null 8593305

ISSUED
ENCLOSURE
PERFORMANCE DATA
03/07/05
TYPE
CATALOG#
3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
AEEAGD
TEFC
CD3004R
NAMEPLATE INFORMATION
OUTPUT
HP KW
POLE
FRAME
SIZE
300 224
4
5007C
VOLTAGE HZ
460
RATED
AMBIENT
INS.
CLASS
NEMA
DESIGN
TIME
RATING
SERVICE
FACTOR
40oC
F
C
CONT.
1.15
60
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
FULL
LOAD
RPM
EFFICIENCY
FULL LOAD
3/4 LOAD 1/2 LOAD
MIN. %
NOM. %
%
%
1775
93.5
94.1
CURRENTS
FULL LOAD
NO LOAD
65
92.4
91
200
SAFE STALL
TIME IN
SECONDS
COLD
HOT
20
APPROVED:
14
2200
G
PULL
UP
%FLT
BREAK
DOWN
%FLT
ROTOR
2
WR
2
lb-ft
160
250
132
ALLOWABLE
STARTS
PER HOUR
COLD
HOT
2
86.5
NEMA KVA
CODE LETTER
TORQUE
887
89.5
LOCKED ROTOR
334
LOCKED
FULL LOAD
ROTOR
lb-ft
%FLT
POWER FACTOR
F. L.
3/4 LOAD 1/2 LOAD
%
%
%
1
M. PRATER
MAXIMUM
POWER FACTOR
CORRECTION
81.5
52 KVAR
INERTIA
MAX
NEMA
ALLOWABLE
LOAD
2
2
WK
WK
2
lb-ft
lb-ft 2
ACCEL TIME
MAX
NEMA
ALLOWABLE
LOAD
2
2
WK
WK
Sec
Sec
1197
4.14
7.87
3A057CD3004R
REVISION
2390
SOUND
PRESSURE
LEVEL @ 3 FT
dB(A)
92
DRAWING NO.
0
DATE:
April 28, 2005
CONNECTION DIAGRAM
CATALOG NO.:
CD3004R
SCHEMATIC - ∆ / Y CONNECTION
ACROSS THE LINE CONNECTION
460 VOLT CONNECTION
WYE START-DELTA RUN CONNECTION
LINE
460 VOLT START
LINE
460 VOLT RUN
DWG NO.
DAC-1545-3
OPERATION
&
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL
FOR
THREE PHASE
INDUCTION
MOTORS
TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company
5100 North IH-35
Round Rock, Tx. 78681
Frame Size 5000 and Larger
INDEX
PAGE
1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………….
2. ACCEPTING, INSPECTION, STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION…………………
3. INSTALLATION………………………………………………………………………..
3.1 Site and environment for motor installation………………………………..
3.2 Foundation………………………………………………………………………..
3.3 Installation of shaft coupling…………………………………………………..
3.4 Installation of belt drive…………………………………………………………
3.5 Conveyance with chain or gear……………………………………………….
3.6 Electrical connections………………………………………………………….
4. OPERATION……………………………………………………………………………
4.1 Examination before starting……………………………………………………
4.2 Starting operation………………………………………………………………..
5. MAINTENANCE………………………………………………………………………..
5.1 Major points in regular inspection and maintenance……………………..
5.2 Motor windings…………………………………………………………………...
5.3 Cleaning of the interior of the motor…………………………………………
5.4 Cleaning of the exterior of the motor………………………………………...
5.5 Maintenance of anti-friction bearings………………………………………..
5.5.1 Frequency of re-lubrication……………………………………………..
5.5.2 Kinds of grease……………………………………………………………
5.5.3 Grease quantity……………………………………………………………
5.5.4 Re-greasing………………………………………………………………..
5.5.5 Oil re-lubrication………………………………………………………….
5.5.6 Cleaning and installation of bearings…………………………………
5.6 Maintenance of sleeve bearings………………………………………………
5.6.1 Daily inspection…………………………………………………………...
5.6.2 Regular examination……………………………………………………..
5.6.3 Disassembly……………………………………………………………….
5.6.4 Re-assembly……………………………………………………………….
5.7 Maintenance of slip rings (for Wound Rotor only)…………………………
5.8 Maintenance of non-reverse ratchet mechanism (Vertical Motors only)
6. FAULT FINDING AND RECOGNITION……………………………………………..
1
2
4
4
4
6
9
10
11
12
12
15
17
17
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
20
22
23
24
24
24
25
26
27
29
31
1. INTRODUCTION
This and the following instruction address the more common situations encountered in motor
installation, operation and maintenance. For the TWMC motor warranty to be and to remain in
effect, the motor must be installed and operated in strict accordance with the outline drawing,
motor nameplates and these instructions and must not be altered or modified in any unauthorized
manner.
During the installation and operation of motors in heavy industrial applications there is a danger of
live electrical parts and rotating parts. Therefore to prevent injury and/or damage the basic
planning work for installation, transportation, assembly, operation, etc... needs to be done and
checked by authorized and competent personnel only.
Since these instructions cannot cover every installation, operation, and maintenance the following
points should be considered and checked.
●
The technical data and information on permissible use such as assembly, connection,
ambient and operating conditions given in the related catalogue, operating instructions,
nameplates and other production documentation.
●
The general erection and safety regulations.
●
The local and plant-specific specifications and requirements.
●
The proper use of transport, lifting devices and tools.
●
The use of personal protective equipment.
Following indications should be observed when reading these instructions.
Safety instructions are marked as follows:
Warning of electric hazards for personnel.
Warning of dangers for personnel.
ATTENTION!
Warning of damage for the motor or installation.
1
2. ACCEPTING, INSPECTION, STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION
2.1 Inspection upon receipt
Check the following points upon receipt:
● Are the nameplate ratings identical with what you ordered?
● Are dimensions and color in compliance with your specifications?
● Are the nameplate ratings for space heater, thermal protector, temperature detector, etc.
identical with what you ordered?
● Is there any damage?
● Are all accessories and accompanying instruction manuals in good order?
● Please ensure that the arrow head indicator really indicates direction of rotation.
● If there is any specific requirements, please ensure they are in conformity with your
specifications.
2.2.1
Storage
When motors are not in operation, the following precautionary measures should be undertaken to
assure best performance.
2.2.2
Place
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
High and dry, well ventilated without direct sun, dust or corrosive gas.
Not located near a boiler or freezer.
Entirely free from vibration and easy movement.
Motors should be put on pallets to prevent moisture.
2.2.3
Motors should be well-shielded form dust, but under well-ventilated circumstances.
2.2.4 Moisture prevention
Since moisture can be very detrimental to electrical components, the motor temperature should
be maintained about 3ºC above the dew point temperature by providing either external or internal
heat. If the motor is equipped with space heaters, they should be energized at the voltage shown
by the space heater nameplate attached to the motor. Incandescent light bulbs can be placed
within the motor to provide heat. However, if used, they must not be allowed to come in contact
with any parts of the motor because of the concentrated hot spot that could result.
2.2.5
Even during storage, the insulation resistance should be kept above the specified values.
(a) For measurement of insulation resistance and acceptable standard values, please refer
to measures stated in 3.1.2 “Measurement of insulation resistance”.
(b) Insulation resistance test should be performed once every three months.
2
2.2.6
If the motor is not in operation for a long period (one week and above) after installation or has
been in operation but stopped for a period of time, the following precautions must be taken.
(a) Protect the motor as measures stated in 2.2.5.
(b) Insulation resistance test should be performed as stated in 2.3.6.
