N8974A noise figure
range and accuracy
20-22dB results, 120
model N8974A noise figure
range and accuracy
4.5-6.5dB results, 118
model N8975A frequency
accuracy, 128
model N8975A input VSWR,
127
model N8975A noise figure
range and accuracy , 131
model N8975A noise figure
range and accuracy
14-16dB results, 132
model N8975A noise figure
range and accuracy
20-22dB results, 133
model N8975A noise figure
range and accuracy
4.5-6.5dB results, 131
noise figure range and
accuracy model 8974A, 118
noise figure range and
accuracy model N8973A,
106
Noise Source Supply Accuracy,
105, 117, 130
Index
Index
test records
model N8973A, 101
model N8974A, 113
model N8975A, 125
test results
recording, 5
test setup
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy, 13
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Adjustment, 19
Frequency Accuracy, 39
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 65
Input VSWR, 26
Instrument Noise Figure, 76
Measurement Jitter, 82
Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy, 56
Noise Source Supply Accuracy,
52
test specification
10MHz Out Frequency
Reference Accuracy, 12
Frequency Accuracy, 37
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 64
Input VSWR, 24
Instrument Noise Figure, 72
Measurement Jitter, 81
Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy, 54
Noise Source Supply Accuracy,
51
test worksheet
Gain Measurement
Uncertainty, 68, 70
model N8975A noise figure
range and accuracy, 60
test worksheets
model N8973A, 101
model N8974A, 113
model N8975A, 125
Index
U
Upconverter in DUT, 96
V
verification and adjustment
listings, 10
VGA output, 98
visual inspection
connectors, 141
W
warm up time, 4
Warning
compressed air, 145
liquid freon, 145
safety class 1 product, iv
use as specified, iv
Warning definition, ii
Warranty, v
Weight, 99
worksheets and test records
model N8973A, 101
model N8974A, 113
model N8975A, 125
169
Index
170
Index
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