2.2.7 Bearing protection
(a) If the motor has been provided with a shaft shipping brace to prevent shaft movement
during transit, it must be removed before operating the motor. It is very important that
this brace be re-installed exactly as it was originally, before the motor is moved from
storage or any time when the motor is being transported. This prevents axial rotor
movement that might damage the bearings.
(b) Motors equipped with sleeve bearings are shipped from the factory with the bearing oil
reservoirs drained. In storage, the oil reservoirs should be properly filled to the center of
the oil level gauge with a good grade of rust inhibiting oil. This will keep the bearing
journals well oiled to prevent rusting. The motor shaft should be rotated several
revolutions every month ensuring the shaft does not come to rest in its original position.
While the shaft is rotating, it should be pushed to both extremes of the endplay.
(c) Motors with anti-friction bearings are properly lubricated with the correct grade of grease
at the factory and no further greasing is required in storage. The shaft should be rotated
several revolutions every month to maintain proper distribution of the grease within the
bearings.
(d) Tilt-pad bearings are a type of sleeve bearing used in special design applications. Due to
the nature of this bearing, a loose oil ring for delivering lubricant cannot be provided.
Therefore, during the storage internal, oil must be periodically manually introduced into
the pads and housing to prevent the occurrence of oxidation of the precision machined
components.
(1) Remove the pipe plug from the bearing cap located above the tilt-bearing shell.
(2) Pour in approximately one cup of oil every month and rotate the shaft a few
revolutions about every two (2) weeks.
(3) For long periods of storage, the oil that accumulates in the housing should be
removed.
2.2.8
ATTENTION!
Care should be taken to keep parts such as fitting surfaces, key, shaft extension and axial
central hole from any collision with foreign matter. Grease should also be generously
applied to prevent rusting.
2.2.9 Transportation
To keep the rotating parts of motors from moving, thus preventing damage and scratching during
transportation, they should be held securely with a locking device. Remove all transit clamps
before operating the motor. It is very important that this device be reinstalled exactly as it was
originally, before the motor is moved from storage or any time when the motor is being
transported. The vertical mounting type motors should be transported in the vertical position.
3
Do not use the hoisting hook/eyebolts to lift more than the motor itself. They are
designed to support the motor only. Make sure the hoisting hook is correctly
attached to the eyebolt(s)/lug(s) and that they are fully screwed in before hoisting.
Also note such parts as fan cover, ventilation box, bracket, slip-ring, etc. may have
their own hoisting lugs which can only carry their own weight. Nothing extra
should be attached while hoisting.
Do not twist the steel wires and make sure the eyebolts have been firmly screwed
and the sling angle is correct.
3 INSTALLATION
Motor installation – site and environment
3.1.1
Standard environment and site conditions for the installation of motors are usually set as follows:
(a) Ambient temperature: -10~40ºC
(b) Humidity: Relative humidity below 90%RH for totally enclosed types, and below 80%RH
for semi-enclosed types.
(c) Elevation: below 1000 meters or 3300 feet.
(d) Harmful gases, liquids, dusts, high moisture should be absent.
(e) Foundations should be strong and free of vibration.
If there are any special environmental conditions, please inform TWMC prior ordering.
3.1.2 Ventilation and space
(a) Installation area should be well ventilated.
(b) The installation space should be large enough to facilitate heat dissipation and
maintenance.
3.2 Foundation
3.2.1
Use rigid and solid sole plate or common bed as foundation.
For best motor performance, it is advisable to use a sole plate or common bed, particularly when
using a shaft coupling.
4
3.2.2 Installation
(a) Select an appropriate foundation surface for the sole plate or common bed, which will be,
considered the ultimate level.
(b) Align the position of the common bed with reference to that level.
(c) Align the level accuracy at least at four points such as bearing mounting, shaft extension
etc. The accuracy should be within 0.04mm or .0015 inches
(d) Sole plate or common bed should be embedded in concrete foundation as illustrated in Fig.
3. Stiff pads should also be installed beneath the wedges, which are welded together at
various spots about 400-500mm (15.75-19.70 inches) apart. This will enable the foundation
to evenly carry the weight of the whole motor.
(e) The base should be sturdy and rigid to keep it
flat and level.
(f) Make sure the mortar and concrete are
completely dry, and the precision of the level is
acceptable, and then set the motor on the
mounting foundation.
(g) Accurately install shaft couplings, belt sheaves
etc., then weld the wedges solid to prevent any
change in position.
3.2.3 The foundation of vertical induction motors: (Also the foundation of pump)
(a) Foundation of motor/pump must be rigid and secure to provide adequate support. There
must be no vibration, twisting, misalignment etc. due to inadequate foundations.
(b) A massive concrete foundation is preferred in order to minimize vibration. Rigidity and
stability are enhanced by prop plate and foundation bolt. As shown in Fig. 4.
5
3.2.4 Installation of vertical motors:
(a) All mounting surfaces must be clean and level.
(b) Foundation must be leveled at least at 4 points and guaranteed to be below 0.04mm
(.0015 in.) flat and level.
(c) Make sure the mortar and concrete are completely dry, and the precision of the level is
acceptable, and then set the motor on the mounting foundation.
(d) Accurately install shaft couplings.
3.3 Installation of shaft coupling
3.3.1
ATTENTION!
Motors must always be accurately aligned, and this especially applies where they are
directly coupled.
Incorrect alignment can lead to bearing failure, vibration and even shaft fracture. As soon
as bearing failure or vibration is detected, the alignment should be checked.
3.3.2
Field application of a coupling to the motor shaft should follow the procedures recommended by
the coupling manufacturer. The motor shaft extension must not be subjected to either extreme
heat or cold during coupling installation.
ATTENTION!
Basically, the coupling should be heated and pushed onto the shaft extension with slight
axial force. To prevent damages to the bearing do not hammer the coupling.
3.3.4
Although the sleeve bearings are equipped with thrust faces, these are intended only to provide
momentary axial restraint of rotor movement either during start-up or when operating the motor
disconnected from the driven equipment. They must not be operated under a constant thrust
load unless they were originally designed for this condition.
6
Motors with either sleeve or anti-friction bearings are suitable for connection to the driven load
through a flexible coupling. Solidly coupling to the load is not acceptable. With sleeve bearings,
the flexible coupling should be of the limited end float type to prevent the possibility of any end
thrust from load being transmitted to the motor bearings, which could cause bearing damage.
The recommended limits of end float are as follows:
(a) When the motor is in operation after installation, be sure that the end-play indicator is
within the 6mm (.236 in.) of the groove on the shaft or aligned to the shaft shoulder
immediately outboard of the drive-end bearing to assure there is low friction between shaft
and bearing.
(b) Unless otherwise specified, the designed end-play value X of the groove for TWMC
motors in general is within 6mm (.236 in.) as illustrated in Fig. 6. In essence, the endplay
indicator is adjusted to point at the center of the groove or the drive-end shaft shoulder;
thus X equals to 6±1mm or so, and the endplay value (Y) of the couplings should equal or
be smaller than 3mm (.118 in.).
(c) If the desired value Y is greater than 3mm (.118 in.) caused for instance by a thrust load
and/or load machine with large endplay, please inform TWMC prior to entering an order.
3.3.5
In aligning the motor (and rotor) axially with the driven equipment, consideration should be given
not only to the endplay indicator position but also to axial shaft expansion and increase in shaft
centerline height due to thermal effects. In general, the axial shaft growth for motors can be
disregarded since neither bearing is fixed and any shaft growth due to temperature increase will
produce an elongation away from the coupling.
Shaft height growth (change in shaft centerline elevation) for TEFC machines can be calculated
as follows:
∆=(0.0005”) x (motor foot to shaft £ dimension)
For non-TEFC machines, divide the number by 2.
3.3.6
It is desirable, in normal operation that the motor operates on its magnetic center, so that no axial
force is exerted on the coupling.
7
The motor shaft and the driven shaft should be aligned within the following tolerances in both
angular and parallel alignment:
TIR
C
A
Range of rotating speed
2500 rpm and above
Below 2500 rpm
2500 rpm and above
Below 2500 rpm
Solid coupling
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
Unit: mm
Flexible coupling
0.03
0.05
0.03
0.04
Angular misalignment is the amount by which the centerlines of driver and driven shafts are
skewed. It can be measured using a dial indicator set up as shown in Fig. 7. The couplings are
rotated together through 360 degrees so that the indicator does not measure runout of the
coupling hub face. The shafts should be forced against either the in or out extreme of their end
float while being rotated.
Parallel misalignment is the amount by which the centerlines of the driver and driven shafts are
out of parallel. It can be measured using a dial indicator set up as shown in Fig. 8. Again, the
couplings are rotated together through 360 degrees so that the indicator does not measure runout
of the coupling hub outside diameter.
3.3.7
After the motor has been properly aligned with the driven equipment and the hold-down bolts
have been installed and tightened, for motors with fabricated frames, at least two dowel pins
should be installed in two diagonally opposite motor feet.
3.3.8 Installation of shaft coupling: (Vertical hollow shaft motor only)
Bolted Coupling as shown in Fig. 9
(a) Bearings are provided to absorb some upward shaft thrust when the coupling is fitted.
(b) The coupling is fastened with bolts.
(c) This coupling type is not auto-release type.
Note: Standard high thrust motors can absorb momentary up-thrust load up to 30% of the
standard down thrust load. If the up-thrust is long in duration (over 10 Seconds) and/or
exceeds 30% of the standard high thrust rating, special design arrangements are
required and standard motor is not suitable.
8
3.3.9 Non-reverse ratchet/coupling, as Fig. 10 (If necessary)
The non-reverse coupling is also a bolted type and,
(a) It prevents the pump and motor from rotating in the reverse direction.
(b) It also prevents damage from over speeding and damage to pump shaft and bearings.
(c) The ratchet pins are lifted by the ratchet teeth and are held clear by centrifugal force and
friction as the motor comes up to speed.
(d) When power is removed, speed decreases, and the pins fall. At the instant of reversal, a
pin will catch in a ratchet tooth and prevent backward rotation.
(e) When installing the non-reverse coupling, do not use lubricant. Lubricant will interfere with
proper operation. The top half of the coupling should seat solidly on the lower half and the
pins should touch the bottom of the pockets between the teeth in the plate.
(f) As with the bolted coupling, the up-thrust capabilities are 30% of the standard high thrust
rating for down thrust.
ATTENTION!
Do not apply non-reverse ratchets on applications in which the pump reversal time from
shutdown (the instant the stop button is pressed) to zero speed is less than one second.
3.4 Installation for belt drive
In general, power transmission through direct flexible coupling is appropriate for large motors.
Such motors are not suitable for belt, chain or gear connection unless specially designed for such
service. However, for small and medium motors with outputs within the ranges shown on the
table below, it is acceptable to use belt transmission as indicated. Beyond these ranges, do not
apply belt sheaves unless specially designed.
3.4.1
The diameter ratio between conveyance sheaves should not be greater than 5 to 1 for flat belts,
and 8 to 1 for V-belts. It is also advisable to limit the belt velocity to under 35m/sec (115 ft/sec) to
limit belt abrasion and vibration. The smaller the outer diameter of the V-belt sheave, the greater
the shaft bending stress will be. If the bending stress is in excess of the shaft fatigue stress, the
shaft may break. Therefore, please inform TWMC when you have decided the size of the
sheaves and the length of the belts upon ordering.
9
ATTENTION!
Place the sheave and belt as close as possible to the motor
body (it is advisable to make x as shown in Fig. 11 equal to 0)
to reduce the bending moment and improve shaft life.
3.4.2 Table of belt-sheave application for general electric motors
Output
(KW/HP)
4P
6P
8P
V-Belt
Type
11/15
15/20
18.5/25
22/30
30/40
37/50
45/60
55/75
75/100
-
11/15
15/20
18.5/25
22/30
30/40
37/50
45/60
55/75
75/100
90/120
110/150
132/175
160/200
11/15
15/20
18.5/25
22/30
30/40
37/50
45/60
55/75
75/100
90/120
110/150
132/175
B
B
B
B
B
C
B
C
C
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
3.5
V-Belt Sheave
Conventional V-Belts
Number
Min.
Max
V-Belt
Of
PCD
Width
Type
Belts
(mm)
(mm)
4
160
82
3V
5
170
101
3V
5
190
101
3V
5
170
101
3V
5
224
101
3V
4
224
111
5V
5
200
101
3V
4
224
111
5V
5
224
136
5V
5
224
101
5V
5
224
136
3V
5
250
136
5V
5
224
136
5V
5
265
136
5V
6
265
162
5V
6
224
162
5V
6
265
162
5V
7
280
187
5V
6
265
162
5V
7
280
187
5V
7
315
187
5V
7
265
187
5V
8
300
213
5V
5
355
196
5V
8
315
213
5V
6
355
233
5V
6
400
233
5V
6
400
233
5V
6
425
233
8V
7
400
270
8V
7
450
270
8V
9
450
344
8V
Narrow V-Belts
Number
Min.
Of
PCD
Belts
(mm)
4
125
5
140
6
160
6
125
6
160
3
180
6
140
3
180
4
180
6
160
4
180
4
200
4
180
4
224
5
224
4
200
4
224
5
250
4
224
5
224
6
250
5
224
6
250
6
280
6
250
6
315
6
355
6
355
4
355
4
355
4
400
4
450
Max
Width
(mm)
48
59
69
69
69
60
69
60
78
69
78
78
78
78
95
78
78
95
78
95
113
95
113
113
113
113
113
113
124
124
124
124
Conveyance with chain or gear
3.5.1
Make sure the loading capacity of shaft and bearings is appropriate for the size and installation
position (overhung) of chain and gear. If necessary, please contact us to ensure the shaft and
bearings will meet your requirements.
10
3.5.2
Pay close attention to ensure the parallelism of shafts.
3.5.3
The teeth of couplings should be correctly and precisely matched; the force conveyance
centers should lie on the same line.
3.5.4
There should be no skip, jumping, vibration or unusual noises.
ATTENTION!
Do not hammer conveyance devices such as couplings, belt sheaves, chain wheels, gears
etc. onto the shaft. Conveyance devices should be fitted and removed only by means of
suitable devices. Heat shrinking may be a better alternative to avoid damaging bearings
and components.
The exposed rotating parts should be covered to prevent accidents.
3.6 Electrical connections
All interconnecting wiring for controls and grounding should be in strict accordance with local
requirements such as the USA National Electrical Code and UK IEE wiring regulations. Wiring of
motor and control, overload protection and grounding should follow the instructions of connection
diagrams attached to the motor.
3.6.1 Power
The rated conditions of operation for the motor are as shown on the nameplate. Within the limits,
given below, of voltage and frequency variation from the nameplate values, the motor will
continue to operate but with performance characteristics that may differ from those at rated
conditions:
±10% of rated voltage
±5% of rated frequency
±10% combined voltage and frequency variation so long as frequency variation is
no more than ±5% of rated.
Operating the motor at voltages and frequencies outside of the above limits can result in both
unsatisfactory motor performance and damage to or failure of the motor.
3.6.2
The main lead box furnished with the motor has been sized to provide adequate space for the
make-up of the connections between the motor lead cables and the incoming power cables.
The bolted joints between the motor lead and the power cables must be made and
insulated in a workman-like manner following the best trade practices.
3.6.3
Either fabricated motors or fan cooled cast frame, motors are all provided with grounding pads or
bolts.
The motor must be grounded by proper connection to the electrical system ground.
11
3.6.4
The rotation direction of the motor will be as shown by either a nameplate on the motor or the
outline drawing. The required phase rotation of the incoming power for this motor rotation may
also be stated. If either is unknown, the correct sequence can be determined in the following
manner: While the motor is uncoupled from the load, start the motor and observe the direction of
rotation. Allow the motor to achieve full speed before disconnecting it from the power source.
Refer to the operation section of these instructions for information concerning initial start-up. If
resulting rotation is incorrect, it can be reversed by interchanging any two (2) incoming cables.
3.6.5 Auxiliary devices
Auxiliary devices such as resistance temperature detectors, thermocouples, thermoguards, etc.,
will generally terminate on terminal blocks located in the auxiliary terminal box on the motor.
Other devices may terminate in their own enclosures elsewhere on the motor. Such information
can be obtained by referring to the outline drawing. Information regarding terminal designation
and the connection of auxiliary devices can be obtained from auxiliary drawings or attached
nameplates.
If the motor is provided with internal space heaters, the incoming voltage supplied to them must
be exactly as shown by either a nameplate on the motor or the outline drawing for proper heater
operation.
Caution must be exercised anytime contact is made with the incoming space
heater circuit as space heater voltage is often automatically applied when the
motor is shutdown.
4. OPERATION
4.1 Examination before start
4.1.1
When motors are installed in good manner, ensure the wiring is according to the diagram. Also,
the following points should be noted:
(a) Make sure all wiring is correct.
(b) Ensure the sizes of cable wires are appropriate and all connections are well made for the
currents they will carry.
(c) Ensure all connections are properly insulated for the voltage and temperature they will
experience.
(d) Ensure the capacity of fuses, switches, magnetic switches and thermo relays etc. are
appropriate and the contactors are in good condition.
(e) Make sure the frame and terminal box are grounded.
(f) Make sure that the starting method is correct.
(g) Make sure switches and starters are set at their right positions.
(h) Motor heaters must be switched off when the motor is running.
4.1.2 Measurement of insulation resistance
During and immediately after measuring, the terminals must not be touched as they
may carry residual dangerous voltages. Furthermore, if power cables are
connected, make sure that the power supplies are clearly disconnected and there
are no moving parts.
12
(a) For rated voltage below 1000V, measured with a 500VDC megger.
(b) For rated voltage above 1000V, measured with a 1000VDC megger.
(c) In accordance with IEEE 43, clause 9.3, the following formula should be applied:
Rated voltage (v)
+ 1) x 10(MΩ)
1000
(d) On a new winding, where the contaminant causing low insulation resistance is generally
moisture, drying the winding through the proper application of heat will normally increase
the insulation resistance to an acceptable level. The following are several accepted
methods for applying heat to the winding:
(1) If the motor is equipped with space heaters, they can be energized to heat the
winding.
(2) Direct current (as from a welder) can be passed through the winding. The total current
should not exceed approximately 50% of rated full load current. If the motor has only
three leads, two must be connected together to form one circuit through the winding.
In this case, one phase will carry the fully applied current and each of the others, onehalf each. If the motor has six leads (3 mains and 3 neutrals), the three phases should
be connected into one series circuit.
R≥(
Ensure there is adequate guarding so live parts cannot be touched.
(3) Heated air can either blown directly into the motor or into a temporary enclosure
surrounding the motor. The source of heated air should preferably be electrical as
opposed to fueled (such as kerosene) where a malfunction of the fuel burner could
result in carbon entering the motor.
ATTENTION!
Caution must be exercised, when heating the motor with any source of heat other than self
contained space heaters, to raise the winding temperature at a gradual rate to allow any
entrapped moisture to vaporize and escape without rupturing the insulation. The entire
heating cycle should extend over 15-20 hours.
Insulation resistance measurements can be made while the winding is being heated.
However, they must be corrected to 40ºC for evaluation since the actual insulation
resistance will decrease with increasing temperature. As an approximation for a new
winding, the insulation resistance will approximately halve for each 10ºC increase in
insulation temperature above the dew point temperature.
(e) Should the resistance fail to attain the specified value even after drying, careful
examination should be undertaken to eliminate all other possible causes, if any.
4.1.3 Power Source
(a) Ensure the capacity of the power source is sufficient.
(b) Ensure the supply voltage and frequency ratings are identical to those on the nameplate.
(c) Voltage variation should be confined to within ±10% of the rated value and the phase to
phase voltages should be balanced.
13
4.1.4 Bearing lubrication
(a) For sleeve bearing motors, the oil reservoir must be filled with oil to the correct level. On
self-lubricated bearings, the standstill oil level will be at the center of the oil gauge. The
proper oil is a rust and oxidation inhibited, turbine grade oil. Refer to the lubrication
nameplate for the recommended viscosity.
(b) Motors, which are supplied with provision for flood lubrication, have an inlet orifice to
meter the oil flow to the bearing. Refer to the outline drawing for these values. If the
supply pressure does not match that stated on the outline, the orifice size must be
adjusted to produce the specified flow rate. The drain adapter (also provided) has a weir
plate fixed to the inside of the pipe to permit the establishment of the proper oil level. This
weir plate must be located at the bottom of the pipe and must be parallel to the plane of
the motor feet. To ensure optimum flow, the drain line should be vented to the
atmosphere.
Oil inlet temperature:
Normal below 50ºC
Alarm 60ºC
Trip 65ºC
(c) If the motor is in storage for over three (3) months, refilling of some new oil should be
undertaken before operation to prevent bearing damage due to dry friction. The oil level
should be kept at the center of the oil gauge. If necessary, drain some oil after refilling.
(d) Motors that have been designed with anti-friction bearings for use with an oil mist
lubrication system have been packed at the factory with a small amount of grease for short
test runs. Continuous running should not be considered unless the oil mist system is
installed and operating.
(e) Grease lubricant type
(1) The bearings have been well greased at the factory before delivery. However,
regreasing is required if a significant period has elapsed between manufacture and
use or in storage
(2) Unless otherwise specified, Exxon Polyrex EM is the standard applied to TWMC
motors.
4.1.5 Cooling water for the cooler on water-cooled motors
Make sure the quality, volume and inlet temperature of cooling water for the motors are normal
before the machine is in operation.
Water: General tower water or industrial water.
Volume: Please see outline drawing
Inlet temperature: Normal below 30ºC
Alarm 35ºC
Trip 40ºC
4.1.6
ATTENTION!
Make sure all locks, which fasten the movable parts of the motors during transportation,
are dismantled and the shaft can rotate freely.
4.1.7
ATTENTION!
Ensure there are no foreign matter or tools inside the motors before starting motors.
14
4.1.8
Make sure the transmission system, including belts, screws, bolts, nuts and set pins are in good
condition.
The keys fitted to the shaft extensions are held by plastic tape only to prevent
them from falling out during transportation or handling. The shaft key shall be
removed to avoid flying out, when the motor is operated prior to the couplings etc.
being fitted to the shaft extension.
4.1.9
Make sure the items above are examined. Test the motor running with or without load. Record
and check according to “Maintenance” at 15-minute intervals during the first three hours of
operation. Then regular examinations should take place at longer intervals. If all goes well the
motor can be classified as “in good order”.
4.2
Starting operation
4.2.1 Starting load
Initially run the motor unloaded prior to coupling to other machines. Unless otherwise specified, a
motor usually starts with light load, which is then gradually increased, proportional to the square
of the speed and at last reaches 100% load at full load speed.
4.2.2 Starting
Too frequent starts can be harmful to the motors. The following restrictions should be observed:
(a) Motor can be restarted should the initial start fail. Two starts are generally permissible
when the motor is cold.
(b) Motor can be started only once when it is at normal running temperature.
(c) Should additional starts be necessary beyond the conditions stated above, the following
restrictions should be noted:
(1) Let the motor cool down for 60 minutes before restarting, fully loaded.
(2) Let the motor cool down for 30 minutes before restarting, unloaded.
(3) Two inching starts can be regarded as one normal start.
ATTENTION!
If the motor rotor fails to start turning within one or two seconds, shut off the power
supply immediately.
Investigate thoroughly and take corrective action before attempting a restart.
Possible reasons for not starting are:
(1) Too low a voltage at the motor terminals.
(2) The load is too much for the rotor to accelerate.
(3) The load is frozen up mechanically.
(4) All electrical connections have not been made.
(5) Single-phase power has been applied.
(6) Any combination of the above.
15
4.2.3 Rotating direction
(a) Most TWMC motors are bi-directional. However, when some special types, such as high
speed 2-Pole, certain large capacity motors, those with a non-reversing ratchet etc.,
should rotate in one direction, please ensure the rotation is in conformity with the
directional arrow-mark shown on the attached nameplate.
(b) To reverse a bi-directional motor, cut the power and wait until the motor stops. Then
interchange any two of the three phases.
4.2.4 Power source, Voltage, Current
(a) Ensure the voltage and frequency of the power source are identical to the ratings shown
on the nameplate.
(b) Voltage variation should be confined to within ±10% of the rating and the three phase
voltages should be in full balance
(c) Ensure the motor phase currents, when without load, are within ±5% of the average
values.
4.2.5
Frequency variation should be confined to within ±5% of the rating. The aggregate variation of
voltage and frequency should be confined to within ±10% of the absolute value of the ratings.
4.2.5 Starting time and unusual noises
ATTENTION!
Starting time is longer for the motors with large inertia. However, if starting time is longer
than usual or if there is difficulty in starting, or there is abnormal noise, do not run the
motor and refer to TWMC Service representative.
4.2.6 Sleeve bearing oil rings (sleeve bearing types only)
As the oil ring is used to carry lubricant to sleeve bearings, frequently check to ensure the oil ring
is in motion.
4.2.7 Bearing temperature rise
Following the initial start-up, the bearing temperatures should be closely monitored. The rate of
rise in bearing temperature is more indicative of impending trouble than is the actual temperature.
ATTENTION!
If the rate of rise in temperature is excessive or if the motor exhibits excessive vibration or
noise, it should be shut down immediately and a thorough investigation made as to the
cause before it is operated again.
If the bearing temperature rise and motor operation appear to be normal, operation should
continue until the bearing temperature stabilizes.
Recommended limits on bearing temperature are as follows:
Sleeve Bearings
Total measured temperature
● By permanently installed detector
90ºC
● By temporary detector on top of the bearing
85ºC
sleeve near the oil ring
16
Anti-Friction Bearings
● By permanently installed detector
● By temporary detector measuring the outside
of the bearing housing
Total measured temperature
100ºC
95ºC
ATTENTION! (For sleeve bearing)
(1) It must be noted that when operating flood lubricated sleeve bearings without outside
lubrication supplied, the bearing temperature must not be allowed to exceed 85ºC total
temperature
(2) Under normal condition, for the self-lube bearing, the rate of temperature rise should
be from 11 to 14ºC for the first ten (10) minutes after starting up and approximately
22ºC at thirty (30) minutes. The rate of bearing temperature rise is a function of the
natural ventilation and operating conditions.
(3) When the rate of bearing temperature rise is less than 1ºC per half-hour, the bearing
temperature is considered to be stabilized.
(4) If the total bearing temperature exceeds 95ºC, the motor should be shut down
immediately.
4.2.8 Noise and Vibration
ATTENTION!
Any abnormal noise or vibration should be immediately investigated and corrected.
Increased vibration can be indicative of a change in balance due to mechanical failure of a
rotor part, a stator winding problem or a change in motor alignment.
5. MAINTENANCE
5.1 Major points in regular inspections and maintenance.
For safety, maintenance and repairs must only be carried out by properly trained
personnel.
Some testing, such as insulation resistance, usually requires the motor to be
stopped and isolated from power supplie(s).
Routine inspection and maintenance are usually performed by looking, listening, smelling and
simple meters.
High temperature may arise under operating conditions on the motor surfaces, so
that touching should be prevented or avoided. Keep away from moving and live
parts. Unless deemed necessary, do not remove guards whilst assessing the
motor.
Timely replacement of worn parts can assure longevity and prevent breakdown.
Routine inspection and regular inspection and maintenance are important in preventing
breakdown and lengthening service life.
17
Owing to the varied time and circumstances, motors are used, it is difficult to set the items and
periods for regular inspection and maintenance. However, as a guide it is recommended to be
performed periodically according to factory maintenance program. Generally, the inspection
scope determined by the following factors:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Ambient temperature.
Starting and stopping frequency.
Troublesome parts usually affecting motor functions.
Easily abraded parts.
The important position of motor in the operational system of a factory should be duly
recognized. Therefore, its health and wellbeing should be fully protected especially when
it is operating in severe conditions.
5.2 Motor windings:
(a) Measurement of insulation resistance and standards to determine quality of insulation
resistance, please refer to measures stated in 3.1.2 “Measurement of insulation
resistance”.
(b) Inspection of coil-ends:
(1) Grease and dust accumulated on coils may cause insulation deterioration and poor
cooling effect.
(2) Moisture must not accumulate. Keep coils warm when motor is not in use if moisture
can be seen.
(3) Discoloring. This is mainly caused by overheating.
(c) Ensure no untoward change of wedges from original position.
(d) Ensure the binding at the coil end is in its normal position.
5.3 Clean the interior of the motor:
(a) After a motor is in operation for some time, accumulation of dust, carbon powder and
grease etc., on the inside is unavoidable, and may cause damage. Regular cleaning and
examination is necessary to assure top performance.
(b) Points to note during cleaning:
(1) If using compressed air or blower:
(a) Compressed air should be free of moisture.
(b) Maintain air pressure at 4 kg/cm², since high pressure can cause damage to coils.
(2) Vacuum
Vacuum cleaning can be used, both before and after other methods of cleaning, to
remove loose dirt and debris. It is a very effective way to remove loose surface
contamination from the winding without scattering. Vacuum cleaning tools should be
non-metallic to avoid any damage to thee winding insulation
(3) Wiping
Surface contamination on the winding can be removed by wiping using a soft, lint-free
wiping material. If the contamination is oily, the wiping material can be moistened
(not dripping wet) with a safety type petroleum solvent. In hazardous locations, a
solvent such as inhibited methyl chloroform may be used, but must be used sparingly
and immediately removed. While this solvent is non-flammable under ordinary
conditions, it is toxic and proper health and safety precautions should be followed
while using it.
18
ATTENTION!
Solvents of nay type should never be used on windings provided with abrasion protection.
Abrasion protection is a gray, rubber-like coating applied to the winding end-turns.
Adequate ventilation must always be provided in any area where solvents are
being used to avoid the danger of fire, explosion or health hazards. In confined
areas (such as pits) each operator should be provided with an airline respirator, a
hose mask or a self-contained breathing apparatus. Operators should wear
goggles, aprons and suitable gloves. Solvents and their vapors should never be
exposed to open flames or sparks and should always be stored in approved safety
containers.
(4) Keep core ducts completely clean. The difference in temperature rise could be
around 10°C before and after cleaning
5.4 Clean the exterior of the motor:
(a) On open ventilated motors, screens and louvers over the inlet air openings should not be
allowed to accumulate any build-up of dirt, lint, etc. that could restrict free air movement.
ATTENTION!
Screens and louvers should never be cleaned or disturbed while the motor is in operation
because any dislodged dirt or debris can be drawn directly into the motor.
(b) If the motor is equipped with air filters, they should be replaced (disposable type) or
cleaned and reconditioned (permanent type) at a frequency that is dictated by conditions.
It is better to replace or recondition filters too often than not often enough.
(c) Totally enclosed air to air cooled and totally enclosed fan cooled motors require special
cleaning considerations. The external fan must be cleaned thoroughly since any dirt
build-up not removed can lead to unbalance and vibration. All of the tubes of the air-toair heat exchanger should be cleaned using a suitable tube brush having synthetic fiber
bristles (not wire of any type).
5.5 Maintenance of anti-friction bearings
5.5.1 Frequency of re-lubrication:
The life of grease varies greatly as a result of types of model, revolution speed, temperature,
operational conditions etc. It is, therefore, impossible to be precise about replenishment intervals.
However, for normal direct coupling transmission, the periods shown as Table 1 may be used as
a guide.
Remarks:
(a) The periods shown in Table 1 should be halved where bearings are used for belt drive
and/or in dirty or high ambient temperature or high humidity environments.
(b) Please refer to the lubrication nameplate, if attached to the motor.
(c) For bearing numbers outside the range of Table 1, please contact TWMC
19
(d) If the periods referred to in Table 1 for drive-end bearing and opposite drive-end are
different, for the convenience of maintenance operation, please take the shorter one the
required grease replenishment period of these bearings.
5.5.1 Kinds of grease:
Exxon Polyrex EM (polyurea base grease) will be used for all models with open bearings. Please
check and follow lubrication nameplate for any special grease used in bearings. Please us
identical grease or its equivalents when maintaining motor.
ATTENTION!
Do not mix different kinds of grease.
Mixing grease with different type of thickeners may destroy its composition and physical
properties. Even if the thickeners are of the same type, possible differences in the
additive may cause detrimental effects.
5.5.2 Grease quantity
The amount of grease per replenishment depends on the type, size and construction of the
bearings. The maximum amount of replenishment for each bearing is shown in Table 2.
5.5.3 Re-greasing
If re-lubrication is to be performed when the motor is running, stay clear of rotating
parts.
It is advisable to re-grease when the motor is running to allow the new grease to be evenly
distributed inside the bearing.
Before re-greasing, the inlet fitting should be thoroughly cleaned to prevent any accumulated dirt
from being carried into the bearing with the new grease. The outlet of grease drainage should be
opened to allow the proper venting of old grease.
Use a grease gun to pump grease through grease nipple into the bearings. After re-greasing,
operate the motor for 10-30 minutes to allow any excess grease to vent out.
20
TABLE 1.
Bearing
Number
62XX
63XX
72XX
73XX
600
RPM
NU214
15
16
17
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
44
48
1000
RPM
1200
RPM
1500
RPM
1800
RPM
3000
RPM
3600
RPM
1000 Hrs.
720 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
3000 Hrs.
1500 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
1000 Hrs.
500 Hrs.
1500 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
720
RPM
750
RPM
1000 Hrs.
900
RPM
1000
RPM
1200
RPM
1500
RPM
1800
RPM
2000 Hrs.
3000 Hrs.
1500 Hrs.
1000 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
500 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
1000 Hrs.
2000 Hrs.
1000 Hrs.
1000 Hrs.
600
RPM
22220
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
44
48
900
RPM
2000 Hrs.
600
RPM
Bearing
Number
222XX
223XX
750
RPM
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
Bearing
Number
NU2XX
NU3XX
720
RPM
720
RPM
750
RPM
900
RPM
1000
RPM
1000 Hrs.
1200
RPM
500 Hrs.
300 Hrs.
500 Hrs.
500 Hrs.
300 Hrs.
300 Hrs.
21
1500
1800
RPM
RPM
300 Hrs.
TABLE 2.
Bearing No.
6210
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6220
62XX
6222
72XX
6224
NU2XX
6226
2222XX
6228
6230
6232
6234
6236
6238
6240
6244
6248
Amount of replenishment
30 g
40
50
50
60
60
80
80
100
120
120
140
160
180
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Bearing No.
6310
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6320
63XX
6322
73XX
6324
NU223XX
6326
223XX
6328
6330
6332
6334
6336
6338
6340
6344
6348
Amount of replenishment
40 g
60
80
80
100
100
120
120
160
220
270
300
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
900
900
*Fill new grease until it overflows and the old grease is entirely replaced.
5.5.4 Oil re-lubrication (For oil lubrication types only)
Maintain proper lubrication by checking the oil level periodically and adding oil when necessary.
Because of the initial clearing action of the bearing and the expansion of the oil as it comes up to
operating temperature, the oil level will be higher after the motor has been in operation for a while
than it is with the motor at standstill.
Overfilling should be avoided not only because of the possibility that expansion may force the oil
over the oil sleeve and on to the rotor, but also because too high an operating oil level prevents
the bearing form clearing itself of excess oil. The resultant churning can cause extra loss, high
temperatures, and oxidized oil. If, during operation, the oil level goes above the maximum shown
on the sight gauge, drain enough oil to bring the level back within the recommended operating
range. Do not permit the operating level to fall below the minimum shown on the gauge.
ATTENTION!
Should it ever become necessary to add excessive amount of make-up oil, investigate
immediately for oil leaks.
Change the oil at regular intervals. The time between oil changes depends upon the severity of
operating conditions and, hence, must be determined by the motor user. Two or three changes a
year is typical, but special conditions, such as high ambient temperature, may require more
frequent changes. Avoid operating the motor with oxidized oil.
Use only good grade, oxidation-corrosion-inhibited turbine oils produced by reputable oil
companies.
22
The viscosity of the oil to be used depends upon the type and size of the bearings, its load and
speed, the ambient temperature, and the amount and temperature of the cooling water (if used)).
The lubrication nameplate or instructions with each motor specifies the viscosity range of oil
suitable for average conditions. The usual oil viscosity range of oil suitable for average
conditions. The usual oil viscosity recommendations are summarized in Table 3. Operation in
ambient temperatures that are near or below freezing may require preheating the oil or the use of
special oil. Whenever the motor is disassembled for general cleaning and reconditioning, the
bearing housing may be washed out with a suitable cleaning solvent. Be sure that the oilmetering hole is clear, and then dry the housing thoroughly before re-assembly, and ensure all
traces of cleaning solvent have been removed.
Bearing function
and location
Thrust Bearing
TABLE 3 Oil Viscosity**
Oil Viscosity - SSU
Bearing
Type
@ 100°F
@ 200°F
72XX, 73XX
Angular contact ball
150
45
And/or (62XX, 63XX)
Spherical roller
300
53
Plate (Kingsbury Type)
300
53
**Remark: When a lubrication nameplate attached to the motor, use lubrication oil it stipulates.
5.5.5 Cleaning and installation of bearings
(a) Apply the proper amount of grease to the disassembled parts of the bearing after they
have been thoroughly cleaned with high quality cleaning oil. Then protect them from
contamination before and during assembly.
(b) Bearing installation
ATTENTION!
Before installing the bearings, make sure that the shaft-mounted parts inside the bearings
are in place before installation.
Since the bearing is a high precision component, it is important to avoid ingression of dust
and foreign matter, and hammering during cleaning and installation. Use extreme care
and insure clean conditions during installation and assembly.
ATTENTION!
The best way for bearing installation is heat shrinking. Knocking and hammering during
installation should be avoided absolutely.
The bearing should be heated in a bath of clean oil at a temperature of approximately
80°C. After warming, slide the bearings in place quickly and nimbly so that it has not
shrunk before being fully in position.
Grease the bearing after the temperature returns to normal, and then reassemble the
motor.
23
5.6 Maintenance of sleeve bearings
5.6.1 Daily inspections
(a) Ensure the volume and quality of lubrication oil is in compliance with specifications.
(b) Ensure there is motion of the oil ring and it is not clamped.
(c) The indicator of the shaft endplay should be restricted within the specified range of the red
groove of the shaft or the ±3mm (.118 in.) range of the drive-end shaft shoulder, or the
bearing may be damaged.
5.6.2 Regular examination
(a) Periodical change of oil
The oil reservoirs of self (not flood) lubricated bearings should be drained and refilled about
every six- (6) months. More frequent changes may be needed on high-speed (3600-rpm)
motors or if severe oil discoloration or contamination occurs. In conditions where
contamination does occur, it may be advisable to flush the reservoir with kerosene to
remove any sediment before new oil is added. Proper care must be taken to thoroughly
drain the reservoir of the flushing material before refilling with the new oil.
Refill the reservoir to the center of oil sight glass with a turbine grade of oil that is rust and
oxidation inhibited. Refer to the outline and lubrication nameplate for the correct viscosity.
(b) Quantity of lubrication oil
Please refer to the lubrication nameplate for oil quantity.
(c) Oil viscosity
(d)
ISO
Equivalents
Viscosity (SUS/100°F)
VG32
Esso Teresso 32
150
VG46
Esso Teresso 46
200
VG68
Esso Teresso 68
24
300
5.6.3 Disassembly
Prior to disassembling, ensure the power supplies are disconnected and there
are no moving parts.
The bearing sleeve is of the spherically seated, self-aligning type. The opposite drive end
bearing is normally insulated for larger motors (or when specified). On some motors, the
insulation is bonded to the spherical seat of the bearing housing.
ATTENTION!
Extreme care must be exercised in removing the bearing sleeve from the insulated support
to avoid damaging this insulation.
The following is the recommended procedure for removing the bearing sleeve:
(a) Remove the oil drain plug in the housing bottom and drain the oil sump.
(b) Remove all instrumentation sensors that are in contact with the bearing sleeve. These
would include resistance temperature detectors, thermocouples, thermometers, etc.
(c) Remove the socket head bolts holding the bearing cap and the inner air seal. The end
cover plate must also be removed if the non-drive end bearing is being disassembled.
Remove the bearing cap and top half of the inner air seal. Place them on a clean, dry
surface to avoid damage to the parting surfaces.
(d) Remove the top half of the bearing sleeve using suitable eyebolts in the tapped holes
provided. Lift the bearing top straight up and avoid any contact with the shoulders of the
shaft journals that might damage the thrust faces of the bearing. Place on a clean, dry
surface taking care to prevent damage to either the parting surfaces or the locating pins
that are captive n the top bearing half.
(e) Remove the screws at the partings in the oil ring and dismantle the ring by gently tapping
the dowel pin ends with a soft face mallet. Remove the ring halves and immediately
reassemble them to avoid any mix up I parts or damage to the surfaces at the partings.
(f) Pull up on the garter spring that surrounds the floating labyrinth seal and carefully slip out
the top half. Rotate the garter spring until the lock is visible. Twist counter-clockwise to
disengage the lock, remove the garter spring then rotate the lower half of the seal out of
the groove in the bearing housing. Note the condition of these floating labyrinth seals. If
they are cracked or chipped, they must be replaced. Do not attempt to reuse a damaged
seal.
(g) To remove the bottom bearing half, the shaft must be raised a slight amount to relieve
pressure on the bearing. On the drive end, jacking or lifting the shaft extension will relieve
the pressure on the bearing for removal. Protect the shaft. On the non-drive, jacking or
lifting can be done using bolts threaded into the tapped holes provided in the shaft end.
25
(h) Roll the bottom bearing half to the top of the shaft journal and then lift it using suitable
eyebolts threaded into the holes provided. Again avoid any contact with the shaft
shoulders that could damage the bearing thrust faces. Place the lower bearing half on a
clean, dry surface to protect the parting surfaces.
Use extreme care when rolling out the lower bearing half. Keep the hands and
fingers well clear of any position where they might be caught by the bearing half if
it were accidentally released and rotated back to its bottom position. Serious
personal injury could result.
(i) Protect the shaft journal by wrapping it with clean, heavy paper or cardboard.
5.6.4 Re-assembly
Bearing re-assembly is basically a reverse of the disassembly procedures outlined above, with
the following suggestions:
(a) The interior of the bearing housing should be cleaned and then flushed with clean oil or
kerosene.
(b) The bearing halves and the shaft journal should be wiped clean using lint-free cloth soaked
with clean oil.
(c) All parts should be carefully inspected for nicks, scratches, etc., in any contract surfaces.
Such imperfections should be removed by an appropriate method such as stoning,
scraping, filling, etc., followed by thorough cleaning.
(d) Before installing the floating labyrinth seal halves, observe their condition. Do not attempt
to use a cracked or chipped seal. The bottom half seal has a set of drilled holes in its side
face. These must be place at the bottom toward the inside of the bearing so that
accumulating oil may drain back into the housing.
(e) Put a bead of Curil-T around the seal half outside diameter on both sides adjacent to the
garter spring groove. This will prevent oil by-passing the seal around its outside.
(f) Place the bottom seal half on top of the shaft and roll it into position. Install the top half and
insert the garter spring pulling up on both ends to permit engaging the lock. Run a bead of
Curil-T around the outside diameter on both sides adjacent to the garter spring groove on
this half also.
(g) Carefully reassemble the two oil ring halves. Inspect the dowel pins for burrs and
straightness and make any corrections required. Do not force the ring halves together.
Excessive force may alter the roundness or flatness of the oil ring, which can change its oil
delivery performance.
(h) Some of the pipe plugs in the housing are metric thread type. These are identified as
those, which have a copper, lead, or similar material washer. If these plugs are removed,
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be careful not to lose the washers. Before re-assembly, inspect the washers and replace
them as required.
(i) Before installing the bearing cap, observe the position of the floating labyrinth seal. The
“tab” must be on top to engage the pocket. Failure to position the seal properly will result
in damage when the cap is assembled.
ATTENTION!
(1) Curil-T is the only approved compound for use in the assembly of the bearings on this
motor. Other products may harden and impede the operation.
(2) During the re-assembly of the bearing parts, a thin layer of Curil-T should be applied to
all gaskets and machined interface surfaces. This suggestion does not apply to the
machined surfaces of the bearing liner halves.
(3) When seating the bearing shell, apply a thin layer of lube oil at the spherical surface of
the liner. Slowly roll the lower bearing liner into the bearing housing making sure that
the splinted surface of the liner and the housing are flush. Gradually lower the shaft
onto the bearing. The weight of he shaft will help rotate the bearing liner so that the
babbitt surface of the liner will match the slope of the journal. Sometimes it is required
to use a rubber mallet to tap lightly on the bearing housing while slowly rolling the
shaft to help this seating operation.
5.7
Maintenance of slip ring (For Wound Rotor Motors only)
Ensure motor is disconnected from power supplies and there are no accessible
moving parts before maintenance operation.
5.7.1 Adjustment of carbon brush
(a) Brush pressure for normal operation:
● Electro-graphite brush…0.2~0.25 kg/cm²
When frequent vibrations are evident or the brush is small (area below 0.5 cm²), the
pressure should be greater than as shown.
(b) Adjustment of brush pressure:
The brush pressure should be adjusted to keep normal operation as it wears.
● The brush pressure may be reduced after use, so it is necessary to re-adjust. For
adjustment, please turn adjusting screw, pressure adjusting pin or pressure adjusting
plate as shown in Fig. 14 to obtain the correct tension (=0.23 x brush cross sectional
area in cm²) ±10% kg.
(c) Brush pressure need not be adjusted if constant force spring is used as shown in Fig. 15
and Fig. 16.
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5.7.2 Brush replacement
The carbon brush is a part of the equipment which is easily worn away, replace it after it is worn
to ½ ~ ¾ of original size.
(a) Brush material
The brush material is important to the performance of the motor. Only the most
appropriate materials are chosen by TWMC, and are listed on the nameplate of the motor.
It is important to know this when you replace the brush, so a recommended type is used.
(b) Dimensions
Brush, holder and gap between them, please refer to CNS 2322 C4051 or JIS C2802.
ATTENTION!
The gap between a brush and it holder is important for good performance and safety of the
motor.
(c) Adjustment of new brushes (Shown in Fig. 17)
(1) Polish the new brush with a file until is assumes the appropriate contour of the slip ring
that it touches.
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(2) Place sandpaper (JIS R6252 No. 40…50) on the slip ring with the abrasive face of the
paper against the brush to induce a closer contact by rubbing against each other.
(3) Repeat item 2 with fine sand –paper (JIS R6252 No. 100 to 200) until the contact
surface between brush and slip ring exceeds 80%.
(4) Finally, clean the contaminated slip ring and brush with clean cloth or compressed air.
5.8
Maintenance of non-reverse ratchet mechanism
(For Vertical high Thrust motor only)
5.8.1
In the pump piping system, a check valve and a stop valve should be installed in the discharge
line. The check valve, placed between the pump and the stop valve, is to protect the pump from
reverse flow and excessive pressure. The stop valve is used in priming, starting and when
shutting down the pump. It is advisable to close the stop valve before stopping the pump. This is
especially important when the pump is operated against a high static head.
TWMC vertical high thrust motors are equipped with non-reverse ratchet (N.R.R.) mechanism
only when requested by the pump manufacturer. Typical construction of the N.R.R. mechanism
is shown as Fig 18 below.
The N.R.R. mechanism keeps the pump and motor from rotating in the reverse direction. Thus
prevents damage from over-speeding and damage to water-lubricated pump shaft bearings.
29
When, on shutdown, the falling water column tends to drive the pump in the reverse direction.
In normal operation, the ratchet pins are lifted by the ratchet teeth and are held clear by
centrifugal force and friction as the motor comes up to speed. When power is removed, the
speed decreases and the pins fall. At the instant of reversal, a pin will catch in a ratchet tooth
and prevent backward rotation.
5.8.2
The service life of ratchet pins depends not only on the reverse shock load between the pin and
ratchet tooth when pump stopped but also the frequency of pump starting and stopping while in
service. Provided that the pins are deformed due to this reverse shock load, then the up and
down motion of the ratchet pins could be sluggish or jammed and unusual noises shall arise.
The recommended replacement period for these ratchet pins is every three- (3) years. If the
reverse shock load is greater than 30% of motor rated torque or the starting frequency is more
than twice per day, then the replacement period should be halved.
ATTENTION!
The check valve and stop valve in the discharge line should be regularly inspected and
maintained to assure the normal function of these valves. This is important to protect the
pump and motor from damage and increase the service life of the N.R.R. mechanism.
ITEM
104
214
402
704
816
Fig. 18
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SECTION A-A
NAME
RATCHET
BEARING SEAT
EXTERNAL FAN
RATCHET PIN CARRIER
RATCHET PIN
6. FAULT FINDING AND RECOGNITION
Kinds of
Breakdown
Symptoms
Possible
Causes
Power-off
Switch-off
No fuse
Broken wiring
Broken lead
Broken windings
Short circuit of circuit switches
Remedies
Consult power company
Switch-on
Install fuse
Motionless and
soundless
Check wiring and repair
Check wiring and repair
Check windings and repair
Check circuit switches and replace
Check wiring according to
Incorrect wiring
nameplate
Fail to start
without load Fuse blowing.
Poor contact at terminal
Lock tightly
Windings grounded
Factory repair
(Automatic
Broken
windings
Factory repair
switch trips off,
slow start with
Poor contact of circuit switches Check and repair
electromagnetic
Broken wiring
Check and repair
noise)
Poor contact of starting switches Check and repair
Short circuit of starting switches Check and repair
Incorrect connections of starting
Connect according to nameplate
switches
Insufficient capacity of fuse
Replace fuse if wiring permits
Fuse blowing.
Fail to restart due Overload
Lighten load
to trip-off of
Check circuit capacity and reduce
automatic switch High load at low voltage
load
Overload or intermittent
Lighten load
overload
Check circuit capacity and power
Under-voltage
source
Over-voltage
Check power source
Remove the foreign matter in the
Loading after
Ventilation duct clogged
duct
start
Ambient temperature exceeds
Correct insulation class to B or F, or
lower ambient temperature
Overheating motor 40°C
Friction between rotor and stator Factory repair
Fuse blown (Single-phase
Install the specified fuse
rotating)
Poor contact of circuit switches Check and repair
Poor contact of circuit starting
Check and repair
switches
Check circuit or consult power
Unbalance three-phase voltage
company
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Kinds of
Breakdown
Possible
Causes
Symptoms
Speed falls
sharply
Switch overheat
Loading
after start
Bearing overheating
Electromagnetic
noise induced by
electricity
Bearing noise
Noise
Voltage drop
Sudden overload
Single-phase rotating
Insufficient capacity of switch
High load
High belt tension
Slack belt tension
Misalignment between motor and
machine shafts
Over speed of bearing outer-ring
High bearing noise
Occurrence from its first operation
Sudden sharp noise and smoking
Noise of low shishi or Thru-Thru
Kala-Kala as a result of poor lubrication
Kulo-Kulo as a result of poor lubrication
Sa-Sa or larger noise
Loose belt sheave
Loose coupling or skip
Mechanical noise
caused by
machinery
Loose screw on fan cover
Fan rubbing
Rubbing as a result of ingression of
foreign matter
Wind noise
Electromagnetic
vibration
Vibration
Mechanical
vibration
Induced by conveyance machine
Short circuit of winding
Open circuit of rotor
Unbalanced rotor
Unbalanced fan
Broken fan blade
Unsymmetrical centers between belt
sheaves
Central points of couplings do not lie on
the same level
Improper mounting installation
Motor mounting bed is not strong
enough
Remedies
Check circuit and powers source
Check machine
Check circuit and repair
Replace switch
Lighten load
Adjust belt tension
Adjust belt tension
Re-align
Adjust bracket
Replace the damaged bearing
May be normal
Short circuit of windings should be
repaired at the factory
May be normal
Grease
Clean bearing and grease
Replace the damaged bearing
Adjust key and lock the screw
Adjust the position of couplings, lock
key and screw
Lock fan cover screw tightly
Adjust fan position
Clean motor interior and ventilation
ducts
Noise induced by air flowing through
ventilation ducts
Repair machine
Factory repair
Factory repair
Factory repair
Factory repair
Replace fan
Align central points
Adjust the central points of couplings
to the same level
Lock the mounting screws
Reinforce mounting bed
Remarks:
(1) Circuit switches: These include knife switches, electromagnetic switches, fuse and other connection
switches etc.
(2) Starting switches: These include Delta-Star starters, compensate starters, reactance starters, resistor
starters, starting controller’s etc.
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